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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
VOL. 1-NO. 26. JACKSONVILLE, FLA., WEDNESDAY, JUNE 29. 1887.
PRICE $2 A YEAR.
THE ORANGE RUST .MITE.
How its Diffusion is Influence
S by" Shade and Spiders.
Prof. H. G. Hubbard, im his admirable
report'on the rust of theerange, answer
some -questions which have puzzle
many, for example:
S WHY DOES RUSt FORM IN RINGS?
A- n examination made on a brigh
'swuxny day shows that,while the mitt
cannot long endure the direct light an
heat of the sun, they also avoid dar
;hade. At midday they are more abut
4ant upon the under side of expose
"leaves, and although -they at all time
dhow a marked preference for light
'they desert those parts 6f leaf- or frui
'upon which it fahisibrightest. .On a lea
partially exposed to the sun, the mite
congregate near enie edge in the morn
ing, and in the afternoon cross to tJi
opposite side otf the same surface, follow
ing the shifting.-hade which, by reason
of its curvatare, 'the edges of the lea
throw upon ,ene.'side or the other.
On the fx4it, 'this. preference o.f le
Imites for half iOhade, causes a phenom
non which will be recognized as 'wve
common on ,rusty oranges.- This is thb
occurremce of rrust in a well demned
ring obliquelyencircling the orange, as
'the ecliptic ,dees the earth. 'The rns
ring is seen,'most plainly on fruit 'fron
S the uppar .portion and south 'side 'of at
tree when it -stands with others 'in ;
grove, and ,will be found to nama.k the
bandof ihalf4fhade, between the tporiior
of the 'orange most directly exposed 't<
the swdls rtys-aud that-in densest -shad
ow. 'The -arinface covered b- y (hil
penncbra'-iband is precisely mtbat upot
whibh rhemiates gather most irthickly it
thefmiddle f the day. Here teir at
S tack upon, tboe rind will be maet. seven
and 'its afkvr-,ffects mont noticeable.
heree ie a-o observable in rated fruit
S a mailked-d'erence in the amount of
discoloration, upon the oppeate aides
Evn where no plainly marked 'ring -i
viable, the-eide of the fruit whiob. upot
the tree, ws turned towards the sun
frequently' presents a bright ,spot, and
the opposite side an area *ef diightei
bronze, wivih less sharply defined -bounn
r.hese fasc, taken in connection 'witt
the observed habits of the mites, :m.at
be regarded as the strongest *evidence
showing a.eonnection between irust,and
tb-air attacks upon the fruit. .
WOWWiDDWONGLESS INSE- rTS sRzA)
The activity of the mites and their
reacness.to.elimb upon anything the-y
meet iin their path, renders .ir evident
that any living creature whic-h passes
from one tree to another is competent t.eo
tzanqport the mites wit h it. The- tail
feather-.of birds must sweep thousands
f-rom the aSunface of the lea-es, and
spread them from tree to tree or from
-So .readily .do they relinquish ,their
hold when brought into contact with a
moving body, .that the point of a needle
swept across the surface of an infested
lfeafwLtil usually be found to have sev-
eralifaites adhering to it.
The same agencies which assist in the
spread of scale insects undoubtedly
serw ,o scatter.-tie mites. Not only do
they ,climb readily along the web of
spiders, but theym'ay frequently be seen
upon tbe bodies of the spiders ihem-
selves, .which do mot seem to be at all
disturbed hy.the restless movements of
their little attendants.
The .wandering habit of spiders is well
know.n. r'heir method of bridging great
distances by casting out hundreds of
feet of silken line, to.be wafted by the
winds and .caught in distant trees, has
often been noted. There is little doubt
that of all otherr modes of dissemination.
both of scale insect and rust mite, that
of transportation by spiders is the most
important, .tihe most constant and regu-
lar. The spiders bear with them upon
their hairy bodies the young bark-lice
and theadult mites. conveying them in
their own migrations to distant points,
and colonizing them under raeir protect-
ing web whenever they chance to select
the leaves of a ..itrus plant as their rest-
ing place. -
And here.is found the solution of that
puzzling influence of the wind so often
remarked'in the case of scale insects,
and which has led many to believe that
they aie disseminated directly by this
agency, and therefore spread most. rap-
idly in tbe direction of the prevailing
Spiders of the web making kinds are
necessarily dependent upon the wind in
making dlong voyages. Tho warm south-
easterly winds of spring excite in them
the migratory instinct, and at a time
when the orange trees aire swarming.
with the quickened life of scale and
.45'mire, from a thousand projecting points
of branch or leaf. the spiders are sen'l-
ing out their lines of rapid transit, and
ate bearing with them "on the wings of
the wind" the seeds of mischief to the
,?.ALr EATi~'.i INizer
1.Twi --ie..tbld LriyF Bug. c h.'dowmad-
PJup.ft O n[i- atarted to leaf.
S. HypI ra'pid'us c.:,c:di,,oa.
pear, and w-e .do not see them again'
antil the great fall brood of scales
THrE LADY UO IN C-AUFORNIA. ,
And now we will quote from a 1iat
year's number of .the Fresno R, publican
an account of the manner in which
bugs are colonized in California. In
sending such insects by mail we would
use a tin box Jibth some air holes
punched through its sides and the wrap-
per, and place some living, but not
damp. moss inside for the insects to
cling to. The Republican says:
"Last Saturday J. Ei. Sewell, of Cen-
tral Colony, received a small lot of bugs
from. his son-in-law, William B. At-
water, of National City, San Diego
county. Tte first of this species was
imported to San Diego from Florida, and
turned loose to prey upon the scale in-
sects infesting an orange orchard near
that city. They proved such prolidc
breeders and waged such incessant war
upon the Scale as to almost rid a ten
acre orchard of the presence of that
dreaded pest, in a single season. Mr.
Sewell's daughter wrote to him inquir-
ing in regard to the prevalence of scale
in his otcbard near this city, and sug-
gested the introduction of these little
parasites as an infallible remedy. The
bugs Mr. Sewell received came by mail
in a little tin cap box, and he immedi-
ately placed them upon a peach ttee
upon which the scale was quite noticea-
ble. He watched their movements with
a magnifyi*g glass, and says that it was
[We woiildlike .ma h to aid.out friend
in disposing of his sutnplus products, ani
if our individual ca,'acity were not s(
very limited we would go -over'to6thE
Glen and lend a hand. Baker county i
pretty generally know.i to be a land
flowing with milk and honey-peaches
but if Mr. Horne had not spoken for hiE
county, it would hare remained compare
actively unknown perhaps for a quarter
ot a century longer.
Such cases as Mr. ,Home and -Mr
Stager describe, we scarcely know
"h- other to attribute to the action of
pollen or not. The alterative luIuenci
of pollen is exerted almost wholly
through the seed, on the future plant
yet the envelopes of the seed are some
.james modified. Some Jiold that tlhe
oblong Peen-tos that are appearing
in so mauy places, are a reversion to an
original fornim, and that the pin-cushiion
shaped fruit is the result of horticultura
art. We presume this theory may prove
to be correct.-A. H. 0.],
A Remarkable Peach Tree.
Eridor F,,rdn Fani-rnerl FPriud-Gru.wer.
I forward by express some specimen
of round peaches of the Peen-to variety.
There is nothing remain kable about the
ahape, as there have been originated
from the Peen-to seed several .round
peaches. Bidwell's Early being the best
and most desirable of the number,.
I consider my specimens worthy of
notice, as the same limb.from which
these were taken produce the flat peach.
I enclose a iough sketch of thu limb,
with its branches,. and you will notice
the branches hearing the round peach
are ,between those bearing the flat. I
had some sixty specimens, this being
the second year the limb has thus borne,
and thii year the tree was in bloom be-
foie any other variety.-
I intend using buds from this liib.
but will the result be the flat or foundd
shape? Also, note lhat the seed is of the
comrnmon shape, not like the Peen-to.
My hoiticultural and botanical knowli
edge being limited, [ would like to obtain
ihe opinions of others better- informed
on such subjects, -W. K.-'STAOER.
WALDO, Fla., June 9, 188".
SCALE EATING LADY BUGS. surprising to see the little bug-ers g
down to work at once.
Insects Which Serve Man'I b h, "No injurious effect has been noticed
[nsects y e rve an ,either to trees or fruit, where they ha-
Preying on, Other Insects. been employed at San' Diego, and it
The questic relative to lady bugs, confidently claimed that the mission o
The questic relative to y g thelittlebugsissimply to preyup
which was answered in the last number, e little bug essmply to prey assail
is propounded by another correspondent. and destroy the pests thatnow assail t
We will not repeat our previous observa- orchards of our State. Theusecretaryo
tions, butedd to them. First, we quote theBoard of Horticultural CommsoWedne
from Ashmead's "Orange Insects," and ers visited Mr. Sewell's place e on Wene
present-by the author's consent-repro- day, and reports as follows- .'Thesea
ciue w f'hbserved by him, ofCenitral Colony, is one of the various
'T"M E STABBE D LA BUG species of lady bug-all ravenous d
f'utE STABBED LABY BUG. stroyers of the scale insect. It is th
"Early dn the season, from February 'twice stabbed' species, or Chilooho.u
to Novetiber, in Florida, they and their bivulnervs, and is able to keep at a goe
'dark stlate-colored larvae,,which are cov- -square meal all day long when the ,su'
ered with 'numerous spines, may beseen 'shines warm. Its larvie is also a vora
crawling'up and down the trunk of the cious eater. It does not eat vegetab
range'tree, in the branches or wherever matter, but in addition to the scale als
the 'scale exists. They breed through- devours all species of a.phis, and bar
out .the whole year. The female, late in lice qf every description. It is a mo
"the fall, lays her eggs wherever the useful insect, and has 'done great goc
Sscales-are thickest; early in the spring in many regions whe'e it .abound
the small spiny larvas hatch, and imme- and we are glad of its inbrodiuctio
'diately begin feeding upon them. On here.'"
*readhing maturity they crawl off ta .
'retired'place, suspend themselves from Notes from PeeB Hill Nurse
,beetles, -which make their exit from tthe Editor -loridum incrnerandc.MPutferower:
ipupa-skin by a longitudinal slit-dowmnthe Some time ago, 'while.gathering Pee;
badk. 'On emerging, the beetle is "soft to peaches, I found a -large oblox
-andof a pale cdlor, without signs of peach growing on'a'Peen-to'tree, on-,t
'spots, but within-a short time the elytraa same limb with .several 1flat peace
hardenn' 'color darkens to black, itwo red When it was thoroughly 'ripe I ate
spots on wing covers appear, and'the per- and never tasted ;a finer peacb. JIt w
feet insect [1 in~aut] is before us. -Should more of a vli.ng peach 'than the Peen-t
there' be-any Spanish moss (Tillandsia us- -is, and I think would be;a'fine S4 iDpin
ot8es) dn the tree, the larvea will invari- variety. I supposeithe bees -must hay
ably, congregate, and transform attached carried the ,pollezi .from -some othere
to it. As.they-are very importanttin de- peach bloom. lE thisway 'we-get ne-
ste'oying -the -scale insects, every care varieties. I alseohave-a seedling ]Peen
should-be taken to increase. their mum- to tree, bearing a round, oblong ipeaci
vers." very muoh like 'the 'one above :men
"'TrISENUTCE'SOYMNUS. : tioued.
.... In a fewdaysI'will-send ,you-,abo o(
'tBy lookingacarefully in April as May my Hybrid lHney peaohes; also, a sa
4te beetle .[;I in cut].can easily'beidrstin- pie of thellowling-.June. This is-a dee
-guished on the trunks of ihe'trees- within red clingpeacTl.-ripening'in June, and
As 'larva, which is flattened nod of a the best ehipong peach we have. '. an
-aniform brownish color. Alhoetgh so shipping ohe-ruit of rms 'Hybrid.Hone
-small andiinsignificant, it aoeons4lishes peaches now, and am keeping ai'orret
a .great ,deal in the destructionMf the account oi hew many crates 1Ilwill ge
-scae .inseots. The larvae, hatihing in from four eesfive years ,old frBom th
the spring, -at the same time i aeh the seed; also, ntheaimount they sell for, ;an
voungscadediisects, immediately C-begin when the se sll gathered and sol
'their -warf'ire upon them, ,whieh, they will send yTou the amountt pf sales :an
continuee even after they (have etrans- number of states.
formed, intoibeetles. It wostid 'be .diffi- I shipped itenm one-fihird. butshl ,crate
anlt to estimate the benefit derivddafrom of this variety yesterday, ;and they sol
theseilittlebeetles. After May aaldJ'une for $1I75., .over :o ,pr bushel. ?If ih
aihe ,mjoeity of them suddallr .iSap- price keepsp.-at tbis,.rate.nsyfdour tree
'' \ will bring ,14 -,w iaore.
SThese two varieties of jpeahbes 0com
in just after thePeen-o and Honey, a n
always bring a finepre. rice. fth ar
good shipping 'kinds. bhy .deo't yo
come up and fielp me eat peaches and
milk? It is Jersey em'wl milk, remea
I i I ber. W. P. LtioaRN.
et CULTURE OF CELERY. found on brackish shores, but the speci-. er to do thi-than move the line. The
men sent is-Paspalum distichum, a per-, lines being marked out, the sied is sown
d, How it May be Grown Success- ennal marshgrass common in Florida by hand or by seed drill, at the rate of '
e in.. Fo ria and in portions of others of the south- to 12 pounds per acre, '
is fully in. Florida. ernmost States. Baron Von Mueller After sowing-and this rule applies to
of -BY THOMAS SUMTER. gives the following account of it: all seed if sown by,'hand-the seed must
on Con to the opinion of man er The Silt grass. From India to:South- be trodden in by walking on the lines to
h Contrary to the opinion of many per- eastern Australia. A creeping swamp press the-seed down into thedrills. After
e sons in this State, celery is one of the grass, forming extensive cushions. It treading in, the ground must be leveled
n- easiest and most profitable crops we can keeps beautifully green throughout the by raking with- a wooden or steel rake
be grow, especially whe yosuitablnge lants can year, affords a sufficiently tender blade along the lines length ways, iuot across.-
le procured As th e young plants will or feed, and is exquisitely adapted to That done, it would be advantageous to
t, nos should n ot be sown befou e August cover silt or bare slopes on banks of use a roller over the land. so as to smooth
,sed should not be sown before August ponds or rivers, where it grows grandly. the surface and further firm the seed,
u very tardy in germinating, and the Moderate submersion does not destroy it, but this is- not indespeusable. When
he verywth of ta gemmatng an slo the but frost injures it. It thrives well also'seeds are drilled in by machine the
growth of the young plants is slow. onsaltmarshes wheel presses down the coil on the seed, '
'U 'They should be sown in shallow boxes of on salt marshes. wheel pressesiu down th the feet is note
o moderately_ rich soil, slightly covered necessary After the feeds eliminate
n and pressed firmly down, and protected ALFALFA OR LUCERNE. o as to show the rows, which will "e in
a- from sun and rain, and never allowed to -- from two to four week according to the
)e become dry. When in their rough Peter Henderson's Views of its weather, the ground must be hoed be- ..
t0 leaves they sabould be carefully handled + a tween, and this-isbest done by some ,
rk and transplanted into beds of rich earth, Adaptability. to Florida light wheel hoe, is by hant done byuch the
st about one wan d a half or two inches The following valuable paper, by an "Universal." On light sandy soil, such
Saart, and-again sheltered from sun and eminent authority, appears in the report as in Florida, a man could with ease run,
'twin. .a "- of the Department of Agriculture for over two or three acres per day.
n It will diquire about three months 184o t
trom tlhe tle of sowing the seeds before In a couth try:so widespread and diver- The labor entailed in this method of
'the planteire ready for planting in .the sifed as the United States, it is ot to be sowing alfalfa in drills is somewhat
trenches. The ground should be 'ow wondered at that a crop that is valued grater than when sown broadcast in th
and moist, but drained. Althoughtn te ha i ug they in some localities is unknown in others, .usual .way of grasses nd clover, but
want'plenty of water, they are very i- ut t is somewhat surprising that in th-re is no quest-on tht o it is bfar them
patient ouf water Aanding about their many the Southern States, where the est andit to-St piotrable plan. for it must
m- roots for any length of time. It is waliteof forage is so much felt, that the he i-rmembered that. the plant is a hardy
R almost'en less to try to grow them 'on culture of a plant so admirably adapted plrenial. and is good for a ciop for
he highland, unless on a.sreall scale whee 'for 'their soil and climate has so long eight to ten years.a Mreover, the sow-
there-is a plentiful supply of water -aond been neglected. In a visit to Florida in ing in drills admits of the cio-p being
it willing hands to use it. 'February,1888, I-wasaimpressed, as every fcrilizld if it is found necessav todo so.
as, Artrench should be dug with a Spade, 'Northern man must be, with the utter as all that is necessary is to sow bone-
to unless where grown on a lage sole, dearth of forage plants, and as a conse- dust, superph-spbatres or pther concen-
-g when the plow can be used byy timnring 'quence the hungry and meager starved- treated fertilizer bet ween the rows, and
ve it twoce in the same furrow. 'The trench )looking cattle. To my inquiries every- then stir it into the.soil by the use of the
er or ftrrow should be at least iftee where the same reply was given, that no *heel-hoe.
w inches wide and nine inches deep. 'The good grass or clover could be found to Mn the grounds of Mr. Brontison, of St.
n- rows should not be less than four feet-stand the heat and drought of their long Augustine, Fla., he'found th t the seed
apart.. They should receive six inches summers. Fortunately, in alluding to sown in the middle oft October gave him-
a- of thoroughly decayed stable manure.. -the subject while in the company of a crop it to cut in three months after
fThen fill in the soil to nearly the level of Mr. R. Bronson, of St. Augustine, Fla., sowing, .and three heavy crops after dur-
f 'the surface. If the trenches are pre- eli t promptly showed a practical solution ing the same year and I have little -
"M r of the difficulty by taking me to a doubt that in that climate and soil, so-
S. patch of alfalfa about twenty-five congenial to its growth, that si heavy
s feet by one hundred, or only ahout green crops could be cut annually aftef
e ,. mone-sixteenth part of, an acre. the plant is fairly established, if a mod-
ti From that little patch Mr. B. as- erate amount of fertilizer was used, say
So' sued me that lie had fed a cow 300 pounds of superphosphate or bore-
le during the suirmmer months, get- dust to the acre.
Soating-as refine milkand butterasever Mr. E. M. Sargent. MaconeGa. writ-.
She got North ;-and further said that ing to us under date March, 6, 1,83, says:
d twice that area, orone-eighthpart consider alfalfa to he the moIt valu-
Sof an acrewould beaample to sup- able forage plant that can be used in this
efs ply a. cow with food during the section of the country, that is the entire
d entire season. The land. used by cotton belt or north of it. if the land is
e a^ KiT iMr. Bronson for his .experiment sandy without a clay subsoil too near the
s with alfalfa was identical with surface. Planters are just beginning to '
o 1 othe thousands of acres in his im- find out its merits: and no pov-tye of .
0 mediate vicinity,wivhichwasgiven stock will ever occur wheie alfalfa is
d vis. over to the blue palmetto and raised., In the summer of 1s81, when
,' n scrubby pine through which the everything else was parched here with
d' goat-like cattle browse out a mis- heatand drought, this alone was prompt
u erable. existence. Mr. Bronson. in its maturity for the mower. It should
Though only an amateur, is a be cut forhay'when in blossom, and can
careful observer and an enthusi- easily be cut three or four times here,
astic student in everything that wherever the land is in fairly good con-
d relates to agriculture.' In the cul- edition.
d: ture of alfalfa for Florida -and, Those who do not succeed with it,
o other Southern latitudes he ad- sow it broadcast and surrender it to the
e vises that the crop be sown early hogs early in the season. Those who do
Sin thefall; early enough to attain succeedsowin drills 18 inches apart, and
.d a height of fourour ire inches be- cultivate early."
Sfore growth is arrested by aold It will be seen that Mr. Sargent advises,
s *' weather -in Florida say from 1st drills much wider than we recommend,
e to l5th of October. bich I presume is to admit the horse-
S.oo The soil, bst suited for The hoe but a quikera crop undoubtedlyrs
Sn b r growth of alfalfa is that which is would begot at 14 inches apafr, and by
deep and sandy; hence the soil o e of t he hand "Universal Wheel-Roe,"
Floridaand many otheisportiionsof t be 'work-could be done on light soil,
S.fe Gixi N E lt*,a h rs, i nNO Celhiy. the cottonbeltiseminently f it ted. nearly asquickly as by horse cultivator -
pe s'ig e eart firmly around th a The"plaant makes a tap-root awith oAlfalfa isextensiely grown in Eutope, .
pareds few weeks.before planting,anda few lateral, and its roots are often particularly in France and Germany
good-sprinkling of salt worked into the found at a depth of 6 to-Sfeet,thus;draw- where it is considered a valuable crop
soil the manure, all the better, 'ing food from depths entirely beyond the for rotation, and is classed by the French
e W en the plants aie ready they. action of drought or heat. -When-alfalfa as one of the plants anmel orrtes; for i
g should be ratefully taken up with plenty is to be grown on a large scale, tdsget at Southern France wheat s been sc- "
of earth to their roots, planted rather the best resultstheground chosen should cessfully raised after six or- seven years
Sdee than a the nursery beds, from be high and leel, or if not high suh as of alfalfa on ground which formerly had
fi ve ix inches ala i in the rows, is entirely free from under water. failed to ive good cids of wheat Al
e press g the earth firmly around tihe Drainage must be as'near perfect as though alfalfa ay be grown in cold
roots ivhen planted. If there are any possible, either naturally or artificially, latitudes as well as in warm, as the
young shoots Crumiog from the roots This in fact is a primary necessity for plant is entirely hardy Yet ,its value is
they should be pulled off: also all small every crop, unless it besuchas is aquatic not so marked in cold climates where it
outside leaves. Should the weather be or subaquatic. nds omprs in red clover ahe
dry ,,use e watering pot freely. to row Deep ploughing, thorough harrowing grasses; but in light soils anywhere, par-
radu. the plants commenceS to grow, and leveling with that, valuable simple ticularly in warm climates, its deep-root-
gradually work the soil up to them Be mentothe .'smoothing harrow," to get a ing properties make it comparatively in-
careful to keep the soil from between smooth and level surface, are the next dependent, of moisture; hence it-is the
i theleaves.'There should be twopersons operations. "This should be done, in the forage plant par excellence for the South-
in the operation- of blanching, pne to Soutern States, from 1st to20th of Oc- ern States; and when it is considered
hold the leaves firmly, the other to tober, or at such season in the fall as that immense sums are paid annually
draw up and press the soil aibund the would be soon enough to insureia growth for baled hay by the Southern to the
plant. Soil should never he pbut to the of 4 or ,5 inches before the season of Northern States, not only for the hay
plant when wet. om "- w' growth stops. Draw out lines on the itself but to freightit, the wonder is how
As the plants are growing, two or prepared land 20 inchesapart(ifforhorse long they will continue to do so, with
three spinklings of nitrate of soda culture, butif forhandcultr'e14 inches) the material at hand to produce a better
aterend tin a et herootseither before rain r and or 3 inches deep. These lines are article at probably one-fouith the cost.
watered in. is a great help to them. best made by what market gardeners At, the date of our writing, thousands
There a rwhmany varieties in cultivation, call a "marker," which is made by ntil- in Florida and-ot.her Southern States are
but the darf white variety appears to' ing six tooth-shaped pickets 6 or8 inches engaged in the culture of oranges and
do bct ., long at the required distance apart to a other fruits and vegetables for the North-
'" ilt Grass. 3x4 inch joist, to which a handle is at- ern markets-and while in specially fa-
'ached, which makes the marker or drag. voted locations success has.-attended
Em1r Fao,-,ii'andF'uit-.Urot-et: The first tooth is set against a garden these enterprises, yet it is doubtful if
enclose a sample of grass which is line drawn tight across the field, the one in four makes it profitable; while
called heite "coarse Bermuda." It is a maker is dragged backwards by the with the culture of this valuable forage
Paalumni, I feel quite sure, but I am workman, each tooth marking a line; plant the vast sums paid for Northern
unable to determine the species. It thus the 6 teeth mark 6 lines, if the line hay would not only be saved, but the
grows like the Bermuda, but without is set each time; but it is best to place products of the dairy would assume an
underground stenis. Will you please the end tooth of the marker in a line al- importance which now, among, most
give its name in your paper? H. M. B. ready made, so that in this way only 5 farmers in the extreme Southern States.
There is a coarse Bermuda sometimes lines are marked at once, but it is quick- is altogether' unknown.
qhad addnd uadtn
The Best Appliances Available
to Orange Growers.
At the late convention of California
fruit growers, Prof. C. V. Riley, United
States Entomologist, delivered an able
address, from which the Rural Califor-
nian makes the following extracts:
Most of the members of this society
are doubtless aware that for some five
years I was conducting a series of very
careful experiments, with a view of con-
trolling the scale insects and other insect
pests that injuriously affect the orange
trees in Florida. This work was carried
on through the instrumentality of Mr.
H. G. Hubbard, and the department has
published a special report. prepared by
him on this subject. All that is said in
that report in reference to the value of
preventive measures against the scale in-
sects of that part of our country will ap-
ply with equal force here in California.
The value of cleanliness, of thorough
cultivation, of-pruning judiciously so as
to get rid of all dead wood, and to open
the top of trees to light and. to the sun,
and to facilitate the spraying of the
trees, need scarcely be emphasized. There
may be some difference of opinion as to
the value of pruning, while different
kinds of pruning, or no pruning, will
have their advocates here as they have
had elsewhere. The orange makes, nat-
urally, a very dense head, and in the
moist climate of Florida, where they
have a much larger average of shade,
cloudiness ana moisture than you have
here, judicious pruning has all the ad-
vantages stated, and whether needed or
not in California for the purpose of more
fully ripening and maturing the fruit, I
am quite satisfied from what I have seen
that it is just as much needed to facili-
tate proper spraying of the trees and to
PROPER USE OF INSECTICIDES.
It is now the custom to use the time of
-a team and, say two' men, for fifteen or
twenty minutes or more, and thirty,
forty or fifty gallons of liquid on a single
medium-sized tree. In this way the
tree is sprayed until the fluid runs to the
ground and is lost in great quantities,
some growers -using sheet-iron contriv-
ances around the base of the tree in or-
der to save and re-use the otherwise
wasted material.- Now, however much
this drenching may be necessary, or has
come into vogue, in the use of soap, and
potash and soda washes, it is all wrong
so far as the oil emulsion is concerned,
as the oil rising to the surface falls from
the leaves and wastes more, proportion-
ately, than theater.
The essence of successful spraying of
the kerosene emulsions consists in forc-
ing it as a mist from the heart of the
tree first, and then from the periphery,
'if the tree is large, allowing as little as
possible to fall to the ground, and per-
mitting each spray particle to adhere. It
is best done in the cool of the day, and,
where possible, in calm and cloudy
weather. There has been no morning
since my sojourn among you that I have
seen the sun rise in a clear sky. Cloudi-
ness ha- prevailed for some hours after
dawn, and in this regard, it seems to
me you are, favored, as this would be
the time of day, of all others, to spray.
Proper spraying should be done with
one-fifth of the time'and. material new ex-
pended, or even one-tenth of that which
I have seen wasted in some cases, so
that three sprayings at proper intervals
of about a month will be-cheaper and
fat more satisfactory than one as ordi-
I cannot emphasize the fact too
strongly that it is practically impossible
to eradicate by any system-every indi-
vidual insect and egg upon a tree in one
spraying. It is almost futile to attempt
to do so.
Let us now see whether the kerosene
emu'sion, pure and simple, can be im-
proved upon by the addition of any
othermaterial. It is plain to be seen
froh-the official circulars and docu-
ments that have been published in the
State and distributed among you, that
in many cases the proper use of kero-
sene has been entirely misunderstood.
Having already seen that it destroys the.
eggs of Icerya only when used in the
ratio of one part of kerosene to about
seven or eight of the dilutent, it. follows
that any lesser amount will give less-
satisfactory results. Moreover, it is ex-
tremely important to prepare the emul-
sion properly. This hae usually been,
done by the use of milk or of soap, I'e-
cause they are cheap and satisfact.'ry.
Raw eggs and su,. ar. and other mutcilaig-
inous substances may be use.]. Experi-
ence has shown that the best pr",'.pitions
are two parts of the tol to one of thie
emulsifying agent, whe their milk or Eoa p.
i. e., for instance two gallons of the oil
to one of milk or one of-the soap water,
made by dissolving half'a pound of soap
in one gallon of waer. So long as these
proportions are maintained, -a large
quantity can be emulsified as rapidly as
a smaller quantity, and violent agitation.
through a spray nozzle, at atempetature
of 100 degrees, and as frequently de-
scribed in my reports, gives the quickest
Just as there is a great wastage of
time and money in drenching the tree
with kerosene emulsion, so the spraying
nozzle most in vogue with you is also
somewhat wasteful. That most com-
monly used is the San Jose nozzle, ifn
which the water is simply forced
through a terminal slit in a narrow and
rather copious jet of spray. Ir is the
force and directness of the spray which
gives-this nozzle its popularity under
the mistaken spraying notions that pre-
vail, and to this I should probably add
the fact that, being a patented contriv-
ance, it is well advertised and on the
market, for somehow or other people
rarely value a gift as much as what they
buy, and too often rate value by price.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, JUNE 29, 1887.
The Cyclone nozzle, which has proved so culture, success demands close atten-
satisfactory in the East, as well as to tion to all the details, each in its proper
my agents at Los Angeles, has scarcely time and manner.
had a proper trial among you, so far as I *
have been able to see, as to properly im- APPLES IN FLORIDA.
press its advantages. That originally A E IN LIDA.
made and sent out by thelate G. N. Milco,
of Stockton, was patterned in size and Seedliings, Dwarfs, Budded,
form after one which I sent him, and Grafted, on Pear Stocks, Etc.
which was designed to spray from near BY S. POWERS
the surface of the ground. BY S. POWERS,
What is designed for the orange grove Apples in Floridal Truly it is, as the
or for trees, is a bunch of nozzles of French say, always the unexpected that
larger capacity, the size of the outlet to happens.
be regulated by the force of the pump. I To day, and for some days past, I
have witnessed all forms and sorts of have been eating fresh stewed apples
spraying devices, and while there are and fresh apple pie, both of which were
many that are ingenious and serve. a in no respect inferior to the same arti-
useful purpose, I can safely say that cles in the North, when made from sum-
there is no form which will produce a mer apples. They were made from Flor-
spray so easily regulated and altered to ida grown apples, proof of which I had
suit different conditions, and,which is so by plucking some of them from the trees
simple and so easily adjusted to all pur- with my own hands. They are medium
poses. Since among you I have en- sized apples (one I just now measured,
deavored to get a bunch nozzle, such as was eight and a half inches in circum-
I would recommend, made at Los An- ference, though this was only an aver-
geles, and the difficulties I have had in age, others being considerably larger),
getting it made, properly illustrate, per- running about as large as Rambos; of a
haps, some of the reasons why this noz- flattish round shape, with shallow eyes
zle has not become more popular on this and bases; generally one sided, with a
coast. All the parts must be well fitted, prominent hump near the base; of a light
the inlet must be tangential, and the green color, shaded and splashed with
outlet so made as not to overcome the russet; flesh, when fully ripe, mellow
whirling or cyclonic action of the water, enough to eat well from the hand, and
The breadth, directness, force or fineness of a very decided acid flavor-nothing
of the spay are all regulated by the insipid about them. They were not
form and size of the outlet, and' if a found lacking when subjected to what
thick cap be used it must be gradually my wife considers the highest test of a
counter-sunk on both sides until the good cooking apple; that is, they cooked
thickness at the outlet does not exceed tender when sliced directly into the
1-16 of an inch. A bunch of four noz- crusts, not requiring to be first pulped
zles, one arranged so as to have the out- by stewing. If they have. any fault at
let distal or form the end of the piping, all it is that they are too sharply acid,
which may be ordinary gas-pipe, and though no housewife will quarrel with
the other three in bunches, so that the an apple for its sourne. s, if only it is of
outlet is at nearly right angles, each a crisp grain and "cooks quick," which
about an inch below the other, and so these do ex ery time.
placed that they are one-third the cir- Having bought them both last year
cumference of the main pipe apart, will and this from the grower (who states
be found, I think, most serviceable in that he has this season sold and .eaten
your groves. Such a bunch working about five bushels, with what few are
from the centre of an ordinary sized still hanging on the trees), I had my cu-
tree will envelope it in a perfect ball of riosity moved, and to-day I paid the or-
mist. For tall trees a more forcible chard a visit. There are eight of the
stream might be had from the end by apple trees, scattered around in a strag-
substituting an ordinary jet with a wire gling fashion among some enormous
extension, mulberries, China trees, peach trees, or-
This is a recent device first brought to anges, etc. They were set, according to
my attention by Mr. A. H. Nixon, of neighborhood testimony, some twelve
Dayton, Ohio,. and for sending a fine years ago, but, of course, have been
spray for a treat distance it has advan- shamefully neglected and mistreated in
tages over the cyclone nozzle or the San the absence and change of owners. They
Jose nozzle. It is simply an extension stand up tolerably erect and sound, the.
screwed over an ordinary nipple, the end foliage generally of as dark a green as
of the tube being covered with the wire could be. expected from the poverty of
netting which breaks up the liquid forced the soil, and all of them showing thrifty
through it. The brass nipple should be shoots, a foot or more in length, of this
about one inch in length, the perforation year's growth. The bark of the larger
very true and varying in diameter ac- limbs is of a singularly gray tint, pre-
cording to the force of spray desired. sending an ancient aspect; and the
The nipple screws on the discharge pipe, trunks have been more completely rid-
and upon a shoulder threaded for the died by woodpeckers than any I ever
purpose is screwed a chamber or tube saw before. As high as I could reach I
about one inch in diameter and three could not put the tip of one finger. on
inches long, to the outer end of which is the trunk without touching a wood-
soldered a piece of wire gauze varying pecker's bore; but further up in the tree-
in size of mesh to suit the force and the there were limbs two or three notes
size of the aperture in the nipple, through, which were almost free from
Finally, if a service of blind caps and them. The smaller limbs had .not been
several sets of Cyclone nozzle caps of riddled yet. But these bores do not
varying aperture are kept on hand, the seem to injure the trees; the bark is green
spraying may be adjusted at will to con- and lively at the bottom of them,, and
edition of wind, size of tree, etc. growth is going on underneath.
S!Of the eight trees, seven produce the
Improved Strawberry Culture, variety in question, and the eighth
Imprved rawberry Cu e yields a bright red streaked apple, of a
Mr. P. M. Augur, in Popular Garden- sweet flavor, very fair eating when mel-
ing, gives this interesting experience: low, and excellent to bake. The largest
The last week in July, 1884, my sons tree of the acid variety is two feet two
took a piece of ground 'two years under and one-fourth inches in circumference
garden culture, previously in grass yield- about a foot above. the ground, and
ing about three-fourths ton to the acre. about twelve feet high. -The sweet tree
This patch had been ihbetally manured is fifteen and a half inches in circum-
both years with stable manure, ashes, ference and ten or eleven feet high. :-
bone, hen manure, etc., and was planted Now, why have we not in these trees
each spring with peas. After the last a hint and a promise of a desirable Flor-
crop had been gathered at the time re- ida apple, .desirable so long as it is in
ferred to, the ground was well prepared, season? It seems to me that budsi'pr
and planted with strawberries as follows: scions from them could be coCnsidered
1st, one row Cumberland Triumph, then fairly acclimated, and would hardly
four rows Jewell, then one row Seneca fail to do some good, if properly
Queen, then four Jewell; and so on. treated..- -
Jewels alternating in each five rows In the nurseries of Mr. B. H. Alden,
with a good bisexual variety (the Jewell and his father, I have looked several
being pistillate), until the Jewells ag- times at some apple scions which were
gregated just one-twenty-second of an set on LeConte pear stocks. ,In nearly
acrp. every case they have grown remarkably,
The plants of the piece stood in rows and in several instances they have
two feet apart and eighteen inches in fruited, although this is now only the
the row. The runners of all were nipped ,second summer of the experiment. Only
off as they started. The ground was a few days ago I saw, in the grounds of
frequently hoed, and the growth of the senior Alden, a Ben Davis as large as
plants became specially Iteavy, with nu- a hulled walnut, on a scion which was
merous crowns upon all the varieties, set in a LeConte stock a year ago last
When the ground was well frozen, the spring. He has also some Jonathan and'
patch was covered with a mulch of Harter's Sweeting scions on pears, which
coarse hay. are doing well.f
In the spring of 1885, as soon as the The tendency of the apple on the pearg
ground was well settled, the mulch was seems to be to become top heavy, byh
removed, and the patch carefully hood forming a trunk larger than the
shallow, every weed havingg been re- pear stock supporting it. This I-
moved. Then came a wonderful pro- iency woul.l have to be co:mbatted by
fusion of flowers. Until near the. last low granting.
of May the ground was free from mulch; 'Another of my neighbors, Mr. J. W.
but at that time, after'a careful removal Bushnell, has a Red Astrachan- apple
of all weeds, part of the mulch was re- tree in his garden, which is about three
stored to keep the fruit clean. inches in diameter and has borne, fruit
On June 26, following, the public were now three years in succession, yielding a
invited to seethe pl..r and judge for peck or so at a time. One year it blos-
themselves as to the merits of high cul- somed and fruited a second time, ripen-
ture. The amount; size and beauty of ing its second crop in August. The
the fruit caused many exclamations of fruit is said to lie of a pretty good qual-
wonder. All the kinds were remarka- ity..
blyloaded, the Jewell taking the lead. Mr. George V. Ott, also of this colony,
with a wonderful show of f'luit. Many has tried dwarf apple trees of several
individual plants contained a quart of different kinds, but has never succeeded
ripe berries beside numerous green ones. in obtaining fruit.
Altogether the number of picked quarts I send by mail a specimen of the acid
was 675, or at the rate of 166 bushels per apple described in the first part of this
acre. :. ; article, and I 'would like the editor to
The experiment shows conclusively state what hethinks of the same. [See ed-
that strawberry plants set August 1st, itorial page.] -
will, under favorable conditions, give a LAWTEY, Bradford County,
full crop the following June; that single .June15, 1887:
hill culture for heavy plants is practica- -
ble; that a maximum of -two quarts to Pyrethrum powder, also known aD
the plant, and an average of more than Buhachl, Persian insect powder, Dalmr.-
a quart,jis attainable. It suggests that lian insect powder, etc., may be used on
only those varieties best adapted to the the pests ot large trees. It will ieeffec--
hill system of management should be tire, aud harmless to beast or man, but
chosen; that a good pistillate, when prop- it is too costly to be used in the quantity
early coupled with bisexuals, willoutyield required for this purpose. It is the per-
the latter, as the Jewell did in evety in- fection insecticide forsmall fruits, plants
stance, and as the past season has spe- and flowers. :
cially emphasized, that caiet'ul, liberal "
culture is generously rewarded. Again: Better plant five acres to corn and give
As a chemical experiment fails, if any full care than to plant ten and neglect
important detail is omitted, so in bort- any part of thle required cultivation.
PROPAGATION FROM THE ROOT.
Mr. Coleman Explains His Meth-
od with the Orange.
Editor Florida Farmer and Fruit-Grower:
In answer to many questions as to
how and when I discovered my method
of root propagation,[and how long since
I brought it into full development, I will
endeavor to give a short and compre-
hensive statement of the circumstances
as they occurred. Without considering
theories or describing all of my experi-
ments, I will simply give such points as
will make the subject clear to the horti-
culturist and to the every day farmer.
In the winter of 1869, after a freeze, I
procured some oranges in a yard where
there were three sweet and two bitter-
sweet orange trees, all bearing. I tasted
the oranges on each of the three sweet
trees, and found that the fruit on the two
that stood near the bitter-sweets had a
sweet, vinous flavor, preferable to that
of the third, which stood in a corner of
the yard by itself. Being somewhat ac-
quainted with the influence of pollen in
such cases, and knowing that the sweet
of the bitter-sweet orange is the sweeter
of the two, I decided to gather my or-
anges from those two sweet trees.
Taking the oranges home I squeezed'
out all the seed, which I planted the
next spring (1870). I got a fair stand,
but they were injured by frost the next
winter. In February, 1872, I set them
out in'orchard shape, twenty feet apart.
Having planted sweet potatoes on the
land the year previous, the salamanders
had been introduced. .Falling limbs
from deadened timber introduced the
wood lice, and during the seasons of .'74
and '75 I found that many trees were
turning yellow, and an examination
found them belted by wood lice. Num-
bers of them were past recovery, and
others had their roots cut and dragged
down into the salamanders' holes, Be-
fore I succeeded in putting an end to
these depredations my grove was very
much thinned out.
Wishing to replant with my new and
much prized seedling, I commenced the
work of propagating them by bending
the lower branches down to the earth
and throwing earth over them. After
they had taken root I cut them loose
from the trees and set them out. -This
plan gave me trees, but not of a satihfac-
'I ten applied well rotted mulching
around the trees I wished to propagate
from. This caused them to put forth
sprouts Mt the base of the trunks. These
would form roots of their own- and then
I would detach them and set them out.
By this method' I obtained 'good trees,
but not as many as I desired. Others
caught the idea and' split down trees
that were forked at the base and planted
the parts separately. This they called
'Coleman'S plan," but they had mis-
taken my idea, and they met with dis-
By this time I had learned that trees
which are removed before coming into
fruit will riot bear fruit at the regular
bearing age-which is from fifteen to
twenty years-while trees removed after
they have reached that age will fruit
again in three years or even sooner.
Therefore I let my trees stand until they
were fifteen years old, when I com-
menced a sort of surgical operation on
them with spade, saw, chisel and mallet,
detaching collar roots with their later-
als and then laterals by themselves.
This worked like a charm., The roots
put forth sprouts without exception, ex-
hibiting such vitality as I never saw be-
fore. The sprouts grew so rapidly that
before the wood could harden they
would become too heavy to hold them-
selves up, and they had to be supported.
by stakes. They grew in proportion
each year and the third year bore fruit.
I have in. my yard a tree grown from a
lateral, which produced two boxes of
fruit the fourth year,-and now, on the
6th of June, it is holding sweet and juicy
To any one who wishes to witness my
process I can show stocks freshly detach-
ed, s me with sprouts just putting forth,
others with sprouts which have grown
ten feet in eight months. There are
some that have been set every month in
the year. In bearing qualities they ex-
cel the parent tree. Henceforth the in-
crease in my grove from root-propagated
.stocks will be by the thousand annually,
and this without detriment to the parent
trees, but rather to their advantage.
In conclusion, the advantages derived
from propagation from: matured roots
may be summed up as follows: First,
the mature root stock produces treble
the Lc'row i h that can- be obtained from an
inrmmediate root. Second, a tree pro-
duced fioni a mature root will produce
three times as much fruit as one pro-
duced from a budded 5-year old seed-
ling. Third, a mature root is preferable
for budding, and will push a bud much.
faster than the common seedling stock.
Fourth, the matured root will make a
stronger growth than that of a seedling.
This method of propagation, I am., con-'
fident, will be practiced in preference to
all others, when its merits become well
LADY LAKE, Fla., June 6, 1887.
Methods of Using Pyrethrum.
To an enquirer who wishes to know
how to protect his melons from ants and
lice, the Farm Journal offers the follow-
Apply when the dew is on, one pound
,of pyrethrum thoroughly, mixed with
five times its bulk of flour. Rye or
buck wheat flour will answer. A cheaper
way to use pyrethrum is to put one
ounce of it in one-half pint alcohol, and
when this has stood for a few hours add
one gallon of water, and apply with an
atomizer or fine sprinkler.
A Vermont farmer plants a sunflower
seed iniste~ad of a pole to each hill of
beans. The sturdy stalk answers for a
pole, and-the, seeds supply an excellent
feed for poultry. .. -
HOW OUR PAPER IS REGARDED.
A Few of Many Expressions of
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Co., writes from Kissimmee, under
date of June 10th, as follows: "The
FARMER continues to improve, and, as I
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FRUIT GROWER is a perfect success. It
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Wtin rP ark Fla
CONSIGNMENTS OP EGGS
CHICKENS, FRUIT' AN
SOLICITED BY. O Y PRODUCE
J. H. SUTHERLAND,
ILRY,-GROVER a Co.,
STATE AGENTS FOR. '
RASIN FERTILIZER CO'S -
SOLUABLE SEA ISLAND GUANOO
DISSOLVED BONE AND ALKALI
AND WHOLESALE DEALER sIN
FRIUJTS AND PRODUCE.
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Professor Gurtiss evidently knows how
to work, and 'knowledge is po-wer' only
when there ie inudomiraitienery behind
it. But I ne.I not preach to C.-H. Jones
on this topic, as his pushing of the
Times-Union to success over or through
mountains of opposition and-difficulties
insurmountable to a man of less daring
and. persistent qualities, clearly proves."
Mr. Percival Brewer, of Monmouth,
IIh, writes, under date of April 9th: "I
think your paper the best agricultural
paper published in the South." -
Hon. J. C. Pelot, of Manatee, writes as
follows: "I look upon your paper as
one of the most valuable, additions to
our agricultural interests. It is ably
edited, practical, directs attention to
matters of primary importance in the,
development of our-various industries,
and carries with ita spirit of energy and
enterprise that-must address itself to ev-
ery searcher after information."
Rev. T. W. Moore, of Marion county.
writes: "I believe your paper .will do a
good work in disseminating new ideas in
regard to fruit raising, farming, stock
Mr. H. G. Daniels, of Amelia Island:
"Judging from what I have seen of the
FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER, it is the
best agricultural paper published in the
South. I predict immense success for it."
Mr. W, N, Justice, commission mei-
chant of Philadelphia, writes: "Having
receive d the first issue- of your agricul-
tural paper, and being delighted with its
tone, we wish you to insert our card for
Fancy Poultry and HuntigD ogs".
Eggs For Hatching From Leading Va-
rieties of Domesticated Land
and Water Fowl.
--- -$.1 rEE, 13---
- Also Thoroughbred Young Setters and Hounds.
Address VILLA ZANZA POULTRY YAcRS,
B LACK COW PEAS
Make best vines for f. riliziLng or forage
Price 81.35 per Busbhel.
CHOICE WHITE BLACK-EYE PEAS,
S $I.ae per Bushel.
GLEO R. REYNOLDS,
41East Bay Street,. JacksonvUle, Fiai
Suited to the Soil and Climate of
Grown and for Sale. at,.
9AN TAIZIAND ANDALUNA
Near TALLAHASSEE, Fla.,
E.. DUBOIS, Maniager.
Send for Catalogue and order early. Send, also,
for Price List of
ALL VARIETIES OF
ORANGE AND LEMON TREES.
Buds not placed on small stocks, but on extra
Large and fine ones..
We make a specialty of the *
--EARLY SPANISH RANGE---
(the earliest variety known),
TOHITI LIMES and
VILLA FRANCA LEMONS,
and can show-trees oX the latter that stoodthe
cold last winter as well as the Orange; and
NOW HAVE FRUIT UPON THEM. -
Send for Catalogue.
KEDNEY & CAREY,
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, JUNE 29, 1887.
THE PHILOSOPHY OF TILLAGE.
Effects of Deep and Shallow
Plowing on Different Soils.
BY H. E. LAGERGREN.
The properties of the soil, though a
subject of the first importance to farm-
ers, is one on which they bestow very
little attention, Its chemistry must be
left to "experts," but the physics of the
soil can be profitably studied by any in-
telligent person, if he only gets a start.
For the benefit of beginners some rudi-
ments of the study are here presented.
"To him who hath much shall be
given, but from him who hath little shall
be taken." The truth of this is mani-
fested in a thousand ways, and it is
proven in man's manipulations of the
soil. Land already rich is further im-
proved by almost anything that
is done to it, while with poor land the
reverse is the case. To have the land
rich is, then, the great desideratum of
the farmer, but that means not alone to
ha.ul on it great quantities of manure.
To make this do the most good and last
the longest, sundry other matters in
connection with the soil must be consid.
Three things, moisture, heat and air,
should be ever -present in the soil. Wa-
ter we may truthfully term "the milk of
mother easth." Plan's are like babes,
'they cannot take solid food. The native
ingredients of the'soil, or fertilizers of
any kind, must be dissolved in water be-
fore the roots can appropriate them. To
effect this, it is not necessary that the.
earth should be always saturated. On
the contrary, this is hurtful, and must
te remedied b) drainage.
to the roots than when going through
EFFECTS OF DEEP PLOWING.
Deep plowing should be done only
where land is very good. Where the
soil is poor and thin, it cannot stand to
be "inflated" with still poorer subsoil.
And if you plant on beds, as is mostly
done here, a bed eight inches high is
plowed to that depth. Deep plowing
stirs up t6o much pure sand, which
packs by rains and presses too heavily.
upon roots and seed germs. Deep plow-
ing is recommended in works on agri-
culture, but they do not 'speak of Flor-
ida soil. What is sauce for the goose is
not sauce for a sand-hill crane.
If you walk on the railroad tracks a
chilly morning, you find the dirt just on
top of the sleepers moist, while that be-
tween them is dry. The ground below
is warm, and its heat rises all the time.
The cross-ties intercept the heat,
and in consequence the dirt above
them gets chilled enough to con-
dense the moisture of the air. Where
the. heat is not cut off, as between the
ties, condensation cannot take place.
Heat is necessary to the soil, both to help
decompose it and the manure applied-
and no manure is .plant food before it is
well rotted-and for germination of
seeds, and also for the expansion of roots
so that their tubes be large enough to
to take up water by capillary attraction.
Thus, land for winter crops should be
well cleaned of stumps, roots, and chips,
all of which intercept heat, and it should
be heavily manured, as the fermenting
manure generates heat. Moisten your
finger and hold it in the wind. It dries
quickly, but cools at the same time.
Evaporation is a cooling process also for
land. The worst time for irrigation is,
Therefore, on a clear, windy day, and
the best is on a calm, cloudy night.
Have your land well drained, your top
soil loose, and for your garden a wind
CA.PILLsRY ATTRACTION. 'break.
In order to have abundant, yet not INFLUENCE OF HUMUS.
excessive moisture from one rain to Try to set fire to a piece of white paper
another, it is necessary to have storage with a sun glass.. It is very difficult.
reservoir below the surface, on the prin- Blacken the paper a little and it will be-
ciple of a sponge Wrap string tightly gin to smoke immediately. This is be-
around a sponge and immerse it in water, cause dark colors' absorb the sun's rays,
It may now hold only a couple of thim- while light ones reflect them. Vegetable
blefuls of the liquid, but take off the matter darkens the soil and makes it ab-
string, and the sponge will take up and sorb heat.
hold many times that quantity. As fthe. A boy walking barefooted on- a sandy
cells, when. enlarged, caused the sponge road ona hot day, will hail with pleas-
to hold more wat.-r, so twill the cells iU ure a dried up, muddy part'of the iaj.
the soil and subsoil hold more water -for be can there "cool his Jheels." The
when enlarged and increased. To reach vegetable matter which is there mixed
this state the subsoil must be drained with the sand keeps it cooler. Manure,-
and the surface frequently stirred. or humus, while it warms the soil in
: Stick a piece of blotting' paper into winter, cools it in summer. Thereby
water; the moisture rises upwards. Now "scalding" in wet weather is pre-
try writing paper; the, water will not vented or rendered less hurtful.
ascend. Neither will it rise in a piece of If two rows of vegetables are planted
a gunny bag. In the blotting paper ihe on a bed running east and west, the
pores were of proper size, neither too south row will be the thriftiest. If the
small.nor too large. In the -writing bed runs'north and south, the west row
paper they were too small; in the sack will look-best. This shows the impor-
cloth too large. Though soils which are stance of full sunlight all day. If any
.too close and packed for water to ascend side must be shaded, let it be the east
and spread through- are scarceQ in Flor- side.' Cut-down or girdle trees outside
ida, much high, sandy lands have their your. garden, and' have a wire, fence
pores or interlsices too large to hold around it. Light is a decomposing agent
water. to the soil, so that, even forthat reason,
SThis property of the waters of creep- frequent stirring of it is beneficiaL
ing up through minute fi-sures is called Air, vegetable physiologists tell us, is
capillary attraction. Water in the soil necessary for the loots of plants and for
moves sideways as well as up or down. the germination of seeds. And without
Wheu the moisiuie is exhausted toa cer- it, np disintegration .. or decomposition
tain degree, capillary attraction is ar- can take place. Air contains moisture,
rested. For this reason it is not suffi- and this is condensed in the soil at
cient to plow a narrow strip of land on nights. To give access for air, low lands
each side of a row of trees, as often is should be drained, and the top soil
done, or to only "side" corn. etc.. and should be kept pulverized.
leave the amiddies unplowed just because From the foregoing expositions it will
the rools are not there yet. Grass and be seen that good lands mean such as
weeds draw a large amount of moisture :have plenty of moisture to dissolve and
from land. When the water in the convey abundant plant food, which are
plowed part is about exhausted, the warm in winter and not too much so iii
trees or plants must stare because the sumlner, v.Lt, receive the -un's rays 11
weeds have appropriated their food- day, and which air can enter; and, we
that is. amoi.ture. A dry field is always may add, which are free from stumps,
dryer near the fences, as the wild trees roots and superfluous water, rendering
outsidesuck away the moisture. rapid, cheap and! uninterrupted tillage
Sometimes, while working in -wet with improved implements possible.
ground, you, may have struck an ants' Verily, mother earth is the only thing in
nest, and wondered why the earth in it this world that does not spoil from pet-
was still dry, while that around was ting. .
soaking we.t. This is because the ants STAREE, Fla.
keep the earth perfectly loose and dis-
connected. It, therefore, repels water, .. .
which will circulate all around it, where Tile Drainage.
the interstices are smaller. From this The following valuable information is
.we learn, first, that the water which condensed from an article on tile drain-
ever rises upwards can be stopped be- age, in the Prairie Farmer:
fore reaching the sui face, wLere it would Bleu usually think of water entering
evaporate, by keeping the top soil loose, the tiles from the top, while, in fact, it
But as water is the vehicle by which enters mainly from the sides and Lot-
food enters plants. we also learn that torm, since only that which enters
deep cultivation is injurious, for it stops the soil immediately over the tiles
for some time circulation of water, and goes downward into .the tiles, the
thus starves plants. This is the chief rest.all flowing in laterally. It is claim-
reason why stuff stops growing for a ed.that where the tile is entirely sub-
while just after cultivation, and not so merged, most of the water enters from
much thecut.tingof roots. below the middle. When only a mnoder-
Again, we learn thathaving the inter- ate rain falls, the water level will be only
sticesin the subsoil too large prevents slightly raised, and the volume of water
the ground water from rising. If your flowing through the tiles only slightly
substail is rather coarse sand. aud tLe increased But when a heavy rainfall
land is high and the clay far belot,. it is continues for some days the porous sub-
useless to try to improve it in this le- soil above the tiles becomes filled to a
spect. The cure lies in the top soil. higher point, and the volume of water
This must be freed from chips and roots, increases.
and filled with manure, muck.or well If the tiles are small in proportion to
rotted, vegetable matter. But small the water they must carry away, the
quantities of. those things are often water fills up above them, and when
worse than nothing, as in dry weather running full, they cannot keep the level
and once dry, they turn, water like a Iv to the surface, and several days are
rubber coat. The substances must be r'equired.after the rain ceases, to'allow
applied in so large quantities that.they the drains to reduce it. Three or four
will hold. moisture from one wet spell feet of porous earth will hold a great
to another.. Potash is good; it absorbs amount of water, and .drink up a heavy
and holds -moisture. Ashes are.excel- rain like a sponge, giving it out into the
lent, when sifted. A small quantity of drains at its leisure.
salt is .good. Land plaster would ,be The undrained soil is usually not so
best of all, as it fills the pores and its stil- porous as the drained soil, and conse-
phuric acid has -great affinity for water; quently less able to absorb the rain, but
bitt this acid, and also its companion, allows it to flow over the surface. carry-
lime, aie corrosive and dissolving for ing with it most of the plant food gath-
humus, and should not, I.hink, be rec- ered from the atmosphere, and some
o- mended. dissolved from tihe surface of the soil.
Put a lump of loaf sugar on a strain- Besides this, it washes the soil about,
:ing clotb.and pour water upon it. The .makes troublesome ditches in .he culti-p
---water will not be sweetened. Try again, vated fields, and even washes seeds and
6.but.with some powdered sugar of the -whole plants out of the ground. The
same weight. The water will now taste drained soil acts as a great filter, receiv-
sweet. Thb- fine sugarhad more surface ing.the rain with its load of ammonia,
--for the so[lent -.fo6 ct upon. For the and iassin.it out through the drain al- a
..same reason will 'raii. water, seeping most pure. -. -
-tho.irdgh loose so"6il, carry more plknt food The three dif four feet of soil above the a
water line becomes more porous from
several causes. The water trickling
downward tends to wear passageways
and open the soil up for the entrance of
air. Roots of plants extend further
downward and when rotten leave holes.
Air circulating through this spongy mass
brings about more rapid decay of organic
materials, leaving the space they occu-
pied open. Earth worms also go deeper
and are much more numerous than in
Many soils are not benefited by drain-
age, because natural drainage is perfect.
If the soil is porous for some distance
downward and there is opportunity for
the water to escape through porous sub-
strata of earth, tiles would be unneces-
sary, as the water line would be below
the tile. The only good they could pos-
sibly do would be to make a very slight
increase in the amount of air in circula-
tion through the soil.
Drainage and Irrigation.
Editor Florida Farmer and F -uit-Grower:
Your issue of June 8th is rich in facts
and suggestions on the deeply interest-
ing questions of both drainage and irri-
gation. A great many swamps and
shallow ponds, having no outlet have
been drained by digging wells through
hardpan, or earth impervious to water,
into a bed or stratum of sand or other
pervious earth, for surface water to drain
into. Such wells are merely outlets for
swamp and pond water. Mr. Coleman's
suggestions are practical and valuable.
Ditches four feet deep, with a, good
outlet, need not be nearer together than
thirty feet, to drain the land perfectly.
The water is drawn only fifteen feet from
,the middle of ditches, with a head of
from one to four feet into the drains and
wells. There are thousands of acres
drained i4 the way briefly described,
which are irrigated by simply shutting
water gates in ditches and causing water,
to rise within two feet of the surface of
the ground. Three feet fall of water in
tilled ground drains it sufficiently.- One
foot rise of water in a three or four feet
ditch will irrigate any crop sufficiently.
In Holland- thousands of powerful
windmills are used for, drainage pur-
poses. What was once Haarlem Lake,
of some 63,th00 acres, is in fine gardens,
meadows and pastures fourteen feet be-
low the level of the sea. Government
did this great work, and-farmers and
market gardeners pay in annual: rents
the interest on the investment. 'Fencing
out the stormy ocean by a granite wall
and cultivating land by the thousand
acres, fourteen feet below the sea level,
are instructive facts for Florida.
On muck of her millions of acres, irri-
gation will be easy and cheap, compared
with its.value. How to make the best
possible use of water and sunshine is the
study to be encouraged.- Sunshine in
Florida may produce green corn for en--
'silage as easily as in the State of New
York and in France. If so, then Florida
sunshine, air and water, may be easily
transformed.into coined gold.M
A Question of Drainage.
Editor ili F, i "r. ,Fne PFrit- an.',-:"
I have on mny faun about ten aces,
which. during the rainy season, is
usually covered from two to six inches
with water. When not so covered, it is
somewhat -por.gy too much so for cat-
tie, but hogs have no trouble in feeding
It seems to be a mass of decayed veg-
etable matter for one or two feet, and
vegetation grows luxuriantly v hen dryr
enough. On two corners are springss'
which flow iuto it nearly all the time,
and -on one side is a small ceiek which is
I can only lo er the water on this par-
cel of land about three to five inches by
drain ng, and I do not think that
will suffice. Will you give me some
suggestions as to the best way to make
this place profitabk?
T. MA. C.
G(IANESVILLE, Fia June 18, i89;.
[We would suggest clearing out and
straightening the channel of the creek,
so as to secur-c a greater fall and permit
of deeper ditches leading from the
springheads. At the same time, water
gates-as suggested in Mr. Lee's article
-might be so arranged that the water
could be backed up in times of drought.
Probably the tract is underlaid by haid-
pan. If so. something might be gained
by breaking through it in places. Give
the Coleman method a ttial.--A. H. C:1
A Point About Cotton Seed.
The sprouting of cotton: seed, if they I
do not "come up," will result in uo loss,
buit we have no doubt land it, is the gen-
eral opinion) that serious l5ss results if
they be permitted to come up, owing -
probably to the partial development. of
the kernel'into woody fibre, which is
less readily decomposible, and to the s
fact that the expanded seed lea&s above
the surface may be dragged, into the a
middle or otherwise left on the surface .A
of the ground wheie they will not be
available-to the crop. -
Bees and Queens. Mlisissiiji Valley P0oultry Yards
Orders willbe bookd now for delivery dur- J.LEICHER HURLEY, Prop, -
ing April,I May or June, of my superior race .J.FLECERHURLEYPro
ofpure GRENADA, MISSISSIPPI,
Y. ii 9 I -\t < -
The Bennett Stump Puller.
In some localities in Florida stump
pulling machines are used extensively.
They save a great amount of hand labor,
and clean land more effectually. One
advantage claimed for it is that where
there is a hardpan near the surface, it is
broken up by the wrenching out of the
deep roots, which would not be accom-
plished by hand cutting. In this man-
ner the stump puller becomes instrumen-
tal in drainage.
The accompanying cut represents a
machine manufactured by H. L. Ben-
nett, Westerville, Ohio, from whom full
descriptions, illustrations, recommenda-
tions, etc., may be obtained. The ma-
chine may be made to serve various pur-
poses,where powerfulleverage is needed,
as described in Mr. Bennett's circular, as
Although the machine is not like some
patent medicines (good for everything),
still it can be used for a number of
things. The machine can be worked on
any kind of a defrick, or anything
strong enough to support the weight.
The machine can be rigged on wheels
or on a wagon, when it is desired to
move heavy rocks, etc., a short distance,
The machine will hold the weight until
'you wish to let it down, It is jutt the
thing for raising buildings off the
ground. Set the derrick at the point to
be raised, run a long skid under the sill
of the building, let it stick out a foot or
two and hook on, just as though you
were raising a stump, or the power can
be applied to pull sideways, if desired.,
It is very convenient for hanging a
beef after butchering, or to swing up a
sick horse, as you can raise him any
height you please, and the machine will
hold- him until you wish to let go, and
one man can do it. "
The machine can be rigged for pull-
ing spiles. In fact, the machine has the
Breeds Prxie Winning
Plymouth Rocks. Wyandoltes, Brown
LeChorns and Bronze Turkeys.
GOOD FOWLS FOR SALE AT ALL TIMES.
EGGS IN SEASON.
Won all ihe Lendilng Prizes at Ibh
North Mississippi Poultry Show as
Water Valley. Feb. 9 to 12. 1S7.
Farmeri, wising to i'mproe ibeir ltock can
get SPECI (L BARGA INS of me. I also selU a
Poultry Journali and BooUk a6 Reduced Prices.
-end for Catalogiue and Price List, free, or
Srite for wants. :-
Pleaee menin,, thl- paper. .
NEW YORK & FLORIDA STEAA1SHIP LINE.
TIlI-WEEIKLT SEiRVICE BETWEEN
NEW YORK, FERNANDINA AND JACKSONVIL.LE
S Sei-iii ei- 1 I ap,.point t.-:ail from Pier 21, "E. R., Y., every: Tuesday, Tbnrsday
Ind .llurdtyo. a1 3 p. in.
FR'0.'M .I[A ':'NVILL-E'- MROA']E mnw. a.id SEMINOLEhw',, e.ry FRIDAY
FRI'M FERNANDINA-DELA- I.RE andi rE.i.S4q.SEE ever? MONDAY, p. m.. C7ITY
OF A TLA.NT4TA Al CITY OF (fL .UMBI.4-, evryv WEDNESDAY p.. --.
Th-e Frt.i.-r i ni P '. :--r.: A.:...min,:r'itiOn by ti Line tIar unurplassed ly any snips in
tli. ,-,:irn .* e-' ih:e. F:.. Tualir inrormai.:,u, apnl',. y a I ., L
i-LALLN--E WAGNER. A-.. *. -A. LE-:LrE. Agt.,
F.,: n,,ailn.l.. F.i .,J:.ck-i'.uile, Fla.. .A W. ,...r. BA fn Hogan.
THEO. G. EGER, raili.: Mllrg,.', \,'I. P C(LYDE & CO.,
'. Bro,..Iws., N. Y. Ge,,f ji _.,:-n[, M' B;.:.a..Tvay, N. + .
L size 44),1000 T X' on. La ke Kingsley. CInla Co.. only O10. A
) fee in ~-&Al" VI 1 choice 5-acre tracI for an ORAWOE
GROVE costs but S100.
m High rollin Pin.: L .rn a r bl:ri:.i.- i C iru :, .:..:..l er t-
ment. Send 2-cent sitanim i:r Mi.t.,, lb.. .r ,eurnir P. I:. ',r C ,,r
Bf rr TrI i.. JO-HN I. i.\LBn2Tr, ,I t W.,rran[y De-, r LUIIIDA
Brii:. ,, li'',:,i9 W D .
STLO .ICA_-r A, T:D .OO / .A.T -Y, .
P. O. Box .,'S,.laeksoumille. rFlorida. 39 V. Bay St...
ED STruM PULLEn.
power and it can be applied to a great
many things and in a great many ways,
but it is made especially fc r a stump
puller, and I simply make these sugges-
tions to any one buying a machine and
having work of this kind to do; or if you
wish a machine especially- for some
work of this kind, let me know what
you want to do and I will tell you how
to rig it.
The machine needs no changing when
you wish to pull small trees, or any-
thing tall that you may allow to tuin
The Cow Pea for Worn Land.
A correspondent of the Mississippi
Valley Farm6r thus expresses himself in
regard to the Southern substitute for
It is a self-evident fact that unless we
of the South fertilize our lands that this
section will oou become so poor and ex-
hausted that it will be impossible to
make sufficient crops to support us, even
!in the most economical manner.
How is this to be acconiplishe ? I say
by the cow pea. It is to the South what
red clover is to the North. By it our
worn out'land can be easily, economi-
cally and rapidly reclaimed and made to
produce m ore than in its virgin state.
Easily" doue because it is more read-
ily applied than in any other fertilizer.
'"Economically," because its value as a
food ciop will more than pay every year
its cost and application. "Rapidly," for
the first crop shows its effect, and every
succeeding one more so.
I know from experience that it will do
all I claim for it. I have a plot of ground
that "as very poor. The first year I
cotton-seeded it and planted corn and
peas. That was the oilyr time I ever
fertilized it, but planted it in corn and
peas for four years, then planted in cot-
ton. It produced l1 bales to the acre.
Two yeals ago I had a piece of land
too poor even to plant in corn or cotton.
I plowed the land,planted cow peasalone
anil then cultivated them. The next
3.ear it produced as fine cotton as I had
ou my place. I gathered quite a lot of
peas, and fattened all my stock besides.
Hence, from actual experien e I know
its value as a fertilizer and urge my
brother farmers to plant 'largely of the
cow pea for that purpose.
By a systematic course in rotating in
crops and planting largely of cow peas.
our lanuds will soon be reclaimed and be-
come very tertile.
Aside from its uses as a fertilizer, as a
food ciop it is very valuable. On good
land you can make 20 to 30 bushels per
acie, that is equal todouble thequantity
of corn, and you can cut and save forage
in value more than any crop of hay, and
still. get your lands enriched by it.
Where, then, can you find a more valu-
able crop to cultivate ? It never fails to
make ia crop. It is the surest crop I
know of and will pay you (as a fertilizer
and food crop combined) better than any
A teu.nt n ho understands the rearing and
bipment ofgarden truck and fru.r, to cudtrivte
a large faim and orange grove- on ,haies. BDsct
of ininiVo-ek land and an, nnaiinl poducit of
bruc Oui),iOu.rjr, uge's A nrian wttb iwoor tlreo
bye Isfrge enough snd not firaid to work- can
ear of a rare chance by appUctaion to the un-
deraigned, at Manatee,'Fla.
RcfrenrCceasre.uired. J. H. VISER.
ORIOLE, HERNANDO COUNTY.
Beautifultlocation, facing on Lsr 'r-. i 'n..lt r ti.i)uth Fi'.r nd Ri l,I..
Lands all high and dry. New ~.(i'tiAEnbtL; bciVween r'trty-fire and in'-rry ew riuses.
A Church, Schoi.......y mails, stores, bakery, sawmiUll.and hotel. L.,rg-e rea 'u-rady piaaed
in orange groves. Choice building lots for winter h.:.-mE .:.cr aie ce-p. Tre, -twenry and
'for acre orange grove lots. A healthy settlement in a h-, b I hy Sit.E t.
CaIllon or Address,
J. W. GROVES, or CLARKSON & ROBERTSON,
Oriole, Flc'riia. Jackisonville. Flo rida
W. N. 1JUSTIQE
Wholesale Commission Merchant,
NO. 313 NORTH WATER STREET, PHILADELPHIA.
i H')TEIERN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. Con ignmente 5olt te'd. Return
J0. 0. BITO-UTT,
1 -91S A T -. g TAg1 3S3LOT TiJrl,
Orange Grove'T.:.nn L:.ts mn Barrow, Winter Haven. Baskeli, Punta Gorda and Carlot.e
Farb,:'r, oi Sale. tln,iproved Landl. in small and larg-- tracts, at l5 9O per acre, up. Cboice ten
an,d tritv aera- tii- f :r :|., high. lUriUg PFe Lanid, n(ar- S. F R. R JE. pol, at f'2 to 535 per
acre. AUl prrperry gLharanteed tco re, as represented cr mo,,ney retumded.
z M'Ncney LoauL weil se..ucrd, negviat-d at 15 per cent Dnt. to the enderr.
Italian Boos ana d uens.
Queens by mall a specialty.
Give me a trial order
For prices or other information, address
H. C. HART,
Eustis, Orange Co., Fla.
JAPAN CLOVER AND TURF GRASS.
(Lespedeza striata and Paspalunsplatycaule.)
Illustrated and described In FLORIDA FAMaEa
S AND FRUIT GROWER. .
Supplied at $1.00 per thousand,
T. K. G(ODBEY, Waldo, Florida.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, JUNE 29, 1887.
m Florila tarmr andt Friti urowr,
S A. H[. CURTISS, Editor.
C. H. JoNEs & BROTHER, PUBLISHERS,
Office Cor. Bay and Laura Sts.
THE FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER Is an eight page 48 column illustra
ted weekly newspaper, devoted to the Farm
Garden, Orchard and Household Economy
and to the promotion of the agricultural and
industrial interests of Florida. It is published
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C. H. JONES & BRO.,
S Jacksonville. Fal
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
FisT PAG-The Orange Rust Mite; Scale Eat-
ing Lady Bugs (Illustrated); Notes from Peach
Hill Nurseries; A Remarkable Peach Tree;
Culture of Celery (Illustrated); Forage Grow-
ing on Pease Creek; Alfalfa or Lucerne; Silt
SSEcoND PAGE-lnsectici des; Improved Straw-
berry Culture; Propagation from the Root;
Apples in Florida.
THD PAGE-The Philosophy :of Tillage; Tile
Drainage; Drainage and Irrigation; A Ques-
tion of Drainage; The Cow Pea for Worn
Land; Stump Pulling (Illustrated); Commer-
FOURTH PAGE (Editorial)-Rambling About
S Srudzu.kA; A Plate of Apples; The Festive
Razor-Back; Unpleasant Truths; To Southern
Fruit Growers. -
FIFTHR PAGE-(Edited by Helen Harcourt); Ou'
Home Circle; Cosy Corner; The Family Friend;
Our Young Folks' Corner.
SSIxTH PAGE-Veterinary Advice; Gestation of
Mares;, Care of Horses; Scientific Feeding;,
Vicious COwS;!s.Fee.ding Sall t C,.wsr: E.LIJe
fi. r C.s: St]ep Rai_-ing in We [ Floriro.,;
,Varrn._-Eperiene; with Poultry; Poultry
S" Norer; Thb Hlum .f Industry.
SuvzvTn PAGE-Farm Miheliany i Jllluli'rcd,;
Serial Story, Fdr-Honor'; ak, by Far.ie,:r,.
EIG"T1e Paog-FFl,.r.ida Newi in. Br;'t: Flrida
f. or Poor Men: ElttEi' Lgibr-ri tn- St. John-:;
S Farnina ", Paprr and in Dilrt; The Oni- Hoi-s
Farrn-r; Jcid Weather; New York and Jack-
sondile- Mirket- -
S RAMBLINGS ABOUT SHIDZUOKA.,'
We regret to learn that Prof. E. War-
S ren Clark and.Lake Jackson have parted
company, fr how long we know- not.
"Itmay be for years and it may be for-
ever." :Au revoir. Whether the Lake
has gone to sea or down to Japan is not
S; known, for-it4left no notice behind-as to
S its future whereabouts. We suspect it
tas gone over to Paine's 'Prairie to ne-
gotiate a lacustrine treaty and that pres-
ently we shall hesiar that the Prairie has
gone dry and the Lake become more of
a lake than ever.
S The Florida waters are too much given
Sto playing practical jokes on the map
S makers. Their conduct is reprehensible
in the extreme, and we trust that they
S -. will come to soothe error of their errant
S' ways. For them to abandon the valleys
*: ;: of Leon county and take possession of
S the broad prairies of Alachua, may fit
*'. the precept thai "exchange is no rob-
bery," but it does not conform to the
ideas of land owners.
According to the Floridima. Professor
Clark and family left home on the u10th
inst., to sojourn during the summer at
"Columbia and Monteagle. -Teun., andI
Huntsville, Ala. The famous Monte
Sano Hotel, at the latter place, has en-
gaged Prof. C. to deliver a dozen illus-
trated lectures on travel, during the sea-
son, at this fashionable and elegant 'Sar-
atoga' of the South." Huntsville the
Saratoga of the Southl We may expect
to hear next that Tallahassee or De
Funiak is the Saratoga of the South.
We thought that all intelligent people of
.the present age were aware that the
cjty of Jacksonville has the exclusive
privilege of that title. Probably the edi-
tor of the Floridian knows it as well as
we do, but we have observed that when-
anieditor's mind gets to running on tril-
obites, troglodytes and the like, his
ideas on other subjects get terribly mud-
dled. Country editors have a great pro-
pehsity for going beyond,their depths,
and we don'tknow what would become
of them if the metropolitan press were
not-ever ready.to lend a helping hand
and getthem out of difficulty.
Ret truing to Prof. Clark, we have
reason to know that he will spend a por-
tion of his.summer leisure-in writing for
--ER. I' may be an extremely small por-
-tion, but an "accomplished writer, _with
.an inexhaustible and. ever ready 'fund of
Sdinary advantages, they afforded foa
stock raising and dairy purposes. We
* presume some of the old lake bottom it
being brought into tillage, adding t(
Sthe size of the previously large fields.
The Flo'ridian of June 16 says:
"Shidzuoka probably has the largest
cornfield, this season, to be found iA
Leon county. It is two miles and a half
in length by one mile in width. The
corn is already as high as a person's head
on horseback, and the 'oldest inhabi-
tants' among the colored renters declare
they have not seen such a fine crop in
twenty years. 'The cotton crop is
equally promising, though not quite so
large. The plants are of good color and
A PLATE OF APPLES.
We do not undertake to acknowledge
receipt'of every specimen of fruit that is
sent us, and do not suppose that the send-
ers always expect us to do so. We highly
appreciate all such favors, at least when
Express charges are prepaid. We re-
Scently stated that our esteem for Florida
. peaches had been growing rapidly of
late, and we new admit that we have
some regard for the Florida apple, and it
is not based on Mr. Powers' apple alone.
His is a good apple, either to eat raw or
cooked, but not a handsome one. We
would not have it a particle less acid. It
reminds us of a fine grafted' fruit, like
the Baldwin, reverting to a state of na-
ture, such as are frequently met with
growing spontaneously along fence
rows in the Sduthern piedmont region.
The specimen sent' had no seeds, and
scarcely any "core.". Is this the rule?
When in Walton county last summer,
we visited a small apple orchard, which,
in point of fruitfulness, exceeded any-
thing we ever saw, in other States. In
fact, the quantity of fruit was unnatu-
ral, and must have, injured the trees.
The owner stated that the trees had
borne abundantly for a dozen years,
and that the fruit in previous seasons
had been larger, that of one variety be-
ing "as largeas his double fists." The
variety which was ripe at the timeof
our visit, in June,'was a small, red-
striped apple, mellow; juidy and of a
delightful sub-acid flavor. Trveie were
other varieties which ripened later in
the season, one being called by the owner
a winter apple.
The bark of these trees, like that of
the trees described by Mr. Powers, was
riddled by the woodpeckeis. The trees
were of small size, and more given to
sending out "spurs" than vigorous
branchlets. The trees had a great-pro-
pensity. for sprouting from the base, a
habit which the owner encouraged, as
he used them all for planting or selling
to oth-rs. As like begets like, we be-
lieve these trees came from such sprouts,
and that all of their sprouts that are
planted will produce sprouting trees.
This is a pernicious mode of propaga-
tion, on a par with breeding from scrub
stock. Such practices are characteristic
of farmers who look down on agricul-
We have seen young and thrifty apple
trees beginning to fruit near Jacks6u
ville and Pensacola, and have -not much
doubt that in time varieties will be found
-originated, perhaps-that will be well
worth raising for home use. Then what
fruit of any consequence will we lack,
Except cherries? And those we are bet-
ter off without.
Many experiments have been made
with grafting the apple on the LeConte
pear, and we would like to hear from
those who have made such tests as have
enabled them to form a definite opinion
pro or con. It is said that theapple out-
grows the pear. This is objectionable,
though indicative of a good degree of
vigor in the apple. Has anyone at-
tempted root grafting? Has any other
stock besides the LeConte been used?
We read that Dr. Schaffranek has been
experimenting near Palatka with Pyrus
1 F.V. r. ..
INTERLACHEN, Putnam county, Fla. I think that Southern cultivators have
May 30, 1x. ?7 neglected the grape. The supply of
good grapes going Northward is extreme-
Unpleasant Truths. ly small. I refer now to the varieties
Unpeasant Tu s. and species of giapes grown all over the
Congressman Hatch, of Missouri, North, and known to be saleable in all
saye: markets, and not the scuppernongg."
Our agricultural success has not made But all, or at, least many, of our best
the farmer anyv better off. The money varieties of table grapes appear to suc-
they have produced has become the ceed admirably In almost all parts of the
properly of capitalists and existed now South, from the hill and mountain dis-
in the palaces and coffers of the Eastern tricts to the very shores of the Gulf. The
cities. When I was a boy the farmers vines grow well, they bear well, there is
held nine-tenths of the moiiey; now they little or no trouble from rot, and the sea-
have practically none. They are now son of ripening is so early that there is
loaded down with a heavier debt than no competition with the great grape
they were twenty years ago, because of crops of the North. Icertainly think that
the smaller value of their products. The there are some golden opportunities
farmers are becoming poorer daily while awaiting the grape grower in many
the'bankers, merchants and manufac- parts of the South.
turers are becoming richer. Regarding apples, Mr. Earle thought
that the zone of their greatest excellence
Florida is slowly developing a new lay in cooler latitudes, although success
industry in connection with the orange might be attained in the South by plant-
culture. A wine is made out of oranges, ing earlv arieties.
which when three years old, has all the PEACHES.
good qualities and the taste of excellent I think that there is no part of all this
sherry. OnePhiladelphia concern made vast territory where the climate and soil
460 barrels this year. do not permit the growth of thisglorious
fruit. And we may not only have it for
Riverside will ship this season about a week or so, Ibut with a succession of
350 car-loads of oranges to market, as varieties may have 4 for nearly half the
against b500 car-loads sent East in 1886. year. And'yet I am told that fine
f ing, demonstrate the great quantity of
e fruit they are capable of bearing. Also,
a apples grafted on the LeConte pear
D stock have been found to do remarkably
. well. I don't think there has ever been
a ton of commercial fertilizers used in
t this county. My husband says the sal-
vation of our county lies' in the cow
f pea and the rotation of crops."
a Sensible manl Would that more
I Florida ladies had such husbands! We
- have heard at the North of persons who
S"don't know beans," and we know there
Share many at the South who don't kndw
3 cow peas. The cow pea, with a little
) encouragement, will buildup the South,
Sfeed man and beast, and feed the soilat,
the same time.
THE FESTIVE RAZOR BACK.
Left Master of the Situation by
Editor Flmida Fanner and Fruit-Grwer:
In your paper of May 25th, I see a
complaint from a man in Hillsborough
county, of the loss of. his, sweet potato
crop by neighbors' hogs. Every one of
common sense will agree with him that
it is high time for the repeal of a law
which gives a hog more license than a
human being. '.
I met-a man the other day who has
over ,200 acres of land, but he had only
fenced enough for an orange grove, and
having exhausted his means on that, he
was unable to fence any land for crops.j
In order now to make a crop of sweet
potatoes, .he had arranged to plant in the
field of a friend, of his, about Uire miles
away.- He told me some one had laughed
at the idea of his planting so .far away
when he had so much land of his own,
I often hear of men making crops, of
corn and cotton on. the one-third plan
away from their homes, when they own
plenty of land, only lacking the fences.
I had oats sowed in a field of my own,
but a hog found them out, and she soon
brought a whole drove along with hlier,
and they did not rest till they had rooted
up the whole field, and then they over-
hauled my potato plant bed. I have
since spent six dollars in repairing
fences, and have kept out all but oue.
She can climb three feet, and by lying
on her side get through a fire-inch cr.ick-.
The animal is only half grown and 1is uot
worth more thanone dollar. I hare
asked the owner how much lie would
take for her. He says, "Two dollars
and a half, and no less." He tells me I
have no lawful fence, and that he will
send three citizens to examine it before
he will ito anything with the hog. For
three feet from the ground my fence is
almost rat proof, but from there up fo
fire feet there are openings five toten
inches wide. .
Now, I have either got to pay s2.50 for
a $1 hog .then kill her and feed her to
the dogs, for she is 'as poor as a mon-
quito'. or to spend another $6'to make
the fence rat-pioof for a height of fivre
feet. I got some early potatoes planted,
and she lias ruined $8 worth of them
already. Every morning when I get up
'Iexpect to see the balance of them de-
stroyed. I endeavor by hard work to
make an honest living, but the State
throws a serious obstacle in thlie way of
my doing so by obliging me to keep up
those costly and unsightly obstructions
information, wisdom and wit, will dash augustifolia and P. melanoarpa. The
off an article while another man is sharp- latter being only a slender shrub and
ening his pencil. We do not mean, the former a small, slow-growing tree,
however, that the Professor is going to we see no hope in these experiments.
"dash off" anything for the FARMER AND We believe apples are grown to a lim-
FRUIT-GROWER, for the dashing style is ited extent in all the northern counties.
not compatible with the eminently prac- We have given Walton and Alachua
tical nature of this paper. We expect counties special mention, and we will
first to be served by the Professor with a close with a note from the intermediate
cup of Japanese tea in' a Japanese tea- county of Wakulla, which we clipped
cup; in other words, an account of the from a letter in Home and Farm, writ-
culture and manufacture of tea in Japan, ten from that county by a lady. After
with cuts copied from Japanese pictures, enumerating the common products of
This will appear as soon as the cuts can the country, she says:
be procured from New York. "I think, if our farmers were to leave
We surmise that Prof. Clark, while off cotton somewhat and turn their at-
ministering to the intellectual enjoy- tention to these things, they- would do
ment of the people at the Southern Chau- better. I must stop this strain, for fear
tauqua and the "Southern Saratoga," my husband will accuse me of borrow-
will have an eye open for fine horses and ing, his thunder without credit. Fruits
cattle with which to stock his newly ac- of almost every variety do remarkably
quired Lake (?) Jackson savannahs. A well here, and certainly it- must be the
year ago we were on the margin of the 'home of the grape.' The LeConte pear
Lake, admiring the emerald meadows is becoming very popular; a great many
that were taking the place of its reced- small orchards have been put out, and'ta
ing waters and discussing the extraor- few older trees that have come into bear-
(4R A PFN.
TO SOUTHERN FRUIT GROWERS
Words of Counsel, Warning and
The Hon. Parker Earle, president of
the American. Horticultural Society,
superintendent of the horticultural de-
partment of the New Orleans exposition,
and undoubtedly-, the best authority on
fruit growing in America, delivered an
admirable address before the recent Inter-
State Convention, which is the best pre-
Ssentation of the subject that we have yet
seen. The following is the Times-Demo-
crat's report of the address :
NOT A LAZY MAN'S BUSINESS.
I make a broad distinction between
the fruit grower for home use and the
market grower, and I would stimulate
every planter, every farmer, every man
or woman who owns land, much or little,
and makes a home on it, to grow fruits
for the family supply. To neglect
this is to neglect a duty and a plea-
sure. But I would by no means
advise any considerable number or pro-
portion of the farmers to become fruit
growers for market at the South or any-
where else. And I would particularly
not advise any of that class to engage in
it who think that fruit growing is an
easy thing to do-an easy way to make
a living-who suppose that fortunes are
lying in wait for the orchard planters or
vineyardists without much hard work.
There are too many poor fruit growers
in the business already. There are too
many people Who have proved failures
as farmers, or doctors or merchants, who
have taken up fruit growing because
"any fellow can grow fruit," and because
"fruit trees grow while the owner slpeps"
and loafs. The business don't need any
more of that class of growers. But there
is room in many places for the smartest,
brightest, most energetic, most early ris-
ing and hard-working men, men who
can work themselves, or wisely direct
the work of others.: But no man should
engage now in this occupation'who does
not know that there are many difficulties
to overcome, and who does' not feel -an
energy and.persistency of purpose- suffi-
cient to carry -him through a long cam-
A BUSINESS NEEDING BRAIN.
Fruit growing is one of the best pro-
fessions in the world to bring out the
sterling qualities of a man, for he will
find new difficulties constantly arising
which mustbe studied and surmounted,
and all his successes and defeats will
alike help to develop his own character.
I respect the warning, that fruit grow-.
ers must battle with insects that destroy,
with blights that kill, with rusts that
rot, and mildews, and various other
fungi that weaken the strength and
beauty of tree and vine; and with frosts
and drouths and other elemental disturb-
arnces which sometimes rob us of crops
almost within the garner, and yet 'if het
has the right timber in himthe may. win
glorious successes from all these enemies,
and reap much satisfaction and fair
profit from his enterprise.
Again I wish to say, in a cautionary
way, that a man who followsfruit'grow- I
ing should have some definite plans
about reaching his markets. The weak-
ness of our whole fruit growing system, i
next,to slovenly cultivation and hand- j
ling, is.found in the lack of a good sys-
temrn of distribution of our products. i
There are many sections of the country,
North and South, where fruit growing n
has become unprofitable, largely on this c
account.' We do not reach out widely
enough, or our fruit does not bear carry-
ing far enough. Our limited markets
break down under the supply, and we
losc money from over production. c
DANGER OF OVER PRODUCTION. : t
To apply this suggestion to a single in- a
dustry : I think that if several hundred 9
people in the Gulf States, say in Missis- )
sippi or Louisiana, should rush into (
strawberry growing on a large scale, the c
business would I probably be overdone, (
and result in absolute loss to growers, as t
it has sorinetimes in Tennessee and
Southern Illinois, and other sections, V
because of a lack of- business -man- d
agement in providing the best pos- e
sible transportation, to markets double c
the distance away of those com-
monly filled. And yet I think that if
we can place the strawberry crops of o
this section in the most distant cities of
the North, in strictly sound, nice condi-
tion, that thisculturecan be very greatly y
extended to the profit of the growers, c
The successful transportation of the a
very perishable fresh fruits to thie most f
distant mai kets is a very modern accom- p
plishment. But I consider it a demon- p
stated success, and it opens up new p
possibilities to thie fruit culture of this t
country which were not dreamed of a w
few years since, f
SPECIAL FERTILIZERS. "
Cotton seed, cotton seed meal, barn-
yairdmanure, :guano, ground bone, su- !..
per-phosphate, gypsunim, lime, kainit, .
ashes, marl, muck, leaf mould, com-
Bermuda grass, crab grass, Para grass
Guinea grass. Terrell grass, orchard
grass, red-top grass, Johnson grass, Texna
hlue grass, pearl millet. German millet,
millo maize, kaffir corn. teosinte. sorg-
hum, fodder corn. cow peas. desmodi-
um, Mexican clover, lespedeza, alfalfa,
STAPLE CROPS. .
Corn, oats, rye, wheat- Varieties,
yield per acre, soil and seasion,ldifficul-
ties encountered, general treatment.
Cotton -Long a d .bhort Staple- Plant-
ing and culture, marketing crop; man-
agement ot seed. products from the
Sugar Caane. and Sorghunt-Varieties,
culture, making syrup and sugar,'condi-
tion of market.
Tobacco-Varieties, history in Florida,
recent experiences, seed, culture manu-
Citrs Fn-uits-Comparison of varie
ties, hardiness and productiveness, mneth-
ods of propagation, methods of planting
and culture comparative effects of fer-
tilizers, marketing of fruit, preservation
of fruit wine and other products.
Peach,. pear, fig, persimmon, Japan
plum, Kelsey plum, native plum, mul:
berry, quince, apricot, guava, ;banana.
pineapple sapodilla, mango, avocada,
pear. cocoanut, pecan, English walnut,
almond, pomegranate, olive, grapes
strawberry, blackberry, raspberry-Va-
rieties, their characteristics, effects of
soil, weather, etc., best methods of
NATIVE TREES AND HERBS.
Planting trees for ornament or utility,
the burning over of forest lands, the
lumber and turpentine, industries, the
tanning industry, phenomena of plant
life, weeds and noxious plants.
N. B.-Specimens may be sent to the
editor for identification. Information is
desired respecting popular names and
Plants adapted to this climate, out-
door culture, management of green-
INSECT ENEMIES AND FUNGOID DISUSES
Nature of damage done and rernpies.
MUSCELLANEOUS SUBJECTS. .
Bees and bee plants,'silk culture aid
the mulberry, hunting and fishing, dogs
and dog laws, fences and roads, legisla-
tion for farmers, homestead laws, trans-
portation, marketing produce, experi-
mental farms, agricultural education,
home manufactures, natural history
of Florida, historic points, sanitary ad-
vice, farm buildings, house furnishing,
farm machinery, farm implements,
water supply, cooling appliances, re-
cipes for cooking, home decorations,
household economy, mineral and earths,
climatology, hints on the care of chil-
bdren, on dress, habits, reading, amuse-
ments, etc. ..
In treating of the above and related '"*
subjects, practical experience is much to.
be preferred to theoretical knowl,
edge; yet there are topics needing dis- .
cussion which have to be treated of
from a somewhat theoretiql .tand-.
We do not desire letters written mere-
ly in praise of special localities unless .
claims to favor are based Onii the pr.Aducts .:
or productiveness of the sdil.. Articles--
of an animated or vivacious style are de-'.
sirable by way of variety,-but practical
statements and descriptions' should be, .
concise and as much to the point as-
sible. '' '.
All communications for' the editorial-.
department should be addressed tb "..---'
EDITOR FA ,MER AND F'UV- WB_.,,-.-.. .:
peaches are a rarity in a majority of the sary within due limits, that agriculture
Southern homes. And peach orchard- and civilization may expand. But this
ing as a business enterprise has never has been carried too far in all of the old
been established on a very large scale States, which are all of them suffering
outside of Georgia, and there only by a from extremes of climate formerly un-
very few parties. I also hear talk of a known. The musical brooks which used
great deal of failure in regions where to sing all summer in our boyhood
peaches used to do well. And yet the among the Northern hills, are succeeded
climate has not changed nor the soil. -:,y destrur-tive torrents and tlhe dr;ed up
But the peach has succumbed to insect beds of sneams, such as you will find in
foes of tree and fruit but all this is rem- Palestine or Arabia. I fear these results
ediable. in itie South ; and that the great future
I have great hope of peach culture in of welil-balanced prosperity for which we
the, South, for I think there are no ob- all hope. will be imperiled by a too rapid
stacles to success more than other peach des, ruction of your woodland wealth.
districts suffer from, and that the cli- It is the duty and interest of every
mate and soil are on the whole-genrally citizen, and it is the .upiemedutyof the
favorable. The difficulties in the way are State to une all available measures to
want of, energy in culture and manage protect this great timber inheritance,
ment, and a multitude of destroying 'while it is vet po-sible, against an un-
insects. There are many people tinmey desr'ucti.n which will send its
who would cultivate well, if that penalties down to many generations of
would insure successful peach crops the future.
but that alone will not du" it, ---- ---
Whether there are many here or to A farmer who thinks he cannot afford
come here, who will both cultivate, fer- to take a paper conducted in his interest
utilize, prune, thin out heavy erops, and when the whole cost for the year is but
kill "bugs," in order to get fine peach a dollar or two at the most, is to be
-crops and make money, I. do not feel so pitied; not because of his poverty, but
sure. Yet, all ofthesethingsareneces--because he lacks intelligence whereby
ary, especially the '-bug killing." he might derive from the expenditure
You have two months of season before advantages that would be measured
Delaware or Michigan begins with any fairly at ten times the cost.-Ex.
varieties of importance, and you have ._
60,000,000 of people hungry for your
fruit. I would not encourage anybody Hints to Correspondents.
to plant another peach tree to be'given The readers of the FLORtA FARNIR
over to borers, the broom sage and the AND FRUIT-GROWER are respectfully in-
cattle; but if there are men who will vited to contribute to its columns articles
take hold of peach orcharding and mas- and notes on all subjects pertaining to
ter it, doing everything in the best way, the farm, garden, orchard and house-
they will be certain to reap rich bar- hold affairs. The range of topics which
vests. will be discussed in this journal maybe
"PEARS. gathered from the subjoined tale, which
The question of pear culture was one may serve to suggest what might other-
that be hardly knew what to say about; wise escape attention:
he had planted and raised many thou- FARM MANAoEMENr.
sand pear trees, and had gathered some 'Clearing land, draining land, crops for
good crops from them. But he now new land, succession of crops, intensive
stands in the ranks of the diccouraged, farming, treatment of different soils,
Speaking of the celebrated LeC'onte resting land, soiling vs. pasturing, cow-
pear. hie remarked that he had tfiiends penning, green manuting.
who had invested largely; knew it was DOmE'rsT,' ANI-mALS.
a: remarkable tree, but feared that it c. ,
would come into competition with the Horse, mues, cat fle, ho. sa- heep,
Bartlett5 and would not sell well beside eutry-B f deas. tat-
In the very important matter:of early
vegetables, Southern cultivators have
the same advantage that belongs to early
FIGS AND PERSIMMONS.
One of the most iegiected fruits Mr.
Earle mentioned was the fig. He has
long thought they might be shipped
North in refrigerator cars. But aside
from .the chances for marketing it as a
fresh fruit, there is almost a boundlesss
field for preserving .it by canning, dry-
ing, cryvtaliizing, etc." He counuis tlie
fig as one of the coming staple crops of
the Southern horticulturist. Following
the fig, he recommended the Japan per-
simmon. It. will not grow in the North,
but hLe ld's no doubt that it would sell
nell there and in great quantities.
, *' OuP.NRA ? NE
In reference to orange culture, he re-
marked: Theie is a large district of
Southern Louisiana where the soil is ad-
mirably adapted to oranges, and where
the climate is at least good enough to
justify growing them on a large scale.
And when planters in that section take
utelligent pains toplant the finer named
varieties of fruit,and do not depend upon
miscellaneous seedlings, they will pro
duce, possibly, the very best oranges
grown in the world. :
I would not, however, say anything
which should in any degree influence
many great immediate expansion of the
orange industry, for it is my belief that
his business is now growing as rapidly
is is possible. An orange tree lives toa
great age in a congenial situation, and it
bears enormous crops. An acre of good
orange orchard should yield about two
car-loads of fruit each year. When all
if the orange lands are planted in the
hree -great orange-producing States,
hey will y eld a great many car-loads.
Vill these be too many? I will not un-
tertake to answer the question, but
very intending planter should certainly
SsOUTHERN SOIL AND CLIMATE. -
I pass over a lung list of fruits of sec-
ndary importance to those I have
lamed. but which can be grown n the
egion I am considering, for time or
our patience does not permit their dis-
ussion. I only wish to add this remark
bout the Gulf States. To the traveler
rom the Northwest, to whom a large
portion of this region looks exceedingly
*oor, I nould say that the upland and
mine woods soil is a great deal better
han it looks. And the climate works
with good cultivation here to a wondeg-
ul extent. With the right management,
he poorest lands in the South will grow
Greater weight of vegetables or of for-
ge than the beat soil of Iowa or Illinois
usually produces. For here you can
row three crops of vegetables or four
rops of forage in one year from the
DANGER FROM FOREST DESTRUCTION.
One other thing I must say here, or I
should leave a duty undone. In the new
idustrial uprising all over the South,
whioh is to lay all her resources of mine
nd forest and soil under tribute, there
i one thing which I fear 1 am afraid
f the man with the ax. I am afraid of
he invading army of lumbermen which
will be marching over these rich forests
nd leaving the land desolate.
We must not forget that a country
which is shori5 of its forests to such an c
extent as to leave the forces of nature I
balanced travels rapidly towards de-
Iy. Ihis is shown in the history of
otvt arcie.-it and mod rn nations. The I
quabilit v of the climate is lost, the tern-
erate order of the seasons is broken, c
youths and floods succeed each other,
he fertility of the land is wasted-, and
agriculture and its dependen'industries i
ie crippled in every country thht per-
ilts too great an extinction n of thgglo-
ous endowment of forest with which
od has blessed the world. .
The process of deforestation is neces-
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. JUNE 29, 1887.
S" ''" work they can do, but they have no
ur UId right to be so wasteful and prodigal of
,that which cannot be bought "for love
E ARo ori-money," their health and strength.
HELEN HACOUT. Editor. Try it, my sisters, and persevere in it;
it will seem awkward at first, and you
With a helping hand and a Welcome for all will be often jumping up, but just order
Who wish to be friendly and make us a call;
With words of good counsel for old friends and yourself down again. If obstreperous,
new, "sit on" yourself till you learn to obey
ho come to us seeking the best way to do. the laws of wisdom. If you only gain
All questions of general Interest will be ten minutes' sitting out of twenty, it
answered through these columns. will rest you wonderfully, and as you
Personal Inquiries will be answered by mail get used to working and sitting, you will
when accompanied by stamp for reply.
Subscribers are cordially invited to take a be astonished to see how many things
seat in our Cosy Corner, and exchange views, can be done at a table of the proper
experiences and recipes of mutual benefit. height.
"Help ye one another." g
Communications intended for publication (To be Continued.)
must be brief, clearly written, and only on-
-one side of the paper.
All matter relating to this department Answers to Correspondents.
should be addressed to
EDIThoul OURbe HOM-CIRLE, D. B., Ohicopee, Mass. Answered by
Fla. Farmer and Fruit-Grower, mail of the 19th inst.
Montclair, Fla.. J. S. P., Harvard, Marion county,
Fla. Soldering casket address sent, as
Our Cosy Corner. desired, by mail of the 18th inst.
Our osy orner. D. R., Jacksonville, Fla., writes (re-
MAKING, THE BEST OF IT. ferring to an article on evaporating figs,
(Contsnued.) published in the Florida Agriculturist,
Well, as none of our sisters are on July 29th, 1885): "I should be very glad
'hand this time, we shall just proceed to to see your fig-drying article (with your
"turn the tables" on them again, and later experiences) repeated in 'your de-
heap hot irons, rather than ',!hot coals," apartment of the FARMER AND FRUIT-
on their heads. If' they are wise they GROWER, which department. I find of
will step forward. much interest."
Let us have a little talk just now about Answered by mail of 80th inst.
.that much dreaded, back-breaking toil Pamphlet of evaporator sent.
over the We propose to make the preparation
IRONING TABLE. of figs the.chief work of our Family
S, Friend next week, and will then repro-
Every household should have one, not duce jhe above (if we can lay our hands
the ordinary, all-purpose table, but one upon it), or give our readers its full
madOne espeiof our earliest recollections I s equivalent in information,
neranda' of our earliest recollections is is a subject of no small importance
"grandma's ironing table," as it stood to Florida, as we are satisfied that the
out of the way against the wall, the top culture of the fig is destined, in the near
turned back, and the under part forming future, to become of equal importance
a cosy bench for use at all times, except with thed orange, if not to surpass it.
when the serious business of ironing
clothes was in progress.
rt was long and rather narrow, and The Family Friend.
two persons could use it with ease, one Everybody wants "something cool"
on each side near the ends, so that, if now-a-days, and right here we mean to
desired, they could reach their work tell them how to make some nice, re-1
from three sides. tell them how t .ake sm nc e,
Thefrom threop was er s mooidesh ad level, no freshing drinks for summer weather.
ugThely to was very smot show in evel, First of all, here. are two 'beverages
ugly Joits tmake creas In ev open to all who have'a cow, that valued
the most carefully ironed clothing, and ,emil friend." aWe don't maket the
so, when the threefamily friend. We don't make the
s when wthe .ther th cknesseso r. claim that the first one is a cool drink,
blankets, with their muslin covering, ,,because-well, we can't very easily, for
were stretched tightly and pinned at the the very till of the article given below
corners, the result was a smooth, so would be down on us. Try it, though:
surface, that made the work to be done -
as easy as possible. HOT MILK AS A RESTORATIVE.
The lower part of this ironing table Milk that is heated to much above 100
was really a bench in shape, only that the degrees Fahrenheit, loes, for the time, a
ends were straight up and down, and degree of its sweetness aud its density,
projected above the seat. The upper but no one fatigued by over-exertion of
part curved out, so as to make two body and mind, who has ever experi-
broad points, in which holes were bored, enced therevivinginfluenceof atumbler
about three-quarters of an inch in diam- of this beverage. heated as hot as it can
enter. be sipped, will willingly forego a resort
On the under part of the top were to it because of its having been rendered
nailed strips an inch thick, and about somewhat less acceptable to the palate.
twelve inches in depth, in such a posi- The promptness with which its cordial
tion that'hben the top was laid in place influence is felt, ik- surprising.. Some
the stripsafitted .down on the outside of portions of it;. indied, seemtto; -,be dit-
the beidc ends, with holes bored in the gested almost immediately; and&'hiany,
strips to match those in the latter, and who fancy they -need alcoholic stimu-,
four pius to thrust through the four plants when exhausted*by.labor.bof. brain.
sets ot holes thus brought together, or body, will find in this simple draught
And now we come to what was the an equivalent that shall be abundantly
crowning pointing that old table-a point, satisfying and more enduring in its
that every such table should have, and effect.-Phrenological Journal.,-
very few do have. MEDICINAL QUALITIES OF BUTTERMILK.'.
Note that we have given the depth of For aumers beverage there can be
b For a summer's beverage there can be
the under strip on th, top as twelve nothing more healthful and strengthen-
inches tin-length it corresponded to the ing than buttermilk. It is excellent for
ech endsein of beyo them). weak or delicate stomachs, and far. bet-
SoWthat tev able could be regulated n ter as a dinner drink than coffee, tea-or
Soheight In that e table could be regul in water, and, unlike them, does not re-
ght. In at twelve-inch sip, the ard, but rather aids digestion.
holes which noitoned those in the bench A celebrated physician once said that
ends were, not one to each corner, but if everyone knew the value of butter-
four, one above the other,' about two milk as a drink, it would be inore freely
inches apart. so that the tOp might be partaken of by persons who drink so
lowered or raised for a maximum dis- excessively of other beverages; and
tance of eght.inchte, ,so to suit the further compared its effects upon the
height- or convenience of the person system to the cleaning out of a cook
using it. and as you will see, it could stove that has been clogged up with
just as easily be sloped from ends or ashes that have sifted through, filling
sides, as desired not only so. ut the up every crerice and track; saying that
S"bench," made with' a double'bottom, the human system is like the stove, and
the upper part "on hinges. held the iron- collects and gathers refuse matter that
ing blankets, holders, stands, wash- can in no way be exterminated from the
board and wiping cloths. system so effectually as by drinking but-
It was a first-rate table for cutting out termilk. It is also a specific remedy for
garments upon. also, and not only that, indigestion, soothes and quiets the
but for making cakes and rolling out nerves. and is very somnoleut to those
cookies or ginger snaps. who are troubled with sleeplessness.
First-rate, especially because the
worker could lower the top, and sit CEEAP BEER.
down comfortably while busy. Two tablespoonfuls of pulverized gin-
Now, don't somebody exclaim, con- ger, one pint of hop yeast, one pint of
temptuously, "Sit down to "cut out" and molasses, six quarts of cold water; mix
iron, and make cakes!" because we won't well. Bottle immediately. In twenty-
stand it. four hours it is good to use. This is a
It is the lazy, selfish -woman who very refreshing drink for those who are
stands to do all her work, because she working out in the sun.
knows that then she will not be able to SMALL BEER.
do so much, and that her working days One quart West India molasses ior
will be over the sooner. That is what Florida svrupi, one ounce each essence
we have to say to the scoffer who cries of spruce and of wintergreen, and one-
out against sittingg down to work." half ounce essence of sassafras. Fill a
We will venture to assert that the pall buckel) with hot water, mix- the
said scoffer (who is such only while she above thoroughly with it, let it stand till
has abundant strength.) sits down to it becomes blood-warm, then add one
work with her needle ta pint of yeast; let it remain ten or twelve
Many a weary woman takes a chair, hours, bottle it, and in three hours it is
and determines that she will rest her fit for use, and first-rate; it cools and
aching back by iioning while seated, purifies the blood. coo
S but ina moment she jumps up again,
feeling more tired than before, and de- bEAD.
clares she is '"too nervous to iron sitting One gallon of water, one pound of loaf h
down." sugar, one-half ounce of race (root) gin-
But really that is not the trouble at all ger, one lemon, sliced, take out the
-it is with the table, whose height Is seeds; one teacup of yeast; let it stand
not adapted to the chair, and so the mo- over night to ferment, then pour- off
ment she sits down she works-in a without stirring, and bottle, adding to
.:strained position that mechanically each bottle one raisin. Cork tight.
S "forces her up again in self-defence. The DROP DRINE. I
table should be low enough to brig the Said to be the "'best of all drinks for
elbows .well above it, and give as much summer."
werestanding, and then it would be of wintergreen, ten drops oil o sassa-
just as easy to iron as if standing; and fra two i arts of boiling water o oured s
how many an aching back, and head fron two tq uarts of boiling water poure; dd
and foot our housewives would be saved, ongtw tablspoofuls camte a tar; a
they alone ca'n estimate. eight quarts of cold water, and"bottle.
.. sIf a table of the righr kind cannot be SPRUCE BEER. :
h'=- bad (it:.a-ii ifthere is aman of the same One gallon of water, one quart good h
:i- d' "daboutithe house), theri get a tall molasses, one-fourth ounce whole' i.
, ch. air'rwith 'a box or stool to rest the feet cloves, same of white ginger root, half
on. .' "ounce of whok allspice, and one-half s
*. Bot,;howevevr you do it, manage some- ounce sassafras. Boil together three r
;how tto'sit down to do your ironing. It hours. .Place in a wooden vessel, and v
may-"look lazy," it is not; it is wise and add one'and a half gallons of water; as
right-.. Women, particularly the younger- soon as lukewarm, add two tablespoon-
. o,- bnes, pride themselves on the amount of fuls of bakers'.-yeast. Keep in a. cool I
place over night, covering it. The next
day it will be fit for bottling; a raisin or
two placed in each bottle' adds to the
flavor. Cork tightly, and fasten down
with wire or twine. Keep in as cool a
places possible, and in three or four
days it will be ripe.
For each gallon of water add one
pound -white sugar, half, ounce ginger
root, bruised, one-quarter ounce cream
tartar, and two lemons sliced. Boil the
lemons and ginger in half the water you
use, for ten minutes, dissolve the:'sugai
and cream of tartar in the balance, then
mix, and add half a pint of yeast. Let
it stand from twelve to fourteen hours,
then strain and bottle it,
If, only two or three years ago, we
had given, in this or any other Florida
paper, directions for making ice creams
and water -ices, we should have been
laughed at for our foolishness, or scolded
at for "being aggravating," but now that,
in every part of our progressive State,
ice factories are springing up, such cool,
summer luxuries are fast becoming as
much matters of course as they are at
VANILLA ICE CREAM.
Two quarts of cream and one of good
milk [half cream -and half milk is rich
enough.-ED.]; put the milk on a slow
fire, and in it a vanilla bean cut intc
small pieces. Take the whites and yo'ks
of three eggs, and beat them up with a
little cold milk, then pour into the hot
milk, stirring quickly as it boils; strain
through a fine sieve, pour it into the
cream while hot; sweeten with three
pounds of white sugar, or more -if de-
sired. When cool, freeze.
If vanilla essence is used, do not add
it until just before freezing.
COFFEE IOc CREAM .
To one quart of cream, add one-half
pint of strong Mocha coffee, fourteen
ounces of white sugar, yolks of eight
eggs, mix together in a porcelain-lined
basin, and place on the fire to thicken;
rub through a fine sieve, then freeze.
CHOCOLATE ICE CREAM.
Two pints best cream, one pint of
milk, twelve ounces white sugar, pul-
verized if possible; four eggs, a table-
spoonful vanilla extract, one more pint
of cream whipped to a froth, and six
ounces of chocolate. Dissolve the cohoco-
late to a smooth paste in a little milk,
then mix it with the three pints cream
and milk, sugar and eggs; place on the
fire, stir till it begins to thicken, then
strain. Place in the freezer, and when
nearly frozen, stir In the pint of whipped
cream and the vanilla extract.
PEACH ICE CREAM.
One dozen of the best and ripest
peaches; peel and stone, place on china
dish, and crush with six ounces of pul-
verized sugar. Now take one quart of
cream, eight ounces of sugar and two
eggs. Place all (except -eaches) on the
fiWre till it reaches ithe boiling point, then
sintihi ahnd feefie;, _hen almost frozen,
stir in wdll:thli .peachb pulp,"and a tea-
spoonful of the etriact of almond.
.'( -. .
Our Youngi Folks' Corner.
ITS STANDING OFFER.
A nice picture book each month to the boy
or girl wbo sendsusthe largest liserofsubscrlb-
ers for -TaHn FLORIDA FARKER AND FRUIT-
GROWaR" during tbat month.
A biuutifull1y Iound copy' of the famous
children's magazine,St. Nicholas, to the boy
or girl whe sends us the, largest number of
subscribers during six months.
W rite us letters descriptive of places, things
or doings; write its on oue side the page; give
The best letter received will be published
Now go to work and see who wins
My funny little cat was so ilelighted
with her first present tome, and thought
I was (only I wasn't a bit!i. that by and
by she handed over to me some more
gifts of the same sort.
And it was the same, story over again,
too-the kittens were very nice, she was
a gentle, kind little mother to them, but
I was nicer, and the result was, that, as
I was so unreasonableas not to spend all
my time at my desk, so that she could
stay in her nursery with the children,
and at the same time stare me out of
countenance (a thing she dearly loves to
doi, she would pick up the kittens and
carry them after me, often marching
into the dining-roum with one in her
mouth, and laying it and herself at my
feet; or sometimes in the parlor-it did
not matter where, if her beloved was at
the end of the journey.
There was one particular kitten that
looked so much like its mother that we
concluded to give it to a friend as soon
as it was big enough-a spotted white
and huff. with a few splashes of black.
From the.very first, this kitten seemed
to form a strong attachment to me, and
was always running at my feet and
climbing up on me; consequently, Jack
became very jealous, and whenever she
saw Sarah Jane in my lap, she deliber-
ately took her up-somehow, by the
head, or tail, or stomach-and -carried
her off out on the porch.
Of course Sarah Jane trotted back, and
more than once I saw her exasperated
mother sft up on her hind legs and box
Wasn't Sarah Jane a pretty name--
beautiful? Well. she seemed very
proud of it, at all events, and flourished
One of her delights was to watch until
sat down at my desk, and then she
would climb up my dress, hand over
land, like a sailor, until she reached my
shoulder, where she would tuck her tiny
oes under her,'lay, her cheek against
fine, and purr herself tosleep, to be
oftenn awakened by Jack, who, spying
lerthere, would make a flying leapqand
ipset her without ceremony.
As Jack began, so shiecontinues. Her
urrender is as totat as ever, and there
lever was 'a '.faithful dlig. more de-
oted than is this dear little cat'to her
Jack is very timid, afraid of strangers,;
>ut bold as a lion on occasion. She fol-
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lows me whereverI go over our place,
and-if I am near the road, and anyone
goes by, that queer little thing deliber-
ately puts herself between me and the
stranger, arches her back, and growls
like a dog. Wouldn't they be frightened,
if they could only see the terrible animal
threatening them? But, happily for
their nerves, the grass and fences hide
her from their sight. '
When she was "young and foolish"
she made two or three attacks on those
sweet-smelling birds, yclept-skunksl
The second time she suffered terribly,
and rolled over and over, the poor eyes
completely blinded. She came to me
for comfort, as usual, and I found it for
her in sundry tubs of water and numer-
ous towels. She "don't do so no more."
About a year after Jack came to us, it
chanced that, for a while, there was no
one to milk the cows but Jack's mistress,
so of course Jack followed to the cow-
pen, crying and protesting all the way.
Though very much afraid of the big
horned creatures, she went inside the
pen, and sat close at my side, unless one
of the cows or calves rushed for her,
andoAthen she would hide in a bunch of
grass near mo, or else sit on the fence,
uttering an unhappy wail once in a
But the'moment I turned towards the
house, how she skipped and danced, and
showed her delight that the dangers
that threatened me in the cow-pen were
Jack sleeps close by -me; she has her
own'cosy bed, and is very fond of it; but
it matters not how sleepy she may be, if
a dog comes around the house at night
(or during the day, either), she is out
and'after him, as though she were shot
from a mortar. Big dog or little dog, it
is all the same to her; she 'flies straight
at him, slaps him in the face or on the
leg, 'or jumps on his back, whichever
comes handiest. The result is always
the same-a terrified yelp, or series of
them, a frightened dog running away
with his tail between his legs, and a
fierce little cat, with her tail very much
not between her. legs, but swelled to
treble-its natural size, and straight up in
the air, while her back is arched like a
bridge. Not satisfied with her victory,
she always sees her victim safely off the
She is a great hunter, and as she
doesn't like fur, nor yet feathers, she is
smart enough to bring all her game
straight to me, knowing that I will put
the flesh in proper shape for her. She
lays birds, rabbits, rats and salamanders
at my feet, or in my hand, but will yield
them up to no one else. I have enough
rabbit skins of her catching to make a
Jack never tried to catch our little
chickens, but she used to love to hide
and jump.at them, just for the fun of
seeing them run, for 'she never once
chased them, only stood looking after
there; and laughing-I am sure she did
laugh: I scoided her for it one day, and
to'uched'her gently on' the ear, and she
took it so deeply to heart, that she actu-
ally. drooped for several days, and would
not eat. She has never jumped at a lit-
tle chick since.
When Peek and Brownie had little
birds that they were teaching to fly,
they used, at first, to persecute poor
Jack, screaming at her whenever they
saw her, following her here and there,
and even lighting on ber back. She
never tried to hurt them, but cried piti-
Ouce in awhile, when Peek is unusu-
ally impudent, he tantalizes Jack by
hopping all around her, and sometimes
she looks as if she meant to punish the
little rascal. 411 we have to do then is
to call, "Jackl" and at once she is the
meekest, most innocent little cat you
ever saw-she w'asnot,thinkingof jump-
ing at Peek; oh. my, no! only washing
her face, or watching a lizard in the
vines, or maybe a grasshopper.
One day we saw her sitting in the
grass, with her ears pricked, watching
something very intently, and every now
and then putting out her paw to touch it.
Stepping out to see what it
was, we were just in time to
see the pretty little paw gently turn
over a tiny mocking bird that hadil
somehow fallen out of its nest. As soon
as Jack saw us, she walked away. look-
ing very much ashamed, butshe had not
hurt the bird at all, only satisfied her
curiosityas to what the thing in the grass
Jack cannot bear to. have me go off
the place at all, and when I am ready to
step into the carriage, some one has to
keep her' from following, if they can.
Then 'she cries, and sits where she can
see mwe first on my return, and what a
happy,.happy little cat there is then.
And so, my dear cousins, we close
this long, story of Jack, and it is one
that shows the power of kindness; and
how easily we can win the confidence
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And to the bome production of forage and fertill-
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Queanons relative ro ailments of domestic,
animals will be answered by an able veterinary
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S Practice, etc.
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DEVOTED TO THE
inquiries concerning diseases of dome
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FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, JUNE 29, 1887.
The following we quote from t
veterinary columns of Farm and Hon
Crib biting may be due to irritati
about the teeth or mouth, indigestion,
again it may be acquired, that is, learn
-of another crib biter. Treatment co
sists in removing the cause and in sto
ping the practice. Examine the tee
and mouth and remove any cause of
ritation therefrom. If the teeth a
sharp and their edges uneven, th
should receive attention. If indigesti
is suspected, give twice daily a powd
containing two drachms of bi-carbona
of soda, with four drachms each of ge
tian and ground anise seed, and pla
salt where it may be taken while in t
stall. If worms are suspected add
S each of the foregoing powders t\
drachms of the dried sulphate of iro
If the bowels are inactive feed roots, bra
mashes and linseed meal. But the hab
once fornied, only such treatment is us
ful as makes it impossible for the anim
to crib. To this end remove the mang
and everything else that might be seize
with the teeth, including the halter, -an
cause the feed to be taken from a bo
placed on the floor, and removed eac
time feed is given. A cribbing strap-
piece of leather about, three inches wic
-may be buckled closely about the an
mal's throat while in the stable.: This
while it renders cribbing impossible,
objectionable in that it may cause roar
ing. A crib biter may suck wind, i
which case colic is -apt to result. C
course such an animal is unsound.
HORaE WITH BOFr HiOOF-.
The fore hoofs of a four-year-old hours
are very thin and rotten. They crumble
on thi outside. There are soft bunch
filled with pus.-C. T. S.
We cannot say definitely what th
trouble is. The shoeing can of itself
hardly cause the- trouble, but it is quit
Probably an aggravating influence. Cu
away the horn at the point of disease an
find where the matter comes from. I
there is disease of the sole and under
'lying structures, all diseased portion
should be removed and every part of th
wound dressed with muriated tincture o
iron, being careful to, touch every par
of the diseased surface. The wound
should be thoroughly cleansed before
eacb dressing, and after that operation
a pad of oakum, or some like material
applied and secured in position with a
bandage. If there is disease of the bone
it will require treatment. You will do
well to employ a veterinarian if possible
-as the case is apt to be tedious.
TO IMPROVE A HORSE'S APPEARANCE.
SGive a compound for making a horse
"look smooth and fat.--P. G. W.
See that the teeth are in good order,
and attend to exercise and grooming.
Place salt where the animal may get at
it when in the stable. Feed linseed
meal in teacupful doses daily, diminish-
ing the quantity if undue activity of the
bowels is excited, and give twice daily
a powder containing dried sulphate of
iron one drachm, powdered gentian and
anise seed of each four drachms. An-
other powder which may be used is. sub.
limited sulphur four ounces, black auti-
mony and nitrate of potash of each two
ounces; of each give a heaping dessert
spoonful in the feed twice daily. No
medicine will take the place ofgood care
My pigs do not grow. They are mangy;
the hair is all curly and looks dry and
Rough. They will not eat well. What
S is the trouble and what will put them in
good condition for growing?-S. E. W.
G- ive the pigs an entire change of diet,
and if possible let then run out in a large
lot. It is impossible to say whether the
disease of the skin is true mange, that is,
due to parasite, or is due to the poor con-
dition of the animals. If the former,
the application to the skin of a mixture
of creosote one part, oil 40 laro, would
ne userui. The diseased shoilld be isolat-
ed from the healthy. and all posts, sides
of the pea or other objects against which
they may rub, treated to a hot solution
of lime. Whether the disease is true
mange or not. cleanlinessshould be prac-
ticed. Cover the skin with soft soap,
wash thoroughly; rinse off with warm
water, and end the operation by giving
the skin a thorough brushing with a dry
brush'. Internal remedies are not of
great value in these cases, cleanliness,
nutritious food, fresh air and exer-ise
being most to be relied on.-F. E. Rice,
Gestation of Mares.
Professor Brown, in an article in the
Veterinarian, says: A mare served by a
thoroughbred horse will go longer with
foal than one served by a cold blooded
horse, and a mare goes longer with a
mule colt than with a horse colt; but pre-
cisely what this difference amounts to is
not yet sufficiently established. The aver-
age period of gestation in the mare is340
days. Recorded periods, in 28i4 cases
mentioned by. Fleming in his '*Veteri-
nary Obstetrics," gives 307 days for the
sboitest and 394 days for the longest pa-
riod-a mean of 346 days. In 25 cases
noted.at the stud at Pin,'..in France, the
sh test time was 323 days and the long-
est 37 days, the mean being 3.-13 days.
Baumeister 'states that the periods'of
pure bred'Persian mares were 33i days
for mare foals and 343 for horse foals;
in pure bred Arabs they were 347 and 339
days for female and male colts respec-
tively; in Orloff mares theaverage period
was 341t days and in half bred English
mares.it. was 3391 days. The majority
f foails are -iforn from the 340th to the
50th day: living foals -are "arely born
rom the 30fth ..to-the 310th day but
rrequently.fromr the 350th to the 365th
Sday. After the latter-period a live.birth
e tje p-roportionL o each thna should ARGusi
t be used, on the basis of their chemical 4 i
i composition, as in the-following 'exam- Feeding Salt to Cows.
f pies: F ding' t COWS.
- 1. I will give a ration of bran, cob Some farmers feed excessive quantities
s meal and cottonseed meal, to be fed with of salt to milch cows to induce them to
e mixed hay and corn fodder, as fol- drink heavily, and thus hoping to in-
f lows: crease the flow of milk. This often acts
t Albumi- Carbo- in the opposite direction. The philoso-
d noids. hydrates. Fat. phy of it is that the cow suffers 'in the
61bs. heat an...........0 lbs. effort of nature to throw off the irritat-
a 1 s. cob meal............. 0.27 2.26 015 ing substance, and meantime the flow
, 41 :. cottonseed meal....1.S3 0.70 0.s of milk is diminished; smaller, doses of
STotal salt stimulate secretions of all the fluids
Total................20 5.96 07- of the body, of course including milk.
. This is: a strong grain ration, and in- When the supply of salt is withdrawn
tended to balance poor fodder in butter the milk supply falls to its usual stan-
ration. Many suppose if the grain is fed dard. Theie is no way for making a cow
-immediately after the fodder, that it is give more milk for any length of time by
carriedto the rumen and mixed with the compelling her to drink water. On the
Sfodder, but this needs more proof than other hand, if the cow is fed with 'green
we have at present or steamed food, or that containing a
N. asks also for a ration with gluten due proportion of moisture, the- in-
meal. and wishes to know if this can be creased flow of milk may be kept up so
properly substituted forcottonseed meal. long as the cow will eat it or until other
It is a very nitrogenous food, but isquite demands divert her. feed to different
different in many respects from cotton- uses.-City and Country.
seed meal. N. should examine what's
said on page 983,Feb. 8; also pages 216 Ensilaoe for Cows.
and 3lo, where this food is compared Ensilage for Cows.
wth others. See also correction of mis- Accordingto Prof. San born, a cow will
print on page 281. It- would take 5 lbs. eat from twenty-seven to thirty pounds
of gluten nieal to be equal tou 4 lbs. of ensilage a day, and a ton will last sixty-
cottonseed meal in the ration with poor two and two-thirds days. On .any fair
fodder. land in the Soutrb, one ought to raise ten
The comparative value of- buttermilk tons of ensilage per acre, of clay peas,
to skim.milk depends much upon the sorghum, corn, millo maize and other
success in getting the butter out of the crops. Ten tons would feed one cow 626
cream in churning. When the churning days; ten cows over two months: twenty
is properly done, there is hardly a differ- cows a little over one month. The same
ence in. the value of the two, but as land, if it produced ten tons of ensilage,
practically found, buttermilk is richer in would probably produce two tons of bay.
fat than skim milk. Must be fed to How long would two tons of hay feed
calves with caution, as it is apt to cause twienty i gows? *- ,
scouring when fed to much exteut. But From good authority it has been
pigs take it without danger, and do liet- stated that had producing enough dry
ter on it than on skim tillk* Half grass (hayi to feed one cow one month,
gluten meal and halt fine bran would would produce enough ensiluge to feed
mix well with skim milk or buttermilk thesame animal seven months.
foi pigs, especially young pigs. *
f. [(C. H. J. writes:] How iLould i Sheep Raising in West Florida.
feed 1.11.1i.Ib. cows thraie to four years
old, tie object beltig to wake the most It uite interestitig to hear City Mar-
butiter' The ration to be composed of shal Robeirts talk about his sheep ranche.
the following: average meadow bay IAu A.-G. reporter was prese" t when the
ground oats, linseed meal iold process, I Captain was in a pleasant vein, and, to
wheat shorts and corn meal. prevent any interruption, the police
ANSwv.R.-The question has been an- were barred out so that Roberts e.:-uld
swered in nearly the same form several detail tlhe result of hi.s recetei. visit to the
times, but'we will give a formula, using. range, and not be Interrupted with po-
all the foods .he meutions, giving the .lice affairs. Captain Roberts went down
largest variety-an important considera- to set men to work driving in the sleep
tion, both for the health of the cows and for the spring shearing. aud expects to
the quality of the butter: have 1,610 or l.7(s.i head to clip. He is
Al, mimn- Carc.-_ pretty well satisfied with his venture,
r-ids hydratesi Fat much better than his experiment with
I lIs. its hogs. He bought some thiee of four
I" ,. irtv m lea. h- ,.. .,'. .' hundred, but finding that they were
311i; gr.:.und o0i .........A..'T i.:3,) 0.u worse than wild cats, bears and eagles
3 L., ,ne'it sb,:rt '... "o.; i.4 ..6 on his iambs, he took to shooting his
I Il.n.o.p.,Ineednih-al 1.1., 1.3 '- hogs down in thie wuods wherever he
I.:.tal-......................,r 10.0i--- 0- found them as well as buying up all in
the neighborhood to dispose of in the
This ration has a nutritive ratio from I same summary way.
to 5, a fair butter ration. The greater The bears in that section are pretty
the number of foods in a ration the bet- well thinned out. but an occasional wild
ter, but in this case, if ground oats cost cat proves destructive to the fold. One
more than wheat shorts, then Ibs. of was killed not long ago, but the half
shorts may beused. leaving out the oats. consumed carcass of a lamb in the vi-
This is not a very strong ration for 1,0.. cinity proved that its mate had escaped
lb. cows, but it is, perhaps, a more corn- the poison that was intended for it.
plete ration than these cows have been The eagles appear to be the worst enemy
accustomed.to; and it will be quite suffi- to the lambs, and they are killed by poi-
cient for the first two or three months., owning the carcasses of their victims.
As medium meadow hay is not rich in '1wo were killed in one day, measuring
the milk producing elements, and hay eight feet from tip to tip. He expecMs
bears a high price in his State, we give to begin shearing next Monday. The
only sufficient to furnish bulk to mix animals are driven and penned, and the
the ground feed with. the grain being wool when sheared finds a ready mar-
cheaper, according to nutriment, than ketIt is not washed, hut disposed of
the hay The bay and grain mustbe.!d'
mixed and eaten toeey ad a e just as it comes from the sheep. Sheep
IX'ad eaten together raising has proved to be a very proflta-
3. [T. E. P. writes:] Please give us a ble industry in West Florida, atd is
butter ration composed of ground oats, ,ballv in its infancy, for -there are
winter wheat bran roller process'), and thousands of acres thai can be utilized
cottonseed oil; the oats and bran are $20 for ranches.-Pensacola Advance-Ga-
per ton. and cottonseed oil $90 per ton. zette.
This ration is all to be mixed and fed
morning and evening. The oil is con- A few farmer neighbors can have
centrated cottonseed, and freight is fresh meat every day in the year by
much less than on the meal: taking turns in killing a beef, sheep or
T. E. P. must suppose that, as oil is an pig and dividing the carcass equally.
INVALIDS' HOTELESURGICAL INSTITUTE
No. 663 Main Street, BUFFALO, N. Y.
Not a Hospital, but a pleasant Remedial Home, organized with
A FULL STAFF OF EIGHTEEN PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS,
And exclusively devoted to the treatment. of all Chronic Diseases.
This imposing Establishment was deseianed and erected to accommodate the large number ot Invalids who visit Buffalo from -
r-.i\ 6tate and ,Teritori. as well as from many foreign lands, that they .ay avad themelhes of toe profe-sional services of
t. ctalf of fklcled specialists in medicine and surgery that compose the Faculty of these widely-celebrated insUtution.
A FAIR AND BUSINESS-LIKE OFFER TO INVALIDS.
We earnestly invite you to come. see and examine for yourself, our institutions, appliances, advantages and success in curing
chr.:,nm ioieases. Have a mind of your own. Do not 'isten to or heed the counsel of skeptical friends'or jealous physicians, who
know nothing of us. our system of treatment, or means of cure, yet who never lose an opportunity-to misrepresent and.endeavor
to prejudice people against us. We are responsible to yeu for what we represent, and if you come and visit us, and find that
wre inre misr:-pr:esnted. in any particular. our institutions, ndrantages or success, we will promptly refund to you
all expenses f your trip. We court nonest. sincere investigation, have no secrets, and are only too- glad to show all
int-rit-[.d and candid people wbat we are doing for suffering bumanamty.
NOT ALWAYS NECESSARY TO SEE PATIENTS.
DBy our original system of diagnosis, we can treat many chronic examining our patients. In recognizing diseases without a
disas',s just as successfully without as with a personal con- personal examination of the patient, we elaim to possess no
suittaton. Wliile we are always glad to see our patient and miraculous powers. We obtain our knowledge of the patient's -
b,o:,.me acquainted with tnem, show them our institutions, and disease by the practical application, to the practice of medi- -
lainiliarIze them with our system of treatment, yet we have not nine. of well-established principles of modern science. And it
s.,-:.n on'e p.-ison inm ve hundred whom we nnve cured. The per- is to the accuracy with which this system has endowed us that
i'?it nac:i'.auy with which scientists are enabled to deduce the we owe our almost world-wide reputation of-lkllfully treating
most minute particulars in their several departments, appears lingering or chronic affections. This system of practice, and
nimost mniaculous, it we view It in the light of the early ages. the marvelous success which has beeq attained
Tlako, for example, the electro-magnetle telegraph, the greatest | Minrinl through ILt demonstrate the fact that diseases -
Invention of rue age. Is It not a marvelous degree of accuracy |IIARIELOUUI display certain phenomena, which, being sub-
which enables an operator to exactly locate a fracture in a sub- S unnCnESS ejected to scientific analysis, furnish abundant
marine cable- nearly three, thousand miles long ? Our venerable | W1UULiO. I and unmistakable data, to guide the judgment
"clerk of ine weather" has become so thoroughly familiar with of the skillful practitioneraright in determining ..
the most warvard elements of nature that be can accurately the nature of diseased conditions. iThe mniostample resoincea
predict their movements. He can sit in Washington and foretell for treating lingering or chronic diseases, and the greatest skiHl, -
what the weather will be in Florida or New York as well as if are thus placed within the easy reach, of every Invalid however .
s'-vcral hundred miles did not intervene between him and the distant he orsbe may reside from the hyIcians'makilng'hetreat-
places named. And so In all departments of modern science, ment of such affectioisaspecialty. --Fuli particulars of our orl-
what, is required la the knowledge of certain nal, scientific systemof examining and treating patientsaat fa. d .s- :
Sn i it. From these scientists deduce accurate con- tance are contained in "The People's Common Sense ;'-
I lNS OF delusions regardless of distance. So, nls,, in medi- Iledical Adviser." By R.-V. Pierce, M.'D: -1 .000pas'.ahd'
SO N cal science, diseases hale certain unmistakable over3.00 coloredand other llustratio6n.- Sent, D S. ',
IlSAS | signs, or symptoms, and by reason of this fact, we .Or write and describe our symptoms,.jncl slng-ntlent In
SEASE.I have been enabled to orimnate and perfect a sys- stamps, and a complete atIme, on your, artiou disease, will .
thtern of determining wtli the greatest accuracy, be sent you, with our terms or treatment and all par a .
the nature of chronic diseases, without seeing and personaly-. ._. -
COMMON SENSE AS APPLIED TO MiliuINE
It is a well-known fact, and one That asjpeals to the Judgment of every thinking person, that the phystclan.who devotegf-'
his whole Time to the-study and investigation of a certain class of diseases, must become, better, ualified-.to-treat suoh:- ..---
-liseases than be who attempts to treat every ill to. which flesh is heir, without giving special attention to any'class of diseases.
-Men, In all ages of the world, who have become famous, have devoted their lives to some special branch of science, art, or" ';. '-
By thorough organization, and subdividing the practice of medloine and surgery in this Institution, every Invalid is treated ..7.:.-
by a specialist-one who devotes his undivided attention to the particular- class of diseases to which the case belongs. Tle .-
advantage of this arrangement must be obvious. Medical science offers a vast, field for Investigation., .and no physician can,. "
within the brief limits o a life-time, achieve the highest degree of success In the treatment of etwry malady incident to humanity.:
-" }.,*- '
:: "~~~ -,"7- % '.# .
is rare. It has been generally the case
that the periods of gestation are short-
ened by the more favorable physical con-
ditions prevailing in high bred studs,
where the keeping and the vigor are of
the highest character. The period of
the ass is always somewhat longer than
that of the mare.
Care of Horses.
Dr. 0. R. Grube, No. 1,003 Magazine
street, New Orleans, sends to the Pica-
yune the following hints, showing that
with little trouble we may add greatly
to the comfort of the horse, and after all
be only returning a bit of his kindness to
Horses suffer more than any other of
our domestic animals from the. annoy-
ances of our common fly; the constant
worry with these little pests make the
gentlest of horses nervous, irritable and
sometimes actually sick from want of
rest and sleep. You find these poor
beasts frequently in the morning bathed
in perspiration, and in a worse state of
fatigue than after a heavy day's work.
Horses which can have access
to the yard or pen during the
night generally fare a little bet-
ter than those'which are tied in their
stalls. To those who love their horses I
wish to give a hint how I have succeeded
in giving comfort to an animal, other-
wise very gentle, which had become al-
most unmanageable through nervous ir-
ritability induced by the teasings of the
Half a pound of -quassia wood (cost
almost nothing), five gallons hot water,
made into an infusion, is kept in a demi-
john in my stable, and applied with a
sponge regularly night and morning, all
over the animal. If mosquitoes are very
numerous, I add an ounce of oil of pen-
nyroyal (cost nominal) to the infusion
and the effect is magical. Considering
the small cost and the lesser trouble, I
don't see why we should not universally
use this simple remedy. Try it, and you
will find your horseto be grateful for it,
Scientific Feeding. -
The Country Gentleman, being given
the ingredients of a feed, figures out
0h.nn n1 -,+. 1
important element in the ratiOn' fo
milk and butter, it would be F.cill bette:
to use it in much greater proportion
but this does not provw practically true
It is found best to liave the various ele
ments in a certain proportion to' eac]
i other. Pure oil, from whatever source
derived, is composed entirely of carbon
and the elements of water-pure carbo
hydrate. So P. is in error in calling
the oil "concentrated cottonseed." It i
simply one element of cottonseed,-and
Sthe most valuable food elements in thE
Smilk ration-nitrogen and phosphori(
acid-are left in the cake or meal. On
difficulty experienced in feeding cotton
seed, in its entire state, is its great sur
plus of oil. There is very little practice
difficulty in supplying sufficient oil in e
ration, but much more in supplying
due pr< por' ion of albuminoid matter. Oa'
and wheat bran contain a sufficient pro
portion of oil when fed with hay. In
the standard milk ration-2.50 lbs. albu
minoids, 12.50 lbs, carbo-hydrates, 0.44
lbs. fat-it must be 'evident that the
small amount of fat is much less diffi
cult to obtain thad 2.50 lbs. of albumi
noids. It is quite impracticable to use
the cottonseed oil 'in the way proposed.
In case of feeding largely with peas
beans, vetches, or the like food, having
an excess of albuminoids, a little oil
could be profitably added.
Editor Fmorida .a.rmer and '.rut- Grower:
Put a leather strap around her body,
forward of her bag and behind her hip
bone. Have several holes on one side
and a buckle on the other. Try it easy
at first, then, if needed, tighten up an-
other hole until she is obliged to stand
still. She will soon become satisfied that
she can do no more harm and will for-
get her vicious ways, Then you can
loosen the strap by degrees and soon
leave it off. entirely. Some of the very
worst cows have been conquered in this
way, but gentleness and patience are-re-
In Holland a milker never takes his
seat to milk without tying the legs of
-the cow with a strong. cord, and with
another he fastens the tail to prevent it
from whisking about.
r I as handsome a lot of chicks as any State subject to disease, .nature earlier and
r f Ur flncan show. grow larger. Go',ole a one year od
, I have come to the conclusion, if a can be made to d.olers eat one year old
3. .._person cannot succeed in the poultry fiv., pouud-., dress eigquen tly command
- A Successful Poultry Raiser. business in Florida, they should not at- better *er pound prices than smaller
ih editor Florida Farmerand ruit-Growe: tempt it elsewhere. I started out with a breds. The Narragansett is next to the
e poultry house similar to the one illustrat- bronze. The common turkey crosses
a In my last article but one I promised edin the FARMER AND FRUir-GRO-,tERR well with th E bronze Narraanset or
- to give a description of a brooder of Isaw myerror in sixmonths. and aban- wild turkey. It is no more troblase or
g home manufacture, but as the season is doned my expensive quarters for one expense to raise improved breeds than
s passed for this year, I will try to im- of my own invention, and if I thought I the common breed. It will pay to ur-
i prove on it for the next, and give it in could illustrate it, so as to make it plain, chase from a reliable breeder a rio, or a
e full.. There is nothing more essential to I would do it. It might save others setting of eggs, whi-ch will give the or-
o success in artificial hatching and rearing from coming to the same conclusion Mr. dinary breeder a good start in stock -
e chicks than a good brooder. If you have Feudrick did. which nmay be indefinitelv increased.-
- a good hatch of healthy chicks, with a I am trying the Hines process for can- Colman's Rural Worldcr
r- good artificial mother, 95 per cent. ning eggs, and will report when I have
l1 should be raised to maturity. The great given it a fair trial, I gave the sulphur
a difficulty is in hatching strong chicks, process a trial last summer, but it does
a Most any incubator will hatch the egg, not work satisfactory. If we can suc- iON
s but to bring up a strong, healthy chick ceed in keeping eggs, to place on the C
- requires just the right amount of heat market in December and January, we Rough onl R ats.
I and moisture.. Too much or too little can always figure on not less than 25 '
- will hatch only puny little things, with- cents the year round, at least in this part
0 out a constitution, and with all the care of Florida. -
e possible bestowed on them, very few E. W. AMSDEN.
- will reach maturity. They will be sub- ORMOND-ON-THE-HALIFAX. :.=
- ject to all the diseases the fowl frater- June 16, 1887.
enity is heir to. -----
I We noticed an article from a Mr. Fen- Poultry Notes. -
, drick, of Jacksonville. in the last Poultry
Keeperic, who gies his experience lastPultr Have iron drinking vessels or put iron This ts what killed your poor father. Shun it.
Keeper, who gives his experience % ith in the drink-ing water. Irid anyng c, MI
incubators. which seems to be satisfac- use drinking water. roid an tcan reers iold thradghout our
tory; but lie says, not having a first-class When thie droppings show yellow, put osaspecial R'H UGENESS.'
drug store at his elbow, he did not uc- soda in the drinking water. I OL ie an
ceed in raising many. anI ,.,on,.luded To break hens from sitting, confine .ortswitbnseepowder, t..rax or .
that Florida is a hard place to iaise poul- them with a vigorous young rooster. ehat not, used at random all over
ot suAaother panlty frol Tampa does Hens in coops with their chicks in the RachesWaf r-bug. BEETLES
not succeed, and lays it to the climate, garden catch the worms and bugs Fortwo or three mghtrue
and a party writing trom OcalaI, says R--a... n'b", I nP,,Loa ON Rats"dry powder. in
the State will have togive up the poultry ggs should never be placed ner arlard, bout and down the sink, drain
business, iiulres the jigger flea is o- ^fruit. cheese. dfih or- other articles from '),Pc. Iu-sra thing in the mornmug .
uere l jigg a o- which any odor areas. Tt-e ggs areex- it all away down the sink, dran pipe, when
quered. .. an dr ai-.. -",.r-e- ol theisects from garretto cellar will disap-
I do not know what the periee hexperien f etrmiely actIve in al.'sorl.ing power, and ar. Theserer is inthe fact thathereve.r n-.
these gentlemen lia-, been lefoie their in a very short time tihev are contami. ectsareinthe house,they must DRA CE
nated.. .the iif i -. lrnk during t -d r n ght. ROACHES
attempt in fair Florida. bur I do know atedby the paiticl-s of objects in their aru Bed-bugs, Flies Beetles.
their experience has been far different ne ig.borhood, by whiel the peculiar and "'ooBan N RAT"sodall around the world,
frorn a good many I can naine. I harve ,tulsUite- taste .,f a new-laid egg is de- nOeveryelime. Lz the most.extentiielyadrerrised
V'.T,- ed ndhbathelai'-vt saleof any article of is kind
been in the business heir fi:r three years &n t I t heS fa.DeTo'ftie globe. a a i
an. more. I have lost three fopiwls iith Tie value of the hen nianuie from a tDESTROYS POTATO BUGS
roup. three with chole-ra, and this vwas in single bird for one year has been esti or Poatoug,Inse onvines. etc.,a table-
my first six months, when I was busily mated at fifteen cents. This is, we poa l td.' cthe pc.wder, welsbaken, inakego"
engaged in building and clearing, and think. very low, anil yet. even at thi; k ati-r, and applied ifth srnrmkling pot, spray
did not give them the attention tiey dt rate, the total value of thie manure fiom s rrTne,or whlu- broom. Keepitwellsr.rredup.
served, and this is all my losb disease. all the p..ultry in the country in lt A e. ~.an S Boxes Ar -e.
We do not know what sore-head is, and would be $1'.ilt,iiii.tiiii. The total value DUC l .... .. --
have never seen the above named fl-,a. of the fertilizers manufactured during BED BUCS,
Ihavea pen of fort. white Leghoin and the sane year was $23,v,).';5.7. FLIES.
Wyaudott.-s hatched let of Fl..ruary. Out The IeIt breed of turkeys is the biouze. I Roaches, ants, water-bup, moth, rats, mice,
of forty cue, foi ty aie living now, and They are hardier, easier to raise, less sparrow,3jackrabbits,squrres, gopher. 15c.
FLORIDA FARMERAND FR
4IOW. AND WHEN TO PRpPAGATE
PLANTS -BY LAYERS.
'The Importance of Long Rows in Field
Culture-All About Plant Lice, with
Directions for Their Exterminatton by
the Entomologist, Professor Cook,
Perhaps no family of insects is more
widely distributed or more generally de-
structive 'and better known than plant
'lice. These pests do not content them-
selves with any single part of a plant.
S t Some work on the roots and sap the vital-
it. of 'he herb of tree; others draw theii
nourishment from the stems and twigs
.and thus blight- the plants; still-others
suck the vitality front bud and foliage.- A
f '-w work on borh roots and leaves. 'Most
cult;vatedl vegeta:iles, grains-arid trees
have their characteristic plant'louse ene-
I The first cut represents winged and
wingless lice of natural size, also mag-
Plant lice on outside vegetation pass
the winter as little, dark,, oblong ecgs,
usually fastened to the buds. With the
warm t1diys of spring these eggs 'hatch,
and so rapidly do the lice increase.? that
soon they.are counted by millirns. Anith-
er charucteristlic feature of plant lice is
their sudden disappearance This wel-
tome riddance is .due, Professor A. J.
S ('uok, vnrouiologist of the Michigan Agri.
cultural college, states, to insect enemies
of the plant lice.
I .-" WING3ED AND W'DIGLESS LICE.
S The syphus fly, represented in the sec-
ond cut, al'o the Ltrle maggot near It,
revel amiist. the plant lice. This maggot
especially si-ms never satiated, but. is
con-itntly banqueting on the lice. The
lady bird beetles, especially the larve, or
grubs (see same cut), also do signal servicr-
in the sane direction. Many people
through igl-uorance destroy these useful
insects. There are several species of the
S ichneumon family of the genus aphidius,
very minute parasites, which also destroy
S' these bLce in great numbers.
A remedy suagested by Professor Cook,
in a recent butlietin issite-, is kc-rosene and
soap mixture. To mrako this he uses one-
S fourth poumd ofr hard scap, predtFably
whale oil so'ip; and one quart cf water.
This is heated until the soap Is dissolved,
When oneprti-tof kerosene oil is added
and the'wholeagitated till a.permanent,
emulsiof-Z.tureis formed. The agi-
tnrion is ea'Sily secured by use of a force
punip, pilunpuig the liquidtl with force back
into the vei-sel holding it. He then adds
water so that. there "shall be kerosene in
the proportion of one to fifteen.
"EN-TMIES OF TH' PLANr LICE.
On the snowball, where the leaves roll
"up and prc.tect the Lice, it is found, that
an applicatiou of this mixture, in the pro
portion, of oue to eight, used just before
the plant lice eggs hatch, is astonishingly
-efficient. This early treatment is abso-
lutely necessary in such cases as the snow-.
tbail, and Is to be recommended on the
'score of economy in case of nursery stock
and fruit. trees. At. an early stage it i
less ciuffic-utilt to make thorough application
t.nhi after the tree or plant is in f-ll
The liquid-mnist:be applied with energy;
--a gentle sprinkling is not sufficient; it
.ought to be put on with a good force
pump that will scatter the liquid every
Prnpagattng- by Layers.
A layer, says Mr. A. S. Faller in Amer-
'ican Agricultunst, is only a cutting that
is,allowed to remain attached to the pa-
rent ,ilant until it has produced roots
-through which it may collect sustenance
for self support.-
LAYERED BRANCH OF '-TREE .'---
-'Various methods are emplyed to pro-
' duce this result, Msuch -a ringing, girding,
Stwisting, t.bongingir-partly dividing-that
portiorntf the-stemor. branch on which ,it
!is.depire l.the'rootosbhalL be'fo-med.: -All
'thbOse Idipt tb b f. he s tems' o "bra inches
.-.t he.pJ'ant layered are for- bofneobject-:
tha,; to -check the doWnnward- flow -of'
.sap. Roofts.-then- become necessary-for
supplying. sustenance to the cutting, or
]ayer, andar'e consequenrtly formed. The
mos-'commdoi method of preparing layers
w.^ @ =.-^''-.. - -2..-"- :
is that of making a tongue on the under
side of the branch. The operation is per-
formed thus: Make an incision in the
branch or part of the plant to be layered,
just below a bud, cutting through the
bark and into the branch to the depth of
one-quarter to one-half its diameter; then
pass the knife upward for an inch or
more, according to the size and nature of
the plant being layered, splitting the
branch lengthwise, forming the tongue as
-'hown in figure 1, at a. The branch is
then bent down and fastened in its place
by means of a hooked peg, c, and the end
tied up to a stake, b, as shown in figure 1.
That part on which the incision is made is
covered with soil or other material that
will exclude it from light and air, while
at the same time keeping it moist, thus
aiding the development of roots. In maink-
ing layers of certain kinds of small her-
baceous plants and slender vines it will
not be necessary to use pegs or stakes to
hold the layer in place; but with larger
plants they are usually needed for keep-
ing the layered branch steady and in one
position while the new. roots are being
Tho proper time for making layers is as
variable ,as is that for making cuttings.
But, as a rule, layers should be made
while the parent plant is growing.-most
rapidly, because roots will be produced at
such times more readily than at any other,
although with several kinds it will make
very little difference, as they produce roots
freely under almost all conditions andl
from all parts of the plant. With the
larger proportion of both deciduous and
evergreen trees and shrubs, layering
should not begin until the leaves have
fully expanded and the new gron th of the
season, is fairly under way. If layered
earlier, ninny of the deciduous trees andl
shrubs will "leed," as it is terniel, fr-:,m
the wounds made cn the la)er,:d parts,
and the sap ftliWLng trom these wounils
will often corrode and otherwise injure the
exposed cells and entirely prevent the pro-
duction of roots therefrom. Wounds
made in the branches of couiferous trees
during the winterand early spring months
are usually ioon covered by the exuding
resin, the severed and otherwise exposed
cells thereby becoming fully protected, not
only against the influence of moisture
rnom without, but it effectually prevents
the formation of a callus and production
of roots. For this reason, such conifers as
pines, spruce, and firs should always be
layered at a time when the sap is thinnest
and flowing most rapidly, as during the
first growth of spring and early summer.
With some kinds of har-dy deciduous trees
and shrubs the autumn is the better sea-
son in which to make layers.
Of iunterest to Peaob Growers.
-In a recent circular-from Commissloner
Henderson, of Georgia, it is made apparent.
that in the partial failures of the peach
' crop the -paria lar orchards or trees th .
escape the' effthts of frost are generally
the same in e ach re.-'rrence.of such fail-
ure; and it is further stated that peach
-orchards having this Immunity from frosts
are found here anl there throughout the
state. In order to cUll more general at-
tention to this question and to learn from
theobservations of persons in all parts of
the state the caftuse of these partial ex-
emptions, inquiaries w-re made of the cor-
respondents-i of the department. These
answers are of interest, wherever the
peach is cultivated, and are here given in
In the answers received nearly all agree
in stat-ing that the fruit least injured is on
the high grounds. The direction cof the
shlope of the hill, while it may affect the
time of blooming, is a factor of little im-
pirtcance cirupared with that of its atti-
tude above the surroundingc,:,untry. The
topz-raphical [s--itions that prove best for
the certainty of the crop are as follows:
I. Mountain sides, from the base to the
altitude of b800U feet, regardless of the di-
rectioun of s-lope. 2. Narrow valleys and
coves sheltered by high mountains. 3.
Narrow areas skirting the base of high
mountains on all sides. 4. Ridges o.r hills
Knd escapements of table lands 100 to 800
feet above adjacent valleys. 5. Borders
of large streams and lakes. Even in south
Georgia, where the country is generally
level, the exemption of the higher portions
of slopes adjacent to river valleys Is quite
common, and has its application not only
to the peach'crop, bat to all fruits and
vegetables subject to injury from late
Large Fields anil Long Rows.
Mr. Bonhbnm, secretary of the Ohio
state hoard of agriculture, is a practical
farmer and sto.-k breeder, pork making
being one of his specialties. To make
pc'i'k pro)fita'iiy Mr. ,Bonham grows large
quantities of corn to) be feid iVth other
food. His corn fields contain twenty-five
acres each and are 110 rods long' and
about one-third that width. The corn is
planted ,n check rows so it can ibe culti-
vated both ways. To illustrate the ddf-
ference in cost of cultivating large and
small fields Mr. T. B. Terry, who recently
visited Mr. Bonham, tells in The Country
Gentleman, that one cof t-bee twenty-five
.acre fields can be cultivated the long way
in three days, while the cross cultivation
the short way takes four and a half days.
The New England Farmer, commenting
on the above, says: "In 1985 the cost of
the corn in the crib. exclusive of land rent,
was. $5.?0 per acre, or nine cents per
bushel. Including the rent of land the
cost would be about $13 per acre. And
this is the same whether the crop be
large or small._ If 100 bushels are pro-
duced per acre the cost per bushel would
consequently be only thirteen cents, while
a crop of fifty bushels would cost twenty-
sL' cents per bushel. The average yield
.through the country being only twenty-
six bushels the cost must be about fifty
cents per bushel. Large fields and long
rbws will do much to reduce the cost of
this crop.0 -
- Dehorning Cattle.
As to" dehorning cattle many opinions
are given. Some few breeders think the
practice, will- injure the-: prpotency of
dairy bulls. Others. think dairy cows are
go mild and gentle--that they wiilldo un
-injury with their hcirns. Others' cannot
bring themselves to think that a hornless
Jersey will look like 'a Jersey. "The ma-
jority of breeders seem.to agree that the
horn Is nothing but a weapon, of no use
Dr. D.incoirt .called while I was dres'
inc, .after .a tew !I'-its' -leep. I imnt no
usumilly a nL b't: Ini':r, bur I irul a clreaini si
trti'.-,: thinl I aIvok'e with the memory y of
it iii tty ianoil It v.a -n of handrtls-laiies-
hauld.-i'-every inger of which was co--:-re:
'with r;n_;s FIh-lling the theory, as I have
L'Vreally 13' xlliiuinedl thlnt the iitl'iginl. ]Oi' l
duirnz sl..cp i3 uot creative, buit in, vri
ably w.urkos npon i fouandalion nof fact,.1
wiTas eudearoing to trace the connIectiOl
betw-ten my sihsnu-lar dream anti son, onc
curreulo or circumstance within my
knowledge, wh-ien Dr. DaLincourt entered.
."Well,"'were hIds first words, "have
you made anything of the letters which I
left with you lat'mnght?"
"I was eniployed only .upon one," I
said, "which kept me up until 3 o'clock
this morning I don't begrudge the time
or thI' labor, because I have discovered the
clew to Master Eustace Rutland's.com-
miunlicatious to his sister."
"That means," said Dr. Daincourt, ex-
citedly,- "that you have discovered t.ha
mystery of the 'nine of hearts.' "
"Iln so far," I replied, "as respects the
playing cards found in iLss Rutland's
tc-sk-yes, I have ,iscovered that part of
the mystery; but I have not yet, dis
covered the mystery of the -particular
nine. of-hearts wliiLh was found in-the
pochkt-of Edward Layton's ulster.".
I showed Dr. Daincourt the result ol
my labors on the previous night, and he
was delghted and very much interested,
but piresntly-his face became cioudled.
to an animal placed out of the reach c
fighting, as all dairy cows should be
They would be ready to dehorn their cal
tie if it could be so arranged that a]
breeders would do it. The best time t
.destroy th6 born, says Rural New-orker
is while the animal is a calf. The opera
tion is then no more painful'than that c
castration. Five years ago breeders would
not think of such a thing-as sawing th
horns off their cows; now they are quit
ready to admit that the horns are useles
and could be readily and easily dispose.
of. The question is, where will the horn
be in five years more at this rate of prc
To Break a Horse from Turning Around
Some horses have a habit, when fright
ened by strange objects which they mee
upon the road, of turning around so ab
ruptly as to endanger the occupants o
the carriage 'if a four wheeled vehicle
Colts, when first harnessed, if driven t
a certain point and turned around, ofter
insist upon repeating the trick every tim
they reach that particular spot. The:
generally turn in the same direction ever;
time. The simplest remedy that we hav
ever heard' for breaking up this habit is t
take a light, strong bamboo fldhpule, faas
ten the small end to tha ring of the bi
upon the side toward which the animal i
accustomed to turn. Bring t-he other enri
of the pole back into the carriage. W'hei
the youngster attempts the turning feat
push upon the pole with sufficient force
to prevent his carrying out his purpose
This may not work in all cases where th
animal is fully grown, and has been ad
dieted to the habit for a long time, but i
will break tip the habit In the majority o
cases when taken Ii. season.-America]
Popularity of tlie Sunflower.
Of late ;-ynats there has been an unusual
demand for seed: of sunflowers. In some
l:caliti.s farmers grow the plants for the
iseed, vi-hkich they feed to their poulny, bu
wherever corn wil grow plentifully it. i
to be preferred. Taere is also an idea
prevalent that sunflower plants absorb tbh
miasma in damp and undrained places
"Laru Ruissin"'' is a variety grown in
prairie region, were the stocks are some
times iisedl as fuel, the seed being fed t
poultry and swine. In Russia the sun
flower s 1grovn for its oil.
A very s.-nsible ue for sunflowers is th
onr- of ,rowing them as screens to un
I- htly ountbuildiugs, or as a pleasia:
bakr,ounnd of color to the garden e
nlawi. Good soil has mutich to do with th
producton of fine flowers. PlanL th
see'l nheuever it is desired tro have th
plants, and thin ott to about three o
fOour feet apart in the route.
FOR HONOR'S SAKE
By B. L. FARJEON,
Author of"'Great Porlte Sqiiare," "Thf
Bright Star of Life,"' Eto.
PART THE FFRST.
THE TRIAL OF EDWARD LAYTON
It was an easy.t. k nowl for me to ap
ply the same test to these remaining,
words, and I found that they formulated
themselves in this fashion:
"The river runs gayly. The birds ar
singing in the trees.'
I was cnliu'is to ascertain whether their
were any special sign in the fraimew-,-rk o
Eustace Rutland's c':mninkati.:,n by
which the person n-rageid-with him iin
the mystery letter -.rold be guided.
counted the words in each sentence. The
nWori'd- in tile first sentence were nine-the
nine o'f hearts. Thenumber cif words ii
the- c,:rnd sl tence.'was eleven. Tihd
number of word's in the third seuterci
was eleveu. After the alphabetical letter
A int the framework I fnw tihe -iure I1I
arnd I was satisfied, the lnst eleven word
being meanitjgte-s, that it was the second
sentence of eleven words, referring to thi
diamond -nbracelet and to Ihis winning ot
Clii-rry, that Enstace wished his sister
Mbel to: iinder-tniud. At the same timi
I was satisilerl in my ow-n mind that
wi-thout the nine of hearts to g-tide him
a man might .'pend ddays over the crypto
'graph -it-houit arriving at. thil corec
sol it itn.
I had taken no count of the passing
time-. Enrc-.sse' anil abh':rbtld i n'my or
cup.itti:u, I w-'is surprised, wheu it hai
reachj''.i what I lel;i,', d to be n nuceesfil
t..: _'ju_ ati ,, t: i".i. ih.-t it t Va uneatiy sL'
o'clr''k in thie m,-rniig.
IUIT GROWER, JUNE 29, 1887. ;201
f "I am still disturbed," lie said, "by the a thick voice. Now, Laytonh in his ridicu- set it stri:L watch nup' her, and to take.
a. dread that the task you are engaged upon lously weak cross examination,put two rtnote :if tMr pi-r'eelingsn and minovemenCts, '
t- may bring Miss Rutland into serious questions to the witness. 'Did it-occi'ir h.:.nev:-er tvi-,Il they might be. These tel-.
1 trouble."- to you,' he asked,.'or does it occur to you ej.mn ieinz dispatched 1 returned to my .
o "I hope not," was my rejoinder..to the now, that the '-voice .which uttered tiar tta.k :
remark, "but I shall not allow considera- word was not my voice?' The witness r- The two sealed, letrers which Dr. Dain-
_ tions of any kind to stop me. Edward plied that it had not occured- to him. court had reiveil fr.:im Mrs. Ruitl-and lay
)f Layton is- an innocent man, and I intend Then Layton said, 'You are certain that : before me. I tooEk up the irit, which I
d to prove him so." itwas my voice?' .And the witness re- knew-tbobe iu Ei-tace'sr handwriting. aI .
e '"If he isinnocent," said Dr. Daincourt, 'plied, 'Yes, sir.'. To me, these two-ques- -opened- it. It wnas of a similar nature to
e "then Miss Rutland must also be inno- tions put by Layton are convincing proof the two-I had already examined and in-
s cent." that it was not he who entered the car- terpreted. T here is ,II need h.ereto repeat
d "Undoubtedly," I said, "with a cheer- riage from Prevost's restaurant." .- the details of the proce's by means of
s ful smile, which did much to reassure the '.'But he wore his ulster," said Dr. which I r ai this third communication, a
-worthy doctor. Daincourt. copy of. which I rl-o append:
"Have you opened the two sealed let- "Here, again," I said,; "we have evi- o 11 s 11 A 7 N 13
ters," asked Dr. Daincourt, "which I. deuce which, to my mind, is favorable. ; .
I. brought from Mrs. Rutland's house?" The -\a it.;-r teeliicts Iit wi-I Layton en- -
"No," I replied. "I have devoted my- tered the i-troo which the 'urper wasvv
t self only to tie. i-tr f tle op-nei liters ordered he took off his uter t rid haunga it 4 know am -I me adldiess -
j- found in Mr- ltii laiki'-. lt-k. I .ijall on a peg in the wVall, at some distance -
if proceed imm.0.,-ii.l- v ith-te e:,,irid, and from the table at which he sat. More- b- o ,
B. then I shall:o. I i',-eti w:,nrraiirelil In open- over, he sat With' his back to the coat. . : .. + .an, -;
o ing and read i, I ne littiers i1nCh ari'ivedJ Laytin, in lii- cross examination, asked ..
in for Miss Rutland duri'hl her 'titc-s. By the wa;rpr, 'Did I put the over,:,at o,n be- me awful t- me 'r the :" '
e the vwy, do,,,tor, I hare had a sindular fore I left the room.' Thr- waiter r.phed, .. ''4 ; -''-.
y ireum, afl uptp-in your entrance I was.en- 'Yes.' The jude interrupted with the ...', t -
d i.'oI, ng t.- tr i I.kit. Itwas a dream of rebuke, You have i.l m examiation in.ent lIil to, thagwilty -
e 'ladies' hands, covered with rings." that you did not see tihe prisoner arid his '- -
o "Any bodies attached to the hands?" in- companion leave the rt',i,.' Aiid the' find. do against you d -
s- -quired Dr. Daincourt, jocosely. ness replied, 'But when I ret-urned, after ..
t ."No; simply hands. They -seemed to being away for three or lio rurinutes,
s pass before my vision, and to rise up in monsieir was gone aid the eoat was also not charge am not desert
I iin-xpecteil pihce-pi-terty shlipely hands. g.-,e.'c The prisoner put his last question
r, But it wa-s not -, iimhl. the IhauII'ls that t,, the wiliter, 'You dil not see me put on Ci ar may where
r, sttuci m. : s I...Ii -ing ingular as the fact the overcoati' And the witness answered, may h'
e that they. "ee covered with rinZs of one 'No.' Doctor, I see Light. Bring ne me
Slarti.'Uiar :in'l.'." news ojf the ring set with tn-rqoiio.se and
e "Vhat kiindi diamonds. I shall be at home the whole g ti d 9 .5 .: 3 ~
I must l,:e seen thousands of rings of the evemng." I wil simply say that, the'notation was
t Upon th.- shbip.ly fingers, anD there was After Dr. Daincouxrt's departure I made I 1, 9, 5, 6, 3, 4, .s, and that the words
)f not one that was -iot set with diamonds a hurried breakfast, went through my resolved ther, e4vesi'nto the alhowing:od
I ninl turquoise correspondence and resumed imy ta'lk of .resolved themselves into the following:
ii ad- -It uri ui,:,,4.-e. correspor, detune and re.tumed iny t,k of -Yo:u know where t~o find me. The old
A light Cilh,e into Dr. Daincourt's face. -examinin Euiistare Rutland's letters to here to find me. The old
"Anrd 'viin mean to tell me that you can't his sister. The second opened c(mmuni ". w chre may be laid aga t
discover the connectionn" cation was exactly of the same sbha;e and r n, f l ty.'
me. I aranotgut.
,1 "Nc,; I c In't for ti.e hfe of mne discover form as the first which I had deciphered. o no.t deert me. I swear that I am
a it I give here an exacccopy of it: inn-.nt"
a "Tnat proves," said Dr. Daincourt, O N t D 6 L 13 I dced that the whole fths ws
t how eas, it is tora man engaged upon a L 13 C I deIed tbhat the whole d this was-
s serious ta-k tI oerlook important facts, intendedrto henConveyed toa inabel Rut-
a l ahto sr' ina tenInd'si.' lknd's undcr-tantiing an'l that in the last
a w h ich tire a s plh-in a s the noco nd a y -itU .e
'ht cts he I overliket, of to- distraiction street ofhEus.tte'w s In'imrunications to his sister
I. iutcr.there vas noti*-'tne idle w ord.
S '-,o the newspapers in the roon .awful charge may e laid against
ccnr"ainvey the report rot the trial]"awfully yours an till I m me." That charge, undoubtedly, was
- corain,n- 0othe tr the murder of Mrs. Layton. -I am not
O Gie "eneconainngthreehVt I ear that I am innocent.":
S Giv e tone coming the report at love ha night B ut aU guity men are ready to swear
,. tthe lthi drtiy's iuceedinsi- that they are innocent. Not a moment
e I handed it to hir, andi he rat his eyves
down the chtlmn iin which the evirencac, of up ani-el che.ter p.er my rwas to be lost in settng my agents to
g the waiter in Ptrevost's restaurant was re- 4.1 work to Iscovetr Eustaee Rutland's
g thed, war i Prevost's restart was r address, as well as the ad dress of Ida
Ssad wD a- ae,, si r ier her id.a all Do'clc Wh-ite. I quickly opened the letter which
S The waiter was asked,"aiDr D Edward Latn had written in prison
toe urt, -whether the laily% -Imp v .wno aco, Ew-rdpa-o a ritninpio
e euurt, i whether te lay who accnp Mabel RutlRand, and which I had,
e nied Edward Laytoun was married, and i, is death in will posted t was very short q he foWw
whether there weie rLngsupon the fingers se t
of her ungloved Land." -I -ceffort:
"Y'es, yes," i cried, "I remember And ala" I do. Tuesday "DEAR. MiMi5 RUTLAN'D,-AI Is well.
the.wa1ter anrswered that she Wv-ore a ring -_aHave r.r. ar. Do not write to me until
of torquoi-er and diamonds. Of cuurtae-he ai' you hear from me again. Believe me,
f torseThat a xplnd usny drciue." faithfully yours, EDWARD LATTON...
Of course. Tht eplinsmydrem.
-fYest. .ald Dr, DS.iucourt, "that ex- 0 > e A i Thus it was that he endeavored to kep.
plains i t." The ni.,ttnti,-n of the nine figures, repre- from the woman he loved the-trne kndwl-
is, I need no further assurance," I said, renting the nino pips in the playing card, edge of the peril in which he stood:- To
"to provx' that it was Miss Rutland who in Eustace's first con'icalicatiou, was G, save her good name he.was ready to go
was in Edward Layton's Company on the 2, 7, 3, f, 1, 4, 5, 8. Taking as my guide cheerfully to his'death.
night of the 25th of Matheapabetical letter A, I found that t. -
Sask her mother whether the young lady rotation In ':tace Rutland's second corn- r .. .
possesses stuch a ring, and is in the habit mnuni'ation, was 33, 6, 1, 5, 2, f, 4, 8, 7. I
-- t wearine it. yousrjapscIoiecd2eanin -placed the playingcar,-Zps'cut Facts.Worth .Knowing. .- -
doct tour. 'ii fe.. that I atu really abo.ul out, over the paper, and the follo, w _a_ At tte late New York dairy show not a
r. to bring trou'.le upon Miss !!tahid. .Youm reveale: ig- milking invention ._o s- (p,.shbh- --
are mistnkem; I am working in the cau "Oe f-stre t-t -night--c he ter 1 t no'
of justice. If I prove Edward Layton to 'ner-o'clock--nine-Tuesday." tioen. The- fe--ence is that anoe hav
be innocent, no shadow of suspicion can Arranging these words according to the yet. beenivhed whichadoes the Work
Surest tiponr, Miss Rutiaid You must trust ney lftanion of figures, they formed this like t human hand -
Sentirelyt, to me. Can you not now under- sentence: The fafIorite butter package appears to
S ItntIId %hy"I EtywErl Layton refut'seil to l.e "At. corner of Chester street Tuesday be a light r," und box, a number of which
defended by a .hrewd legal nnind i He ght ni ne ,o'clock." can be lnciose 'in a heavy iron bound box
Would not permit a cross examination of "Now," thought I, "this may have been or light crate.
any of the witnesses which woui.l,. bring an appointment." A cnu tar of Ohio 1884 found
',h nae o Mael utlnd ef,,rethe It co-and nothing was more likely--I A census taker of Ohio in 1884 found
I the name of Mahel Rutland before the f so-autd ntng was more ukely-I that in une township where no agri-
t public. To save her honor, to:, protect her could derive no a-slstance from it I tat cl urla weswe p wa e re a
Y from scanrdai and calumny, he is ready to conveyed no information, and conrtaied -Aultral papers were tak the average
r r llOthjng which would a"sistr me n of butter was 10 2-3 coots. In an-
sacrifice himself. He shalI not, do so. I iotiling which would assist me in n' p u1t
will prevent it. Your ptint in a state quiries. It was ery likely that I should other, where 214 papers were taken, the
1will prevent it. Your p-itieflt is in a state p~r" 1w. eylkeyiit sui~ rice of butter was 23 2-3 cents.-
Sof delilium, you tell me. She knows light upon s-omething further,and I pro- price of butter was 23 ,-3 cents.
nothing of what pac"-s around her, she ceedried with my task. The figure ina- Oats and peas are an old time crop be-
1 rerco-nizesr noone,?,she has not heard of the nmerliatelsyfollc-Wing the alphabetic letter ing revived nowadays.
d peril in which Edward LNayton stands. A was 1, which iceant, if I were on the Remember that seeds of pumpkins, cn-
SSay that she remains in this state of rTight track, that the second sentence, in cumbers or melons cannot be relied upon
g ipiiorance until Edward Layton is sen- this communication was composed of to reproduce, themselves exactly when
tenced and hanged for a crime which he twelve- woids. I followed the same pro- planted side by side.
did not crmit-say, then, that she re- ct I had previouslyool on the farm imposes a tax
c covers and hears of it-reads of it-why, twelve words formed themselves thus: A poor t
she will go nadl It. would be impossible .Awfully hard up ida is an angel I love upon the user everyday it is employed,
for her to preserve her reason in circum- hLer to distraction." often greater in the year than the whole
r stances so terrible. There is a Clear duty So as to finish this communicationI price of a good tool.
Before us, Dr. Daincotu-t, and we must unravelled the last ten words and found The best floor for poultry is the baa
not shrink from it. I need not urge upon them to be: earth, kept dry and clean.
you to use your utmost skill to restore "I will do all in my power yours tillU D. Philbrick says it is important to
Mabel Rutland to health, aind to the con- deathh" W.D. Phllbrlck says it Is important to
sciousness of what is9liassitig around her. This I set aside as being intended to keep celery-growing steadily. If stunted
t sclousne.s of what is Ipa-sitng ar,,nrd her. oma~e Tefrcetne by a dry spell or very hot weather 11 is
If before Edward Layton is puit agai convey Ito meaning. The first sentence, by a dry spbjetll to diseaserhot weathich is seldom
A upon his trial I do not clear him, I shall making an appointment at the corner of very subject to disease, which is seldom
not hestate'to make -rme kind of appeal Chester street, w'as, whether correct, or troublesome where the celery can be wa, ..
to Miss Ruttlanrd whii,, even should she not, of little importance. I concentrated tered and kept growing indry weather. .
1remaiu delirious. shall result in favor of n y attention upon the second sentence of The May crop report froni the depart-..
Sthe man who is so rnobly an.. raihly pro. twelve words: 'Awfully hard. up ida is ment at Washington indicates a falling
tcting her 'o-ed rinme an angel I love ber to distraction." off in the condition of wheat of a little&
"Remnenier," -sa1l Dr. Daincourt, So the young scamp was hard up again more than two points aince April 1, the
gravely, "that she is in great danger." and knew that his sister would respond general average of condition being 85.8 .
Sto his appeal. And he was in love, too, against 88 1 the previous month..
"YOU Me" sthutnShenmay: aadi al a and ida v:as an angel. Ida, of course,-I
i inp was a c-apital I. AgrIcultural Notes.
6 "]BttL not suddenly: I asked, -in alar~m. IJjumped to my feet as;if. I had been
I" tI hilk not Judde ly. e en According to the national .agricultural
"S I id -there i. a chance of Id'al What was the name of Mrs. department's report the general average
"Stl," I said, "there is a chance of Layton'smaid,whohadgiven.suchdamn- condition of the wheat crop for the whole
her heiug ic-stored to health."'
' "Y:s, there is a chance of it." lug evidence against the man I meant, o counti'y is represented by 88.
''Iftuewore hppes,''I sid,''i itset free? Ida \Vhitel
"I he worse happeNns," I said, "is it ot a common name. An unusual one. The losses of sheep from all causes dur-
- likely that she would recover conscious- I walked about the room in a state of ing the year ending April 1 is 7 per cent.
I ies. before her death ah u great excitement. Ida White, the angel, of the whole number of sheep, as against, .
S"ITh, is win~ostfldu tbat essary," woud,.and Eustace Rutland, the scamp. But an equal percentage dining the .corre-
Then it would be necessary," I said, ewoma must be at least eight or tan spending period of 1885-6. Numerically .
"to take her dy-mng deposition. Doctor, it
is my firm erdviceti':n that. the man and years older than Eustace. What mat- the loss is smaller than in 1885-6, for, al-
the woctan nho ent-red Edward Layton's tared that All the more likely her hold though the percentage Is the same, it ap-
hi ,uo after midnight on the 25th of npon hint. Young fools frequently fall n plies to a reduced number, the total imu-- --
love with women much older thanthem- ber of sheep being now 45,000,000, &ioom-- -
March were not. Edward Layton and Ma- selves, and when the women get the pared with 48,000,000 a year ago .... -
I bel Rutland." ., .-
'But the coachman drove them homel" chance they don't let the youngsters es- The losses of swine from..-all'..c.. "---ms
-ecaie Dr. Dancourtve -ecape easily. Yes, opposite to each other through' the entire country have .been-
-e"cShimei Dr. Did court. stood two men-one a worthless ne'er do heavy, amounting to nearly 6,000,000 'ur- .
- "Ad took them from Prevost's Restau- well, the other a martyr! Opposite to lag the year. : ... ... .:
rant." each other stood two .wom6n-one a A recent estimate places the value o-f..
"So he said. Recall that part of the scheming woman of the world, the other the dairy products'of this country lin 1888 -
coachman'saevidence bearing upon it. Ha a suffering, heart broken giril I would at $780,4456,88:-
says that Edward Layton, accompanied save the noble ones. Yes, I would save TheTexasleg'ala'tnr-.lasassdapub.
by a lady, issued from the restaurant at them The chain was forming link by Tc landebsle'givsngthe harmera chapo"-
i' 11:65; that Layton' appeared excited, link. aedur ba hgmested ot forty yachanrcdte to ,
which he, the coachman, attributed to t'he .* at ie a homesnt intere.oty .e..' 'c re
fact of his having taken too much wine; I broke off here lo dispatchtelegrams toa r cent-. interest. ...' .. -
To rebut this we have the evidence of the two of my confidential agents. My in- .-Recent reports made by Florida orange'. :i..? -
e waiter,-who declared that Layton .simply 'structions to them wereto employ them,: growers i-ake it.appear that'durlng'th"e .-
tasted the wine that was ordered. He 'selves immediately In discovering where season of 1886-7 about l,0u00,000 boxes.ol-- o--:
r could not have drunk half a glass. The Ida White, the maid who. had given evl- oranges have been' mrketed at .an.aver- ; :_ ..
rman and-the woman came from theorestau- dence against her .master at the trial, was age price of $2 per box. Thp.Qulooknaw *-. :.
rant, juinped quickly into the carriage, .living, and having- fund It, not to lose Issaid to be promlslngandacrop~of.1,200,- :-:..- ....
and but one word 'Homel' was utttered in sight of her for a: single moment, but to 000 boxes Is predicted for-nert ye-ar,.;- ..., -
...- 'a -- .-. -- "~.' ',"'-' + 7. "2 -'.<' .i ,'
State News in Brief.
-Lake Weir has the largest bearing
lemon grove of which there is any rec-
-Mr. W. P. Moore, of New York, has
donated 4,000 acres of land to the Public
Library of Tallahassee, .
-The creosote works at Fernandina
have already cost about $150,000 and are
not near completed.
-A squash raised near DeLand weighs
40 pounds, and measures 24 inches in cir-
cumference and 24 inches from stem to
-A straight line can be drawn through
seventy-five miles of Indian River,
Florida, without touching shore. It is
called the straightest river in the world.
-The canal connecting East Tohopeka-
liga and Big Tohopekaliga is being made
four feet deeper and twenty feet wider.
A large number of hands are employed in
doing the work.
-Mrs. Alexander French and E. P.
Ahern, of Orlando, have determined to
go into the culture of peaches on a large
scale. They will.plant 5,000 trees at
Fort Meade next winter.
-The incorporators of the Windsor,
Lake Newnan and Prairie Creek Street
Car, Canal and Navigation Company
have for their object the operating of
street cars in Windsor and steamboats
on Newnan's Lake.
-Mr. John Dunn, who has just re-
turned to Sanford from Daytona, reports
plenty of turtle eggs on the beach, he
having made a big haul, obtaining 150
from one nest, and then rode the turtle
-A peach grower of Bronson has
shipped to date about 150 crates of t
peaches, and is not through yet. The first I
three crates shipped sold in New York
for $12 per crate. The returns received t
to date are netting him '$12 per bushel.
-Cedar Key is making preparation v
to celebratethe glorious Fourth in grand i
style. A regatta will be held, in which v
all the fast sailing craft of the Gulf coast l
will participate, some twenty odd entries I
having already -been made. f
-Excepting a little necessary painting t
and oiling, and a touching of the plaster- c
ing here and there, the customs and t
other departments of the new Federal. d
building in Pensacola have been comple- f
ted, and will be ready for occupancy o
early in the coming week. o
-Mr. E. W. McIntyre, one of Pensa- U
cola's most-faithful detectives, has been
selected by that city as quarantine officer, ri
and -now meets all trains at DeFuniak r,
Springs, and denies admittance to ti
Escambia county to all persons or bag- is
*gage coming from Key West or South e
--Charles H. IMunger, of the Orlando th
Reporter,has a prolific young orange tree nc
which bloomed freely and set fruit last su
February. A month later it repeated at
the process, and now for the third time be
this season it is if 'bloom, and gives m
promise of setting another crop of fruit.
-The Ino, the schooner that took off th
the party of drummers from Key West tr
when the first excitement over fellow cll
fever was reported on the island, entered th
-the bay a few days ago. She was ar
ninrtlv n-t -inAnentor and tol-
to get up and dust. 'She du ste. in
Apalachicola Times. w
--tr. .. .G. Rowe, of Dade City, as-
well as Messers. Sumner and Overstreet, h
of the same place, have fields of corn to
growing that will average 35@40 bushels fs
of corn per acre. These gentlemen are se
all practical and progressive farmers, PC
who cultivate their Crops intelligently h
and industriously, th
-Wednesday Captain C. Maling ou
brought a cucumber into Kissimmee wl
City, grown on his place across the lake, po
without the aid of fertilizers, which bo
measured 19u inches in length. It was FlI
from .seed brought by him from England ma
is a very rapid grower and is consequently bo,
very crisp, tender and delicious eating.- th
---Captain Blocker, of Tallahassee, has. to
growing in his yard a tree called the um- 'thE
brella tree of Japan, (entirely different thi
from the umbrella tree of China. i It is wi
only three years old and now has leaves of
on it that measure twenty-one inches
in length by sixteen wide. It is um aI
brella shaped and makes a shelter that is ne
impervious to sunshine or rain. ,. alt
--Dr. J. D. Bennett carried to Brooks- ter
ville ;last week some specimen bones 'are
found in the northern part of Citrus th<
county, on the farm of Charles Atkinson.
near Crystal River. The bones consisted ca:
of a piece of theskull, a portion of a tusk ne,
and petrified clam shell. The Doctor gu
has a molar tooth weighing six pounds, Flo
and some enormous petrified clam shells, alo
-Mr. A. S. Chalker, ofbMiddleburg, hassiz
built a pole road some eight miles in bi
length,_ in a westerly direction; and wa
extends into a large belt:of heavy tim- kif
bered land, and has bought a pole roadfor
engine with which to do the logging to
Mr. Blakeslee, who represents the man- isl
ufacturersof these engines is now await- bel
ing the arrival of the engine ordered, an
which he will set to work as soon as it T
arrives. : sta
-Mr. G. G. Gibbs wasin town Monday oul
with a sample of Kelsey Japan plums, a pr
new variety of Japanese fruit that is to
really a plum, and is in no way allied to e"
the fruit heretofore known as Japan m
plums. This sample measures six inches te
in circumference one way and five and the
a half inches the otber, and tihe fruit isba
not yet full grown. It' is allied to our gat
native plum and does well budded on me
native plum or native peach stocks- cai
-The Legislature having refused to sh
recognize anything like the full amount mo
of the claim Ocala urged for the removal wi
of the East Florida Seminary, steps will
be at once taken in the United States be
Court to test the legality of the removal, tho
Ocala's ablest lawyers say that the town He
lias a clear case, and are of opinion that cot
ahe can not only get the return of the caj
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, JUNE 29, 1887.
BY J. K. H.
It has been either my good or bad fo
tune to be, or rather to have been,
journalist, and naturally writing fro
wherever I might be, and on any su
ject that might present itself, I ha'
written a good deal about Florida, ani
in a way I think that has won no litt
approbation. But it has done more,
has produced a host of inquirers, esp
cially from that large class who hay
everything to gain and nothing to los
I do not know where people' got tl
idea that it costs nothing to live here, o
that the maximum amount of food ca
be had with the minimum amount of ex
ertion. Tjhis class may be divided int
two parts, the first composed of those
who,,seeking genteel employment, ar
willing to serve those who have the cap
tal or the enterprise to fight their own
vay, and the second, those who woul
ike to drop seed in the ground and
have it spring up arid bear fruit without
further manual exertion. They hay
he idea that hard work and a wari
limate do not go together, and that her
hey can be measurably freed from the
rudgery of work.
I have not started out to combat Ihese
.ctions. I have shown many a time and
ft that there is harder work done ii
Florida than in any other State in .the
Fnion, but I wish to set forth now, ac-
ording to my best ability, some of those
sources which are within reach of the
oorest. I desire to show that starva
on is impossible in Florida where there
a capacity for any exertion what
rer. No one cail prove that all the
Ixuries o.f life are withi, -the reach ol
he poor, for even those with meftis can-
ot always obtain them, but enough to
stain life can be had without capital
id with labor that-at the North would
i considered only as one form of amuse-
First; I will speak of the treasures of
he sea, and because the sea has such
measures and they are free, I am in-
mined to advise D.-'meni to' locate
.se s rthe salt water. There
f--i in the lakes also, but as I am not
familiar with them I will say noth-
g about-them. I am writing only that
which I know.
A member of my family threw out a
ook last week, from the wharf at our
wn, and pulled in a twenty pound red
Bh. It would make a good text for a
rmon and it will furnish at least one
point for this. discourse. There are a
6st of fish almost as big and some of
em much bigger, like the Tarpon,
which, almost as heavy often as some of
ur cows, possesses a value in his scales
which will produce ,money for the
cket, as the flesh does food for the
dy. The mullet, however, is the true
orid.i fish, and to catch this the poor
an must have a cast net, or he can
rrow one. Here we hang our nets on
e trees, and he who will return then
where he finds them is welcome to
em. It requires some practice to use
is net, but that practice is well repaid
hen a man can land from one to a score
frt fish at a throw.
The sea also yields oysters, for which
boat and a pair of oyster tongs are
cessary. Both these may be borrowed,.
though it would be better for the oys-
* lover to; own his own tongs. Crabs
- also to be caught in some places,
tough they are not plentiful. .
Tie adjunct to the fishing reel and the
it net, is the gun, and it, is quite un-
cessary for me to enlarge on what the
n will do in replenishing the larder.
)rida Is full of game, and the rabbit,
ne would furnish meat for a good
ed family. Quail, doves and other
ds are plentiful, and here on the salt
ter bays and bayous ducks of various
ids can be had, not for the asking but
the taking T would not advise any man
spend his entire time in hunting and'
thing, nor will it be necessary; they
ong, as I have hinted, to the sports
id not to the woik of Florida life.
The man who is forced by circum-.
nces to get along as best he may with-
t capital, will succeed or fail just in
portion to his-ability and willingness
work. Work is the lot of the poor
erywhere, and -here as' elsewhere a
.n with a trade succeeds better than
who has none, and next to him comes
w man who is willing to work with his
nds and who has some knowledge of
rdening and agricultiture. To say that
n without any of these qualifications
n succeed here is to put a premium on
eness and to assert that there is one
it on earth where nature does all, and
here manna drops into the open
youths, which not being true I pass it
& man. without capital, and desiring to
entirely independent, may succeed,
augh he will have a hard road to hoe.
must be blessed with an excellent
institution and in addition to the
pacity for work, great confidence in
school, but the full amount of the cl
urged and every cent the State has
propriated for it since its removal, w
interest attached. Ocala will now fi
it.out on that line.-Ocala Banner.
-While digging a posi hole in
marsh or reclaimed land at his place
Steer Beach some two weeks ago, I
Joseph A. Turner came upon a qu
specimen which he wishes us to class
and name. At a depth of about two f
in the ground he heard a strange no
and saw something which his bump
curiosity caused him to stop and inve
gate. After digging it out he found
to be two feet long and a little lar
than an ordinary man's wrist. It .
a head like a catfish, a body like an
and a tail like an alligator. Just ba
of the head on either side is a rath
slender leg with a foot like an alligator
In color it is black; the body ve
smooth and exceedingly slimy. I
Turner brought the thing to our offi
where it may be investigated by the
rious. What is it?-Kissimmee Lead
FLORIDA FOR POOR MEN.
Some of' th'e Natural Adva
tages for Making a Living.
aim himself arid confidence in his own :e- as it sailed along, and it, too, was clothed Ladies'" Purchasing Agency.
ap- sources of mind anid body. Let such: a in flaming splendor. o gein
ith man go where land is plenty and he can We had always thought a sail on the A New York lady of experience and
ght get a few acres on long time or possibly St. Johns delightful, but how tame be- taste, enjoying the best facilities for
as a-free gift. He must do his own side this magic spell. shopping under advantageous condi-,
the clearing, with such willing help as a Imagination may picture fairy scenes, tions, offers her services to ladies desir-
Sat good neighborhood always furnishes, grand, weird and unreal, but the electric ing to secure any kind of wearing. ap-
Mr. and he must be satisfied with such a light oin the St. Johns is their perfect re- parel, toilet articles or household goods,
leer cabin as can be made out of the logs cut alization. atddrNew ork prices S. S.d for circularnes,
sify. and trimmed by himself. As I have had PITTMAN, Fla. 179 Gates Ave., Bro. S. Jones, -
feet one offer to build such a house for $80, .---- 179 Gates Ave., Brooklyn N Y.
Noise it will be seen that the achievement is Forage .Growing on Pease Creek Opinions of the Press
of not beyond what a strong man can ac-
sti- complish. Mr. Fred Varne, of this place, harvest- (From the Florida Baptist Witness.)
it Presuming now that a few acres have ed two acres of pea vine hay last Octo- The FARMIE. AND FRUIT-GROWER
ger been cleared and a shelter accomplished, ber, that when cured ready for the barn, comes to our table regularly and
has the rest is merely question of time, pa- made twenty-six loads as large as two promptly, and is full of interesting and
eel tience and labor. We rarely sit down horses- could draw. From that time instructive matter. It certainly excels
ack to a dinner with less than six vegetables until the present Mr. Varne has used no any. paper we have seen, for Florida
her on the table, and they all come from a other forage, and after feeding his three especially. Send to Jacksonville for it.
r's. garden one acre in extent, one half of horses the entire season, and four cows Address as above, and read it awhile and
ery which was occupied by a cucumber bed, all winter, he still has enough hay to last be convinced.
ir. planted' for the market, and a part of the remainder of the year. Although m Ti. e .. ..
ce the rest is a seed bed for orange trees, his horses have worked harder, this ,From the Times-Democrat.]
cu- behave all the vegetables we can eat, spring than ever before, they are now in "Editor Curtiss, of the FARMER AND
er. with enough to give away to friends and better condition than when he used to FRUIT-GROWER, evidently struck the
some for market. With such a garden feed on Northern hay. Mr. Varne sows popular fancy when he established that
what is there left to classify as necessa- broadcast a bushel of ordinary cow peas journal. Its success is phenomenal, and
ries? We say, somewhat at random, per acre and harrows them in during the although only a few months old, has al-
flour, sugar, salt, spices, baking powder, wet weather of July, and harvests them ready taken the lead in all matters per-
n- syrup, soap and those little things that just before they are ripe in October. One training to Southern horticulture."
every housekeeper thinks indispensable acre of these peas produces more and bet- [From the Texas Farmer.]
to cleanliness and comfort. How are ter forage than five acres of the best Illi- "Florida is not behind her sister South-'
they all to be had? There is but one nois or Ohio timothy meadow, and the ern States in material progress. It
way, and it is the same here as else- hay would not cost to raise here in Fort ought to be called the land of fruits and
r where; a man must raise -a little more Meade over one dollar per ton. The most flowers, for each of these grand divis- e
Than he consumes; he must have some- ruinous improvidence and extravagance ions of horticulture are equally at home c
)b thing to sell. This is not at all diffi- in Florida to-day is the purchase of vast. there. The FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT n
ve cult. quantities of forage for stock at more GROWER is an ably conducted and ele-
d The business of chicken raising hs than ten times the cost. of producing it at gantly printed paper devoted to these '
le hardly been begun, in Florida, and he home.-Fort Meade Pioneer. very tops, to which we refer the reader
le would be a poor contriver who could not i D. for further information." t
it earn enough to buy a dozen hens. I Farming on Paper and in Dirt. rFrom the Souhnrn C'ltiao:-.] p
e have a neighbor who has made from $8 A c o te Fm Le'Hoom the Southern Cultivator.: -
ve to $12 a week from eggs alone, and that A correspondent of the Farmers' Home ''The Success of the FLORIDA FAR-- G
e. in a home market. Then the cleared Journal calls attention to the important 9ER AND FRUIT-GROWER, Of Jackson:
e acre, fertilized properly, will yield dstinction-which some do not appre- ville, surpasses that of any. similar ,
or enough to at least keep the pantry elate-between farming with paper and publication in America. The publishers
n full. pencil, and farming with plow and hoe: seem to be over-liberal in giving the
SI remember what an acquaintance at Some farmers have had excellent suc- mechanical part every attraction possi- r
to Micanopy told me some years ago, that cess planting their crops on paper, while ble, while Editor Curtiss is doing the C:
se he planted a half an acre in sweet pota- others have had a most deplorable fail- best work of his life. It is a combina-
rtoes, and when the time came for ure, planting their crops in the dirt. tioh that cannotfail of abundant success.
P" digging he dug until he -was tired and Some men farm out in the rural dis- The Cultivator is never sorry to see such at
n his.storeroom was filled, when he turned tricts, while others farm on the public enterprise rewarded, as we have 'no.
d in the hogs to finish them, and that re- square of their country towns. Some rivals to be jealous of, but wish all suc- h
d minds me of the talk I had not long ago men farm in the dirt, while others farm cess." -
Swith an excellent commission man a per. amone of the latter class of [From the Gardeners' 'Monthly] r
Swith an excellent commission man ao armers, a I ave mae money and re
Sthe North. He expressed muc wonder experienced less worry in farming on "We are continually receiving new
e thatsweetpotatoes wee not more culti- expaper than I have worry the dirt. When I agricultural ventures, but useful as they
e they would -come.injust.at the farm in the dirt, the rains and the are in their own special fields, we rarely
t ey wd e ust at the right drouths always play a high hand inthe find in them anything of special interest' -2
time and could be sold at good prices. success or failure of my crop, but when to the intelligent class of horticulturists ea,
the quat and soundness of thepcro I farm on a sheet of foolscap paper, with cor which the earners' Meontly has to pe
t buharlt and sounnetsf t.he crp a pencil for a plow, the rains or drouth cater. We were, therefore, agreeably tw
Sbut there is nothing better than this, to do a pencil for 'a plow, the any more than surprised on reading among the batch
foredumore and to subjection and epar spitting in the ocean would change the of exchanges on-our table, No. 2 of this .
e more important crops, and I may t- r lw f t ta o find it of a very high order of intelli- bu
e andd nd ion that the pig is ae February is the proper month in the gence, and one which must have an ex-
e saryaddition, both to help eat up the cellent effect in fostering Florda' sinter- Dr
- "sweets" and in due time to be eaten year .to farm on paper, because it is too t e ering Flordas nter-
e himself. Pork in Florida costs nothing obld and wet to farm in the dirt. I can ests .
- but a little care ad labor. sit down by a big warm fire of a cold day :
So far I have endeavored to show that in February, take a sheet of foolscap *rk f be;
f a poor man in Florida can sustain life paper and a five-cent lead pencil, (J-.p,
. and be independent solely by the labor and make -more clear money farm- ab- e- AR _
Sof his hands and such wit as naturenay in n tn "oner day than any man -. S O rI e b.-. .8:K ". e
have bestowed upon-him. I have said in the 'coupry can. maked farm-_ ,. .&.'SON. e e IAISI bu
nothing about such things as clothing, lung on 50 acres of the best land in one wholesale
fuel, etc.,.forI supposeitisgenerallyun- wholeyear. Last Februlary, a year ago, -ciosL Jue 1887 a
l, b farmed onef whole ,day aper, 00using JAcsovr, June 20,1887,. 'C
derstood that the latter is plentiful and a pencil for a plow, and teh neens ent uthe e -iur. re
cost's anoting, ad that whn, ad o balance of the year. farming in the di.. 'MEATs-D.S.-shortu bribslboxed,' 5845; S. an,
works all the year round in shirand hrtmas I co ed notes, and to m ong elr side s 83 57or?- S. bellies 8'45;-
trousers, the expensein that line is re- Christmas I compared to my smoked short ribs 87 smoke bellies 8 75; an
adto a mimum. ut I will now s er- und I had made $3 per acre C. hams, canvassed fancy llc 80 break
ticrat th .o .ex d t-ha on nay piaer farm, where I had lost $2 last bacon, canvassed. 10o; S. e. shoul-
treat the subject of expanding the farm n~rm dIrtar One a I ders, canvassed,, .; Calornia or plo-
and its rodut per acre on my irt arm. n a paper .hams, 8. 8 Lard-rifned tires 7o; B
and its products. .arm I anaverage 800 pounds of seed Messbeef- barrels1050, halfbarrels$575; mess no
One acre, as I have shown, will supply cotton per acre, while on a dirt farm. I orko816 50. These quotations are for round buh
the wants of a small family, but it is not only made 600 pounds, half of which is o etsf Eom ssthales. 3@2c per pound ma
to be supposed that any respectable man aog tail. On paper I can make a litter u -es le o@ per nd pound,
will be satisfied to expend all his ener- of pigs, dropped in March, average 800 Go rain, Flor,. Hay, Feed, Hides, Etc.
gies on a single acre. The clearing of net in November, while that same litter GRAI CornE- The market is weak and dlesI
five acres will eventually involvethe of pigs matured on a dirt farm never dull he following figures represent to-day's to
cultiation of that much land, and four fail t ia of dcho.ler in Aogmstn. e values: We quoe white corn, job lots, tak
o ti ain- to o dh i rm l hia. En.f nd o r a i ao te-o c c ler a in Augustl 65oc... per bushel; car load lots 62o eir "
acres will terefore be open fo profit in When I farm on paper I can put down busel, mixed corn,job lots, 60 per. usel
any line that prudence or experience my expenses on one side and profits ar load lots 58o per bushel.. Oats que
may. point out. I am not prepared to onthe oheerand if I see my expenLses In job lots 40c, car load lots8y white o
dictate ay. ast iron rules; at suits are likely to overrun my profits, I can oatslare higher all rudt Bransteady
one legion and one kind ofso may not rub out and being anew; but when I and higher, $21 to 2 per ton. rrot
suit another, and *hat I do say must be far.m in the dirt. m expenses always HAY-The. markets firm and good grades ra
in the ost general wa If a man's .ge three first an rub ut m radt. higher. Western choice, mall bes 818..0...
the ost general way If a man's. gt first and rub outmy profits per ton; car load lots $1780 p0er ton; Rastern
ambition is to have an orange grove e When I farm on paper I can always look hay$ 19 per ton.
has on his five acres room enough for 800 .neaa c n ee ands white PEARL GRITS ANm )MEAL-8- 15 per barrel. 6
ha i a ..cr es roo enug f u 300 nea cl, keep han FLOUR-Weaker, best patents 85 835@06 50; Mat
trees, and he has the satisfaction of and tender, have my boo blacked. and good family490$00; common8425 tlon
nowing that they are growing we eathe firt table growing while eat at the first table when my wife has As-Blck Eye, 8185 perbushel. Mid
he is working, and further that they do city company; but when I farm in the G N Fr D-er ton 24 tood 82
not interfere with his gardening, but on dirt, I have to wear big mud boots, and java, roasted, .2@5e; -Moa0s, roasted, 3c; Lo
the contrary are stimulated by it. use the forks of the road for a boot-jack, Rio, roasted, 25@28c. r e, c Loon
Enough ought to be raised on those five my hands chap and look as rough as COTTON SnED Meala-Scarce and higher. TI
acresto provide for all the wants of a dogwooda and t e to hde out a d pero
family and to provide for the extension in the woodshed until company leaves, ton. w o otn oa pr pEx
of the farm to any desirable limits. En- and eat at the second table. TOBACCO tTES-ar.ket quiet butrm @ wtso
closed in a picket, fence, the whole or a l tordaper t 81 00 per barrel. Ala.
a part could be devoted to chicken rais- Groves where Williams, Clark & Co's ama lime l 15.o -Cement-A-r rican 82 0, T
ing, with results only limited by nature Orane Tree Fertilizer has been used are English 847b per barrel. ha
and aman's own industry. Andthus in a looking finely .aiThe quotations v rypou rdLng to sca
few years would he have a homestead WILLIAMS, CLARK & Co. SALT--tiverpoo ,per sack, 8100; per car Med
with the emblematic vine and fig tree, toad, 85@90o. 00
with peace, happiness and prosperity, r p o ,, n. Hins-Dry flint,. cow, er pound, first Med
an atout "WeKnowby Experience" .lass,i8o;and countrydrysaldc;butchers Fin,
and created out of nothing, or out of aw dry salted 9o. Skins-Deer a int 200c salted Ext
what most men considered as nothing, For three years we have used Brad- tic. Furs-Otter, winter, each 5c8.l; rac- OCho
when they look at the beginnings. Is it lev's Vegetable" Fertilizer. After test- coon- 1015o; wild oat 1015e; lox lO'lbc,
a fancy pilre? By no means, forsthere ing along with other high grade feartil- bueerswax errndi; ool f srOc r -
are hundreds of places in this"'State izers, we pronounce it better than any. apiece. hr b ga s
where all this and more has been accom- sold in Florida. We shall use it again p .e DCountry Produee..
.plished. this" year. OiHoEs-Fine Creamery 16c per pound. STC
o _c__ __u e a We do not hesitate to say to the vege- PoTyr-Limited upp nd good
Electric Light on the St. Johns. table growers of Florida that they can- dr.esn- a2 ^e.l hxea se arceandind 8;reatde-
lec ro Ligh on te c. ins. not use anything so good as Bradley's mnTand. e ra
'y Y .L. B Florida Vegetable Fertilizer. We know EGGs-Duval County 17 per dozen with
ewereon the can deck, oving peece what we sayregarding a o -orther potatoes 75
Swiftly along, watchain the white WOFFRD & WILDER. oNioNs-ermudas, 00per crate; gypt.in A
crested pathway which the wheel left Ft. Maso Fla s0p cate
behind. It was plainly marked, and t Florida cabbage, 8 1 00 per barrel. They
shone out amid the dark'waters, a very '/ Seed Irish Potatoes. NwB's--Florida, per cra8te,$2o00.
likeness of the milky way. S..e Irish Potatoes. -tcBiwSPer barrel, 00,and 8178
Thd new moon had already sunk be- > The best potatoes for planting in this perorate. be -o an $175,
neath the horizon,and we could scarcely State are those brought from 'extreme TL T- or e crate, 75oto8l60;
discern the plant growth on the river's Eastern points. Acting on this belief, NORTHE.NTuRNiZS--Godsupply at 8225
bank, although but a few rods away. A we imported last year from per barrel. '
gloom seemed to hang over land and NOVA SCOTIA. ,. SQA SHPer crate,&2- 1. .
water, and we were just beginning to large quantities of Early Rose, Chli Naw POTATOES-Per barrel, 88500400, with
tire of tile monotonous darkness, when Red, Beauty of Hebron and other varie- good demand. ..-
the electric lights were put .on..In a ties, and- the potatoes raised from this CucueraERs-B-Per box. 82 00.
lightning's flash the scene was. trans- seed, were the finest we have ever seen Foreign and DomestieFruitt. -
formed, and the darkness dissolved in a here. : -. Panr02s--Freneh, 2e. "
halo of light. Weird, grand and sublime We' will receive, in afewdays another LEMONS--Messinas, $3 2,58 S 50 per box. : F
looked the picturesque scene; all nature cargo of the same potatoes; which we Ftos-ln layers 18c.
was clothed with a vapory fringe; every will sell at the following prices: DS--Perslan--Boses9c; Frals^7c. Be
object seemed wrapped in ethereal light. Chili Red..pr...uc.per barrel $3.50. h.--Poor supply; from 75O lo 8200 F0
The drooping moss, the clinging vine, Early Rose..............$.. $3.00. Nr-s--Almonds 18c; Brazils 12c; Filberts.
trees, shrub, underbrush, all sparkled in Beauty of Hebron ......... $3.00. (8cily) 12o; Ecngish wa Pnutstbec18e; Mt
the vivid brightness. Land and waler Every barrel guaranteed as represented. Marbu'ta15M Perchundred. Peanuts 6;
seemed mirroredd, as it were, in a sea of Remit with order, and we will ship the RAISIS--London layers, $260 per box. sidle.
glass. A night bird, attracted by the potatoes promptly. ': .JmAtBBi.-. i76 per orate; $1000 per an"
glistening scene, flew close to the water's C HUTRCH ANDERSON & CO. barrel, oarn
edge, its wings caught the shining hue Jacksonville, Fla.. Jan. -6th, 1887. H.c; Dairy 15. A
OIL STOVES, I "
S: BAR GOODS,
PRICES THE LOWEST.
*C. S. L'ENGLE & CO.,
REE, ONE SAMPLE COPY.
fore yon decide where to go In SOUTH
RLDA, send for a sample copy of.
THE ORANGE GeROVE.
iu will find better and cheaper barga in
ATES County In groves, farms, ranches- of
size. Building lots on railroad, river or sea-
The proprietor of "The Orange'Grove" .Is
old timer," but neither moss back'd or ide.
cd.; he Is here to stay and '"There Is millions
," Three Millions of Acres on his Books, ,.
address, TBE GROVE, LIVERPOOL, FLA.
This powder -never varies. A marvel of
Purity, i- trength and wholesomeness. Morre
e.c nomleal than the ordinary kinds and -
eannot be sold In competlilon with bthe
multitude o low'ltes, short weight alum or z
hosphate powders. Sld only In cans,
wOYAL BAKING POWDER Co., 106 Wall Sl..
Ca.ESE--Half eskim lOc, cream 18c per-
PEACHES-Peen.To, T75c to. 2 ,50 per crale;
leorg a. .a0c o 10 c per crate.
APPLES-Georglas, 75., per crate.
The following quotations are carefully re
ised for Wednesday's and Saturday's paper
mow qotatbons furnished-by dealers ion the
Green Onions wholesale alt -0 cenut per
hundred, and retail Scents per nunch.
Floida Caobage wholesale '20uper barrel
id IEmail at5 to 10 cents.
Sweet Potatoes wholesale at 60 cents per
usnel, and retail at 5 cents per quarL.
Lettuce wbolesales at 2ui5o cents per dozen
eads, and retail at 5 cents per head.
Parsnips wholesale at eoc.per hundred, and
etaii at. tour and d%.e for 1 l cents.
Eggs are m ialir demand. Duval county
gs are quoted at wholesale at. 11ai5 cenias
ar dozen, and retail at 2i) ceuts.
B.iton marrowf'at squashes wholeEale at
0) per barrel, retail at 6, 10 and 15 cents
c li . -. -
New York Irish potatoes wholesaleati837.
r barrel and retail at 10 centsperquart, or
o quar s or 15c.
Radishes bring at wholesale 20 to 2i cents
r dozen bunches of seven radishes each.
hey retail at 5 cents per bunch, or three-
nches for 10 cents. -
Live poultry-chickens, wholesale, from .35i
40 cento each; retail 40 to 60 cents each.
essed poultry, per pound-chickens retail,
to1L)0 cents. Turkeys, wholesale, $l.00 o I
75 each, and retail ai 20 cent a per pound.
Northern meats retail as follows: Chicago
ef from 1 dto 25 cents per pound; Florida
ei6 to 15 cents per pound; veal 20 to25cents;
rk 12 to 15 cent; mutton 10 to Al cants-
ulson 25 cenls; sausage 15 cents; corned
f 10 cen [s.
Water nelons wholesale at 812 to 013 per
ndred, and retail tbr 15 to 25c.
Green Corn wholesale atl .2Ce.'tdaze.,
d retail at 15 to 2u0c. '' -"
ucttumbers wholesale at 8e pe6 et" and
all at i for loc. iW ...
)kra whoiesal at from 10 to i2c per quart,
d retails at 15e.
;gg Plants wholesale at 1 to1 2.5 erdozen "
0 retail at 160 per dozen. ,
LEAf TOBACCO MARKET.
!ALTnMORE, June Z5-The better grades .-
Marylaud tobacco are in active demand,
th be stock is reduced. There is little de-
nd for the poorer grades of Maryland, or.
Western tobacco. Virginia choice sells
h Maryland at uromS10 to $15 per 1.i).
EW YORK, June. 2.-The Western
ifmarket Is quiet.. Pennsylvania selec-
as are in demand, but thestock Is UghtL. I
es a very fine article lo bring 815 .
avana tobacco is very active at prices -
ging from 60 cents to 81.10 per pound, .
uatra is quiet at1.20 to 1.60 per pound.
T. LOUId June 1.5.-The demand is
d, and the market irrm In all grades.
ICHMONDJune 25.-Lugs are selling at
m 3 to 6 cents, and leal from 6 to 12. Good '
les JInactive request. .
SAVANNAH COTTON MARKET. :
AVA&NNAH. June 25.-The Opland Cotton :.
rket closed firm a thLbe following quota-
dling fair 1013-16 :
od mwFddling 109-16
dling 10 5-16 -
w middling 101-16
d ordinary 913-16
ie net receeins were 2 bales: gross re- -
ts 2 bales; sales 3 bales; stock at this
t 1213 bales. .
ports to the Continent --, exportscoast-. .
i 109. '
S SEA ISLAND OTTON. "' .
te market Is quiet and nominal at un-. /
aged quotations. Little stock for sale and ..
cely any arriving.
imon Florldas 16
d MedIum 17
) 19@20 .
ra fine 22 -
S1 L''E.-LfE" & CO.,