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VOL. 1---NO. 19. JACKSONVILLE, FLA., WEDNESDAY, MAY 11, 1887. PRICE $2 A YEAR.
ALFALFA IN FLORIDA.
Conditions Essential to Success
in its Cultivation.
BY J. G. KNAPP.
Having seen a notice in a Leesburg
paper that Judge, Weaver had succeeded
in raising alfalfa, I wrote him to inform
me of his method of cultivation, express-
ing doubts whether it could be made to
grow through the warm rainy summer
months. He has kindly, answered me,
and his reply is worthy of the careful
consideration of the Florida farmers.
He writes under date of March 28, 1887,
"J. G. Knapp, Limona, Fla.:
"DEAR Si--Yours of the 28d inst. at
hand and carefully noted. My expe-
rience with alfalfa is limited, but my
impression is that it can be made a suc-
cess in Florida. My first experiment
was two years ago, but only in a very
.small way. I did not get my seed until
after the first of January. It being so
late, I decided only to plant two drills
about fifty feet, to tept it. Having read
that it would not succeed when planted
in the spring as far south as the's, I ex-
pected it all to be killed out by the sum-
mer sun. We had a very dry spring
that season, and about three-fourths of
the plants died. The balance stood the
summer and the following spring began
to make a fine growth. I had a hand
plowing and neglected to call his atten-
tion to*he alfalfa, and he plowed it up.
"I am now trying a second experi-
ment, which inspires me with hopes of
success. I planted a small plat of poor,
sandy land about the first of November
last. I presume it is ten feet to the
clay.. I prepared the land by spreading
- stable manure lightly broadcast, and
theq plowed the land well. I marked'
drills fourteen inches apart and sprink-
)ed commercial fertilizer "in drills and.
.... sowed'ti'esed andcovered with rakesj..
and packed with feet. I got a splendid
stand. I have worked it twice by rak-
ing between the'drills. Up to this time
we have had a dry spring, but my al-
falfa is about two feet tall, and in full
bloom, and looking well.
"I do not think there can be a failure
if the land is well prepared and well
fertilized. I think that three-fourths of
the failures in growing various crops,
is for want of proper fertilizing. I
think to be sure of success with alfalfa,
the land should be well prepared, using
about thirty tons of stable manure
and 750 pounds of sulphateof potash and
bone meal per acre- seed to be planted
from the first to the middle of October,
in drills fifteen inches apart if to be
worked by hand cul ure, or eighteen
inches if for horse culture. It should be
well cultivated and not cut the first sea-
"I shall-put in enough next fall to sup-
ply my stock, and feel that I will make
it a success. Yours truly,
J. R. WEAVER."
This letter of Judge Weaver discloses
some very important facts that should
he carefully considered by any one who
shall undertake to grow alfalfa in Flor-
1st. The land must be dry, so that
the roots can penetrate deeply, and not
be scalded from standing water. Alfalfa
is very impatient of standing water,
which will rot the roots.
2d. The free use of the sulphate of
potash and bone meal cannot be too
strongly commended. Potash and phos-
phoroi's, two- articles in which the dry
sandy lands of Florida are deficient, are
Jargely absorbed by alfalfa. Kainit may
be used successfully upon this plant, and
the common salt which forms so large a
n-component of this German fertilizer, is
not injurious to a plant that flourishes
so well upon the alkaline lands of Cali-
fornia and the countries west of the 100th
3d. But the greatest secret of success
may be placed to the credit of the free
use of stable manure. Whenever the
farmers shall have filled their ground
with an abundance of humus, then, and
not till then, can they expect to succeed
4th. Cultivation with the hoe, or
horse-hoe, in Florida is essential in order
to keep down noxious weeds and grasses
that would choke out the young alfalfa;
but as this cultivation can only be done I
after it has been cut off, I think Judge
Weaver is wrong in not cutting the al- t
falfa the first year. The plants would
grow the better if cut when in bloom, if
they could receive 400 pounds of kainit (
and as many of land plaster to the acre,
and be well worked out with the hoe, i
cultivator and rake to leave the ground (
smooth. Alfalfa must be mowed off,
One caution, and,, I leave the subject
for the present. There are doubts of its b
success in Florida, and therefore experi- i
mentera had better try small patches- at I
LIMONA, F a. n
Interesting Forage Plants.
The medicks, of which there are about
forty species indigenous to the countries
near the Medterranean Sea, are neat,
clover-like plants, with purple or yellow
flowers and spirally coiled seed pods. The
latter are sometimes spiny edged, form-
ing burrs, and it is one of these species
which is occasionally mentioned in
Southern papers as burr clov.er." We
have not seen the plant, but surmise
that it is Medicago maculata. Some of
the medicks have pods much resembling
snail shells, which are used for garnish-
The kinds which bear burrs are objec-
tionable for sheep pasturage, and those
of prostrate growth are not so valuab'e
as those which, like the lucerne, grow
erect. The black medick (M. lupulina),
a trailing species, is sometimes seen in
low places in and around towns in Flor-
ida, and the lucerne or alfalfa (M. sativa)
we have seen in cultivation both in East-
ern and Western Florida, but not in a
manner to judge of its adaptation to
extensive cultivation. Candidly speak-
ing, we have not much faith in its suc-
cess, yet in some locations it may do
very well. Concerning the "burr clo-
ver" we find the following in Home and
BURR CLOVER (SPOTTED MEDICK).
Also sometimes called California clo-
ver, yellow cover. The seeds are en-
cased'within a burr-like covering, hence
the name. Appears with commence-
ment'of the fall rains and is green all
winter. Goes to seed last of May or first
of June, and dies down to reappear again
(from seed) in the fall. Matures a large
quantity of seed which sometimes remain
on and in the ground for many years
ALFALFA OR LUCERNE.'
(Medicago Sativa.) '
THE FIG IN MIDDLE FLORIDA.
Varieties Which Have Best
Stood the Test of Time.
BY J. H. GIRARDEAU.
The choicest varieties of European figs
were imported by the rich planters of
Middle Florida and planted around their
homes. From that time (forty or fifty
years ago) till now there have survived
out of a list of perhaps twenty different
varieties, only four or five. To those
who know how little attention such
things received at the South before the
war, the only wonder is that any sur-
vived, and the fact that nearly every
home in Middle Florida boasts its fig
tree as well as vine, is an eloquent trib-
ute to its merits and adaptation' to our
soil and climate.
As the fig had to shift for itself, and
all varieties received the same share of
neglect, Ithey were subjected to the best
possible test of adaptation and
"THE FITTEST SURVIVED."
These were the brown and white
Smyrna, the Brunswick, and the brown
Turkey. I would name as pre-eminent-
ly first on the list, and the variety that
I would decide on every point of com-
parison to be best, the brown Smyrna.
This variety under the name of Celeste,
Celestial, Sugar, etc., is to be found in
almost every orchard or garden in Mid-
dle Florida, and is always a favorite.
The tree is a hardy, vigorous grower,
yields early and abundantly, and is the
largest of the four. The fruit is small,
but sweet and finely flavored; but the
strongest point in favor of this variety
is that it is least of all affected by the
summer rains, which, when they occur
during the bearing season, are apt to in-
jure the flavor of the fruit, and, if con-
tinued, to sour it on the trees. .
- I would ait the White Sayrna.sec
ond on the list. This tree is also hardy
and vigorous; the fruit is large, and in
dry weather is well flavored. It is an
abundant bearer, and were it not for th%
fact that it is easily affected by
damp weather, it might contest the first
place with the little brown Smyrna.
Third on the list I would put the
Brunswick, a medium sized purple fig,
with deeply indented leaves. It bears
later in the season than the first two
nam-d, thereby often escaping the rainy
season. It is not as prolific a bearer as
the Smb rnas, and it is affected by a de-
gree of cold that does not seem to affect
them at all. This is the chief objection
with us to this variety.
Fourth, and probably the only other
variety that can be said to have sur-
vived, is the Brown Turkey, a larger
fruitthan the brown Smyrna, which it
resembles in color; but this variety is a
shy and late bearer, and its flavor does
not compare with the brown Smyrna.
Besides these four, Icall to mind three
of four other varieties which I cannot
now name; one*a large brown fig as
large as a turkey egg; another with a
green skin like the White Smyrna, but
of a beautiful red color inside, and a
third resembling the Brunswick, but
larger and of a lighter color. But I well
remember how all of these were neg
elected for the little brown Smyrnas by
the boys and birds, who soon learned
that the verv finestofias were to be found
and levies a very small tribute at the THE FLOWERING OF THE FIG.
A HERETOFORE NEGLECTED FRUIT. The Mystery of the Barren Fig
It is a matter of surprise that this Tree and of Capriflcation.
fruit is not more generally planted, par- Thm ,. -
ticularly in all sections of Florida and There is a common but erroneous be-
Southern Georgia. When these facts lief that the fig tree never blooms. As it
are borne in mind; the ease with which bears seed in abundance, and as seed can
it can be propagated, its early and only be produced from flowers, it is a
abundant -bearing, its freedom from all matter of course that the fig tree does
insect enemies, and the certainty with bear flowers. If any one will cut open
which, with little or no attention, it a young fig he will perceive that within
furnishes such delicious and wholesome it is a cavity lined with what, by the aid
fruit in such prodigal abundance. of a magnfier, will be found to be flow-
Two or three trees planted near the ers of very simple structure set closely
house where they can get some share of together.
cultivation, will supply a family with The flower head of the fig may be
an abundance of figs and leave some for likened to a strawberry or a mulberry
the chickens; while an acre planted turned inside out, the individual flowers
twenty feet each way and properly cared projecting inward instead of outward
for would furnish employment for a from a common receptacle. A connect-
small evaporator. ing link between the fig and the mul-
Within the last two or three years,
however, there has been a good deal
said and written about this fruit. This
will lead to inquiries which will soon/
settle the question as to what varieties 1
are best for drying, in which shape they
are, of course, going to.be most profita- \il
My estimate of the relative value of
the different varieties named in this ar-
ticle is based entirely on their qualities
as a table fruit, when eaten fresh from
the tree. All the attempts at drying
them with us have been on a small scale
and with many of the factors necessary
for success left out (especially any at-
tempt to prevent the deposit of eggs in
the figs while drying, which would pro-
duce a worm that would ruin them) and FLOWERING OF FIG.
consequently success has only been par- Young Fig cut open, showing flowers within,
tial. and a portion of same magnified.
As soon as we decide upon the best va- ...
riety for drying, and substitute evapora- berry is furnished by the Dorstenia, in
tion for ourclumsy amateur attempts at which the florets are borne on a saucer-
drying them in the sun, our success in shaped receptacle. In the same family
supplying our home markets with dried we find the two sexes of flowers borne on
figs is assured; for an eiperienoe of fifty common receptacle, as in the figs, on
We-has fully demonstrated our abilityidhstinctrriof e en, thesameutree.ASx
htoroduce this fruit to perfection. It is n themulberry; and on distinct trees,
not necessary to add that these facts are as in theosage orange and paper mul-
ot from the standpoint of oe thorough- berry. et theirnatural relationship is
* r posted on this subject, but are the xe- manifesto
salt of my observations extending over As the flowers of the fig a e all shut
a period of twenty-five years. up together, cross-fertilization, which
Mwin add in conclusion a few facts prevails so largely in the vegetable king-
which I have neglected to touch 1pon. dom, seems impossible. The people of
Most varieties come into bearing in two the Orient, however, employ a process
or three years, though I have ad cut- called "caprification," which seems to
tings plasntd in the spring bear a dozen be designed to effect cross-fertilization by
figs in the fall, and I know a Brown ri gingn flower heads cut from one tree
Smyrna tree that bears fine crops now in proximity with those of another. Sci-
that I ate figs from twenty-five years entists deny that this proe, s has any
ago; and judging from its size then, it effect whatever. If it has, it is due either
i"ust have been ten or fifteen years old to the sifting of pollen from the sus-
at that time. pended cut flowers into those on the
'I heartily recommend every family in living tree through pores in the recep-
Florida to plant a few fig trees. Besides tackles, or to the introduction of minute
ing ornamental they will furnish insects from the cut into the growing
many an ambrosial feast during the receptacles, where they would serve to
heats of summer when our appetites nat- disperse the pollen of the male flowers
ura ly need little coaxing. They are and effect more complete fertilization,
very wholesome. I have seen children which conduces to a fuller development
eat unheard of quantities and never of the fruit. ...
knew of one being made sick by them Some trouble having been experienced
If planted near the house the fowls in California inthefruiting of the Smyr-
will soon select their horizontal branches na fig, it was attributed by some to lack
for perches, and all further fertilizing of the Oriental treatment by caprifia--
may be dispensed with, and the trees tion.- From an article on this subject in
will literally-take care of themselves the San Francisco Chronicle, we extract
ARCADIA NURSERY, Monticello, Fla. the following:
without the germ being destroyed. Can on the topmost branches where the sun Following is a review of the orange
be sown with success without any preps- could strike them fairly and dry them shipments from Riverside for the current
ration of the soil. Should be sown early into delicious morsels which were season ;
in the summer (following nature), so that always eaten skin and all CARS. BOXES.
the burr casement enc'osing the seed may I December shipments. ... 10 8,204
decay in time to permit the seed to ITS January shipments....... 80 8,907
sprout and the plant well rooted before Figs are eaten either with cream, and Fbruary shipments...... 46 18.996
cold weather. Late sowing on unpre- sugar, or, as most prefer, pulled and March shipments......... 79 238,918
pared soil has not proven satisfactory to eaten fresh from the tree They are ,4pril shipments.... ..... 46 14,688
me. preserved and crystalized, and as soon as -- --
It is an annual, reseeding itself. Once they are planted in quantities to warrant Total to date... .. .211 64,658
seeded and a good stand secured, with it, will without doubt be evaporated, SHIPMENTS IN FORMER YEARS.
only ordinary care and management, and thus furnish, besides a wholesale A
the pasture may be considered as per- article of food, a 'source of revenue to CAR LOADS.
manent. the planter. I also believe that they Orop of 1880-81. ................ ... 15
After the clover dies down a good corn could be profitably shipped to distant (rop of 1881-82.................... 42
crop -an be raised up-'n the land, if the markets in refrigerators. Crop of .1882-88................ 45
season is a favorable one for late plant- P Crop of: 1888-84.. ............ .... 50
ing, and the clover will come up in the PROPAGATION AND ULTIVATION Crop of 1884-85...... .........456
fall just the same as if no crop had been Figs grow very readily from cuttings, Crop of 1885-86...................506
cultivated on the ground. The decaying and although in ordinary winters they -Press and Horticulturist.
roots and vines enrich the soil, and it is would not require it, yet it is safest to -- *-
conceded by all who have given the clo- protect the young trees for the first and Farmers Should Club Together.
ver a fair and lengthy trial, that its fer- second winters from the cold; after that farmers S er.
tilizing properties are very great. time they seem to become perfectly ;The farmer is too exclusive. He does
This plant requires rich land to attain hardy. The old trees were not in the nbt mingle with his fellow farmers as
its greatest success, though I have seen least affected by the cold wave of Jan- much as he should. He often neigh-
good crops on rather poor land. It uary, '86, when the thermometer regis- bors very little with the people who live
thrives well on Bermuda sod. In the tered 12 degrees. They require a rich, around him, and it often happens that
early spring and late fall, and during the deep soil, which should be well drained, there is nothing of any account to real
winter months, this clover furnishes ex- They thrive on almost any kind of fer- His mental horizon is no larger than the
cellent grazing, and when warm weather tilizer, seeming to.'prefer quantity to visible one. About till he knows he has,
approaches the Bermuda takes its place quality. They send out a perfect mat learned from those who live around him,
for pasture. Thus, by uniting the two of lateral roots which would be injured $ind he would be the last man in the
on the same land, it is possible to have by deep plowing close to the tree. world to give his neighbor credit for it.
green grazing the year roind. I do not know a single enemy or para- About the only time he ever meets his
I have known from fifty to sixty bush- site that attacks this tree, and the only neighbor is at threshing time, at an oc-
els of seed gathered from one-half acre things that could possibly be classed as caslonal barn-raising, at funeral, at
burr clover on Bermuda sod, that read- enemies are hot weather, and the June church, or on election day. This mo-
ly sola at from' $2 to $2 50 per bushel, bug or fig-eater. The first can be meas- notonous, unchanging and uneventful
leaving enough on the ground for re- urably guarded against in the selection *ay of living tends to make him run in
seeding. The merits of this clover are of varieties and thorough draining, and ruts in his farming, in his politics and in
not generally appreciated. the second seems to prefer the sour figs religion.-Ex.
Dr. Gustav Eisen, the well known hor-
ticulturist of Fresno, who has studied the
raising of figs in this State as thoroughly
as any one, and whose opinion on such
matters is of the highest value, is by no
means disposed to sneer at caprification
as an ancient error." He has studied
the matter pretty thoroughly, and in an
address before the convention of fruit
grow ers, held at Los Angeles last Novem-
ber, he gave the result of his observation
thereon. According to his experience
with the Adriatic fig, caprification is not
necessary in order to mature the fruit.
What effect the process has on the
fig," says Dr. Eisen, is a question which
has been asked repeatedly, but though
some very prominent scientific observers
have investigated the subject, the same
is not yet to this day fully explained.
Some I ery interesting facts are, how-
ever, known, and these are of sufficient
importance t- be here considered. The
fi6 itself is something more than a seed-
vessel of a flower, The fleshy part is a
thickened hollow receptacle, closed ex-
cept at the very narrow opening called
the eye, situated at the top of the fig.
This receptacle on its inner side contains
numerous minute flowers, crowded to-
gether and covering the whole of the
surface of the cavity. These flowers are
male and female, or stamipate and pis-
tillate. The female flowers occupy by
far the largest room, and all the lower
part of the cavity; the male flowers,
again, the more or less narrow zone, im-
mediately surrounding the eye of the
fig. In the cultivated or edible fig the
male flowers are generally wanting, or
rather replaced by barren scale-like
"In the different crops the proportion I
between the male and female flowers is
quite different. The figseof the first
crop, or the bocorre, are those which
carry the most male flowers. The second
crop, or the karmouse, carry few, and
the third or last crop carry none but
female flowers. As I said, except in the
wild or Capri fig, the male flowers are
seldom developed. In the figs grown in
California, and which I have had oppor-
tunity to investigate, the male flowers
are already repil iced by scales. This has
also been previously found to be the
case in Italy, and Prof. Arcangell states
that, according to his own observations,
the two most generally cultivated figs
around Pisa, the Fico verdino and the
Fico piombinese, never have any perfect
sdeds developed, while the Fico bianco.
lino, which is considered a semi-wild
species, has, among numerous imperfect
seeds, some which are easily germinated.
"As an aid for those who are not bot-
anists to distinguish between good and
barren fig seeds, I will mention that if
thrown in water the good ones will
sink, but the barren or not fertile ones
will float on top of thd. surface. If
crushed the fertile ones will be found to
contain an almond-like kernel. The
barren ones will again be seen to be
only empty shells, but of the same size
and nearly the same color as the good
"From a prominent botanist in San
Francisco I learn, however, that both
California and Australian. figs occasion-
ally have developed male flowers, but
they always developed much later than
the female flowers of thd same fig,
and thus can never serve to fertilize the
same fig, but only those of other figs.
This fertilization, if it takes place, must
therefore be made by the aid of insects.
The part that these take in causing the
maturing of certain figs was already ob-
served by the ancients. They found that
a small, yes, very minute, wasp infected
the wild or Capri fig, and that when
transferred to the. cultivated figs they
prevented the same from falling off, or
at least hastened their ripening."
-. -,In-thAaB eaneethen,.ofnaky -other ex-
planation of the cause of the blighting of
figs, perhaps it would be just as well to
place some reliance on the ancient urac-
tice. When those who consider it an
error can give some better explanation
of the matter, then it will be time enough
to say that for over two thousand years
an error had been practiced which is
without foundation in fact. Leaving all
discussion out of the question, two in-
controvertible facts remain : In Smyrna,
with caprification, excellent crops of figs
are raised. In California, without capri-
fication, the same variety of trees re-
fuse to mature their fruit. Explain this
Lelong's Sumn er Wash for
Following is the recipe for B. M. Le-
long's summer wash for orange trees:
Ingredients for one barrel of 50gallons:
14 Ibs. Potash,
8 lbs. Caustic Soda, 98 per cent.,
5 lbs. Lime (unslacked),
10 gallons Fish Oil (Polar or Seal).
First dissolve the soda and potash by
placing them together in 12 gallons of
water. Second, slack the lime in the
barrel to be used, in 2 gallons of water,
then add the fish oil to the lime and stir
well until the lime and the oil have
turned to a thick batter, then add the
soda'and potash, water boiling hot, and
stir well with a dasher for five minutes
or more, then leave standing four or six
hours. At the end of the four or six
hours, fill up with cold water; do not
pour in all the water at once, but about
two buckets at a time. Stir well as the
first two buckets go in, to prevent lumps;
use the following day. Apply cold, 1 lb.
to the gallon of water,
In dissolving it do not boil, but weigh
the amount to. be used, place in a barrel,
and on top of it pour hot water, about
one bucket to every 100 pounds. After
pouring in the hot water stir liely wi*t
a dasher until it is entirely' dissolved,
then reduce with cold water sufficiently
thin enough to pass through the strainer;
then place in the tank and fill uip with
water, stir well and it is ready for use.-r-
Press and Horticulturist.
Leaves and Fruit.'
The absolute necessity of leaves.in ,ie
development of fruit is well unftestood
by horticulturists, but we still hear'. of
some blunders committed by persons
who do not understand the office of these
organs. The owner of a vineyard con-
eluded that he would have better grapes
ban his neighbors if he cut off the ends
if the branches and deprived the canes of
portion of their leaves. The conse-
quence was that the fruit was nearly
worthless and the vines injured beyond
epair. It is the foliage, not the fruit,
hat needs the sunlight.-Ex.
Just as we go to press we are handed
fine basket of White Smyrna figs by
Ex-Gov. Reed, grown on his place in
South Jacksonville. These are the first
we have seen this year.-A. H. C.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MAY 11, 1887.
FRUITS OF SOUTH FLORIDA.
Varieties Which Promise to be
Most Practically Valuable.
Prof. W. G. Tousey, who is engaged
in the nursery business in Hillsborough
county, in his last circular expresses
himself in regard to fruit culture as fol-
During the past year we have witness-
ed a remarkable restoration of confidence
in the orange industry of Florida. Ap-
prehensions engendered by the "great
freeze" of last winter have, at least for
the growers of South Florida, been
happily dispelled; and everywhere there
are indications .of an intelligent and
healthful expansion of the business.
I congratulate my earlier friends on
these assurances tbat their patient labors
are not to be without reward; and to my
later friends, those who are perchance
setting their first trees, brave of purpose
but not without misgivings-to such I
commend these evidences that their op-
portunity has not passed and that in
putting time and money into an orange
grove they are, ta all human foresight,
making as prudent and promising an in-
vestment as the world' to-day offers to
men of moderate means. I am impelled,
however, to remind them of a principle
which experience has everywhere con-
firmed: It is better to have some diversi-
ty of resources-to have, in a homely
phrase, more than one string to the bow.
The Citrus fruits should 'certainly for
the present take the lead with us, but
there are other fruits which may be said
to have passed the experimental stage,
and which maybe trusted to supplement
the orange grove. They admit of being
planted between the orange trees, where
they will require but little extra labor,
and where if the right system of cultiva-
tion is pursued, they will prove no detri-
ment to the grove. Their rapid growth
and early fruitfulness will enable them
to pay for themselves and return a com-
fortable income long before the orange
trees report themselves for service.
Small groves highly cultivated, with
every inch generously fed and rigorously
taxed, is the.coming'order. The time is
not distant when for the dreary stretches
of half cultivated, half fed, slow grow-
ing "grove" we shall have the compact
Fruit Gardefi, with its exuberant life,
rich variety and nice gradations, where
t .e-gueenly Orange will indeed stand fore-
most, but where a hundred minor fruits,
struggling iu cheerful subordinationwill
proffer their more timely if not richer
Many thousand peach trees are destin-
ed to be set in Florida the coming winter.
The. unexpected success of our peach
growers has -turned public attention
strongly to this fruit; and the demand for
trees is likely to exceed the resources of
the nurserymen. I must, however, cau-
t.ion. my friends in South Florida against
investing heavily in any but well tried
varieties. Theunusual cold of last winter
brought many varieties into bearing that
had not borne for years,and' which are
not likely to bearagain for years to come.
The truth is, there are only two distinct
varieties that have shown-conclusively air
adaptation to this climate -the Peen-To
and Honey, both of the Chinese, as dis-
tinguished from the Persian strain. That
we shall develop improved varieties
adapted to our conditions I have no
.doubt. Promising off-shoots are already
reported from different parts of the
State; but, with possibly one or two
exceptions, they are not yet. entitled to
the confidence of the grower.
Mr. A. I. Bidwell, of Orlandp,to whom
the horticultural interests of Florida are
indebted in many ways, has secured a
seedling of the Peen-to which is attract-
ing considerable attention. There is one
thing we must not forget, whether we
are planting an orchard, or experiment-
ing with a view to new varieties, only
early peaches-those which will not be
brought into competition with fruit
grown nearer the great markets, can be
profitable with us.
What has been said heretofore respect-
ing the Japanese Persimmon, has been
well borne out by the year's experience.
It is a delicious fruit, rapid of growth,
-beautiful in appearance, prolific, and
fitted to a variety of uses.
The accomplished author of "The
Mikado's Empire" says: "As regards
the value of the Japanese Persimmon,
there can be but one opinion. The tree is
one of the.handsomest of fruit trees, and
in the fall, with its goldeu-hued fruit
hanging to the branches after the leaves
have fallen, forms a beautiful and strik-
ing picture in a landscape.
Prof. Asa Gray writes: "The Persim-
mon has great capabilities, and he who
has not tasted Kaki has no conception of-
the Diospyros genus."
The Pacific Rural Press says: when
cut, it presents a mass of rich, jelly like
sweet, with a flavor of both the apric')t
and plum. The flavor is simply deli-
cious beyond expectation, and we begin
to realize that the praise bestowed on this
fruit is not beyond its merits. -
A gentleman residing in Memphis,
Tenn, writes: If there is any one fruit
more luscious, more delightful, and
more tempting to the taste in the fruit-
less winter months, I have yet to know
it. We eat them at Christmas, and can
keep them until the end of February-
then they are in prefection. In gathering
I cut the twig and bang up by them,
have kept them till March."
The Kelsey Japan plum has also
S fruited for me this season, and proved to
be as I was led to expect-superb. I no
longer wonder at the enthusiasm it has
created in Europe .and on the Pacific
coast. A friend had a box of these
plums shipped to him from California,
which he says not only arrived in
good condition, but kept for some weeks,
.before showing signs of decay. It surely
has a great future. In addition to this Insect Enemies.
variety, there are the following cognate Editor FlwdaFarmer and Fruit Grower:'
Ban described as beautiful; lemon I You invite correspondence as to these
o dan, described as beautiful; lemon- a.. ndrnee co.rThe insdta ndthed
yellow ground with bright cherry, and remedies. The insects and the dam.
seeded w gith hay, bloom; large to very age they occasion are plain to be seen,
sae wi eay oo rg and often not noticed till remedies are of
large; oblong- tapering- to the point like and often not notiCed till remedies are of
Wd Goose flsh oange-yelow, very little avail. Now effective and practical
richlyflavored, melng, and high application only is to be commended
prefumed; earlier than the Kelsey I your issue o pril 1, from an ex-
Ogden, described as large, nearly change you have, "To keep Bugs off
round with deep tur i golden Melons, So far the striped cucum-
yellow, with faint bloom; flesh firmvery ber-bug has given no trouble, and when
sweet, rich. Ripens a little earlier than they appear, no doubt the remedy given
the Botan I of Paris green and land plaster or ashes,.
would start them.
Of native plums, perhaps the foremosthe trouble with the plant-louse which.
are the following two varieties: Wild The trouble with the lant-louse which
Goose, large, rich crimson, flesh soft. is known as Siphonopvhora ucurbitte,
melting with full fruity flavor; tree, a and called here Hessian-fly, is very serin-
strong grower and prolific. ous, and I have found it of very little
Mariana, this plum is a seedling of the use to attempt the dusting of the under
Wild Goose, ha'ssucceeded well in Texas sides of the leaves of cucumbers, musk
and other Southern States, and is highly melons or water melons, all of which are
praised The pomolrgist, Prof. T. V. infested, there being little or no moisture
Munson, of Texas, describes it is follows: on the under side of the leaves, where
"A rapid, regular grover; fruit round only they are to be found. Nothing but
large as Wil Goose, excellent I sak a liquid application is effective, and a
from experience), deep bright, red; stone dilute kerosene emulsion the best. .For
small, hangs on tree well, two or three this purpose a suitable bellows with cy-
weeks earlier than the Wild Goose, as clone nozzle s c mmended. where can
free from curculio as any variety known, the nozzle be had? I am using the
very prolific. This variety has properties Woodson atomizer, which needs an im-
which will cause it to become one of the provemeut in order to more effective
most popular kinds ever introduced. It work on the under side of the infected
has been tested for twelve years by the leaves.
originator, Mr. Chas. N. Ely, with uni- I SEMOLE,
form excellent results. TAMPA, Fla., April 18, 1887. .
PECANS. [We know of no one in this State who
... deals in fine gardeners' appliances, and
The Pecan is doing admirably with me. we would recommend persons in need of
Trees transplanted from hursery to grove such to apply to Peter Henderson, of
(high pine land) have made beautiful New York A H. C.
growth, thrifty and strong. Plant freely
-alon fofences. in corners. wherever vou' I 7
TOPPING AND SUCKEBfING.
Admitting that you have kept off the
worms-for if you have not you will
have no tobacco-the next consideration
is when to top. As a rule, it should be
topped when it buttons, i. e., when the
bud shows itself above the leaves to put
forth its blossom. That is when the
average of the s alks button. There will
be some that have blossomed and some
that will not show. You will need to
regulate your topping accordingly. But
when doing it, leave none to be topped
afterwards, as some do, which necessi-
tates another cutting, and causes -your
sucker crop to come on unevenly, as it
will be in the same rotation.
Th point to be observed in topping is
to top it so it will ripen evenly. To do so
you will need to top a stalk that hag
blossomed about four leaves higher than
one that has just buttoned; leaving on
more leaves for the stalk to mature will*
make it ripen with one topped in season
So with one that has not buttoned, you
will top lower, using your judgment as
to where, that it may ripen with the
other: In topping, we generally leave
about fourteen leave; if of good growth,
can leave sixteen, but it may necessitate
The next thing that will demand your
attention will be the suckers that will
shoot out at the base of each leaf, which
should not be allowed to get longer than
your fingers, and will have to be broken
out twice or three tires before ripening;
an expert hand will do it quite fast, al-
ways using caution about tearing leaves.
Some prune it before cutting; as to that,
suit your judgment, but I will tell you
it is expensive and tedious,
HOW OUR PAPER IS REGARDED.
A Few Comments of Corres-
pondents and the Press.
One of the prominent citizens of At-
lanta. Ga.. writing to the publishers of
the F. F. & F -G., says: "Your last ven-
ture, the FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT-
GROWER, is a remarkable one for the
beauty of its mechanical execution and
the crisp, fresh and appropriate charac-
ter of'its editorial and selected matter.
Professor Curtiss evidently knows how
to work, and 'knowledge is power' only
when there is indomitable energy behind
it. But I need not preach to C. H. Jones
on this topic, as his 'pushing of the
Times-Union to success over or through
mountains of opposition and difficulties
insurmountable to a man of less daring
and persistent qualities, clearly proves."
Georgia's great agricultural journal,
the Southern Cultivator and Dixie Far-
mer, says: "The Success of the FLORIDA
FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER, of Jack-
sonville, surpasses that of any similar
publication in America. The publishers
seem to be over-liberal in giving the
mechanical part.every attraction possi-
ble, while Editor Curtiss is doing the
best work of his life. It is a combina-
tion that cannot fail of abundant success.
The Cultivator is never sorry to see such
enterprise- rewarded, as we have no
rivals to be jealous of, but wish all suc-
Mr. Percival Brewer, of Monmouth,
Ill., writes, under date of April 9th: "I
thiuk your paper the best agricultural
paper published in the South."
Hon. J. C. Pelot, of Manatee, writes as
follows: "I look upon your paper as
one of the most valuable additions to
our agricultural interests. It is ably
edited, practical, directs attention to
matters of primary importance in the
development of our various industries,
and carries with ita spirit of energy and
enterprise that must address itself to ev-
ery searcher after information."
Judging from the expressions of ap-
proval which are coming to us daily
from correspondents and the press, and
from the rapid increase of. our subscrip-
tion list, it is evident that the FARMER
AND FRUIT-GiOWER has met with a more
favorable reception'than we had ven-
tured to expect.
In a few instances we can give the sen-
timent of a letter by quoting one or two
sentences, as in the following examples:
Prof. S. N. Whitner, of the Agricul-
tural College of Florida, writes as fol-
lows; "I can say in all sincerity, it has
exceeded my most sanguine expectations.
Already it is without a peer in all the
Mr. Thomas Meehan, the distinguished
horticulturist and proprietor of the Ger-
mantown nurseries..in a letter dated
March 5th, writes: "I am very much
pleased with the FARMER AND FRUIT-
GROWER, and shall read it regularly,
which you know is a high| compliment
for an editor to pay to an exchange."
Prof. D. L. Phares, the eminent pro-
fessor of biology in ihe Agricultural Col-
lege of Mississippi, says in the Southern
Live Stock Jourdal: "His [the,editor's]
valuable paper already appearing in the
first numbers are fulfilling our expecta-
tion and prediction. They may be fully
relied upon for conscientious correc-
ness of statement and scientific accur-
acy of detail."
Hon. J. Wm. Ewan, writing from
Miami, Dade county, says : "Certainly
you are do'ng a good work in establish-
ing an enlightened and scientific system
of agriculture, which heretofore has
been seriously neglected. Your paper is
inviting in appearance, pure in senti-
ment, and progressive in principle, and
surely must succeed."
Mr. S. A. Stevens, of Sumter county,
writes : "I am in love with your paper,
but am taking so many now that until
some subscription runs out I can't take
more, but calculate to be a subscriber to
your paper soon."
Mr. E. W. Amsden, of Ormond-on-the-
Halifax, whites as follows : "I am tak-
ing ten papers on agricultural subjects,
and if asked to surrender the FARMER
AND FRUIT GROWER, I would tell them
to take the other nine, but leave me
that. May peace and plenty and years
of grace be given you to continue the
Mr. J. V. Dansby, of Pensacola, whose
eminent success in truck gardening, as
well as his able writings on farm topics,
entitle his opinion to respect, expresses
himself as follows: "The first number
of the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER was
duly received and is the best thing in its
way I have seen. It is just the paper
needed, and if you keep it up to the pres-
ent standard of excellence must become
popular with the people. I can't see
where you have left any room for im-
Mr. Charles W. Stevens, of Orange
county, writes: "Your able paper fills a
want long felt in this part for a good ag-
ricultural paper. Success to you.".
Rev. T. W. Moore, of Marion county,
writes: "I believe your paper will do a
good work in disseminating new ideas in
regard to fruit raising, farming, stock
A veteran nurseryman, who objects to
the publication of his name, expresses
himself thus: "I like your paper first-
rate, and believe it will be the agricul-
tural paper of Florida. I hope after a
little while to give you an article every
Mr. H. G. Daniels, of Amelia Island:
"Judging from what I have seen of the
FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER, it is the
best agricultural paper published in the
South. I predict immense success for it."
Mr. Arthur Brown, of Santa Rosa
county, writes: "Judging by the copy
sent me the paper is 'A No. 1,' and I do
not wish to miss a single number."
Mr. S. L. Culler, of peffner, Florida,
writes: "If you continue to make the
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER
equal to the first number, you will cer-
tainly furnish the agriculturists of Flor-
ida with a paper that will please them.
I am traveling through the country
among the.farmers, and in every way
that I can assist you it will be'cheerfully
Mr. W. N. Justice, commission met-
chant of Philadelphia, writes:I "Having
received .th first issue of your agricul-
tural paper, and being delighted with its
tone, we wish you to insert our card for
i [From the Texas Farmer.]
Florida is not behind her sister South-
ern States in material progress.. It
ought to be called tl6 land of fruits and
flowers, for each of these grand divis-
ions of horticulture are equally at home
there. The FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER is an ably conducted and .ele-
gantly printed paper devoted to these
very topics, to which we refer the reader
for further information.
[From the So. Live Stock Journal.]
We regret that the first number [of
the FARMER AND FRUIT-GiowER] failed'
to reach us; but the second shows a very
handsome sheet as to paper, typography
and general make up, whi'e the addi-
tional department is all we expected of
the distinguished editor. .Many of. our
readers are interested directly and sec-
ondarily in everything connected with
Florida, and we cordially commend this
new and excellent periodical as worthy
of their patronage. With best wishes
for its success,-we welcome this new as-
pirant for public favor and patronage,
feeling assured of the good work it will
accomplish il and out of Florida.
[From the Gardeners' Monthly]
"We are continually receiving new
agricultural ventures, but useful as they
are in their own special fields, we rarely
find in them anything of special interest
to the intelligent class of horticulturists
for which the Gardeners' M monthly has to
cater, We were, therefore, agreeably
surprised on reading among the batch
of exchanges on our table, No. 2 of this,
to find it of a, very high order of intelli-
gence, and one which must have an ex-
cellent effect in fostering Florida's inter-
S. L l'E1utLE -& O.,
can make room. They will almost take An Unfavorable Spring., -
care of themselves from the start and, if Editor Florida Farmer and FMuit- Grower: Tillage in Dry Weather.
appearances may be trusted, they will in The vegetable crop of this section was In the last number of the Southern Cul-
time do something handsome in taking very promising until March 1st, when tivator Dr. Jones gives the following ad-
care of you. the vegetable growers' woes began. vice in regard to methods of tillage best
Pecans differ greatly in quality, rang- Throughout the month frost succeeded calculated to counteract the effects of
ing from a thick-shelled, bitter, contemp- frost, until but little.is left to gladden drouth :
tible affair, to the choicest table nut the the eye. Drought, too, did its part of How best to keep the reserved moisture
world affords. As the result of prolong- the destructive work. in the soil is the great question Flat
ed search, I have procured a variety Strawberries are doing better since cultivation stands first and foremost
which I have never seen equalled. The rains came. Peaches are not injured among the means of accomplishing this.
nut is remarkably large, shell thin as and the outlook for them is very good. Evaporation is directly proportional to
paper, meat plump, rich, sweet, nutty, More attention is given to corn and cot- surface and surface is greatly increased
with scarcely a trace of the bitter cover- ton culture than usual, by ridging. High beds increase the sur-
ing characteristic of the common pecan. Many orange growers are alarmed at face at least one-sixth, and increase
I have ventured to name this variety the the appearance in great numbers of the evaporation to the same extent. The
Valrico. scale on their trees. Some say that it is only point gained by throwing dirt to
S* impracticable for them to spray their plants is to cover up grass, but if grass
The Satsuma Orange. trees, and that they will rely upon good is killed just as it comes up early in the
Editor Florida Farmer and rduit-Grower: culture and fertilization to drive the season, very little dirting will be needed.
Several weeks ago you called for in- pest from their groves. Others advo- There is no benefit to a plant in killing
formation about the Satsuma orange, cate pruning off all wood much infected it up; nature provides properly what
and I have been hoping to find a reply by them and then spraying. part of.a plant should be above and what
in your paper from some one well ac- I hear that further south the scale is below the surface. Horticulturists will
quainted with that variety of the or- doing more damage than it is about here tell you that fruit trees are often injured
ange, but so far have failed to find what R. by setting them out deeper in the ground
I have earnestly hoped for. BoADMAuN. Orange Lake, than they naturally grew. Now, chilling
Last December our local paper, the April 10, 1887. a plant is virtually setting it 'deeper in
Reporter,-published a few lines saying [Much to our regret the illustration, the ground. If dirt has been taken
that Walker & Sons, in this vicinity, which should have accompanied the ar- away from a plant in hoeing it, as a
were induced to put in a few buds of ticle on Mexican Clover, has td be omit- matter of course, it should be returned ;
Satsuma some four years ago, and the ted from this number, the plate which beyond that, the probabilities 'are that
trees were now fruiting and proved was ordered two weeks ago not having injury instead of good follows. Let the
very satisfactory. On reading the paper arrived up to time of going to press wings of the sweep then be set flat and
I went at once to see and taste the fruit, -A. H. ] C. kept flat all the time. Drag beds down
if possible, and finding Mr. W ilker at with harrow before planting; start with
home, was kindly shown his trees and them as low as possible and never in-
feasted on the fruit, which was nearly THE TOBACCO PLANTATIONS. crease their height afterwards.
gone at that late date; ---- Next to flat culture, and perhaps of
The trees look like any other orange Some of the Later Details of equal importance, is frequent, light stir-
tree for aught I could see, but the fruit rings of the surface that a crust may
had every appearance of the Tangerine Management. never form. Deep plowing by loosening
and Mandarin in shape and ease in hand- From a treatise in the Tobacco Ptant, up the soil and exposing it to the air
ling for eating, for the skin cane as free by C. Houghton, we extract the follow- dries it up rapidly; some farmers think
and easy and the inside parted just the ing portions relative to management of that deep plowing in dry weather brings
same, making a "kid glove orange," so the "weed" after planting: moisture up from below and benefits the
to speak. I found the fruit rather o....... .crop. It does bring moist dirt from be--
larger and of much better flavor than the CULTIVATION, low to the surface, out this only gives
Tangerine and more juicy, and on the Having the plants set, as soon as they the moisture a better opportunity to es-
whole very satisfactory. Mr. Walker have taken root, say about ten days after cape into the air. Plants do not derive
said they were ripe enough to ship in setting, go over the ridge with a garden any benefit from its transfer to the sur-
October and give good satisfaction. rake or light hoe, breaking the crust, face. Light surface plowing, on the
I liked the fruit so well that I have which will start them to growing. For contrary, keeps the moisture in the soil,
put in about 200 buds this month of that the first cultivating, go each side of the only a thin skim at the surface is made
one kind, in addition to several other row close as you dare with the bull dryer by the plowing. The water from
kinds. It may be a mistake on my tongue, running it deep. Thereafter below rises up to the layer of pulverized
part to put in so many, but the quality cultivate as you would corn or cotton, soil, but cannot pass through it into the
of fruit and the earliness of matur- 'but in hoeing try and leave the surface air. It acts like a mulch-; every one
ing was the reason of my doing so. I covered with loose dirt, which acts as a knows that a covering of leaves or straw
still hope you will have a report from mulch, keeps the moisture from evapor- keeps the soil below damp, but mulch-
some one that knows more about the ating and the ground from baking, ad- ing with leaves on a large scale is im-
fruit than I do. mitting air to the roots, consequently practicable-not so a mulching with pul-
A. J. A. forwarding the growth. Cultivate often verized earth, it is heap, practicable,
ORLANDO, Fla., April 22, 1887. and soon as you can after beating effective. Keep the sweep wings flat,
rains. but keep them also moving. Go over
The Orange Tree Needs Care. WORMING, ETC. the crop once in every ten days, or oftener
if rain falls and a crust is about to form.
Mr. D. Wright, in an article in the In the beds and in the field you must
Palatka News, sums up his experience watch for the bud worm, for after he Plowing at long intervals makes spas-
told that the orange tree required less the size of a pin head will grow with the uniform growthnues.
lera tfnyo itr. It is a question in my mind if it paysO
plant the tree; plant it in the woods; it the ordinary tobacco grower to brea Hoeing Corn.
will need no special attention, and they t the bud unless very badly eaten, Corn, properly planted on well pro-
would refer to the wild groves, mostly, makes trouble in harvesting, causing re- pared land, should rarely need the hoe
if not all of them in the forests, and in .ma t cut tings. the early stages f the plowing be
land so moist or wet that it could not p inc hat would skillfully done. While our personal ex-
be burned over, and see how they flourish The principal difference that it would s f dne. Wt hl rpe th rneale
and bear annual r cause in the value would be in the price .perence does not appro,-e the generalI
an a all true, but haops.ve of a filler and a wrapper leaf. But te. practice of planting in the water-furrow
That appeared to bea true, but I ave worm that will lighten your crop. fastest we have found it very helpful in the
not found it so in regard to the sweet ..... r way of subsequent cultivation to plant
orange. I have planted and cultivated is e large green one. From aou in very wide, eep furrows and covering
about every variety of fruit trees that time you give yourrop the first h very shallow, so that theplants will be
Will ow in the claim ee a close. 'watch for the very shallow, so that theplants will be
will grow in the climate of western Newr and do not alow them to et a foothold below the general surface.
York, nmy experience and observa- on your patch, forif heever getthe The first plowing should be done with
tion have convinced me that the orange ..oneou or e an implement that throws but little dirt
tree needs more care in its cultivation, start of you there is trouble ahead.' The o pe t n ht s b cover welle
and has more enemies, and is subject to only reliableremedyis to pick them by to the pcorn, yetweenoug the hills over weplants.l
more diseases than any other fruit trees hand. Some years they are veryfew,The thinning (if needed) should be done
I have ever planted or cultivated. and do not trouble early tobac co as much ahead of the plowing and the' latter
And I am satisfied from my experience as late. The best way to kill them is to should be done only by conscientious-
and observation that a great many of the give them a twist with thumb and fore ly (?) careful laborers.
orange groves which have been started finger, which a first is very repulsive, The plowman should be required to
in Florida will be found unprofitable and but, like everyting ese, you soon be? stop and uncover plants, or cover or null
will be abandoned, while other groves, come accustomed to it Tofind them out weeds or grass with foot or hanc as
which have been planted in suitable soil you must turn u th leaves of each he goes. He should be impressed with
and in favorable locations, if properly plant, watching about theme time for theidea that the work of leaning the
cared for, will continue to be very profit ,and round, of awhitish color You young plants must be done by the work
able, and in this regard the orange does to find theadh ol. Y of his Plow, or'his hands and feet-noI
not differ very mu chifrom other fruits. will soon be able to nd them readily, as hoe tofollow. It is not a bad ideatofur-
Scatches themat a glance. You c andesI nish eachnplowman with a small sliort-
To Keep Bugs from Melon Vines themby pinching between t handled, one-hand hoe, to be carried
A South Carolina correspondent of thumb nails with his plow and used as occasion may
the Southern Cultivator.says: I have a You cannot be too vigilant about require. I will be found that he will be
plan that I have been using for fifteen picking the worms. So watch close, and much more careful todo good work with
years, which is very cheap and as good when you find they need picking do not that careless wor wil nt be endure d
as it is cheap. I use charcoal dust, or defer it for another day, as, should it and leftt forhthes o ito t emed dSouthe
the coal kiln dirt and dust together, rain or'anythi':g intervene in the in- er Cultivator eto remedy.-South-
sprinkling about half a pint or a pint of terim, they may do much more damage "
the dust on each hill just about the time than the cost of picking them, for the ---- '-- --
the plants get out of the ground. I have reason that a hole in the '-leaf, though A correspondent desires to know the
not been troubled with the bugs since I small i' may be, spoils it for a wrapper, characteristics of the Red Chili potato
have been using it. which reduces it half in value. as grown in this State.
ONSIGNMENTS OF EGGS
CHICKENS, FRUITr, AND
28 OCEAN ST
J. H. SUTHERLAND,
Fancy Poultry an Hd M i Dogs.
Eggs For Hatching From Leading Va-
rieties of Domesticated Land
and Water Fowl ,
---$1 P"E.IE 13.- ,
Also Thoroughbred Young Setters and Hoiunds.
Address VILLA ZANZA POULTRa YARDS
PRICES THE LOWEST.
C. S. EMi'ENG E CO.,
AITLAND I N1iURERIES.
ALL VARIETIES OF
ORANGE AND LEMON TREES.
Buds not placed on small stocks, but on extra
large and fine ones.
We make a specialty of the
--EARLY SPANISH RANGE- -
(the earliest variety known),
TOHITI LIMES and
VILLA FRANCA LEMONS,
and can show trees or the latter that stood the
cold last winter as well as the Orange, and
NOW HAVE FRUIT UPON THEM.
Send for Catalogue.
KEDNEY & CAREY,
P. 0. Winter Park Fla
ROYAL PALM NURSERIES
Rare tropical ornamental and'fruit plants for
open air culture in Florida, and for the North-
ern greenhouse. Also, a full line of semi-tropi-
eical trees, plants and grasses, and general nur-
sery stock adapted to 'Florida and the South.
Exotics from India, Australia and the West
Indies, many of them never before introduced
into the United States.
The most complete descriptive catalogue of
tropical and semi-tropical plants published in -
America. Catalogue mailed, post-paid, on re-
ceipt of 15 cents. Free to all customers.
RE ASONER BROS,.
Canada Hard-Wood Unleaehed
Cheapest fertilizer in use, and free from nox-
ious weeds. Supplied in car lots of 12 or more
tons. Guaranteed free of rubbish. Put up in
barrels. Price and analysis free on application.
Address CHAS. STEVENS,
Box 487 Napanee, Ontario, Canado.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, MAY 11, 1887.
nis said to be deleterious to plants. A pro or con, will give it. We want light, mo, dispatch No. 427, published in the
hm SNorthern correspondent informed me calm and dispassionate. It seems to me consular report, show that Cuba has
of this several years fgo. A recent let that kainit, like the mineral phosphates shipped to the United States during the
ter from another says that idea is ex- arid many other valuable discoveries, present year nearly 94 per cent. of her
KAINIT. ploded. Probably the truth lies between has come when most wanted foi the sugar and molasses crop, leaving a re-
-- the two. It may be injurious to some high or intensive farming of this fast mainder of only 6 per cent., which was
Its Composition, Qualities and plants, as in potatoes. But we have not age. The price is reasonable, and I be- shipped to other countries during the,
Value as a Fertilizer yet learned all concerning kainit, and lieve there is full value in it. same period.
until we have a more perfect knowledge L. H. ARMSTRONG. From these facts several very important
Editor Florida Fa'iern and M'-uit-Grower: derived from careful experiments the ST. NICHOLAS, Fla. economic relations are deduc'ble: (1)
One of your respected correspondents safest way will be to apply it a few ----.-.-- .With the exception of the very limited
recent y indulged in a strange tirade months in advance of planting, which DO WOODS FIRES INJURE LAND sugar market of the Spanish Peninsula,
against kainit, and politely called those can be 0one with littlee or no loss of pot- Cuba is completely shut out of the Eu-
who favored it "agricultural solons," ash; or better, mix it in composts ropean sugar market; Great Brita n,
and said that "the agricultural papers COMPOSTS. How Col. Dennett, ot the Pica- France. Germany, Austria and Hungary,
abound in the most arrant stupidity in I have used kainit for years, some- yune, Views the Subject. Russia, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, and
regard to it." At a risk of being stig- t mes broadcast, but mostly in composts. The above is an important question, consumers of Cuban sugar; (2) thatlonger
matized in like manner, permit me to I think it is better prepared itself, and it Th bv. sa motn usin consumers of Cuban sugar-; (2) that,
spematk in defence. I have used kaint helps thok better prepared itself, and ite- particularly in the pine lands of Souo!-- practically, the island is now entirely de-
four or five years, and find noreasoin for helps to better plant usrepare the other mate- ,ern States, where forest fires consume pendent upon the market of the United
discontinuing it. It fills a place in my wes r at e leaves, grass, dead leaves, grasses and all dry cumbus- States in which to sell its sugar cane pro-
syste of fertilizing, butnottothe ex- laers ietc. arble gathenured and mixed inach tible matter, rotten wood, pine knots, ducts. Also, that-the existence of the
clsion of other forms of potash, which layer lime and kainit are fely applied, etc., on many million acres every fall sugar plantations, the railroads used in
Io alwaoys e.or afo with a final dress ain ag over all. Lime, and winter or spring, transporting the products of the planta-
Yourcorrepondent aforesaid objects cls a c o ai It is generally believed that these fires tions to the shipping ports of the island,
chlorine,'sulphuric and carbonic acids, do impoverish the soil. We, without tie export and import trades of Cuba
to two things-the cost of its potash be- with water as a vehicle, are powerful doipvrs tesilWwthu the export and import trades of Cuba
ing, as he calculates, greater than in digestants. Old chemical combinations careful reflection, have favored that based thereon, each including hundreds
muriate and its large amount of chlo- d estants. Old chemical combination opinion. But what do the facts teach? of minor industries, such as the agricul-
rine. His text is theo saying of some are broken up, new onesare made, and Let us see. tural and mechanic trades, store-houses,
"solon" that kainit is one of the cheap- the result is manure, sufficient of it sol- At least 95 per cent. of the substance wharves, and lighters, stevedores bro-
est available sources of potash, and uble for the immediate wants of plants, of dry forest leaves, decayed wood, etc., kers, clerks, bankers, real estate owners,
Germanpotash or kainit has 24 t'o 28 af ter which decomposition proceeds in consumed by these annual fires go up- and shop-keepers of all kinds, and hold-
ermnt of potash (ulnhate of cours the soil as fast as tIhey need the food. ward and mingle with the air whence ers of the public debt, are now all di-
thp eaner cn f erotis slizighalteofcuse), He vn omuk epn pnthle
e remainder ferau saltus. Hecompost Having no amck, I depend upon the they originally came, and 5 per cent., rectly related to the market of the United
then eaately proves wat is well acomph t to supply a portion om the ne-al the ashes, remain on the soil and in States, to the extent of 94 per cent, for
known, that for potash alone muriate as r mallpsoton Thu, e le time ming'e with it and help enrich it. their employment, and only 6 per cent.
furnishes itat a little less cost than culture of the small portionve up to the rainy These contain lime, phosphoric acid, to other countries; of these mostly Spain,
kaiuit, and that in both it is much culture of the wtg up to theraith po'ash and several other ingredients of simply for the reason that sugar is the
cheaper than in stilphate. But he base ason, crab grass furnishes the soilnwith less importance than these. All of principal econo- ic basis of all those in-
his estimates on nearly a maximum per-be a heavy coat of nitrogenous matter, to these came from the soil, and every terests.
centageinmateso ndnearlyaminimumpe-idposts not being sufficient to fertilize the grain of them, by the action of fire, It is with the knowledge of this fact
kainit; also on $15 a ton for kainit in- grove, I make a composition of cotton z isgiven back to the soil to be used again of the dependence of Cuba upon the
stead of $13 or $14. seed meal, I make a compositiund bon .of cottonid or fertilizing purposes. Fire cannot United States to the extent of 94 per
Correcting he calculations, the differ- seed grou a consume them or diminish their weight, cent. for a market in whichto sell, adaied
ence is very trifling, and clearly proves phosphate, cotton seed hull ashes or Portions of these ashes are drawn from to the apprehension that that market
that kainit, though not quite the cheap- other form of potashi in proper propor- the subsoil by the roots of trees and may also be taken by other sugar-pro-
est,-is one of the cheapest sources of pot- Th action of kainit in chain the plants, and by fire or natural decay of during countries from Cuba, that leads
ash, which doubtless was what was o- he action i o iit in changing t the plants and trees they are deposited its inhabitants to urge upon the Madrid
meash, which, doubtless, was what was volatile ammonia of decomposing o- on the surface, and make the surface Government the immediate negotiation
meant. Quod e'rat non demonstiantm, ganic matter to a .non-volatile but solu- soil more fertile at the expense of the of a treaty of commerce to put the island
Of "the remainder valuable salts" noth- bie form, thereby saving it, is too well subsoil. Some of these mineral fertil- in more harmonious relationship with its
ing is said, except that "they would known to need description. Kainit is izers come from ten feet or more below natural market, theUnited States.
make a sorry fertilizer." As to chlorine, more rapid and effective than plaster. Ithurfc end rten uree natral market theUted tats
that is a "black beast" undeserving ben- gives the compost potash, magnesia, the surface, and are taken up whereverfo Stock
eftof clergy. Osoda, etc., at a cost in Jacksonville of ward or downward for food. Sorghum for Stock.
MAGNESIA AND SODA. only three or four dollars a ton more Then if forest fires send all of these Brother Clark's objection to the
These remainder salts, besides the than plaster, which contains only lime elements that-came from the atmosphere coarseness of sorghum for stock feed
chlorine and sulphuric acid, must have and sulphuric acid. The chlorine of back from whence they came, and the may be met in part by sowing early am-
value because they 'are large constitu- kainit, besides its other solvent powers, mineral elements back to the soil from ber in any case, and in full by using
ents of plants, fruits and seeds. Al- decomposes foul gases and prevents the whence they came, how does this action two bushels of seed per acre on the best
though soils generally are supposed to compost polluting the air. I was never impoverish the-soil? land.
have enough of these minor elements, more convinced of the value of kainit Do forest trees, whose fallen leaves The ground should be properly pre-
yet Professor Kedzie, in writing of wood than last winter. My man in charge are annually-destroyed by fire, indicate pared, which may be done by deep plow-
ashes, recognizes both as having a spe- last summer neglected to put in the a gradually impoverished soil? We ing and thorough pulverization. Now,
cific value; that of soda about six mills kainit provided for the compost, and think not. No one denies that if the the seeds may be harrowed in or plowed
per pound, which, in a ton of kainit, when the manure was spread I knew I leaves' and decked wood are lft to in with anykind of a plow. Never le
Ieve and decayed wood are laft to in with any kind of a plow. Never let
would: be somewhere about $1. The had lost and was losing ammonia. I mingle with the surface soil the soil it ripen the seed before being out, if de-
niagnesia he includes with the lime, but will remark in passing, that I also use will become much richer. That is na- signed for forage. In tbis particular the
it has a value. If magnesia and 'soda kainit in th prv.us u ikpps will becm muhricher. That is na- signed for forage. In this particular the
it hasa value. If magnesia andsoda kainit d in s the privy tubs, in sink pipes, ture's mode of enriching poor soils, same rule obtains which applies to mil-
are valued as fertilizers in Michigan, and drains, as a disinfectant; also-in the These leaves and decayed vegetation are let, oats, Johnson grass, etc.
much more should they be in Florida, stable-and chicken house. It purifies the nature's fertilizers. Nature thus min- Sorghim may be cut any time from
the soil of which is not rich in either, air, arrests, the volatile ammonia so gles the elements of the atmosphere with "b'bomin'g" to "dough" in the seed.
Dr: Kost, in his article on the Geology: abundant in the urine, and enriches the elements found in the soil, and these, The "milk" and "dough" stage is pre-
of: Florida, in the ti'ade number1o the manure with potash, etc. e et on ntesiadtee h 'ik n duh tg s.pe
of: Florida, in vesd thae -foloing pfthe manure with potash, etc. wrh properly blended and fixed in the soil, ferred; earlier, too much shrinkage en-
"Times-Union, gives the -following per- Kainit and lime work finely together constitute fertility, sues, causing loss in bulk with no great
centages in first quality pine land, taken in muck, but a suitable proportion of Dos not burning the leaves, then, advantage in quality. Ifletstand until
from threediffarent parts of thbe State,and 'acid.-phosphate added. -would-mk a Does not burning thei leaves, then, advantage in quality. If let stand until
fromixed for an average: Silica oftheaState,and acidphomplete and bter digested wouldmake a simply prevent' nature from making ripe.,and consequently sweet, the sap or
mixed; lime, 4; alumina, 3; potashad), 10; complete and better digested fertilizer, the soil richer without making it juice, sours in "curing," and gives you a
humus, 8; lime, 4 alumina, 3 potash, 1 FERTILIZING FOR any poorer? o not the lime, phos- mas'- of harsh, pithy, sour-in fact,
(about 22 tons to the acrIone footdeep); phorus, potash, etc., brought from be- spoiled "roughness." On the contrary,
soda, 1; magnesia, 0.50; iron, 1.50; man- Knowing that lime, potash and phos- low and left on the surface, make the if cut earlier the sap ripens and sweet-
ganese, 0.80; phosphoric acid, 0.20; sul- phoric acid are .such large constituents lands somewhat richer than they were ens in the curing process and yields
phuric acid, 0.50. Nearly all of these in the orange fruit, I have for years ap- before? Does this hold good in regard richer, tenderer, and consequently more
soil constituents enter into plants and plied them liberally, and for two years b eare Does o p d in pa tender nutritious specimen of
fruits, but almost inversely to their past I have been thinking that soluble ,to yearly fires on prairies and in provalatable and nutritious specimen ofer
needs. potashand phosphates should b given marshes? provender.
Proeo Burning the leaves and rubbish in If small enough it may be mown like
Professor Whitner's analysis of the in September, or abouttheclose of the forests annually has its good results to grass, or otherwise it may be cut by the
ash of theorange tree and fruit'shows in rainy season, to strengthen the acids and
themin round numbers: lime, over 50 sugar, improve the quality and hastenoffset any disadvantages that may re- handful, with aa "hack-knife," and
per cent. in the tree aound'24 i the fruit; the ripening, and if gi mprove the qualiberally thea suit from it. These fires destroy numer- shocked standing as in case of corn
per cent. in the tree andP. i4n" the fruit; the ripenng, and ff given hberally the orcr-ps
potash, 14 in tree and-86 in fruit; mag- trees would lay up an extra stock of ous snakes and vermin and insects in or corn-tops.
esias 1intreeand8 fruit a t o and thus induce a larger crop untold millions. The forest fires some- The-process of curing is simply this:
nesia, tree and 8in fruit;adclr soda, 3 in fruit food, Iinedtt ryit times occur when all of these are out in Whether down on. the ground or stand-
tree and 8 in fruit, and chloride of sodi- the next season. I intend to try it this full blast, breeding and depositing eggs ing in shock, let it remain until the
um (salt) in.the leaves, 6.66, and in fruit, year. without number. Tick bugs, worms, blade is dry. Pay no attention to the
3.87. Florida has no mountains, no CHLORINE. moths, lizards, scorpions, spiders, and a appearance of the stalk, for that will
granite or other rocks on the surface to Chlorine has a powerful affinity for hy- long list of other troublesome creatures remain green for a great while. When
supplypotash, mngnesia, etc; hence, the drogen, and thus destroys the unhealthy are destroyed by these fires. Then they the leaf is dry you may regard the
exhnaustion of th e mineral elements by gases made by it. Chlorine and hydrogen destroy rotten and fallen timber, rotten "stuff" cured. But it would be well to
continual removal of crops must be made make muriatic acid, and when a chemist limbs of fallen trees and chips of the rake into mows such as is on the
.good from outside sources. desires to extract all of the useful corn- woodman, and give place to the native ground, and in any case let it remain in
We know too well. tat anorange
We know too wel that an orange ponents of common ashes for analysis, forest grasses that grow with great shock' some days. Then put it away in
grove will exhaust thne soil of potash and ho uses muriatic acid, because all but the vigor in the spring, and the cattle are stack, rick or barn as you would hay,
phosphorus, and as magnesia and soda potash are insoluble in water. This in- very fond of them. Besides, the fires oats or common millet. NOw it is safe.
are next in requirement, they must in dicates that chlorine may be a power for destroy the young0 scrubby growth of Thus may be produced, with a-good de-
time also be exhausted. Hence it can...
hardly be doubted that a potash frtil- good in the soil to render plant food sol- shrubs and vines, and give the cattle a gree of certainty, more good, nutritious
izer that carries magnesia and soda with uble, without which many things rich in better chance to range through the stock food per acre than by any other
it. .. tha... ..lete ae gsnd to th fertilizing elements would be inert and woods-n gathering their daily supply of means in my knowledge.
it must have a value beyond the potash valueless. Chlorine gas unites with food. T
alone, which, being deducted from th valueless. Chlorine gas unites with food. The second crop, which comes from
cost, will reduce the potash to or below water two to one, and any excess of it in If the fires were yearly and systemat- the stubble, being smaller, shorter and
that in muriate. The commercial feor- the soil goes off with the water. Chlor- ically sent through our pine forests at a more tender, is better than the first.
tht in m..... understandingna the ins gas decomposes compounds of lime, season most convenient for such work, We feed sorghum in any quantity to
tilizermen who. s drai na- potash and phosphoric acid. A curious and when fires are least dangerous to either battle or horses, even to satiety,
turhe of Florida soil, claim a value tor illustration of this is found in the great fences and buildings, it could be done with perfect impunity. Sorghum in its
these and other minor constituents in soda works, where the gas, though with the greatest safety by running a different uses is growing in favor with
their goods. hardly perceptible, yet constantly few furrows in the roads and cross-roads, the people.-Cor. Texas Farmer.
CHLORIDE OF SODIUM, breathed by the workmen, corrodes appointing a day for the whole neigh- We should consider (adds the South-
Salt is looked upon with suspicion, yet their teeth to the gums, and through borhood to turn out and do the burn- ern Live Stock Journal) it rather a dan-
in some cases it has- a value as a fertil- the circulation attacks the alkalies of the ing in detail, after the roads are prop- gerous experiment to plow in sorghum
izer, or as an application. Not infre- stomach and causes acidity, for which erly plowed to keep the fires from cross- seed "with any kind of plow."
quently we see articles in the papers they take chalk. In all other respect s ing. We can bear favorable testimony as to
recommending it. The Library of Uni- the men are healthy and fat. There is no doubt that hundreds of t value of sorghum ensilage, and of
versal Knowledge says: "In sandy soils, KAINIT AND SORREL. miles of fences have been destroyed in sorghum cut green and fed to horses and
especially those devoted to the cultiva- It has N AD S -Mississippi alone in the last six monthsmules. Horses.and mules are greedily
tion of marigold wurtzels, the, English .I a been said that kainit imPOvar- by forest fires, all of which might have foe.Hossnd ofsrh m ule W e grow dit lyod
farmers have found salt very successful," ishes the soil and induces sorrel. The been saved by the plan we have sug- aost g
and on meadows f'itchecks rank'growth former can only occur by using-it with- gested.-Picayune. Haul up a small load and dump it
and increases the quality and succu- out nitrogen and phosphorus. Used down on the ground near the lot gate.
' lance." '"On stiff soils salt is practically alone, it supplies potash, magnesia and
Inoperative. soda- othing more, except their ener- .. The Sugar Market. We feed daily until, the heap is exhaust-
opera;e.,." .... .... ;;-;, ..... .......... ed, and then haul another load. Horses
In Whitner's Manual of Gardening in getic associates, chlorine and sulphuric [Recent Report of the Unlted States Consulat d, and then aul anoter ad es
Florida, we find an analysis -of each acid, which search the soil for the other Havana.) will do fair ork all summer and early
garden vegetable. The ash of asparagus prime necessaries, and thus give to the I enclose a copy- of F. 0. Light's fall- upon green sorghum in day time,
per et" of chlorideof sodium crop all they can find, which thus gets monthly reports of -the beet-roo sugar and running,'outosn a good pea ture at
beans "8 can, ,-c..--i 1.. the full benefit. The impoverishment industry of Europe, published at Magde- nh without a sige grain of corn.
..bes, 2.80; eets.4. then is due to the ignorance or cupidity burg, and dated the 20th of November, .....
analyses indicate etatu salt i. v0l9,oe T of the farmer. 1886, as also, for the like purposes of con- Plant for Ensllawe.
manavlyses tailed alte that s naeis l bi As to sorrel, of which oxalate of pot- trast and comparison, an accompanying This crop is now so thoroughly approv-
manyla eeales' as othat magnesia ash is the chief constituent, it simply extract of my dispatch, No. 291, of the ed that there can be no doubt of its value.
and-sodaeas wl aus p'otash hat, are large indicates the presence or a development same date of the year 1875, the interval So much has been said in the Planter' in
consituents. It thus appears that all of .. .
the elements of kainit enter into most of potash and a deficiency of nitrates and between the two dates -being of exactly reference to it that it is unnecessary to
vegetables. One notable exertion has phosphates-not sourness of the soil, eleven years, enforce it further on the attention of
bean found and probably there. are oth any more than a rhubarb plant or a You will please observe that what I farmers. The time has arrived for pre-
ars. Experience s.howed that ksmit ap-. sour apple free does. In the economy of called in 1875 in the said dispatch the paration, and as no one is disposed to
..ed direct to .Irish potatoes injured nature, perhaps, this humble plant is "enormous amount of 1,100,000 ions" of have full faith in any change of the rou-
he. Turning to the- analysis, we find sent as a last resort to renovate worn beet-root sugar produced the year 1874-75 tine of a farm, let the preparation be
but "a- trace" of oda and chloride out land. I have had experience enough in Europe,will, according to the enclosed made in a small' way as a beginning.
sodium and but 1726. of carbonate of with sorrel to know that there is no harm report of Mr. Light, reach the coming After setting apart a few acres of good
magnesia. This explains the cae in it, and that kainit does not cause it. year to 2,580,000 tons, which is equiva- average corn land, well prepared, lay off
Other experiments however, showed Turn the sorrel under and the soil re- lent to an increase of 184.54 per cent. in rows three and a half feet wide, and
that when kainit w.s applied to the land covers nore than it lost. Oxalic acid is during the-last eleven years, sow corn in drills about three inches
in the fall, before planting the potatoes a powerful solvent, and its office may be It is likewise observable that according deep, so that the stalks will stand eight
good results followed the chlorine being to dissolve some otherwise intractable to the best statistical data of the exports to ten inches apart, and cover by run-
decomposed and washed out by the win-1 elements in the ground. The lesson of of Cuba attainable in 1875, the percentage ning a harrow crosswise. Some thin-
CHO R OFA Nsorrel is, give your land complete, well of its sugar crop sent in that year for ning may be needed to prevent too much
t r balanced fertilizers, sale to the United States, as reported in crowding, and cultivation should be done
In conclusion, let us hope that your, my said dispatch, was 81 per cent.,where- with cultivators sufficiently often to
The only real objection to kainit is, readers and correspondents who have as the similar data, more attainable, and keep down all grass and weeds until the
perhaps, the chloride of magnesia, which had experience in the use of kainit,' as stated in my report of 25th June ulti- crop may be laid by.
During summer dig a pit on some dry special attention among the.best class of
"spot which will not hold water in its farmers. When farmers save every
bt ttom-a hill-side may be preferred-- pound end pint of so'id and liquid fer-
and if the sides of the pit are a compact tilizer made or that may be made on a
clay no lining will be neccessary. Cover farm as carefully as the Chinese save fer-
in such a manner as to keep out rain and tilizers, and apply them as carefully,-
surface water, and the silo will be ready, they will live on the fat of the land, and
Let the corn stand until its growth is merchants will not be required to feed
complete, cut off at the ground, and let them.
it lie for a day or more until it is well When the true value of the Southern-
wilted, then haul it to the. silo, and pass field pea and cotton seed is understood
ihe stalks, small ears and blades through and u ilized to their full extent, South-
a straw cutter. As cut, throw into the ern lands will constantly improve and
pit, spread, and trample down well. "the Southern people will be the best fed
When the whole crop is in cover with people in the world. On ten acres, a
boards and weight heavily wiih stones, family should bid defiance. to want and
sand bagsor any other material which hardly know the meaning of hard times
may be convenient, when the cry of hard times is: heard in
Nothing further is needed until the the cities.
winter, when the ensilage is to b- fed,
using it In a block from top to bottom, -1
and so progressing until the whole is Bees and Queens.
COTTON-SEED OIL VS. LARD. Orders will be booked now for delivery dur-
OTTON-SEEDOIL VSi. LARD. ng April, May or June, of my superior race-
Views of Leading Papers on an ofpure
Important Subject. Italian Bo anf flinn
We are glad to see that the Southern Italian1 Beesan d01UU8lon.
press is adopting the idea suggested by
the Times-Democrat that- it is now time Queens by mail a specialty.
to throw off the disguise and to use cot- Give mea trial order.
ton-seed oil under its own name instead
of under the new title bestowed on it by For prices or other Information, address
the Western pork-packers, of "leaf lard."
The country has been. using cotton-seed H. C. HART,
oil for ten years past to do all its frying
with, and it has been well satisfied with Eustis, Orange Co., Fla.
it. There is no evidence whatever that
the lard now'made with this Southern rAMPA, HILLSBORO-GH (OrU TY,
oil is inferior in any respect to the genu- JL FLORIDA
ine hog product. There can be no pre-
tense that it is not as healthy and as General Business and Real Estate Agency of
clean. Why not, then, abandon this W. N.CONOLEY.
thin disguise, and use the cotton-seed oil -
at a cheap rate rather than dub it "lard' If you wish a town lot, an orange grove, or
wild lands in this rapidly-improving section,
and pay twice as much for it? This is or ifyou have taxes to be paid, or.property to
the question that the Southern press is be improved, or money-to be invested, write
asking with a great deal of reason, and o this agency. .
it is of unanimous opinion that a little Money can be placed on Real Estate wi ih a
effort will overcome the vulgar prejudice Margin on Iwo-thirds ofvalues1 at 10
yet clinging to Soutthern cotton -seed, and and 12 per cent.
bring it into general use. FREE OF CHARGE TO LENDER.
We have already quoted from the Ninety days to foreclose mortgage where
Charleston News and Courier and a dozen there is no contest.- All costs and attorney's
othr pper onthesujec, ad w coldfees provided for In mortgage. Write for
otherpaperson the subject, and we could fthherinformationoandsend for llst of prop
present columns of similar views, erty for Sale." ,
The Atlanta Constitution thinks it a W.N. CONOLEY>
great mistake that the South did not at Tampa, Florida.
once take hold of cotton-seed oil and REFF.RENCE--EX.GovernorDrew,JacksOD-
.... v r -'r viee;,First National Bank, Tampsa, andon
force it into favor, and remarks. JohnT Lsle Tam-a Tapa' ado
The New York Sun is inclined to object J T. Ta
to lard into which cotton-seed bil enters, -i, r
alluding t-oit as "nasty." The Sun,usu- SPECKLE PEA-S CLAT. PES, .
ally correct, is wrong in this. Thereis :
nothing purer or more nutritious than UNKNOWN PEAS.
cotton-seed oil, and the knowledge that .. '.-
it enters largely into lard production is Greatest Vine Producers on the Market.. -'
a. fact calculated to soothe the lacerated .
uneasiness of the Sunny South.; The -- ,-. l--.
South is very greedy about hog's fat. !- SICO^QE? --" ."
We consume a great deal of the stuff in ... i- -
one shape and another.- The frying-pan nsilage utters. (ilos de .in
is a big. thing in its way, and we were Sections.):: *-- -:
under the impression until lately tliatwe : .'-
were getting the fat of diseased hogs, Everything to Plant at Bottom Prices.
ahd getting it, as the boys say, in the So. SEED CO.. Macon. Ga.
goozle. It is a great relief to know that .
the basis of our imported hog's fat is J. .EUllis, President, .
pure cotton-seed oil. Our fried bacon : Send for treatise on ensilage and Siros.,
tastes better, and our biscuits are lighter .
and more palatable. It will be remem- -A T -
bered that cotton-seed oil Was at one' B O -
time offered to ouir people as a substitute Hernando'Conty, Clorida.
for hog's fat, but our cooks and our epi- e n t ..i
cures rebelled against it. The result is Sixteen miles west of Hernando Hotel, Brooks-
that the great lard producers of the vilie, on the shore of the Gulf at the mouth of a
Northwest have seized on the harmless' beautiful Spring River. Finest fishing,- boating
oil, and by a slight chemical change con- and Sailing. Good accommodations. Try-weekly
averted it into pure leaf lard fresh from Hack Line. "
hogs fed on red corn. The Solid South -
stands on the very verge and precipice N. ELLIS, C. E. A. E. MccLuRE, Architect.
of progress. -
The Memphis Appeal sees that the cot-' ELLIS '& McCLURE,
ton-seed oil industry is in danger of the
same fate as the oleomargarine industry innAo Pill ITiaT
unless it strikes out for itself and comes Arcli[lloCIS & bVll vi ll RlllOol,
in'o use on its own merits, instead of an
adulterant for lard. It says: Plans for -
The St. Paul Press states that "it be-
gins to look as if the.hog-raising commu- HOTELSPUBLIC & PRIATE BUILD
1311 IN(,S, SANITARY ENGINqEERING, &c.
cities would have to call upon Congress p 74. Rooms 7 and 8 Palmetto Block,
to protect lard from cotton-seed oil, as Bay Street.
they have protected butter from pleomar- JACKSONVITIRB,'FLA.
garine. The Press adds the interesting
fact "that adulterated lard is in quite-as GRADED JERSEYS FOR SALE,
general use as adulterated butter has
been brought out by-the unscrupulous- A few Graded Jerseys for sale in calf lby a
ness of monopolies." The statisticians, J. C. C. Bull Panic, 1Ko. 9,420. Panic is a
our contemporary; declares, have been grandson of Duke of Darlington, No. 2,640, and a
puzzled with the amount of lard pro- son of Uproar, No. 4,609, out of Brown Beauty,
duced in proportion to the number of daughter of Iron Bank, imported, No. 1,120.
hogs killed, and now it seems the excess Apply to SCRADERa BROS.,
was caused by adulterating the lard with Tallahassee, Fla;
the oil, a process which improves the
.article, the Appeal has no doubt, fora .Fy PLi
pure vegetable oil is much more whole- tli, UJn Aml O
some than hog's grease. Before you decide where to go in SOUTH
There is no better time than the pres- FLORIDA, send for a sample copy of. -
ent to bring cotton-seed oil in the market THE ORANGE GROVE.
in its true character. If a company will You will find better and cheaper bargains In
devote itself to this, if the Southern press MANATEE County hi groves, farms, ranches of
aw y size. Buildiig lots on l'ailroad, river or sea-
will encourage the idea, there is every sie The rrt o f hGo "
fo op at his ulga ~reju e. The proprietor of "The Orange Grove "1ii
reason for hoping that this vulgar preju- an "!'old timer" but neither moss back'd or hide
dice against this purely vegetable oil will bound; he is.here to stay and "There is millions
be overcome, and it become a substitute in it." 'Three Millions of Acres on his Books.
be verome an itbeomea, -ubtitte Address, THE GROVE, LIVERPOOL, FLA.
for lard. It is such a substitute to-day, Address, THE GROVE, LIVERPOOL FLA.
but under a disguised name. Why. NOTICE.
should it not rest on its own intrinsic -
S. TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN-
Intensive Corn Culture. Sixty days after the flrst publlcatlon of this
It seems that we are to have intensive notice application will be made to the Legle_
culturee tas well asetave intensive farlature of Florida, for the passage of a charter
corn culture as well as intensive farm- of the Florida Fruit Exchanger" whereby
ing in numerous other crops. Over 125 the capital stock may be Increased to a sum
bushls f crn o th aoe hve eengreater than Fifty Thousand Dollars; the..par
bushels of corn to the acr have beenvalue of shares to reduced om ne un-
made in Massachusetts. Plenty of ma- dred Dollars to Ten Dollars Per share'; to al-
nure and brains made it, and can make low the corporation to purchase and convey
it in any other State. When a farmer suoh real and personal property as may be
withsioreigta children can makmrdeemed necessary to Its usefulness, In0lud-
with six or eight children can make ing vehicles of transportation; to' lease or
250 bushels of corn from two acres of erect buildings for storage of produce, ana
land, that would be sufficient to feed his advance on produce; to manufacture and sell
and eed hore an a mlchsuch materials as may be useful to fruit grow-
family and feed a horse and a milch era and gardeners, and generally.to transact
cow and make pork for the family sup- such business as may be for the interest of
ply for twelve months, members and others connected with fruit
Growing and kindred pursuits, and for such
Fai mers have made over 500 bushels other powers and privileges as may be deemed
of Irish potatoes to the acre and 500 necessary and8proper.
bushels of sweet potatoes. If the farmer GE.O R. F.INRRNKSI ,
who makes 250 bushels of corn on two D. GREENLEAF,
acres can make even 200 bushels of M. J. DOYLE,
Irish potatoes and 200 bushels of sweet T.W. OORE,
3. D. MITCHELL,
potatoes on two acres why should a farm- WM. E. STANTOl',
er starve and starve his family because ROB'T BULLOCK, '
his merchant will not sell him corn on a B. M. BA.ER,
credit? Intensive farming or garden Board of Directors,.
Florida Fruit Excha1nge.
farming and brain farming are receiving Jacksonville. Fla., February 18, 1887
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MAY 11, 1887.
The Florida Farmer and Fruit Grower.
A. H. CURTISS, Editor.
C. H. JONES & BROTHER, PUBLISHERS.
Office Cor. Bay and Laura Sts.
THE FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER is an eight page 48 column illustra-
ted weekly newspaper, devoted to the Farm,
Garden, Orchard andHousehold Economy,
and to the promotion of the agriculturAl and
Industrial interests of Florlda. It Is published
Terms of Subscription.
For one year............................................ S 2.00
For six months 1.00
Clubs of five to one address..................... 7.50
With daily TIMES-UNION. one year...... 11.00
With daily TIMES-UNION, .six months 6.00
With WEEKLY TIMES, one year....... 2.75
WY-Subscrlptions in all cases cash in ad-
vance, and no paper continued after the
expiration of the time paid for. The date on
the printed label with which the papers are
addressed is the date to which the subscrip-
tion is paid and is equivalent to a receipt for
payment to that date; if the date is not
changed immediately after a new payment,
the subscriber will please notify us at once.
; CORRESPONDENCE solicited on all sub-
jects pertaining tothe topics dealt with in
this paper. Writers may affix such signatures
to their articles as they may choose, but must-
furnish the editor with their full name and
address, not for publication but as a guarantee
ofgood faith: Rejected communications can-
not be returned.
ADVERTISEMENTS inserted to a limited
extent.. Rates furnished on application.
REMITTANCES should bdemade by Check
Postal Note, Money Order, or Registered
Letter, to order of
C. H. JONES & BRO.,
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
FIRST PAGE-Alfalfa in Florida ((Illustrated));
Interesting Forage Plants; The Fig in Middle
'Florida; The Flowering of the Fig; Lelong's
SummerWash for Trees; Orange Shipments;
Leaves and Fruit.
SECOND PAGE-Fruits of South Florida; The
Satsuma Orange; The Orange Tree Needs
Care; Insect Enemies; An Unfavorable
Spring; The Tobacco Plantation; Tillage in
Dry Weather; Hoeing Corn.
THmRD PAGE-Kainit; D3 Woods Fires Injure
Land? The Sugar Market; Sorghum for Stock;
Plant for Ensilage; Cotton Seed Oil vs. Lard;
Intensive Corn Culture.
FouHr PAGE (Editorial)-The Golden, Argosy:
Our Journalistic Mission; The Worst of Rob-
bers; The Experiment Station Fund; Agri-
tultural Convention; Inspection of Fertilizers;
The Georgia Law m Operation.
FIFr PAGE-(Edited by Helen Harcourt); Our
Home Circle; Cosy Corner; The Family Friend;
Our Young Folks' Corner.
SIXTH PAGE-A Cure for Sweeny; Common
rSense in Feeding Horses; Diseases of Sheep;
Pasturing Sheep; Management of Cows with
Calves; Butter from Ensilage; Diseases of
Poultry; Points about Poultry; Effects of In-
breeding; Mammoth Bronze Turkey; Hand-
ling Bees; How to Make Mead.
SvEmNra PAGE-Farm Miscellainy illustratedd);
Serial Story, "For Honor's Sake," by Far-
EIea~Tn PAGE-State News in Brief; The Experi-
ment Station; Cuban Industries; How to
Judge Canned Goods; May Weather Report;
New York and Jacksonville Markets.
THE GOLDEN ARGOSY.
We hear it often said that Florida is
not advertised enough, and yet there is
no State which has been advertised
*more. In point of fact, Florida has not
had enough of the right sort of advertis-
ing, and has had too much of the wrong
sort. Of the latter we have before us
one which must add considerably to the
revenue of many Northern papers. Al
though it appears to be of a purely phil-
anthropic nature, it is not probable that
insertions are obtained at rates mate-
rially less than would be given to the
most unscrupulous land shark.
The pictorial portion of this remarkable
advertisement, whichis of three-column
,width, represents a square-rigged ship,
Named the Golden Argosy, sailing under
full canvass directly toward a wharf
upon which stand men, women aud
children in attitudes expressive of joy.
As an awful crash must inevitably occur
under such circumstances, involving im-
mediate destruction of ship and specta-
tors, it is not at first apparent why the
artist chose to represent these people as
being so utterly oblivious of the impend-
ing danger.A casual reading of the adver-
tisement, however, is enough to convince
any person of common sense that the
picture, in an emblematic way, is a
pretty good thing. The Golden Argosy
is the bait (expenses of advertising)
which' conceals the hook (deceptive
promises) which is to take the dollars of
the credulous. We think the artist
"builded better than he knew," and ex-
posed the truth unwittingly.
Standing.at the prow of the Golden
Argosy we see the form of a beautiful
lady, bearing in one hand a basket of
fruit and in the other a placard bearing
the inscription, "Free Homes for All."
When the ship strikes, as it appears she
must in less than a second of time, this
beautiful figure-head with the'fruits and
placard will be precipitated among the
crowd, much to their damage. The
fore-sail of the ship bears the following
inscription: "Let this advertisement be
your golden Argosy! Sailing from the
fragrant flower land of balmy Florida,
freighted with comfort, health and pros-
perity; 20,000 acres free. The poor
man's chance, the rich man's opportu-
At one corner of the picture appears
the following: "Florida homes and or-
ange groves free, without money and
wi hout price; 100 orange grove tracts of
40 acres each, 200 of 20 acres, 400 of ten
acres, 800 of 5 acres, 1,600 of 2s acres,
500 city building lots, all free. Every
word of this advertisement is important.
Don't miss it. Profit by it. It is for
Behind the Golden Argosy is a repre-
sentation of the land from which the
good ship sailed, a beautifully undulat-
ing region partly covered with luxuriant
orange groves, which slope inland from
tihe margin of the sea to the sinuous
shores of a beautiful bay, which is la-
belled, "Lovely St. Andrews-by-the-sea."
sea! we have heard of you before. We
smelt a rat in this meal tub, and it proves
to be that foul-scented old St. Andrews
Bay rat. We thought its bad odor had
penetrated to all parts of the land, but this
we know, the Golden Argosy is not going
to be found cruising about unless she
more than pays expenses, and as long as
she is kept afloaC we may be sure that
gullable people are still numerous.
Perhaps the St. Andrews Bay men are
doing some litt'e good by teaching cer-
tain truths which all should know, even
if they have to pay pretty dearly for the
lesson. These truths are that a bird
should never be bought in the bush, nor
a "pig in a poke," and that men should
never be trusted who pay the printer to
offer something for nothing. Thousands
have been victimized by this vile swin-
dle and tens of thousands have been
prejudiced thereby against the whole
State of Florida, and we think that meas-
ures ought to be taken, either to punish
such rascals or to counteract their per-
A correspondent of the New York
World inquires relative to some adver-
tisement of Florida lands, probably the
same, and receives the following reply:
"An acre of ground contains twenty
building lots and costs $1.25. The legal
charge for giving a title we will say is
$3. How much money will a man make
who buys 1,000 acres at $1.25 an acre,
divides them into 20,000 building lots
and gives each lot away on condition
that he receives $3 for making out and
recording, the title deeds, the actual cost
of the latter being 80 cents each? Do
you not think that it would be a very
profitable speculation indeed to give
4way lots under such circum-
stances? Those who are publishing the
advertisement you refer to will give
you, without cost, a lot, but they will
notify you at the same time that your
title deed will cost you $3. You can
figure for yourself exactly what such a
gift is worth."
LATER.-From late advices we are
enabled to:announce that the Golden Ar-
gosy has reached Snug Harbor, and that
a large number of newspapers are taking
in sail; also that the captain is being en-
tertained by the United States Govern-
ment in one of those retreats which are
provided for those who use the mails for
swindling purposes. "His arrest and
conviction," says an exchange, "was
made after a long and tedious investiga-
tion by the Government as to the meth-
ods, character and business transacted
by the men, and not until one of the
leading secret service officers came to
Florida and looked the whole matter
over in different lights, was the arrest
made. He found, so he reports, that lots
were sold and resold until as high as ten
owners for one piece of property could
be found, False deeds were made and
numberless letters were found that were
never answered, but pigeon-holed. Over
$50,000 in five months were scooped in
by the company, and the land sold by
them would cover an area fifteen miles
square. It is some satisfaction to know
that justice has overtaken the rascals,
who have, no doubt, perpetrated one of
the most gigantic frauds and swindles
Liver practiced upon an unsuspecting
OUR JOURNALISTIC MISSION.
We are glad to be able to add two new
names to the list of our able contribu-
tors. Mr. J. H. Girardeau, of Monticello,
Jefferson county, and Mr. L. H. Aim-
strong, of St. Nicholas (near Jackson-
ville), contribute valuable articles to the
present number, and we hope to have
frequent communications from them in
the future. Mr. Armstrong was one of
the foremost in advocating the New Ag-
riculture, to which the FARMER AND
FRUIT-GROWER is especially devoted. In
a letter accompanying his article on
Kainit-which will be found on another
"I am glad you are giving so much
space to forage and live stock. I am
satisfied that abundance of good forage
and grass can be raised. With' forage,
cattle will produce the best of food and
the best and cheapest fertilizer. The
fertilizer insures good crops; good crops
are the foundation of prosperity, com-
fort and happiness. The climate is pro-
I pitious for each, and this chain is solid
f in every link."
When there occurs a radical change
in public sentiment, new journals may
* be expected to spring into existence as
popular mediums for the expounding
* and diffusion of the new ideas. Such cir-
cumstances gave birth to the FARMER
AND FRUIT-GROWER. Men of broad, lib-
eral ideas, and of extensive information,
like Mr. Armstrong, saw there must be a
new departure in the industrial develop-
ment of Florida, and when a journal
advocating such departure made its
appearance they gladly gave their sup-
port to it, and by their co-operative
assistance they have built up that jour-
nal with a rapidity most surprising to
those who do not appreciate the circum-
stances of the case.
It is a significant fact that the old stock
of writers on Florida, the men of one
idea, are not represented in our columns.
Our platform is too broad for them; there
are too many planks in it. Their one
idea was "the orange, and nothing but
the orange." They held that over-pro-
duction was impossible, that the crop,
whether numbering a million or a hun-
dred million boxes, could always be sold
at fancy prices.
To cure old-timers of such fallacies,
the best remedial course we can prescribe
is a thorough course of reading of theft
FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER. This jour-
nal is working for their conversion, and
we hope their hearts may be soflened
and their understandings opened to the
reception of the truth, whereby they
may be converted to the true faith and
be made workers for the true cause-of
home production of all necessities, and
enough besides to exchaLge for all other
needed commodities.. -
THE WORST OF ROBBERS.
A party at Callahan requests us to
recommend some brand of guano for a
certain crop. We decline to recommend
any of the patent combinations sold
under the name of fertilizers in this
State. While the law interposes no act-
ual restraint on the manufacture of
these compounds, and-while they can be
made to pay 800 per cent. profit ias well
as 10 per cent., the temptation ho com-
mit fraud is so great that swindlers are
more apt to be drawn into the business
than honest men. Hard working gar-
deners have bought swamp myck, :
scented with ga3 house refuse,. theelby
losing, beside the cost of the stuff, the
expected fruits of their labor, andb
grove owners have seen their trees lan- -
guish after spreading tons of high priced
dirt on the land, which was really of no
more value than the scrapings of a
We hold that swindlers of this class
ought, on conviction, to be put in the
penitentiary for ten years, and when the
Florida Legislature enacts a law on this
subject, we hope it will impose very
heavy penalties. This class of crimes is
as detestable as grave-robbing. We look
with confidence to the present Legisla
ture to lift this incubus from the State,
and to place Florida, in this respect,,. on
a footing with the other Southern States. u
In another column we quote a statement
in regard to the inspection of fertilizers
in Georgia. Other States are similarly
protected.' In a recent report we find P
the following statement in regard to i
the work of the North Carolina experi.
ment station: t
"It has been almost exclusively chem-
ical, and mainly in the. analysis of fer-
tilizers, soils, minerals and ores. By the
information it has given, inferior brands
of fertilizers have been driven from the
market; the quality of those remaining
has been improved and the price re- t
duced. This has resulted in an intelli-
gent demand for fertilizers, which has
greatly increased the annual products of,
the soil. The station has done much to
bring into prominent notice the value of
the immense deposits of mineral phos-
phates found in the State, which may
now be classed with its most important i
THE EXPERIMENT STATION FUND.
.On another page we publish, by re-
quest, a letter from Prof. Pickel, of the
Florida Agricultural College, relative to
the use of the expected appropriation
under a recent act of Congress for the
establishment of agricultural experiment
stations in the several States and Terri-
tories. The gist of Prof. Pickel's argu-
ment is that Florida's portion of the fund
should be turned over entire to her Ag-
As it, is expressly stated in the Hatch
Bill that an "agricultural experiment
station" shall be established "under di- I
reaction of the college or colleges, or ag-
ricultural department of colleges" es-
tablished under the law of 1862, and
see that the Lfgislature of Florida has
anything to do with the matter except
to give its "legislative assent to the pur-
poses of said grant." There is but one
institution in this State established under
the law of 1862, and there is no experi-
ment station established and maintained
by the State; therefore we do not see
11ow the fund can be divided unless the
Legislature provides for the establish-
ment of a second agricultural college,
which it is not very likely to do.
Considering it as a foregone conclusion
that fhe fund will be used in connection
with the Agricultural College, it is mani-
fest that the importance and field of use-
fulness of that institution will be greatly
enlarged. The college is to be congrat-
ulated. Are the agriculturists of the
State to be congratulated? Is it best that
such a work should be entrusted to a
purely literary institution like that at
Lake.City? That institution has proved
to. be nothing like what was contem-
plated by the law of 1862, which pro-
vided for "colleges for the benefit of ag-
riculture and the mechanic arts." In
theory the Agricultural College of Flor-
ida is specially devoted to instruction in
"agriculture and the mechanic arts;" in
practice it is merely a high school for
Lake City. It is doing the agriculturists
of Florida no more service than the
abandoned college building atEau Gallie
We do not mean to censure especially
the Agricultural College of Florida, for
nearly all the colleges established under
the same law have drifted into the same
channel and become merely literary in-
stitutions. This is a notorious fact, and
a great evil. It is a gross perversion of
a good law. It is one of the numerous
ways in which farmers are defrauded
and made to support non-producers.
This is largely the fault of the farmers
themselves. They are too pliant and
yielding, too much influenced by prom-
ises without security for fulfillment.
We do not censure from mere cap-
tiousness, nor dwell on evils which can-
not bejremedied. The misapplication of
the funds appropriated ender the law of
1862 for the promotion of agriculture, is
an evil which can be remedied. In sev-
eral of the States movements are on foot
for this object and they will derive sup-
port from the popular interest awakened'
by the passage of the Hatch Bill. There
is danger that the new fund may be
swallowed up and misapplied by the
agricultural colleges, and that thus it will
be of no real use to the cause of agricul-
We had much rather see the experi-
ment station swallow up the college than
the reverse. In the case of a weak in-
stitution like the Florida College, we
think it should become merely an aux-
illiary of the experiment station. That
institution ought now to be placed on a
radically different basis. It should be
decreed that no instruction shall be given
except such as bears directly on farm
interests. If farmers do not care to send
their sons to such an institution, then
the college funds may be used in other
ways for the same end, namely, for pop-
ular education in farming, ,I
If the Legislature can assume any
control of this matter, it ought to place
some restrictions on the use of the ex-
pected fund of $15,000' a year. Nothing
is easier than to squander or misapply
money, and nothing more difficuLUthan
to use it judiciously in original work.
The phrase "agricultural experiment"
covers a vast amount of wasted money,
;ime and energy. Such work requires
talent and enthusiasm-the latter bal-
anced by good judgment. There are a
few men in Florida who might be en-
trusted with such a work, but they are
not of the professional or commercial
Tlo conduct this work we would select
sons of the soil, who are possessed of
vigorous intellect and quick perception,
and who have acquired an extensive
fund of knowledge both from observa-
;ion and reading. Without the right
sort of supervision we predict that this
contemplated work of experimentation
will do the State as much harm as
that the States named be invite
ticipate in said convention by
to be appointed by the Govei
Commissioners of Agriculture
State, one delegate from eac
counties in said-States.
Resolved, That a commit
member from each of the Stab
in the call adopted be appoint
president of this conference, W
sultation with the Governors
States, whoe duty it shall be b
thorough and well consider
upon the condition of agricult
cotton States, the causes of th
depression and the remedies
proper programme, as a guic
more satisfactory deliberatioI
said Inter-State Convention.
INSPECTION OF FERTI
The Law Which Prote
Farmers of Georg'i
SECTION 1. The Commissior
riculture shall have special cha
Inspection and Analysis of F
A fair sample of all fertilizers s
State shall be first submitted to
thorough test, and if any brand
shall be pronounced by him o
tical value, the sale of the sam
prohibited in this State; and an
selling any fertilizer in this St
out first submitting a fair samp
commissioner, under rules to
cribed by him, shall be guilty
demeanor, and is liable to be
as prescribed in section 431
Revised Code of Georgia; on
the fine to be paid to the info
the other half to the public scd
of the State. It is the duty of
spector to prosecute all violatic
Act, and on failure to do so
inspector is liable to the same p
penalties; and the fine impoi
paid to the same uses as presc
cases of selling fertilizers con
law.-Act of February 28,1874.
2. Any person who shall
fertilizer within the State wi
having been inspected, stam
certified (tagged), or shall use
spector's certificate (tag) to in
sale of any other fertilizer than
which it was applicable when
the inspector, or any inspector
procure, or aid in procuring,
knowingly use any false inspect
tificate (tag), shall be guilty of
meanor, and shall be punish
other cases of misdemeanor.-
1868, p. 6.
(The following sections, from
inclusive, comprise the Fertiliz
1877, as amended by the Act of
ber 6, 1880:) *
8. All fertilizers or chem
manufacturing or composting t
offered for sale or distribution:
State, shall have branded
attached to each package, as req
the Commissioner of Agricult
manufacturer's guaranteed .
showing the percentage of
elements or ingredients they
1. Moisture at 212 degrees
2. Avai'able phosphoric acid
3. Insoluble phosphoric acid
4. Ammonia, actual and poti
5. Potash (KO).
And any manufacturer, dealer
person offering any fertilizer o
cal lor manufacturing the same
or distribution in this State,
having a brand, tag, or such oth
as the Commissioner of Ag
may require, showing the
thereof, shall be guilty of a misd
and, on conviction of the same,
punished as prescribed in section
the Revised Code of 1873.
4. The analysis so placed
attached to any fertilizer or c
shall be a guarantee by the m
turer, agent or person offering t
that it contains substantially th
dients indicated thereby in the
age named therein, and said j
shall be binding on said manuf
agent or dealer, and may be pl
any action or suit at law to sh
or.partial failure of consideration
contract for the sale of said f.
It shall be the duty of the Comm
of Agriculture to forbid the sal
acid phosphate or dissolved bon
is shown b official analysis to
less than ten per centum of a
phosphoric acid; and also to fo
sale of any ammoniated super-pl
which is shown by official an
contain less than eight per ce
available phosphoric acid and
centum of ammonia. A copy
official analysis of any fertilizer
ical, under seal of the Depart
Agriculture, shall be admissible
diece in any of the courts of the
the trial of any issue involving
its of said fertilizer.
5. It shall be the duty of the (
sioner of Agriculture to appoint
perienced and competent chei
analyze all fertilizers or chemi
manufacturing the same, offer
sale or distribution in this St
make such other analyses as
required by the Commissioner o
culture. The said chemist sh
and subscribe, before some off
authorized to administer the
oath faithfully and impartial
form all the duties which may
quired of him under the prov
this Act, which oath shall be file
office of the Commissioner of
ture. His salary shall not ez
sum of three thousand dollar
num, which shall be full comp
for all duties which are 6r m:
quired of him under this Act, ii
the rent of laboratory and appar
cost of chemicals.
6. The Commissioner of Agi
shall appoint inspectors of fert:
such places as he may deem nec
3arry out the provisions of tt
provided, that he shall not apl
seeding six Inspectors. The in
so appointed shall receive sala
portioned to the services rends
highest not to exceed the sum o:
ted to par- hundred dollars per annum; provided,
delegates, the salary of no inspector shall exceed
rnors and one-half of the fees received by said
of each inspector, and by him paid into the State
ch of the Treasury. They shall take and subscribep,
before some competent officer, an oath
ee of one faithfully to discharge all the duties
tes named which may be required of them in pur-
ted by the suance of this Act, and shall give bond
ifter con- each in the sum of five thousand dollars,
s of said payable to the Governor of the State ana
to prepare his successors in office, and approved by
ad reports the Commissionei of Agriculture and
;ure in the the State Treasurer, for the faithful per-
he present formance of said duties, said oath and
as, with a bond shall be filed in the office of the
de to the Commissioner of Agriculture. It shall
ns of the be the duty of the inspectors to take
samples, in person, of all fertilizers, or
chemi als for the manufacturing of the
LIZERS. same, intended for sale or distribution
in this State, furnish inspectors' tags or
cts the other devices prescribed for each and
la. may be required by the Commissioner of
Agriculture; to collect and pay over to
ner of Atheg- the Comptroller General, on the first
e oftilizhe day of each month, all sums collected
old in the during the month preceding, and to
old in the perform such other seri ices- incident to
o him for their offices as may be required by the
I so tested Commissioner of. Agriculture. They
f no prac- shall in no case inspect fertilizers or
e shall be chemicals until the fees for each inspe.c-
ny person tion shall have been first paid.
ate with- 7. The fees for inspecting fertilizers
pe o said and chemicals shall be uniformly fifty
of amis- cents per ton, which fees shall be paid
munais-d bby the manufacturer, agent or dealer
Spunis hed procuring the inspection.
h o f he 8. The salaries of the chemist and
rimer and inspectors shall be paid out of the Treas-
hool fundury upon executive warrants, which
School fun shall be issued on the certificate of the
f the in- Commissioner of Agriculture, that the
n oef thid services required have been performed,
ain and and that the amount claimed is due. -
sed toan 9. The chemist and inspectors pro-
cribed in vided for in this Act shall hold their ap-
ntrare tn pointments at the pleasure of the Com-
ntrary to missioner of Agriculture during his term
of office, unless otherwise removed ac-
sell any cording to -law.
thout its 10 Any person refusing a full oppor-
ped an tunity to inspect and sample fertilizers
e thean in- or chemicals, as required by this Act,
Sauce the shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor,
in that to and, on conviction, shall be punished as
given by prescribed in 4310 of the the Code' of
who shall 1873.
or shall 11. The Commissioner of Agriculture
tors car- is hereby authorized and required to
a misd ae- prescribe and enforce such rules and
ed Acs in regulations as he may deem necessary to
-Acts of carry fully into effect the true intent
8 to 12 and meaning of this Act.
Sto 12, This Act shall take effect and be in
er Act of force from and after the first day of
Suecem- September, 1877, and all laws and parts
icals for of laws conflicting with its provisions be
the same, and the same.are hereby repealed.
n in this
upon or The Georgia Law in Operation.
quired by In .the Southern Cultivator's abstract
ture, the of the work.of the Georgia State Agricul-_
analysis, tural Department for the month ending
valuable April 15, we find the following relative
contain, to the inspection of fertilizers:
1 The work of inspecting and analyzing
.'Fabren- fertilizers is rapidly drawing to a close
for the season. The number of tags is-
sued by the Department and the records
of inspection indicate that the number
ential. of tons inspected during the season of
1886-87 is somewhat greater than that
r or other of last season The laboratory tests sus-
r chemi- tain the usual quality of the different
, for sale brands, and the prices have been lower
without than ever; '
er device The business of manufacturing and
riculture selling fertilizers has, for several years
analysis past, been gradually settling down into
demeanor regular methods, and has lost.nearly all
, shall be the speculative features that formerly
n 4310 of attended the business. For several years
it was the custom to pay. to agents who
upon or sold to farmers, a commission on sales
chemical, that practically amounted to a good in-
nanufac- lerest on all the capital invested in the
he same, business. Prices are now not more than
ie ingre- half what they were ten years- ago for
percent the very.same quantity of goods.
guaranty If farmers would only resolve to pay
facturer, cash for fertilizers-buying only from
eaded in well-established and reputable dealers-
,ow total they would still save a very considerable
on in the percentage now added to the cash price
ertilizer. to cover risks on credit sales. At this
missioner date (April 15) the Commissioner has
le of any four "special importers" going over the
ae which State, taking samples of fertilizers in
contain the hands of retail dealers, and even
available farmers, whether before inspected or
orbid the not, in order to give consumers the
phosphate maximum protection against fraud that
ialysis to can be attained.
of the -4 t-,
ment of 1 g" W
e as evi- > > ;
a State in "
the mer- Z 4-k-.
0 0 0 1
Commit 2 s .
mist to U
cals for tjl S?
tate, and N P
may be 0 7 a r
f Agri 5 ) 0
iall take .
same, an H
ed in the "
ayber- re- -
ncluding M 28
atus and 1
ilizers at 0 ( l
essaryto 0 SS a 0
his Act; ^ 1 "
pointex- 2 | 5
ries pro- -
red, the I ait o
f fifteen Z Z S I --
uhat thLere shall be no division or the -'
fund unless there exists an experiment '
station established by law and distinct i
from said college or colleges, we do not
In response to invitations issued by
the Commissioner of Agriculture of
Georgia, a large number of the leading
agriculturists of Georgia assembled at
the State Capitol on the 15th of April to
consider the expediency of holding, an
Inter-State Convention at Atlanta next
summer. The result of the conference
was the appointment of an executive
committee and the adoption of the fol-
Resolved, That a convention of the
agriculturists of the "States of North
Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Flor-
ida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi,
Louisiana, Arkansas and Texas be called
;o meet in the city of Atlanta, Ga., on
the 16th day of August next, to consider
natters affecting their interests; and
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MAY 11, 1887.
(ur Jfomtn^ Hiie.
HELEN HARCOURT. Editor.
With a helping hand and a Welcome for all
Who wish to be friendly and make us a call;
With words of good counsel for old friends and
Who come to us seeking the best way to do.
All questions of general Interest will be
answered through these columns.
Personal inquiries will be answered by mail
when accompanied by stamp for reply.
Subscribers are cordially invited to take a
seat in our Cosy Corner, and exchange views,
experiences and recipes of mutual benefit.
"Help ye one another."
Communications intended for publication
must be brief, clearly written, and only on
-one side of the paper.
All matter relating to this department
should be addressed to
EDITOR OUR HOME-CIRCLE,
Fla. Farmer and Fruit-Grower,
Our Cosy Corner.
SUMMER IN FLORIDA.
[From advance sheets Home Life in Florida,
by Helen Harcourt ]
We have never once seen the ther-
mometer in Florida rise higher than 99
-degs. and that only two or three times in
the hottest part of the day, and even on
these rare occasions the gentle breeze
that never fails cools the heated air, like
-an immense, invisible fan, so that it is
not oppressive or a Source of discomfort;
unlike the North, you can find 'cool
places in plenty, so long as you keep in
the shade and at rest.
Of course it is hot in the sun-was
there ever a summer anywhere where it
If there is such a place, woe unto its
,grains, its grasses, its fruits.
Yes, the Florida sun is hot during the
hot season, but not one whit more so
And men, white men, unaccustomed
to such work, are often seen toiling in
the full glare of the sun, and declaring
-that they feel the heat less than if they
had been quietly rambling along the
road at their old homes, with the ther-
mometer at the same height.
It is an undoubted fact that men, are
better able to work out doors in the
Florida summer, in a higher tempera
ture, than they could possibly endure
Of course, there is a reason for this-
nay, two of them.
In the first place, the bountiful breeze,
one of fair Florida's coolest, yet best
friends, is a very important factor in
fanning the worker, and preventing
over-heating; in the second place, the
dryness of the atmosphere promotes
profuse perspiration, which, of itself, is
one of nature's cooling processes.
Sunstroke is utterly unknown in Flor-
ida. The reason of this unwonted ex-
emption from one of the most common
casualties of the Northern summer being
this very.fact of so. profuse a- perspira-
tion. -The latter is a safety valve, as
everyone knows, or should know, and
its sudden stoppage or absence is the di-
rect cause of sunstroke and other seri-
Now and then (but very seldom) a man
may attempt too much, and over-
tax hiss strength, and consequently is
overcome, not so' much by heat as by
exhaustion: but these attacks are very
different from sunstroke, and are rarely
One reason why the Florida summer
is so pleasant and comparatively cool,.is
that rains fall nearly every day, not all
day, but in showers, usually in the after-
noon or morning, and often, when it is
not actually raining, the sun is veiled by
clouds; so here are still other factors at
work, you se, you see, to cool the atmosphere.
June, July and August are the "rainy
months," but of course it does rain at
other times, also.
The only objectionable feature of the
Florida summer that we have ever heard
quoted, is its length. It is true that it-
begins sooner and ends later than the
Northern summer, but even so it is not
very much longer, and it is cooler and
more uniform in temperature, and
hence, more healthful.
The warm season usually sets in about
the middle of May and continues until
the middle of September, when a sensi-
ble difference will be noticed.
And now, as to the nights during the
Florida summer, they are invariably
cool and refreshing. Here, no one ever
rises in the morning worn out with a
night of restless tossing and inability
to sleep because of heat and sultriness.
There is always the breeze ready to
dance through your rooms, if allowed,
and fan you to sleep-a good, sound, re-
freshing sleep, and no one who knows
Florida will retire without having some
extra covering lying convenient at the
foot of the bed, for it is almost certain
to be needed before morning.
Now, how does this record compete
with the summer nights elsewhere? -
Florida is in the far Solith. it is. true,
but she neither roasts nor boils her hon-
est citizens who stand by her not only-iin'
winter, but in summer. "Let the doubters
come and see and feel for themselvesd*let
them come from the land of 'snow and
ice, and hot, sultry days and"- stifling
nights; from the 'land of storms 'and
clouds and tornadoes, and. compare with
these things-Florida's mild winter and
cool summer, her refreshing nights, her'
average of three hundredolqear days out
of the three hundred and'sixty-five, and
her gentle, invigorating ieezes.
Drink Hfot Milk.
Did you ever try it? If not, begin now,
and prove what a 'writer in the Medical
Times and Journal says about it-an em-
inent physician, so he ought to know,
and he talks very positively about it.
Milk, when heated above 100 degrees
S Fahrenheit, loses its sweetness and den-
sity, but in exchange for this loss ac-
quires a most beneficial influence over
mind and body, when exhausted by labor
or mental strain.
S:. Its effects are 'more invigorating and
conducing than those of alcoholic stim-
: plants and besides being nutritious and
wholesome, can do no possible harm, no
matter how freely used.
We hope that all our readers who have
the means at hand, will try hot milk, as
The Davis Fund.
We thankfully welcome one more con-
tribution to this charitable object from
S. W., of Plant City. Fla., $1. Pre-
viously acknowledged, $10; total to date,
The Family Friend.
"MITES" AND THE "RED B'G."
"Nasty, mean, pesky, miserable little
wretches!" That was what we heard
the other day-the verdict af a sorely
tried individual, upon the pest now
And we must acknowledge that they
deserve it, for few creatures of their siza
are capable of making such stinging re-
marks to the human family, or of "tick-
ling its sense of (ill)humor" to the same
We refer now more especially to the
mites, who descend upon us with the
beautiful spring and torment our poultry
as well as ourselves.
Happily, however, the plague is of
short duration, but it is hard enough to
bear while it lasts.
We have never seen it so stated, but
from careful observation, have arrived
at the conclusion that these mites are
identical with the ticks that grow so
"large and cluster so thickly upon our
cattle, and we think that anyone who
examines the young of the ticks will
agree with us in also pronouncing them
Hatching in the piney woods and
hammocks in the spring, the high March
and April winds catch them up and bear
them far and wide, to the extreme dis-
comfort of man and bird and beast, and,
we must in justice conclude, to that of
the m3ites themselves, for no one, not
even they, can enjoy being "sat. upon"
to the extent of being crushed out of ex-
The only exception-the only thing
This is another little-known dish, nice
for supper or breakfast, and a good way
to use up remnants. If you have any
mashed turnips left over from dinner,
see that they are well seasoned, then
melt a little butter and stir it in, sift in
flour enough to make it hold together
(not too much,.or the cakes will be dry
and tough), then fry. Fried oysters and
oyster plant will be the taste suggested.
DISH OF TOMATOES AND MEAT.
Take any cold meat you may have
and mince it with an onion, some finely
chopped herbs and bread crumbs, a little
lemon peel and nutmeg; mix with two
well beaten eggs, form into egg shaped
balls. Butter a pie dish, sprinkle in
some bread crumbs thickly, lay on the
crumbs half a tomato (skinned) and one
of the meat balls alternately, then a
layer of bread crumbs and some pieces
of butter, another layer of meat and to-
matoes, then on. top more bread crumbs
and pieces of butter. Season the to-
matoes, bake half an hour .in the oven,
let the top get brown, but not hard.
CHOICE FIG CAKE.
A large cup of butter, two and a half
cups of sugar, one of sweet milk, three
pints of flour with three teaspoonfuls of
baking powder, the whites of sixteen
eggs, a pound and a quarter of figs (the
choicest) well floured and cut in strips
like citron; no flavoring.
Our Young Folks' Corner.
ITS STANDING OFFER.
A nice picture, book each month to the boy
or girl who sends us the largestlistof subscrib-
ers for "THE FLORtDA FARMER AND FRUIT-
GROWER" during that month.
A beautifully bound copy of- the famous
children's magazine, St. Nicholas, to the boy
or girl whe sends us the largest number of
subscribers during six months.
Write us letters descriptive of places, things
or doings; write us on one side the page; give
The best letter received will be published
Now go to work and see who wins.
that does enjoy being sat upon, to our It has been several weeks since we left
knowledge, is a sand-spur. the subject of my pets, but "it is better
Those who go down to the hammocks late than never," the old proverb says,
or moist places do not need any infor- and I am inclined to think there is a good
nation about the red bugs-another deal of truth in it.
branch of the same family-except, in- So now I am ready to pick up the
deed, how to repress their stinging, ting- thread of the story of my pets just where
ling remarks, and this'is just the infor- we dropped it-and Picaro. By the way,
nation we now propose to furnish our that impudent little rascal and his new
readers, giving grateful credit for the wife are doing their best just now to cre-
same to Dr. Keith, in the Health and ate a famine in our larder, in the effort
Home Monthly Journal, to fill the four big mouths of the four
First, get a good caibolic soap, then little babies.
apply-what is called Well, let us pass on to the next pet,
CARBOLIC ACID LOTION. and that is Jack-Jack for short, for be
it known that'Jack is no gentleman, but
Boiled water, 6 ounces; pure glycerine, a very beautiful and a very dainty lady
6 ounces; carbolic acid, 1f ounces.
Put. this in a pint bottle and shake p I suppose you will think Jack rather a
well together. After washing the parts funny name to give "feminine critter"
thoroughly with soap Suds and drying, and so it is, and she came by it in rather
apply this lotion to the parts that are a funny way, too; her full name is
itching. If there 'are scales, and the lo- Jacqueline.
tion appears to burn, the strength of the Once upon a time-several years ago
lotion may be reduced by adding a little now-we woke p one morning and
water. Or if not strong enough to allay found that a cat and five little kittens
the itching add a little more carbolic had invaded our premises during the
acid. Apply it to a young child with night, and while we were wondering
the finger. If it is very bad, wash it about it, the cat trotted away, and be-
twice a day and keep the child indoors, fore long we saw her coming across the
Never allow a child out of doors or in a grove with still another kitten dangling
draught of air after washing with soap from her mouth, it did not look very
suds.the child is delicate, or if the c happy over thde its mother was giv-
If the child is delicate, or if the car- ing it, its legs and tail were drawn up as
bolic acid appears too strong, or if a close together as possible, and its head
young mother is sucklinug an infant and hung downas though it were dead; but
has an eruption or burning in the skin, it was lively enough to enjoy a nice
the following is an excellent wash-in breakfast as soon as its mother laid it
short, the most excellent of all non- and herself down beside the other chil-
poisonous articles: dren.
THE MESSENGER LINIMENT. Don't you think that was pretty cool
Take of pure camphor gum, 8 ounces; of the old cat, and showed a great deal
pure oil of origanum, 8 ounces. of confidence in our humanity?
Pulverize the gum and mix with the We knew very well who she was, be-
oil of origanum, which will dissolve the cause once before she had done the same
gum wholly in two hours, if the oil of thing, only that time there was some
origanum is pure. Then add pure olive one to come after her.
oil, eight ounces. Mix well together. But now we knew that the neighbor
This can be applied without limit to the to whom she belonged had moved away
most delicate skin. Wash the affected and left her behind, and we had heard
parts first, and apply this lotion freely how cruelly the men who had moved
two or three times a day. into the house in their stead had treated
This Messenger Liniment is also useful the poor old cat-how they had made a
in cases of sprains, bruises and inflamed target of her, shooting blunt arrows and
condition of joints. It will also worry a throwing sticks at her, and not feeding
little animal or insect known as the red her at all.
bug, if applied immediately, and is a No. So the only thing we wondered at was
1 good thing to have about the house, that she had. had sense enough to take
For prickly heat, for hives, for ring- the decided step of abandoning her old
worms, for all irritations of the skin, home and carrying her poor little kittens
this is unexcelled as a remedy and a a quarter of a mile, one after the other,
cure. The physician above quoted de- six trips back and forth, three miles in
cares that it merits the title of the -all; just think of it. No wonder that.
Angelic Relief. she was tired, and slept all day after
When these lotions are not' on hand, such hard work.
kerosene oil will be found to give partial She knew that in our hcme there was
relief in the case of mites and red bugs, no one to make a target of her or kick
while, from our own experience on the her; instead of: that, instead of being
Isthuiius of Panama, we, can vouch for frightened at every sound, she purred
bay rum as being a very effective relief sleepily when we 'approached her, and
for all irritalionsof the skin, particularly did not even seem uneasy when we
prickly heat and hives, handled the kittens.
* Always keep carbolic soap on hand. We felt a great pity for thepoor cat,
"Bucihan's, Wrisley's or Graham's are and the perfect confidence she had shown
said to be the best. in seeking our protection would have
TO TAKE'OUT IRON RUST. touched harder hearts than. those shel-
lay in the tered under our humble roof.
Put o ripe matoes and lay in the S we took care of the mother and her
sun: ifnot out first time, repeat opera children, though we were decidedly
t.I on embarrassed by their presence, for we
RMENTED FRUITS. had one cat of our own and did not want
All small fruit and tomatoes that have anymore. We sent word to the neigh-
fermented or worked in the cans can be bors who had deserted the cat to come
made. into catsup or spiced pickles, and take possession of their property.
and will be as nice as though they were. ROWLEY'S RISING ROOSTER.
made of fresh fruit by cookmg over and
making the same. A remarkable case of intelligence in
making the samefowl was that which was witnessed in
FRIED SQUASHES OR CUCUMBERS. Rowley a few days since. A lady, while
If you have never tried them cooked preparing dinner, left slices of meat on
this way, do so now. They make an a plate on a.table, and a pet rooster in
excellent substitute for egg plant when the yard, who had been watching her
the latter is not "to the fore." Cucum- through the open door, took advantage
bers are fried when too old and yellow of her absence and walked into the room
to be used in any other way. Spying the plate he flew on to the table
If they or the squashes seem tender, and quickly made known his discovery.
leave the skin on; if not, take it off. to about twenty-five admiring hens near
Cut the slices about a quarter of an by, which rushed into the room and
inch thick, sift flour on a plate, season:it gathered around the table. His highness
well with pepper and salt, beat up an then proceeded to peck out the pieces of
egg in a bowl, and dip the'slices in it, meat and drop them among the hens,
then in the flour, then fry brown in but- and when the lady returned he was hard
ter or lard. This is a dish that, will be at work feeding his flock. It required
generally appreciated. more than mere, words to drive him
off. Instead of being In the least humil-
iated by his actions, he gave a loud
crow and ran away.
STAINING AND GILDING A WASTE BASKET.
An ordinary wicker waste basket that
has become yellow and grimy, can easily
be made as good as new.
By using the Diamond Dies you can
stain the lower part any desired color;
cherry is a pretty color.
Then, with the liquid gold paint, gild
the upper rim and handles; if you can-
not get the liquid gold, yellow dye or
oil paint will do, or you can change the
color, if you like.
But the cherry and gold are pretty
contrasts, and the basket will be still
prettier if a light blue ribbon is run
through the cherry colored part of the
TO CRYSTALIZE GRASSES.
For every ounce of alum take one quart
water and one-fourth ounce of salt, dis-
solve alum in cold water; when thor-
oughly dissolved add the salt, let it come
to a boiling point, then dip in grasses
and let dry in dry place.
A home-made feather duster may be
fashioned by anyone with a little inge-
nuity, out of feathers which would
otherwise be useless. If you have an old
duster handle it may be made to do duty
again, or an old parasol handle will do.
Begin at the end, put on a row of feath-
ers and wind tightly with stout twine,
and put on a little glue; then another
row of feathers in the same manner, un-
til the duster is of the required size and
shape, after which the finishing row of
large feathers, selected for the purpose,
is placed around the whole and tightly
bound with twine. Outside of thti last
row of featherssa neat strip of leather
may be glued. It will improve the ap-
pearance of the brush and render it more
You must, in the first place, boll one
pound of granulated sugar with one cup-
ful of water and one spoonful of vine-
gar, until the sugar becomes thick and
glossy and brittle to the touch. Then
pour it upon a stone or pan and add to it
a quarter of an ounce of tartaric acid
and two drops of essence of lemon. Mix
well, then cut into small' pieces, and
round them with the fingers.
How to Judge Canned Goods.
A hint now about tinned goods, meat
especially. Note, when about to. pur-
chase,the condition of the tin; if buldged
outwards don't have it, even as a gift!
We will explain, the process of can-
ning to give weight to our warning.
The meat is lacked in tins while raw, is
then sealed and cooked in an outer ves-
sel of boiling1 water with sometimes the
addition of a chemical to raise the tem-
perature(. 'When cooked the can is
plerced and as soon as the air and steam
have beie expelled it is soldered.
Experts know when it is ready for sol-
dering;.a moment too soon and the mis-
chief is done, because if air is left in, the
tin buldge and the meat will not be good.
On the contrary, if the tin has sunk it is
an infallible sign of goodness; it proves
a vacum, which is natural, as the meat
shrinks when no air is left in the tin.
Some may say, what matter if air be
left in the tin ? Simply this: nitrogen,an
element of air, imparts to bodies with
which it comes in contact a tendency to
change and decay. Often on opening a
tin of preserved goods;, people are heard
to say: "The air is escaping;" instead
of which the slight hissing sound is the
result of the air rushing in, another proof
that there was a vacum.
Well, we go so far as to say that, as-
suming the outward sign of goodness
above referred to, a label bearing the
name of a good exporter or importer,
and also a reliable vender of the article
-whether meat,fish, milk, soup or vege-
table-the chances are a million to one
against any being injured, much less
poisoned by tin goods.
Another caution, though; always look
out for any little globules of solder that
sometimes find their way inside the tin,
and take care especially in the case of
salmon and lobster to empty the con-
tents as soon as opened into an earthen-
ware vessel. This is neccesary for every
thing except milk.-Cassell's Family
A farmer in Greensborough, Md.,
thinking to change his grade of potatoes,
barreled up all that he had, shipped
them to Baltimore, and ordered a few
barrels of extra fine Northern potatoes
for seed. While barreling his own tu-
bers he lost his spectacles. When he
received his Northern, seed potatoes he
found his missing spectacles in one of
the barrels. Such. things destroy confi-
"See here now, I've heard a good deal
about the honest- farmer but what
makes you put all the best apples on the
top of the basket ?" asked a city man
of the fruit seller. He thought a moment
and replied : "I'spect its for the same
reason you have the front of your house
of brown stone."
"Here, waiter, what kind of water is
this ?" said a guest at a hotel down
South. "Dat's spring water sah," re-
plied the waiter politely. "Oh, is it ?
Well, bring me some winter water. This
is warm enough to wash a shirt in."
If the hair is thin, shingle close and
apply strong warm sage tea every morn-
ing, rubbing well, for about three weeks;
the hair will come in thick in its nat-
The president of Harvard College gets
$4,000 per annum. So does the head
cook in the Parker House, Boston.. But
neither one of them can fill the other's
Every beautiful, pure and good
.thought which the heart entertains is an
angel of'mercy, purifying and guarding
"DON'T YOU WORRY."
How Shrewd Business Men Have
Solved a Great Problem.
"Is there a fatality among our prom-
inent men ?" is a question that we often
ask. It is a question that perplexes our
leading medical men, and they are at a
loss to know how to answer it.
We sometimes think that if the physi-
cians would give a part of the energy
to the consideration of this question that
they give to combatting other schools of
practice, it might be satisfactorily an-
* The fights of "isms' reminds us often
of the quarrels of oldI Indian tribes, that
were only happy when they were anni-
hilating each other.
If Allopathy makes a discovery that
promises good to the race, Homoeopathy
derides it and breaks down its influence.
If Homoeopathy makes a discovery that
promises to be a boon to the race, Allo-
pathy attacks it.
It is absurd that these schools should
fancy that all of good is in their meth-
ods and none in any other.
Fortunately for the people, the merit
which these isms" will not recognize,
is recognized by the public, and this pub-
lic recognition, taking the form of a
demand upon the medical profession,
eventually compels it to recognize it.
Is it possible that the question has
been answered by shrewd business men ?
A prominent man once said to an in-
quirer, who asked him how he got rich,
"I got rich because I did things while
other people. were thinking about doing
them." It seems'to us that the public
have recognized what this fatality is,
and how it can be met, 'while the medi-
cal profession have been wrangling about
By a careful examination of insurance
reports we find that there has been a
sharp reform with reference to examina-
tions (and that no man can now get any
amount of insurance who has the least
development of kidney disorder), because
they find that sixty out of every hundred
in this country do, either directly or in-
directly, suffer from kidney disease.
Hence, no reliable company will insure
a man except after a rigid urinary exam-
This reminds us of a little instance
which occurred a short time ago. A fel-
low editor was an applicant for a respect-
able amount of insurance. He was re-
jected on examination, because, un-
known to himself, his kidneys were dis-
eased. The shrewd agent, however, did
not give up the case. He had an eye to
business and to his commission, and said:
" Don't you worry ; you get a half dozen
bottles of Warner's safe cure, take it
according to directions, and in about a
month.come around, and we will have
another examination. I know you will
find yourself all right and will get your
The editor expressed surprise at the
agent'S faith, but the latter replied:
"This point is a valuable one. Very
many insurance agents all over the
country, when they find a customer re-
jected for this cause, give similar ad-
vice, and finally he gets the insurance."
What are we to infer from such cir-
cumstances? Have shrewd insurance
men, as well as other shrewd business
men, found the secret answer to the in-
quiry? Is it possible that our columns
have been proclaiming, in the form of
advertisements, what has proved a bless-
ing in disguise to millions, and yet by
many ignored as an advertisement?
In our files we find thousands of strong
testimonials for Warner's safe cure, no
two alike, which could not exist except
upon a basis of truth; indeed, they are
published under a guarantee of $5,000 to
any one who will disprove their correct-
ness, and this offer has been standing,
we are told, for more than four years.
Undoubtedly this article, which is
simply dealing out justice, will be con-
sidered as an advertisement and be re-
jected by many as such.
We have not space nor time to discuss
the proposition that a poor thing could
not succeed to the extent that this great
remedy has succeeded, could not become
so popular without merit even if pushed
by a Vanderbilt or an Astor.
Hence we take the liberty of telling our
friends that it is a duty that they owe
to themselves to investigate the matter
and reflect carefully, for the statements
published are subject to the refutation
of the entire world. None have refuted
them; on the contrary hundreds of thou-
sands have believed them and proved
them true, and in believing have found
the highest measure of satisfaction, that
which money can not buy, and money
can not take away.
ORMOOD .ON THE HALIFAX,
FOB REST OF HAMMOCK LAND OR BEARING ORANGE GROVES
--CALL ON OR ADDRESS-
Ormond Land Agency,
East Coast of Volusia County,
hlaoe Best X-XeaLttL Resonr
Is on the Line of the Florida Southern.
Unsurpassed by any other section for the production of Fruits and Vegetables. If you are comi-
ng to Florida, whatever may be your means or condition, you will most assuredly be pleased with
this Centre of the Lake Region. For further particulars address, L EED P
S. L..REED, Pittman, Fla.
Hints to Correspondents.
The readers of the FLORIDA FARMER
AND FRUIT-GROWER are respectfully in-
vited to contribute to its columns articles
and notes on all subjects pertaining to
the farm, garden, orchard and house-
hold affairs. The range of topics which
will be discussed in this journal maybe
gathered from the subjoined table, which
may serve to suggest what might other-
wise escape attention:
Clearing land, draining land, crops for
new land, succession of crops, intensive
farming, treatment of different soils,
resting land, soiling vs. pasturing, cow
penning, green manuring.
Horses, mules, cattle, hogs, .sheep,
poultry-Breeds, feed, diseases, treat-
Cotton seed, cotton seed meal, barn-
yard manure, guano, ground bone; su-
per-phosphate; gypsum, lime, kainit,
ashes, marl, muck, leaf mould, com-
Bermuda grass, crab grass, Para grass
Guinea grass, Terrell grass, orchard
grass, red-top grass, Johnson grass, Texas
blue grass, pearl milfet, German millet,
millo maize, kaffir corn, teosinte, sorg-
hum, fodder corn, cow peas, desmodi-
um, Mexican clover, -lespedeza, alfalfa,
Peach, pear, fig, persimmon, Japan
plum, Kelsey plum, 'native plum, mul-
berry, quince, apricot, guava, :banana,
pineapple sapodilla, mango, avocada,
pear, cocoanut, pecan, English walnut,
almond, pomegranate, olive, grape,
strawberry, blackberry, raspberry-Va
rieties,- their characteristics, effects of
soil, weather, etc., best methods of
Corn, oats, rye, wheat-Varieties,
yield per acre, soil and season, difficul-
ties encountered,, general treatment,
Cotton-Long and Short Staple-Plant-
ing and culture, marketing crop, man-
agement of seed, products from the
Sngar Cane and Sorghum---Varieties,
'culture, making syrup and sugar, condi-
tion of market.
Tobacco-Varieties, history in Florida,
recent experiences, seed, culture manu-
Citrus Fruita-Comparison of varie
ties, hardiness and productiveness, meth-
ods of propagation, methods of planting
and culture, comparative effects of fer-
tilizers, marketing of fruit, preservation
of fruit wine and other products.
Plants adapted to' this climate, out-
door culture, management of greeu-
INSECT ENEMIES AND FUNGOID DISEASES.
Nature of damage done and remedies.
We do not desire letters written mere-
ly in praise of special localities unless
claims to favor are based on the products
or productiveness of the soil. Articles
of a animated or vivacious style are de-
sirable by way of variety, but practical
statements and descriptions should be
concise and as much to the point as pos-
Bees and bee plants, silk culture and
the mulberry, hunting and fishing, dogs
and dog laws, fences and roads, egisla-
tion for farmers, homestead laws, trans-
portation, marketing produce, experi-
mental farms, agricultural education,
home manufactures, natural history
of Florida, historic points, sanitary ad-
vice, farm buildings, house furnishing,
farm machinery, farm implements,
water supply, cooling appliances, re-
cipes for cooking, home decorations,
household economy; mineral and earths,
climatology, hints on the care of chil-
dren, on dress, habits, reading, amuse-
NATIVE TREES AND HERBS.
Planting trees for ornament or utility,
the burning over of forest lands, the
lumber and turpentine industries, the
tanning industry, phenomena of plant
life, weeds and noxious plants..
.N. B.-Specimens may be sent to the
editor for identification. Information is
desired respecting popular names and
All communications for the editorial
department should be addressed to
EDITOR FARMER AND FRUIT-GEOWER,
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MAY 11, 1887.
Inquiries concerning diseases of domestic
Inlmals may be addressed to Dr. D. 0. Lyon,
jacksonville, Florida, who will answer them
through this column.
Cure for Sweeney.
Break two eggs and beat the yolks and
whites together thoroughly. Take one
pint of strong apple vinegar and one pint
spirits turpentine, put all together in a
large bottle and shake welr several times
during the day, so as to get it all thor-
oughly mixed. By the following day it
will be ready for use. Rub the horse's
shoulder well with it, morning and night,
for three days, and if it be sweeney that
causes lameness, this liniment will cer-
How to tell whether a horse has swee-
ney or not: If this liniment is rubbed on
well, and the horse does not roll and
wallow after being turned loose, you may
be sure that it is not sweeney that causes
the lameness. I have used this liniment
on horses that I thought had sweeney,
when after rubbing their shoulders hard
and well, they did not seem to mind it;
it invariably turned out that the horse
had no sweeney, but the lameness was
caused by something else.
I have cured horses and mules in five
days that were so sore they could not put
their foot on the ground, and have never
seen this remedy fail to cure. Grease
the shoulder after using the liniment to
prevent the hair from coming off.
G. ,'. P. HORNE.
GLEN ST. MARY, Fla.
The National Live Stock Journal says
that if owners and drivers of horses
were all posted on the subject of foods
and how they should be fed, horses and
other working stock would fare better
than they do. It is not generally known,
although constantly presented through
agricultural papers during the last few
years, that. carbonaceous foods furnish
only heat and motion, while the nitro
genous foods furnish muscle and power.
is not even generally known what car-
bonaceous, arid nitrogenous foods are,
and many do' not know even the defini-
tions of the terms; nor of others that are
used as synonyms. But if these facts were
known, common sense would teach
owners of horses that fast going and
hard work require frequent feeding of
concentrated food-not so concentrated
as to pack in the stoniach, but with just
enough coarse material to keep the food
Loose so that the gastric juice may-pene-
trate and.dissolve it. ,.
Corn is a" concentrated food, but it is
not of the right kind; it is too carbona-
ceous, furnishing heat and motion, but a
small amount of muscle material and
force. Hay and grass are too bulky and
the horse cannot eat enough to get suf-
ficient nourishment when hard worked
or hard driven'. Oati come the nearest
to the filling of all requisites of a com-
plete food, yet, if they are crushed, the
addition of a little pea-meal would be an
improvement in cases where extra exer-
tion is demanded.
But it should be borne in mind that
the more violent the exertion, the
sooner the food is used and the system
exhausted; and as the horse 'has a very
small stomach in proportion to his body,
it will be seen that it must need fre-
quent filling when the horse does extra
duty; indeed, it needs filling oftener
than it generally is filled under ordinary
circumstances. The writer has often
heard it asserted that it does no good to
feed a horse extra when it has done ex-
tra work. As well say the owner doesn't
require food when exhausted from hard
work. Surely a man taking much phys-
ical exercise needs more food than
one taking none. The same is true of
the horse. -
Disease Among Sheep.
Sheep are very liable to be affected by
a form of anthrax fever which seems to
be contagious and runs through the
flock. Anything that tends to run down
the system and weaken it will be apt to
produce the disease. The symptoms are
excessive weakness; staggering and ina-
bility to get up when they fall; lying
down with the head on the flank, or flat
on the side with the head stretched out
as if asleep, and after death bloody
patches on the skin and flesh under the
skin, and looseness of the wool. Chasing
by dogs will induce a weak condition
provocative of this disease. There is no
cure. The writer has experienced the
same trouble in his flock, and finds the
best remedy is to kill and bury the sick
- sheep and fumigate the rest in a stable
by burning sulphur in it until they
sneeze and cough violently. They are
then turned into a new pasture. Medi-
cine is of no avail.-New York Times.
A writer in the Farmer's Budget says:
I have found that putting sheep on pas-
tures has produced a great improvement
in them. There are so many plants
that horses and cattle will not eat that
old pastures are apt to get filled up with
them. To remedy this there is nothing
better than putting sheep on the land,]
one animal to each acre of land. They
will take the refuse left by the horses
and cattle, and live on the same* ground
without decreasing the pasturage for
other animals. I know. of no way so"
good for clearing up pastures, and at th6
same time adding to their productive-
ness, as turning sheep on them. The de-
struction of the weeds and brush, if
therelhappens to be brush on the land,
gives more room for the grass to grow.
A few years of sheep pasturing will
clean off the weeds from almost any
Care of Cows with Calves.
A writer in the Ohio Farmer gives the
following advice based on his own ex-.
In my experience I have found that
cows do rnucn better if they are dried
up at least six weeks before coming in,
and that heavy rich milkers are often
injured by milking too long. I have for
some years kept a record of time of
service, annd that my cows aver-
aged nine months and eight days from
time of service until calf was dropped.
The advantage of keeping record is, you
know the time exactly and how to treat
the cow. Three months before the time
is up I begin to shorten the grain ration,
but milk regularly to within about eight
weeks of calving time, then only once
for a day or two, taking only part of the
milk, then skip more milkings, and so
on, watching that the uader keeps soft
and not sore to the touch. In this way
I have always succeeded in drying up
any cow I undertook inside of two weeks
When the cow is dry I feed two to
three quarts of crushed oats and bran,
in equal parts, per day, with good hay. I
put the cow in a box stall about a week
before the time is up, to get her used to
the change. I have never milked a cow
of mine before the calf was dropped,
after drying her off, but when the calf
comes get it on its feet as soon as possi-
ble and assist it in drawing milk from
all the teats. After the calf is satisfied,
I milk the cow clean, and leave tcow
and calf together for two or three days,
milking her clean each night and morn-
ing. I do not feed to start a flow of
milk at once. Give warm water to
drink. I have always succeeded in bring-
ing m cows through this period safely
except once, and I will try to show in
this article wherein I failed in that
Some years ago I had a valuable cow
out in a cold rain-storm for about
twenty-four hours. I- put her in the
barn in the evening. During the night
she dropped her calf. I found them in
the morning in bad shape. The cow was
chilled and stiff, did not pay any atten-
tion to the calf. It 'was helpless, very
little more than alive. We succeeded in
saving the cow, but after getting the
calf on its feet. and giving it our best
care and attention, after a struggle of
three weeks it' died. There was fifty
dollars gone by not knowing that a cold
rain-storm, even toward the latter part
of May, would hurt a cow that was
about due to calve.
I would say, don't let a cow at that
period out in long, cold rains at any sea-
son of the year, nor in the hot sun. I
,prefer to keep my cows off of grass in
the spring if they are to come in before
June 1st, unless the pasture is short. I
know that many cows that- are light
milkers and not in high condition have
little trouble at this time, but the good
cows, the rich and big milkers, at that
time are in great danger, that good care
and attention is due them, and that if it
is neglected it will often bring loss and
regrets to their owners. .
I-remember years ago., when our cows
pastured in the woods, they would often,
if not watched, steal away and drop
their calves. Sometimeswe did not find
them for a day oi two, and in a number
of cases where the calf had only -drawn
milk from part of the teats, the others,
or those that were undrawn, were lost.
There is where I got the idea of starting
the milk in all the teats as soon as the
calf gets on its feet. I had more or less
trouble with calves that were weaned
from the cow scouring. I have used a
drug that I never heard any other name
for except Keno. It is a purple sub-
stance, grained something like rock salt,
and should be pulverized so it will more
readily dissolve. A'; half teaspoonful
given in a little warm milk will cure.
I don't often have to give the second
dose. I have known it used in very bad
cases of that kind, and so far as I know
it has never failed to bring the calf
around all right.
Butter from Ensilage.
The only true test is that to which all
practical dairymen must yield-the test
of the market. If "the market" rejects
a lot of butter, it is folly to quote the
opinion of some dairy expert that it is a
fine article. If, after all the trials and
tests of "the trade," butter in our great
markets is ranked of' the best, and sells
at the top price, the decision is one use-
less to dispute.
On this basis I hold that the question.
has already been definitely answered.
Butter from cows fed on ensilage stands
in the first class in our most critical
markets arid has done so some years. I
do not mean to refer to extreme cases of
irrational, exclusive feeding of ensi'age
or any approach thereto. On the use of
ensilage lam no enthusiasm or extremist,
but believe it to be a valuable, in most
cases an invaluable, addition to our list
of foods for cattle-for dairy cattle and
butter makers at that I And to my mind
it is well settled that the market (" the
will of the majority" of the best buyers)
approve the use of good ensilage as part
of the ration for butter cows as on a
par with' roots and grain and hay.-
Prof. Henry E. Alvord.
Effects of Inbreeding.
Take a flock of common hens of all
colors, shapes and sizes, so as to conduct
an experiment. Place with them a pure-
bred Plymouth Rock cock, ana the chict s
will become uniform and so near like
Plymouth Rocks that it will be difficult
to distinguish them from pure-bred. To
continue the experiment, the next'season
use a cock of the last season's production,
with pulletsof the same blood. That is,
keep one of the half-breed Plymouth
Rocks and mate him with a few of the
half-breed pullets. The result will be
that chickens hatched from the eggs laid
by the half-breed pullets will revert to
their grandmas, and instead of being
uniform, like the cross from the pure
Plymouth Rock, will come of all colors,
shapes and sizes (when larger). By in-
breeding the uniformity is destroyed,
because the parents are not pure-bred.
Hence, always use a pure-bred mare in
the flock, no matter of what breed it
may be, and your chicks will be not only
uniform, but superior to those of the
previous season. The same rule applies
to the breeding of cattle, sheep, and to
all domestic animals.-American Agri-
DISEASES OF POULTRY.
II.-Treatment of Certain Dis-
eases Common in Florida.
BY E. S. RICHARDSON.
We were once asked by the editor of
one of the leading poultry papers what
the cause of sore head was. We looked
up the subject as far as possible at that
time, and from the experience of our-
selves, others, symptoms, etc., pro-
nounced it lice, We also read up the
subject and found some dozen or twenty
articles in different papers, calling the
disease chicken pox, roup, red mites,:etc.
We concluded that the only way to get
at the thing or cause was to investigate
and find out by our own observation.
A short time after that we took thirty
small chicks from the brooders to col-
onize them in another part of the grove.
When we got them in their new home
we found ourselves literally covered
with minute insects. Had we met them
at the North we should have called them
red mites, but here they are called red
bugs. Not having examined them with
a microscope, I cannot say they are the
same thing, but with the naked eye they
look similar in shape, color and size. We
had taken more than the usual precau-
tions against lice, and were somewhat
surprised, but we immediately dusted
them with our insect exterminator and
very soon got rid of the pest. :On re-
turning to the portion of our yards where
we keep our brooders, we found that we
had left one chicken behind; thought we
would let him alone and see whateffect
the mites would have on his constitution.
He soon had genuine sore head and died.
Since then we have not had any
trouble from soi'e head. Every possible
precaution should be used to keep the
insects down during their season (June,
July and August), for we are satisfied
that sore head is caused by lice and ver-
min. But what is called sorf head here
is nothing but what is called in the North,
by poultrymen, chicken pox. However,
among young chicks there is a separate
and distinct disease, called properly by
the name of sore head, which is caused
by lice and vermin.
One of Florida's most frequent diseases
(especially -in the summer time) is
chicken pox. The disease- throughout
the South is almost invariably called
warts or sore head, a great mistake. The
former name might be somewhat appro-
priate, because the pox mark is some-
thing like a dried-up wart. Chicken pox
is designated or characterized by the ap-
pearance of small ulcers on the head
and face, which become- cq'ered with
scabs. The disease is very. contagious,
but not very dangerous.
TREATMENT.-Keep the parts affected
clean by the use of carbolic soap. and
warm water. Anoint the sores with .a
weak solution of carbolic acid, four drops
of the pure crystals melted and put in one
tablespoonful of water. Keep the fowl
in a dry, cool place. Sulphur may be
This and cholera are the most'to be
feared of any of the chicken diseases.
They should not be confounded. Roup
is a disease of the lining membrane of
the beak, and extends throughout the
whole system unless it is properly treat-
ed.- We have known cases where whole
flocks have been taken away in a veiy
short time. In fatal cases, death ensues
in from four to eight days. After death
the gall bladder is found full of pus and
the whole flesh has a bad odor. The
lungs are very soft and spongy.- The
disease is contagious, and the sick fowls
should be separated immediately from
the balance of the flock.
Symptoms are those of catarrh
or cold in the head, dry cough
or dull wheezing, fever. The fowl
drinks freely. The apparent cold
soon grows worse, there is a yellow-
ish discharge; the face and eyes will
swell up in severe cases.- The best means
of detecting this disease is to lift the
wing of the suspected bird and see if
there is not a smeared spot under the
feathers, where the bird has put its head
at night when at roost.
Treatment is commenced by first sep-
arating the diseased bird or birds from
the rest of the flock. Have warm place
and give good stimulating food. Vari-
ous plans are often followed for internal
treatment, most of which are often suc-
cessful, but we have always used. Rich-
ardson's Poultry Tonic, and have never
had a case to fail us as yet. We do not
claim it will cure all cases, but we have
never had it fail as yet. The genuine
German Roup Pills are also very good.
We always use some cayenne internally
-in the form of pills made with dongh,
and bathe the face and eyes with car-
[In Mr Amsden's article in the num-
ber for April 20th, in his recipe for
chicken feed, the number of spoonfuls of
soda should have been two instead of
ten. We hope that no chickens have
died in consequence of the printer's mis-
take.-A. H. C.]
Points About Poultry.
Never feed your fowls damaged grains
or tainted food. See that the water they
drink is clean and good.
Charcoal and sulphur are both very
excellent ingredients to mix occasionally
with fowl feed, either for young or old
birds, but both should be used with dis-
Setting hens should not be fed while
on the nest. They heed all the exercise
they are likely to get. Too constant set-
ting makes them of bad disposition and
difficult to manage when they come off
with the brood. Eggs will stand a wide
range of temperature without injury.
When soft eggs are laid by fowls they
intimate usually that the egg organs are
inflamed. This state is occasioned by
the fowls being over-fed or too fat.
Spare diet and plenty of green food, es-
pecially lettuce in the summer and cab-
bage in the winter, is the best treatment
for fowls in this condition.
For cholera, dissolve a lump of indigo
about the size of a hickory nut, and mix
it in corn meal or some other soft feed,
and feed them this twice a day. If you
want lots of eggs in the winter, keep a
large box half full of about equal parts
of lime, sand and coal -ashes in your
poultry house. If you wish to keep your
poultry free from lice, whitewash the
interior of your poultry house at least
once a year, and paint the roosts thor-
oughly with carbon oil (coal oil).
Mammoth Bronze Turkeys.
The bronze is the leading variety of
turkey with those who raise for market,
on account of their large size and hardi-
ness. They also challenge the admira-
tion of all by their attractive plumage of
rich and changeable colors. The cock
turkey in full feather is really brilliant
in appearance, and the females are only
a little less beautiful.' All of the experi-
ence of our' best breeders has been
brought to bear upon the bronze turkeys,
which has resulted in their very high
state of perfection ; for this reason any
one purchasing thoroughbred bronze tur-
keys may feel confident that certain
fixed characteristic qualities will be re-
produced in their offspring. Their-
weight is greater than the common stock,
and one season's breeding will more than
pay for the increased cost originally.
Adult turkeys wi'l average from thirty
to forty pounds ; hens from fourteen to
twenty pounds; young gobblers at eight
months, from twenty-three to twenty-
five pounds ; young hens, from thirteen
to fifteen pounds. We give these as fair
average weight, although-they are fre-
quently exceeded, adult pairs from forty
to sixty pounds being not uncommon.
The bronze are good layers and very
hardy; but the hen, if full grown, for
breeding purposes, should not weigh
over thirty-five pounds.--Farmers' Mag-
The following communications -to the
Manatee River Advocate is from the
Roseland Apiary, at Sarasota, Fla.
This term is significant of the differ-
ence between the old time bee keeping
and the new. Formerly there was no
such thing known, as handling bees
while alive, except to set them over a'
brimstone pill, but with the introduction
of the movable frame hive, bees have
been "handled," and often "handled"
I think that I can say that handling is
in itself always a damage, more or less,
and a hive of bees should never be opened,
unless there be a positive necessity,
either to learn their condition or to per-
form some operation which in its effect
will benefit them more than the hand-
ling will do them injury; or to remove
the surplus, for which they are kept.
Moreover, handling bees requires time
and labor, and the bee keeper must econ-
omize these by spending none which
necessity does not demand. While I be-
lieve a bee keeper must look inside to see
how it is with the colony, yet anyone
who is cut out for a bee keeper must be
able to tell by a rapid examination in
the spring the condition of every colony,
and afterward, by means of his record,
he should be able to judge when -and
what kind of attention each colony will
need, and except for that I consider it
necessary for their prosperity that they
be left alone. It is fortunate for the be-
ginner, where he gets so many colonies,
that he is not able to look them over
every few days.
How to Make Mead.
The following process of making mead
is practiced in Poland and Russia : Take
120 pounds of soft water and 20 pounds
of clear extracted honey. Mix them
well in a kettle of suitable size, and boil
down the mixture to 80 pounds, skin-
ming it carefully while boiling. Then
pour it into a wooden vessel and let it
stand to cool. While yet lukewarm, put
in a pint of good stock yeast. Stir
thoroughly and pour the whole into
an oaken barrel (an empty rum or
wine cask is the most suitable), which
should -be sufficiently large to .contain 10
gallons, The liquor remaining over is
to be put in bottibs and used to fill up the
barrel or cask during fermentation.
Now put into a small linen bag +
ounce of cinnamon, J ounce grains of
Paradise, I ounce of cloves, coarsely
pulverized, and a large handful of dried
elder blossoms. Suspend the bag by a
string in the liquor, through the bung-
hole, and place the barrel in a dry, airy
cellar. Let' the fermentation proceed
during six wceks, keeping the barrel con-
stantly full from the contents of the
bottles. Then after gently removing
the bag, rack off the clear liquor into
another cask and close the bunghole
tightly. Fermentation will still proceed
moderately for six or eight weeks before
the liquid becomes clear. It must then
be carefully racked off into bottles and
well corked. The lees remaining in the
cask may be used in the preparation of
an additional supply. Mead thus pre-
pared will keep for years. It is of a
clear amber tinge and has a vinous taste.
-Am. Bee Journal.
A. ,. CUSCADE
SO U L' HI- LOIJDA -
Real Estate -Agency,
TAMPA, FLORIDA. Office: Twiggs St., two blocks east of Passenger depot.
Florida Winter Homes
ORIOLE, HERNANDO COUNTY.
Beautiful location, facing on Lake Oriole and on the South Florida Railroad.
Lands all high and dry. New settlement; between twenty-five and thirty new- house.
A Church, Scho.........-y mails, stores, bakery, saw mill and hotel. Large >irei, ailreadyplanied
in orange groves. Choice building lots for winter homes for sale cheap. Tea, Ltwenry and
[for acre orange grove lots. A healthy settlement in a healthy State.
Call on or Address,
J. W. GROVES,
or CLARKSON & ROBERTSON,
W. N. JUSTICE
Wholesale Commission Merchant,
NO. 313 NORTH WATER STREET, PHILADELPHIA.
Specialties: SOUTHERN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. Consignments Solicited.' Return
made on day of sale.
J. O'O. BLOT JTT, T
EY "MI AT. EVY STAjaES :BF:LC:ES.3E:t
Orange Groves, Town Lote in.Bartow, Winter Haven, Haskell, Punta Gorda and Charlotte
Harbor, Sale. Unimproved Lands, in small and 'arge tracts, at $2.50 per acre, up. Choice ten
and forty acre tracts of good, high. rolling Pine Lands, near S. F. R. R. depot, at $20 to $35 per-
acre. All property guaranteed to be as represented or money refunded.
S I Money Loans, well secured, negotiated at 15 per cent -net, to the lender.' -
^ -- __What Mr.-Beyer says:ao-t
beat thanks for the splendid seeds received from your firm.
SIt would be a rather lengthy list if I should name all, but
01SO r f will saythatamongstSnfirst, and 3 second premiums
Awarded me at our fairs in Northern Indiana and
j E B Southern Michigan, 28 first premiums were for vege.
tables raised from your seeds. What firm can beat
A jthisaP '" AucGuST BEzT So. Bend, Ind.
LO Seed of this quality I am now ready to sell to every on
who tills a farm or plants a garden, sending them FBE my
vegetable and Flower Seed Catalogue, for 1887. Old enstomera
need not write for it. I catalogue this season the native wild
potato. JAS. J. J. GREGORY, SeedGrower, MarbleheadMas.
I ILEY, GROVER & CO.,
STATE AGENTS FOR
RASIN FERTILIZER CO'S
SOLUABLE SEA ISLAND GUANO
DISSOLVED BONE AND ALKALI
AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN
FRUITS AND, PRODUCE.
Get our Prices before buying.
"w'. 8 :PITTLQD'OW,
FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PACKING,
FORWARDING AND COMMISSION HOUSE.
Usually have orders to work our consignments into, enabling us to make PROMPT RETURNS
Extensive Facilities for Repacking
for outside parties, to which prompt attention is given. Packages suitable for
SHIPPING ORANGES, STRAWBERRIES AND VEGETABLES,
both made up and in the flaf, always on hand, and for sale. Also, Hoops, Wrappinig Paper, etc.
Best (d location, viz:
S., F. & W. R. R. WHARF,
Circulars and Stencils on application. JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
L size 40x100 LAo Wi on Lake Kingsley, Clay Co only $10. A
I feet in choice 5-acre tract for an ORANGE
GROVE costs but $100.
I High rolling Pine Lands, Salubrious Climate, a good invest-- A
ment. Send 2-cent stamp for Maps, etc., or remit P. 0. Order or l
Bank Drart to JOHN T. TALBOTT, and get Warranty Deed, Title gL a DAN
perfect, from the
TIOFPICA.L LAT.TD CO OEdE/PAJ-TY,
P. 0. Box 158,Jacksonville, Florida, 39 W. Bay St.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MAY 11, 1887.
PLEASING PLANS FOR SUMMER
HOUSES ON COUNTRY GROUNDS.
A Convenient Bag Holder-The Craze
About Color in Cattle-Shoe the Horses
Lightly-A Land Measuring Device
That Will Be Found Useful.
Numbered with farm conveniences that
can readily be constructed at home is a
land measure. The cut shows one that is
exceedingly simple in construction. The
Indiana Farmer tells how to make and
Take two strips of pine or some other
A light wood about
seven feet -long
by two inches
t h i c k. Fasten
S^ the strips together
.. aat the top, spread
them at the bot-
tom so that the
i points will be ex-
/actly five and a
half feet apart.
Then nail. on a
MEASURING DEVICE. cross piece in such
-manner that the side pieces will be
held firm so they cannot spread.
The strips should be shaved to a
sharp point, or if iron points are fastened
on they would be better, as they slip on
hard ground if you are not careful. When
you want to measure you take the imple-
-.'-jient, set one of its feet on the ground,
then bring it in line with the side of the
field. Then turn it so the other foot will
touch the ground, continue turning it so
as to make it step, as a mechanic does
with a pair of compasses, until you have
measured the side of the field. Then
divide the number of steps you have made
with it by.three and you will have the
number of rods you have passed over, as
three steps makes a rod.
Another convenience for the farm de-
scribed by The Indiana Farmer is a set of
stakes. These are often required to start
'the first row with the corn planter or
-worker and dozens of other places. If
cyou have the socket of an old hoe that is
worn out or an old socket chisel, take it
to the blacksmith and have him straighten
and sharpen it. Then get good straight
grained timber, that will not break if a
horse steps on it, and fit the sockets on to
it. You will have a stake that can be set
in any ground that is not too hard to
plow, and will seldom blow down. A
-convenient length is the width of two
-corn rows, which is from seven to eight
feet. When not in use keep them in the
tool house and you will always have them
convenient for use.
Rustic or summer houses, as the deco-
rative little houses on country grounds
are variously termed, afford an agreeable
place to repose from the fatigue of a walk,
or to read a book, or, in a word, to enjoy
the out door air with protection from the
Ssun and a comfortable= seat on which to
FIG. 1. RUSTIC HOUSE.
One of the cheapest and most simple,
says The Country Gentleman, is made by
setting round and moderately slender
posts into the ground at the points in-
dicated in the cut. Saw the upper ends
-off to a -level, nailing them on narrow
strips of plank for plates, setting rafters
to a converging point, and covering with
boards and shingles, or with lightly bat-
tened boards. The floor may be fine,
-smooth gravel or of boards. The seat is
attached to the inner sides of the posts
and supported by brackets. The whole
-woodwork, and especially the lattice-
work between the posts, should be ren-
-dered durable with a heavy coat of crude
petroleum applied with a coarse brush.
Posts and lattice work thus treated may
then bet ime supports for the light trailing
-and climbing ornamental plants.
FIG.- 2. RUSTIC ,HOUSE.
Fig. 2 represents a summer house
.mostly of rustic work, placed on a rise of
.ground for obtaining an extended view of
Sthe country. The posts may be set in the
-ground, as in the structure shown in Fig.
1 if the soil will admit it; or they may
be secured in position by timber frame-
work. It may be borne in mind that the
posts in such structures need not be set at
-much depth, as they are retained in posi-
tion by the rest of the framework when it
is fished :
The serious mistake is sometimes made
-of placing too many. arbors and covered
:seats'bn limited grounds. These should
never be put where they do not appear to regardless of profitable excellence in re-
be really needed for the purpose intended; aspect to form, etc. A well known short
and care should be taken to adapt the horn breeder in a talk on this subject
peculiar structure to its proper place. says: "Any breeder who will select an
inferior red animal to a superior animal
of any other color libels his own charac-
itoosts for Fowls. ter and disgraces the short horn blood
There is no advantage in placing perches whether he is aware of the fact or not."
one above another, stair fashion, in the _____
hypotenuse of a triangle. If they be
thus arranged the distance of the perches Here and There.
from each other must be measured on the A new tomato, introduced under the
base of the triangle, from the fact that the name of "Italian Wonder," is a distinct
droppings fall perpendicularly. They variety. It is pea shaped; the flesh is thick
should be far enough apart to avoid soil- and nearly wanting in seeds. It is dwarf
ing of plumage. in growth and quite prolific of large, fine
If there is no economy of space in this colored fruit.
arrangement, there is no argument for it. Cows that have no bedding are often in-
Fowls will jump from the lowest perch to jured in the knees by getting up or down,
the next, and so- on to the highest, and especially if the floor be wet or slippery.
then quarrel. They all want the highest It is estimated that in Chicago alone
place. It is preferable to have the perches there is made and sold more adulterated
placed on a level, and the platform to maple sugar every year than the entire
catch the droppings. It may be just high product of the pure article in Vermont.
enough to be handy in cleaning, and the A wise farmer will protect the birds,
perches about one foot above it. All- the insect eaters, robins, cat birds, blue
perches should be movable, so as to facili- birds, black birds, thrushes, orioles, red
tate the application of kerosene, when birds, woodpeckers, and the like. All the
necessary, to every part. birds mentioned have a mission to perform
Perches should be at least two inches in the economy of nature. The martins,
wide and rest firmly in a slot or mortise. destroy weevils, the quails chinch bugs,
Fowls will cling to one edge of a wide the woodpeckers dig worms from the
perch, and the width will give opportunity trees, while others eat worms, caterpillars
to rest the weight on the shanks. A very and bugs.
narrow perch makes it necessary to bear Peter Henderson mentions as the best
the weight on the breast bone, mainly in dozen ever blooming roses, either for bed-
one spot, and thus it becomes bent to one
side. This deformity is caused, in-many ding or winter flowering, the following-
side. This deformity is caused Agrippia, Hermosa, The Bride, Mermet,
instances, by roosting on the chine of a iin, ms, h Bi, me
barrel, or on the small limbs of trees. Old Bennett, Sunset, Blush Malmaison, Amer-
fowls have their bones hardened so that e e Gardens, ied Mah Faisou.
they will stand the pressure without bend- of the Garens, led Malmaison.
ing, but all should have wide perches.-
Poultry Yard. 1 *m 3 ? -f9
A Bag Holder.
Bag holders are a great convenience,
and every farmer should have one or
more. With the assistance of a holder,
grain or other substance can be emptied
into a bag by one person. A Rural New
Yorker correspondent thinks his bag
holder is deserving of repetition. The cut
illustrates it, and we give directions for
making one like it.
FOR HONOR'S SAKE.
By B. L. FARJEON,
Author of "Great Porter Square" "The
Bright Star of Life," Etc.
PART THE FIRST.
THE TRIAL OF EDWARD LAYTON,
The Attorney General-Were. there re-
joicings in the house?
Witness-A good many big dinners
were given, but I can't say much for the
company. My mistress was sometimes
very happy, and sometimes very mise'*-
able. To-day she claimed that he was
cold to her, to-morrow she would go on in
the most ridiculous way because he gave
her a flower, as though it were better
than a big diamond.
The Attorney General-Did he seem to
be wanting in attention to her during the
Witness-He wasn't a very warm lover,
as far as I could see. But my mistress
was so much in love that she put up with
anything. He had only to give her a smile
or a pleasant word, and you would think
she was in heaven.
The Attorney General--How did the
BAG HOLDER. prisoner get along with Mr. Beach?
Any kind of inch lumber will serve Witness-I knew they fhad words on
for the bottom, which should be 18 two or three occasions.
inches square and two thicknesses of The Attorney General-About what?
boards, one across the grain of the other, Witness-About the settlements. My
to prevent splitting. The standards are mistress told me, and she said her father
made of hard wood, 7 inches wide and 8 was a screw.
feet 2 inches highA The braces at the bhot- The Attorney General-A screw! What
tom are 4 inches wide and 10 inches long. was meant by the word?
The back standard is 1 1-2 inches higher Witness-That he was mean and sharp,
than the other. The ends of the standards that was what was meant.
are hollowed, as shown in the cut. To The Attorney General--Go on. That
use this holder turn the top of the bag her father was a screw"--
down about two inches and place this Witness-And wanted to bind Mr. Lay-
over the standards. The spring from ton down too tight. He had conversa-
both sides will hold the bag open in place. tions with her about it.
Try it. The Attorney General-Hel Who?
'The Potato Beetle. The Attorney General-Did he seek
The Colorado potato beetle is no longer these conversations?
considered as an impossible barrier to a Witness-Oh, no; they were of her seek-
good field of potatoes. Paris green leads ing.. She was afraid that something
as a certain and effectual remedy for this might occur to break off the engagement.
pest, and, when properly applied, early, She said to me more than once: "If any-
when the potatoes and the bugs make thing goes wrong I shan't care to live,"
their start, will do its perfect work. But I never in all my life saw a woman so
Paris green must be carefully handled, madly in love as she was.
not only because it is a poison likely to The Attorney General-Do you know
injure both man and beast, but because the result of those conversations about
when applied to. the plants too strong it the settlements between the prisoner and
injures the foliage almost, if not quite, as your mistress?
much as do the beetles. Whether ap- Witness-Both Mr. Beach and Mr.
plied in water through a sprinkler or in Layton stood out, and I don't believe
plaster through a sifter or bellows, be either of them would have given way if
sure and not have too great a proportion my mistress had not taken it up. She
of the poison. and her father had some warm scenes.
While it is easier to apply Paris green, The Attorney General-By "warm" do
-diluted in water, to the vines, it may be you mean angry?
more uniformly applied, and with less Witness-Yes.
danger to the foliage, by mixing it with .The Attorney General-Whose money
plaster. One part of -pure Paris green to was it that was in dispute?
100 parts of plaster, thoroughly mixed to- Witness-Mr. Beach's. He was rich;
gether, so that the plaster will be slightly Mr, Layton had no money to settle. My
tinted throughout with the poison, will be mistress used to say, "I know I am not
found a satisfactory mixture. Sifters and very handsome, but I can make Mr.'Lay-
bellows for dusting the vines are now ton comfortable all his life, and I am sure
sold at most hardware stores at a small' we shall get along very well together.
cost compared with their usefulness and Papa shall do whatever I want.
convenience. The Attorney General-Then it is your
impression that the prisoner paid court to
The Silk Growing Industry. her for money?
It is believed by many that the depart- Witness-I don't think he would have
ment of agriculture's new departure in looked at her else.
setting up machinery in Washington 'for The Attorney General-And that your
winding the silk from cocoons will result mistress was aware of itP
in considerable extension of the silk grow- Witness-She must have had some' no-
ing industry in this country. Great in- tion of it, but It couldn't' have been a
terest is manifested in the experiments, pleasant thing for her to talk much about,
and the demand for copies of the bulletin and it seemed to me that she was glad to
on silkworm culture has made it necessary avoid it. She didn't think she was as
to issue seven or eight editions, Officials I plain as she was. No woman does.
of the Zdepartment say that the requests The Attorney General-How was the
for silkworm eggs greatly exceed those re- matter finally arranged?
ceived in any previous year since the de- Witness-Th.e money was settled upon
apartment began its distribution. As a my mistress, and after her deathit was to
consequence it is expected that large quan- go to Mr. Layton.
titles of American grown silk will be The Attorney General-Do you know
placed on the market this year. what the amount was?
Witness--My mistress told me it was
Color in Cattle. 20,000.
The Attorney General-Which would
Progressive breeders are awakening to come absolutely into the prisoner's posses-'
the.fact that the color craze in stock breed- sion when his wife died?
ing has been carried to absurd extremes, sinwhes hs wne died?
and if not stopped will be very detrimental Witness-I understood so. My mistress
: to the improvements that intelligent men I d say something else about the settle-
are laboring to bring about, in our farn menIt. "There's one thing I would like
stock. Every stock show illustrates the put in about the money," she said, "alnd
ill effects of the fashion that urged the re- 1.that is, that it shouldn't be his if he mar-
jectionof allaim nals notof "solid colors," ri ed again; but I would not dare to men-
The Attorney General-Did she give you
a reason for not daring to mention it?
Witness-Yes; that he would break the
'The Attorney General-Now, about the
wedding. Was it a private or public wed-
Witness-Not private-oh, no, not at
all! there were at least a hundred at the
wedding breakfast, and any amount of
champagne was opened.
The Attorney General-What kind of
WVitness-Mixed-very much mixed.
The Attorney General-Be more explicit.
Were there many of Mr. Beach's set
Witness-They were all of his set.
The Attorney General-But some of the
prisoner A friends were there as well?
Witness-Not one. There were words
The Attorney General-On the wedding
The Attorney" Genenal-Words be-
Witness-Between Mr. Beach and Mr.
Layton. I heard Mr. Beach say, "I gave
you thirty invitations to fill up;" and Mr.
Layton answered; "I didn't fill up one of
them. I didn't intend that a friend of
mine should meet such a crew as I knew
you would get together." "Not good
enough for you, I suppose!" said Mr.
Beach. "No," said Mr. Layton, "deci-
dedly not good'enough," and then he
The Attorney General-Did your mis-
tress make any remark on the subject?
Witness-No; she was too happy to find
fault with anything. She was delighted
too with the wedding presents. There
was nearly a room full of them.
The Attorney General-Many of them
from the prisoner's friends?
The,Attorney General-Do you mean to
inform the court that not a single friend
or relative of the prisoner's was present,
and that among the wedding presents
there was not a single token from his con-
Witness-Not a single one.
The Attorney General-Well, they were
married, and they went away?
Witness-Yes; they took the night train
The Attorney' General-Did you ac-
The Attorney General-Did your mis-
tress' mother die before they left?
Witness-No; some hours afterward, and
a telegram was sent to them in Paris, at
the- Hotel Bristol.
The Attorney General-What is the
next thing you remember?.
Witness-A telegram arrived from Mr.
Layton, requesting me to come to Paris
immediately. We received the telegram
at about 2 o'clock on the day after the
wedding, and I went by the night train.
The Attorney General-Did any person
Witness-Yes; Mr. Layton. He said
my mistress was very ll, and hlie took
me to the hotel. She was in bed, and she
remained there for several weeks. I at-
tended her the whole of the time.
The Attorney General-Did she -have
Witness-The best that could be got.
The Attorney General-Was the pris-
oner attentive to her? "
Witness-Pretty well; I shouldn't have
The Attorney General-What do you
mean by that?
Witness-Well, he never sat by her
bedside for any length of time; hlie never
held her hand; he never kissed her. Oh,
it is easy to tell when a man loves a
The Attorney-General-How long ,was
it before she was able to get about?
Witness-Quite three months.
The Attorney General-Did she then re-
turn to England with her husband?
Witness-Not for another month. They
went to'Italy, and I went with them.
The Attorney General-Did the pris-
oner's attention to his wife undergo any
marked change after her convalescence!
Was he more affectionate-more lovingly
Witness-Not that I saw. All he
seemed to crave for was excitement. It
was nothing but rushing here and rushing
there. Every night some theatre or en-
tertainment to go to; every day riding
about, and dining out at different places.
The Attorney General-So that there
was not much of home life?,
Witness--Not at all.
The Attorney Genieral-Was this state
of things agreeable to your mistress?
Witness-I am not sure. Sometimes
she suggested to her husband that they
should spend a quiet evening at home, but
he always replied that he had tickets, or
had taken seats, for some place of enter-
tainment. When she spoke-to me of the
life they were leading, she used to say
how attentive her husband was to her,
and how he was always looking out for
something to amuse her. But I did not
regard it in that light; I thought it was
more for himself than for her that he kept
up suclia round of excitement. It helped
him to forget,
The Attorney General-To forget what!
Witness-That hlie was a married man.
The Attorney General-During those
early days were there any quarrels be-
Witness-No, not what you can call
quarrels. Sometimes she complained, or
found fault, but he seldom at that time
answered her In any way to cause a quarrel
-that is, so far as he was concerned. It
was different afterward. There were oc-
casions during their honeymoon-if you
can call it a honeymoon-and at first
when thpy were settled at home, when his
silence provoked my mistress, and made
her madder than an open row would have
done. But the more she stormed the
quieter ihe was, and these scenes always
ended in one way: Mr. Layton would
leave the house, and remain absent for a
good many hours. Then my mistress
would torment herself dreadfully,- and
cry her eyes out, and rave and stamp
about like a distracted creature. "He
will never 'come bckl" she would say.
"I have driven him from mel He will
make away with himself What a wretch
I am!" 'A ring at the bell ora.aknock at
the dodr would send her flying down Witness-But it ended in his being left
stairs to see if it was her husband. I was the master of the field.
really afraid sometimes that she would The Attorney General-Explain.
go quite out of her mind. Then, when he Witness-After twelve months or so
came back, she would rush up to him and Mr. Beach's friends ceased entirely to
throw her arms round his neck, and sob, come to the house. Then, when Mr. Beach
and fall upon her knees to ask forgive- came, he came alone.
ness. It was a dreadful life to lead. The Attorney General-On these occa-
The Attorney General-In what way sions did the prisoner remain at home? .
would the prisoner receive these tokens of Witness-Yes, whenever' Mr. Beach
penitence on the part of your mistress? was alone Mr. Layton remained in.
Witness-In just the same way as he The Attorney General-How did they
received her scoldings. The one remark pass the time?
I heard him make to her in those days- Witness-Playing billiards, generally.
not always in the same words, but always The Attorney General-Now, in all
to the same effect-was: "You should the questions I have asked and you have
have more control over yourself." I used answered, there are two subjects upon
to wonder that a man could be so pro- which no definite information has been
evoked and keep so cool. But a person forthcoming. Give your best attention to
may be cold outside and hot inside. them. Are you aware that before or at
The Attorney General-Do you think the time of the prisoner's engagement with
that was the case with the prisoner? your mistress he had been or was engaged
Witness--Yes, I do think so. to another lady? Take time. You have
The Attorney General-Well, they came said that you were in the confidence of
home and settled down? your mistress, and that she used to speak
Witness-Yes. freely to you. At any.period during these
The Attorney General-Now about .the communications did she refer to another
home they occupied? Did they rent it, or engagement?
was it their own property? Witness-It was in this way, and I
Witness--It was their own property, can't answer. the question in any other.
My mistress said it was purchased partly The Attorney General-Answer it as
with her own money, and that it was in- best you can.
eluded in the settlements. Witness-At one time my mistress
The Attorney General-What do you said: "I wonder if Mr. Layton, before he
mean by "partly with her own money?" saw me, was ever in love?" That was the
,-money she had saved or inherited? way it was first introduced., tIdld-not
Witness-c No; money she had wn upon know how to answerherr without running
races. the risk -of hurting her feelings, but she
The Attorney General-Was she, then, pressed me, and I was forced to say I
in the habit of betting? thought it very unlikely that a gentleman
Witness-She used often to put money as good looking as he was should not have
on a horse. She would say: "Papa has had his fancies. She pressed me further
given me a good tip, and I am going to until I said there were very few men of
put 20 or 30 on. If you like, Ida, you his age who had not been in love. 'She B
can haveha lf a sovereign with me." appeared distressed at this, but soon
The Attorney General-And did you? brightened up, and said: "What is that to
Witness-Yes, because she wished me, me s long ase so long as heis mine?" But itweighed
and because I knew I was safe. Mr. upon her mind, as was proved by her tell-
Beach was -a very knowing man. My ing me at another time that she had asked
mistress would back a tip he gave her at Mr. Layton whether h ad ever been in
twenty-five to one. I have- known her love and that he would not give her any
back it at fifty to one. She would do this satisfaction, which, to my mind, was quite
sometimes before the weights appeared. as good as confessing that he had been. -
Then her father would say: "Aggie" (that These conversations between my mistress
is what he called her)-"Aggie, your horse and me took place in the early days, and
is at ten or twelve to one. I am going to for some time after her marriage she did
hedge part of your money for you." As not say anything, more about it. But
my half sovereign was in my mistress' when she was laid on a sick bed-I mean
bet, of course I went with her, and I more within a few months of her being mur-
often won than lost. dered--
The Attorney General-Without going The Attorney General-Do not say
minutely into the technicalities of horse that. It is for the jury to decide.- Say
racing and betting, may we take it that within a few months other death. :
the principle of the hedging you have Witness-Well, within a few months
spoken of is wise, from a gambling point of her death she told ame: at least half a -
of view?' dozen times that she had discovered that
Witness-Oh, yes. By backing a likely he had been in love h another lady,
horse at a long price, as my mistress had and that she believe. was-so when he
the opportunity of doing through her married her. She sasi -.t was wicked and
father, and by laying against it if it abominable, and that if she saw- "the
comes to a short price, you reduce the creature" she would kill her.. -
chances of losing. That is good .hedg- The Attorney. General-Supposing this
ig.. to be true, your mistress never discovered
The Attorney General-:Can anybody do who this other lady was? .l
that? Witness-Never to my knowledge.
Witness-Well, not exactly. Those who The Attorney General-As to your mris
are behind the scenes have the best ad- tress' attachment to her husband, did it
vantage. As a rule the people who back ever, in your knowledge, grow weaker?
horses are gulls. Thy is why the book- Witness-I don't exactly know how to
makers make fortunes. They are play- describe it. She loved and hated him all
ing at a game they know; nine out of ten at once. She was torn to pieces with love
whob bet with them are playing at a game and jealousy.
they don't know. That is how it is. 1 The Attorney General-Is that all you
have heard Mr. Beach say: "The devil can tell us upon this subject?
is on our side." Witness-That is all.
The Attorney General-Meaning on the The Attorney General-I come now to
side of the bookmakers? the second subject. It is concerning the
Witness-Yes. prisoner's family. You have informed us
The Attorney General-Were you, fond that not one was present at the wedding,
of betting yourself? and that not one recognized the union by
Witness-I hated it. I only did what sending a wedOing present. Now, are
my mistress advised me to do to please you aware whether he had parents, or
her. brothers or sisters?
The Attorney General-To return to Witness-All that I heard was that he
the house which was partly paid for with had a father living. But I did not hear
the money your mistress won. Did the that till more than a year after the mar-
prisoner take an aceive part in the se- riage. e E
election of the furniture? The Attorney General-Who told you
Witness-He did nothing whatever, then?
SEverything was done by my mistress, and Witness-My mistress. Although she
she was disappointed because he would confided nearly everything to me, she
not go with her to the different establish- kept this to herself for a long time.
7 ments she visited. But in the end she The Attorney General-Did not her
Argued as she always did when he was in father, Mr. Beach, speak about it?
- question. .He.was quite right, she said; Witness-I never heard him;., I had
she could not expect him to trouble him very little to do with him. I had'under-
Sself about such things; it was -a woman' stood, at the time of the marriage, that
business, and by leaving everything to hei Mr. Layton's father was abroad, but I
it showed that lhe believed she had gooo had reason to believe afterward that this
taste. ..... -- c z,:. was not so-that he was in England.
The Attorney General-When theywere The Attorney i eneral-Did the .mrio
settled in London what kind of society owner ever speak of it?
e did they keep? Witness-I never heard him,. 44
Witness-At first the same as used to The Ato The Attorney General-Did the pris-
come to Mr. Beach's house, Mr. Beach oeer's father never come to the house?
Brought them, but Mr. Layton was rude Witness-Never.
and uncivil to them, and after a time they The Attorney General-Do you know
I stopped away. I must say, if he was rude whether he Is alive at the present time?
and uncivil to them, they were quite as Witness-I heard that he was dead. M1
rude and 'uncivil to him, and if he had met mistress said so.
them with the temper they displayed noth- The Attorney General-Did the prisoner
r ing could have prevented the occurrence go into mourning?
Sof disgrabefulscenes. He behaved to them Witness-He wore crape upon his hat
in exactly the same way he behaved to' for several weeks. .
my mistress when they disagreed. He The Attorney General-Now, Conue-e
Left the house, and did not return till they rate your attention upon the day and
t were all gone. night of March 25. I wish you to nar-
i The Attorney General-Were they. in rate, concisely, all that passed, within
Sthe habit of coming to the house without your own knowledge, concerning the pris-
I receiving an Invitation from its master? owner and his wife from the morning of
Witness-I believe so. My mistress March 25 until the morning of the 26th.'
would say: "Papa Is going to bring -'inthe morning
three or four friends to dinr." He itn h ress-At 10 o'clock rnn
would look at her and say nothing and of the 2th m mistress' bell rang, and I
heard him, when he was filled ilth cham- that on whichever side she was lying one
pagne--he scarcely ever drank anything o t a w r o hand.
Else but champagne and whisky-speak T A tne General-Stop a moment
very angriy tthe ronertik unp e hDid the prisoner and his wife occupy oe e
Other guests were not behindhand in Witness-No.
The Attorney General-Although they had this been the case?
were eating at his table and drinking his Witness-For a. gdod many months.
Witness-Yes. At other times in the Ever since things beganto get worse be-
* evening, when Mr. Layton was at home [O Bw eOeTNtm.]. -
with my mistress, Mr. Beach would make
his appearance unexpectedly with his
* friends; but Mr. Layton would never re- If a summer sick-room has a fire place
main in their company. It seemed to me put a candle in it. The upward draft
that Mr. Beach did these things to vex makes an excellent system of ventila-
Mr. Layton, and that it was a kind ot tion, especially if a window be left open
battle between them as to who should be to allow fresh air Ingress.
The Attorney General-A battle, how- A man of exalted berth : The fellow,
ever; in which the prisoner did not take who has the upper bunk in a steamer;.
anyvlolent part? ....... : :
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MAY 11, 1887.
State News in Brief.
-Kissimmee has five churches and
forty-six business houses.
-The iron deposits fund in Levy
county are attracting attention.
-A new postoffice has been started
called Jupiter, at Jupiter Inlet.
-Kissimmee is talking about having
an old fashioned barbecue on the 4th of
-There are now twelve railroads in
Orange county and several others are to
be built soon.
-The South Florida Foundry and Ma-
chine Shops at Orlando are overrun with
-There is considerable talk in Day-
tona of building a street railway from
that place to Port Orange.
-Mr. W. S. Sands, of Enterprise, has
successfully preserved oranges by Mr.
Bertola's simple process.
-Mr. Riggs, of Micanopy, has receiv-
ed a patent on his orange sizer from the
United States Government.
-Mr. Frank Hagood, of Micanopy, re-
ceived a check Friday of $110 for thirty-
three crates of beans.
-Mr. R. Wilbur, of Micanopy has
shipped fifty-seven barrels of fine cab-
bage from three-quarters of an acre.
-W. D. Lewis, of Panasoffke, the big
strawberry grower, shipped 1,800 crates
on Wednesday, in refrigerators.
-Madison is becoming noted for fine
cattle. Several milch cows can be seen
on the streets that cannot be bought for
less than $100 apiece.
-An enormous shaddock which meas-
ured twenty-four inches in circumfer-
ence one way and twenty inches another
is on exhibition at Palatka.
-Mr. James C. Bauknight, of Mic-
anoDy, received-a Holstein bull "Friday
from Tennessee for which he paid $100.
The freight was $47 additional.
-For the first twenty-two days in
April 3,500 barrels of cabbage, 700 crates
of vegetables, and 400 crates of fruit
were shipped by freight from Panasoff-
-The schooner Jeanette, of Cedar
Key, has been making weekly trips to
the snapper banks, and bringing in from
3,000 to 4,000 pounds of snappers 'and
groupers per trip.
--The Ocala sash, door and blind fac-
tory is running over with orders. One
day last week Mr. Price, the foreman,
took a $1,500 order from an English gen-
tleman near Fruitland Park.
-Mr. D. E. Gilletr shipped from Pal-
metto 18 crates of tomatoes that netted
him $108. The average crop on ham-
mock land is about 150 crates to the
acre, which is an average of $8 per crate,
or $450 per acre.
-The orange trees about Waldo have
never before been filled with fruit in
such abundant profusion. The fruit is
now well set and the crop will be at
least twice as large as that of any preo -
-Daniel Grubbs, of Indian River, has
a single tomato vine on which were
over a hundred tomatoes at once and it
was still blooming. The vine was train-
ed up a frame and it grew to the height
of seven feet.
-Messrs. Howard -& Kennedy, on'
Terra Celia Island, near Tampa, have
been very successful producers. They
have already shipped over 200 crates of
cucumbers and as the first i'eturns
netted $8 per crate, they feel sure that
the average will be at least $5.;
-Dr. H. J. Long, of Enterprise, has
scored signal success in raising early
vegetables. Of nine barrels of potatoes
* shipped to New York on Saturday last,
four were sold at $7 and the remainder
at $7 50 per barrel Two of the barrels
sold at $7 were "culls."
-Captain Rose has sent orders to put
in 550 acres of rice at St. Cloud. After
this crop is harvested, the land will be
put into sugar cane, and by the time it
is ready to harvest, Captain Rose ex-
pects his sugar mill will be ready to
transform. the cane into sugar and
-Jacob' Cue, representing the Duke of
Sutherland, and C. E. Spencer were
here on Monday last looking at railroad
lands near this place, with a view of
purchasing and settling a Scotch colony
upon them. We are glad to learn they
.were well pleased with the quality and
location of the same. Esquire J. W.
Hagan had the party in charge and
showed up our country to advantage.-
-Tampa was illuminated with electric
lights last Monday night for the first
time. The company -has been delayed
considerably and were a few weeks be-
hind the time they at first expected to
be ready. The machinery is not yet
perfectly regulated, but the light produc-
ed was very fine and promises to prove
week or so, and from fifteen to twenty
homestead entries are being made daily.
The land that is being so eagerly sought
after is a part of 1 he Arredondo grant
lying in Columbia county, which has re-
cently been put on the market by the
S -Mr. E:-R. Childers, of Fort Meade,
has a number of grape vine cuttings
which were recently sent him from
Washington, and have been planted out
ten days, now grown fifteen inches and
literally filled with fruit. This seems to
be one of the most remarkable things in
its line ever seen, The cuttings were
rooted last season, and had Jbeen buried
se veral days in moist dirt before plant-
ing out, which gave them a start as soon
Sas they felt the heat of the sun. /
-Dr. Robert Wilson, of Paris, Texas,
has been looking over the State for a
suitable place to establish a ship yard.
The Doctor has traveled in many foreign
countries, and was engineer of the great
Overland Mail Route from Sacramento
to Salt Lake City in 1847 ; later he was
to be found among the diamond mines
of South Africa. He has decided upon
Boca Grande as the point for a shipyard
and is now buying the machinery for
the work.-Orlando Reporter.
-Judge John R. Mizell, of Winter
Park, who is building the railroad from
Winter Park to Orlando, states that the
work is rapidly progressing. It is not
the expectation, he says, that these two
points will be the termini of .the road;
in fact, that he has already money
enough in hand to extend it northward
in the direction of Lake Jessup, and that
it is the intention to go on, probably in
both directions, as circumstances may
-It may not be generally known that
when the owner cannot be found, all
valuables found in letters or packages
sent to the dead letter office at Wash-
ington are put up in bundles and sold
to the highest bidder. One of our prom-
inent citizens, who was in Washington
at the time, purchased a small envelope
at one of these sales containing a gold
ring. There is an inscription upon the
outside in French, the translation of
which is, "May He Protect You." On
the inside of the ring is, "L. B. to H. M.
--F. E. V., 1874." It is a plain old fash-
oned gold ring, and its failure to reach
its proper destination may have resulted
in serious disappointment both to the
sender and the intended recipient.-Or-
-Fort Myers is a blooming little town,
situated on the south banks of the beau-
tiful Caloosahatchee River. Within one
mile south of Fort Myers fronting on the
river, whose Indian name in the Semin-
ole language signifies beautiful waters.
a group of two houses, closely connected
and several adjoining buildings attract
the attention and bespeak comfort in its
proudest sense. These are the houses of
Mr. Thomas A. Edison and E. T. Gilli-
land,his business partner, and their labo-
ratory and outbuildings. Mr. Edison is
at present working several new ideas
out, one of which he says, if successful,
will astonish the world and dwarf his
previous inventions into insignificance.
THE EXPERIMENT STATION.
How to Use the Government
Fund Most Effectively.
By request we republish the following
letter written by Prof. Pickel to the
Norman J. Colman was appointed
Commissioner of Agriculture by Pres-
ident Cleveland. In his report to Con-
gress (1886), ,the Commissioner uses the
following words (pages 8 and 9);
I The bill is not, however, free from de-
fects, and certain amendments may well
be recommended hKere, The amount
whieh it proposes to annually appro-
priate to each State ($15,000) is none too
much to establish and maintain one
good station. To permit this to be
divided and appropriated among different
stations or institutions would at once
defeat the desired object, and instead
of one strong station in every State, two
or three worthless starvelingswohld here
and there be found, consuming their
allowance in the general expenses
necessary to every station, with no
margin for accomplishing results. Con-
gress should not repeat the mistake
which has already been made in one
State at least, by which a land grant
has been so divided that no piece can be
found big enough to be serviceable, or
maintain an institution worthy the name
of "Agricultural College." But while
every State should be required to keep
the allowance intact and assign it for
expenditure to one and only one place,
permission should-ibe granted for every
State to deteanine by its Legislature,
and once for all, to what institution the
appropriation shall be assigned. :1
The billas drawn,allows only one-fifth
$80,00) of the first year's appropriation
to be expended for buildings,repairs,etc.,
and only $750 annually thereafter.
Considering the necessary expenses,
especially in starting a station where no-
thing of the kind exists, this allowance
is quite inadequate, and the restriction
might defeat the object of the law. For
buildings and repairs, $5,000 should be
allowed the first year and the second,
and at least $1,000 annually thereafter,
The buildings of the Massachusetts
station, neither extravagant nor large
cost a good deal, over $10,000, and'
although models of their kind, and
sufficient for the present income, would
have to be enlarged with the extended
operations made possible by the proposed
That was written while the bill was
pending before Congress. It is now a
aw; but Congress did not heed the wise
suggestion of Mr. Colman, that $5,000,
annually for the first two years and
$1,000, annually thereafter be allowed for
buildings. So much the greater, there-
fore, is the necessity for not dividing the
fund. The following figures answer the
question. What does it cost to maintain a
experiment station ? and emphasize the
wisdom of Mr. Colman's remarks. They
are taken from the fifth- biennial report
of the State Agricultural College of
Kansas (page 25), the twenty-fourth an-
nual report of the Michigan State Board
of Agriculture (page 10), and the fourth
annual report of Massachusetts State
Agricultural Experiment Station (page
Kansas-Inventory,1886; Farm Depart-
ment--Barns and sheds,$9,500; furniture
and fixtures, $274, teams, horses and
mules, $450; cattle, 89 head, $7,540;
swine, 41 head, $665; implements and
harness, $2,407, produce in barn, $228,25;
crops on ground, $346; fish ponds, $150,
wells, $155; fences $757; miscellaneous,
$56.50. Total $29,528 75.
and plantations, $1,900; green-house and
fixtures,$8,188 28,green-house stock and
tools,$1,10020; furniture, -apparatus,$1,-
081 05; tools implements and teams, $786-
80; stock in nursery rows, $158 50. Total
$8,160,33. Total investment in horticul-
tural and farm departments, $30,689 08.
Michigan--From inventory,1885: Farm
Department-Cattle, horses,sheep, swine,
implements, produce, etc. $26,563.19;
farm houses (barns, sheds, green houses,
piggeries,etc.), $38,450 total $65,013.19.
Horticultural Department-Teams, har-
ness, tools, vegetable garden, green-
house plants,etc,$5,767 89; total,$5,767 39.
Total investment in Horticufltural and
Farm Department. $70,780 58;: chemical
laboratory, $18,000; botanical laboratory,
$6 000; veteriaary laboratory, $5,400.
Massachusetts-The experiment station
as in the case of Michigan and Kansas,
is run in connection with the State Agri
cultural College. Buildings of thb
station (on authority of Hon. Norman
J. Colman) more than $10,000 cost of
running the station. One year (1886):
Salaries, $3 149 75; laboratory supplies,
$975 76; printing and postage, $591 86;
office expenses, 171,9f; Farmer and
farm labor, $1,54886; farm supplies, $81-
$812 16; stock and feed, $450 86; miscella-
neous expenses, $388,93; fitting up
buildings, $2,617 35; expenses of Board
of Control, $18515; cash in bank, January
1, 1887, $400. Total, $11 248 14.
Whatever else may be said of the Mas-
sachusetts Yankee, he is not a man that
spends money recklessly. Economy is
one of his strong points. Yet, having
spent more than $10,000 in buildings for
his Experiment Station, he spends in ad-
dition more than $11,000 annually to
keep it going.
According to the terms of the Experi-
ment Station bill, Florida's $15,000 is to
be expended under the control of the
State Agricultural College. It is to be
hoped that nobody will be found so fool-
ish as vainly to attempt to divide the
fund or divert its control from that inst'-
tution. That c ntrol is removed from
political intrigue and trickery. The
fund will be expended in the interest of
the State at large,and not in that of any
special locality. A sufficient guarantee
of this is the fact that the following
gentlemen, representing the whole of
the State, are the trustees of the college:
Hon. A. J. Russell,of Duval; ex-Govern-
or Walker, of Leon; James E. Young,
Esq., of Columbia; Judge King, of Ala-
chua; Judge Baker, of Duval; 'Major C.
H. Smith, of Madison; General W. D.
Barnes, of Jackson; Hon. C. L. Mitchell,
of Polk; Hon. E. S. Crill, of Putman.
While the headquarters, laboratories
and other main buildings should be at
the Agricultural College, where all the
analyses and other delicate scientific
work should be doue, thete can be no
doubt that a branch station (or perhaps
stations) under assistants, sent out by
the head station, and under its direction
will, at the earleist possible day, be es-
tablished at some suitable place in the
south of this State. Respectfully,
J. M. PICOKL,
A Short Tobacco Crop-Export
Duties Reduced, etc.,
On another page is an article showing
the enormous extent to which Cuba has
become a competitor of the Southern
planters in supplying the United States
with sugar. From the following letter
written from Havana to the Sugar Bowl
and Farm Journal it appears that the
Cubans have gained an additional ad-
vantage by a reduction in the export
duty on the product. A similar re-
duction on tobacco will be compensated
for this year by a greatly reduced crop,
which may- leave but little for export.
As the letter contains much of interest
relative to the industrial interests of our
Southern neighbors, we reproduce the
greater portion of it:
The Spanish Government has dimin-
tshed here the export duties on sugars and
tobacco 20 per cent. from the tariff
rates. This, on sugars, is equivalent to
48c per hhd., consequently a hhd. only
pays now $1.82 net. The reduction is
not an important advantage, as the gen-
eral expectations were for the total abol-
ishment of the export duty. -Duties now
stand as follows: dry sugars 82c. per 100
kilograms, damp or wet sugars, 28c. per
THE TOBACCO AND CIGAR MARKET
-has ruled very active during the past
three months. This is partly accounted
for by the fact that next crop will be
exceedingly small. The renowned Vuelta
Abajo region has sitfered severely with
excessive rains and river, overflows dur-
ing the past year, and on the other hand
scarcity of good seed and a general
severe drouth that afflicts other regions,
predicts ruin and misery among the to-
bacco raisers. From the Vuelta Abajo
region laste-month, over 800 laboi-ers em-
igrated towards Vuelta Arriba to get
employment on sugar plantations. Any-
how, medium light tobacco at other
places on the Island will be abundant.
Quotations here stand at present as
follows: Vuelta Abajo,' $44 to $55 per
quintal; Partido, $85 to $40; Remedios
$28 to $34; Veulta Arriba, $20 to .$80.
Export duties on tobacco and cigars be-
The owners of celebrated Havana
brands of cigars are just now much an-
noyed and alarmed on account of the
enormous quantity of counterfeit cigars,
that are selling in the United States and
Europe, with their nameand stamp. This
has always been so, but it seems that
now they are determined to put a stop
to the nuisance, and 'are in correspond-
ence on the subject with foreign govern-
ments and chambers of commerce,
INTRODUCING ITALIAN LABORERS.
Mentioned in my previous letter to
you, that the Territorial Bank. of loans
and mortgages here had made a con-
tract with the bank of loans and dis-
ounts of Naples, for the importation of
talitan emigrants to this Island. Now,
I may add, that the well known planted,
Copnt Ybanez,'has given an order for
400 immigrants, which have been asked Groves where Williams, Clark & Co's
of Italy by cable, and the answer has Orange Tree Fertilizer has been used are
been received accepting the transaction. looking finely.
The Naples bank makes all the transpor- WILLIAMS, CLARK & Co .
station expenses, returnable in 4 years, .
on interest, guaranteed by the bank Ladies'. Purchasing Agency.
The immigrants are to work on sugar A New York lady of experience and
plantations at a salary of $12 each per taste, enjoying the best facilities for
month besides lodging and feeding. Those shopping under advantageous condi-
that may prefer cultivating the cane will tions, offers her services to ladies desir-
receive from $1.25 to $2 per cart load of ing to secure any kind of wearing ap-
2,500 lbs. sound cane delivered at the parel, toilet articles or household goods,
crushing mill, taking as a basiq for the at New York prices. Send for circular.
price 2jc. per lb. at the sugar market for Address MRS. S. S. Jones,
96 polarization. They will have the re- 179 Gates Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.
fusal of the sugar for payment, when de- __ _.
sirable. They will bring their fam-
ilies with them. Seed Irish Potatoes.
BAT GUANO. The best potatoes for planting in this
A Havana daily, published several State are those brought from extreme
days ago, an important letter, calling Eastern points. Acting on this belief,
the attention of the general public to. we imported last year from
wards the immense caves-of bat manure lar quantities of Early lose Chili
existing on this Island, which should be ae qat of Early oose, Chili
utilize as a first class fertilizer. It is Res, Beauty of Hebron and other vane-
said that for cane it gives a splendid re- ties, and the potatoes raised from this
suit. Not so for tobacco. The forma- seed, were the finest we have ever seen
tion of a stock company is suggested. Wewillreceive, in afew days another
HONEY PRODUCT. cargo of the same potatoes, which we
Funny to say, though' Cuba produces will sell at the following prices:
a pretty large quantity of honey yearly, Chili Red........per barrel $3.50.
it is hardly used for local consumption. Early Rose.................. $3.00.
It is nearly all exported, and you Beauty of Hebron......... $3.00.
never see it on a table for breakfast or Every barrel guaranteed as represented.
dinner. With syrups and molasses Remit with-order, and we will ship the
about the same thing happens. It is potatoes promptly.
said that in tropical climates honey over CHURCH ANDERSON & CO.
heats the human blood, consequently it Jacksonville, Fla., Jan. 5th, 1887.
is not considered healthy for daily use. _
At apothecaries it is used for medical pur- MAY WEATHER.
The honey industry has fallen off con- The following table compiled from the records
siderable for the last several years, on of the Jack onville Signal Station by Sergt. J.
account of the unremunerative prices W. Smith, represents the temperature, condition
which it brings in our days in the mar- of weather,* rainfall and direction of wind for
kets. Export duty is i. per gallon,.or the month of May, as observed at the Jack-
. Er xpo rtady is 'on t per gallon,.p ri sonville station during the past 15 years:
$5 621 per 100 gallons; the market price
ruling at present is from 20 to 22c per gal- TEMP. wEATH. ''
Ion; 800 barrels has changed hands at ------ --
said figure. The common yellow bee- a m :
wax is quoted from $18 to $20 per qun- | ;a = S
tal, and the white from $29 to $81. Very .- 5 a o 3
good yellow may bring $24 and the best M
white $84 50. 1872 96 5778 8 17 6 1.25 SW
I mention all the above about honey 1873 946475 117 58 5.52 SE
because Mr. J. Casanova, at his, large 18594 5275 5 20 6 9.08 NE
farm near Jaruco, and the Messrs. Dus- 1876 95 51 76 18 13 5 1.86 NE
saq & Co., near Marianao, have immense 1877 90 4874 12 1 6 2.48 NE
apiaries where the bee-hives and honey 187 178 17 6 1.52 SE
combs attract marked attention, as built 1880 95 58 74 13 8 10 6.24 NE
or organized under the most improved 1881 94 e3 76 15 13 3 2.61 NE
scientific principles. The artificial made 1882 90 5174 1 1 5 32.16 SE
honey-combs imported from New York, 1834 91 6- 76 13 18 5 5.45 SW
saves the bee the trouble and time she 188589 5674 8 14 9 7.74 S
would have to take building them and 1866 92 5676 15 i1 5 2.81 SW
manufacturing the wax. Consequently J. w. SMITH,
no wax is collected, and the bee only Sergt. Signal Corps, U. s. A.
uses her time in manufacturing .the
The bees have been imported from f
Italy and other Mediterranean countries .
from the most reputed stock. The
honey produced rivals the best quality a oCBsoNVILLE MARKET
raised at the Catskills in the, State of
New York. All this honey is exported Wholesale.
on account of the reasons given above. JACKSONVTLLI., May 2,1887.
Strange as it may seem, people in this Provisions.
country have noidea of whatbuckwheat TS--D.. short ribs boxed,8862; D. S.
cakes are, or anything similar. no as bs 6 ;mo ed belles 925;
a C. hams, canvassed fancy, 13 S. C. break
Cotton Piking Machines. fast bacon, uncanvassed, llc; C. shoul-
Cotton Picking Machines. ders canvassed, 9c; -California or plc-
Mr. C. E. Graves has invented a cot- nie hams, 9%e. Lard-rifined tierces 7 c;
Mr. C. E. Graves has invented a cot- essbeef-barrels$1050 halfbarrels$575; mess
ton picking machine, just constructed pork $1750. These quotations are for round
at Richmond, that will gather cotton Fots from first hands ;whole cattle 7/9;
from the stalks and put it in bags as the dressedho sheep 7c; head eese 6s0c;
machine is drawn by horse-power along Frankfort sausage 10c; rounds 0.
the cotton row. It is estimated that it BurrER-Best table 23@25c per pound,
will pick about 90 per cent. of the open looking 15@20c per pound.
cotton, and during a day will pick from Grain, Flour, Hay, Feed, Hides, Elt.
3,000 to 3,500 pounds. To do this work (RAIN Corn The market is higher.
,0to, pOUnds. odo this work he following figures represent to-day's
all that is required is two horses or values: We quote white corn, job lots,
mules, a driver and a boy to empty the 62cP... per bushel car load lots 60c per
bags when they are filled. Messrs. bushel, mixed corn, job lots, 60c per bushel-
car load lots 58Yc per bushel. Oats quiet
Henry Samuel and Cornelius Sampson, and firm at the following figures: mixed,
of Reidsville, N. C., are jointly, with In job lots, 42/c car load lots 41%c; white
Mr. Graves, the owners of the .nven- oatsare h erall round, Bransteady
tion. iand higher, 621 to $2 per ton.
tion. HAY-The market is firm and better de-
A Fall River company is also con- mand for good grades. Western choice,
structing a cotton picker for B. F. Ran- small boles, $18@...perton; car load lots $1706
,whichitoto 31760 per ton; Eastern hay 820 per ton..
dall, which is designed to pick the cotton PEARL. GRITS AND MEAL-3W 00 per arrel.
from the plant in the field, and to take FLOUR--Dull, best patents 0 650@5 60;
the place of several hands. An endless Cood family $500550 )10 common 8 425.
belt, having strong teeth attached simi- AGRN F 3D--Per ton $24 to bu .
lar to card clothing, is inclosed in a flex- COFFEE-Green. Rio 17@22c per pound.
ible tube about three feet long. Motion Java, roasted, 80@00; Mocas, roasted, 30@38c;
is applied to the belt by means of a link r COTTON St D MAL--Scarce and higher.
chain operated by a treadle. The cotton Sea island or dark meal $20 per ton, bright
is stored in a box on a small wagon, or short cotton meal 2150@220 per ton.
which is drawn ajong by the operation. TOBACCO TsEMS-Market qulet but firm @
$1800 to $1400 per ton.
The mouth of the tube containing the LIME-Eastern, job lots, $100 per barrel, Ala-
wire belt is moved about the plants to oama lime S115. Cement-American $200,
the cotton bolls, the tufts of -cotton glish $475 per barrel. according to
RiocE-The quotations vary, according to
being drawn hi and deposited in the box quantity from 8%@8%o per pound.
mentioned. To prevent the cotton SALT-OLiverpool, per sack, $1 00; per car
sticking to the belt, there is a pulley load, 85n90c.
HInDs-Dry flint, cow, per sound, first
covered with reversed wire clothing, jlass, 12@13c%; and country dry salted 110
that acts in cleaning much like the do ll e; butchers dry salted 969%c. Skins-Deer
for in the cominon gin.-Planter's Jour- dlnt, 17; salted 10@12c. Furs-Otter, winter,
na e- each 25c$4; raccoon l0@20c; wild cat l0@20c;
nal. ox 10@2c, Beeswax, per pound 1; wool
---- _-r free from burs 2225c; burry, 1 1c; goat
The Dog' Crop. kings 10@25o apiece.
It would be interesting to have the U. Country Produce.
S. Census Department make a report CHE -E--Flne Creamery 16cper pound.
Lven POULTsYo-Limten supply and good
upon the number and value of the dog demand as follows: hens 8 ~; laxed 80o; half-
crop in this country, especially in the grown s.. They are scarce and in great de-
oThe' EGGS-Duval County 12 per dozen with
The result of such a report would, we limited demand and good supply.
feel assured, produce astonishment IRosH POTATOES-Northern potatoes $2 90
among the masses, those who pay taxes. to 8 s00 per barrel.
The decrease in the number of sheep in areoa drug on the market.
the South since the negro was made free, w arreL EETS-GO supply at 260 per
is more largely due to the apprehension NEW BEETS-Florida, per crate, 6200.
of owners of destruction of their flocks CAuIFrLOWEas-Per barrel, $300, and $175
by worthless dogs, than of decreased TOrATOEs-Florida, per crate, 6250; Lake
values in the wool itself. Stick a pin Worth, $2 55 to 8 25. .
here.-Southern Live Stock Journal. NORTHERN TURNIPS-Good supply at 6225
SquASH-Per crate, 3125. -
"We Know by Experience." SNAP BEANS-Per crate, 1o00.
o enO j n r N.w POTATOES-Per barrel, 5400; per crate,
For three years we have used Brad- 3125.
ley's Vegetable" Fertilizer. After test- CUcuRBEIES-Per box, SS00.
ing along with other high grade fertil- Foreign and Domestic Frnuits.
izers, we pronounce it better than any PRUNES-French, 12c.
sold in Florida. We shall use it again PINE APPLES-i 75to $200 per dozen.
this year LExoNs-Messinas, 00 er box.
We do not hesitate to say to the vege- Fis-In layers 18c. 00 per barrel
table growers of Florida that they can- DATES-Persian-Boxes 90; Frails 7c.
not use anything so good as Bradley's GRP-s-Malag_ 300 per keg
Florida Vegetable Fertilizer. We know BAAAS-Good supply; from 750T to $200
by expe-ience what we say regardintg .per bunch.
this fertilizer. Nurs-Almonds 18o; Brazils 12o; Filberts
SWOFFORD & WILDER. l)2o English walnuts, Grenobles, 18o;
WOFFOtD s oLDR la. oarbots, 15o Pecans 12o Peanuts c;
Ft. Mason, Fla. Cocoanuts 3450 per hundred,
E. T. PAINE, PRESIDENT,
Florida Orange Food per ton...............S28,00
Florida Vegetable Food per ton......... 28.00
Analysis: Bone Phosphate of Lime, 8) per
cent.; Sulphate of Potash,. 12 i per cent.; Mag-
nesia, 6 per cent. Lime, Soda and other val-
. This powder never vares. A marvel .of
purity, strength and wholesomeness. More-
economical than the ordinary kinds and
cannot be sold n competitionon with the-
multitude of low test, short weight alum or-
Vhosphate powders. Sold onify in. cans,-
O ASKING POWDER CO., 106 Wall St..
RAISINS-London layers, $275 per box-.
CRANBERRmES---2 76 per crate: 81000 per-,
BuTTERINE-Creamery 20c; Extra Dairy-
16-; Dairy 15.
oHEESi--Half skim 10c, cream 13c per-
The following quotations are. carefully re
vised-for Wednesday's and Saturday's paper
from quotations furnished by dealers in the-,
Carrots wholesale at $300 per barrel, and
retail at 50 cents per peck.
Green Onions wholesale at 60 cents per
hundred, and retail 5 cents per bunch.
Florida Cabbage wholesale $200 per barred
and retail at 5 to 10 cents. '
Quail wholesale at 10 cents each and retail
%t 15 cents, or two for a quarter.
Oranges wholesale at 300 to 5 00per box,.
and re tallat 5 cents.
Sp.nage wholesales at 75c per bushel and
retails at four quarts for 25 cents.
Sweet Potatoes wholesale at 60 cents per
bushel, and retail at 5 cents per quart.
Lettuce wholesales at 15@20 cents per dozen
heads, and retail at 5 cents per head. -
Parsnips wholesale at $2 75 per barrel and.
retail at four and five for 10 cents. t
Robins wholesale at 6 cents each and retail
at 10 cent.
Celery wholesales at 50 to 60 cents per dozen
and retails at three to four stalks for 25 cents;
according to size.
Eggs are in fair demand. Duval county
eggs are quoted at wholesale at 11 cents
per dozen, and retail at 20 cents.
Boston marrowfat squashes wholesale at
2 50 per barrel, retail at 5,10 and 15 cents
New Yorklrish potatoes wholesale at$2 75)to
$2 90 per barrel and retail at 10 cents pqr quart.
Northern beets are worth wholesale 8250
per barrel, and retail at 10 cents per quart,
or two quarts or 15 cents.
Radishes bring at wholesale 15 to 20 cents
per dozen bunches of seven radishes each.
They retail at 5 cents per bunch, or three
bunches for 10 cents.
Live poultry-chickens, wholesale, from 35
to 40 cents each; retail 40 to 50 cents each.
Dressed poultry per pound-chickens retail,
18 to'20 cents. Turkeys wholesale, $1.00 to
31.75 each, and retail at 20 cents per pound.
Northern meats retail as follows: Chicago
beef from 18 to 25 cents per pound; Florida
beef 6 to 15 cents per pound; veal 20 to 25 cents;
pork 12 to 15 cents; mutton 10 to 20 cents-
venison 25 cents; sausage 15 cents; corned
beef 10 cents.
OUR SPECIAL MlARKETS
Latest Quotations of Florida Fruits
The following special despatches, by special
arrangements with the Florida Fruit Ex
change, are sent to the TIxEs-UTroN by the
agents of the Fruit Exchange in the various
cities. They can be relied upon as accurate
Commission Merchants' quotattins.
Special to the TIMES-UNION_:
NEW YORK, May 6.-The Ocean Steam-
ship Company brought this morning only
4,400 packages of vegetables. All those in
good condition went out at good prices. To-
matoes sold at S3@4, cucumbers.IA0@4, beans
81@4, peas $firstname.lastname@example.org, cabbage $email@example.com, potatoes
$firstname.lastname@example.org, beats $2.50. The outlook Is favorable
for all choice vegetables arriving in good
G. S. PALMER.
LEAF TOBACCO MARKET.
BALTIMORE, 'May 7.-The better grades
of Maryland tobacco are in active demand,
but the stock is reduced. There is little de-
mand for the poorer grades of Maryland, or
for Western tobacco. Virginia choice sells
with Maryland at from 810 to $16 per 100.
NEW YORK, May 7.-The Western
leaf market Is quiet. Pennsylvania selec-
tions are In demand, but the stock is light. It
takes a very fine article to bring $15.
Havana tobacco is very active at prices
ranging from 60 cents to $t.10 per pound.
Sumatra Is quiet at 51.20 to $1.50 per pound.
ST. LOUIS, May 7.-The demand is
good, and the market firm in all grades.
RICHMOND, May 7.-Lugs are selling at
from 8 to 6 cents, anid leaffrom 6 to 12. Good
grades in active request.
SAVANNAH COTTON MARKET.
Special to the TiMES-UNION
rSAVANNAH, May 7.-The Upland Cotton
Market closed firm: at the following quota-
Middling fair .................................. lOilS-16
Good middling 10 9-16
Middling 10 5-16
Low middling ...10 1-16
Good ordinary 918-16
The net receipts were 147 bales; gross re-
ceipts 147 bales; sales 64 bales; stock at thiS
port 646 bales..-
Exportsto the Continent -, exports coast-
SEA ISLAND COTTON.
The market is quiet and'nominal at un-
changed quotations. Little stock for sale and
scarcely any arriving.
Common FloridaA 15
Good Mediumr 17
Medium fine 18
Extra fine 22