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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
VOL. 1---NO. 21. JACKSONVILLE, FLA., WEDNESDAY, MAY 25. 1887. PRICE $2 A YEAR.
-SOUTHERN FORAGE CROPS.
Notes on Altalfa, Crimson Clo-
ver and Orange Sorghum.
The following is from Home and
The avidity with which anything new
in the way of forage crops is seized upon
in sections where the summer is certain
to be hot, and in all reasonable proba-
bility dry, pretty clearly demonstrates
what a strong desire there is for valua-
b'e additions to the common forage crop
of the country. Therefore, the explana-
tion of the rage or craze for Kaffir corn,
millo maize, teosinte, and many other
But we have old things to offer, instead
of new, and those things which have
been in cultivation, in warm and dry
climates, for centuries, and have re-
ceived the cordial and hearty indorse-
ment of farmers in all ages. First, we
name among these Lucerne, otherwise
known:as alfalfa and Chili clover.- .This
is e ninently a dry and hot climate crop,
and though doing best on rich, deep,
well-drained, loamy soils, does fairly
well on soils of moderate fertility, with
the assistance of annual fertilization.
For this crop prepare the land as for a
grain crop that you expect to take a
prize on, and sow the seed broadcast at
the rate of twenty pounds per acre, and
do. not mow or pasture the first year.
Once a 'stand obtained, after the second
year three heavy crops of green forage
per year may be harvested for a genera
tion. For mules, horses, sheep and hogs
there is nothing better than ,alfalfa,
whether green or dry;and for neat stock
and cows, itis only of little less wornt
than red clover.
For hot countries we namrue, secondly,
crimson or annual clover, differing from
common red clover in being annual, in-
" --stead of biennial and maturing a heavy
'.i mass of forage on land and under cir-
cumstances of heat and drou'h theother
red clover would be burned up. -Sow
the same amount of seed and at the
same time as recommended for alfalfa,
and harvest late in May or ear:yv in June,
the seed having been sown a's soon. as
danger of frost is over, ini March or
April As a forage, crimson clover is
preferable to the red or to alfalfa, be-
cause of its tender herbage, the result of
a rapid growth.
S Our third choice is the common or-
ange sorghum cane. Thih is 'far prefer-
.able to any of its near ielatives-Kaffir
corn, millo maize, gooseneck,r-sorghum,
Setc.-in this, while the seed is nearly as
S valuab'e for stockasany of those named,
'orange sorghum, sugar cane has the
great advantage of sweetness in the juice
of the stalk. The sorghums a re a ll warm
and dry climate plants; all, or nearly all,
will make two crops on the same plant-
ingin long summers,.and are very greed-
ily eaten by mules, sheep, horses and
hogs, and are by no means objected to
by neat stock. They may be planted,
Cultivated and harvested after the man-
ner of Indian corn, and' also be counted
upon to make fiir crops on soils so thin:
corn will yield little more than the seed
back, while, like deep rooted cotton,
They will stand up unhurt under a
measure of heat and drouth that would
burn up corn.
Nothing is more aggravating than the
sight of fields either in grain or grass
with unsown strips ruining through
them. In grain it makes the greater
showing. but probably the heavier loss
is from poor seeding with clover, and
this is not visible until too late to reme-
dy the evil. It is better to lap a few
feet and sow double than to leave any
lard unseeded. By dividing clover and
grass seeds and cross sowing the danger
of imperfect seeding is obviated.-Ex.
S Dr. Jones on Millo Maize.
S i Of this variety of sorghum Dr. Jones,
S in fts May notes in the Southern Culti-
S: vator, ays: .
We have fully tested the millo maize;
'horses eat it with relish, and can do as
much work when fed upon it as upon a
corn ration. Neither is it at all iccon-
veuient to handle. The whole headsare
put in the manger, and the grain, eaten
with the brush of the head. is thorough-
ly masticated. The b'ades are pulled
and cured like fodder.
In above respect it stands (ion the same
footing as c6rn. What are its advan-
tagesZ It stands drouth better and will
make something of a crop when corn
would utterly fal. If a drouth strikes
corn just as it shoots," it fails-it can-
not wait for future rain. These sor-
ghums, on the contrary, will waitr quite
patiently. If the main head fails some-
what, shoots will spring from the joints
as st-on as rains set in, and make a see-
..i'nd crop of heads. It. is next to impos-
sible for a crop of them to fail entirely;
but care must be had to get a strain of
m. illo that matures early; there is no dif-
ficulty on that point with the Kaffir; it
is one of the early maturing varieties,
The grain of this and of millo maize
makes a very pretty looking fine meal.
We have never tested their value in
bread. They have one decided advan-
tage over syrup sorghums-there is less
tannin in the coverings of the grain. As
poultry food these sorghums are most
excellent; the grains can be eaten by
comparatively small chickens.
Indian Clover Recognized..
Our correspondent at Sarasota,-Mr. 1).
R. Green, writes as follows: -
I recognize your Indian clover." It
is found on good pine land about forty
rods from my house, also in middle of
traveled road through same pine land.
I think you must credit birds with scat-
tering the seed, and not man. It blos-
soms in August or later, I think, but I did
not see the seed. I watched it last sea-
son to see if it would grow. to any size,
and mentioned it to neighbors. Proper
,fertilizationmay make a neatJawn of it.
[This is the proper season to look for
the seed.-A. H.C.]
A Tree-like Vegetable without
Branches or Woody Fibre.
BY P. W. REASON ER.
"And in the midst of the yard grew,
side by side, the common accompaniment
of a West India kitchendoor, the magic
tree, whose leaves rubbed on th, tough-
est meat make it tender on the spot, and
whose fruit ,makes-the best 6f sauce or
pickle ro he eaten therewith. nanielv. a
male and female papaw fCarica puptyai,,
their stems some fifteen feet high. with a
fiat crown of mailoh-like leaves, just
beneath which, in the male grew clus-
ters of fragrant nlowerets: in t.Le female,
clusters of unripe fruit."-Kingslev,
Of the genus Carica we know of but
three species-0. monoita, C. cOandbia--
hairceeai-, and C. papaya. C. monoica
is described by Loudon as a scarlet fruit-
:ed species, fruit the size of plums. an-d
frequently grown in the European hot-
houses the foliage of 0. candinamar-
cenis differs but little from that of C.
papaya, but of its fruit we cannot speal.
The varieties of the species papaya
seem to be very numerous, differing in
shape and color of leaves, size and taste
of fruit, etc. The generic name Carica,
says Mrs. Lincoln, is from Caria, where
the tree was first cultivated. The plant
is:a native of; both the East and West
Indies, and of the west coast of Africa.
It may be said now, like the banana, to
be intra-tropic around the globe-and in
manyelocalities, like Florida and South-
ern Europe, its culture extends far out-
side the tropics. In our foreign ex-
changes we have had seeds of this plant
sent us during the last few months from
half a dozen different countries in differ-
ent parts of the tropics-proving its
almost universal distribution' in the
Warmer parts of the, world.
The papaw is a quick-growing, tender
plant, blooming and fruiting usually the
.. @" ^s
PAWPAW. (Carica Papaya. i ,
second year from -the seed. 'It will or-
dinarily winter over safely iM all pro-
tected parts of South Florida, at least
wherever the guava is not hurt, but of
course has suffered much this winterand
last, in most localities. With protection
during the first winter it could be fruited
much further north than is generallyy
The large seven-lobed terminal leaves
resemble those of the castor bean. or of
the tropical cecropja ; as the plant seldom
branches, it is almo.,t palm-like in ap-
pearance, and very beautiful. The
flowers are small, yellow and insignifi-
cant. appearing at the base of the peti-
oles of the leaves, directly under -the
The varieties of the papaw seem to be
very numerous.. The kind growing wild
on the South Florida k-ys has light-
green leaves, and small, almost bitter
fruit,.the size of an egg or smaller. The
fruits' are seldom eaten except by the
birds. The variety commonly cultivated
in the West Indies and South Florida is
of dwarfish habit-leaves of dark green
and fruit as large as a small muskmelon,
which, by the by, it resembles in taste.
Another and very scarce variety bears
immense fruit of five and ten pounds
The papaw is ordinarily dioecious, but
in some instances has perfect flowers;
we know of a number of cases where
isolated plants bore fruit in profusion
The yield of fruit on the papaw plant
is immense, especially while the plant is
young. Weshave had a specimen per-
fect between twenty and thirty fruits,
each from four to six inches in length,
during one fall and winter, and when
the plant was but two years old from the
The fruit is sliced and eaten raw like
the muskmelon, cut up and' stewed with
sugar (when it resembles apple-sauce),
and cooked in many other ways, either
while green or when ripe.
The plant thrives best in a high and
dry location. In the wild state it is
most commonly found on high shell
mounds or shell hammocks. Water
standing about the roots for any length
of time is almost sure death to the
ROYAL PALT NURSERIES,
MANATEE, Fla. ..
LAYING OFF AN ORCHARD.
Suggestions as to Septuary and
tag, and stake in same manner as be-
fore. In either case the alternate stakes
in the side lines are to be disregarded in
planting the trees. The quincunx plan
is .resorted- to in order to utilize the
ground among slow growing trees.
An arrangement like the following is.
sometimes adopted. The arrangement
of varieties is discretionary, but we will,
by way of example, consider that S rep-
resents seedling oranges; B, budded or-
anges; X, peaches, plums and grapes,
'which are to be removed when the whole
space is needed for the oranges:
S X S X S X
X B X B X B X
S X S X S X S.
X B X B', X B
S X S X,. S. X
One of our correspondents writes that
he disapproves of the septuary arrange-
ment and will give us his reasons soon.
A. H. C.
Planting Grapes on Pine Lands.
The following viticultural notes are
gleaned from the agricultural columns
of the Times-Democrat:
There seems to be a mania for plant,-
iv out ne w vineyards in t, h ineTl
The Camphor Tree in Florida.
It may not be kn,-wn t- many that
the camphor tree has proved as hardy in
Florida as the orange. Such is the fact.
and we wish to call attention to it, for it
is opeof the most beautiful and interest-
ing lrees in our list of hbrdy exotics. As
tar north as Wald,. ii survived the froct
of '56I without he least injury, bearing
flowers and seeis he. following year.
Driving but from Waldo last summer,
with Judge Kennard, to Dr, M. A.
Cushing's place, we were not a little as
tonished to find a camphor tree growing
vigorously outside the fence. Within
the. Doctor's enclosure we found a very
fine tree about twenty feet in height. It
bears a general resemblance-in form and
foliage to the orange tree.
A month--before -we saw an equally
vigorous but younger camplihr tree at
Belair,- near Sinford. Mr. Houston,
A subscriber in Monroe county writes: woods. Consequently a few seasonable
"Please give the rule for planting out words may not be amiss. Time for piee-
trees inm qumncunx, the new or hexago- paring the soil for next season's planting
nal quincunx, not the old or diamond begins in May or June. -Sow 'cow peas
quincunx. Give distances apart of trees broadcast at the rate of 'a bushel and a
on each side of a paralellogram when half to the acre, which will place the -
the'trees are set respectively 10, 20, 30, land in good condition to set the young ...... ..
33 And 40 feet from each other. vines. Meanwhile. observe the vineyards -
Ti.e I.exangular and triangular ys of your neighbors closely. so that you
tenms of arrangements are identical, a may choose the most healthy and pro
hexagon beftg composed of six equila lifi and profitable varieties.
cral triangles. The advantage of tOhis c po ab -riti s .s -
over the square arrangement cousists in A correspondent writing the subject CAMs-.:. TREE
economy of ground and in convenience of planting grapes advises beginners to ,From, a b.otr-ralh.,
for plowing, as was shown by diagram dig holes tor the vines three feet square. 'ree [r,;gli frvn near Waldo, Ela., by
in the FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. of Ouradvice is to make tle entire field a Di'.N t A i"L,Dg.
February 2d, there called the "oeptuar" hole by deep plowing, and su General Sanfords superintendent, also
-Frb bne-eisaolS a eaisubd-Oie--fert ilizing Generaly Sanford'scu pe rit ee nts a ls o
system. Its advantage over the qun e there is a clay subsoil,showedusan eually fine specimen of
cunx consists in this, that each tree hay around the ney planted vines w- cinnamon tree. It was of sime lar size
an equal ampunt of space, and the ap. bone meal and ashes. Young vines and appearance, but its leavesare nar-
pearance of the whole is moresvnmet- ouldbeeptoffthe ground rower probably thisweland th camphor
rical. cultivated during the growing season, rw. be thi an d vhre'inFcorda
As, one method of laying off on the sep- Grow" no rops among the-young vines. and they may prove of some utility.
tuary or hexagonal ,plan has been de- except cow peas, to be turned under for Both of these trees belongto the laurel
scribed by Mr. -Hoyt, we will describe fertilizing-purposes. family, which includes the sassafras, red
another plan suggested by the above in" Moore's Early, Ives, Concord, Worden, bay, laurel, avocado pear, and many
quiry. First, 'locate one of the boundary Delaware, Herbemont and Niagara, all other interesting trees, mostly natives of
rows, the southern row we will say. At succeed in piney woods. Don't waste tropical countries. In the Tampa Cou-
one end drive a .take ,w here a corner any time on exotic grapes, unless you rier we find the following account of its
tree-is to stand, andfromthis-measure have plenty of spare time and m6ney to cultivation at Tampa:
off-along this southern ,row-as many waste. Spare neither time in cultiva- In 1879, the undersigned was a repor-
spaces of the distance the trees, ore to be tio or fertilizers to make them grow. ter for the Agricultural Department at
apart as can be covered by the length o.f Dn't o -erc pyrour three-year-old vines. Washington, for Hillsborough county.
the planting chain or roe planting chain or rope. At each If thset too many bunches clip them In return for his services at that aime,
point where a tree is to stand insert a off.. Commissioner LeDuc forwarded by ex-
stake, and indicate corresponding points Grape vines ordinarily pruned and fer. press, charges prepaid, a box containing
on the chain with tags of white cloth. utilized will yield from flv to eight many choice, varieties of plants and
At points half way between tie colored pounds to the vine, or from .4,180 to 6,- shrubs. Among the collection were tea,
tags. o 688 pounds per acre. If an early variety coffee, olive, several medo bears of the
Now, from each end stake in the is planted and placed in the Northern ficus or India rubber family, strawberry
Southern row carry the chain northwardinard, markets in the later part of June, they guava, Marechal Neil rose and camphor
so that it will form a right angle with should net the producer five cents per tree. Of these, .the camphor was one of.
the base or southern row. A right angle pound, or over $800 per acre. Give this the rarest, because, so far as we could
can be determined by a simple geomet- statement the benefit of a doubt, and learn, the question of its adaptability to
rical process, or by use of a compass or say that one can realize $100 net -per our soil and climate had not been tested.
square. The work can be verified by acre three years after planting, and we I planted it in my front yard between
seeing that the northern ends of these do not see how it is possible to produce a two orange trees, thinking it would
two new lines, are ihe same distance crop that will pay so well. Of course never grow larger than a common shrub.
apart as their southern- ends. Thus we one should be near transportation, andb Judge of my surRrise to ascertain that it
have formed the paralellogram our cor- plant nothing but the most prolific and has faroutstripped the orange trees in
respondent, refeso to. early varieties, which should be culti- irs growth, and-is now one of the rarest
To mark off the rows running east vated in the best manner possible, and most beautiful specimens of the
and west, let two persons start wi'h the vegetable kingdom in South.Florida.
chain or cord from the southern row, ad- The root, bark, leaves and berries smell
vance along th, eastern and western The ersimmon in China. The rongly of camphor, and when placed in
lines, keeping the end tags over hose Bishop Wilson, from China, has the a trunk, bureau drawer or room will
line. anil let a third person insert e the following to say of theorthe North Carolina give te impression which the old lady
stakes wherere wquird. iOne person might persimmon comparison incomparison with those of entertained wlien she exclaimed: Oh,
do the whole work, blut not conven- that country. He writes the Nashville dear: I must'a, left my campfire bottle
iently.) If the white tags are ten feat Advocate thus. r : open somewhere." -nd-
apart, let the chain or cord be advanced ;; This tree we believe can be nropa
eight feet eight inches at e:,ch end and You are from North Carolina, but did d nlfrm there p
let a s ike be inserted at each colored -you e ver see a persimon? Of course te f which thoroaushl ri nale d w-e
tag: advance the same distance again aid you will recall at ouce your little blackk, pef owoacdt, oroaulye rea,
isert stakes at the white tags and ifromt-bitten ftllit if that name, which have now on and for sale at 25 cents a
Intert e takeru ati tohe e anb d sa and yubhooddelighted it. If e te ou Package, either onrpersonal application,
alternate until the northern boundary r your Id tpedceou S'tosr al n.t or by mail. eApprly to Charles nDo p van,
tie orchard is reached. After this the have the good foiftur to see eandtateor by mT ail y tod arDFlan oa
southern or base line may be extended the fruit known u North Chinaby thEat ampa. F' a
by sighting, other lines ptrojected at name, you will %ant to dr-signate your
right angles with it, and rthe marking North Carolina staple some otherwise. The Camphor Tree .in Japan.
carried oin indefinitely. The result will Hanging in golden aplendor on the trees, i interesting to note that the cam-
btie that each tree will be the corner of largerethan an-e oral more lusiousn hor tree, like many of our successful
an equilateral triangle. and-except onthan a green gage, it is almo," the only p"or l
the bordersof theiagrceard-thecenire nthg I would ask.to be transferred from fruit trees, is a native of the antipodes.
te sornheate thenochard-thc o ,hna t Chria .Amr The. following information relative to
Ia trees are t srnd 12 fet gpnart In sober trutb, it is a fruitworth know: camphor manufacture in Japan is de-
If the trees are to etand 12 feet apart, ing and having. There areorchards of rived from Consular reports :
the tags will need to e 6 feet apartet t hem in the nghbor.hoodo the Ming Thne camphor tree (Laurus carmphora),
white and colored tags each 12 feet tombs that would otglow the orange from thewood of which the crude cam-
apart). and' the chain bearers will need ,-,wbs that wold ,,t.g w6e r po nst a
to advance'each timleS -et inch gr sofFoidaorSuthernCalifornia. phor is obtained by means of distillation,
to aance each time 10 eet 42-5 inches. C Fave ofFrmer,. ,grows abundantly in all parts of this
It 14 feet. apart, advance 1, inches: if -16 C a .daland. Many of the trees on what are
feet. 13 feet 1.14 inches: if 18 feet, 15 feet. called Government preserves, attain an
7 inches; if 20 feet, 17 feet 4 inches. If -Knots in Peach Roots. enormous- sie,' specimens frequently
the trees stand 1) feet apart, 5i00 trees. ." being found 14 to 15 feet in diameter. In
will be needed for one acre; if 12? feet. As a remedy for the peach root dis-, the process of manufacture &be tree is
347; if 14 feet, 255; if 16 feetL,195; if. 18 ease the Southern Cultivator recom- necessarily felled, but by the regulation
feet. 154; if 20 feet, 125; if 22 fee;, 103; mends the following treatment: Manure of the Government another is planted in
if 24 feer, 86 with a mixture of equal parts of kainit itsstead thus providing against the utter
If the.orchard is to -be planted -q e and acid phosphate at the rate of 300 destruction of tbespecies which would
quincunk'plan, let the chain beartel- pounds per acre. Scatter it around otherwise necessarily come to pass.
vance each time a distance equa4 11ie each t.tes as far as i e nchnes extend, .The native method of manufacture is
distance 'between a white anda .olod but -not right up agaqnThe trunk. very simple. The wood ofthe tree being
cut in small pieces or chips from one
and a half to two and a half inches in
size. is placed with water in an air-tight
woode. tub protected from the fire by
a crating of mud or clay or iron pan, and
boiled over a slow fire. A bamboo pipe
cone-vs the steam which is generated
to vessels filled Nith cold water. The
camphor volatilizes with the steam, and
passing through rice stiaw, which is sus-
pended in the water, condenses and is
deposited on the straw in small, white,
sand-like grains. It is then separated
from the straw in an unrefined condi-
tinm, and when packed is ready for the
The wood will sustain five or-six boil-
ings, each the duration of twenty-four
hours, before entirely exhausted, 820
pounds of camphor-wood chips pro-
oucing about cix pounds of elude
camphor. The drug is packed in
matted wooden tubs, each tub contain-
ing *2i.i pounds, and i-; transported to the'
sea-board by pack animals and coolies.
The foreign firms who purchase cam-
phor from the natives in its impure state
usually put it through a further process
by subliming it from quick limo in iron.
vessels iu which it condenses in the
translucent cakes we know at -home as
the camphor oft commerce. :
Th, o,.1d cam phor trees are much richer
in camphor than the younger; wood
from small and young trees gives but'
little returns, while veiy old trees are so -
beavily impregnated that frequently
camphor exudes around their bases and
can be scraped in small quantities from
.tbe living tree.
Origin of Cattley Guava.
Ed li:'r Flr.ria F; n rmi' ..o iit F'rid-iG t oi'ee.
In conieetion with the notes in regard
to the origin of the Cattley guava ipub-
lished in your issue of April 13thi the.
following from a letter recently received
from Dr. King, of the Royal Botanical
Garden. of Calcutta. and a high author-
ity on fruit and economic plants, may be
or interest: -
- "With regard to your questions about
the origin ,--f the guava, uerer heard of-
any of them being natives of China,
though they are cultivated there, and
Psidium Cat/tleyaniiii, was first intro-
duced into Europe trom China. ,'
"I have always understood that Brazil
was thle native'country ofP. Oattleya-
P. W. REASONER,
MANATEE, Fla. .
We have recommended the cultiva-
tion of the common native dewberry, I
citing Mr. Dansby's very satisfactory ex-
perience with them. The Times-Demo-
crat takes a similar view of.the .subject.
It says: .
On a late trip of the lower coast packet
Lura we counted thirty-four baskets, and
boxes, averaging a bushel each, contain-
ing our far-famed Creo'e dewberry.
This fruit was mostly gathered by .Ital-
ians from the ditch banks on the planta-
tions, from the battuire and roadside.
Upon inquiry we learned that the whole-
sale price on that date was $1,50 per
third bushel bucket-certainly much
more when retailed.
And now, taking into, consideration
,the ease with which this plant may be
propagated; their increased yield when
subjected to cultivation, besides the
vast improvement in the fruit, would it
not be a measure of wisdom in some of
our lower coast farmers to plant a few
acres in this most desirable and profita- -
ble berry? An acre in dewberries will
pay from $100 to $150 net, even at- the
low price of five cents per quart, and a .
good article rarely ever sells so cheap.
Again, early strawberries could be
grown successfully in Platquemines,
owing to the mild climate and rich soil,
much more profitably than in othenrpor-
tionsof the State. Rapid transportation
will make these branches of horticulture
a success, and we trust that we may in-
duce some publicspirited fak..edrs to in- e
augurate these and kindred .. rsuits,
leaving rice culture to those -.rsons
who are satisfied to continue in the same
The demands for seed oft inte have
exceeded the supply, whi
a dozen addresses to the Department at
Washington, with the request that the
seeds be forwarded from there, and we
have received from the Department ten
Judging from all reports, we think the
failures which have been reported are
exceptional, and that the majority of
those who have planted teosminte are
highly satisfied with the results..'- A
great many are planting ir this year, and
by fall its reputation ought to be well
If any applicant is not,asupplied.by the
end of this month let him write to us at
once.-A. H.C. "
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GR-OWER. MAY
s .* n a of that statement, which is radically
tlf1/'u SI wrong, I wish to call your attention to1
(9ffhaf W v-, the fruit now on exhibition on yonder'
table. There is fruit that was placed in
COLD STORAGE. our cooling house February 9th, by-
_Messrs. Griffin & Skelley, and removed
.- March 28th, in presence of Mr. L. M.
Requisites to Success in Keep- Holt, taken to Griffin & Skelley's ware-
ing Fruits by this Process. house, there unpacked inthe presence of
In the lastnumber of the FARmER AND Rev. Geo. H. Deere, L. M. Holt and E. R.
FR.IT G ROW we reprofduced one of A Skelley, and found to be in a perfect state
FtU GROWER we reprodu ced one o preservation, not a single decayed
two addresses delivered recently before ange or lemon being found, since
a convention of California fruit growers which time it has remained there sub-
on the subject of cold storage. We now al e variation of the tempera
present the second address, as it .treats jec brought to this hall the variation of the tempera-il th
tin-ure, and brought to this hall-April 11th,
more fully of some of the principles in- after having been out of cold'storage ex-
volved : posed for fourteen days. There are also
ME. T')WE'S ADDRES.3, six boxes of citrus fruits on the same
Mr. President, Ofiit/lemene of the Con- table that were placed in our house the
Steatio" asiae date February 9th i by the same
It would be impossible for me, on this firm, and removed here the morning of
-short notice, to do the subject, -"Cold April 11h by them, ia ing been treated
Storage" justice. I will, however, try to by us for sixty-two days. I invite a
coniveyto the conventionsome idea of the careful examination of the same, andsee
manner in which it is ,pplied-by theiou can detect any ill effects of cold
Inter-Ocean Cold Storage and Shipping storage On the contrary, you will see
Company-of Riverside to the preparation that the fruit has improved by its treat-
of fruit for transportation long distances ment; and has still as long a life as when
...of' fr" ro tr nrra i nl n ~ i t n e m oved from the trees .
and the preservation of the same for a removed from thestrees.
longperi'od. Gentlemen, these experiments were
long- period. de and watched by reputable business
"-Cold storage" suggests at once to one men of this community who wished to
uninformed'the use of a large quantity .men of this community who wishedto
of ice, thu. producing a damp, moist know just what could be -accomplished
od thce, tU.e pewhichg manyPof you by cold storage in the treatment of cit
col, .t, e (_ o .y rus fruits. The result is before you and
know byv experience, to be very disas-seaks for itself
trous to fruit. As-.we app'y it, it is di- speaks or itse.
rectly the opposite, using nothing but a T + -- R--
perfectly dry cold. This we secure by THE ORANGE MARKET. .
the circulation of brine, first cooled to a i .
low degree through coils of pipe, so ar- A Change Needed in the rFruit
ranged as to produce a circulation of Exchange, Freig'hts, etc.
cold dry air, so that no ice whatever Editor Florida Farmer and Fruit-Grower:
comes Ain contact with your fruit. In I hope'your readers will not tire of
this manner we extract whatever latent the subject of how to get-our long ex-
.heat or moisture there may be in the pected and much needed money out of
fruit, rendering it pei fectly dryand of an cur beautiful orange +groves. I began
'even temperature before hl.ading int.. severalmonths ago with an idea as to
the cars. We use for the transportation how to organize and conduct the Fruit
of these fruits the Tiffany summer and Exchange in order to make it not an
winter car, which we reduce to the same "experiment" but a success. I have
temperature as that to which, the fruits been gleaning ideas from every paper
have been cooled before loading them, which comes to me up to date, and now
and maintain it en route by the addition I feel ripe for an expression, not of a
of ice at points along the route where matured plan, but simply a few modest
needed, thus subjecting the fruits to no suggestions, such as we have been in-
.change of temperature from the t'me dulging in since the great Auction Sales
they are loaded into the car at Riverside Experiment Failure.
until prepared for unloading at New It is true we shall not need the Ex-
York, Boston, Chicago, or whatever change's or any other organized effort
point to which the goods may be- con- "to secure paying prices for the coming
si9red. crop. as it will be so short that there
I think that you will agiee with me will be no gluts to demoralizethe mar-
that heat and moisture are the principal 'kets:; but for the crop of '89 we shall
causes of the cry we so often hear of need the Fruit Exchange and we must
"'rot and decay.' Remove this, as we do, keep it up as long as it will help itself.
.and your fruit will carry successfully to. It can provide or arrange for storage.
the most remote, markets; in fact, we not in Ja ksonville, but in the great
have letters testimonial of the excellent cities where they maybe taken out and
;condition in which fruit treated by us sold any day or bour.- It can sell in
is arriving in all tho principal markets Jacksonville, it can attend to the load-
of the United States. ..- ing and consigning of fruit to the agents
There are many assertions made that in the cities, who will sell it when the
- fruits cannot be treated successfully Iby demand is ripe, and not "foice" it on
cold storage. What is the reason of the mark' ts when not wanted, thus
these failures ? It is simply that cold breaking down prices.
storage, .as applied by those making the No, it was not my intention to help to
experiments, has been improperly ban- "kick" the Exchange out, but rather to
died. There is a proper and an improper kink it in. I, nor any sane man who
way to apply cold storage. All the bad has sweated as I have for a little orange
results obtained front cold storage can be grove, can give utip the Exchange idea.
traceddirectly tothis improper handling. We must have it. and I hope that the
Forinstance, it has been thecustom toex- managers will keep dead ahead and
pose fruits taken from, say, forexample. keep earning. We will try to sustain
temperature of 45 -andexpose ittothe them. and as long as they do as well as
atmosphere, say, of 8c.v or 91'c. Is it commission men we, of course, wIll
any wonder that the result has been un- cling to the Exchange. Why should
satisfactory? Of course, the fruit so ex- they not do a; well as commission men
posed would attract whatever moisture when they may select the very best of
there umightl be in the atmosphere, and them lor their agents? (One point in
this would at once begin the work 01 de- tLis I wish to make. and that is. that
ciy. Ou the other hand, had the fruit onue agency in each ciiy isF not enougli.
been properly handled ud raised to a We want a dozen, or even more.
temperature- some lhe-re near that of the As for either guaranteeing patronage.
outside before b.-iug exposed there or dist.ri-ting the State. that matter will
would have been none of these effects, take care of itself, it a great many or-
and the fruit would have had 'the same ,nges are stored or preserved. We never
life as when taken from the trees. By a market our fruit here at Pinellas
very little care and the exercising'of until after lthe first of January.
common business principles all these ill and we can keep them until
effects are overcome. 'r-ir'ol, ,-a neighbor cf mine did this
Again, in the handlin- of your grapes, year, wito got from .4i.a to $3.a511 petl
apricots, peaches, pears, and all lecidu- box. So. it the great surplus is taken
ous fruits, in the past .you have been c-arE >.t. instead of being pushed in for
compelled tousetbeesxpre-s, payingenor- feiir -f I'frot. we are aeain in the lead o0
mou- freights tor quick transportation, any other State or country. or produce,
thus materially lessening your profits, and I feel like throwing up my hat and
This you were forced to do in order to whooping. Eureka! An orange grove
get. your products of this class to mar- and a cent apiece for oranges1 This wil
ket in the quickest possible time, owing be easy to get when we put into practice
to the highly perishable propertiesof the 'distribution, storage and manufactur-
same, and then with all ot these precau- ing.
lions you have many times met with Let. us have a little increase of duty or
very indifferent success, at the same time such fruit at least as comes immediate-
never reaching the far distant markets yIv in competition with our own, as that
of the-Atlantic seaboard. Bv the use of from Mexico, Jamaica, Nassau andc
cold storage, as applied by the Inter- Cuba. If our State press will take ur
Ocean Cold Storage and Shipping Corn- this subject and print a copy of a pet,
pany, you will be enabled to reach these lion from the people to the Legislature
markets with your most, perishable fruits, to rremoralize Congress to take -sueh
thus opening up to you a much larger action, we will all cut it out and get
field and bringing ,our fruits in less signers and send them on to our Repre
competition with each other, and at the sentatives and have this thing done u|
same time your rates of freight will not at once. We must not wait-wait-
be nearly as high, for by this system wait any longer. These foreign orange
a difference of two or three days matters are what trouble up, and they are im
not, asTthe fruit knows no change. For ported by our own business men and
example, last season while you were shipped from here as Florida fruit
paying $6)0 per cir fur express service Firms in Mobile, I have heard, do thi
on grapes, they were being taken by the same thing Now we must act, and
cold storage- process from-Santa Ana to what. we propose must be done at once
Chicago for $230, a saving in freight or two years of benefits will be lost and
alone o'T0 in favorof cold-storage, be- one more crop sacrificed.-
sides having your grapes delivered there Our Railroad Commission, I hope, wil
in a much better condit on than when compel the roads to take our produce a
hauled by express, and netting a profit the rates given and not double, as i
instead of being called_ upon to remit often the cabe through 'overcharges.
from this end to pa.y tlhe freight. How abominable is this I regret tha
One more poitt, gentlemen, and I will nothing is said of the delay of fruit it
trespass no-farther upon your time. We transit, and expect that an additions
have'heard read in this'convention a let- clause in regard to this should be passer
ter saying that it took from four to five yet.
days to prepare the fruit for a haul of Now^ in conclusion, all I have to ad'
from sixato seven days' duration, and a is that we are going to have more trouble
.second preparation foralonger haul, and in the next two years than we have eve
the additional preparation of the car for had with transportation companies, an
the same purpose. By our system we all this will result in the Government
can prepare your fruits in twenty-four operating mail transportation and tele
hours,.as a usual thing, and never to ex- graphic communication, as, Englanc
.ceed'forty_-eight hours, for a "haul if needs Germany, .Rfssia and other advance
be'to New Yorlk'City and return. countries have had to do. May it be s<
Again, Mr.: AUegretta closes his letter WE. P. NEELD.
with the assertion that "fruit treated by PrNELLAS, Fla. .. "
the: cold storage process commences to :- -- "*--- .
'decay as soon-ae'removed." (These may There is good authority for -the state
not-be-his exa.it wotds, but they convey mnent that cotton seed meal is worth $.
the-same idea) Gentlemen, in refutation per ton as a fertilizer.
PLANTING CROPS UNDER TREES theboles with cr.ii-oil, and allow the HOW OUR PAPER IS REGARDED. inviting in appearance, i purinsentip-
.tump to remain undisturbed frro two mert, and progressive in pricipl,.and
How the Orang-e Grove may be weeks. The oril will be permeating the surely must succeed."
HOWwood after it has all disappeared from A Few Comments ofCorpes- Mr. S. A. Steven. of Sumter county.
Used in Unfruitful Years. the holes, and the oil in the holes will pondents and the Press. writes: "I am in love with your paper,
BY MATT COL- MAN. keep out so much moisture should there Mr. L. H. Armstrong. of St. Nicholas. but amn taking so many now that until
Th airefteodgt'esoom be rain. After the oil has all disappearedl.sm
1BY8~. O batherehave been several dry diappeareys. Duval coun rmstrong, mt t n o e subscripiion runs out I can't take
ilureofthe orange treostoblom -Dual y.n rwrites under (laet.f,
iThe aiu e o ti -l"e trt o an8, threhave been severe dry days set r. 'TD FR >more. but calciilate to be a subscriber to
is due evidently to the reze of 1886,he stump on fire on ,the wriidwar'.wi.iJ? April .6th : NTDFLOREDA FAR.ERANu p. so "
which must have killed tihe fruit buds o nd iwi t, e ern- h t.he ee ugof r'd FRUIT GROWER hbas far surpaudsdoexpee- .t dde pe r. .. so woul
the fruit produce ing wood. It appears adt wof e It ,hs.ahe pieso ofn tret Fo bcT reMeR. faa ,ua and, o en and ea ,p-
that it takes two or even three year to remaining in tie soil will be pulled up an It oed. l i6g t on m yosp. uii Halifax. w ites as follow" c n"I am akth-
oidutces cfritwin under 1uh ear by tihe p low, as they have s.ot thr sp- pags in the o ot lraid,' p.il- alia. s: -
stances. Th aispresents aufielde for s~cie-port. Bering. he,-veS in a stump froiem ties in fruit. forage. live stock and in the ing ten papers on agricultural subjts,
view of the subject., my, experience d e ithi to burn, and the think TBr. FARMER D FRI iT t.OWEa g rf Pensacola whose-,
obserataion pro, it to elcorrec. Ti ,aroun wh the waodbeing filledbv 1oigtur development tofb had or tv farmers of hidden anr M if asked to a rrendr the Fca RMER
tific investigation. I shall e notounder- arun owhic the eaa aihs eotrhee s .r AND FRuirn (uRowEsR, I would tell them
takelto discuss this question msehll bb t and filling them wit oil is eer fly Mesganes B a t take the other nine. but leave me
wil=aythatIcolbeI-undwtotteilwhlLadad IpoeetCw ny while there appear 'ob The part of the stump above the groiendl Mr. Irving Keck, of the Bowl-ing(..recn that. May peace and plenty an -d yeatis
vdens conflicting with the abore o ul luneith of grace be given you to continue the
ie another subject, ray no experiencet p and epartbelow tl face will not bt un. subscription agent, writes as fol- May2d : e-
observations proving it to be correct. This because iis turet to bur, an tle think TE FAIR-MERA ND Fit1TGROWER good work.FA
being thae caseen the pioneers of Fleorida Ha oodng observing filled byyour adveioture the beater an agriculturals point of dulyMr.ece J. V. Dand s t he best thing o ts .
)ithe i;s i zcluded. id.W lasgtnwieas from it." -eminent success in truck gardening, as
go eas, potatoes, pumpkins, squashes, Swng rye, I will give you someof The agent I would not be withUzaar. Stake, w ell a s h is able writings just to hef paprop ic-
dofwn and w.ait untilsa theriitltreesiuoumatureec
another crop? I say no, letusboup-and Experiments with Rye. Bradford countywoi ews-d'paler ntlehsoiouorept, e Xpresses
doing. Editor Florda.Farinea and F~i-roe. and subscription- agent, writes as fol- himself as follows: --t'The, first~-number
I -ha8ve seen the pioneers of Florida Havigbserved your advice about~ lows : "THEFAMRNFUT-RWRo h FARERAxDFErtG OE.R was
pumpkinsassquashes, iadwig re wl0ie o oe fm is the, paper in an agricultural- point of duly r~ecei ved a nd is t he best Lthing i n i ts
grow peaskinpotatoses, v yIwl gv o oeo yIew I would not be without it, and way I have seen. It is; just, the paper,
watermelons, cassava, arrow root and .experience. In December, 1885, I honestly advise all workers of the soilto needed, andi if you keep it up to the pres- -
even sugar cane, all undergreen timber. sowed about two acres of rye, paying an subtcrie for it." t standard of excellence must become .
The best potatoes I have raised in Flor- extra price to get Southern-grown seed u O eo rtinent citizens tfAt. putlar wit the people, l cant see.
ida were planted under green pine tim-, of a seedsman in Jacksonville. My rye One of the prominent citizens of At- pwepular with thve let any room for can't see
ber; also the best stock pea I grew here amounted to nothing, and I did not get lanta, Ga., writing to the publishers of here ou have left any room for im-.
on the same class of land. Rice of Flor- one-fourth of my seed back, I blamed the F. F. & F.-G., says: "Your l sten- provement."of Orange -
idaraised seed will grow and mature myself for sowing it too late. I tuOre, the FLORemarkable one frD FUthe county, writes: W.Your able paper fins. of Orange
under forest timber. Turnips.will do the In November, 1886, 1 sowed some of GROWEa, is aremarknical exone for the couwanty, long feltes: "Your ablet paper a Iod ag-
same. Tomatoes and nearly every article the same seed, but it failed to grow. I beauty of its frmechanical exectio and aroriate charwant long felt in thiSuccess part for a good ag-
produced in Florida for the Northern then engaged some Florida seed, but t i r and selected rac ricultural paperev. T SuMoore, of Mari you."nty,
market, can be grown under green tim- there was some hitch, and T again. ter of its editorial uow how wriselected matter. Rev. T.Wbe. Mdore, of Marion county,
ber here in winter. .bought seed grown in anotherr .tate. Be Profesor Curti evidently i-u powr nlv; h ow w rites: "I believe your paper wil n eas : a .
I will give my plan for growing crops fore I was readyfor ow ing, however, I te werk. a ndkuowle--e i- power' only good work in disseminating ne ideas in
in this -manner. I clean off the under had an opportunity to get some ge nine when there nis indomitableener-v behia. regard.to fruit raising, farming, stock
growth, burning nothing but the logs Florida seed. This I sowed December it. B ut I need not preachis usi of to.. he A veteran nurseryman w. objects to
and knots, rake the leaves and trash into 27th, i6 thin land beside the .ther seed, on this topic, as h-is pushing of the A veteran nurserman,%vwo bjctsto
twenty-foot plots, leaving every alter about two acresin all. The Florida see, dTimes-Union to success over or through te publication of is name, expresses
ate plotcleanfortheplow. I pul ver ize has grown splendidly Atthisdateitis mountains of opposition and difficulties himselfthu-: "I like your paper first-
th-se plots well, then mark them off 3 about five feet high, and apparent lyfill. insurmountable to a man of less daring rate, atd believe it will be the agricul-
2 feet, plut plenty of manre in the ing well. I t will be read.to cutvi ih;in and persistent qualities, clearly proves." turalI paper of Florida. I hope after a
checks, using cotton-seedn o meal, stanure in re month. well It wll r t ut i reat agricultural journal, little hi to give you an article every -
tS^^ lir' uliv to a;ndB ni~s o Dime,- Fan- -et;.
KS ^ l ot; us ee o m asa lo r o u :^-- ^ S' Sv ^^ ^ -- .'' .
cow-pen manure, or a plenty of muck, My advice is sow rye if you can get the Southern paultivator ari Dixie Far- heuB." o. at .-
Sthrowing a double handful of unslacked seed that you know was -grown in mer says: "TheSuccessof teFLORIDA Mr. H. G. Daitniels, of Amelia Islanod:.
ashes or a handful of stonelime in each Florida; otherwise, as Punch said about FARER ANt FRislT-(fROWER` of .Jack- Judging f rom what I have seen. f the
check. marrying, "don't. K. itionville, surpasses that of any similar FARMER AND FRUIT-tgROWER. it is the
This should e done in the month of BOWLING GREEN, Fla. publication in America. The publishers best agricultural paper published in the
October. Then procure some good var- b 'ay 2, 1887 seem to be over-liberal in giving th- South. I pred R it imene.sucNess. for it."
ety of Irish potato seed from the North. [Wehope some one in the Pease Creek mechanical part every attraction pos Mr. Arthur Brown, of I Santa aRosa
Place them one by one on the ground country, where rye has succeeded so ble, while Editor Curtiss i doing the co.nt-, wtites- "Judging- by the -copy
adjoining plot on- to the one planted.' Watering Plants. 111., writes, Under date-of Apt'i! 9th: "l, ida with a paper that will please them,.
The plot should be c,.mplet~ely covered, Plants that are likely to require wate~r- th~iu'kyr pYia~p.er the beusthagricultural [ am tr~aveling through ithev country .
under a shade, partly cover the wir:thatwell, will obe so planted of tha is valuable best work of h is life. It i a combina- sent meg the raperis, A No. ,' anddo
straw, athe longer if it should be dry weather, grain for sale next fall. Failures with tion. J.hat cann. Pf-it, ot Manatee, writuesas that I can assit youi a single nuheerfully."
burned Over.- hie-h enouglh'to drain well, and yet be follows: "*I look upon your paper as'done." -
throw water one lean plot where day un this and some other crops arelargelyduntre The of Cultivator is never sorry to sealuable additions touh Mr. SV. LN. Culler. commission me-Florida,
they turn a lasittle gremoved, wiorh, in No mallsub and trees should signs of tohave the use o our agricultural interests. It is ably i we havPhiepnoia, rites: "Haing
rem ber or December can be seeded down gn,,n flat around them, withea ridge a 'edited, practical, directs attention .Is received the first issue of rouragricul-
;n~rice. In the following spring theeIri-,h tfo'otfirom tlie tree to hold the water. | matters of primary importance in: themal paper, and being delighredwtth its
potatoes can be takenup and ..eet po. -\Vhen small plants are in a row, a drill evelopment ot out" various ,ndu s ;t ones p e wish Tou to insert our ears for. "
tatoes put in Their plut ace. ee out can maby bme too old or not adapted to kethe climate. 'rrs with it spirit owish energy anlsu- writes: continueto make the
sprutig. iva jelou9of FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER
be cut and plant one in eachs put chen its place. ; H.C running awayc This dr enterprise that must address s.sel to ev- -
equltom the firstnuober,, youa wilter,
Asksooe alls the straw and trash frot bom the ih water. hen the Prysearciher after formatoMn. ily furnish he agriculturists,.of Flor-
oing cu plot o n to the one planted.e r soaked in fill the dri with ites, under dateof Apresil 9th: of ida with ora paper tat will please them.
eyes on the stubble From these new dirsoth moisture will not dry outa proval which are coming to, us daily eru S-tate.s in, m~aler~al progress. It"
shoots should be Completely cove mre d. Pv. Ift a crst hay ormed oq t om corrspodentsad the pres., and oug
a nd better peas tha ,i> le orig aina vine gro ndl, break it up with a hoe or rake from the rapid increase of our subscrip- nPe0"^ uj;'0 ....ree0a1^ t om
anwOuld have o de Trouhe yeow specae before watering; the water will SOak in ion list., it is evident that the FRM am" traveling through the country
teodIb g 0 eter tant Plants arre likely to requ, z
pea is thel most reliabs -It s is t y at bettneranddomoregood. Durigadrouth n e FRUiT-GROWeR lS t.eamong the farmers, and in every way
on o anda bn pea ut o n w a o denc.g one n wo ee s is ould favoah.e recent, of Manatee, writes as that I can assist you itwibcheerfuy
burnede o"nt ~e, n over.ete hn lgh ae n vryra;Ituetoen t .v -' -
u is leavesr. e cea plot w he h nough to drain well, an yet be followsI^ looknpothn your paper as done."
alternated with eanm other wop thi at with a little incline to the cene.I one of t'e most valuable additions to Mr. W. N. Jusurter ticeon. missionn M-
straw" was lasan-- tamoved, which, in Nostagricu tural tu u, ,u-u .
grmeror Decemb ercannbe seeded o ae and flowers f Small shubs and trees should have t he' our interests. It is ably chant of Philadelphia, writes: "Havinga
The;i In the following spring the Ioreh ground Bat around then, did not grow a eited, practical, directs attention e reei the first issue of youmber ofagricu-
ttoe ca b e tak o tip Y "tPoot from the tree to hold the water. matters of primary importance in the tual paper and bt teing delighted with its
potatoesocanbe tke upetb and setfie dampWhen small plants are in a row, a drill development of our various industries. tonewe ish you to insert, our card for.
atimeru winl thei plae.to aasthe riescan yot ber' m erfctl r.T uh e- ^f ihu er nalteadgnrcmk p h' h d
orange groves. I have growing tt e ace his drma dt weather, but does the and carrie s with ita sprit of energy an. d tsix montuished edis.r Many of our
t oeu at this time nder ol sin trees lokm "- aer froi ru OUning away. This dr enterprise that must address itself t ev- an
SAs .oa epeshwsnoflo re filled with water. When theory searcher after infrmation."r mtees re
log cut it for hay, leaving two or three shw ldtereassoaked i ilIh dilwrhIomtbeidhe exasiFster Soth
as we on as those not under trees. The so i wat Judging from te expression. of a- Florida is nob ethin dheriter Soth
oont is to ue fertlzers suceut tor m i so the ith your olantshiteu proval which are coming to us de a ily eru States in material progress. It
abth tree and peant, th wi vegetable inequickly.I c h ,o tefrom correspondents and the press w an d ought to be called the land of fruits andhy
pang w would have made. The yellow speckled grund, b reak it upheir with are thirsty for rake from the rapid increase_ of their patronage With best wishes
thu .e t up an ....ed gond whe ua.. ,, -: ";.^ + t ,,nn ,w hih com n im ent for-its success, we welcome e this new as-
pea is the ost reliat to ble.otm i t i b e he te t how much I tell tem soaking list, it is evident that the FARMER ions f hor ticulture are equal athome
Si ton et eatuate randte eait for at leasur. ot NDFr IT-GROWER has met" ita more there. Tasred of the good work it willFuT
old land hush pab .. but.l around dreaching once in two eeks is' vor. able reception than we had en. GRcWERmpish an ably conducted and ele-
Iit inclines to run to vine like the oth er. bt. t tih ant.a t leat teri gallons at fessor bology n the Agr.eutltual pOl-p-- edvh .e ,
running varieties Tuillese ploflrish nf given that tege of Misse "pp'. g t Ly pri ae .rdeved tothe -
: HOW to Tell a Ripe Melon. amounti once in t.-vo or three weeks, Ln.'e Stock .JotOrnal: "His [the editor'sJ ".We are eontinually receiving new
Salternated with any othen leftr crop that will Many persons in dr heven die valuable paper already appearing in the agricultural ventures, but useful as theyreader
is t m e entat beome hard ife plants daily teverby washing te frst numbers are fulfilling ou epecta- are in further own special fields, we rarelyon.
growin inte. -omdus' ,timent ot a letter by quoting (ene or two
gro in ne.folae andflow ersfree dutwho
The roots and feeders of the forest igeau3oesr sentences. as in thie following examples: [From the So. Live Stock Journal. 1
timber, being dormiant at that season o~f wonder why their plantE (lid not grow-11 Prof. S~. N. WVhitner. of thle Agricul- -We regret that the first number [of
Santhe year br will note asorb the u ndter n flourish. They never noticed that turalColege of orid They may be fully -bnd in them anything of special interest
tim-eur will, gier theinse rackor growing plants require double the relidedmyM upon-stsafor concientieus correct. hand the intelligent clas to paper, typography
The swanreiults can be achieviAsu in roots perfectly dr esting. Plants nes of statement and scientific accur- for whichtheal make up, whe' the add-
Osign hg th e melon is ripe and has ma- inI small pous need wateung whenever ads y out tailing calder. We were, therore epcted ofeab
grove, have geeintheris dry. erdusty iate, but does thao o
foesat ts timeon rdeminsr on the vlokin pe ventthirt? do you etsoe me M cou t saysn : Certainly of exchaengies on ouredtabler. Manyo2 of tour
pas erl matured, thesinot unde rc the groueme you are dting a geod work in establish- to find it of a very high orreroc lndel-
-point is to use fertilizer sufficient fr taka good big drink i at e ng an enlightened and scientific system genre, and ar ne which must have an ex-
Swhireeo and paleant, ll vegetables raise that is the wa 'ith s'our plants-i of agriculture, which heretofore has cellent effect in fotering Floridas inter-
P examination numerous small pimples stems need a great deal more water than been seriously neglected. orperset.
" w be noticed on the surface, p freshest to wah the otst from theirMarch5thwrites: am Florida. and wecordiall commend thi
Spayinglvon the fertilizersge The piles leaves. b-Sugart tBeirrots are thirsty for a asewi new and excellent periodical as worthy
thus kepet tip and improved, and when nage. W b A w
t or hatie coprematurely pulled. e godA Good Border Plant. Ro andshall read it regularlyof their patron W
S Sometimes tnowisaighcomplim foritssuccess.e desirable pale yellow we welcome this writing for the Sugar Bowl new as-
P condlor istion produced remaurely by ountifulr- deserved tribute o ha shrubby Ann
iiarvest. A..May 0, l~'e. te( saturate- tle e~arthi for at least. a foot for an editor to pay to an exchange." prnfopulcavrnd atnge
Sing this part o the mel to the sun for plant whieach plai one ofpln twohe hardiet orna- i DL. Phae. the eminetro- feelin.are of the good work it will
da or two, but the yellow thus prohiegallns afessor of biology in he Agricultural ol accomplish in and out of Florida. ,
due .4f-uh epe hae -Ti, ifeedtaighpwants cliat eda, ria
aiman illflouris if given that lege of Misss ippi. HAMMOCK LAND OR BEARING OReNGE GROVEs M ly]
Connection wit the aRipbsence of pimplesMelon, amount once in altvo o three weeks, LaeStockJoral:His [the editr'sWe are continually receiving nw
The rinds of maelot-is when left on the when it woeuleddrooep, pei haps even die., valuable paper already appearing in the agricultural ventures, but useful as they
Swill readily tell thure gexperiencrally be ye howard if Moerelyg shru growing five or six feetexpecta- are in their own special elds, we rarely
and the pucolor was produced whenuner In watering pot plantsweeber that on and prediction. Theymay be fulytd in them anything of ecial interest
Pressure, you hear the inside. crack oir growing plants require double the relied upon-for coryjcientie'us correc- 0teinelgntcasofh`9 uloit
e au the skin will readily peel, leaving a may, without injury, be pruned as low th ini
Sard, shelly appearance, it de a good in a ed u has hard, woody stems -- C.Lof statement and sietific accur for which the Gardeers'onthlybasto
Sdicatiogn that ae melon is ipe, and also ifan small pots nehaped leaves. Its bloomswheneverac of detail." caEr. We were, therefore
Ut urged wvell on the vine. thie -earth is dry. even if it is twice arclay, Hon. J. Win. Ewan,.writingtfrom surprised on reading among
Signs are rarelymains onat the visame ntil whilm e thos N ovember, are abouts will not neean it MiamiDadnchCeraily of exchanges on our table, No. of tis,
tprperly mature presence, theside of an onthe grois sufficient more than once in three ofour days you are dng a god work in esblis- to find it of a very high order of intelli-
will he found to have changed from a Anotherg biing to remember is ihat suc- lng an enlightened and scientific system gence, and one which musD have an ex.
wie to a pale yellow ntoe upon close culents aondnear the ends with sof the branhes and of agriculture, which heretofore has, excellent effect in fsteing Florida's inter-
American Garden. ples stems need a great deal moby red bwaterries, than been seriously neglected. Your paper
m are quite as ornamental as the flowers,
will be noticed Burn Out Stumpsrfac, as'u they arewith hard an inwoodh in diameter andsiff
d A corresply onth dent of tuer he Country ppen- look like tiny apples. It p a
never appear on those that are not ripe 1o,
teman tells ho r have been prematurely pulled. A Good Border Plant. ius p b t ONH HIA.
S opetimes the desirable ptlsue p oae f o a lo i yellowfAuad wt f he g B
P coorh isp roducedgpre awab- ir atht ssr, o Vtre I ls we- o
ce's or i e roundtetump pay andeserved tribune ptoa half shrubby -
-ing depths of ar foot, and'amelongto the rootsun for pbloomingch is one of the "'ardiet orna- .
mideofAgst hepatsxpsedwl "etr horticu tursadi es prn o. nu .. %-,^s,_; .- ..-.... "* -,-
a. hdayeor two, hut the yellow thus pro- mental- plants cultivated in Florida.
wduced is of much deeper hade. This, in She says: .
connecting the auger about ona level with he gape last year's wood should e yothe absence of pimples, The Aeaaatiscus is a fe FOB REST OF HAIMOCthe LAND OR BEARING ORANGE GROVES.a -
will readily tellce of the experienced eyeinclining it cut awin the.rpring. Each bud left loerayey .
?0 downward onlyl edlh to keep the oiln will thout injury, b e pruned aring thCntreotheLake Rglowon Forrherpatulradre, EEDPittm
She appearance, it is a -dae filled. Fill branch. has hard woody stemsOOAD
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, MAY 25. 1887.
peatedly experimented with the two ble, according to the means employed well water were not so perfectly pure as
dt, teams to ascertain which could plow and the circumstances and conditions, it is..
the most land and haul the most manure all which have more or less weight in In this climate where bathing is so
in a given time, and became convinced the matter, conducive to health, nothing could- be
MAKE FARMING PAY. that the ox team was more valuable for We shall call your attention to. their more sensible than a tank in the second
-- both purposes. things, all which we hope you will con- story for the children to swim and splash
What Southern Farmers Have In plowing the horses moved faster in sider should you arrive at the conclusion in. The water, of course, would be sup-
n effort the furrow, but the oxen made the round that Florida has no resources. If they plied to it by a waste-pipe leading from'
Done By Making an E t. of the land first, because they lost less are not utilized it is no fault of the State th main tank.
We frequently hear it said that "farm- time in turning. Inyery warm weather and we should give credit where cre;lit I have left myself small space in which
ing is not profitable in the South." the oxen did more work and were less is due, let other things be as they may. to speak of drainage. It is a subject of
Neitheris it profitable anywhere unless fatigued at night than the horses. Each section in the State claims to have supreme importance in all Southern cli-
it is done right. Nor is any other busi- While at work he fed both teams alike, "the garden spot," and we conclude that mates. Every house in Florida ought to
ness profitable unless pursued with sys- so that the cost of their food was nearly the spot covers about the whole State, be built on a slight artificial mound, and
te, judgment and management. MinMm- equal. At other times the expense of and where one has lived the longest, the eaves-water, slops and wash-water,
ing only pays when properly conducted. keeping the horses was double that -of that spot seems best to them. if not saved and used for fertilizing pur-
Banks only pay under judicious man- the oxen. poses, ought to be conveyed wholly
agement. The cost of a yoke and chain for the IDEAS ON HOUSE BUILDING. away. Unless it is practicable to have
Farming pays in Ch'na on land that oxen was nominal, but the expense for ID*AS ON tHUUE BUIL ni. the well .in a place where no offensive
has been cultivated for two thousand harness was much greater. The oxen -- matter can pos-sily seep into it, the
years. Japan, with a population cover- required less care than the horses, and 1. 1 l drinking water ought to be obtained
ing almost its entire area, finds farming it took ess time to attach them to the -1.-Cellars, Cisterns, Drainage, ,from a -istern tank, as above mentioned.
a source of profit. Switzerland, shaded plow or cart. For poor- farmers, espe- Kitchens, Etc. The Florida -sand purifies all things.
in 'mountains, with its tillable lands aially those on new places, he considers filters all things, but when the filter itself
lying a most perpendicular, employs oxen every way preferable to horses. BY S. POWEIRS becomes foul from constant use, what
its industrious citizens in profitable They cost less when young and sell for One of the most agreeable of the let- will become of the well-water? The pio-
agriculture. Holland, with its soil be- more when old. They are less liable to ters I have received from the readers of neer prejudice in favor of a spring or a
neath the ocean level, rewards the labors disease and accidents and are at all times the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER was well fifty yards from the house, though
of its subjects with profitable returns, attended by less expense. To have oxen from Mr. J. E., or Wellesley Hills, Mass. entailing great hardship on the "women
The bleak, sterile hills of New England, do the same amount of work as horses After some mention of Lawtey (which folks" who have to carry water, makes
where crops must be planted, cultivated it is necessary that they be of a lively the writer had seen), that is almost, too strongly for health where the drainage is,
and matured in a brief season, swarms disposition, and he considers the Devon flattering- to be reproduced here, he so little looked after as it is in the rural
with its hardy sons, prosperous from the as superior to animals. of other breeds, adds: "I venture to ask a question that districts. In the Florida sand water runs
toils in the fields. -They must be well fed while at work. often occurred to me during a visit to freely everywhere, and it is enough to
But here in the'South especially do we With a good season and proper man- Marion county, Florida-where I ha ve a make one shudder to see with what care-
hear the complaint that farming don't agement the farmers of the South may small place-viz: Why are not cellarrs lessness slops and garbage are cas oni the
pay." It is because of the-modes adopt- not only m-ike a good crop of cane, rice used under houses in Flobida? So far as ground in the vicinity of the well for
ed, and the- inattention to the business, or cotton, but corn and forage-sufficient I observed they seemed very few. I years together.
Nowhere in the world can farming be to feed their stock. Every day that can was sometimes told that they would be It is of the greatest importance, in this 4
made to pay better. We have' the fer- be spared should be devoted to saving hot; but I could not see how, with a damp climate, to keep the surface dry
tile fields, and when fertility has been hay. house standing over to shade them, they under the house, if a cellar is not dug.
suspended, the means available and easy could be otherwise than cooler than the It is my purpose, before another rainy
of access for their restorat on ; good .ea- TRITE QUESTIONS ANSWERED surface." season comes on, to have a coat of ce-
sons, favorable climate, and convenient The same query has often presented ment spread over the ground under my
markets for every product that grows. itself to me. It seems natural and inevy- house, and that covered with a thick h
Every practical experiment demonstrates Home Manufacture of Cotton a itable for the Northerner to dig a cellar layer of air-slaked lime. Colds, coughs, a
the wonderful productiveness of our soil. Prime Source of Economy under his house and build his chim- moldy bread, mouldv books will be
S A few years ago a prominent fertilizer e ou .c RE o y. neys inside, and for the Southerner to prevented by this. The insidious damp- a
manufacturer of Atlanta offered pre- BY S.-L. REED. dig no cellar, put his chimneys outside ness of the cool Florida nights, following
'miums for the best yields of cotton and We are often asked, "What are the and surround his house with a verandah so soon after the heat of the day, isone i
corn on one acre and on five adres. The prospects for your town?" Ws answer, The external chimneys and ample ve- of the most unfavorable features of the t
crops of the four leading contestants for On a level with most other places of the randahs are well enough in this climate; climate. There ought not to be a room i
1885 were 66% bales of cotton on twenty same age-not very flattering just now, but is it well for the. Northerner to in the house shut up continuously. The L
acres, an 'average .of 8U bales of 450 but we are hoping soon to develop some abandon his cellar' when he comes warm air ought to drift freely through -
pounds each to the acre. Each.planted of our hidden resources. You ask, what South?" 't all day, to dry out the dampness. II m
live acres in cotton in contest for the are those hidden resources? Many of It is not needed, as in the North, for the doors and windows are kept wide b
premium, as follows: them are not yet brought to light; that the storing of fruit and vegetables for open until 9 or 10 o'clock p. m., the i
Lbs. lint Cot- is, not sufficiently to.admit of their be- winter,' but in summer it is. The Flor- rooms will be cool enough to sleep in ; a
Name. Fertilizer. ton, 5 acres, ing made a source of revenue. idian does -not require a cellar for then the air should be measurably.ex- t
Geo. W. Truitt.... 3,600 i7,39 In order for any town to suc- warmth, but rather for coolness. It is eluded the rest of-the' night.
DanielH. Ponder.. 8,500 7,57; ceed there must "be some "back- not always convenient to have fresh veg- LAWTEY, Bradford Co. a
G.M. Davis & Son.. 2,000 7,544 bohe" to it. Agriculture will not tables all through the rainy season of l
R. W. Terry....... 1,500 6,X77 succeed by itself. There must be summer, and a supply of certain kinds p
manufactories of some kind that util- can be kept in a dry, cool cellar for sev- Advantages of Low Ceilings.. t
Total on 20 acres.10.600 29,876 ize the agricultural products, in order to eral months. Irish potatoes, cabbages, Rooms with low ceilings, or with ceil- T
Average per acre, 580 pounds of fertil- n ake a successful town. We raise the Hubbard squashes, pumpkins, etc., can. ings even with window tops, says the a
izer, 14,903 pounds of lint cotton. best of long staple cotton,-but it doesn't be kept for months in a sound condition Popular Science Monthly, are more read- n
This was a most astonishing result pay. It ought to pay, and there must in such a place. ily and completely ventilated than those
from land that, with ordinary culture, be some good reason why it does not. I have a friend who planted last Feb- with high ceilings. The leakage of air P
would have yielded about two hundred We think one of the reasons, and i may ruary Irish potatoes over nine months which is always going on keeps all parts b3
pounds of lint cotton to the acre. -But be the principal one, is because the profit old, being the remnant of the crop of the air in motion in such rooms. '
the. march of progress is onward, and g ew iato other hands than the group er's. grown by himself the previous spring, whereas, if the ceiling is higher, only v
another contest was arranged for the This could be remedied, in a measure, by They had ,been kept, simply under his 'the lower part of the air is moved, and 0
crop of 1886, with the still moreastound- a honie manufactory, so that all the house, as he had no cellar, in the North- an inserted lake of foul and hot air e
ing result of 92 bales on 20 acres. The- profits-would remain in the State, in- ern acceptation of the word. He used is left floating in the space above the P
following is the authentic report : stead of a very limited portion of it. freely from these potatoes all summer window tops. To have the currents of a
Fertilizer Lbs. lint cot- Another reason why cotton has been for hib table supply, occasionally rub- fresh air circulating only in the lower
Name. us-d,lbs. ton, 5 acres. unprofitable is because it has, in many bing the sprouts off as they showed a parts of the room, while the upper por- ,
J. C. Sims. ...... 2,00i0i 1,8$7 instances, been planted year after year disposition to grow too luxuriantly. He tion of ihe air is left unaffected, is really It
R. G. Ray.... ... 2,600 10,.'09 without fertilizing. This will spoil any has also kept here. iu good eatable con- the worst way of ventilating, for the n
M. M. Pyron...... 3.200 10.793 field, and of course bring forth unprfit- dition. Hubbatd squashes, nine mouths, stagnant atmospheric lake under the li
Geo. W. Trutt... 7.550 6,833 able crops. When weaettle the tfertiliz- Japanese persimmons until the last of ceiling-although motionless-keeps ac. m
ing question, that is, the cheapest way January they ripen in August. Last lively at work under the law of the ditf-
Total on 20 acres..15,351.1 41,3'2 of producing the best fertilizer, we think winter at the New Year'o reception in fusion of gases, fouling the fr, sh current g
Average per acie, 767. pounds of fertil- cotton will come to the front. But it this colony the table nas graced with circulating beneath it. With low ceilings a
izer, 2.u6m pounds of lint cotton. must be when we can raise a hundred dis-les of theie peisimmons in mnot lus- and high windows no suibh accumulation I]
There were some two hundred con dollars' worth from one acre, instead of cious condition, having been kept to of air is possible, for the whole height of tl
testants tor these premiums, scattered from five or six acres, as in the case that faie under the broadly extending the room is swept by the currents as the D
over Georgia, Alabama and South Caro- now. houses of Mr. E. G. Hill aiid Mr. S. A. dust of the floor is swept by the broom. h
lina, and the average of the entire two WVe have seen cotton on ihe high pine Bailey. Nothing could have been Low cellings'have also the advantage of C
hundred was for 1875, l bales, or 732 land eight feet high and from twenty- richer in the shape ot fruit-melt ng. enabling the rooms to be warmed with h
pounds ot lint cotton, and for 1886, over rve to tLirty-tive teeth in circumference, cool. Cleamny. smooth on the tongue, lt-ss expenditure of heat and less cost of tt
two bales to the acre. or 960 pounds, evely stalk filled with bolls of fine, soft heavy as butter, in fact, each of them a fuel. The above does not agree with the
showing that the first contest was not texture, and such cotton as this requires shining globe uf ftuit team, done up in generally a- cepted idea of the height of
the result of accident, but produced from very little stooping to pick it. Small transparent tissue paper. looms in dwellings, but the authority is (
the capacity of the soil under proper children, who are the principal pickers As I said above, there are several of g,.,od and well worthy of consideration
culture, as the contest marked the noted here. could only pick the lower branches. our mo-t est-erned vegetables which it by persons about to build.
increase. To be sure. we have ouly seen a few is almost impossible to have fresh from S__ ,
Now, what was done by these two stalks of t.hia siz-, but they giew where the garden during the rainy season, and
hundred iarinersfor Lkosuccessive years some stable manure had been thrown the chief of these is Irish 'potatoes. In Pine Straw as a Fertilizer.
may as well be done by two hundred out, andi seemed to say, "'All we want !s the spring it is too common for the -Inthe last number of the Southern
thousand for all time to come, barring plenty to feed on, and we will surprise farmer to ship all his potatoes off Noith Cultivator Mr. C. Menellas, of Savan-
drouths. floods, disease and unavoidable you." -to receive perhaps no higher rate than uah. tells how to utilize a product of the
occurrences liable to happen to all crops We think a tield for cotton should be lie pays Ly the peck for ihem all the S.-,uthern forests which mostly goes t:, L
in any country. The 960 pounds per covered with muck or humus, several next summer-and then buy his supply waste:
acre, or if you please, the 732 p. unds pro- inches deep. If it could be mixed with from the store ior the rest of the year: Pine s raw conta ns notable quantities
duced by the two hundred farmers, rep- stable manure, all the better. This whereas, he might easily keep his own of all the mineral ingredients required
resents a yield of the average cotton should be plowed in. Then there should until fall, if lie hail a well constructed by useful crop', there being a remark
planter from a crop of at least four times be cotton seed meal put in the rows two cellar, and then grow a second crop, able deficiency only of soda. By means
as much land, requiring all of four times weeks before planting, and you will get planted in August or Septemr.er. of pine straw. properly applied, we can
the work. It does not require a "'light- such stalks as the above. As the roots In some pa ts of thlie State, where there replace the drain on the soil caused by
ning calculator" to convince the most reach out they must find food to live on is a clay subsoil closely underlt ing the exhaustive crops. The producing powers
skeptical why the ol' method should be in order to develop and reach their limit surface, and where lthe water rises in the of a field for cotton, for example, could
abolished, and the mode of culture pro- of growth, if they have a limit, which wells nearly to the top in the rainy sea- be sustained and the soil even improved,
during these results adopted we sometimes doul t. son, a cellar would be imupiacticable, if. for every bale of cotton raised, we
But suppose, instead of following the A field of cotton in bloom is one of the unless veiy thoroughly cemented. But should return to it 1,4110 to 1.500 pounds
methods of the two hundred, that of the most beautiful sights, and could we raise these regions. I judge, are not nuimer- of pine straw and a few handfuls of
four should be adopted. And yet it can It to the size mentioned, its beauty would ous. common salt, provided only that the
be done, giving the planter of four acres be enhanced a hundred fold, as well as The problem of keeping milk sweet stalk and seed be conscientiously re-
a crop worth what, under hi.- present its financial worth. The blooms resem- twenty-four hours, let alone forty-eight, turned. Corn, wheat and oats would re-
culture, requires sixty to seventy-five ble the Northern hollyhock., a plant we is one'of extreme difficulty during the quire a somewhat larger amount of
acres to produce, and in this case, at one- have npt yet seen here. The okra plant rainy season. One of my neighbors not straw and the addition besides of salt
seventh the amount of labor, as one hand also has a bloom similar to the co, to'n only solves this problem satisfactorily, and ten to twenty five pounds of super- R
can easily cultivate the four acres, while plant, and the great wonder is how two but makes butter for sale through the phosphate of lime.
it will require six or seven to cultivate flowers so near alike in appearance-and spring and well along into the summer, The freshly fallen straw must be al-
the land necessary to produce an equal the leaves also are very similar-can by the aid of a stream of well water run- lowed to decavy in the compost pile, RA
number of pounds. produce such different results. The okra, ning under the pans set in a cool place mixed with lime or calcareous marls,
The result in corn planting is quite as as you know, turns out a long pod full under the house. And certainly this ashes and the like substances which
marked. In 1885 there were a hundred of a gli e oJ substance, tlat is very nu- could be done still better with a cellar. promote decay, but not plaster of Paris
Georgia farmers who contested for corn trntious. while the cotton flower produces Every notable housewife knows how in any large quantity. Pine hollow
premiums. The entire acreage planted a substance foreign to anything in the great a convenience and habor saver it is muck, marsh mud, etc.,. will also be use- DI
by three hundred farmers averaged 81 vegetable line, yet very useful to man- to have a hydrant in each room. or at ful in composting
bushels of shelled corn to the acre in kind.1" Nature is full of wonders 'hat we least in several of the rooms where water Dr. Thomas P. Janes recommends the
1885. In l86a largernumbercontested, daily pass by wirh-.ur giving them is used most frequently. The great dtfi- following formula for wheat or oats
and tte average was advanced from i81 scarcely a passing thought, culty connected with this plan in tle which will also answer for the clovers
bushels of shelled corn to the acre, to 102 Now, what we want is to raise the cot- North is the liability of an elevated tank and grasses: Lot manure, 600 pounds-;
bushels. The single acre premium was ton. and have here theproper machinery to freeze up in winter. The dwelling of cotton seed, green, 500 pounds; super-
taken by a farmer a bo raised 164 bushels for bringing it to perfection. my neighbor, Mr. S. A. Bailey, has a phosphate. 700 pounds: sulphate of
of shelled corn. As we have a superior raw material, tank in the second story over the ammonia, 60 pounds; kainit, 4l'pounds-
With these facts-revelations, as it why should we not be able to bring it to kitchen, with a capacity of twenrt bar total, 2.500 pounds. Mis under shelter Ge
were-why will not the farmers of the as high a standard of perfection? We rels, if I remember correctly, which gives the cotton seed and the stable manure -
South awake from the sleep that hlias so think there is no reason why we cannot, him and his family a great deal of satis- in proper proportions, moisten them Cai
long bound them and adopt the plain, and we hope to see some capitalist or faction. Receiving its water from a with water, apply the proper propor-
simple means at hand by which they can stock company take hold of such an en- pine shingle roof, and being itself wholly tion of phosphate and'mix thoroughly,
become independent, their homes sup- terprise. Then we could answer the constructed of pine, nevertheless it does shoveling into a massas fastas prepared. C
plied with plenty, and prosperity bless following question, which we are receiv- not impact to it any disagreeable odor The sulphate of ammonia and kaimnit iou
sheland.--Planters' Journal. ming almost daily from the North: "What for merely -lavatory uses. And to my must be disolved in warm water, and a inn
can I do to make a living should I come great surprise when I asked Mr. B. if the proportionate part of each sprinkled baA
Oxen.for Farm Work. to Florida?" water did not become foul during the upon the other ingredients as the heap
o Fr WWhile we think cotton can be profita- heated term, he replied that it did nor. is prepared; finally cover the wholemas&
A, gentleman who for many years bly grown here, we by no means think Ventilation prevents it. All the rain- with stable manure or scrapings from C
cultivated a farm inm.the vicinity of New that the only way to solve that vexed water used in my own house comes from the lot one or two inches thick
-Orleans, says the Times-Democrat, gave question. We want it solved, and, it an.outdoor pine tank set wholly above Allow the heap to stand in this condi- SOt
us-the result of his experience in using must be done if the State is to prosper, ground at the eaves of the house, New tion until thorougb fermentation takes -
oxen for powing. hauig mn ure and But a few who come here are able to live Orleans fashion; and the water from it, place, which wiU require from three to
other -farm work. He- stated..that he until their fruit is ready for market, though insipid and warm, is wholesome six weeks, according to circumstances
always kept oneteam of horses 'and one That may be two or there, years, and it to drink any time during the summer, dependent upon proper degree of moist 80
of medium, sized Devon _en., He re- may be ten years before i( will be profila- We should drink it the year round, if our ureand the strength of the materials
used. The fermentation reduces th(
coarse material and prepares it for th(
use of the plant. When the ground is
prepared; as directed, apply at least 50(
to 1,000 pounds per acre, broadcast, and
harrow it in. It will also pay hand.
somely to manure both meadow and
winter pastures; the latter are in fact
meadows without the expense of hay-
'making.; In the -whole Southern agri-
culture there.is no crop on which ma-
nure pays as well as in winter pastures.
* + + *
Waterproof Wood Pulp.
We are to have a waterproof wood
pulp board for roofing and barrel bodies.
Wood pulp is destined to become a much
more i'rpor ant factor in manufacturing
tlan it is at present. Paper can be made
capable of resisting 'fire and damp, by
adding to the pulp during the process of
grinding in the rag engine, so utions of
certain salts which by mutual decompo-
sition form insolube compounds.
The Seeds of Weeds.
A botanist has attempted to estimate
the number of seeds found upon single
specimefis of some of the most obnoxious
weeds of this country. For shepherd's
purse he makes the number 837,500 per
plant; dandelion, 12,108; wild pepper
grass, 18,400. wheat thief, 7,000; com-
mon thistle, 65,366; chamnomile, 15,920;
butter weed, 8,587; rag weed, 4,366; coin-
man purslane, 388,A(,0; common plantain
42,200; burdock, 38,068.
Restoring Fertility to Land.
A correspondent of the Country Gen-
tleman tells how an old field in Mary-
and was brought up by judicious man-
agement, as follows:
"The land was first sown to rye with
a liberal dressing of phosphates. This
was plowed under in May, to get some
humus into the soil. The land was sown
o Southern cow peas with another dress-
ng of phosphates. The peas grew lux-
riantly, and were plowed under in Au-
gust. The ground was prepared for
wheat and sown about the first of Ot to-
>er. The crop wa3 magnificent, yield-
ng35 bushels per acre. The phosphates
amounted to 500 pounds per acre, con-
aining 70 pounds of phosphoric acid.'
One year's growth of rye and field peas
and 500 pounds of soluble phosphate of
ime imparted strength of soil to an im-
poverished old field equal to the.produc-
ion of 35 bushels of wheat per acre.
The peas probably drew largely on the
-tmosphere for nitrogen in ammonia or
nitric acid. Rye would operate in the
ame direction, but in a less degree.
'eas and rye furnish pabulum for the'
best food for growing wheat. If the
acts are as stated it is safe to say an old
worn out field in Maryland worth not
ver ten dollars per acre, was so iniprov-
d in one year by one crop of rye. one of
eas, and 70 pounds of phosphoric acid
s to L.e worth $1010 per acie."
-Captain Rose, of Kissimmee. seems
:. have implicit faith in the sugar busi-
ess in Florida. He has started a six-
undred acre sugar farm near Kissim-
iee. He has put in $55,0Ni.) worth of
machinery for grinding the cane and su-
ar-making and intends enlarging his
acreage to seven 1unidred acres. The
hands selected for the pu pose are some
hat were drained by the Okeechobee
Drainage Company. The Captain now
as sugar cane waist high where he fot-
ierly ran a steamboat, and that where
ia residence now stands was formerly
he finest of fishing grounds.
'. L, L'E1 AE & CO.,
PRICES THE LOWEST.' -'
C. S. L'ENGLE & CO.,
ILEY, GROVER& CO.,-
STATE AGENTS FOR
ASIN FERTILIZER CO'S
SOLUABLE SEA ISLAND GUANO
SSOLVED BONE AND ALKALI
AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN
FRUITS AND PRODUCE.
t our Prices before buying.
nada Hard-Wood Unleashed
heapeat fertilizer in nee, and tree from nox-
s weeds. Supplied mn car lots of 12 or more
s. Guaranteed free of rubbish. Put up in
rels. Price and analysis tree on application.
ddresc, CHAS. STEV'ENS,
Box 44" Napanee, Ontario, Canado.
ONSIGNMEN TS OF EGGS,
CHICKENS FRUIT. AND
ELICITED BY COUNTRY PRODUCE
J. H. SUTHIERLAND, -
ifiJC 'o Tun '
DEVOTED TO THE-
This journal will have for its leading'object
the promotion of rural industries in Florida, and
will advocate especially a more diversified, and
intensive system of agriculture and greater
economy of home resources.
Assuming that the agricultural adaptations of
a large portion of Florida are as yet tbut imper-
fectly understood, a special aim of this journal
will be to describe the best results which have
been accomplished, with the exact methods em-
pl''0..'. .I l .all inil n d.- ar,.h Ong w 'i'h restlit;
also t:. cngc.,-i experienl,-(. *i.'i'nbe new or tile
knowr,n ire. frii, '.-'? 'nd r-'':1rd the progress
of agr.c:ulule .l IW .'lllb'l'rIng 'Itatei.
Commencing with the first number and con-
tlrhln Ln ,' ilu ii h t e seao.'n f,-r .
There i ll be : cserE,s arncie n fritas--other
than he. oef [tho irrus giroJp-wilebh have
pro.,ved ntoi.6tLuC:e51 E in tir iu Suite E.'iiih va-
i'ety wili lie cri,-irl bed and
Aud ine-r ',, il I, nta firvm i..erson 6 hro nave
had exl.err-nce in its ciiltivaiicn. This willlie
filoWed-'1 b at n'l irl' tr;-e On
AU,- W hl>-ilh'ri. e [ wiU I lllltrti ..l t, ininite
Mw lih aitteutLin nill l levi.ce.J to
Aii :. [tie n :i.u. pro:due, .n.rf forageind feridi
zert, iwo en(.u)inee- wlnih are essenna 10o Suc
(ev.c l frirnil g. ,- ..
Questions relative to ailiEuri s of domestic
ainials wivl bliianswered 1' an able veterinary
Eur;Ge.n wi. forle.rinl edit-l.:, a iLke department
Turf, Field and Farm.
A due amount of space will be devoted
household economy and to reports of t he ma
iets, and the department, of
iln be contributed o by persons who have made
specnJties of those branches.
All portions of the State will receive a due
amount of attention, and their interests will be
represented by able correpondents.
Under no circumstances will this journal be-
ome the organ" of any association or locably.
t will start out untrammelled and will repre-
ent all sections and interests with absolute im-
Published at Jacksonville on Wednesday
of each week.
PRICE OF SUBSCRIPTION:
ne Year $2.
ix Months ....................... 00
three Months "
SPECIMrEN COPITS PREE.
Address, subscriptions and other business comn-
SH. JONES & BRO,
Communications for the editorial department "
ounid be addressed to -
A. H. CURTISS, Editor, ..
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MAY 25, 1887.
Tle Florila Farmer amd ruit Grower,
A. ]f. CURTISS, Editor.
C. H. JoRBs & BROTHER, PTUBLISEzS.
Office Cor. Bay and Laura Sts.
THE FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER is an eight page48 column Illustra-
ted weekly newspaper, devoted to the Farm,
Garden, Orchard and Household Economy
and to the promotion of the agricultural and
industrial Interests of Florida. Itis published
S'Terms of Subscription.
For one year............ ......... ................$ 2.00
For six months 1.00
Clubs of five to one address...............- ..... 7.50
With daily TIMES-UNION one year...... 11.00
With daily TIMES-UNION, six months 6.t0
With WEEKLY TIMES, one year-... ... 2.75
w.Subscriptions in all cases cash in ad-
Svance, and no paper continued after the
expiration of the time paid for. The date on
the printed label with which the papers are
addressed is the date to which the subscrip-
tion is paid and is equtvalent.to a receipt for
payment-to that date; if the date is not
changed immediately after a new payment,
the subscriber will please notify us at once.
CORRESPONDENCE solicited on all sub-
jects pertaining to the topics dealt with in
this paper. Writers may affix such signatures
to their articles as they may choose, but must
furnish the editor with their full name and
address, not for publication but as a guarantee
ofgoodfaith. Rejected communications can-
not be returned. .
ADVERTISEMAENTS inserted to a limited
extent.. Rates furnished on application.
REMITTANCES should be made by Check
Postal tote, Money Order, or ,Registered
Letter, to order of
C. H. JONES & BRO.,
S. Jacksonville. Fal
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
FlIRST PaoE-Sounrern F'rhgv Crolps; Defective
iSetlixn; Mill. Mai'ze; The M.-leon Pipaw (It-
lusti'ctel); Laying Off Orchards; Planting
Vineyards on Pine Lands; The Persimmoi in
China; Origin of Cattley Guava; The Cam-
phorTree in Florida (Illustrated); The Cam-
phor Tree in Japan; Cultivating Dewberries;
A Good Use for Ashes ,etc-.
SzcoiND Paoir-Col-I S'sfig:t; trie Orange Mar-
ket; Plianin; 'Crop- Und-'r Tree-: H,.w to
Teli a Ripe Mln; How toBurn Ort Srormp-:
Ex.perirrnis with Rie; Watering Plants; A
Gioodi Border Plant -
TaiRDt PA.Z-Xake Farmning Pay: Oxen fyr
S Farmi Work; Trite Qiwuetl':.n Answeri-ed:
I-lea .:.r, H.e:.ie- Buildrg; A.l-aBtag'es vi L.:.'
Ceilings; Pine Straw as a Fertilizer.
Froors PAos (Edioriai)--'p'iai Mention; A
Few Wirds to Oar Fr,'n-l;: Ti'- Geological
Survey, Ind.-deendletr j.:'.j-irlism: The Ex.
perLMe-t ttati,)n Bdul; An Iuilp,,,itant Letter;
S A hrr.-e-Tuid Tale: Tien D.:.ee D)mnalut..
Fins Paor- Edt-,t, by Helen Hlrc.',urt i; Ou'
Home (Circi-; ,Co- Co.riet ; The Famil. Friern;
Oair YouDg F.lks' C:,rer
SIXTBe Pa1s-iCli' i0 r H.,rie-; Orver Rerhlno:
Reniedn-s for S',:arE: How to .JuIg,- a H.r-;
T.o E.niimate the Weight ,of C'arte: Dlirv ED-
S sage ExperneDces; Feed.ing; Prikly Pear [t
Sbecp; P,)sts about Meri'nro herep; DIesSeaes
oi Pouliry; Hatlhing Boxei, Tce Ap-ar..
r StieraN PAos-Fatrm MisceUsan- illultd-ae a;
;erial Story. "For Hn-or'e Saki," by Far-"
-EIoBTn PaoE--statr New-' m Bhi'ef; The Inljan
SKey Mamsrcre; HErini r. ,r.n'.,'pon'dents; May
-. Wtaener; New Y.:-.rk asn .TJacki.nivdie Mar-
" '' \ : kte..
S SPECIAL MENTION.
: We welcome to our corps of contribu-
tors two of-the best agricultural workers
and writers in the State, namely, Win.
SP.Neeld, of Pinellas, and J. Saundersa
S .Neck, of' Ocala, .Ir. Neeld is well
known as a *writer for the agricultural
S press, both of this and other States. His
first article, on the orange market, will
be found on another page. He seems to
draw a distinction between the Fruit
Exchange aud commission houses. That.
there is a jealousy and antagonism we
freely admit, and as one oif our corre-
spondents has suggested, this may be a
source of weakness. We wish some one
of acute powers of discrimination would
expolind to us the distinctions 'be-
S" tween the. Exchange and a commission
Professor Dubois' second article on
.grape growing for Florida will appear
as soon as cuts are [prepared to accom-
pany it. Professor Dubois is the accept-
ed authority on the %ine-ard, and by
the generous use of his pen he is doing
the State much good service.
We feel like apologizing for the long
interruptions in our chapters on Orange8
Culture Abroad., Matter which we con-
sider more important is continually de-
manding space, but we think we shall
resume the series in the next number.
We would call special attention to the
account of the Indian Key Massacre,
which will find place- on the last page
of this and the next number. It is writ-
ten by one of the four survivors of that
terrible tragedy, and will be found to
exemplify the trite saying that truth is
often stranger than fiction. Mrs. Hester
Perrine Walker is a resident of Fernan-
dina, and is a daughter of Dr. Henry
rPerrine, the most noted victim of the
massacre. Dr. Perr;ne was a botanist
who interested himself in the introduc-
tion of sub-tropical trees and plants to
our.shores about sixty years ago. In
S recognition of his Vervices Congiess
made him valuable grants of land,es-
pecially at.the Hunting Ground.
Indian Key, the scene of the massacre,
is a round, fls. rocky islet located mid-
way of the range of keys which borders
the southern coast.- In former years it
was the most noted rendezvous of the
wrdckers. Later, it was used by the
United States troops stationed at Key have said about the Fruit Growers' Asso- .INDEPENDENT JOURNALISM. P
West as summer quarters. Of'late years ciation, the Fruit exchange, the railroad -- a
no importance has attached to it, except and fertilizer companies. They comprise We have heard two objections raised e:
on account of the immense cisterns from many of our esteemed friends, whom we to the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER-first, d
which passing boats have been in the would delight to serve, but editorially that it is of inconvenient size for filing, S
habit of replenishing their water kegs. we cannot serve any interest which we and second, that it has too long a name. w
The island is covered.with rank, weedy believe to conflict with the interests of With the beginning of another year we d
vegetation, and with its strange and, the producers and tax-payers in general, hope to remove the first objection, but o
tragic associations and its ruinous yes- We know that there are pressing de- we doubt if by that time any subscriber tl
tiges of former occupancy, it is alto- mands on the State treasury, and as a will be willing to part with the old title, a
gether a dreary, melancholy spot. representative of the tax-payers we pro- It should be as music to anyone inter- o
Mrs. Walker has in memory many test against any disbursements that are ested in the paper and its objects. There ti
other interesting episodes of Florida's not demanded on most urgent considera- is the Southern Live Stock Journal an
history, and our readers may nope to be tions, exchange we esteem so highly that we f,
favored with a recital of them from time We expected that the Floridian and Dr. love to pronounce and write the whole o
to time. We expect also to have some- Kost would take exception to our article, title, and would not wish it abbreviated ti
thing more in the historic line from Miss but we did not expect such a descent by.a letter, and its letters are but three fc
Brevard's gifted yen. While referring from journalistic decency as is presented fewer than in this paper's title. Both v
to the ladies whose writings have graced in the articles by the editor and Citi- are thoroughly descriptive of the papers li
our pages, we would allude to two arti- zen." We have no doubt as to the iden- and their object. v
cles entitled Studies in Wild Plants. Al- tity of this particular citizen, but we But here comes one who thinks the $
though no clue was given to the writer's think he ought, in justice to all other name of our paper is not long enough t:
identity, any judge of literary style citizens, to unmask and come out from and would double it. -He loves to call it t
would quickly perceive that these arti- behind the bushes. This style of jour- "C. H. Jones & Brother's FLORIDA FAR- p
cles were written by one of the literati, nalistio bushwhacking we despise. Any MER AND FRUIT-GROWER." Thus it is des- a
They would have done credit to Bur- attack, over an assumed name, on an ignated in Dorr & Bowen's Floridian. t(
roughs or Thoreau. individual, calling that individual by Thanks for the courtesy, venerable con- CG
S name, which may be sent to the editor temporary, and if it be the reverse of I
A FEW WORDS TO OUR FRIENDS. of the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER, will courtesy, thanks for giving us an op- p
-- go into the waste-basket in double-quick portunity of dissipating an error in t
We hope that all friends of the FLOR- time. But-the editor of the Floridian which others may share. It is quite evi- a
IDA FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER will has a different standard of proprieties, as dent that the meaning intended to be V
assist in ext nding its circulation and is indicated by his editorial article, conveyed, in the above phraseology is r
field of usefulness. Show it to your which is composed of low slurs, inuendos that we occupy the position of a sub-edi- t
neighbors, and get them to subscribe for and perversions, tor; that we derive our ideas from Mr, I
six months, if not for a year. By getting When we called at the Floridian office C. H. Jones, and advance no opinions ;
up a club-see above rates-you can turn last summer and were shown a lot of not sanctioned by him. We presume t
an honest penny for yourself, while do- fossiliferous phosphates from Wakulla the editor of a political, administration a
ing us and the subscribers a good ser- county, we were led to believe that the organ cannot comprehend the idea of I
vice. If you are so disposed, send to us editor did not know the first principles free speech, 'and we shall not attempt to t
for specimen copies. Keep your own of geology, yet now he assumes to have describe to him a privilege which we en- t
carefully on file, and study the back the most profound knowledge of the Joy to the utmost. The editor of the
n numbers. or they contain a valuable science and to be fully competent to pass FARMER AND, FRUIT-GROWER is an inde-
fund of information. judgment on our knowledge "Citizen," pendent personality, and all ideas ad-
Remember that' thisis not one of the likewise, is a profound geologist! 1 Prob- vanced by him are his own independent (
ephemeral publications' which : are ably either of them would discourse by and honest convictions. We do not expect
springing up ci.ubinually, with so little the hour-on the specific characters of the editor of a political organ to recog-
means for support that they are likely to celleporce and reptocelleporarice with as nize such merits or to appreciate a jour- e
come to a speedy end. We are aware much ease as a gardener would discourse nal edited wholly in the interests of ru- s
that many have thus been led to regard on cabbages. The profoundly learned .ral industry. We would suggest, how- r
all ventures of this sort with suspicion, writer of the editorial in question will ever, that whatever promotes rural c
We beg to remind such persons that the admit the relevancy of these terms, if he industry makes things easier for the tax i
proprietors of the FARMER AND FRUIT- does not see the application of those we gatherer, the State Treasurer, the Public t
GROWER are the most successful and re- used before. We were only seeking for Printer, and what is more to the poifit, a
sponsible publishers in the S ate. They words of melodious sound then. How- for Dorr & Bowen's Floridian. Still, if t
planned this journal a year in advance, ever, we would not be surprised, if a well w6 have interfered with any prospective I
a nd all doubts as to its success were re- organized geological survey would bring jobs of the latter by our opposition to a C
moved before the' first number was a fossil troglodyte to light, and that proposed draft on the Treasury, we ad- c
printed. With this, the: 21st number, would go far toward paying expenses, mit, taking busine.s-like view of the
the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER may The learned anl indignant editor and subject -that we have offende -as one ]
be said to have arrived at its "-majority," .the learned and disgusted. "'Citizen" are does who step ( anr-.ther's corns unin-
and we doubt if any otherjournal of this as united in sentiment as if'theywere tentionally. .
class ever reached that age under con- united in person. They agree that we Because th, Times-Union daredto criti-
ditions more satisfactory to itn managers make a shallow pretence to geological cise some doings of the public printersthe f
or better calculated to command public knowledge, and that our opposition tc, a 0 "ridian assumes an attitude of hostil-
confidence geologica urey is promoted by jealous itytoward its editor and all his publica-
connaenc "' geolog caurrey is prouptpellbjealousy,., ...
We thank our many friends for their of any oue whoclaims to kuow anything tions'. All independent journalists and
generous-support during ourjournalistic of any science except botany. Now we -journals make personal enemies, who
"minoritv."andassure them that their could show these gentle, critics an reapt to be pretty noisy: but go among 1 I
favors shall be held in grateful remrem- article of ours more severe than any wthe people, and you will learn that ihe
favorsashallehe he-Id inegiaeefulhanydw
branceduringcomugyears.ofincreasing have written on this subject, aimed dependents suit them best. Th edi-
prosperity. Thanks to Mr. Bigelow's in- against a lengthy communication in the tor of a four .p ge weekly must have a
itial send-off, and to other causes, we are Times-Union urging a botanical survey very exalted opinion of, Mr. C. H. Jones
now sailing under good headway in safe of Florida.- We freely confess that we if he thinks that, in addition to the edi- I
waters, our sails swelling to the breeze consider geology to be of vastly more tonral and business management of an
and] all things piupitious for a prosper- practical importance than botany. Our eight-page weekly and an eight-page
ous voyage. article had nothing to'do with the merits daily, he undertook the FARMER ANDP
Sof geology as a science, and dealt strictly FRUIT-GROWER with the expectation of i
org ooya ce ca dd atsrc y gi% Ing p Iersonial te io ts lt ra 3
THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. with the matter in hand, namely, a geo- g i personal attention to its editorial
logical survey of Florida. This manifest pa'rn.
.A subscriber'who re-i:les in New York perversion of the letter and spirit four THE EXPERIMENT STATION BILL
City, in writing for back numbers of thle article shows that Eeitlerftfr.ie writers ;,..
F.RMPER AND FRUr GROWER, says. "I weic actuated by a de-i;r- to right a We are very glad to aave received the
am much taken itlh :it, as I believe it- wrung, but by deliberate irnt'ncioh, by -letter from Mr. li, tick which appears in
is honest," and he might have added, fair meansorotherwise, to,:,eEit.,y wihat- another column, for it throws, much
being" honest, you will make many ene- ever influence our exprec-sioins might light on a subject which we had not
mies; being honest, you will be obliged have. .. been able before to clearly. understand.
to represent things as you see them and The Floridiani's diatribes did not come The'relation. which the experiment sta-
not as others wish you to represent them, to our notice in tinie 0to notice them in tions are to.bear to the agricultural col-
and thus you will thwart or interfere our last issue, and we feel that we now leges appeared to be so-intimate thai we
with private schemes for personal ag- give them much more notice'than they apprehended that the new department. I
grandizement at 'the people's expense,, deserve. We oppose this raid on the miaht be absorbed and bcore little
and call down upon yourself the male- treasury from the standpoint of an more than a source of revenue to the
dictions of many intelligent tax-payer, and insist that it older institution.
'We donot claimtobe infallibe, knw- will amount to nothinglbut acompilatioiu We perceive, however, that thib are
ing that "man is proneto err even as the of well known facts to be issued as safeguards provided in the bill, which
sparks are tofly upward," and if any one public documents from tihe State printing ought to prevent a di version of the fund
thinks we err in dealing with men or office. Instead of such a folly as this we from its 'legitimate purposes. There is
things. he can always command space in urge a liberal appropration for a State to be a ceniral- supervision, and if the
our columns for a rejoinder,, that is, if chemist, to whom specimen- of rocks, stations cannot show W-orks adequate to
he uses language suitable for publication. 'marl, earths, fertilizers. etc., may be the funds employed, thete will bean in-,
It may be that the wealth of the Ini sent by any citizen of the State. That vestigation andreforp or a discontiaun-
dies" lies hidden under the sands of Flor- we regard as a demand on the public ance of the appropriation. The work
ida, but it is our honest opinion, which treasury superior to almost any other. accomplished is to be published in
we unhesitatingly assert, that no appre- That is the only branch of science for quarterly bulletins and':in annual re-
ciable addition to the wealth of Florida which Florida can afford to. make any :ports.. -
would result fiom the' employment of public outlay. Viewing the matter ,in. this light *e
one or a hundred geolog sts. It is more One more word with the Floridia, and think the alliance between the station
than probable that loss would result by wearedone. Don'tdubusa "scientist," and the college a very fortunate oni,
reason of the drain on ihe public treas- especially if in another column we are and thai it will lead to a reform of the
uty. : to be characterized as imbecile." Sci- college management, a 'esult which per-
There arb valuable clays in Florida! enlist is a'term so much affected by haps could not otbeiwise be reached
which ought to ke tested by a practical empirics, pedants ami charlatans that it in this State. The station will provide
potter;: iron ores awaiting capital for; is almost a synonym for brazen preten- practical demonstrations of the subjects
development; lime stonesand phosphates sion and humbug. Personally we are which take the lead in the college
needing exact analysis. We need no merely a student of nature and of human course. Facilities will thus be afforded
State geologist to tell us about these, yet nature, and a lover of all that is true and for a practical agricultural education at
if one be appointed, all these facts will beutiful in both. the agricultural college, and the latter
be served up. to us as brand new discov- finding means provided for so easily car-
eries by him and the State printer. We We expect soon to present to our trying out its legitimate mission, will not
knew, as a matter of course, that our readers a fine portrait of the originator be slow in heeding public sentiment,
previous article on this subject was op"'C of the famous Hatch bill and to accom- which, when a little more aroused, will
posed to the private interests of ceraiu pany it with the full text of the bill and demand such reform.
persons for whom we have the highest a history of the same. Look for interest: The lands of the Agricultural College
-esteem. So it has been with what we ing matter in the next number' of Florida .ire very suitable for the pur-
oses of an experiment station. It has tai'ed report of the operations of thele
fine supply of spring water, and all stations, including a statement of re-
xperiments with live stock may ye con- ceipts and expenditures." So long as
the stations do good work, and the kind
ucted here. In other portions of the of work that benefits the precticalfarm-
tate there should be experiment farms eras.and promotes the agriculture of the
ith inexpensive buildings. Intelligent stations, just so long there will be no
difficulty in getting the-appropriation
directors can befound, w believe, with- renewed annually. But if any State-
ut much difficulty. These will relieve tries to get the money and return no
he college faculty of additional care, equivalent for it, and endeavors to avoid
nd leave them free to devise and carry fulfilling the principle and letter of the
Experiment Station Act, there will then
ut a course of tuition based on the prac- be full cause for cutting off the appro-,
ical demonstrations at their command, priation from that State.
Havifig the Agricultural College lands You thus see that by getting the State
or use there will not need to be any interested sufficiently to provide the
land and buildings-for a station to uti-
utlay for land, except for branch sta- lize this fund must have 6'her buildings
ions, and the latter may be provided than that which the Agricultural Col-
or by the next Legislature. For pro- lege.udually has-and then by providing
iding buildings, implements, fertilizers, that the approiation shallbe made
annually by Congress, they are the two
ive stock, etc., a considerable amount strongest safe-guards over the expendi-
rill be needed the first 'year, from ture of the money. I hope that no efforts
5,000 to $10,000, we would say. Out of -will be spared to secure the judicious
he first year's congressional appropria- action ofthe Legiisiature ouf Fieda. and
to make it appropriate suffcient money,
ion $8,000 may be used for such pur- to provide the proper buildings in con-
loses-afterwards not more than $750 nection wit hi the Agricultural College at
.year. The present Legislature ought Lake City. Let the station be estab-
o a a l a a t the listed there on a proper basis, and by
o add at least an equal amount to. the-the second or third ses sin henceof your
G-overnment allowance, making $6,000. Legislature, you will be able to get
n so poor a State as this a larger appro- through an act reforming the college
riation could hardly -be expected, and making it what, itfought to be, if
h te e o uf n the matter be thoroughly agitated and
hough true economy might justify an the farmers aroused to action for their
appropriation two or three times as large, own interest. 'The money was intended :-
Ve think this new movement is goingto to benefit them, to promote agriculture,
result in great good to all the States and and to promote agriculture it has got to
Benefit the pract ical farmers and not the
hat no State will profit by it more than fancy farmers. No State needs the in& -
'lorida. Therefore, we wish to see the telligent use of the college grant and
people-become thoroughly informed as experiment station fund more than
oits merits, to become interested in it Florida.
Sincerely and fraternally yours,
and give the work their hearty support. HERBERT MYRIon,
n due time we shall publish a history of Agricultural Editor Farm and Home.
he Experiment Station bill, and its full -
ext as passed by the last Congress. A THRICE TOLD TALE.
AN TIMPORTANTT LETTER The Razor Back Asserts His-
_, IMP T-L. TE Rights Under the Law.
calling Attention to Some Fea- ktr Florida Farme and -,it-Grower: '
tures of the Hatch Bill. In the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER of
~ ". h~ ,April 27, you had a leader on the Local
We have received a letter from the Option Fence Law which has come
editor of Farm and Home, relating to a home to me in a practi' al application it
subject which should and will receive had not when I read it. I have had an
nuch attention in our columns, and as it invasion of hogs W.hich have made me
savage. Theoretically I have condemn-
contains much of interest to our readers ed thepresent laws. but I Cee the mean-
n general, we reproduce the greater por- ing-of that condemnation as formulated
ion of. it for'their benefit. The Farm in your article, under a fresh light. For
Lnd Home is, perhaps, the most influen- these brutes have destroyed all my sweet
potato crop. and I fear alsooall that we
ial agricultural paper published at the had planted for the next crp. Between
NTorth, having a circulation of over'200,- my neighbor's grove and mine there was
100 -copies, and to its exertions the sue- no fence needed, but otherwise his was-
surrounded by a picket fence. The
*ess of the Hatch Bill-providing for ,. i^ neote
ess of. the Hatch Bill--providing for hogs found out how to loosen one of the
experimental stations-is largely due. picketsand they have not lost the Tnow l-
In writing to theeditorafter the passage edge! I don't know how often they got .
,f the hili, Mr. Hatch made the following in, however much he repaired. When
generous acknowledgment of his exer- they finished his potatoes they roamed
r ousacknwledge i to mine, and it seems night after night
ions in its behalf: "The results derived they got in until they finished mine. -
from your publication and wide-spread What next they may do who knows,-
listribution of the bill and report, and but it is very galling when you are
our able and enthusiastic editor ials otruggliug to make a living out of your -
our ableland, to find a considerable amount of .
urging its passage and arousing its yow hopes torn up, when they might
friendss to active and earnest support, have been fulfilled .
arve been incalculable. You must re- You will see I am vexed. My vexa-
i thio' shr of tion is fair. and I trust the FARMER will
cive thelion's share of congratulations keep pegging away. for the local option
and.praise, in thesuccessful enactment law at least, and so aid in the formation
of this far-reaching and beneficent leg- of an opinion before which the present
nation." etc,- As Farm and Home (not unfair license shall be swept away. It
and Farmis a leadg exponent would be vastly more to the point of
Home and Farm) is a leading exponentduty if the State Legislature would oc-
of sound and progressive ideas, we- rec- cupy itself with matters like this than
)mmend all to subscribe for it. It is wearying itself and the Siate with wea-
Published once a fortnight, at Spring- risome v..ting, voting, voting in vain.
U is -99D. G. W.
field, Mass. -The following letter de-. DpInLLAS, Fla., May:2, 1887 -' /
serves careful perusal : ...
SPpRtiGFtiELD. M>ass.,May 138, 1887. The Dogs Dominant.
Eduor.Ftorda Farmr.,- ined FI-i Groirver. ~ Tennessee pays $9.00u,000 to support its
DEAR SIR: Ihave read with interest dogs and $3,000.0u to educate irts chil-
Professor Pickel's article on the Floiida dren. Three dollars for dogs and one
Expei iment Station, and your editorial for the children of the State. We sup-
remarks upon the vame. in your issue of pose it is in about the same ratio in Ar-
lIay 11. Your editorial is well put, anti kansas, and may be a little more so. -
I hope you itill keep up the agitation These are not the only States that pay
until Florida is thoroughly aroused and three times as much to support their
Compels the agricultural college grant 'dogs as to educate their children. The
of 186i to be expended in your State for average-dog, like the anarchist popula- .
the support of an institution that shall tion, aiea non-producer of wealth and a
be a strictly agricultural and meciani- destroyer of property.-Arkansas Meteor
:al college, similar to the very success- There is not a living man who would
rul institute( ns of this nature in Missis- be able to count the dogs in Mississippi.
sippi, Kansas. Michigan, Massachusetts From the number wp see heieabouts, we
and other States. should say that the dogs of Mississippi
I also hope that your Legislature will outnumber the human family in the
make such provisions for the proposed State--also the beasts, of the field, the
experiment station as will enable it to birds of the air, the telegraph poles, mile
go ahead and do the best possible work boards, cross ties, houses, lightning-rod
fromn the very beginning. I spent much agents, cotton bales, captains, colonels,
time and labor in behalf of the Hatch etc., etc. The fact is, the dogs own the
Bill, as you will note from the enclosed country, and the people here are their
circular, but. I am glad that the bill as willing slaves, and are toiling themselves
passed provides that only one-fifth of to death ih the effort to feed them. We
the appropriation can be spent for raise and buy thousands of bushels of.
buildings the first year, and that. only 5 corp and wheat to feed them, we raise
per cent. of the appropriation can be and buy thousands of pounds of hog
spent for bthe same purpose in the future. meat to feed them; we raise thousands
The object of this provision is to induce of chickens and turkeys and ducks and
thi States to co-operate with the Govern- guineas and geese to feed them, and
ment in the support of these stations, by these chickens and turkeys and dicks
providing the necessary land and build- and guineas and geese lay tens of thous-
ings, and other real estate equipment., ands of eggs to feed them, and we raise
By so doing, the ?/late and thepeople of a large number of sheep for the same
the State will take a direct interest in purpose.
the experiment station, and have a su- The dogs live on the fat of the land.
per'r'iszon over it that they would not They are truly the lords of creation
acquire if it came to them without coal. hereabouts. 'They toil not, neither do
The bill is supplementary to the Ag- they spin," but Solomon in all his gory
ricultual College Act, and carries out the never saw dogs, so many, so many
same theory-that the appropriation is breeds, so many colors and sizes' and.
to be devoted exclushiely to carrying on ages, and so fat and so sleek and so ten-
the work, just as the interest of the derly cared for.
money received from the land grant of It speaks volumes for the intellect and
1862 is tobe devoted to the Agricultural wisdom of our legislators that we have
College, and the principal to be forever so many dogs, and that this' isth'e only
intact. There has been much criticism domestic brute that is wholly exempt
of the bill because it provides that the from taxation, if apartialfamineshould
appropriations shell be made annually occur in this Stae and the dogs. were to.
by Congress instead of continuing from be placed necessarily -upon ."short ra-
year to year without action on the part tions," there is danger that they..mights
of Congress annually. in their mhltitudinous strengthdrebel
I am inclined to thibk that this is an the insult by devouring the entire' au-.
exceedingly wise provision, especially man population in one single, night..
when we combine it with Section 3 of They could do it,--So. Live Stock Jour-
the act, which calls for "a full and de- nal.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, MAY 25, 1887.
Bur janomq q Edp r.
HKELEN HARCOIRT. Editor.
With a helping hand and a Welcome for all
Who wish to be friendly and make us a call;
With words of good counsel for old friends and
Who come to us seeking the best way to do.
All questions of general Interest will be
answered through these columns.
Personal inquiries will be answered by mail
when accompanied by stamp for reply.
Subscribers are cordially Invited to take a
seat in our Cosy Corner, and exchange views,
experiences and recipes of mutual benefit.
"Help ye one another."
Communications Intended. for publication
must be brief, clearly written, and only on
ene side of the paper.
All matter relating to this department
should be addressed to
EDITOR OUR HOME-CIRCLE,
Fla. Farmer and Fruit-Grower
Our Cosy Corner.
MAKING THE BEST OF IT.
The women of America, while occu-
pying a loftier position, enjoying more
freedom and respect, and holding deeper
and broader responsibilities than their
sisters of the Old World, are yet sub-
jected by these very facts to trials and
troubles that the latter escape in a very
It is the old story, that "he who has
nothing can easily take care of it;" the
beggar, if not in actual want, sleeps
soundly-he has no property to lose by
fire or flood or thieves. The millionaire
tosses restlessly on his soft couch, op-
pressed by a thousand secret fears and
The soldier in the ranks marches here
and there as he is told to do. If the battle
islost he is not responsible-he holds no
authority and is free of blame if he
obeys;, but his commander, because he
is higher in the social. scale, because the
power rests in his hands, is careworn
and anxious; -his position is one of au-
thority; he holds in his hands the lives
of his fellow men, therefore he feels the
weight of responsibility and the pressure
of care, and there are times when they
are previous to be borne, so previous
that he would gladly tear off his insignia
of rank and don the uniform and the
care-free obedience of the common sol-
And just so is it with the' average
American housekeeper-she is more free
and has more responsibilities than her
European sister, but, therefore, more
There is another point, too, that is
usually lacking in the life of the Old
World housekeeper-fortunes are. not
made there in a day, north stin a day; as
she is born, high or low, rich or poor, or
in that "i'happy between," so she is apt to
"remain. Rarely;-indeed, is she brought
up in luxury, and then suddenly de-
prived even of the ecr fort of life. -
Yet this is frequently the case on. this'
side of the "great waterss" and it is no
small element of trouble to the house-
wife, even aside from its actual priva-
tions. To have been accustomed for
years to all the many luxuries of civil-
ized life; to have cultivated and gratified
a taste'for "nice things" until they be-
c .ome everyday necessities: to have al-
Sways had at command serve ants t., take
all' the hard, manuallabor of the house-
, hold off' their hands;'to have had all
these things during their whole lifetime,
and then, in the twinkling of an eye, to
see them swept away, far, far out of
reach-this has been the experience of
many thousands of American house-
How bitter an experience, how full
of dulldesolate heartache and dismay,
they alone can tell.
-, Personal self-denial is usually borne
cheerfully, to the honor of womanhood
be it said. Accustomed luxuries can be
dispensed with, expenses curtailed, but
S the hardest part of it all is one item on
the latter count-the servants must go.
Then, and then only, does the house-
wife fully realize what housekeeping
Even where there are competent ser-
vants to shoulder the brunt oft the hard
work of the family, there are still large
demands upon the time, strength, en-
ergy and'patience of the conscientious
wife and mother.
We do not assert too much wheu we
say that there is no business whiclh de-
mands more constant care, more skillful
attention,. more thorough supervision,
more watchfulness, regularity and sys-
tem than the affairs of a household, a'nd
where help in their administration is
careless, inefficient and irregular, or
wheregit-is missing entirely, it is small
Wonder that the housekeeper's heart
grows.hea.vy as her limbs grow weary-
and her strength ebbs.
And this is just exactly the state of"'
mindi-nd boily 'in Which many, veryat
many.of our-Florida h6usekeepers are "t
this piese ft mdment. ,- .. '--
ForkFlorida is pre-eminntly a harbro'
of refige-a shipyard' where barques,
beaten and .btt-ired .,on the stormy,
financial sea have put inJto port for're.
The' repairs9rill cbme in time,'ind'the
ship will sa[lagain i, 'vas good as new,".if
the shaip-btuilder is industrious -and uses
'julgii'enta well 'is tools';'but' ie'an-
timelther6 is an interval of hardship and
discom-fort for her crew,' and' it must be
lived'ti'rough somehow foF.we-are not
-like c&irtain other citizensr-ot Florida,
who eFtire to theb0tottfiom'.f'the lakes on
ihe apribach-of cold wea'her, and stay
-threcont'eiited]y.uintUhe su-in's genial
warmth bids themi-awake, for their good
fi m7 ne 'a s c o m e :t. -
\e..ust face -thefacts,'and there are.
7w0.6 1.iBofd6.i-g'.it".. -.
Get them as large and firm as possible;
cut a round place in the stem end of
each, and lay it aside to use again as a
lid. Then scrape out the insides into a
bowl, being careful not to break though
the outer flesh and skin. Mix with the
soft parts, bread crumbs, corn, parsley,
all chopped fine-butter, pepperand salt;
fill the tomatoes with this stuffing, using
the top piece cut out as a lid, set them
in a buttered pan. and bake in a mode-
rate oven. Partly greet tomatoes will
take longer to bake. than ripe ones.
Watch that they do not burn or get dry.
Instead of thie stuffing given above,
the tomato may be prepared by mixing
only bread crumbs, and finely-chopped
cold meats, beef, ham or chicken, well
seasoned. This is an elegant way to use
up small scraps of meat.
TOMATO OM'ELEr, NO. 1.
One quart of -ripe tomatoes, scald, to
remove the skins; chop them fine; put
them in.a saucepan without water, cover
closely, and simmer for one hour: then
add'sait and cayenne, one large spoonful
breadcrumbs, and cover tightly; beat up
th'eeeggsto a stiff froth; have ready a
heatedupan with a piece of butter just
Jarge, enough to grease it; stir the eggs.
into ti' tomatoes,-beat all together, pour
pi. into the buttered pan, brown it on one
silde5 fold it over, and serve,
S*- TOMATO OMELET, NO. 2.
-.-Sald and skin ripe tomatoes and chop
them fine; to one quart add two chopped
onions and a lump of butter the size of
an egg;siet them boil half an hour, then
mush them smooth, add bread crumbs,
pepper, salt, and the yolks of two eggs.
Fry as above.
TO FRY TOMATOES. -
.This isan excellent breakfast or supper
dish, and should be better known.
Take tomatoes either ripe or green
tripe- are best) and cut them in half,
across, skins left on. Put some flour on
a dish and season it highly with pepper
and salt; dip the pieces of tomato into
this, both sides; then drop the slices into
a pan of hot lard tand butter, if possible);
test the pieces-with a fork, when soft
and browned, lift them out of the pan
with a broad kuife; when all are done,
sift flour into the hot lard remaining,
and make a rich gravy with water or
milk. Try this once and you will again.'
','.. "taO' BR TOMIAO~OS.
"r Whsh-a"a wipe ripe 't6matoes;-'place'.
thetion the gridiron, stem side down;
.w'hent- brown, --turnu them ,'repeat until
they are. ookdthibrbugh, place them on
a hot dish and send-to table, where each
claimed, want 'to persewere' -it myv-
And I did; and, my dear little cousins,
I have kept on "persewering it" to this
present day, for I find that only so can
we ever hope to do any real good in the
And so you will easily believe that I
had no thought of giving up the strug-
gle with the little stranger. The greater
the difficulty, the greaterthe triumph in
overcoming an obstacle.
And this kitten was an obstacle-a
very little one in one sense, and a very
big one in another. I resolved to con-
quer the obstacle, and by and by you
will see whether I really did or not.
Day aftdr day I placed the, saucer of
milk unler the edge of the house, and
sometimes little pieces of meat with it;
efch rime I saw the young stranger
watching me from afar, and each time
IJ talked gently" to it, and called it
"Jack," for you see I had decided that
the kitten was a boy, because I wanted
it so.' .'
'Sometimes I wo.uldgo and peep under.
the house and 'call "Jackl Jackl"' and
after the first few days I could see that
it was beginning to connect 'the' sound
with me and itself. It did not venture
I expect there are a great many of my
boy cousins who will be glad to know
TO CURE AN ALLIGATOR SKIN.
SSoak the skin in cold water until it is
soft, then cover it on the flesh side with
a paste of bran with alum dissolved in
it; fold it up and lay it away for forty-
eight hours, flesh inside. Then rub the
inside with a piece of chalk, and after-
vwards with pumice stone to make it
smooth; then pull it and work it until it
is dry and pliable.
The process is what is called "tawing,"
but it is not the same as tanning. Tan-
ning makes leather, while "tawing" only
cures or preserves the skin.
Gone to sleep, cousins?
A general practical rule in planting
garden seeds is that they should not be
covered more than four times their di-
ameter in depth.
An English gardener, who has great
.success in raising radishes, makes his'
radish,. beds with nearly or quite one-
half soft coal ashes land soot. Under
'this plan his beds are not infested with
whatever remedies way suggest them-
Which, my sisters, 'is the better way?
(To be Continued.)
Answers to Correspondents.
A. H. P., Hartford, Conn.: Glad to
know that our reply (by mail) was satis-
factory; also that you endorse our opin-
ion of the rug machine.
Mrs. A. M. D, Arredondo, Fla.: Have
sent address desired (for soldering cas-
ket) by mail; also (by mail of 17th inst.)
have replied in detail to the other points
in your letter. We thank you for the
.good opinion expressed of the FLORIDA
FARMER AND FRUIT GROWrER, and your
kindly wishes for the editor of Our
Your letter would have received ear-
lier attention, but that you sent it to the
publication office, whence it had to be
forwarded to address given at head of
Our Home Circle..
Correspondents please take notice.
Miss N. G. P., Ocala, Fla., writes: "I
have a hand mirror of which .the glass
has fallen from the frame, knocking off
a little of the silvering, and leaving bare
spots on the glass. Can you tell me how
to repair these spots before putting the
mirror in again?"
We have consulted the Family Friend,
who "maketh reply" below.
We are thinking very solemnly of
sending the railroad men out to hunt up
the "missing" sisters, for alack and
alack! we fear they have gone to seek
the "missing tourists."
The, Family Friend.
TO REPAIR SPOTTED MIRRORS.
Clean the bare spots carefully by rub-
bing every part of them with fine cotton
to remove dust or grease specks. If not
done carefully defects will appear after-
wards around or on the repaired place.
With a thin knife blade cut from a bit
of old looking-glass a portion of the sil-
vering, a little larger than the bare spot
to be repaired. Drop upon this silvering
obtained from the old glass a drop of
quicksilver about as big as a pin's head.
This will answer for a spot as-large asyour
finger-nail. The quicksilver spreads at
once and penetrates the amalgam to
where' it was cut off with the knife.
Now lift this and remove it very gently,
a delicate operation,'laying it on'the'spot
to be repaired. Press softly down on the
glass with a small pad of cotton and the
applied amalgam and quicksilver will
harden quickly to thr' spotso that there-
pair cannot be detected. If the spots are
too large to be thus repaired, the follow-
ing is the proper method: Lay, on a
sheet of tin-foil or a. piqce of tin foil of
the size required in repairs, some quick-
silver. With a piece of buckskin next
proceed to rub the quicksilver into the
foil smartly until it becomes brilliant.
Next lay your glasson a table, face down-
ward, and having cleansed the spots as
before described- which should be done
tbe first tling before preparing the foil-
place the foil on the damaged portion _
spread a piece of paper over foil, and on
this lay a smooth block of wood or mar-
ble, with a weight on it to press it down
evenly. Let the weight remain over
night. and in the morning, if all has been
properly done, the foil will have adhered
firmly to the glass, arid the effect will be
We promised to make a specialty of
recipes for utilizing tomatoes this week,
and here they are, a choice variety of
* person may season for himself, with s"lt, near me, but it did not run farther away
pepper and butter. -as it'did-from anyone else who peeped
STEWED TOMATO OMELET, under the house.
A nice way to use left over" stewed Just behind the latter, beyond the
tma toe: aupsi eg, tesad dining-room and kitchen, which, as in
--t :b ....xeg....s "dwost Florida homes,' are connected to
yolks separate, add them to the toma- h in house ^
toes; beat them well together, season to rltecohae of juarst two oopesaoe
taste, and fry as other omelets, la r ne c and oel emagilne w ith b orde
TOMATO SALAD; porches around it. Here your Cousin
Skin, remove the seeds and pulp from Helen sleeps and writes; anid so spends
fresh tomatoes; chop what is left with most of her time there.
the heart-if it may be so called-of a I tell you this, but Jack did not need
cabbage, and a little parsley, and serve telling. One day I went to the usual
with a good salad dressing. spot, and called, but there was no an-
We acknowledge indebtedness for the swer to be heard, eo kitten to be seen.
following recipe to Mrs. S. E. W., Mont- I, I walked around, calling, and directly
clair, Fla., and can vouch personally for i heard a dismal far-off reply. Following
its excellence : it up, I found it came from under "Hope
Cottage," more, from under my study.
REEN TOMATO CHOW-CHOW.. It was Jack's first venture out into the
One peck of green tomatoes, two heads world-the run across the open space
of cabbage, green peppers and onions to between the main house and the cottage,
taste; all chopped fine; put in salt and and I can well imagine what a frighten -
water for twenty-four hours; strain out ed scamper it wms.
of the salt water and boil one-half hour This was the first decided token ap-
in fresh water. Make a dressing as fol- preciation and of departing fear, for it
lows: To three quarts of good vinegar showed that Jack had noticed where I
when scalding hot, add one cup of mixed went and had wanted to be near me,
mustard, one tablespoonful of cloves, and the reply to my call also proved
one of allspice, two of cinnamon; pour that she had learned both her name and
over the tomatoes. Ready to use at once, my voice.I
but improves with age. For two weeks I had been feeding 'the
From Mrs. E. C. B., Montclair, Fla., little stranger under the main house,
we have the following recipe, which is and it was there, too, that her mother
much like the above, but a favorite had taken and left her. Would you not
with many who prefer sweet pickle: have thought that she would naturally
SWE... TOM ..TOC HOW.-CH.W sn have remained there? for they saythat
SWEET TOMATO CHOW-CHOW n "cats only f become attached to places,
One peck green tomatoes, three good not persons."
sized onions, six peppers with the seeds Iat is a cat slander, as I will presently
taken out. Chop together and boil three prove, but most people believe it.
.minutes in two quarts of x inegar. Throw At all events, from that day on, Jack
this vinegar away after straining the pick- turned her back on the main houfe and
le out. Then to two quarts of strong vine- elected to remain, not only beneath the
gar, when scalding hot, add two heap study, but directly under my desk,
ing cups of sugar, one cup of mixed where she could hear my step and voice;
mustard, one tablespoonful of cloves, not once did she go back to her oldI
one of allspice, two of cinnamon, three quarters. r
of salt. Pour over the tomatoes. Little by little the timid kitten became
TOMATO CATSUP, more confident that there was one per-
One peck ripe tomatoes, one ounce son in the world whom there was no
salt, one ounce of mace, one tablespoon- need to fear; all others were still labelled
ful black pepper, one teaspoonful cay- "dangerous" in her mind. But day by.
enne, one tablespoonful cloves (pow- day she came to feel that I was to be
dered), seven tablespoonfuls ground trusted, and at last I felt triumphant
mustard, one tablespoonful celery seed when, after three weeks of patient gen-
(tied in a muslin bag). tieness, she crept nervously towards men
Cut a slit in the tomatoes, put into a and took milk and meat from my hand.
bell-metal or porcelain kettle, and boil "So far and no further;" she was not
until the juice is all extracted and the yet quite prepared to allow herself to be
pulp diFsolved. Strain and press touched, as I soon discovered.
through a cullander, then through a And now that I saw our "ugly little
hair sieve. Returnto the fire, add the duck" 'was beginning to grow more con-
seasoning, and boil at least five hours fident, I encouraged her by sitting on the
(more if you can conveniently), stirring steps of the study porch anidcoaxing
constantly for the last hour, and fre- her with a string and a spool.
nUently throughout the time it is on the It was fun to her; it was business, the
flre. Let it stand twelve hours in a business of taming, with me. It was very
stone jar, in as cool a place as -possible. funny to see the first struggles between
When cool add a pint of strong vinegar. the native timidity and the love of play
Take out the bag of celery seed, bottle that is born in kittens. She would
and seal. Keep in a cool, dark place, creep towards the spool, and then jump
More recipes for tomat and run away, then return slowly. cau-
More recipes for tmatos remain'on tiously, watching me asawell athe spool
file for our next issue; we have in this th"a' tg e as, po,
confined our ,selection to the severely mea so mysteriously moved towards
useful. The more fancy recipes will be Bu iat -wilshb'ael os
"for the next tirma .. ut in-a little whileshe'be,:awe almost
for the next time. fearless, jumping after ihe spool, rolling
over with it, kicking it and playing ball
Our Young'Folks' Corner. with it, but still would riot let me touch
ITS STkNDINIGOFFER 9. l1 -:. (,,. .
STANDiNoFE ne day, after playing awhile, she'put
A nice picture book each month to the boy one foot on the s.pool and then stood still,
or girl who sends us the largest list of-subscrib- .".
ers for ."TH' FLORIDA FARMER AND FRiUT- staring intently at my face-so intently
GRowBR" during that month. and so long that I told her she would
A beautifully bound copy of the famous make me bashful. It was really very
children's jnagazialne,St,.Nicholas;to the boy -d .d sh .as realy tn gr
or'girl whe sends us the, largest -number of dd, and she was evidently thinking
subscribers during six months. hard, about what she proved a moment
Write us letters descriptive of places, things later. -
or doings; write us on oneside.the page; give at once si, started ata t rot traig.
your age a once etarte ataro igt
The best letter received will be published for my hand, which was resting open on
each week. the ground. and without an instant's
Now go to wo'rk and see who wins hesitation, threw herself down on her
side in my palm, and there she laid, just
JACK. a nice handful, putting her paws around
i Con tied. i my fingers and licking them, and sing-
ing-all the while just as loud as any lit-
I never saw a more timid kitten than tie kitten could sing.
the one I had made up my mind to tame. --I confess I was amazed. It was the
The whole family of brothers and sisters most unconditional surrender I ever
were easily startled, I suppose because saw; but it was only a foreshadowing of
during their earliest days their poor per- the future. "
secuted mother had in some strange And then the funny little stranger
way taught them to be wary of the big looked up at me as I called "Jack, nice
bipeds who made her lire a burden, as I Jack," and- said in her native tongue,
told you awhile back, and this one little (like the little girl who was reprovd, by
orphan, we had noticed from the first, the Sunday school superintendent for
was even more timid thin the rest, not taking off her hat, he thinking she
So it was not an easy task I had un- .was aboy), "Plea.e, I'm a little gal."
dertaken. and for days and days it look- ( T bC ....... _
ed as iftit was a vain one. To be Contin.ed
When I wasa little bit of a girl, learn- *
ing to sew (my mother tells the story i, I HO-W TO MAKE A FEATHER FAN.
oneday sat ona stool at her feet, and for Take an ordinary paper Japanese fan
the fist time tried to thread my own with a good handle, cut the fan into any
needle. I heldift up after the most ap- shape you please, cover this on both
proved style, anid pushed the thread at sides with some peacock-blue or green
the eye: it went heie, there, eveiy- satin, then gum on the feathers, adding
where except where it should have gone: a few stitches to keep them moresecure.
ihe end of the cotton split and turned Arrange them with neatness and pre-
and twisted, and at last I breathed a cision. If possible to get the breast and
weary sigh. The dear mother hbd been head of a small bird, finish with it: but
quietly watching all the while, and now these are difficult to find. A nice bow
she offered to thread the needle for of satin ribbon to match, or a bright
me. cardinal color, will make a very pretty
"No, no, tank you, mamma," I ex- finish.
JAPAN CLOVER ANI rtURF GRASS
(Lespede'a striaa ondi Papnliim pilatycaule.)
Illustrated and described In FLORIDa FARMKR
AND FRair GROWEx.
Supplied at 81.00 per thousand,
T. K. GODBEY, Waldo, Florida.
B LACK COW PEAS
Make best vines for fertilizing or forage
Price s81.35 per Bushel.
CHOICE WHITE BLACK-EYE PEAS,
81.SO per Bushel.
GEO. R. REYNOLDS,
41t East Bay Street, Jacksonville, Fla.
R OYAL PALM NURSERIES
Rare tropical ornamental and fruit plant s for
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Exotics from India. Australia and the West
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The most complete descriptive catalogue of
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America. Catalogue made, post-paid, on re-
ceipt of 1. cents. Free to all customers.
A LESSON WITH A MORAL.
When Will Our Eyes be Opened
to this Great National
The year 1886 'played sad havoc with
many prominent men of our country.
Many of them died without warning,
passing away apparently in- the full
flush of life.-
I Others were sick but a comparatively
short time. We turn to our fires and
are astonished. to find that most of them
died of apoplexy, of paralysis, of ner-
vous prostration, of malignant blood hu-
mor, of Bright's disease, of heart disease,
of kidney. disease, of rheumatism, or of
It is singular that most of our promi-
nent men die of these disorders. Any
journalist who watches the telegraph re-
ports will ,e astonilihed at the number
of prominent victim, of these diorders.
Many'statement-, hare appeared in our
paper with otiheis t.., the effect that the
diseases that carried off so many promi-
nent men in 1886, are really one disease,
taking different, names according to the
location of the fatal effects. -I
Whei a valuable horse perishes, it be-
comes the nine days' talk of the sport-
ing world, and yet thousands of ordi-
nary horses are dying every day, their
aggregate loss is enormous, and yet their
death creates no comment.
So it is with individuals. The cause
of death of prominent men creates com-
ment, especially when -it can be shown
that one unsuspected disease carries off
most-of1them, and yet "vast numbers of
ordinary men and women die before
their time every year from the same
It is said that if the blood is kept free
from uric acid, that heart disease, par-
alysis, nervous prostration, pneumonia,
rheumatism and many cases of'consump-
tion, would never'be known. This uric
acid, we are told, is the waste of the
system, and it is the duty of the kidneys
to remove this waste.
We are told that if the kidneys are
maintained in perfect health, the uric
kidney acid is kept out of the blood, and
these sudden and universal diseases,
'caused by uric acid will, in a large mea-
. But how can this be done ? It is folly
to treat effects. If there is any known
way of getting at the cause, that way
should be known to the public. We be-
lieve that Warner's safe cure, of which
so much has been written, and so much
talked of by the public generally, is now
recognized by impartial physicians and
the public as the one specific for such
Because public attention has been di-
rected to this great remedy by means of
advertising ome persons have not be-
lieved in the remedy.; We cannot see
how Mr. Warner. could -immediately
benefit the public in any other way, and
his valuable -spec'fic shouldd not be con-
demned because some no.strums have
come before the public in thesame way,
any more than that all doctors should
be condemned because so many of them
It is astonishing what good opinions you
hear.on every side of that great remedy,
and public opinion, titus based upon an
actual experience-, bas all the weight
and importance of absolute truth.
At this time of the year the uric acid
in 'the blood invites pneumonia and
rheumatism and there is not a man who
does not dread these monsters of disease,
but be need have no. fear of them, we
are told, if hie rid the blood of the uric
acid cause. _" .
SThese words are strong, and' may
sound like an advertisement, and be re-
jected as such by unthinking people,
but we believe they are the truth and as
such should be spoken by every truth-
R, N. BLLIS. C F
Wkuter Park [Ma
a. C. i-CLiKRE, Ar-hiteep.
ELLIS & McCLURE,
Architects & Civil Enlinoors,
Plars f.r f
HOTELS., PTTBLTC & PRIVATE BUILD-
IN'.S, SANITARY ENGINEERING, &C.
P. 0. ox 781. Rooms 7 and 8 Palmetto Block
GRADED JERSEYS FOR SALE.
Afew Graded Jerseys for sale in calf by.a
J. C. C. Bull Panic, No. 9,420. Panic is a'
grandson of Duke of Darlington, No. 2,640, and a:
son of.Uproar, No. 4;609, out of Brown Beauty,
daughter of Iron Bank, imported, No. 1,120.
Apply to SCHRALDnR BROS.,.
FREE, ONE SAMPLE COPY.
Bfor- y,-:.n decide where lto go in SOUTH
FLORIDA, send fora sample copy of
THE ORANGE GROVE.
You r.-il alnd better an.] cheaper bargains in
MLNTEtu1,:,dCnty in groves, iarme. ranches of
any .3lze. Baildng l'ts on raiirnad., ricer or sea,-
side.. The proprietor of "The Orang.e Grove," is
an "old rimer," Dtt nethert moss baek'd or hide
bound ; he is here 10to stay and Ther.e 6 mllIons
[n it." Three Millions of Acre; on his Books.
Address. TBE GROVE, LiV'ERPOOL, FLA.
FLORIDA FERTILIZING GO.
E.'-T. PAINE, PRESIDENT.
Florida Orange Food per ton......... .....$-3.00
.Florida Vegetable Food per IOn-......... 8.00
Ansii..vas: Bone Pbosphate of Lime, 30 per
cent.: ulphbite of Potash,.12 per cent;.: Mag-
nesia,6 percent Lime.Soda and othervit-
\- .. > ,*, "
Greatest Vine Producers on the Market.
Ensilage 'Cutters. (Silos, made in
S"S,.: .' Sctions.) '- ,
Everythifing to Plant at Bottom Prices.
SO. SEED CO., Macon, .Ga.'
_.. R. Ellis. President.
Send for treatise on ensilage and Silos.
Bees and Queens.
Orders will he booked now for delivery dur-
Ing April, May or June, of my superior race
Italian Booees and Queons.
Queens by mall a specialty.
Give me a trial order.
For prices or other Inlormatlon, address
H. C. HART,
Eustis, Orange Co., FIB.
Fancy Poultry andii Hunting Dogs.-
Eggs For Hatching From Leading Va-
rieties of Domesticated Land
and Water Fowl.
-$I FP-E:R 13.-
Also Thoroughbred YoungSetters and Hounds.
Address VILLA ZANZA. PoLTar LaDs,
Hernando County, Elorida,
Sixteen miles west of Hernando Hotel, Brooks-
vile, on the shore of the Gulf at the mouth of a
beautiful Spring River. Finest fishing, 'boating
and sailing. .Good accommodations. Try-weekly
Hack Line. .-
o -mr rs
NEW YORK & FLORIDA STEAMSHIP LINE.
TRI.WEERLYT SERVICE BETWEEN .. .
NEW YORK, FERNANDINA AND -JACKSONVILLE .
Steamers are appointed to sail from Pier 29, E. R., N. Y., every Tnday, Tharday
and Saturday, at ip.m. ... .',
FROM JACKSONVILLE-OHEROKDE (new) and SEBIOLD (new),.every TEDAy.,. ..
BROM FERNANDINA-DLA WAE and AMASSER everyMONDAY, p. iz, CTY '
OF A TLANTA and CITY OF COL UMBA, every WEDNESDAY p.m. "
The Freight and Passenger Accnommodatlons by this Line are unmsrpassed by any sM_ I '-.ix,.
the coaetwise serce. For further information, apply to .
CLARENCE WAGNER, Agt., J. A. LESLIE, Agt. .-
Fernandina, Fla., JacksonvtiJe, Fla.S 8. W. cor. Bay ana Hogan.. -.....;.
T .O G. EGER, Traffic Manager, t .WM, CLYDE A 00 ..
8% Broadway, N. Y. General Agents, 85 Broadway, T.. ; ;,
.. .A .
- .-:. ~~ ~ ~-. .. >& .*,- J. : --. .,.-
m AITLAND NURSERIES.
ALL VARIBETIS 'OF
ORANGE AND ,EMON TREES.
Buds not placed on small stocks, lbut on extra
large and fine ones.
We make a specialty of the .
*'&--EARLY SPANISH UA.NGE---
ti. Ihe eariihest rvarit kn'u-n"),
TOBITI Lt[WES and :
VILLA FRANCA LEMONS,
and can show trees of the latter that stood.the
c.:ld lst winter a, well ah the Orange, and "
NOW HAVE FRUIT UPON THEM.
Send for Catalogue.
KEDNEY & .CAREY,..
. 1,50 NICE BUDDED YOUNG ORANGE
From 20 to 40 Cenls each, 7-8 to 1 1-4
Sour stalks an.- ,weet seedlings at prices to
s patrons. A- A PRESBREY.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MAY 25, 1887.
Inquiries concerning diseases of domestic
nlmals may be addressed to Dr. D. 0. Lyon,
.acksonville; Florida, who will answer them
through this column.
Colic in Horses.
Colic in horses and mules is more lia
ble to occur when the owner feeds irrej
ularly, and overfeeds. If a horse is fe
with regularity, and the focd is soun
and only so much as the animal system
actually requires to promote health ar
physical strength of all the vital parts o
the individual body, there is not muc
danger of colic, unless it be from impru
dence in giving water. If a horse <
mule is very hot and thirsty from ove
work and fatigue, and is permitted 1
take into the stomach an excessir
amount of cold water, there is great
danger of colic, and this kind of col
does not yield to treatment as readily
that which is caused from over-loadin
the stomach with food. We contend
that, as a rule, when animals have place
before them more food than the necess
ties of the system require to sustain an
build up all the vital parts, that said at
imals almost invariably eat more than
good for them. We contend that th
majority of -horse owners overfeed rather
than underfeed their animals, and tha
overfeeding is bound to work injury t
a greater or less extent upon the cot
summer of the food eaten, for so muc
food only can be properly digested an
assimilated by the animal, and hence a
surplus beyond what is actually neces
sary is injurious to said beast, and b<
sides, the food is wasted so far as it
feeding value or nutritient properties
are concerned, and the manure only
Overfeeding horses impairs the digest
tive organs by taxing them beyond wha
they are able to bear, and when in thi
state, colic is very liable to occur, and
horse having had colic once is more.than
ever liable to have it again, each attack
aggravating the conditions tha4 courn
subsequent attacks:-So. Live Stoc
The Germantown Telegraph give
the following remedy for this defect it
A sure way for removing this unpleas
ant failing in the movements of a horse
in a majority of cases, is to shorten the
toe of the hind shoes. By this arrange
ment-the horse will pick up his fore fee
quicker. and his hind feet slower, thus
accomplishing just what is wanted. If
. quarter of a second 'of time is thereby
gained, the fore foot will be clear out o:
the way of the hind foot. with its elou.
gated toe We owned a valuable horse
once subject to overreaching. He was
taken in hand by several experienced
shoers, and everyone adopted the corn
mou erroneous methods. Being in the
stable one day we sat down upon a chair
after examining the shoes to devise some
. way to cure the animal of this defect.
and the conclusion we arrived at led to
insisting upon the shoer following our
instructions; the result of it was a corn
plete.success. Now and then a new shoe
would not be aware of th is over-i each ing
and would shoe in theold way. when the,
over-reaching was as badi a ever,
till the first shoes weie removed. We
had another horse cured in the same
way, as had at the rime many other per-
sons. Indeed, we have never known
this method to fail when properly fol-
Remedies for Scours.
Scours in calves is a serious trouble
from now on. Amnob cthe many reme-
dies for which are the following:
1. 'A tablespoonful of salt dissolved in
a wine glass of vinegar ; repeat if neces-
sary, and give the calves plenty of exer-
cise. The -general cause is too new
2., Place common starch well back in
the mouth, holding- the hand over the
mouth to prevent the calf from ejecting
it, or the starch may be first dissolved.
3. A large handful of cranesbill root
steeped in water and given in milk.
4. A raw hen's egg dropped in the
call's mouth; or strron-. hardback tea.
5. Very highly recommended is a dose
of a small tablespoonful of ground Java
6. Half a pint or more of a stringent
tea made from white oak bark, given in
milk for a few meals, will arrest the
A pint of strong coffee is recom-
mended as being as good as the raw
8. Feed twice a day a mixture of four
drachms of powdered chalk, two
drachms of sub nitrate of bismuth and
three drachms of powdered opium.
9.-A teaspoonful of allspice, more or
less. which may have to be repeated.-
Farm and Home.
How to Judge a Horse.
Below is an article from the Texas
Live Stock Journal, which may be of
service to any one who is about to buy a
An old horseman says: If you want to
buy a horse don't believe" your own
brother. Take no man's word for it.
Your eye is your market. Don't buy a
horse in harness. Unhitch him and
take everything off but his baiter, and
iead him around. If he has a coi n, or is
and off he goes for a mile or two, then Points About Merino Sheep.
all of sudden he stops in the road. After I Foda Fame ad Fu
a rest he starts off again, but he soon Edilr rrla Farmer and Frui Grower
stops for good, and nothing but a der-] I was pleased to see in No. 17 of the
rick could move him. FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER an article
The weak parts of a horse can be bet- on sheep farming, by J. G. Knapp, and
ter discovered while standing than with your permission I will add a few
moving. If he is sound he will stand practical facts.
firmly and squarely on his limbs, with-- I was born and reared among some of
out moving any of them, the feet flatly the most n')ted breeders of merino sheep
upon the ground, w th legs plumb and in the world. W. G. Markham, who
naturally poised; or if the foot is lifted made several trips to Japan to introduce
from the ground anand the weight taken the merino there and was President of
from it, disease may be suspected, or at the National Wool Growers' Association,
least tenderness which is a precursor of was a near neighbor.
disease. If the horse stands with hia The merino sheep is bred for its wool
feet spread apart, or straddles with his only, it will hardly fatten at all; its
hind legs, there is a weakness in the small frame and wrinkly skin are suica-
loins and the kidneys are disordered. ble only for piroduciqg fine wool, and
Heavy pulling bends the knees when by heavy feeding it is induced to
Bluish, milky cast of eyes in horses in- lay on flesh, the meat is so impregnated
dicate moon-blindness or something else. with the rank oil of the skin as to be un-
A bad-tempered horse keeps his ears palatable. Six seasons experience in
thrown back. A kicking horse is apt to feeding 1,000 sheep each winter for New
have scarred legs. A stumbling horse York and export market proved that
has blemished knees, the farther we got away from the me-
When the skin is rough and harsh and rino breed and the closer we came to the
does not move easily to the touch, the Cotswold, the more profit there was in
horse is a heavy eater and digestion is producing mutton.
bad. Never bI uy a horse whose breath- The American home of the merino is
ing organs are at all impaired. Place Vermont, its heavy fleece would prove
your ear at the side of the heart, and ift its ruin and death in Florida. There are
a wheezing sound is heard, it is an in- a number of flocks of sheep here in
dication of trouble. Manatee county, running wild the ia me
Sas the cattle. Sarasota. during the past
to To Estimate the Weight ol
d The method advocated by Professo
1 Orton and Sadler is as follows:
For cattle of a girth of from 5 to
e feet, allow 28 pounds to the superfici
Ts For cattle of a girth of from 7 to
1s feet, allow 81 pounds to the superfici
s- For small cattle and calves of a girt
it of from 3 to 5 feet, allow 16 pounds 1
i the superficial foot.
a For pigs, sheep and cattle measurin
n less than 3 feet girth, allow 11 pounds t
I the superficial foot.
t Measure in inches the girth around
k the chest, just behind shoulder blade
and the length of the back from th
tail to the fore part of the shoulders
Multiply the girth by the length, an
s divide by 144 for the superficial feet
? Then multiply the superficial feet b
the number of-pounds of beef, veal o
pork in the four quarters of the anima
Example: What is the estimate
e weight of beef in a steer whose girth i
6 feet 4 inches, and length 5 feet
s Solution-76 inches girth, multiple.
a by 63 inches length, equals 4,788, whicl
F divided by 144, equals 388 square feel
f multiplied by 28, equals 764*.
When the animal is but half fat
e tened, a deduction of one pound it
e every 20 must be made; and if very'fat
I. 1 pound for every 20 must be aided.
Dairy Ensilage Experience.
At a recent farmers' institute held a
.,Oswego. N. Y., as reported in t'e Rura
New Yorker, a Mr. Gilbert said that or
r the same farm where he formerly kep
thirty-.four cows he now heeps 100i). Th,
difference is all due to the use of silage
For this purpose he uses corn planted
I three feet apart, thick in the row, using
three-fourths of a bushel per acre, and
he lets it grow until the few nubbin
which form, show corn in the milk be
fore lie puts it into the silos. He cuts ii
very short after planting, and about th(
time it is coming up he goes over thi
ground with a smoothing harrow, and
then again when the corn is five inches
high. It costs $14 per acre to grow the
corn and put it into the silo, and the
average yield on rich land is 25 tons,
Mr. Gardiner said he corroborated all
Mr. Gilbert had. said. Silos could be
built of cheap lumber and sheathing pa-
per. He believes they are adapted to
small as well as large farms. Since his
silage was exhausted his cows had fallen
off one-third in yield of riilk. C., S.
Plumb, of the Experiment Station, said
silos could be made of plank and paper
more cheaply and as efficient as of stone
or brick. The bottom should be ce-
mented. Silage needs but little, if any,
pressure. If when filled the surface be
covered with two thicknesses of building
paper, it needs only sufficient weighting
to keep the paper in place. He had
never seen any sweet silage. In their
experience silage had' not been as pro-
ductive of milk as angels. With the
same grain and hay ration cows had
given 25 pounds of milk on silage to 28
pounds on angels. He regards silage
as not a desirable, food to which to con-
fine an animal, but only a good adjunct
to ot her foods.
Feeding Prickly Pear to Sheep.
Mr. C. D. Lake, one of the closest cal-
culatois in this nection.has been figuring
on feeding mutton on prickly pear and
cotton seed meal ind finds there is
money in it. He is having a cutting
machine made to cut the pear leaves up,
and will put up about T'75i head at once
to experiment, and if they do well he
will go at the business on much larger
scale. He will mark and weigh quite a
nuImber of them when he commences to
feed and will keep an accurate account
of the expense; also the number of days
required to prepare them for market,
and when the entire work is tinisbed
and the mutton disposed of we will give
our readers the result. The sheep will
be put up next week.-Cotulla Ledg6r.
Ui., uor anyv other failing. you can see it.
Let him go by himself a- way. and if he
staves right into anything you know be Sheep RaisersNeed Experience.
is bliud. No matter how clear and '- Sheepshould have rationsof good food
bright his eyes are, he can't see any in addition to what they may gather,
more than a bat. n order;to have them thrive and gain.
Back him. too. Sunie horses show in flesh." There are diseases, too,
their weakness at tricks in that way that sheep are liable to suffer from un-
benrtheiy,qgq't know any other. But, less care is taken -tn keep them in a
be as smart as you can,'you'llgetcaught healtby'state. 'Nb one should attempt
sometimes. iEven an expert -.gets to raise sheep without first learning
"stuck-' --'A horse may look ever so either by study or experience, under
nice and go at a great pace, and yet some one thoroughly posted, how they
havefirs. There isn't a man could tell should be cared for. To those who un-
it till somethir.g happens Or, he may derstand the business, sheep raising
have a weak back. Give him a whip brings in good returns alone.
year or more, was quite well supplied
f v ith mutton of home raising. But these
sheep are not merinos. Their fleece is
nearer hair than wool.
rs Any one who has, a taste for sheep
raising could obtain a Cotswold or South-
7 down ram and start with a few Florida
al sheep and.make as much or more than
with hogs, and supply home markets
9 with most excellent meat. At Sarasotn
al market mutton at 15 cents outsold beef
at 8 cents.
D. R. GREEN.
:o Diseases of Poultry-Ill.
BY E. S. RICHARDSON.
ee This disease, if it can be called a dis-
s. ease, is a condition of the fowl indi-
d cated by a dry, horny scale at the end of
t. the tongue. It is merely a symptom of
y disease, elsewhere commonly a trouble
r in the air passages,
SYMPTOMS.-A dry noisd, something
i like zip. zip, whenc,' its name.
S TREATMENT -Give the afflicted fowl a
3 pill made of three grains of black pep-
per and butter, and a little garlic daily.
d Diet carefully.
t, .The name of this disease is very ex-
pressive, arnd is derived from the chief
t- symptom. The trouble is caused by a
n parasitic worm in the throat called the
;, gape worm in common language. In
scientific language the worm is called
syngaimus trachealis. This -disease has
been treated of by scientific men, and
we will not attempt togive anything but
t the simple cause and effect. 'For a full
I account of this disease see Stoddard's1
n Poultry Diseases.)
t TREATAMENT.-It is very necessary that
e the afflicted fowl have immediate treat-
rent or it will die. The surest treatment
d is to put, some clear, pure carbolic acid"
g into a spoon and hold it over: a lamp.
Dense white fumes will arise. Hold the
chicken'u, head over the fumes until it. is
nearly suffocated. If there; are many,
t shut them in a box and 'fumigate themL
e 2d. Take a feather and strip off all the
I webbed portion except the tip and dip it
s into turpentine or kerosene. Thrust it
a into the windpipe, turn it around several
L times and draw it out. You will gener-
ally get the worms out in that way. If
not the: first time, try until you do;
be sure and destroy the worms by burn-
ing. Use a feather about large enough
to fill the windpipe, according to the
size.of the bird. .
Is a trouble with young birds that are
growing too'fast. .
TREATMENT.-Feed plentyof bone dust
and substances that do not tend- to fat- a
ten, such as wheat, barley and meat. If -
in warm weather, dip the legs in cold
water twice a day. Give Douglass' Mix-
ture in water. Take seven grains of
copperas sulphate of iron), half grain of
strychnine, four grains quinine, two
r scruples of phosphate of lime. Mix well
.together and divide into eight powders.
Give one every night until cured.
Avoid a series of boxes attached to
each other, but use a separate box for i
each hen, then you can move the box.
hen and all to another room, or part of
the room, if the hen is inclined to be
troublesome, or if for any reason you
wish to empty the box to replenish the I
nest you can do it without disturbing
other liens, and without much loss oft
Don't use straw or chaff to fill in the
box for nest, but instead use clean white
saud, or sandy loam, free as possible F
from little stones.
Before anything in put into the box.
take a quart bottle or any small dish
easy to pour from, and soak all the cor-
ners and cracks with crude kerosene oil. (
let this dry for a little whil-., then fill in
four or five inches of sand or loam: hol- i
low out a little in the centre, just. enough ]
to throw the eggs together: set the box a
on the ground to help hold moisture p
during incubation; have oand a little
damp but not wet: avoid too much
dampness at all times. '
I have seen hens setting within three w
feet of each other, with circumstances
alike as near as I could judge, save the b
fact, that one had straw and the other t
sand filling for her nest; the one with r
straw filling would be troubled with lice b
or mites nearly every time, while the A
one on sand was clear of -them, and a
would hatch a larger per cent. of the
eggs, and would have good strong chicks. p
Now, this is but natural, as sand or sa
earth is the foundation for the nest for tw
the hen in the.wild state, and why not ft
copy nature ? He or she will succeed
best who will give the fowls in confine-
ment the most natural treatment.
I have tried sand and straw for sever-
al years, and have given up straw at hand
for sand two miles off, and it pays well
to go after it.
Another advantage of sand or soil nest
over straw or other loose litter is the ab-
solute prevention of cool air reaching
the eggs from underneath, and by lower-
ing their temperature produce a weak
hatch. It isquite evident that an in-
differently made nest of straw or hay,
as many are, by filling the box loosely,
and depending upon the hen to settle it
and make her nest comfortable, will
permit enough cold'air to reach the eggs
at times when the mercury falls below
the freezing point to either spoil the set-
ting entirely or so weaken the chicks
that they will not live. Making the nes,
is often half the battle in accomplishing
a good hatch.
Bees can stand cold but not dampness.
In raising queens breed from quiet
A good queen is as necessary in the
hive as a thoroughbred cock in the pen.
Never use tobacco in the bee smokers
as it makes them cross for several days
There is no difference between the egg
which hatches a queen or a worker.
The only difference is in their treat-
ment, the eggs which produce queens
being fed with royal jelly.
All persons are'not born bee keepers,
or even made bee keepers by years of
experience, and it would 'be but folly to
expect that all would be successful in that
branch of industry. And, indeed, there
is often more profit in bee-keeping as a
recreation than in all the many returns
that are realized, although there is some-
times a consideration in that respect. --
If you contemplate keeping bees as a
regular business and wish to make it pay,
we advise you to procure a good honey ex-
tractor, also a wax extractor; both aie
good implements in the apiary, saving
much valuable time, and will be the
means of saving your honey in its purity
and your wax from all undesirable combs
in a condition fit for any market.-Ex-
In hiving swarm the greatest care
should be taken in many respects. First,
to be sure you have the queen inside the
hive., If you have not discovered the
queen in hiving, see that all the bees are
in the hive. A small cluster of bees left
on the outside may contain the queen,
and if so they are liable to swarm off
again and at this stage of proceeding are
likely to leave for good, just in the same
manner that they would if left banging
in a cluster to a limb or branch of a tree.
After hiving a swarm they should have
,abundance of ventilation, either by en
larging the entraiceb or shading the hire
irom the hot rays of the sun, or both, and
especially if swarms are large. In
swarming bees fill themselves with lhorie
it the utmost limit. Hence more v-n.
tilation is required at this time than any.
other. Swarms may be hived on empt-y
frames with success, but when'thus
,hived care must be used to. see that the
hive is et. perfectly level and plumb, as
the frames must bang plumb to insure
straight combs. Bees when build i.
combs commence at the top and hang in
heavy clusters to their combs as they
complete them. In this way they are
always built plumb. Hence you see the
necessity of having the frames plumb,
in order tiat the bees may follow them
straightly. It is much better to hive
swarms on a full set of combs if at hand.
If not, foundation can be used, which is
about as good. The frames should be
filled full of this, or at least with enough
of it to make a full comb the size of your
frame after it is completed by the bees.
The'sheet of foundation should be fast-'
ened to the top bar of frames and left
swinging clear of the ends one-fourth of
an inch and at the bottom one-half an
inch, as the foundation will stretch while
the work of completion is going on. It
is considered by apiarists to be quite an
advantage to always furnish a new
swarm with a frame of young brood
taken from another colony. In doing
this we would dislodge all the bees from
said comb if for no other reason than the
certainty of not taking away the queen
with it. Never allow a swarm of bees
to remain long after settling, but hive
them as soon as possible. Swarms often
return to their hives after issuing.
This is always evidence that the queen
has not taken wing with them. and it
may be on account of bad sings. She
may be found crawling on ,tpe ground
in the neighborhood of the hire, or she
m:iy have refused to leave the hive and
can be found on the combs. We have
had qui-ens to practice this to such an.
extent that we were compelled to open
the hive wnd capture them while the
swarm was on the wing. Thus secured,
the old hive removed and the new one
placed in its stead, we were able to se-
euie the new swat m on its return in the
new hire. National Stockman and
Cofton seed meal is said to be a good
egg producing food. It ought to be
most certainly, as it is highly nitrogen-
us. and this is one of the largest con-
tituents of the white of an egg, while
lie yolk is largely composed of sulphur.
rhis being true, cotton-seed meal and
*ulphur if fed to laying fowls ought to
reducee most satisfactory results.
A prominent poultry raiser says that
.t'"ii hens cared for in a proper manner,
will show an annual profit of $3,000.
Muscovy and Poland tducks are the
est. The Muscovy growslarge and both
he Muscovy and Poland are easy to
aise. They require but little water, and
oth are-excellent for the table, the
luscovy quite equal toa turkey in size
nd superiorin quality of meat.
If roses are wilted before they can be
laced in water, immerse the ends of the
talks in very hot water for aa minute or
wro and they will regain, their, pristine
Circulars and Stencils on application.
S., F. & W. R. R. WHARF,
I S, size o40x100o o Lake Kingsley, CayCo.. o1la 10. .1A
feettin enX V I choice --'aacre tract fr an ORANE
GROVE costs but $100..
High rolling Pine Lands, Salubrious Climate, a good invest- FL RI0 -
iment. Send 2-cent stamp for Maps, etc., or remit P. 0. Order or
Bank Draft to JOHN T. TALBOTT,,and get Warranty Deed, Title
perfect, from the
TIO PICOA.L I.AT3 00D:1VP.A.ITr--
P. 0. Box 1.s.JfacksoSm ille. Florida. 39 W. Bay St.
P. CHAMBERLAIN. A. w. cUcOasi
Real Estate Agency,
TAMPA, FLORIDA. Office: Twiggs St., to Iblock east or Passenger depolt
ORIOLE, HERNANDO COUNTY.
Beautiful location, facing on Lake Oriole and on -h S.:t tih Fl...rindi litir.I. :
Lands all high and dry. New settlement; between twenty-five and thirty new lhouses..
A Church, Scho-',.. ..y mails, stores,. bakery, sawmill and hotel. Larg-e area lJreadyTplanted.
in orange groves. Choice building lots for winter homes for salt ..i,p. Ten, twenty ana.
[for acre orange grove lots. A healthy settlement in a healthy State.
Call on or Address,
J. W. GROVES, o. r CLARKSON & ROBERTSON,
Oriole, Florida. Jacksonville, Florida.
Wholesale Commission Merchant,
NO. 813 NORTH WATER STREET. PHILADELPHIA.
Specialties: SOUTHERN FRUIT- AND VEGETABLES-. C('nn'-rnu- lickeded. Return
made on day of sale.
SA T. ESTATE BI=OIETT E
Orange Groes. Ton.r L:,ca in Barrow, Wint-r Bairn. Hasietel, Punta Gorda and CharMlote
Harbor. for Sate. Unimprored Lands, in small and large rrmis, at $2)i per acre, up. Choictec
and fji-rty acre tracts of oud, high. rolling Pine Lands, near S. F. R. R deport. at $20 to -5 per
acre. All pr,.-perty guaranteed to be as represented cr rnehny refunde-d.
g" Money L..ans, well secured, negotiated at 15 per cent net, to the lender.
w. LH. EIPILLOW,
FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PACKING,.
FORWARDING AND COMMISSION HOUSE.
-- o -
Usuilly have orders to work our consignments into, enabling us to makePTROMPT RETURLNS
Extensive Facilities for Repacking
for outside parties, to which prompt attention is given. Packages suitable for
SHIPPING ORANGES, STRAWBERRIES AND VEGETABLES.
both made up and in the flat, always on hand, and for sale. A li.:. He... ,- Wra.nppm P:i.er, etc-
Best of location, viz:
HOW TO MAKE A MARKER FOR
.An EFxcellent Fertilizer for Garden Crops.
How Initter is Colored Watering
Horses--Varieties of Potatoes That Have
Proven Generally Acceptable.
Among the early varieties of potatoes
that have proven generally acceptable
none stood higher in esteem than the
Beauty of Hebron. It is recommended
by all our leading seedsmen as an excel-
lent variety for either market growers or
private gardeners. It is not only early
-and pro(ductive,-nbut being, a good keeper
-may also be eniployed for the main crop.
BEAUTY OF HEBRON.
This potato resembles the Early Rose in
.shape, but is of a lighter red. The
Beauty-of Hebron resembles the early sort
.and excels most potatoes as a cropper.
Oui second cut gives an idea of the form
-of the Empire State, a wonderfully pro-
.ductive potato for a main crop and highly
:recommended for general purposes.
In shape it resembles the Beauty of
XHebrOn, but is -somewhat more oblong.
'The flesh is white and floury, skin white
and smooth, eyes shallow but strong, a sin-
gle eye being fully sufficient for a hill., The
vines grow rank and vigorous; the roots
are strong and extend deeply into the soil,
Although the tubers lie compactly in the
-hill at the proper depth. Its strong pene-
trating roots cause Empire State to stand
drought exceedingly well. It is medium
late. _____ -
A Silo on Top of the Ground.'
.Every year adds to the advocates of en
silage, especially in such sections of the
country as are liable to long winters. En -
silage is'; however, by) no rerinu co,,ined
to the east and northeast. EetI ha the
southernt..states it Is' being 'more or less
uisel. Southern Culti'vator teils how-to
:.- bul 11 ,ilo above ground: :
Bedl silts a little in the ground anid use
stui1limiai: -ix inche, a-ide eight would be
better riatl plaul: up tight both on inside
and cut''Ie Fill 'pace in wall with dirt.
packing it iu tightly Hare silri eight
feet wide, eight feet high and any length
desired. Sixteen feet is god lengt.i, hav-
img a partition wall in the milil- so ,O to
give two compartments eraht feet s qar.-.
It has to be roofed, of- course, and such an
' arrangement allows the filling to be:easily
done at each end through the open gable.
Likewise it can be taken out from the
top through the gables when it is to be
fed. Always feed from the top instead of
cutting down through a side. No matter
how large a silo is built, it should be
divided into small compartments, so that
-the feeding, may go on from one of these
only at a time.
'- arker for Cliecking Ground.
The annexed illustration shows -what
The American .Agriculturist claims to be
an excellent marker for checking corn
Sgroundi. The runners are of hard wood
plank, 2xi inches ani 4 feet long. They
are usually place : feet 10 inches apart.
The cross ; DitCe-, of 2-4 inch stuff, are
land on top of the runners and fastened in
place with squire pieces; or, better, are
let ito tlie runners Pieces of 2x4 inth
stutff run iliag-onitly tront the rear corners
and meet in front, forming bases of at-
Itachmid'nt for the pole tongue. Bows of
pieces of hoop pole are fastened in, these,.
through which the rear end of the tongue
SERPICEABLE MARKEr.. .
This, it is claimed, is much superior to
bolting the tongue across the top of the
narker, for then every irregularity in.the
.valk of the horses is communicated to the
narker, making short crooks in the
checks ; and where the marker dips in a
depression its weight is thrown on the
Lorses' necks. When the tongue is at-
ached, as shown in the cut, no short
rooks are made in the checks, there is
either lateral nor horizontal strain
n the horses' shoulders, while the
oops make the marker managea-
le in crossing deep furrows, etc. The
ingue is held in place by a round
on holt passing through it and the
id of the diagonals. The double trees
e fastened just in front, of this point of
*tachment. The driver stands on the
so boards on the rear center of the
Nitrate of Soda.
We have found nitrate of soda to be a
)st excellent thing'in its place. In com-
iAtion with complete fertilizers it has
sen astonishing results, even on poor,
idy soil. Its effect on certain garden
ips is ofteu magical. But our friends
mid not be deceived to suppose that It
.wers-all the purposes of a complete
i.lizer. Its proper place is on already
at garden soils, and for early vegetables,
ecialy -suich as are grown for their
res 'or stalks, like lettuce, cabbages,
aragus, or for their succulent bulbs,
i radishes, beets, onions, etc. Nitrate
6da, however, seems to have but little
at on potatoes except, perhaps, to help
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, MAY 25, 1887.
in pushing them for earliness), on peas
Nitrate of soda may be .purchased from
almost any dealer in fertilizers at per-
haps less than $50 per ton, and at this
rate it is one of the cheapest fertilizing
materials obtainable for the purposes
mentioned. Market gardeners should not
fail to test its' virtues.-Orchard and
All root crops contain a large amount
both of nitrogen an'd ash constituents;
among the latter potash greatly predomi-
nates. Turnips contain more sulphur
than any other farm crop.
The turnip and mangel crop differ in
several respects. Turnips and swedes
draw their food chiefly from the surface
soil. Their power of taking up nitrogen
from the soil is distinctly greater than
that of the cereal crops. Turnips are also
well able to supply themselves with
potash when growing in a fertile soil, but
they have singularly little power of ap-
propriating the combined phosphoric acid
of the soil; fresh applications of phosphoric
manures thus always produce a marked
effect on this crop.
Angels have much deeper roots than
turnips,, and also a longer period of
growth. They have a greater capacity
for drawing food from the soil, including
both nitrogen, potash and phosphoric acid.
When carted off the land they are prob-
ably the most exhaustive crop that a
farmer can grow. As angels have not
the same difficulty that turnips have of
attacking the combined phosphoric acid of
the soil, phosphoric manures are in their
case of much less importance. Purely
nitrogenous manures, as nflrat@ of
sodium, when applied alone to angels
generally produce a great effect on the
crop; this is not- the case with turnips,
which require phosphates as well as nitro-
gen in their manures.
As both turnips and angels consume
extremely large amounts of plant food, a
liberal manuring with farm yard manure
is in most cases essential for the produc-
tion of a full crop; but the special charac-
teristics of the manure for turnips should
be phosphoric, and of, that for angels
Potatoes are surface feeders and require
a liberal general manuring to insure an
Common Sns6 in House Building.
SIn planning a house do not think of the
exterior at first, but agree on the size of
each needed room, and arrange those of
the main floor on a sheet .of paper, drawn
to a scale, so that, they are most conveni-
ently clustered Shift them about as you
do the castles on a chess board until they
group.well. Put the porch with the main
door on the east or south side, also the
living ro,:n. Plin'e the dining ronm to the
north or westnarid the parlor facing the
road. Add the kitchen on the north :or
west if possible, and next to the dining
riom Put the stairs where you can
.each them convrernient'ly from the living
room. Then consiiler the position of the
ncedlel chiimnieys. Not until all this ha.s
beei well 1.o11. out do you consider the ex-
terior. The fact is you build a house to
live in it.. If the interior is well planned
the outside will take care of itself. In
architecture, as well as elsewhere, the
natural is the beautiful.
Much of the gilt edged, high priced but-
ter from leading creameries is colored in
the churn. Various kinds of butter color-
ing are used. These are, for the most
part, prepared from annatto, a vegetable
substance that is quite harmless, and,
while imparting a goldenhueto the but-
ter, does not in the least affect its flavor.
There remains,, of course; with many a
preference for butter that owes its rich
color to the food partaken Of by the cow.
But cow- refine at some seasons of the
year, e.-rn with the most judicious addi-
tion of carrots, corn meal,:- etc., to their
.rations, to produce the uniformly high
color demanded by the trade.
L' ook Out for Codling Moths.
The codling moth or apple worm may
be prevented at a nominal expense, and
much fruit saved, by spraying the trees
with Paris green. Apply the poison at
the rate of about one ounce to every three
gallons of water. Spray the, trees twice,
early in the sprira ais soon as the fruit has
set and again I-iefe the growing apple
turns downward on the'stem.
There is a steady decline of French
vineyards owing to the increase of phyl-
It is claimed that Orchard Hill, Ga..,
-has the largest peach orchard in the
world. It comprises 790 acres and' con-
S'tains 84,000 trees. -
Many of the Texas peach growers ad
mit serious injury to the peach crops by
The New York dairy and cattle show,
May 10-14, offers $10,000 in premiums
for Ayrshires, Guernseys, Holsteins and
Jerseys, $250 herd prize each breed and
liberal class prizes.
The banana crop promises to be a
flourishing California industry.
Reports from the winter wheat growing
states are still generally favorable. :
The California raisin industry Is only
about ten years old, yet it has already
progressed so far tbat the Spanish packers
are seriously alarmed. ..
The cost of refrigerated beef received In
England from this country by the carcass
is from one and a half to two cents per
pound less than beef from the United
States slaughtered in Great Britain_
Indications point to much damage done
to the fruit and vegetable crops in the
south by the late frosts.
According to statistics recently pub-
lished by the superinteudentof agriculture
at Washington, in New York state three-
tenths of the farms are mor.gaged and
one in twenty of the farm proprietors are
hopelessly in debt. Mortgages run. to
neighboring farmers and merchants and
to Insurance agents and trust, companies.
FOR HONOR'S SAKE.
By B. L. FARJEON,
Author of "Great Porter Square," "The
Bright Stat of Life," Etc.
PART THE FIRST.
THE TRIAL OF EDWARD LAYTON.
DESCRIPTION OF TIIE LAST DAY'S PROCEED-
INGS-EXTRACTED FROM A DAILY PAPER.
"The trial of Edward Layton for the
murder of his wife came to a singular and
unsatisfactory termination late last night.
That the public interest in the case had
reached an almost unprecedented height
was proved by the large number of per-
sons who were unable to obtain admission
to the court.
"'On the previous evening the evidence
for the prosecution had closed, and there
was a painful and eager expectancy in the
minds of all present as to the line of de-
fense which the prisoner intended to
adopt. This line of defense-if indeed it
can be called a defense-was as surprising
as it was brief.
"The prisoner, addressing the judge and
jury, intimated that it was not his inten-
tion to call witnesses on his behalf. Most
of the witnesses for the prosecution, he
said, had given their evidence fairly, and
if f&ey had committed themselves to mis-
statements and discrepancies, it was more
because they were either misled or mis-
taken-in the case of one witness, Ida
White, because she was strangely preju-
diced against him-than that they had a
desire to make the case against him even
blacker than it was. It had happened be-
fore, and would doubtless happen again,
that a man found himself thrust into
such an unhappy position as hlie himself
stood through no fault of his own,
and that he was unable to say o0
do anything to prove his innocence. Some-
times it was with such a man a matter of
honor, sometimes a matter of conscience.
In his own case it sprung from both his
honor and his conscience that his lips were
sealed, and the utmost he could say foi
himself was that he was an innocent man,
with so dark an array of evidence against
him as to almost incoiitestably prove him
to be guilty. All that he could do was to
declare most solemnly that the accusation
upon which he was being tried was false,
and that he stood before them as un-
stained by crime as they were themselves.
What could be said truly in his favor was
that his character, and to some extent his
blameless life, were a refutation of the-
charge. Evidence of character was gen-
erally called in mitigation of impending
punishment. He did not intend to call
such evidence, because, by so doing, it
-.'.julld be a half admission that he stood
ti-re a guilty instead of an innocent nmad.
He knew perfectly- well how lame and an
potent these-weak words must sound in
the ears of tio-e who were sitting in judg-
ment npon htum, but this hi- could not
help.. It was but part of the fatal web in
which he was entangled. 'That he and
his wife had lived unhappily together was
not to be disputed; but even in this most
serious crisis of his life he denied the right
arrogated -by the legal profession to
rip open a man's private affairs and ex-
pose to the vulgar gaze what he desired
should be hidden from it. The last thing
he would do, even if he had been in ten
times the peril in which he then stood,
was to drag other persons into the case.
ahdil to all'jw them to be blackened and
viliflie a lie had been. 'I can scarcely
doubt said the prisoner, 'what your ver-
dict will be. Were I in your place I
should most likely decide as you will de-
cide; but none the less will-it be a solemn:
fact that, though you are legally right,
you ',n- m uorally wrong. I must be con-
tent h. let the cinse rest as it has been pre-
sented to- you, and to abide the issue,
though it may cost me my life.'
"'Never in a criminal court, in the case
of a man arraigned upon so grave a
charge, has there been heard a defense so
:weak and strange; but'it is nevertheless
a fact.that the prisoner's earnest and, to
all appearance, ingenious manner pro-
duced a -deep impression upon all who
beh-ar'lh'i, and when he ceased speaking
th rre .i-, in the murmurs of astonish-
ment that followed, an unmistakable note
of sympathy. .
"After a slight-pause the attorney gen-
eral r',--) t:, urnu-tip the case against the
prisoner, and his uicisve judicial utter-
ances soon dispelled the inipresion which
:the prisoner's earnestness had produced.
He said that in the circunstan,.cs of the
case his speech would b'e briefer than it
otherwise :would have been. He had a
duty to perform and he would perform it,
without, he hoped, any undueseverity or
harshness. Unhappily the evidence was
only too clear against the prisoner, aifd
unhappily the prisoner had strengthened
the case against himself. This was not
a matter of sentiment; it was a matter of
justice, and justice must be done. With
slight limitations, around which the-pris-
oner threw a veil of silence, contenting
himself to b'cast suspicion upon them by
some kind of mysterious implication
which no person could understand, and
not venturing to give them a distinct and
indignant, denial-with slight limitations,
then, the prisoner had admitted the truth-
fulness of the evidence brought against
him. As the prisoner had not di-
rectly referred to these doubtful
points In the evidence, he would him-
self do so and endeavor to clear away
any latent doubt, if such existed, in
the minds of the jury." First, with
respect to the ulster. The prisoner': did
not deny that he wore this ulster on. the
whole of the day his coachman, John
Moorhouse, was driving him to various
places, and it. was only upon his arrival
home at midnight that he endeavored to
shake the coachman's evidence as to
whether, when he entered the carriage,
upon leaving Prevost's restaurant, and
upon his issuing from the carriage when
the coachman drew up at his house, he
still had his ulster on. What his motive
was in endeavoring to shake the coach-
man's testimony upon this point it was
impossible to say. He ithe learned coum-
sel) had most carefully considered the
matter, anl the only conclusion he could
arrive at was that the prisoner was aax-
ious to instil a doubt into the minds of thu
jury, that it was not he who left the res-
taurant at 11:50 and entered his carriage,
and that it was not lie who alighted from
the carriage and opened his street door.
But supposing, for instance, that this ar-
gument had a foundation in fact, was it
not easy for the prisoner to prove what he
had done with himself between 11:50 on
the night of the 25th of March and 7
o'clock on the morning of the 26th? Surely
some person or persons must have seen him,
and had he produced those persons there
would have been a reasonable alibi set up,
which it would be the duty of every one
engaged in this case seriously to consider.
Indeed, lie would go so far as to say that,
admitting such evidence to be brought
forward and established, there could not
be found a jury who would convict the
prisoner of the charge brought against
him. It would then have been proved'
that the prisoner had not seen his wife
-from 11 o'clock onithe morning of the 25th
of March until 7 o'clock on the morning
of the 26th; andf as it was during the night
of those days that the unhappy lady met
her death, it would have been impossible
to bring the prisoner in guilty. But, easy
as this evidence must have been to pro-
duce, there is not only no attempt to pro-
duce it, but in his lamentably impotent
speech the prisoner does not even refer to
it. In his mind then, and in the minds of
all reasonable men, there could not be a
doubt that this was the case of one who,
in despair, was catching at a straw to
save'himself. The learned council touched
briefly but incisively upon every point in
the evidence concerning which the pris-
oner had maintained silence and had made
no endeavor to confute. For instance,
there was the lady whom he met in
Bloomsbury square, whom he took to Pre-
vost's restaurant, whom he regaled with
a supper which neither he nor she
touched-a distinct proof that they were
otherwise momentously occupied. The
evidence with respect to this lady is irre-
fragable. She was no shadow, no myth,
no creation of the imagination; she was a
veritable being of flesh and blood. All
the efforts of the prosecution had failed to
trace her, and the just deduction was that
she was somewhere in hiding, afraid to
come forward lest she might be incrim-
inated and placed-side by side with the
prisoner in the dock. Ihe prisoner did
not deny her existence, nor that she and
he were for several hours in company with
each other. Were he innocent what pos-
sible doubt could exist that he would
bring her forward to establish his tnro-
cence? Were both innocent, w,,nld not
she' of -her own accord step forward to
prove it? The prisoner in his a.ldress
made certain allnusions to honor and c(on
science, by: which he would make it ap-
pear that he was guided' by his honor and
his conscience in the singular method of
his defense; and it may be .that there ex-
isted in hint some mi-taken sene oft chiv-
ahlrywhich induced hjm to do all inhis-
power to screen the partner in his crime.
It would have been better for him had he
brought his honor and his conscience to
bear in the unhappy engagement into
which he entered with the unfortunate
lady who afterward became his wife; but
it had been amply proved that the mar-
riage was not, on his side at least, a mar-
riage of affection. Distinctly he married-
her for hermoney, and distinctly hlie would
be a great gainer by her death. Thus,
then, there existed a motive, and not a
novel one-for theN tragedy has been
played many times in the history of crime
-for his getting rid of her. He ithe
counsel of the prosecution) did not wish to
press hardly upon 'the prisoner, who was
a man of culture and education and must
feel keenly the position in which he stood,
whatever might be his outward demeanor.
But it devolved upon him to impress
upon the jury not to allow any false sen-
timent to cause them to swerve
from the straight path. of duty.
They must decide by the evidence
which had been 'presented to them,
andit was with la feeling the reverse of
satisfactory that he. pointed out to them
that ',this evidence could-lead to but one
"The summing, up of the learned judge-
(which, with the attorney, general's
speech, will be found fully reported in
other columns) was a masterly analysis
of the evidence which had been adduced.
He impressed upon the jury the necessity
of calm deliberation, and of absolute con-
viction before they pronounced their ver-
'dict. Circumstantial evidence was,, of all
evidence, the most perplexing and dan-
gerous. It had, in some rare instances,
erred; hut theio exceptions were, happily,
fewv anti far between. Ir had, on the
other hand, led to the detection of great
criminals, and without its aid many hein-
ous agi-essors against the law would slip
through the hands of justice. He dis-
-missed"ithe jury-to their duty. and he
prayed-that wisdom might attend their
"At 8:80 o'clock the jury retired, and it
was the general impression that the case
would 'be ended within the hour. The
prisoner sat in the dock, shading his eyes
:.with his hand. Not once did he look up
to the court. He seemed to be preparing
himself for his impending fate. But 4
o'clock, 5 o'clock, 6 o'clock passed, and
the suspense gretw painful. It "as clear
that there was not that agreement be-
tween the ju;y which all the court, in-
eluding even the prisoner, had expected.
At 6:20 the foreman of the jury entered
the court, and Informed the jtidge that
there was no chance of the jury agreeing
upon a verdict. -
"The Judge-Is there &ny point of law
upon which .you desire information?
; "The Foreman of the Jury-None, my
"The Judge-Is.there any discrepancy
in the evidence which the -jury wish
"The Foreman of the Jury-No, my
lord. It is simply that we cannot agree.
"The learned judge then intimated that,
after so long and patlenta trial, he could
not lightly dismiss the jury from their
duties, and he bade the foreman again re-
tire to a further consideration of the case.
The court, he said, would sit late to re-
ceive the verdict.
"Seven o'clock, 8 o'clock, 9 o'clock
passed, and then the learned judge sent
for the foreman of the jury and inquired
whether any progress had been made tion; "I refer to legal matters, especially
toward an agreement, to criminal cases the solution of which
"The Foreman of the Jury-None, my rests upon circumstantial evidence. Cir-
lord. There is no possible chance of the cumstances the 'most remote, aid' appar-
jury agreeing upon a verdict. ently absolutely worthless and trivial,
"It was remarked that no person in have been woven by a legal mind into a-
court appeared to be more surprised than strand strong and firm enough to drag a
the prisoner, and when the jury were' prisoner out of the very jaws of death.".
called in and dismissed by the judge from I "And this nine of hearts is one of those
their duties Edward Layton, before he slender threads?" said Dr. Daincourt, in a
was removed from the dock by the jailors, tone of incredulous inquiry.
leaned eagerly forward to scan their "Very likely. You may depend I shall
countenances. not lose sight of it." I.
"Nothing further transpired, and this "You spoke of two links," said Dr.
unexpected chapter in the Layton mystery Daincourt, "and you have shown me that
was closed." which you believe to be a tangible one.
--- What is the link which you say is shadowy
PART THE SEOOND, and less dependable?" .- : .:..
_______ "I .will explain. The jury were dis-"
THE CABLE MESSAGE Fr oM AMERICA. charged, being unable to agree upon their'.
At 10 o'clock on the night following verdict.: It mayleak out throughfthe6
this exciting day Mr. Bainbridge, Q -C-pressb b; rl-v-,r'tty muh. -r% 'thing
and his friend Dr. Daincourt were chalt- 'doesIleak ut,tl t r .-- thel're'n attays
ting together in the dining room of tihe -b i i, o o k o pen t t
lawyer's house., They had met by an-' public how many of the jury were -for pro
polatment, and wore now conversing over nouncing. the, prisoner guilty and how -
the strange incidents of the Layton- trial. many for pronouncing him innocent.".
"Its termination," said Dr. Daincourt,. "I have heard rumors," said Dr. Dam- -
"is in harmony with the whole'of the court. ,.
proceedings. I am afraid, when Layton 'I ," aid the lawyer, "have po.sitve
isput aai n upon his trial, that there will. information. Eleven of them declared
be no fwu-'tb-r d-isagreement on the part of him guit.y,, only one held out that he was
'the iury, and that his conviction is cer- innocent. ArgunTe-nts, p.-rsuai.ions, logi-
tain". cal irfir,rnces and dileductiors, the recapitu-
"With the evidence as it stands at nation ,tf the evidence against him-all
present," said Mr. Bainbridge, thought- were of no avail in this one juryman's
fully, "you are right in your c. :nIlusion., eyes. He vould not be convinced; he -
But there is here a mystery to-be brought w'ouldI not yeidl. He had made up his -
to light which, discovered, may lead to a mind that te pri-rsoner wais innocent, and
different result. Almost unfathomable -that he, at least, would not be instru- ,
as this mystery; now appears to be, its mental in sending him from the dock a
unravelment may, after all, depend upon felon. -
a very slender thread. Fortunately, "I can see nothing in that." said Dr.
Layton's second trial cannot take place Daincourt. .
for a month. Before the month expires I "There are," continued the lawyer, "in'
hope to be able to lay my hand upon civil and criminal records, instances of a
evidence which will prove him innocentof a like rat'e,?. some of which have been
the charge." '. II privat-ly itfted, with strange resquTq
"To judge from his attitude,?'" said afterthe cases have been finally settled,
Dr. Daincourt, "he is'indifferent as to the I recollect one case which may bear upol ..
result." -this of Layton's. I do not say it does,
"You are mistaken," said the lawyer; but it may. It occurred many years
"it is only that he will not owe his release ago, and the jury were locked up
to certain means which I believe it to a barbarous length of time without
be in his power to disclose. Has it not being able to come to an agree'-
ccurred to you tiat he has been anxious ment. There was-no possible doubt, cir-
all through to keep. something in the cumstantially, of theprhioner's g-uilt; the
background?" eviden-ce was conclusive enough to convict
"Yes," replied Dr. Daincourt, "that twenty men. One person,-however, would
has been my impression; but it might not give in, and, that person. was on tht
be soraething" which would more firmly jury. The prisoner was tried, again and
fix his 'utit. Isit yourintention to follow -nhesihatu.i-ly acqwtted. During the
up the case?" time that lhaI elapsed between the first
"To the last linkin thechain."1 andseco:l trls additional evidence was
S"The chain, if there :be one, is safely found whi,: Iprved the prisoner to be in-
hidden, and I cannot for the life of me nocent. Tihe juryman who 'held out on
see a singl-e link." the first trail Lhappenied to have been some
Mr. Bainbridge, leaning back in his years bhf,,re a frend of tbe prisoner, a
chair, did not reply for a-few moments, tact, of course, which was not-known
and ther, he said- .who thejury was empanelled.-- After
,'I have two links to commence with. the fesult.of-the-econdi trial he publicly-
One of these is shadowy; the ,th.;r is cer- do.,I red that-he had been guided by his
tain and tangible." -And then, with the fe ,g. ant not by the eeide- e." ".
air of a man whose thoughts were.. en- "Aril you think that. someinag of the-
gargel upon an important subject, he ex- sort may have happened in this case,'"
claimed ."If I could only discover its '.l, you been on the jury, What"
meaning r woul have been yburverdict?" "
"The meaning of what?" "iai bee.
The lawyer took a pack of cards from a Had I been on the jury, what would
drawer and selected a card, which he have been my verdict_ Despite my firm
handed to Dr. Daincourt." conviction that Layton is an innocent
"The nine of hearts," said the doctor. man, I.should: have brought him in guilty.
S"The card," said the lawyer, that was It was not my opinion I had to be guided
found in-the pocket of Layton's- ulster." by, it was the evidence; And the.evidence
"Is this-your tangible link?" asked Dr. in Layton's case, as it was presented to
Daincourt, turning the card over in his the coujt and appears in the papersindis- -
hand. is putably proclaims him to be a guilty man..-
"It is mytangible link," replied the Again, when the verdict was pronounced
lawyer. I watched his face; agaifi I saw there a,
Dr. Daincourt shrugged his shoulders. startled look of wonder and astonishment;
"You are adding mystery to mystery." to his own mind the' evidence against him-
I1 think not," said the lawyer. "You was conclusive. Then it was that I ob-
were not in the court when the nine-of served him for the first time gaze upon
.hearts was produced."- the jury/'with some kind of interest and
.a "No. p attention. Not once during the trial had
"That and the' latch key of Layton's he looked at them in any but a casual
street door were the onlyarticles found in wIay, and I should not be surprised to -
the pockets of the ulster. -Whenthe evi- learn that he was ignorant of their'
ce-nce relating to these articles was being names. This is most unusual. Ordin-
given, I closely observed Layton's face. I arily a prisoner pays great attention to
knew, but hedid not, that these two arti- the jury upon whose verdict, 'his fate
cles were all that were discovered in the hings. -He gazes upon them with deep-
pocets of the inriminatihg coat..When est anxiety, he notes every change in their
pyets sofewtht ircrintablyg "coat -Wernm ^ S tun ena or
the latch key was held up he4miled faint--COuntenances, is despondent when.he ben
'ly he was not surprised. But when the lives it to be against i, is hopeful
nine of hearts was' produced there flashed when he believesitto be in his favor. Not
into his eyes-a startledlook-a look of be- so with Layton. Wh en the jury were em-
wilderient and astonishment; indeed panelled, and their names called over,
there was srntethng of horror in his face' he paid not the slightest attention to
theater ar was ine IIg pof kt. horror in his face.
I needed no further sign to make me posit them;he did not turn his eyes toward
tive that heo had no previous knowledge them; hemighthave been both deaf and
o te artend a that iwa s h rsme blind for all the interest he evinced.".
of the carl, and that it was the,,firta t tti meant aware said th
clbsorteig ospd t tePerhaps you are not aware," said the'
he bad seen it.a y ,, doctor, "that he is very shortsighted, and
"Som thing of horror, you say.th'. w thu.h.. .. '- wol --
-It was my impression, and I cannot an without his gl asses it wo sa hnave
account for it. Not so wih wilder been impossible for him to distinguish
ment andastonishment..To my mind th ey te feureres of t ys te
ar eae easilyexplaineds s "I am quite aware of it,"esaid the law-
hare ease noe expla edt.on o t yero "but h. had his glasses hanging
ca a rekedn. Dr. Daoi conertghe. round his neck, and it is remarkable that
ear tnk' remarked, sd Dr. D ainoouru, [TO BB co-ni nm.]
'He as-ked no questions,"-said the law- not once during the trial did he put them:
yer 's~ome~wh~at irt-itab "co~ncerning-.a tothiseyes. Iihave here," saidthe lawyer
yer 'smewat rrtaby. conernng apig his pocketbook, "a list of theta
hundred matters upon which the wit- tpp ..g
nesses should have been hardly pressed names, socialastanding, and businesses
C an you notsee tohat this acenetuatles i N a o the urm d on
conviction that the nine of hearts is a link this. Laton mystery. As regards only .
in the chaiif- one of them Is my information incom--
"Yes, supposing you had not 'already plete. I know their ages,.whetherthey,
arrived at a false conclusion with respect are married or single, wether they have
to poor Layton's knowledge of the posts- families, etc. I know something more-I
sion of the card." .' '.. know the name of the one man who would
19I will' stake my life' and reputation," not subscribe to the verdict of guilty which
said the lawyer, earnestly, "upon the cor- the other eleven, almost without leaving,
rectness of my conclusion. I will' stake the box, were ready to pronounce. Curl-
my life and reputation that,- until that ously 6notugh, this dissentientIs the person
moment, Edward Layton did not know respecting whom I have not yet, complete
that the card was in his pocket. particulars. I am acquainted with him
"Then sbmobody' must have placed it name, but have not teen supplied with
'there."his address. I shaU, however, obtain IS
"As you say, somebody niust have eaiy if I require It."
placd I, tere" ":whit is his name?" asked Dr. Dean-
"But in theuname of allthat Is reason- Jme Ru):tland," replied the lawyer "
able," exclaimeed Dr. Daincourt, "what t~ this moment there was a knock a~t9
possible connection can you ti-ace between the doo. ma, a ern ae i i
a playing 'card;' whether it be the ace of ar;and a ma se'n made hi ap -
clubs or the king of spades, or the nine of Pe"A tole;-h lad "sir," said the sew-,.
hearts--It 'matters not which-wha voe-rnt, "has brought~this message and Is -
ible connection can you find between any~ waiting, to know whether It is correct and
playing dard and the awful charge brought whether there 1s any answer. He says he;'
Tagant, Laid'theonyedr"'n has been in your rooms in the temple
"Tha," aidthelawyr, rumingand was directed on here to your private
upon the table with his fingers, "is what address, the instructions being .that the-
I have to discover. You do not know, inessage was to be delivered Immediately,
doctor, upon what slight threads the most either- at your professional or private real-
inaportant-issUes hang.": '.:- deuce."
"I think:I do," said Dr. Daincourt, z oum.
with a smile:
"I do not refer to the general issues of Never atop at the church door to ask
L. ... i., ,, ooa....Ae a n ,.- io vnnn.., about the music. In choir within.
L UiJIal ILL|OU Lre, SlaEeLaye, in exp^iunw-
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, MAY 25, 1887.
State News in Brief.
-Fort Myers has a snake and alligator
skin tannery in operation.
-Raspberry bushes are fruiting pro-
lifically in -the Tallahassee country this
-The palmetto fibre and brush factory
of F. B. English of Jacksonville, is soon
to be moved to New Smyrna. -
-ProRositions to buy out the Wakulla
phosphate beds have been received from
two leading railroad companies.
-The pillars have been planted,
lumber is daily arriving, and work on the
wire fence factory in Sanford will soon
be in operation.
-Two orange groves have recently
been sold in the neighborhood of Tampa,
the Griffin place, south, for $15,000, and
the Farago place, west, for $3 500.
-Fifty-thiee stalks of oats from one
grain is claimed by Alfred S. Campbell,
of Campbell City. This at an average of
eighty grains to the stalk, gives us 4,240
'-Mr.W. M. French, proprietor of the
stone and pipe works at Orlando, was in
Sanford Wednesday, completing arrange-
ments to remove his works and business
to the latter city.
-A .number of green turtles were
shipped lately by Messrs, Lowd & West-
all, of New Smyrna, and were consigned
to parties living in Jacksonville. Green
turtle have been very scarce since the
frost of 1886.
-The foot of a panther that was killed
near the sand hills in Manatee county
measured five inches across, with claws
fully an inch in length. It is stated that
the animal was eight feet in length and
built in proportion. -
-So far thisyear Florida has had three
new foundries and machine shops, ten
saw mills, four water works, two min-
ing companies, four railroads, one rice
mill, five cotton mills, three cigar face-
tories and fifteen miscellaneous indus-
-Work is still progressing on the light-
house of New Smyrna, and other build-
ing s, adjacent there to. The absence of
the master carpenter has delayed matters
in that department somewhat,. If noth-
ing unforeseen happens, all will be ready
foit occupancy the coming fall. .
-Another Birmingham is found about
two miles 'west of. Anthony, Marion
county, on the plantation of Mrs. Adkins,
of Jacksonville. Dr. Owens has reason for
believing that' iron ore 'exists on these
.. premises. The ore will be tested and
the fact ascertained to a certainty.
-Tuesday evening 'last the bids for
furnishing fuel and forage for the ensu-
ing year for the United States garrison
at St. Augustine were opened. The
amount requged is 1,150 cords of wood,
90 ,tons of stle coal, 4,900 pounds of
oats, 6,500 pounds of hay, and 8,500.
pounds of straw. -
-Mr. P. A. Demens, president of the
Orange Belt Railroad, arrived in Brooks-
ville last Friday evening, and although
the amount required-$20,000 in lands or
money-had not been raised, a contract
was entered into by which this road is
to be in operation to Brooksville by No-
-Mr. J. M. Raleigh, of Cleveland, 0.,
has started a lemon grove of twenty
acres on )range Creek. in the new coun-
ty of Lee. He will put out only the best
varieties, as the native lemon, rich in
juices, does not present a "marketable
appearance and hence does not sell well
along side of its thin. skinned and yel-
low brother. '
-There is now on exhibition at Mr. E.'
L. Evans' store in Fort Myers, a cabbage
weighing twenty-four pounds, raised by
Mr. W. Hendry at his country place
three miles east of town. Two others
were taken from. the same patch which-
weighed nineteen pounds each, and the
cabbages have received no extra cultiva-
-.s.Whiloa tan was plowing recently
in the field formerly owned by J. J.
Phillips,nuar Ocala, the earth under both
man and horse suddenly gave way, and
. a place ten or twelve feet square sunk
about eight feet, carrying both man and
Horse down, but fortunately neither
was injured. It took several men some
hours to get the horse out.I
-As soon as a few preliminary arrange-
ments can be settled the Florida South-
ern, it is said, will build to Bay Port.
They will have a surveyor in the field in
a few days to work the matter up. and
will solicit subscriptions as all the roads
do. There will be a large hotel erected
and ice factory and large cedar mill es-
tablished, all of which will put Bay Port
on a boom.
-The Sanford Argus proposes to send
10,0(10 copies of a special edition to Lon-
don by Mr. Arthur C. Jackson, who has
been employed by theSouth Florida Rail-
road to deliver three lectures there. This
special edition will contain notices and
accounts of the towns along the line of
the South Florida Railroad according to
the proportion in whjch they contribute
to the expense.
-Polk county's wealthiest tax-payer
lives in Midland, near Fart Meade. Al-
though he has annual ,boney transac.
tons of thousands of jlolfars, all of this
business is done on 'a cash basis, be hav-
ing 'learned no other system. In 1847
he came down from Georgia with a wife.
a feather bed and a cow, and went into
the cattle business. To-day he could-
draw his check for $100,000,and scarcely
knows how mainy cattle bear his brand.
-A report from Forr Myers, Fla.,
where Mr. Edison is sojourning, says he
is working on his sea telephone. Al-
ready he can transmit sound between
two.vessels from three to four miles dis-
tantbfrom each other; and is confident
-thathe will be able to increase' the dis-
lance 'between his stations as the appa-
ratug. becomes more perfect. -Up to the
present'time Mr. Edison has not succeed-
ed in transmitting articuJate. speech'
through his sea telephone, nor is this es-
sential to the success of the system. By
means of submarine explosions he is en-
abled to form a series of short and long
sounds in sequence, and by these, as in
the Morse system of telegraphy, words
and sentences can readily be transmit-
-Messrs. D. G. Ambler, J. N. C. Stock-
ton and James P. Taliaferro, of Jackson-
ville, were in Tampa the latter part of
last week, and completed the organiza-
tion of the Tampa Commercial Agency.
The stockholders in the firm are the
gentlemen named above, and Messrs.
W. B. Henderson, Captain Miller, T. C.
Taliaferro and A. C. Wuerpel. Mr. Hen-
derson is president of the.companyj and
Mr. A. C. Wuerpel has been selected as
business manager. The capital stock of
the company is' $75,000; We 'look upon
the organization of this agency as being
a big thing for Tampa, as it enlists a
great amount of capital in business here.
We understand that the company con-
templates establishing steamship lines be-'
twen Tampa and several ports in Central
America and the West Indies.-Tampa
THE INDIAN KEY MASSACRE.
Circumstances Attending the
Killing of Dr. Henry Perrine.
BY MRS. HESTER PERRINE WALKER,
-I think there are but four survivors of
the terrible massacre at "Indian Key"
by the Seminole Indians. I am one, and
believing the story of that eventful day,
the 7th of August, 1840, will be of inter-
est to your readers, I will give it to them.
Indian Key was an island of only twelve
acres, covered with the most luxuriant
tropical vegetation. Its tall, waving
palms could be seen from afar by passing
vessels, and its many flowers and fruits
were luxuries to its few inhabitants. It
was owned by Capt. Houseman. Its
principal inhabitants were the families
of the owner, of Mr. Charles Howe (col-
lector), Dr. Perrine, Mr. Mott,.and two
ship carpenters by the names of Glass
From the known habits of the Semi-
noles (never to fight without "the bush"
to cover them) they rested in perfect
security. The island was twenty miles
from the main land, and no fear had
ever been felt of their daring to come in
open canoes across that space of water.
Gen. Harney had been very aggressive,
and they were reduced ,to extremities in
their supply of ammunition. Knowing
that there had always been kept at In-
dian Key a large supply, (and at one
time our house had held the supply for
the navy on the coast), their desperation
made them bold. .
On the south side of the Key, a few
paces back from the rough and rocky
shore, stood five cottages, two only occu-
pied. In two of these lived Glass and
Bieglet, both bachelors. Glass got up
about 2 o'clock and went to the front
door. On opening it, to his great sur-
prise he saw a large number of canoes
drawn up.with their bows resting upon
the rocks. He knew at once that it could
only be for a hostile purpose that Indians
had brought them there. They had dis-
played consummate skill and strategy in
making their landing place, for it was
far from where any look-out or guard
might have expected them.
Glass aroused Bieglet, andafter a brief
consultation they decided-their wisest
course would be to try to reach Capt.
Houseman's house on the other side of
the. island, by scaling the intervening
fences, for if they could reach him they
knew he had a supply of arms and am-
munition with which perhaps a success-
ful defense could be made. Biegliet took
his double-barreled shot-gun, which was
loaded with mustard-seed shot only, and
together they started on their perilous
journey.. After proceeding but a short
distance they suddenly stopped ,'having
discovered, by the starlight, a large
body of Indians creeping along in the
shadow 'of- the fence. Had they not
been discovered, i f is-probable that not
one white person would have escaped to
tell the tale. At the .same moment one
of the savages raised his flDint-lock mus-
ket to fire, but itonly flashed in the pan,
while Bieglet :brought his gun' to hid
shoulder and fired into their midst, utter-
ing at the same time a terrific yell.
Glass thought his friend was shot, and
took to his heels toward the wharf on
the southwestern side of the island:
crawling underneath, he lay down close to
the point where it rested upon ihe shore,
and remained concealed until found by
the rescuing party next day. Bieglet
ran directly in the opposite direction.
The savages, instead of following
them. started for the houses and com-
menced their attack. Beglet in his
flight scaled a fence and went down to a
wharf near the large warehouse, where
a sloop was lying for repairs. He was
there joined by one of the sailors. The
captain and mate had heard the alarm
and lowering the hatch cover into the
sea, used it as a raft upon which they
succeeded in escaping to a vessel lying
at anchor three miles away. The other
sailors had concealed themselves under
the wharf by building a breastwork of
rocks before them. Bieglet and the
sailor were joined by a lad (James
Sturdy). Bieglet knew that under the
warehouse was a large cistern, and that
it. could be entered by a trap-door in the
floor of the piazza directly in front of
the,wide door that entered the ware-
house. With his two companions he
hastened thither, and raising the trap
quietly let themselves down into thA
water beneath, which was breast high
to the men and reaching to the boy's
In the early grey of the dawn, Bleglet
had the temerity to climb out of the cis-
tern, enter the warehouse and ascend
the stairs of the cupola above, where by
opening a small crevice in the blinds,
he saw the Indians scattered. 'carrying
various articles to their canoes and cap:
tured boats. He saw rhem also engaged
in throwing books from our library win-
dows.- He then retreated once more to
the cistern. From there later he saw
our escape in the boat. It was, not long
after that the Indians tumbled down
some bales of prepared hay upon the
floor and left. In a few seconds the
sound of flames was heard, and it was
not long before a. dense smoke began to
fill the cistern. Knowing that not many
minutes could elapse before the floor
would be burned through, they essayed
to escape; but, on raising the trap door,
they saw to their great horror, a sheet
of flame pouring out of the door of the
warehouse, directly across the opening.
There was no other avenue of escape.
The poor boy had probably succumbed
to the suffocating smoke, for he made
no reply when they called ,to hi-. With
desperate energy the men raised them-
selves nearly to the sheet of flame, held
their breath and dashed headlong
through it, escaping with sorched hair
and eyebrows and blistered arms and
shoulders. The body of the boy was
afterwards found in the ruins in the
water of the cistern.
SA family by the name of Mott consisted
of the father, mother, two little children
and an aged grandmother. When roused
from slumber by the Indian war whoop,
they hastily and unwisely sought con-
cealment in a small Outhouse in the rear
of their house. The.-pitiless Indians soon
discovered them and after firing a shot
through the thin siding,' which pene-
trated Mr. Mott's body, they burst open
the door and seizing Mrs. Mott, dragged
her out with her babe in her arms She
cried, "Oh, John, save me," and he,
faithful to the death, clasped his arms
about her and both were thus found
dead and scalped, locked in each other's
arms. Fire had been applied to their
clothing which was burned upon them.
The babe was brained and tossed into
the sea, but its body was borne back by
the, kindly waves for burial with its
parents.' An Indian came -back to the
outhouse and in the darkness saw only
the little girl, whom he seized and
brained with a billet of wood. The poor
old grandmother, after becoming satis-
fied that the savages had left that vicin-
ity, stole cautiously out, and by great
exertion succeeded in climbing over a
high picket fence and crawled under a
neighboring house, which had remained
unoccupied. She was there for many
hours, until she was driven forth by the
flames after the enemy had left. She
then found her way to a little bathing
house near the ena of the wharf, where
Glass was concealed, and remained there-
in an agony of fear until the rescuing
party found her. -
SThe only particulars I can give relative
to the escape of Mrs. Sturdy and her
daughter, Mrs. Smith, and baby, are
that they managed to. reach the jagged
rocks on the southeastern .end of the
island, and getting down in the water int
a natural cove, remained there in the
blaze of the tropic sun until after the
foe had gone. -- I
Captain Houseman .and wife had a
very remarkable experience. He was a
'man of undoubted courage, and could he
have had a'half hour's warning, would
doubtless have made a desperate defense
of his property and life, for he had plenty
of arms and ammunition. His first im-
pulse bne hearing the alarming cries
without, was to reach the guns which
stood niear his front door, but as he
reached the foot of the stairs with his
wife, the Indians burst open the front
door, and having no weapon of defense
in his hands, he had no recourse but to
flee. Leaving by the back door, they
scaled the fences,' and in their bare feet
hurried over the rough and jagged rocks
on the side toward the Gulf Stream, and
getting into the sea, waded out as far as
they could. They intended to swim
around to the end of the two wharves
that stretched out in front of his house
and grounds. and which with their re-
versed L d's formed an inclosed dock or
basin, where he kept his boats.- As he
started to swim, supporting his wife
with one arm as best he could, two large
and valuable dogs which he owned came
loudly barking after them. As it was
impossible to silence them byword of
command, he had to wait for them, and
with great difficulty drown them one
after the other. With his wife. he then
took a wide circuit, being favored by the
tide, and swam around to the end of the
wharf, where, concealed by the shadows-
they clung to the posts.
They found that the Indians hadi built
a fire near, the beach and were busily
engaged getting plunder from- the store
'and houses. Among them he saw Ben.,
one of his favorite slaves, with a hand-
kerchief tied around his head. helping his
captors to the best of his ability, and
with apparent cheerfulness. This seem-
ing will ngness wasonly assumed for the
purpose of lulling their suspicions to
sleep, for before daylight he bad passed
the word to several other slaves, in-
cluding three of Mr. Howe's, to join him
in seizing oneof the boats, in which they
succeeded in making their way to Key
Vaccas, an island some thirty miles
southwest of Indian Key, and afterward
returned to their masters.
Cap.ain Houseman watched hisoppor-
tunitv when there was no one near the
shore, and leaving his wife clinging to
one of the piles, s.vwam stealthily in and
managed to unloose the astenings of
one ot his boats and thn swam out,
pushing the boat, before him to where
his wife anxiously waited. Getting in,
they soon reached the vessel, where we
afterward found them.
Of the other occupants of Captain
Houseman's house, there were several
who made very narrow escapes. A young
negress with a babe in her arms, jumped
from the second story window without
other injury than a sprained ankle, and
found a hiding place among the bushes
of ttegarden. Mr. Goodyear, of India
rubber fame. on bearing the Indians
break-into the house, ran up into the
cupola and got out upon the roof, and
lay down near the eaves until there be-
gan to be signs of day-break.. .An Indian
was near the corner of the buildiffg, Wut
as he showed no signs of leaving, and
his discovery was sure to follow"if-he
should remain until daylight, he deter-"
mined to run the risk, and drop. His
plan was to let himself down as -far as
possible and then drop and immediately
fall forward, thinking that the Indian
would shoot as soon as he saw him, and
that by falling he might dodge the ball.
(To be continued.)
Hints to Correspondents.
The readers of the FLORIDA FARMER
AND FRUIT-GROWER are respectfully in-
vited to contribute to-its columns articles
and notes on all subjects pertaining to
the farm, garden, orchard and house-
hold affairs. The range of topics which
will be discussed in this journal maybe
gathered from the subjoined table, which
may serve to suggest what might other-
wise escape attention:
Clearing land, draining land, _crops for
new land, succession of crops, intensive,
farming, treatment of different soils,
resting land, soiling vs. pasturing, cow
penning, green manuring.-
.: 'DOMESTIC ANIMALS. .
Horses, mules, cattle, hogs, sheep,
poultry-Breeds, feed, diseases, treat-
Cotton seed, cotton seed meal, barn-
yard manure, guano, ground bone, su-
per-phosphate, gypsum, lime, kainit,
ashes, marl, muck, leaf mould, com-
Bermuda grass, crab grass, Para grass
Guinea grass, Terrell grass, :orchard
grass, red-top grass, Johnson grass, Texqs
blue grass, pearl millet, German millet,
millo maize, kaffir corn, teosinte, sorg-
hum, fodder corn, cow peas, desmodi-
fim, Mexican clover, lespedeza, alfalfa,
Peach, pear, fig, persimmon, Japan
plum, K rel .y n plum. native plum, mul-
berry, quince, apricot, guava, :banana,
pineapple sapodilla, mang,, avocada,
pear, cocoanut, pecan, English walnut,
almond, pomegranate, olive, grape,
strawberry, blackberry, raspberry-Va
rieties, their characteristics, effects of
soil, weather, "etc., best methods of
Corn, oats, rye, wheat-Varieties,
yield per acre, soil and season, difficul-
ties encountered, general treatment.. ,-
Cotton-Long and Short Staple-Plant-
ing and culture, marketing crop, man-
agement of seed, products from the
Sngar Cane and Sorghum-Varieties,
culture, making syrup and sugar, condi-
tion of market. *
Tobacco-Varieties, history in Florida,
recent experiences, seed. culture manu-
ods of propagation, methods of planting
and culture, 'comparative effects of fer-
tilizers, marketing of fruit, preservation
of fruit wine and other products.
INSECr ENEMIES AND FUNGOID DISEASES.
Nature of damage done and remedies.
We do not desire-letters -written.mere-
ly in praise of special localities ,unless
claims to. favor are based on the products
or productiveness of the soil. Articles
of an animated or vivacious style are de-
sirable by way of variety, but practical
statements and descriptions should be
concise and as much to the point as pos-
In treating of the above and related
subjects, practical-experience is much to
be preferred to theoretical know
edge; yet there are topics needing dis-
cussion which have to be treated of
from a somewhat theoretical stand-
All-communications for the editorial
department should be addressed to
EDITOR FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER
The following table, compiledfrdm the records
of the Jack-onville Signai Station- by Sergt. J;
W. Smith, represents the temperature condition
of weather, rainfall and direction ot wind for
the month of May, as observed at the Jack-
sonville station during the past 15 years:
". .a S
1872 6 57 78
1873 94 -6475
1874 98 5275'
1875 94 2 75
187o 9o 51 ;s
S18,77 'li 4s 71
187 9's 65 t75
9117 .I 6n 74
1tim 95 5874
1851 -. l C.7l ;
182" 90 51i ;I
lIsA3 'c' 51 :2
34 91 6 ii' 76
1l3 Q A 71
ISM5 .9 f.6 7e
8 17 6
6 17 8
12 14 5
5 20 6
13 13 5
]2 18 6
8 17 r
14 14 .1
18 8" I,
15 13 3
I-- Is -J
") I If
A "I1 9
15 131 5
J. W. SMiTH. 4
Lergt. iignal Corps. U. S. A.
Ladies' Purchasing Agency.
A New York lady,.of experience, and
taste, enjoying the 'best facilities for
shopping under advantageous condi-.
-ions, offers her services to ladies desir-
ingto-secureany kind of wearing ap-
parel, toilet articles or. household goods,
at New York prices. .Send' for circular.
Address MIRS. S. S. Jones, -
* 179 Gates Ave., Brooklyn, N.-Y.
A'We Know by Experience."
For three years we have used Brad-
ley's Vegetable" Fertilizer. After test-
ing along with other high grade fertil-
izers, we pronounce it. better than any
sold in Florida. We shall use it again
We do not hesitate to say to the vege-
table growers of Florida that they can-
not use anything so good as Bradley's
-Florida Vegetable Fertilizer. We know
by-expe-ience what we say regarding
WOFFORD & WILDER.
Ft. Mason, Fla.
Groves where Williams, Clark & Co's
Orange Tree Ftertilizer has been used are
WILLIAMS, CLARK & Co.
Seed Irish Potatoes.
The best potatoes for planting in this
State are those brought from extreme
Eastern points. Acting on. this belief,
we imported last year from
large quantities of Early Rose, Chili
Red,-Beauty of Hebron and other varie-
ties, and the potatoes raised from this
-seed, were the finest we have ever seen
We will receive, in afew days another
cargo, of the same potatoes, which we
will sell at the following prices: :
Chili Red.......per barrel $3.50,.
Early Rose................$ .38.00.
Beauty of Hebron..........$3.0).
SEvery barrel guaranteed as represented.
Remit with order, and we will ship the
CHURCH ANDERSON & CO.
Jacksonville, Fla., Jan. 5th, 188'.
*11 US ON VILLE MAR KE'1t1
JACK-6ONVILLE. May 17,1887;.
MIATS--D. S. short ribs ooxed, &1 l4';; D. S.
.ong clear sides &- 12',; D. S. hetlies $V s2.%
simoied shoit rrb, 675; smoked bellies .,;
C. hams, canvassed fancy, 12,o: S. C. break
fast bacon, canvased. 12c; : S. C. shboul-
ders. canvassed, 6 .c; Caih',rula or p,:-
.aic hams, 8i.,. L'rd--ridned tner-ees 71,c;
Mes- be-f'-barielslil"'il. balibarrelsa,75 t rueds
porktF17A). Thesequotations are tor round
lots from fri6t band-: wuole cattle 75.;
dressed bre, S;. ,c; sheep ',,-'.; pork sausag'e ,c;
loins i,,-; long'biloana 7c<; he-id eheese b.c;
Franklf'rt fiaiia e tii ,'ie ri' unds 4e.
BUTrER-Be-t 'table 1 .1,kc per pound,
looking 15-Y'C p-r p,)ud.
Grain, Flour, Hn.,j. Feed. Hides, Eec.
GRAIN Corn' The market is higher.
rhe following figures represent t-.>a5'`
values: We quote white corn,.. jlob lots.
83c@... per bushel; car load iot ..c per
bushel, mixed corn, job lots, 62c per buthel;
car load lots 60c' per bushel; Oats q ule
.and firm at the following figures: ml.xed,
In job lots 42$c car load lots 41hi,c; white
oatslare 2%c h:'--r all round, Bran steady
ahd higher, $221,t 2. per ton.
HAY-The market is firm and better de-
mand for good grades. Western choice
small bales, $18@...per ton; carload lots S1VIR
to $17 50 per ton; Eastern hay $19 per ton.
PEARL tURIT A-AND MEA AL--1 I pe-r oarr-l.
FLi,,Ta-Hliier. nebst patents 5-i te),'54 ':
good i'amily 2f- ,.,-5 10: cormrmon $4 2I5.
PE.A--Biack Ey SI 1:1 per bushel.
GROrN FEED-PC-r tuD t24 to lj.
COFFEE-Orten Rio 2l,,23.c per pound.
Java. roasted, 32_...'5c; Moca, roaE ted, .d3i-Yi4c;
Rted. roasted, ,2',c.
COTTON Si'EED MEAL-Scarce and higher.
3ea island or dark meai 81) per ton, nrient
,rsnort cotton meal 5i:,r3sf,)' per ton.
TOBACCO .rEat-i--tar'e qwUelt Out arm (
13 0) to $14 0,:) per too.
Ljt_--Easter n, job lots, 81 0 per barrel. Ala-
)anira lime5i 1i. Cement-A-merican 8201),
English 6- 75 per barrel. a
RrcE-The quotations vary, according to
uanLity irom I',atc per pound.
.lALT-LIv ;erppoli'r- sack,. IMl; per car
load. S, EH .
HIDeS?-Dry flint, cow., per sound, first
-lass, 212ic,l; and country dry salted l,
tlc; outcner. dry salted,'&9V'-c. Skins-De-er
dini, 17c;'saltecd 10.,12c. Furs--Oller, winter,
each Lc.t4,; raccoin 10i)2ilc; wild cat tlj)'Zc;
lox 1O,'5i-c, Beeswax, per pound, lSc; wool
free frrom rur, r.ai
Country Produce. "
CHEEs-Fine;Creamery 16c per pound.
LivE POULTRY-Limited supply and good
Jemand-'as follows: hens 45c; mlxed.35c; half-
grown Mce. They are scarce and in great de-
EGBs-Duval County 15 per dozen with
limited demand and good supply.
IR.sH POTATOES-Northern potatoes $2 90,
to $3 00 per barrel;.
ONIOxs-Bermudas, $2 00 per crate; per
barrel,$3 75 to 84 00.
Florida cabbage, $175@200 per barrel. They
are a drug on the market.
NEW YORKx-BEETs-Good supply at $2 50 per
NEW BBzTs-Florida, per crate, $2 00.
CAULIFLOWERs-Per barrel, $300, and .$8175
TOMAToBs-Florida, per crate, $225; Lake
Worth, $2 65to$3'25.
NORTHERN TuRNxIPs-Good supply at $2 25
SqUAsH-Per crate, $125. "'
SNAP BmANs-Per crate, $100. .
NEW POTATOES--Per barrel, B3 00; per crate,
OUcuTMBaBs-Per box, $2 00.
Foreign and Domestic Fruita.
PINSE APPLFES--- 75 to $2 00 per dozen.
LEzONS-Messinas, $4 00 per box. "
APPLFS-New York $5 50 to $6 00 per barrel
FIGS-In layers 13c.
DATEs-Persian-Boxes 9c;' Frails 7c.
GRAPBS-Malagas, $500 per keg.
ORANGSs-Florlda-Per oox $3 75 to $5 00.
BAANANS-Good supply; from 75c to $200
Nurs-Almonds 18c; Brazils 12c; Filberts
S(Sicily) 12c; English walnuts, Grenobles, 18c;
Rarbots, 15c; Pecans 12c; Peanuts 6c;
Cocoanuts $4 50 per hundred.
RAISsIN--London layers, $250 per box.
,BRANBBERIS-- 75 per, crate; $1000 per
barrel. : -
BuTT.RINE-Creamery 20c; Extra Dairy
16c" Dairy 15. & .11 .
OHEds--Hlalf skim 0lc,' cream l18c per
The following quotations are carefully re
rised for Wednesday's and Saturday's paper
from quotations furnished by dealers in the
Carrots wholesale at 6800 per barrel, and
retail at 50.cents per peck.
Green Onions wholesale at 60 cents per
tiundred, and retail 5 cents per bunch.
'Florida Cabbage wholesale $200per barrel
and retail at 5 to 10 cents.
Quail wholesale at 10 cents each and retail
0t 15 cents, or two for a quarter.
Oranges wholesale at $3 00 'o 5 00per box,
and re ail at 5 cents. .
Spiuage wholesales at75c per bushel and
retails at four quarts for 25 cents.
-Sweet Potatoes wholesale aL 60 cents per
bushel, and retail atl 5 cents per quart.
Lettuce wholesales at 15120 cents per dozen
heads, and retail atl 5 cents per head.
Parsnipsa wholesale at, $2 75 per barrel and
retail at. four and five for 10 cents..
Robins wholesale at 6 cents each and retail
-it 10 cents.
Celery wholesales at 50 to 60 cents per dozen
and retails at three to four stalks for 25 cents,
according to size.
Eggs are In fair demand. Duval county
eggs are quoted at wholesale at, U cents
per dozen, and retail at 20 cents.
Boston marrowfat squashes wholesale at
$250 per barrel, retail at '5, 10tO and 15 cents
New York Irish potatoes wholesale at$2 75.o10'
2 90 per barrel and retail at 10 cents per quart.
Northern beets are worth wholesale $250
'per barrel, and retail at. 10 cents per quart,
or two quarts for 15 cent,.
Radashes bring at-wholesale 15 to20Dcents
per dozen bunches -of seven radishes each.
rbey retail, at 5 cents 'per bunch, or three
bunches for 10 cents.
---.;-, -a b:-
Thlis powder never. -aries. A'- :1arvel'l
purti-, stren7 h' and wholesomeness. Morea
e--.:.rnoln:i t[han, the ordinary kinds, and
car not be sold In competition .llh the
multitude of low te,l, short weightb ahtm or
phb,.'phhat- pow'Tders. Soid only in .,.'n
ROYAL BKING POWDER CO., 11)1 Vil ali..
New York. -
Live poultry-chlickens, wliolesale,- from :35
to 40 cents each;: r.i'i 1) to 50 cents each.
Dressed poultry, per pound-eblchickens reraU,
tS to 'i-rots. Turkeys, wnolesale, i1.t) t
$1.75 eaacn, and retail at Y2 cents per.pound.
Northern meats retal as follows: Chicago
bee" from 18 to 25 cents per pound; Florida
oDeef to 1 IScenis per pournd; veal .'to 'O25Cenis;
pork 12 to i.5 cents; mutton 10 to 20 cats
venison '2L. cents: saueae Ii cents: corned
IT.t S 'PEIALM. IA.K-ETI,
Lalest Quolations of Frlorida Frnils
TDe following special despatches. nv soeceal
arrangements v-iblthe Florida FrulL Ex
ebanre, are -ent t tthe TIKEr--UNION bv the
aenfsi ofibhe Frift Exchange In the various
,t-ter. They can b, relied upoinas accurate.
Comiuis$ion. Merchant' Qnotatlons.
pe.-'lal tO the TL MaF-.UNItN:]
PHILADELPHIA, May 21.-Mcdirerr3neae
ora,-.6,2,ai4. lemnr.ons i2i',.3 5%. pineappieAs ,S,
15, t3s tI reuei l uwu i -sc, ,:h rrles l u. 1? ,; t,-.
-aatoes cueuibere 81 beans 8'.w.-
,-t.B DETWLLR A SrN.
LEAF 'TOBACCO 1AKIA i..- ...'
BALTTIORE, May 21 -Tb bpltere.rades -
of Maryland thbacuo are in eli-tre demand .
but the Lt,-a ii reduced. Tnere is little de-
mniand for tb_ poorer grades 01 Maryland, or
for Weilern to'Nc( o. Virginia choice ells
with Maryland at [rom I)10 [to $1.5 per 1a).
NEW YORK. May 2 -The We-tler
lea' market I qulei. Penusylvanla sele'-
lions "re inD demand, but the stock s Lhobt. it
takes a o-eiv ine artile6 10to bing $i5.-
Havana tobaccoo. Is vp1 active' at prices
r.ni;.ii wrorn ni cents *toiR'l.10 per pound.
Sumatra is quiet atSi.20 to41.50 per pound.
ST. LOUIS, May 21I.-The demand i&
good. and tue market Brm m all grade.
RICHMOND, May .1-Lugs are selling at .
fr,,m .3 ti, 6 '-tLs, ar,id leid i nom e to 12. >'ood
gradr-sin active request.
.SAVANNAH, Miay 'i.-Tbe Upland Cotton
Market closed drm at the following quota-
MN idling fair ................. .................. liil;j3-16
C,:,od mi'ddlihng l.iu-16
Middling ...... l0 5-16
Low middling................... .. ..... .... 10 -16
Go:,od ordinar.i-. ............................ 9 13-1;
The net, receipts were 86 bales; gross re-
ceipts 87 bales; sales 11 bales; stock at this
Exports-to the Continenri -, ex ports coast- .
wise 11(C0. ,
SEA ISLAND COTTON.,
The market is quiet and nominal, at un-
chapged quotations. Little stock for sale and
scarcelyany arriving. .
Common Florldas 16
Good Medium 17
Medium fine' .......1. I
Fine .............. ....... 19@ 20
Extra fine 22
TAMPA, H I LLSBOROI COUNTY,
General Business and Real Estate Agency of
S W. N. CONOLEY.
If you wish a town lot, an 'orange grove, or
wild lands In this rapidly tmprovlng section,
or i' you have taxes to he paid, or property to -
be Improved,or money to be Invested, write
-o this agency. ..
Money can be placed on Real Estater with a
lMarginon iwo-thirds or values atl10O
and 12 per cent.
'FREE OF CHARGE TO LENDER.
Ninety days to foreclose mortgage where
there Is no contest. All costs and attorney'a
iees provided for In mortgage. Write for
further In'ormatlon and send for list of prop-
erty for Sale.
W. N. CONOLEY, :
Tampa, Florida. '
REFF RENCES-Ex-Gdv'ernor Drew, Jackson. -
vllle; First National Bank, Tampa,andHon.-,
John T Lesley, Tampa
TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN:
Sixty days after th.be first.publicatlon or this
notice application will be made to the Legla-
laiure of Florida, for the pasageof a charter
of the Florida Frullt' Exchange whereby
the capital stock may be increased to a sum
greater than Fifty Thousand Dollars; thepar
value ofshares to be reduced from One Hun-
dred Dollars to Ten Dollars per share; to al-
low the corporation to purchase and convey
such real and personal property'as may be
deemed necessary to -1ta usefulness, Includ-
Ing vehicles of transportation ;' to lease or
erect buildings for storage of produce, and
advance on produce; to manufacture and sell
such materials aa may'be'ujef(ll to frullt grow-
era and gardeners, and generally.to. tranmant
such businesses may be for:the Interest of
members and others connected with fiult
growing and kindred'purits, an9d-, for such
other powers and privileges as miay be deemed
necessary andproper. -
GEe. u. FA.RBA.-KS,
GEO' H .. .NORRIS, -
,: D. GRKENiEA F,
T.- W MOORE.
J. D. MITOHrEI,
WM. E. STANTON, "
ROB'T BULLO0K," .-' -'
B. M. BAER, ... : :-
Board or Directors,
Florida Fruit Exchange. .-
Jacksonville, .Fla.,February16, 1,887 -'
.. ,' .. .,'