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VOL. 1---NO. 18. JACKSONVILLE, FLA., WEDNESDAY, MAY 4, 1887. PRICE $2 A YEAR.
KELSEY'S JAPAN PLUM. Although, in fact (and speaking in this
Connectionn, your paper has arrived at
a standing where the words "editor"
The Future Rival of the Orange and "epicure" might well signify the
Meeting all Expectations. same thing if the public are as appre-
,eeting a. ,Expectations., clative as they should I be. Allow me,
Editor Florida Farmer and Fuit-Grower: therefore, as a proof of my esteem for
I send you by m il to-day some Kel- your paper, to substitute the word
sey Japan Plums, which I havejust pick- "dual" for "triple,." trusting that in
.ed up under my trees, they being a few your case "editor" and "epicure" have
that were blown off during the windy already proved synonymous.
weather of the past few days. I am G L. TABER.
gladto say, however, that there are GLENST. MARY NURSERIES,
plenty left on the trees, and that the thin- Glen St. Mary, Fla., April 9th, 1887.
ning was badly needed. I wish you to [The plums sent by Mr. Taber, when
note the size of them, and also the date received were about as large as full-
they were picked up (April 9th) and grown Chickasaw plums, but in shape
then refer to the fine illustration you they have quite a resemblance to the
have of this fruit in your issue of Janu- honey peach. By the date of publica-
-ary 19th, and judge for yourself wheth- tion of this Mr. Taber's growing Kelseys
er at the end of the four or five months will probably have reached the size of
they have yet to grow they will not be the California plums, which are so con-
as "pretty as a picture," and some of spicuous on the Jacksonville fruit-stands
them, at least, likely to rival the illus- in the fall. The latter are more pleasing
tration you have given of them? to the eye than to the palate. With the
It is yet five months to September Kelseys, we take it, the reverse is the
,11th and I had perfect specimens on my case. We shall rely on Mr. Taber to
trees last year till October llth (which remove our doubts in this respect next
would be six months, but that is an ex- fall.
treme), but call it five months, or even Next year we expect to pluck fruit
four months, that this fruit has yet be- from the vigorous young trees which we
fore it in which to spread itself, with all obtained from Mr. Taber's nurseries last
the vigor of growth and robust health winter, all of which grew finely. Should
possessed by this new type of p'ums, as we accept Mr. Taher's kind invitation
they show it in our congenial Florida and visit his beautiful nurseries next
soiland climate. And to what size may summer we shall expect him to drive us
they not attain? Who knows, Mr. Edi- over to Wit. P. Home's again, that we
tor, but that the lithographs of this may renew our acquaintance with his
fruit, as grown in California, for in- deservedly famous peach orchards and
-stance, 'will have to be enlarged in size nurseries.-A. H. C.]
in order to truthfully represent it as it __ ..
shall be grown in Florida? Bees and Grapes.
But I started out to- give you all the Bees and GrapeS.
information I could as far as my own Many notable horticulturists have
-experience goes, so now for the facts, complained of .theravages of the honey
Two ydars ago the past February I set bee id their vineyards, and we, like a'
-out six of these trees, they being what majority of fruit-growers, have taken it
-are known among nurserymen as June for granted that such was the case, and
-height. They.made a rapid growth the mind, who did not wish to sacrifice their
first year and bore the succeeding (last) bees upon a bare suspicion, and. who
year several plums each. The fruit on have sat down by a vine loaded with
them you-saw, Mr. Editor, while at my ripe fruit and watched patiently for the
place last summer, and just here allow true culprit.
me to say that-it was one of those six One of these doubters informed us that
trees that you mentioned in your issue he is satisfied, from personal observation,
-of January 19th, as being "larger than that it is impossible for the honey bee to
-that at Waldo, and with about a dozen puncture the skin of the grape. -His ex-
plums on it, but we are not informed as periment was as follows: After remov-
to its age." ing the crop from the vineyard, except.
From these trees I have cut wood for one vine, containing a couple of dozen
budding and grafting a very large number ripe bunches, he seated himself and
-of trees, and in'addition to what I have waited patiently for the real culprit.
sold I have now in my nursery over ten Bees and wasps of various kinds came
.thousand that have been worked from and went without doing any harm. At
the original six and their descendants, length his attention was drawn to a spe-
Notwithstanding the severe cutting I cies of wasp, which he described as fol-
have subjected them to, in order to ac- lows: Color or body, dark-red or bronze;
-complish this result, those six trees are wings, steel-blue, with a yellow spot on
now simply loaded down with fruit, each shoulder, and some with a yellow
The tree, of which you photographed spot on the forehead, perhaps a distin-
the fruit last year, is one of these six, guishing mark between the sexes. This
.and is already bending under its weight fellow allighting upon the 'berry, with
-of plums. I counted thirty of them on his strong mandibles ripped up the fruit,
.a limb, less than one foot long, this af- cutting a long gash as neatly as a doc-
ternoon, and'many other limbs on the tor's lancet, proceeded to fill himself
same and other trees show a propor- with the sweet juice,.and afterward went
tionate number. e to every bunch upon the vine, until all
I have trees that were set out one year of them were ruined. Other insects.
ago last February that were one year bees included, followed in his wike and
-old when set out, that matured fruit the naturally 'partook of the spoils. May it
same year, and that are bearing full this not be possible that.this same insect is
year. I set out, also,' about two hun- causing all the damage heretofore
dred dormant buds one year ago that charged to our friend, the honey-bee? -
-are bearing some this year. I have set *
out two hundred more of these trees The Elberta Peach.
the past winter and they all show the
same luxuriant growth and apparent This new and splendid peach is a seed-
perfect adaptation to the conditions un- ling from Southern grown fruit, and was
-der which they are grown, originated by Samuel H. Rumph, of
Their entire behavior so far is a strong Georgia. Referring to Mr. Rumph, the
incentive to me to set out more ofthem, Fruit and Grape Grower says: He has
-which I expect tb do quite largely next originated a variety of peach that has
winter. The unprecedented size, for a established itself in the Northern mar- p
plum, to which this fruit attains, its ket for size, beauty and delicious flavor,.
han-lsome appearance, fine quality, ex- and which commands prices before un-
tremely small pit, asserted absence of known to fruit growers in any section 1
-curculio ravages, its promise of heavy of the United States. The trees are of a
and uniformobearing in this State, and vigorous growth and prolific, and $15
last (which should be first, for without per bushel has been realized in New
it a fruit, however good, is of little York for an entire crop--many ship-
value for market purposes), its perfect ments paying an average,.it is said, of
adaptability for shipment long distances 20 cents per peach.
in a fresh condition (it has been shipped- The Georgia State Horticultural. So- t
in good condition from California to city says of it: Elberta we place at the ]
Philadelphia), all combine to make this head of July peaches. It. is delicate in '
plum a most decided acquisition to the texture, exquisite in flavor, peculiarly ,
list of fine fruits in this State. I carried beautiful in shape and color, of large
-specimens of this plum to Connecticut size and a most profitable variety, s
last year, packed in a box in my trunk,. c t
and, after having been packed two Self-Seeding Peas. -
weeks they were pronounced fine by my Soice a eringtofes. e
friends to whom Igave them. We notice advertisements of self-seed- t
The time of maturing in Florida, I ing cow peas. The red ripper (or rover) r
think, will range, during ordinary sea- pea, as it is called, will, if planted about
sons, from about August 15th 'to Sep- June (in certain localities), re-seed the -c
tembei 15th. Last year the spring ground for the following season. This
opened very late and the range of time is an advantage not to be despised by r
during which the fruit ripened was orange growers or persons wishing to w
even later than that with me, the last kill coco. Some planters consider them s
plums remaining on the trees (as I said as great a pest in the cotton or corn field a
before) till Octobtr 11th. as the morning glory. c
I shall hope, Mr. Editor, to have you f
make me another visit this year during Cotton seed hulls are used by some c
the season that the Kelsey plum is in its persons in the vicinity of New Orleans f
best condition, and have you pass judg- as a mulch for strawberries, serving
ment upon the fruit in the triple capac- also as an excellent fertilizer later in the ii
ity of an editor, an epicure, and an artist, season. u
PARA GRASS. for an ordinary corn crop is ample. As
for any other crop, of course, new,
"sour" ground will be in better condi-
A Valuable Addition to Florida's tion, if broken up and left exposed to
Forage Plants. the weather for several months, and
orae then thoroughly plowed and pulverized
BY P. W. REASONER. again.
More than fifty years ago, with some The grass takes roots very easily,, and
difficulty, the Para grass was brought to unless,in a very dry time, it may be sim'-
the Island of Trinidad, presumably from ply planted as corn or potatoes, one man
Para, Brazil, though the historian does with a hoe-to dig shallow holes and
not say, and botanists describe it as a cover, another to drop the pieces of roots
native of the warmer p-irts of Asia, (which he carries in a basket with him).
Africa and America. Thence it worked Another very good way, in old, mellow
its way up the Antilles to Jamaica and ground, is to drop in every third or
Cuba, and finally, a few years ago, fourth furrow when plowing, smooth-
found its way to South Florida. We ing off afterwards, of course, with har-
are not positive, but think we have once row, or "Acme."
heard the statement made that it was There are people in the world who
first brought here by Capt. Hendry, of chronically object to any tree or plant
Fort Myers, from Havana. At any rate that proves to be an especially luxuriant
it is here, and here to stay. or rampant grower; people who will cut
The Para grass is a somewhat coarse, down a mass of fragrant and evergreen
quick-growing fodder grass, eaten read- honeysuckle to make room for some
ily by all kinds of stock, .and flourishes puny plant not half so beautiful; who
best on low moist ground. During the will plant apple seed in an old tea kettle
*earlier stages of its growth itis creeping,. and nurse them with all the care in the
rooting at every joint, but after a sod is world, at the same time hiring a negro
once established, it grows upright, and by the day to grub up all the guava
under favorable conditions will reach a bushes that dare to come up within a
height of three or four feet. The great quarter of a mile of their dwelling. Such
. PARA GRASS. (P-aiciat miolle.)
advantage that this grass possesses over
most fodder plants in Florida,. is its
willingness to grow luxuriantly on any
piece of well-broken flat-woods, in any
pond that is dr that is dry two-third of the year,
or on almost any quality of low moist
land, no matter how poor it is. It will
grow, also, on drier land, but will not
grow so fast, nor can it be cut so
The grass can be pastured, mowed and
'ed in a green state, or made into hay
'ar superior to a great deal of the musty
timothy hay that is shipped to Florida.
If not pastured at all it can be cut from
three to six times during the year. How
many tons to the acre it will produce
luring the year, we are not prepared to
state, but we do know that a couple of
years ago a neighbor kept twoh cows,
with calves, on a patch of Para grass not
exceeding one-fourth of, an acre-In ex-
ent, for several months during the
rainy season, and kept them well, too.
The Para grass produces seed here bc-
!asionally, but by far the best -way to
plant it is to set out the roots, or in the
'ainy season, even the stalks-anything.
with a joint on it. If stalks or roots are
carce it may be set from four to six feet-
apart each way,. and then will soon
cover the ground. Set out in the spring,
our feet apart on favorable land, it will
'over the ground by July, and may be
mowed by August 1st, or sooner.
No-especial preparation of the ground
s needed other than thorough breaking
ip and .pulverizing. The preparation
people will object to the Para grass,
They see the long, luxuriant stems creep-
ing on' the ground, rooting at every joint
during the rainy season, and a great
fear comes over them, that it may "get
the best" of them. To such people our
advice is not to plant t it. By a man who
is not afraid of an hour's work with a
hoe, it is easily controlled, as there are
no underground i~unners, as in the caie
of the Bermuda grass.
As 'regards frosts, the Para grass is
tender. A shifrost kills the tops, but
when well established-l ntedven such a
freeze as that of January, 1886, will kill
out the'roots, and in the spring it shoots
up again with all its former vigor. If
the Para grass pasture is plowed up
every two years it will prove a benefit,
cultivation proving as advantageous to
thts grass as to a eiy other.
Thees grass is a favorite forage plant in
Chba, and is grown to a great extent in
the outskirts'of Havana, finding a ready
market in the city.- The subject brings
to mind a certain-bare-legged Chinaman,
to his ankles in water in the ditch sur-
rounding the botanical gardens, shaded
by a row of Thrinax palms and a hedge
of immense creamy-leaved azalias and
gorgeous acalyphas and justicias, leis-
urely trimming the adventurous Para
grabs with a pair of shears.
From early morning till eleven o'clock
the vendor of green fodder may be seen
anywhere and everywhere in the streets
of Havana. The fodder, either Para
grass or corn, is bound in a prodigious
and peculiar mass, on the back and sides high pine land, fertilized with muck and
of a horse or mule, leaving nothing of animal manure.
the animal visible but four feet, a pair I have a little teosinte growing this
of ears and a muzzle. This colossal pyr- spring, and have just been out to inspect
amid of greenery gradually disappears it. The stalks are from Athree to six
as breakfast time (eleven o'clock) ap- inches high. but I could not see any in-
proaches (much to the relief of the pa- sects on them. The plants are in a bay
tient little bearer,no doubt),and by eleven head, where the soil is moist. It has
o'clock one can see, overlooking the been fertilized with cotton-seed meal
plaza from the hotel window, nothing chiefly. But they do not seem to grow
but swarms of mules, jingling bells and so freely as on my neighbor's dry land. -
immense-red tassels a foot or more' long D. G. WATT.
(worn under a mule's ears, on-the side of PINELLAS, Fla., April 11, 1887.
the headstall, for what purpose no one [Anyone desiring to try the teosinte
can tell), and little heaps of green. corn can obtain a packet of seed free by mail,
stalks or Para grass here, there and by addressing the editor of the FA&RMKR
everywhere. The drivers sip aguadiente AND FRUIT-GROWER.] -
in the cafe.near by, leaving,the donkeys -
to follow their "own sweet will."' They 01 l
frequently have lively kicking spress Olive Culture.
over their respective piles of fodder, but The following summary of experience
never under any circumstances getting with-the olive in California, contained
tangled up in the harness, unwinding in the Pacific Fruit-Grower, will interest
from a seemingly hopeless chaos of those who are attempting the culture of
chains, straps and hind legs, to munch this fruit in Florida:
away peacefully until breakfast is From a sifting of all evidence, it would
over. seem that a warm, moderately dry cli-
Perhaps the best proof of the suitabil- mate, within from five to thirty miles of
ity of Para grass for South Florida is the the ocean, is the most favorable to the
fact that many of the "old original olive. A low, moist- valley should be
Florida crackers" are "taking to it" im- avoided on account of scale.
mensely, and it is getting in favor with Thorough drainage should be consid-
many progressive stockmen. ered carefully, and a warm, even tem-
MANATEE, Fla.,-April 15, 1887. perature that will facilitate winter
growth,'is to be desired. Mr. Loop's
Notes on Para Grass. trees are planted upon gravelly Mesa
land, and did not require water until
The Para grass (Panicummolle) is of so they bore a full crop, and very little
large a growth that, in illustrating it then, applied when the cro began to
without reduction, we can only repre- color. They were thoroughly cultivated,
sent sections, the assurgent culm, a however. He considers that the irriga-
single leaf, a panicle of rather small tion required by the orange would prove
size and a magnified spikelet-these may highly injurious to the olive, while Major.?
give those who have not seen it growing Utt believes in thorough irrigation, al-
an idea of its appearance. Its habit of though he says winter irrigation alone
growth is like that of crab grass. Its will keep aiLorchard in a healthlygrow-
specific name, mol-le, describes its soft, ing state, and in many Ipcalities the
downy surface. The native grass, given natural moisture will stffice to make an
in Chapman's Flora erroneously as Pan- orchard profitable. 4
icum molle, is Eriochloa mollis. It. is It has. been generally supposed that
similar, yet quite distinct-a coarse, au- the olive rather prefers a rocky and
tumnal grass, growing along ditches and somewhat barren soil. In Europe it
shores in South Florida, assuming quite certainly flourishes in -places -where a
a slender form (var. longifolia). cactus would hardly, grow, but Major
The Para grass is said not to produce Utt says it is a great mistake to presume
good seed in this country, but it is easily that the olive can be grown on a barren
propagated by cuttings or joints of the soil without fertilizers. Use manure
running stems. liberally, and use it to an extreme degree
Colonel Codrington claims to have in- to supplement the lack of irrigation. The
produced the grass into Florida. In olive is a voracious feeder, and will ap-
writing of it in his paper, the Florida propriate enough plant- food during the
Agriculturist, he said: "The Para grass months of winter moisture to carry the
we introduced in 1875, and sent plants to tree through the dry summer season,
different parts of the State. It is a na- provided there is an abundant food sup-
tive of Brazill and grows on the banks ply ready for storage and assimilation.
of the Amazon. The fattening qualities The Mission is generally recommended.
are very great. It spreads with great for oil, and the European olive for pick-
rapidity, and is just the grass we want ling. The latter, also, is preferable for
for our low, wet. lands, Every joint propagation, as the small limbs will
takes root, and is planted from cuttings. serve for cuttings, and will root where a:
It will grow far into the water and over Mission cutting will fail. European
creeks." olives ripen two months in advance of
Ithe Mission olives. Trees should be
Teosinte in Hillsboro County. planted in an orchard, and cuttings in
a nursery. Plant not less than thirty-
The experience of those who have cul- six feet apart, or you will regret it in
tivated teosinte are so at variance that after years; remember, in planting, that
it will be difficult to arrive at a popular the olive root is more sensitive to expos-
verdict. As a rule, cultivators have are than the orange.
been pleased with it, yet it seem to be Th ob\ jg. eassil budded or grafted,
neculiarlv subject to attaqki of insects; so there is no trouble in obta
which, in s86lf~ aces, v -"ine t rieties. Small, one-yeardin btarsca
and rendered its presence a nuisance, bought ior *'"nt-five tenntg
All specimens of the -plant thatwe each. The roots of trees shoi daglway
have seen were as clean as could be. A be puddled before shipping, and great
Patch of it which we saw on Mr. McFar- care taken against exposure. The busi-
ae's farm, near Lake City, showed no ness of propagating the trees should be
signs of insect depredations,-and a plant left to the nurserymen, except u ar
grown by Dr. C. J. Kenworthy, at Jack- case where a party cannot afford tuy
sonville, reached its full development trees.
without apparent injury. When it comes to profits, olive-ow-
Mr. George C. Idner, who called on us er can show figures which should sat-
o, our crreto t f T sho wud rte splus cro l Ellforty d
recently on his way from Thomasvlle, isfy the most exacting. Major Utt has
Ga., to the Indian river-where-he will an olive orchard of twenty-five bearpig
take up his .residence againt-informed trees, planted in orchard seven years to
us that he ad cult f ivaed teosinte at include e 1886; the product from ten of
Thomasville, Ga., with much satisfac- them last year was 750 gallons of olives.
tion, obtaining as many as four cuts from He sld the surplus crop at for ty cents
it during the season. Mr. Idner is en- per gallon, casks furnished, or $12 per
thusiastic as to Texas blue grass, and has tree. Fifty gallons of average cron to
lowing is a portion of a letter from one mate, and this amount would make six
of our correspondents on Tampa Bay: and a quarter gallons oil. Ellwood-
Editor Florsda Farmer.and PFrit-Grower: Cooper gets $10 per gallon for his oil. In-
A neighbor of mine received some creased production will lower the whole-
seeds of teosinte last year from the e- sale price to $4 per gallon, or at the
apartment of Agriculture. He planted lowest $25 per tree-equal to $900 per
twenty-one seeds and fifteen of them acre. Allow one-half for expenses and
came up, but before any of them attained interest on investment, and you have the
a height of three feet they were des- neat sum of $450per acre as net profit."
royed by insects. The gentleman is a Mr. Loop has been offered eighty cents a
naturalist, and thinks that all kinds of gallon for all the pickled olives he can
insects which feed on succulent plants prepare for market. -
oraged on his teosntosinte. He thins he Of the great future which awaits the
could have taken a teacupfuloffa single culture of the olive on this coast there can
stalk. Plant lice were most abundant, be uo doubt; We are still in the experi- .
Ad that part where the leaf jins the mentalstage. In fact, olive culture stands
stalk was simply covered with" them. about where the raisin industry did ten
Besides these, the curculios came; even years ago.
horseflies and bees seemed to feed on the es a "
attractive plants. The rei lt was that Cotton-Seed Hulls for Milch
one leaf after another -dropped, until in
Lbout six weeks after planting all the CoWS.
plants were destroyed. New Orleans dairymen feed-cotton- -
My friend came to the conclusion that seed hulls almost exclusively to their
he chief use of'teosinte-in this district, milch cows, preferring them, it is said,
.t any rate-would be to serve as a nur- to the best hay. The price paid'is $5 per
ery for insects. His plants grew on ton at the mills, .
f,,jad rd u den
Barren Pear Trees Made Fruit-
There are various ways of stimulating
the bearing of fruit trees by impairing
their vigor and checking the formation
of wood and leaf tissues.
A neighbor of ours has increased the
fruiting of his LeConte pear trees by
driving nails into them. In traveling
through South Carolina we met a man
who claimed to have a patent right for
this process, the nails first to be% soaked
"* The. girdling process seems to us a bar-
barous one, unless the space girdled be
narrow enough to close over readily.
Col. Dennett, of the New Orleans Pica-
yune, gives his experience as follows:
On our farm, near Brookhaven, Miss.,
is an old pear tree, about six inches in
diameter, and it seems to us that it- has
Increased but little in size in eight years.
We have never seen a blossom on it for
eight years until this season, and we do
not believe it ever had a blossom until
this year. It is probably 15 or 20 years
About last April or May. .we' girdled
the tree-took all of the bark off fiom
the ground to about two feet 'above.
We then tied a grass bag around it to
keep the sun from reaching the barkless
On the 9th of.March, 1887, it has per-
haps one or two hundred.. .blossoms on
it with prospects of a general and gen-
-erous supply in a week or two. We
hope it will bear plenty of fruit, but
cannot say about this until later in the
We once saw a barren pear, tree on
Bayou Teche, in Southern Louisiana,
treated in the same manner with the
same results. Those who have barren
trees can know whether this will make
their trees.fruitful by trying the experi-
ment. They need. not be afraid of its
killing the tree-a new, bark will form
in 'place of the old one. If it were to
kill a barren pear 'tree it would be no
loss, so the experiment may be made
with safety, perhaps with profit..
There is an old story about some col-
lege students one night girdling all the
trees in a farmer's orchard, which gave
rise to a lawsuit and fines. Contrary to
expectation the trees all lived, and bore
more fruit than ever before.
Lately a correspondent has written us
That he has some fine pecan trees that
bore a year or two, and then stopped
bearing. -He wants to know how to
make them bear. We know of no way,
unless root-pruning or girdling will. do
it. We would try taking two feet of the
bark off all round just above the ground.
We would girdle boie in, April. arid one
in May,' and if the. results are 'favorable
girdle the .,rest. Perhaps this may apply
to barren fruit trees generally.: :
SAnieriqan-Grapes in France.
In a recent report on the wine harvest
of-FranceC.oul Mason, writing from
SMarseilles tiamir date of Bec. 29, 1886,
In the south of Franc,' .where the
ravages of the phylloxera first became
serious, and where the restoration of
- devastated vineyard by planting zAmer-
ican vines was first begun, the product
of the past year has been larger nd of
better quality 'than, in 'the 'central aind
northern districts. Of the. five Depart-
ments in France which have grown the
largest quantities of -wine' 'during the
season of 1886, three are in-the 'Consular
District of Marseillebs, viz;'Herault, with
S2.9994,26 hectolitersi; Aude, with 2,872,-
910 hectoliters, and the Pyrenees Orien-
'tales, with 1,175,20.9 hectoliters. 'There
are in these Departments, particularly
in the Herault," many vineyards of
American vines,'four and five years of
- age, which have yielded extraordinary
results, both as to quantityaiand quality
of wine produced._-.'
Never before have the advantages of
that method of restoration and protec-
tion against phylloxera been so clearly
demonstrated as during.the past season.
Many, even intelligentt' wine growers,
who have persistently doubted the per-
manence of this remedy, have now be-
come coivinged, and It seems to be only
a matter of a few yeava i,b :-". t'. o
:..-, ; ,, -,. 115 Wlie B)t 10
tIe former wine growing lands of South-
Sern France, which have latterly been
devoted to grain -anid root brops, will be
restored. to the far more .lucrative
growth of wine,, which at the present
prices for wine of even ordinary qualities
yields enormous profits.
American, grape vines, judiciously
ch 'n with reference to soil and situa-
ti efandcarefully cultivated, yield In
many instances larger -crops than the
native vines'formerly produced on the
same ground. so that, with the vigorous
replanting that is now being practiced,
it is to be confidently hoped that the
vintages: of France will rapidly .and
surely 'Increase, until. they reach the
proportions of those gathered prior to
The London 'Economist, January 1,
1887, says: .
Growers have endeavored to combat
these scourges phylloxeraa and mildew)
by planting their vineyards with Amer-
ican vines; but the introduction of the'
new stocks has led' to the .acclimatiza-.
tion of' a new malady,: the black rot.
which has appeared in some districts of'
the Department of the Herault.
The Bruchzdice, or weevils proper,
mostly breed in the 'seed'of leguminous-
plants; their larve 'are fat, clumsy,
wrinkled girubs, and in some instances
are provided with short legs. Their
eggs are not inserted in pods, as has
been heretofore asserted by authorities,
but are invariably glued to the outside
of the pod; they are elongate, generally
smooth, but suruetimes'beautifully retic-
ulate. The new-born larvus eat directly
through the pod and into the seed, the
hole of entrance effectually closing up if
the pod is yet green.
The pea weevil (Bruehus piel L.) af-
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MAY 4, 1887.
fects peas, one individual appropriating
the contents of one pea; the 'eggs are
laid while the pod is forming. The bean
weevil (Bruchus fabce, Riley) infest
beans, several individuals developing in
the same bean; Bruchus bivulneratus,
Horn, breeds in the seeds of Cassia Mary-
landica, and its eggs, which are reticu-
late and fastened by two filaments ante-
riorly and one posteriorly, are laid on
the mature pod; the honey-locust seed
weevil (Spermophagus rebince, Schk.)
has distinct thoraic legs, and spins from
the mouth a cocoon of silk, mixed with
excrement, in which to undergo its
The remedies employed against these
weevils are principally kiln-drying, sul-
phur fumes, and the sprinkling of air-
slaked lime among the grain. The best
antidote, however, is cleanliness. All
rubbish that the weevils can harbor un-
der should be burned, cracks filled up,
the walls whitewashed, and a general
supervision had over the grain, which
should be kept as cool as possible and
well aired.-C. V. Riley.
In Reply to Inquiries.
Will some one please tell me about the
arbor vita, tree, the best means for ob-
taining a quick growth, etc? Believe it
does well in this State, and it is very or-
na'nental. I have a small one in boom.
- Is it a species of the Norway Spruce?
and will that tree succeed here?
The Chinese arbor vitar, 'with erect,
flat branches, succeeds well in Florida,
and is very desirable. Of the other va-
rieties we have seen no specimens of
any size.. Being mostly derived from
the'white cedar of the Northern States
and Canada, we do not think they would
thrive in Florida.
The Norway spruce belongs to a differ-
ent group.. of the conifer :family-with
open cones and slender, spreading leaves.
Whether it has ever been planted in
Florida or not we cannot say, but it
could not be expected to succeed so far
out of its natural range.
For expediting the growth of arbor
vitae, and of ornamental trees, shrubs
and plants in general, we would sink
barrels, half-barrels, tubs -or boxes,.
after knocking out the bottom, and fill
with good garden soil, plant therein and
water well with dishwater and the like.
This method we recommend to all who
live, as Inquirer does, in a region of
deep, porous sand In such soil most
exotics have a hard struggle until they
can get their roots down to a depth of
two or three yards. Therefore it is best
to aid them at the.outstart. More satis-
faction will be derived from a few vig-
orois plants than/from a. large number
in a stunted, puny and dying condition.
.. :.. A. H.C.
-, PURPLE PRIMROSE. -
SWill'you" please tell me the 'name of
the enclosed flower?'- It grows-wild' in
fence corners' and other places' -where
weeds grow. It is. very pretty, :and
'growing as it does, without care or cul-
tivation, I think it a very desirable plant
for flower gardens. .. "
; : -F. B. CHAPMAN.
,, MARTANNA, Fla.
This plant,, of which a flower is sent in
letter, is riot :attributed .to Florida by any
of the books. It is an immigrant from the
far' West, having probably followed the
new lines of railroad, for plants travel
by rail as well as people. Its botanical
.name is '(Eit6hera rose. It is one of
the. finumerous. species of the evening
primrose genus, but as it is not a noctur-
nal bloomer, and as there are no true
prinmroses in this country, we would call
this simply purple primrose.
Nearly'all the species of this large
genus have yellow flowers composed of
four thin and rather evanescent petals.
One of the" nocturnal bloomers (OEno-
thera. shinuata) is one.of the early weeds
common in gardens. This is a true
"evening primrose." A diurnal species
(CEnothewra linearis) is a conspicuous
ornament of the open woods of Western
Florida, blooming throughout the sum-
mer. On the great plains of the West
there are some grand species with flow-
ers nearly ix. inches broad, .
-, : ..... .'. ,A; A ,H ,0.
This .specimen sent; from Enterprise by
iS. Hale appears to be two-thirds of a
leaf of the hop-tree. The specimen is
remarkably large, but the foliage varies
greatly, and as the leaflets are oblique,
translucent dotted and of mephitic.
odor, we have no doubt that they are of
this species; though we did' not suppose
it extended so far south. It usually
grows in shrub form on calcareous
The round, flat seeds are usually borne
in profusion. They have the properties
of hops, but should 'not be used as a
A Mole Trap.
A writer for Home and Farm describes
a contrivance for catching moles:
Take :a piece of plank three-fourths of
an inch thick by six inches wide and two
and one-lhalf. or three feet long; then,.
with a good-sized .gimlet, commence
about eight inches from one end anid
thriee-fourths of an'inch from the edge,
and bore a hole; one and one-half inches
from that another, and so on until you
have bored four holes; then opposite
them, on the other side, bore four more;
then sharpen large wire, cut the pieces
five inches long, and drive in the holes
tight; then make the two short triggers
as for a boy's trap for .birds,the long trig-
ger to be made of 'a piece of board one
and one-half inches wide; trim it down
until it is one-half inch thick, except at
the back end, which should be full width;
for one and one-half inches from the
end all the trimming to be done on the
bottom side; then cut notches same 'as
long triggers for boy's trap for birds, and
your trap is complete. Then where the
moles run, take the trigger and mash it
down in the track crosswise; then set the
trap, putting it, of course, crosswise the
track, so your spikes will center over the
track, with the long trigger in tle in-
dented place, so the mole, when he
comes along, will be sure to raise the
trigger, and by having weight enough
on the top to drive the spikes down with
force sufficient to stick through the mole
you will seldom fail to kill him.
Next to Pecans the Favorite
Crop at "Ribera."
BY ARTHUR BROWN.
'Having had thirty years experience in
SKentucky with Irish potatoes and four
years in Florida.; I propose giving my
methods for the benefit of those who are
in doubt as to the modus operandi best
suited to Florida. Theory is one thing
and practice another. If you have
raised Irish potatoes in your old home
away up North and come to Florida de-
termined to forget'all you learned there
and to commence de novo, listening to
each man's theory and trying to forget
your own knowledge, and follow di-
rections of Tom, Dick and Harry, you
may hit it, but ten to one you will miss
it, and fail to raise enough even to eat,
and then blame Florida.
Now, it is true, my experience in Flor-
ida is only four years, and the natural
advantages of first-class land, with,clay
subsoil, may have had something t6 do
with my success with Irish potatoes.
Still, I found by drawing very largely
on my past experience as a Kentucky
farmer, aided me more than all the
theories advanced by" the different
papers and the practice of a few crack-
ers on cow-penned land. So I quietly
laid all these aside and planted as I had
done for thirty years, altering here and
there as experience dictated.
Commence and end the crop as -you
did in your Northern home, only re-
membering the difference in time, of
planting and digging, and also the 0lif-
ference in fertilizing. If March was the
month to plant in your old home, then
plant here in January or February.
There you hauled out the manure in
frozen weather and spread it, and. as
soon after as possible plowed it un4er,
but that will not do-here. .
Get pure New. York Early Rose and
cut to one and two eyes. Cut the blos-
som end off and throw to the pigs, for if
yotu .plant them small potatoes will
surely come. Plow the ground well
with a two-horse plow, and just as deep
as the rich mould extends, without turn-
ing up the clay, and then smooth down
Lay off the rows with a two-horse
plow and cover with the one-horse plow.
Let the rows be three feet apart, and
drop the potatoes from etghteen inches
to two feet apart. After the rows are,
laid off, and before planting, .giveto.
each row a good. supply 'of stable ma-
nure. Drop the ..potatoes on top of this
manure and then cover, all with the one-.
horse plow. .
In about fifteen days harrow the vPo.
tato ridges down by running the harx'ow
diagonally across them, with the harrow
turned bottom side up, or you can use a
common door 'instead of the harrow.
When the potatoes get about four inches
high,run the cultivator once through each
row, and in a week or ten days use. the
hoe, cleaning out all young grass and
weeds. In ten days run the cultivator
again, and then follow with one-horse
In this locality (twenty five miles
from Pensacola), I plant. 'the first week
in February and have potatoes to eat in
April. I generally dig for local markets
in May, and never fail to get less than
from $3.50 to $4 per barrel. I did ship
once to New York and got $1.40 per bar-
rel when I could have sold at home for
$3;.50. But I don't propose to argue the
question of shipping. I only wish to
tell what I have done in the way of
I do not know how many I have
raised per acre in Florida, but know
they are always large, and fine in every
respect. I was told that it would not do
to leave potatoes in the ground after
maturity, and so at first dug my crop in
May and June, and sold them as fast as
possible. The last two seasons I dug
only as the market required, and also
for family use, and had potatoes until
September and very few rotted in the
I do not lose the ground so occupied
by the potatoes, but keep the grass cut
for my stock where I have not dug, and
plant whippoorwill peas after digging,
and finally, in November, plow under
the pea vines and any grass that is left,
with a two-horse plow. I have now the
fourth crop of Irish potatoes on same
ground and consider the present one the
best. By free use of stable manure and
full plowing, the same. ground can be
planted for. years in Irish potatoes and
onionsiand no ground giyes better reward
for good attention than this same Florida
sand, at least that is my experience so
BLACKWATER, Santa Rosa Co., Fla.
[Experiences with fall planted pota-
toes arenow in order. Some claim that
they can make more money out of po-,
tatoes, planted in 'September than in
February. A neighbo).,,of ours thinks
that Mr. Horne's advice as to potato oul-
;ture in an early number of the. FARMER
AND FRUIT-GROWER was worth to him
more than the year's .subscription.-A.
Market Gardening. ;
The following interesting notes were
contributed to the Palatka News by Mr.
James Caulfield, of DeLand, who has
the reputation of being a practical and
successful gardener, as well as dairy-
The great secret in growing vegetables
upon high pine lands consists to a great
extent in the thorough preparation of
the land in the first place, and in its con.
stant cultivation after the seeds or plants
are full started and planted out where
you intend them to remain.
We particularly wish to emphasize in
this article, as we have done several
times before, the great utility of thorough, on one acre of land than two of corn,
and deep planting. Vegetables will not and you will soon find your chickens.
succeed.where shallow plowing is fol- looking better and healthier than those
lowed.. that have not had any sunflower seed to
I think it should be clear to everyone eat.
that there are ingredients in our soil suit- *
able to the growth of many.vegetables, HOW OUR PAPER IS REGARDED.
and these ingredients can only be of
avail to the plants by plowing such a A Few Comments of Cortes-
depth that they will be brought in reach A Few Comments f o s-
of the roots of those vegetables which do pondents and the PreSS.
not send their feeders very deep into the Oneof the prominent citizens of At-
Ssoil. lanta, Ga., writing to the publishers of
Our plan is to grow a crop of cow- the F.F. &F..G., says: "Your lsst v6n-
peas upon the ground devoted to gardenture, the FLORIDA FARMER AND. FRUIT-
pupssduring the summer. This ue h LRD AMRAD.FUT
purposes during the summer. This GROWER, is a remarkable one for the
serves a double purpose, the peas pro- beauty of its mechanical execution and
tecting the ground from the extreme the crisp, fresh and appropriate charac-
heat, and when turned under, forming a ter of its editorial and selected matter.
valuable manure. Professor Curtiss evidently knows how
The peas are turned under about the to work, and 'knowledge is power' only
first w'eekin September, and the last 'when there is indomitable energy behind
week of same month we put on a heavy it. But I neednot preach to C. H. Jones
application of barn-yard manure. The on this topic, as his -pushing of the
manure, when well rotted, does not re- Times-Union to success over or through
quire to-be pu on too long before getting mountains of opposition and difficulties
ready to sow your seeds, in consequence insurmountable to a man of less daring
of the porous 'nature of the soil. Another and persistent qualities, clearly proves."
point not to be forgotten is that on pine
land, if the manure is plowed in a soak- Georgia's great agricultural journal,
ing-wet state, it holds the moisture a the Southern Cultivator and Dixie Far-
long time, so that ,during the'past season mer, says: "The Success of the FLORIDA
the soil here at no time suffered from FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER, of Jack-
dry weather. sonville, surpasses that of any similar
STURNIPS.publication in America. The publishers
TURNIPS seem to be over-liberal in giving the
Turnips require to be sown in drills mechanical part every attraction possi-
about eighteen inches apart. On pine ble, while Editor Curtiss is doing the
land they will not succeed sown broad- best work of his life. It is a combina-
cast. In fact, we have proved that no tion that cannot fail of abundant success.
matter what crop it may be, whether in The Cultivator is never sorry to see such
the garden or for forage, the drill system enterprise rewarded, as we have no
in every instance is preferable. We also rivals to be jealous of, but wish all suc-
find that it is'half the battle in getting cess."
seeds to germinate quickly to bring the Mr. Percival Brewer, of Monmouth,
soil at time, of sowing in close contact Il., writes, under date of April 9th: "I
with the seeds- by pressing hard down think your paper the best agricultural
with a hoe or back of a rake; by doingaer published in the South."
this the moisture is brought in contact pape pu lse i th S,-o anth.
with the seeds, and when rain comes Hon. J. C. Pelot of Manatee, writes as
they get the full benefit of it. When the follows: "I look upon your paper as
soil is left loose the water appears to es- one of the most valuable additions to
cape and the seeds are much longer in our agricultural interests. It is ably
germinating edited, practical, directs attention to
When our turnips are-well up they are matters' of primary importance in the
thinned out as soon as possible to three development of our various industries,
inches between each plant, and again in and carries with ita spirit of energy and
two weeks every second plant is taken enterprise that must address itself to ev-
out. This second thinning makes the ery searcher after information."
most excellent of early greens, which Judging from the expressions of ap-
is a great desideratum so early in the proval which are coming to us daily
season. We keep our turnips well stirred from correspondents and the press, and
during the progress of growth and find' from the rapid increase of our subscrip-
it pays. We have grown three crops of tion list, it is evident that the' FARMER
turnips upon the same piece of ground AND FEUIT-GROWERhas met with a more
during the past season, favorable reception than we had yen-
Without water facilities there is no tured to expect. -
use of trying to grow turnips after the In a few instances we can give the sen-
middle of March. Of course this remark timent of a letter by quoting one or two
is onLy applicable to pine land. To have sentences, as in the following examples:
tender, sweet turnips all the season Prof. S. N. Whitner, of the Agricul-
through, we make a sowing once every tural Col'ege of Florida,. writes as fol-
two or three weeks. lows; I can sayi m all sincerity, it has
-exceeded my most sanguine expectations.,
Torow CARROTS. i Already ft is without a peer-n all the
To grow carrots,'with which we have SSouth."
been, very successful this winter, so ]S Mr.Thomas Meehan, the distingiphed
much so that we. propose growing three, horticulturist and proprietor of the Ger-
or four acres for .,the use of our stock antown nur ries. in a letter dat
-. .. manownnurseries, in a letter dat'e
next winter, we give much the same March 5th, writes: ..I am very'rnmuch
treatment as with turnips. With this., leda with the FARMER AND FRUIT-
vegetable comes in the advantage of GROWER, and shall read it regularly,.
deep plowing. We do not sow carrots which you know is a highly compliment
but twice during the season, as early in. for an editor to pay to an exchangee"
October as possible and again in Jan- p rof. ,L. Phares, the'l- eminent-pro-
uary. As to the quality and flavor of fessor of biology in the Agricultural Col-
the carrots grown here, we must leave lege of Mississippi, says in the Southern
that question to the dozens of our cus- Li Stock Journal: "His [the editor's]
homers who have hal them supplied for valuable paper already appearing in the
their table. For ourselves, we-have never first numbers are fulfilling our. expecta-
tasted carrots with the same flavor and prediction. They may befully
quality of the North, and, indeed, this i ea upon fod pr conscientious correc-
may be said of vegetables of all kinds, ness of statement and scientific accur-
-----**------- facy of detail."
Salt With Cotton Seed. Hon. J. Wm. Ewan, writing from
EditorFlorida Farmner and .-utit-Grower,; Miami, Dade county, says: "Certainly
If your correspondent had put salt or you are doing a good work in establish-
brine on his cotton seed meal the cut- Ing an enlightened and scientific system
worms would not have been so bad. It of agriculture, which heretofore has
has been an established fact for many been seriously neglected. Your paper is
years here, where the seeds are grown inviting in appearance, pure in senti-
and used whole, that cut-worms are 4es- ment, and progressive in principle, and
tructive in gardens or fields of corn if surely must succeed." *
fertilized with rotted seed, unless salt is Mr. S. A. Stevens, of Sumter county, ,
applied to the seed ia some way. writes: "I am in love with your paper,
The usual method is to compost with but am taking so many now that until
stable manure, cotton seed, salt and soil, some subscription runs out I can't take
We use very little commercial fertilizers more, but calculate to be a subscriber to
in our garden. It is not so good as the your paper soon." -
compost above mentioned. Mr. E. W; Amsden, of Ormond-on-the-
F. B. CHAPMAN. Halifax, whites as follows: "I am tak-
MARIANNA, Fla. ing ten papers on agricultural subjects,
rrm iM .*;and if asked to surrender the FARMER
[The above is a valuable suggestion, and if asked to surrender tell themER
and should be borne well in mind by AND FRUIT-GROWR, I would tell them
those who use this popular fertilizer. It to take the other a nine, but lead vemars
has been established in these columns that May peace and plenty and years
that there is danger in cotton seed, and of grace be given ,you to continue the
now we are glad to present an antidote good work."'
for the same. Little by little a complete Mr. J. V. Dansby, of Pensacola, whose
knowledge of Florida's resources is be- eminent success in truck gardening, as
ing built up.What is in doubt now may well as his able writings on farm topics,
be manifest a week hence. entitle his opinion to respect, expresses
If people were only more generous of -himself as follows: "The first number
If eope wreonl moe eneousofof the FARnMER AND FRUIT-GROWER was
their knowledge, more disposed to share of the FARMER AND FRUrr-GROW was
duly received aild is the best thing in itsc
it with, others, progress would be more way I have seen. It is just the paper
rapid. Some of the best agriculturists in wa Idavs yon I i ut the pres-
Florida reside in and around Marianna, needed, standard if you keep it up to the prcoms-
but they manifest little desire to com- ent standard of excellence must become
but they manifest little desire to c popular with the people. I can't see
municate with the rest of the world. where you have left any room for im-
The result is that Jackson county-and where you have left any room for im-
likewise Gadsden-while among the provement." Stevens, of Orange
very best counties in the State, attract countywrites: "Your able paper fills a
no attention from immigrants, and county, writes: "Your able paper fills a
hence they make but little advance in want long felt in this part for a good ag-
wealthe and populationtl H. e C. ricultural paper. Success to you."
wealth and population.-A. H, 0. Roy. T. W. Moore, of Marion county,
_writes: "I believe your paper will do a
Sunflowers and Poultry. good work in disseminating new ideas in
A writer for the Southern Live Stock regard to fruit raising, farming, stock
Journal says: raising, etc."
I think there ought to be thousands of A veteran nurseryman, who objects to
chickens raised where there are only a the publication of his name, expresses
dozen now, as there is no danger of himself thus: "I like your paper first-
starving when plenty of polutry can be rate, and believe it will be the agricul-
raised so cheap. Let some try my plan, tural paper of Florida. I hope after a
and if it wont pay, I have no more to little while to give you an article every
say. If you want to raise a plenty and week."
cheap, have a piece of land close to your Mr. H. G. Daniels, of Amelia Island:
house; plow and harrow it over, lay off "Judging from what I have seen of the
your rows three or four feet apart and FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER, it is the
plant it in sunflowers. Plant the seed best agricultural paper published in the
thick in the drill, and when your hens South. I predict immense success for it."
have young chickens plow two or three Mr. Arthur BroWn, of Santa Rosa
furrows every morning, so the hens can county, writes: "Judging by the copy
scratch and get the worms for their sent me the paper is 'A No. 1,' and I do
young. When the sunflowers get ripe, not wish to miss a single number."
grind or pound some of the seed and Mr. S. L. Culler, of Seffner, Florida,
give the. 'little ones-the big ones will writes: "If you continue to make the
feed themselves. You can raise more FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER
S ROCK' RY'-. ,: ', --,
PRICES THE LOWEST.
C. S. LEN'i. ,e .CO.,
m AITLAND NURfSERIES.
ORANGE AND LEMON TREES,
Buds:not placed on small stocks, but on extra
large and fine ones.'.
We make a specialty bf the
--EARLY SPANISH RANGE--'--
(the earliest variety known),
TOHITI LIMES and
VILLA FRANCA LEMONS,
and can show trees of the latter that stood the
cold last winter as well as the Orange, and
NOW HAVE FRUIT UPON THEM.
Send for Catalogue.
KEDNEY & CAREY,
P. 0- Winter Park Fla
ROYAL PALM NXUSERI]S
Rare tropicals ornamental and fruit plants for
open air culture in Florida, and for the North-
ern greenhouse. Also, a full line of semi-tropi-
ical trees, plants and grasses, and general nur-
sery stock adapted to Florida and the South.
Exotics from India, Australia and the West
Indies, many of them never before introduced
into the United States. .
The most complete descriptive catalogue of
tropical and semi-tropical plants published in
America. Catalogue mailed, post-paid, on re-
ceipt of 15 cents. Free to all customers.
Canada Hard-Wood Unleached
Cheapest fertilizer in use, and free from nox-
ious weeds. Supplied in car lots of 12 or more
tons. Guaranteed free of rubbish. Put up in
barrels. Price and analysis free on application.
Address CHAS STEVENS
Box 487 Napanee, dOntario, Canado.
equal to the first number, vou will cer-
, tainly furnilshi the agribu]turistaof Flor-
ida with a paper'tbat..will please them.
I1 amn trhiveling through the 'country
among the'farmers, aia in: every way
that I can assist-you it will be cheerfully
done." ... .
.Mr. W. N. Justice, commission me,-
chant of Philadelphia, writes: "Having
received the first issue of your agricul-
tural paper, and being delighted with its.
tone, we wish you to insert our card for
[From the Texas Farmer.]
Florida is not behind her' sister South-
ern States in material progress. It
ought to be called the land of fruits and
flowers, for each of these; grand divis-
ions of horticulture are -equally at home
there. The FLORIDA FARMk AND FRUIT
GROWER is an ably conducted and ele-
gantly printed paper devoted to these
very topics, to which we-refer the reader
for further information. .
[From the So. Live Stock Journal.]
We regret that the first number ..[of
the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER] failed
to reach us; but .te second shows a very
handsome sheet as to paper, typography
and general make up, while the addi-
tional department is all we expected of
the distinguished editor. Many.of. our
readers are interested directly and sec-
ondarily in everything connected with
Florida, and we cordially commend this
new and excellent periodical as-worthy
of their patronage. With -best wishes
for its success, we welcome this new as-
pirant for public favor, and patronage,'
feeling assured of the good work it will
accomplish in and out of Florida.-'
[From the Gardeners' Monthly]
"We are continually receiving new
agricultural ventures, but useful as they
are in their own special fields, we rarely
find in them anything of special interest.
to the intelligent class of' horticulturists
for which the Gardeners' Monthly-has to.
cater. We were, therefore agreeably
surprised on reading among the batch
of exchanges on our table, No. 2 of this,
to find it of avery high order of intelli-
gence, and one which must have an ex-
cellent effect in fostering Florida's inter-
KAFf CORN FOR SEED P "POSE9.
AMBER CANE SEED, .
CATTAIL, OR PURE MILLET,
SPANISH PEA-NUT-S, .
JOHNSON GRASS, ETC.-
Everything to Plant. Address .
RED ROVER, WHIPPOORWILLAND -CLAY
FOR SBED" .
Send for treatise on Culhure of Orange -
Tree .. .
"C- S L'EIJilE d CO., ;-.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MAY 4, 1887.
ALL ABOUT ENSILAGE.
How to Build a Silo, Fill it, and
Feed from It.
The following treatise on the theory
-and practice of ensilage is contained i
a circular of the Southern Seed Co
-of Macon, Ga. It is the most complete
treatise we have seen on a subject whig
is of great importance to Southern farm
-ers, and therefore we give it entire:
WHAT IS ENSILAGE ?
It is the material produced by placing
green uncured cornstalks, grass or othe
fodder in a pit or cellar called a silo
and excluding it more or less completely
from the air. "Ensilage" is a French
word, but it has come into our language
to stay, and we might as well learn t
'use it first as last. Ensilage, when firs
talked about in this country, wa
thought by most people to be another o
those fancy farming ideas, and tha
when the rich fellows who had mad
their money in the cities and spent'it i:
the country had played with silos and
ensilage until tired of them, then the;
would go back to France, their nativ
heath, there to remain.
Ensilage stays, however; it fills a long
-felt want in this country for a cheap
:succulent food for stock. Every on
knows how valuable a green juicy apple
is for a change at times. Its value to a
person may be far beyond the amoun
of nutriment the chemist tells us their
is in it. So the cow that has for month
been draining her system in keeping up
the heavy flow of milk, is greatly aided
by some variety of juicy food.
WHO SHOULD MAKE AND FEED ENSILAGE
All farmers who keep cows for busi
ness should be directly interested in thi
process of curing food. Any one who
keeps cows and makes butter for the fun
of it should by no means make any
change in his mode of farming. If he
should happen to go out of the rut he is
in and ma e some money he might be so
surprised at the results that he would
collapse and go out of existence.
While ensilage shows the best results
with dairy cows it is valuable for calves
young stock, bearing ewes and farm
stock generally, not even excluding
horses if too much is not fed. It is evi
dent, : then, that the class who should
make a silo and fill it with ensilage is a
HOW SILOS ARE MADE.
This question should be discussed at
thispoint, and is one of great impor
tance. First of all, divest the silo of
all mystery, for it it really a very simple
affair. We know that the good house-
wife in canning fruits has to exercise
great care that even the smallest airhole
is closed in the fruit can, else germs of
decay will enter and she loses all her
labor. Now, when we talk of making
the silo air-tight it is not with the exact-
ness we use in speaking of canned fruits,
but rather we mean when we say thai
the walls of an ice house or dwelling
house should be air tight. In fact a build-
ing put up for an ice-house might be a
very good iilo.
The wooden silo is probably the bes
and cheapest in many cases at least.
This can be made of pieces 2x8 inches,
set up like studding, say one foot'apart
and boarded on the outside with. build-
ing paper,over which common boards are
nailed. A board or shingle roof- should
be put on. The hollow space can be fill-
ed with chaff, or, better saw-dust,to pre.
vent any circulation of air within. If
possible but-one door should be made,
and that placed for convenience of- get-
ting out the material for feeding. The
doors should open outwards and be made
double. No cross ties are permissible
where the ensilage is to lie, as they will
interfere with the contents of thesilo.
The cross ties, which are very essential,
however, should be placed just above or
below the plate, and should be numerous
enough to tie the building together in a
very secure manner.
One of the troubles with wooden silos
is the spreading of the building resulting
from pressure 6f the contents, and this
should be attended to in building, and
prevented by having the studding broad,
close together, and well secured at the
top and bottom. This done, no trouble
will result. One of the advantages of
the wooden silo is that the contents
seem to be kept perfectly good and sweet
close uiu to the boards themselves, while
in some stone silos at least the ensilage
about the walls rot, more or less from
some cause not yet explained.
SIZE OF SILOS.
The size of the silo should be wholly
-to suit the wants of the owner, still they
can be -made- too large. Twelve by
thirty feet is amply large for one pit and
if more capacity is reached, let two be
made side by side if preferred. Some
put in divisions so as to have them about
12x12 feet, and then open one after the
other as needed.
When we have our silo located and
properly built it stands waiting to be
filled, and we must cast about for a large
amount of green material to put into it.
First, and best of all on our list, comes
green fodder corn. Plant only on the
richest ground, and do not sow broad-.
cast but in drills,' so as to make good,
sweet food, for corn cannot make rich
sweet juice without plenty of sunshine.
Drop the corn about three times as thick
as for field corn, just so it will make
good nubbins. As for varieties, if you
care for weight ,plant the Mammoth
Southern variety. This should give you
from 20 to 25 tons of green fodder to the
acre. By crowding the corn one gets
a little more weight, but this extra
weight will be about all water, and of
no value. Corn planted from two to
three times as thick as ordinary field
corn will give the best returns.
Next to corn comes Kaffir corn, millo
maize, millet and pea vines which have
proved an excellent crop for the silo.
Allow the corn to get well towards
"maturity, ripe enough to make the best investment at twenty-four cents per
fodder before cutting it. If you put in bushel. Their crop in 1886 was over
the corn half mature it will not make 158,000 bushels and averaged nearly
an 'thing but the sourest kind of ensil- twenty-five bushels per acre.
GETTING THE CROP TO THE SILO. SOURCES OF PLANT FOOD.
d Now we come to disputed ground, and
no two will exactly agree. To cut and The Nature and Action of Com-
haul a mammoth crop of corn to the posts and Special Fertilizers.
y silo is a work of no small magnitude, ecial Fertilizers.
Ln and here is a good chance for ingenuity. BY D. R. GREEN.
I, Some farmers cut the corn with a reap- In response to S. Bigelow and others,
e er, cutting one row at a time and raking we give these practical applications of
h it off in gavels. This method should be the facts obtained by scientific research
- practiced if possible; otherwise, cut with in regard to the nature and action of
a corn knife and throw into heaps. fertilizers.
Have trucks to haul on, if possible, and The growth and development of all
g have a plank that can be easily hitched plant life is the result of natural laws
'r on behind the truck so that the loader that are explained and demonstrated
D, can pick up his armful,and walking'upon only by the science of chemistry.
Y the plank drop his load without much The action of fertilizers on all arable
h exertion. It will not hurt the ensilage Loils is twofold; first, in supplying to the
e if the fodder wilt some. Rain or dew plant its proper food; second, their
o injure the ensilage somewhat, mostly chemical action in decomposing the
t from the excess of water in it. mineral fertility of the soil, thus liberat-
s CUTTING ENSILAGE. ing other plant food locked up in the
:t The ensilage cutter should be placed somethin cannot be obtained from
e close to the silo, and the carrier adjusted nothi .- Pnants obtain nothg from
n so as to drop the finely cut cornstalks nothing ants obtain nothing from
Snear the middle of the silo. The cutter the air ut oxygen, hydrogen and car-
n ear the middle of the silo. The cutter hon All other substances necessary to
y should be a powerful one. Many farm- their growth must be obtained from the
e ers in trying to economize on a cutter soil or supplied to them
lose in a few days enough money to pur- Fertilizers are available plant food.
g chase the cutter they need. The cutter A complete specialfertilizer is a mechan-
f~t "Tn h etonsr c h pe e is e
should have a capacity of three tons per ical or chemical combination of the sub-
e hour at least. B' at of all is a threshing stances necessary to the complete growth
e machine steam power, and fortunately and developmentand
a these are becoming common. Have n ont of a gih the ven plant, andof
t everything about the cutter snug aand in conjunction with the proper supply of
.ber .ad.c sl ipe reta a moisture, absorb soluble mineral
? run apid lyand continuou syan ddo its y f ..a. .ur nbh o.np
.barren and inert soil to be found.
will do. By using two or more wagons quickly and easily available supply of
s Wr h he fodder can be passed their necessary food.
o fo thbe aiget etin s Tr Humus in a soil is decnot its f ertility
Se pieces o die corn wou alone, but only a result of it. The
y range ever detail about th ut a moisture, aosor ble mineral
to economize all the time and labor os available ein any avamus depends entirely
s for hauling the fodder can be eassely t on d structure and orga.ation of the
o if the strctest attention is not given to ter lants whose decay furnished it. They
d. wta u alone, formed by the resulcay of in The
San ng the S t w amounod and cmpleteness cannot comparertility
SraN it a O t with that fro oak wood, leaves, etc.,
tCorn should be cut into about ohs and the h umus depends entirelyoats,
Lengths. As thomize carrier delivers it n a to cotton seed, etc., s a nearly complete
g the silo, it should be spread evenly and plant foods cay urnse i Te
I- tramped downs at the corners of the silo Stable manue obtained by the feeddecay o pine
d and alongtwe walls. It will n ot pay to of grain and nutritiouregrass cannot compare
a tramp it in the middle. Use no salt for nearly ct from oak woodplete fertile, leaves, etc.,full
the purpose of he culping to save the ensil- value cannot be utis of scored until it is e-, wheat,
lengths. Asyou need ave no fears oits tirel decomposed The decomposition
spoiling. When you have cut enough is the result of chemical .action, and
t corn to fill the silo, say three feet, stop requires abundant moisture and air,
- and allow the contents time to heat up which generate heat and y ammonia.
f to 120 or 140 degrees Fahrenheit. This Applying manure raw to a wet soil
Smand take a day or two but do not paybe insures the moisture, and the eat and
a anxious but wait. When the mass is ammonia generated, ffoertilzowe buty graits full
e heated up, start again filling, ead add nal decomposition, aided by air and stir-
e two or three feet more to the co requing obtained in cultivation, furnish
Sas before, and again ats ow it to warm the plant with necessary food and
Sutop. In this way degreesll the silo. warmth, while thmanure mical processor
SmIf you should happen from any cause its decay ac the moisoil and sethe free
- to allow the mass to become warmer additional mineralted, foodwed by grad-
, than stated, no serious harm will follow Applied raw to a dry, loose soil, it ab-
t but it is bthreest to be regular in the comatter.nt sorbs moisture that is sn cultivation driven off
K The old way was to cut as fast as possi- again by heat of chemical action.. No
as ble,keeping everybody n the strain just decomposition or chemical action whatnd
as when this way fillthres there about. It was ever is possible without the presence of
thought that if you stopped for a single moisture, and as the soil cannot continue
t day all would be lost. This was all to furnish moisture,,the stable manure is
. wrong. By filling slowly better ensil- soon as useless as so much dry wooden
Sage is made, and the material settles so chips. Hence, to make stable manure
that the silo holds far more than by the give full results at once on dry, loose soil, it ab-
buold way. This is a recent discovery, but soils, it isimperative that it should be
- blone of the most important. Don't be in entirely decomposed by composition what-g.
a hurry to fill the silo; s this method Perfect compostingof vegetable manure sub-
Swrong.makes sweet ensilage slowly better ens stances and preservation of much deir valua-
age is madCOVERING THE ENSILAGE. settles so parts is obtained here onl in the fol-
Sthat the silo holds far more than by the give full nnresults at once onis dury, loose
old way. This is a recent discovery, but soils, it is imperative that it should be
COVERING THE ENSILAGE f ble parts is obtained here only in the fol-
No one knows Here is one way that is four feet deep, its bottom and sides lined
satsato Sreathep ensilage over with clay or cement, carrying sides six
thewhole pit, lay onbuilding paper inches ae surce aboverfaceand roof over to
Sthen.laere of boards or lanks, an eep out excessive rains. Into this pit
then Fayroor s or pans a.throw all vegetable and animal refuse,.
brickfence posts; cordwood or anything larwoos ashes, lime, etc. Dig a well
1339 close at hand and keep the heap always
handy that has weight. Weight not less ahn nde teeply
tha 40 pounds to the square foot. wet clear through (butdo not have water
Some cover withbuilding. paper or standing in bottom of pit), and the sur-
Sboards and then put on sawdust six face covered with some absorbent of the
inches deep and use no other weight .escaping ammonia, as sand, dry, pulver-
Others spread a layer of wet clay one ized muck, gypsum, etc., and once a
inch deeper over the boards. Both these month, or oftener, work the heap over
are good ideas. The point is to keep out and finely pulverize all particles, thus
the air as much as possible, that is all submitting them to the action of the
there is to it. air,the oxygen of which is the active
Some lay a foot of straw or poor hay chemical agent in decomposing the heap,
Some layrakfoovofvetraw or poor hayl the
over the ensilage under the cover so as and after each working over cover the
to preserve more of the ensilage. If you surface wth fresh absorbents. Continue
have allowed it to heat up gradually all this until there is no longer any heat or
the way up, and settle down as you fill- ammonia given off, and the substances
ed it, your ensilage will not settle a when dry will pulverize to dust.
great deal, though more than you will ,Complete soluble fertilizers thoroughly
expect. If covered as directed it will mixed with the soil will not waste, and
not spoil. It cannot continue on heat- they are made available for plant food
ing, for the air is shut off. No matter by a minimum amount of moisture, but
how large a fire you have in the stove, in the case of barren and inert soils they
if you shut off all the air it goes out; s are profitable only when supplied in
with the fire in the silo. Your ensilage quantity sufficient to produce a maxi-
will heat up for a while until all the air mum crop. ,,
in the mass is burned up then the heat The excrement of "woods cattle" is
subsides burned up then the eanot a perfect fertilizer. "Cow-penning'
O T Nas practiced, consists in completely mix-
HOW TO FEED ENSILAGE ing with the soil a large amount of raw
Don't try to make your cows live on it vegetable matter, whose subsequent de-
but use it judiciously. The silo does not cay (during the rainy season) induces
add anything to the.value of the mater- chemical action, which sets free the
ial put into it. You would not try to mineral fertility locked up in good pine
keep your. herd on green corn fodder land soil. There are soils on which
alone, so do hot try it with the ensilage. "cow-penning" has no appreciable effect,
Feed ensilage once a day, say thirty or because there is no mineral fertility in
forty pounds to each cow, and you will their composition. The entire actual
find that they relish it greatly, and give benefit derived, from plowing under
you good returns at the pail. green crops is due to the chemical action
o,, induced by their decay setting free
Decne.i.n W a mineral food locked up in the soil.
uecimem Iwnea. *There is no positive proof of leaching
The average price of wheat in the in Florida soil, but plenty to the con-
United States, says Bradstreet's, has trary. But there is a supreme law gov-
been lower than any year since 1851. In erning all liquids and gases, known as
New York it was 838 for red' winter universal diffusion, and loose sands are a
against 1.281 in 1882. The area in wheat nearly perfect medium for its full opera-
in 1876 was 27,627,021 acres, which in tion. The practical result of this law is,
1884, had increased to 89,475,858 acres. that a quantity of soluble fertilizer de- .
Overbuilding of freight steamers has posited min the soil is at once, seized by
tended to cheapen abnormally the trans- surrounding sand and passed from one
portation to European markets of the particle to another until the entire
wheat of Australia and India. Then, too, amount is evenly distributed over an
the depression in nearly all European in- extent of area proportional to amount of i
dustries has diminished the power of fertilizer and its solubility.
wage-earners to buy bread. A well Cotton-seed meal is raw vegetable
managed wholesale farm, like that matter, and before it can be utilized by
of the Grandin Brothers in Dakota can growing plants it must go through the
produce it and pay good interest on the same process as stable manure, but ow
ing to its concentrated nature and finely
divided condition, it absorbs less mois-
ture and decomposes more rapidly and
with less heat than stable manure; but
it is an incomplete fertilizer; hence, the
varying results obtained by its use.
Raw stable manure can be used here
by spreading it evenly oter the land and
plowing it under (at commencement of
rainy season) about five inches deep,
then harrow every two or three weeks,
stirring the ground completely and mix-
ing the manure all through the soil, but
the plan will not be a success unless
there is an abundance of rainfall. .,
Bone meal is valuable, but useless for
vegetables, as it requires several years
for it to decompose.
Ten years' experience in the making
and applying to crops of 500 cords of
stable manure a year. enables us to say
that, owing to its bulk, the expense of
handling it is greater than the present
market valtre of i he plant food it actually
contains, but the utilization of otherwise
waste products of the farm, the supply-
ing of humus to the soil, and its decom-
posing chemical action on the soil,
makes the saving and application of it
imperative to successful farming.
In buying commercial fertilizers for
any grade of land (outside of. the ham-
mocks) the only sure course is to buy
complete special fertilizers adapted to
the crop to be grown. To use them, plow
deep, then scatter 1,000 to 2,000 pounds
on an acre and harrow in thoroughly.
Deep plowing and deep cultivation
insures moisture by admitting air to the
cool depths of the soil, where its mois-
ture is condensed and retained.
Thorough cultivation promotes plant
growth by pulverizing the soil and ad-
mitting air to its depths, where the mois-
ture and oxygen of the air decompose
vegetable matter and induce the chem-
ical action necessary to plant growth.
We invite public discussion on all
points above stated, and are prepared to
cite practical demonstrations of each.
Irrigation With Pumps.
In seasons like the present, when the
rainfall is somewhat below the average,
it is natural that farmers in those parts
of the State where irrigation is not gen-
erally practiced, and where no prepara-
tions have been made for the utilization
of the natural water supply in this man-
ner, should look with curious eyes upon
those who are so situated as to be en-
tirely independent of the rainfall, either
from the possession of an artesian well
or of an irrigation right, from some
ditch company. The construction of a
ditch system is a work of time and large
oftlay, while the sinking of an artesian
well is similar, only upon a smaller scale,
and with the additional uncertainty as
to whether,water will be found after the
well is bored. "
But there is an easy way out of the
difficulty for those who would like to
take advantage of irrigation, and one
which it seems strange that more farm
ersa have not adopted. This solution of
the difficulty is in the raising and distri-
bution of water by pumps from surface
wells, springs, or streams. At an ex-
ceedingly moderate cost any farmer can
put in a pumping plant, to be worked
either by-steam or horse power, which
will furnish an ample supply of water
at all times for irrigation, without sub-
jecting the irrigator to the exasperating
process of waiting upon the pleasure of
a ditch company for his water supply.
For less than $200 a force pump and
horse power may be put into a well or
on the bank of a stream that will cover,
in ten hours time, an area of two acres
to a depth of'bne inch with water. By
a proportionate increase in power a
larger supply of water may be raised
and distri b ut for any ordinary
farm the smaller expense is all that is
necessary. The irrigator is thus render-
ed perfectly independent of rainfall and
of water-owning monopolies. There are
few localities anywhere in the State
where surface wells will not furnish
abundance of water to supply a pump
of the kind referred to, and as the ex-
pense of raising the water is but nomi-
nal, it would be well worth while for
farmers who are in danger of suffering
from drouths to try the experiment.-
San Francisco Chronicle.
Another Hint on Plowing.
Editor FRorida .Farmer and Arutt-Grower:
On page 113 Mr. Aldrich gives a good
idea about doing good plowing.- 1 have
wondered at the terrible work done here
in trying to turn under grass and weeds
to accomplish the purpose of enriching
the soil, as that is ostensibly the purpose.
Three-'fourths at least is never turned
under and, as left, secures the full re
seeding of both grass and weeds, with
much that never rots, but makes the soil
In addition to the rolling coulter, a
chain attached to the end of the single-
tree, or double-tree if two horses are
used, and brought back and fastened to
the beam, so as to allow the chain to
hang in a loop and drag in grass and
weeds just ahead of the mould board,
will do the work effectively.
Sorghum Sugar a Failure.
SAfter a long. continued and very com-
plete experiment made by officials of
the Government Department of Agri-
culture, at Fort Scott, Kansas, in mak-
ing sugar from sorghum, the report has
been published by the officials in charge
that the experiments have been a fail-
The government chemist, Prof. H. W.
Wiley, says in his general conclusions,
that "the most important point suggest-
ed is the absolute failure of the experi-
ments to demonstrate the commercial
practicability of manufacturing sor-
Mr. Wiley claims that the causes of
the failure are defective machinery,
deterioration of the cane from over
ripeness and. other matters of the same
kind. It would seem: that if these ex-
periments, conducted by the govern-
ment, with ample means and under the
r direction of scientific officials prove un-
Ssuccessful, that private experimenters
might as well give up further attempts.
At the present prices of sugar, even
3 though the experiments had been emi-
nently successful,the important question
3 is, would sorghum be a profitable crop
Sfor making sugar? We do not think it
would. From observation and experi-
ment we believe that the injury done to
.soil is so great that even if sugar could
be made in paying quantities, it would
not be good policy for farmers to grow
We infer from the tone of the chem-
ist's report that no further experiments
will be made in this line by the govern-
ment. If this is so it is likely that sor-
ghum will cease to be a subject of inter-
est as a possible sugar producer. Pri-
vate individuals will hardly undertake
to accomplish what the government has
failed to do.-St. Louis Journal of Agri-
Diffusion in Working Sorghum.
The diffusion process as distinguished
from "milling" in working sorghum, is
this, that while "milling" attempts to
extract the juico by strong pressure up-
on the cane, rupturing its cells and ex-
pressing the juice, never, however, get-
ting more than from 50 to 70 per cent.
of the juice, diffusion cuts the cane in
thin slices, packs the sliced cane in a
series of cells of boiler iron each holding
about a ton and connected by pipes.
The cells are closed hermetically, and
warm water is then forced 'through the
entire number of cells, passing from the
first to the second and so on through the
series which'is called a "battery." This
water washes out the sugar in the chip-
ped cane and carries it along and is drawn
off at last as "diffusion juica" in distinc-
tion from milling juice. The diffusion
juice is diluted somewhat with.the water
and is not as sweet as "milling juice" re-
quiring a longer'time to evaporate; but it
takes out all -the sugar, while milling
leaves from 25 to 50 per cent, of it in the
The diffusion machinery is complicated
and expensive as compared with milling
and it would not pay any small operator
to attempt its use It is adapted to large
rather than small works. The after
treatment of the juice as regards clarify-
ing and evaporating may be the same.-
To Trap a Gopher or Sala-
Editor orsda armer and .fruit-Grower:
The following description ,of how to.
trap a gopher, or salamander, as the
"pesky varmint"' is kiown in Florida,
may be of interest to those readers of
the FARMER AND Flirr-GROWE* who
are troubled with the animal. Anywhere
in the line of a newly made burrow
.prepare two openings five or..six feet
apart, in each of which place a small
steel trap a trifle lower than the bottom
of the burrow and close t9 the entrance
of the main run-way. Place a piece of
board over the hole 'and bank the parth
over solid to exclude the rays of light.
When both are prepared expose the
burrow equi-distant from each trap, and
'the job is complete.
As the instinct of the animal causes it
to work in the darkness, it will speedily
fill its pouches with earth and proceed to
close the opening left which admits the
light. In its passage it steps into either
of the traps and is securely held. This
method seldom fails to secure the ani-
mal, and will afford sport for the boys,
especially if a small reward is offered
for each one taken. D.
As a calculation as to what can be
done in the way of "sustaining popula-
tion, the following, from a Belgian cor-
respondent of the SMark Lane Eafpress,
will be read with interest: "The little
country of Belgium has 480 persons to
the square mile, or three to every four
acres. That is, four acres are to support
three ',persons. If the United States
were equally crowded the population
would be 1,650,000,000 or more than the
population of the wh6le world.
One acre perfectly cultivated, can
easily support one person. It is possible to
produce sixty bushels of wheat on one
acre, and this is equivalent to the whole
support of two persons. It is simply a
matter of calculation and management.
Belgium shows what can be done, and
it is well done, for we do not hear of dis-
tress, in that busy country, nor of pau-
pers nor a rush of dissatisfied Belgians
crowding away to better their condition.
It shows that high farming and excellent
cultivation of the soil are profitable and.
may be taken as one of the facts that
prove this to be a settled principle of agri-
When a leading packer of pork and
lard recently announced that a great
portion of the cotton seed oil produced
was consumed in mixing with hog's fat
for commercial uses he certainly surpris-
ed all who were not actually informed on
the subject. When, in addition, because
most of the existing oil mills are in the
hands of a monopoly which makes him
pay oppressively for the oil he uses, he
organized a corporation for the produc-
tion of this oil the public can then ap-
preciate how important a figure the once
despised cotton seed cuts in the qcono-
mic industries of the country.
The formation of this new company will
probably raise the price of cotton seed,
which, under the operation of the exist-
ing monopoly, had fallen to a very low
figure. But, at any rate the making of
this oil has been an important industry
for the South. It has been less than
twenty years since it came into exist-
and it has already grown to very great
proportions. Should the consumption of
oil increase in the future as in the past,the
day may come when the cotton plant
will be cultivated for the seed alone.
WeeVOM Jour al
DEVOTED TO THE
A. H. CURTISS,
This journal will have for its leading-object
the promotion of rural industries in Florida, and
will advocate especially a more diversified and
intensive system of agriculture and greater
economy of home resources.
Assuming that the agricultural adaptations of
a large portion of Florida are as yet but imper-
fectly understood, a special aim of this journal
will be to describe the best results which have
been accomplished, with the exact methods em-
ployed. and all influences affecting such results;
also to suggest experiment, describe newor little
known crops, fruits, etc.,and record theprogreas
of agriculture in neighboring States.
Commencing with the firstt number and con-
tinuing through the season for
Tree Planting. .
There will be a series of articles fruiWs-other
than tho e of tho citrus ur which have
proved mosfluecessful in th State. Each va-- :
riety will be described and
And there wil be notes from persons who have
had experience in its.cultivation. This will be
followed by a similar series on
And other subjects willbe illustratedto a limited
Much attention will be devoted to -
And to the home production of forage asndfertil
zers, two economies which are essential to sue
Questions relative to ailments of domestic
animals will be answered by an able veterinary
surgeon who formerly edited a like department
Turf, Field and Farm.
A due amount of space will be devoted
household economy and to reports of the ma
kets, and the departments of
will be contributed to by persons who have made
specialties of those branches.
All portions of the State will receive a due
amount of attention, and their interests will bo
represented by able correspondents.
Under no circumstances will thisjournal be-
come the "organ" of any associationor locality.
It will start out untrammelled and will repre
sent all sections and interests with absolute im-
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FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MAY 4, 1887.
The Florida Farmer ad- Fruit Growr,
A. H. CURTISS, Editor.
C. H. JONEs & BROTHER, PUBLISHERS.
Office Cor. Bay and Laura Sts.
THE FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER is an eight page 48 column illustra-
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and to the promotion of the agricultural and
industrial n terestsofFlorida. Itis published
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C. H. JONES & BRO.,
STABLE OF CONTENTS.
FrasT PAGE-Kelsey's Japan Plum; Bees and
Grapes; -The Elbertai. Peach; Self-Seeding
Peas; Para Grass '(i11stratedi; Nole'- ,on
Para Grass; Teosinte in HIllIboro Coinry,
SECOND PAGz-Barren Pear Trees Made Fruit-
ful; American Grapes in-France; Weevils; In
Reply to Enquiries; A Mole Trap; Irish Po-
tatoes; Market Gardening; Salt an&d Cotton
Seed; Sunflowers and Poultry.
TmRiD PAGE-All About -Ensilage; Sources of
Plant Food; Irrigation With Pumps; Another
Hint on Plowing; Sorghum Sugar Failure;
Diffusion in Working Sorghum; To Trap a
Gopher; HighFarming, etc.
FOuRTH PAGE (Editorial)-State Geological
Survey; Sheep Raising in Florida; A Law
About Registered Stock; The Georgia Fence
Law; The Dog Law of Louisiana; Cotton
Picking Machines; Agricultural Papers; Hard'
FIFT PAGBz-(Edited by Helen Harcourt); Our
Home Circle; Cosy Corner; The Family Friend;
Our Young Folks' Corner.
SSIXTH PAGBe-Swelled- Legs in Horses; Loss of
.Cud; Care of Mares and Foals; Care of Sows;
Sheep on Poor Farms; Salting Hogs; Diseases
of Poultry; Points About Geese; Some Ideas of
SEvNTEra PAi-Farni Miscellany (.lustrated);
Seria&-Storyi "For -Honor'6 Sake," by Far-
. EGIE-E PABi-ate News in Brief; The Hills-
boro Peninsulf; s~oin St. Andrews Bay'; In-
troduction of Sisal Hemp; Comparative Size of
Florida; Dynamite for Producing Rain; May
Weather; Reports of ibe New York and Jack-
A STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.
When a state or nation has arrived at
a certain stage of prosperity, it is highly
proper that a small portion of the public
fund should be set aside for the support
of scientific research. It is highly de-
sirable that the natural history of each of
the States should l thoroughly. studied
and the results published in handsome-
ly printed and illustrated quarto v6l-
umes; but when a State undertakes such
a work it is regarded as an indication of
a high degree of wealth and prosperity,
which warrants an indulgence in some
of the superfluities, for the gratification
of "culture and refinement."
SWe think all our readers will agree
that Florida has not reached that stage
of overflowing wealth which warrants
disbursements from the treasury for the
gratification of expensive tastes and per-
sonal ambition. We hope the day is not
far distant when she may be in such-
condition, and we favor any appropria-
tion which is likely to hasten the devel-
opment of her industrial resources
Much money will be asked for new
Purposes, and we favor generous appro-
priations for the support of the*Agricul-
tural Department, the agricultural col-
lege, a railroad commission, and various
other purposes, but for none -from which
the State might not be' expected to
derive a handsome and speedy return.
We cannot see that any practical ben-
efit would be derived from a geological
survey of the State, and until we do see
it in a different light we shall oppose
any appropriation in this direction,
People who are not familiar.with the
technicalities of science 'may be in-
.nluenced by a learned discourse about
silurian and post-pleiocene strata, zeu-
glodons, troglodytes and megalosauri-
ans, but that is mere froth. The work
of a practical geologist is to trace out
mineral deposits by signs best known to
him. Much can be done in this way in
mountainous regions where' strata are
ruptured and'tilted on edge, but in a
State of the conformation of Florida,
the only means of investigation consists
in sinking vertical shafts. This has
been done already in nearly all parts of
the State, the borings have been exam-
ined, and we have yet to hear of any-
thing being brought to light which had
JL J VNJ
any practical value, at least at a depth in reply to inquiries and evidently with- "'SECTION 1. Every person who, by SEc. 4. Be it further enacted, etc., That millo maize, kaffir corn, teosinte, sorg-
at which it could be made available. out deLire to boast, we have full faith in any false pretense, hall obtain from any no damages shall be awarded against hum, fodder corn, cow peas, desmodi-
at whi c club, association, society or company, any person who shall kill any dog owned urn, Mexican clover, lespedeza, alfalfa,
It is well known that the State their'correctness. for improving the breed of cattle, horses, or kept in defiance of said police jury melilotus.
abounds in calcareous, argillaceous and These sheep we found in Mr. Foster's sheep, swine or other domestic animals, ordinances, or which shall have killed or STAPLE CROPS.
slightly phosphatic earths and rocks. fine orange grove on the old Braiden es- a certificate of registration of any ani- maimed, or bit any sheep or lamb, and if
When we have, a State chemist he can tate. Mr. Wyatt thinks it an excellent mal in the herd register or other register sued he shall have the right to reconvene Peach, pear, fig,-persimmon, Japan.
When we have, a State chemist he can tate. Mr. Wyatt thinks it an excellent of any such c'ub, association, society or wherever the plaintiff may reside, and if plum. Kelsey plum, native, plum, mul-
analyze the earths and rocks as well as plan to pasture sheep wholly or in company, or a transfer of any such reg, the defendant shall prevail in the suit berry, quince, apricot, guava, banana,
fertilizers. There is good iron ore in part in the grove, as they serve to keep istration, and every person who shall he shall recover against the plaintiff ten pineapple sapodilla, -mango, avocada,
places innodules and thin strata. We down weeds and fertilize the grove. knowingly give a false pedigree of any times the amount of damages done by pear, cocoanut, pecan, English walnut,
places nodules and thin strata. down weeds and fertilize the grove animal, upon conviction thereof shall be said dog for the benefit of ti e owner of almond, pomegranate, olive, grape,.
do not need a geologist to tell us about Cattle browse too high, and horses and punished by imprisonment in a State the, sheep injured and cost of suit, and, strawberry, blackberry, raspberry-Va.
these, for they are well know. For mules do some injury, but in a bearing prison for a term not exceeding three alsoareasonable amountfortheexpenses- rieties, their characteristics, effects of
the rest we may as well depend on the grove, at least of seedling trees, the years, or in a county jail for a term not loss of time and attorney fees incurred soil, weather, etc., best methods of
artesian well brings. For tracing out branches ought to be out of the reach of exceeding one year, or by a fine not ex- by the defendant, which shall be collect- culture.
artesian well brings. For tracing out branches ought to be out of the reach of ceeding $1,000, or by both such fine and ed as cost. Corn- oats, rye, wheat-Varieties,
subterranean deposits an old man might sheep. Whether it would be good pol- imprisonment. SEC. 5. Be it further enacted. etc., That yi eld per acre, soil and season, difficul-
be sent around with a witch-hazel stick, icy or not to prune trees to accommodate SECTION 2. This act shall take effect if any dog owned or kept in violation ofties encountered, general treatment.
We do not like to see money squandered, sheep, or to allow them to prune the immediately.-Times-Democrat. the police jury ordinances authorized buying a cu ong and r ap-lant-
even in-the name of science, and if any lower branches, is a question we will not The Legislature of Alabam a has this act shall.injureany person or prop- Ing-and culture, marketing crop, man-
even inthe name of science, and if any power ranches, is a question we wll not very wisely enacted a law that any erty the person injured or the owner of agement of seed, products from the-
money is appropriated in this direction discuss. person in that State, who, by any false the property injured, shall recover seed.
it will be money thrown away. If sheep can be made to keep the representations, shall obtain from any against the owner or keeper of said dog Sngar Cane and Sorghui -Varieties,.
In this State there is not even the in- grove clean, and to help fertilize it person, lub, association society or com- five times the amount of damages sus- culture, making syrup and sugar, oondi-
centive of getting together interesting without materially injuring the top i piany who edits, keeps or publishes any gained and cost, together with a reason- tlon-of market.
centive of getting together interesting without maerially injuring the tops, it stud book, herd register or record of the able amount for his attorney fees and Tobacco-Varieties, history i. Florida,.
cabinets of minerals and fossils. Of is self-evident that they will add in a breeding of horses, cattle, sheep, swine necessary expenses, which shall be col- recent experiences, seed, culture manu-
minerals there is scarcely anything of variety of ways to its profitableness, and or goats, registrations of any animal in lecTed as-cost, facture.
interest except a few, metamorphic that will help solve the question of the such studbook, herd register, or record, SEC. 6. Be it further enacted,et,, That R
.ocs.nd.ro.ors.Thefosil,.avig.k t roe must on conviction be fined not less if an~y dog shall kill, maim or bite any
rocks and iron ores. The fossils, having day-how to make the grove profitable, than $50 nor more than $500, and upon sheep or lamb, the owner of the same : Citrus Fruits-Comparison of varie
been imbedded in soft, porous rocks, are If, however, the dogs are to be supreme any subsequent conviction must be sen- shall recover from the keeper or owner ties, hardiness and productiveness, meth-
very fragmentary and unsatisfactory. in the land, it is useless to talk of keep- tenced to hard labor for the county for of said dog ten times the amount of ods of propagation, methods of planting
Altogether they are most uninteresting ing sheep. W would this day hav 200 'not more than three months.-Planters' damages sustained, and cost, together and culture comparative effects of fer-
Altogether they are most uninteresting in sheep. We would this da have Journal. with a reasonable amount for his nec- tilizers. marketing of fruit, preservation,
for public exhibition, and they would sheep in our own grove, but for the cessary expenses, loss of time, and of fruit wine and other products..
be of no value except to a specialist, worthless curs that overrun the land. The Georgia Fence Law. attorney's fees,, incurred by such suit FLOWER O&R DEN.
Some years ago the Georgia Legisla- Aside from the idea of companionship Concerning the practical operation- of which shall be collected as cost. Plants adapted to thi climate, out-
ture appointed a State Geologist and and protection, the dog is a'source of a the Georgia fence and stock law we SEC. 7. Be it further enacted, etc. That door culture, management of green-i
after he had accumulated tons of. speci- great deal of damage, as well as direct learn the following from the Savannah whanyoeverg whichshall hae knowingly own or kee house.
mens, and was about to commence their expense. ..Th local option stock law appears to maimed or bitten any :sheep or INSECT ENEMIES AND FUNOOID DISEASES.
systematic study his office was discon- A good cat will do more service be working splendidly in the counties in lamb, shall be deemed guilty of Nature of damage done and remedies.
tinued. If once the work is set on foot than ten dogs, destroying in the course which it has been adopted. The intense a misdemeanor, and shall upon W donot desire letters written mere-
and persevered in, it will consume a pile of a year an incredible number of rab- opposition to it, which was at first so conviction, be fined not less than $25 or ly in praise of special localities unless
and persevered in, it will consume a pile of a year an incredible number of rb- conspicuous among ownersof small imprisoned not less than -thirtydays, or claims to favor are based on the products
of money. We favor liberal appropria- bits, squirrels, moles, rats and mice; yet farm and laborers, has almost entirely both,at the discretion of the court. Credi- or productiveness of the soil. Articles
tions, but are confident that the time most persons affect to despise the cat, died out, and in very few, if any, of ble information from others, verified by of an animated or vivacious style are de-
has not yet come when the State can af- and. many treat the dog asif he deserved these counties could the old law be. put oath, and communicated to theowner, or sirable by way of variety. but practical'
ford a geological survey, the rights of citizenship. Each Cuel to again in operation, if the question of re- keeper of said dog. and strong ci reu m- statements and descriptions.- should7';bie-
ford a geological survey the rights of itizenship.verting to the old system was left to a stantial.evidence, as well as the personal concise and as much to the point as pos-
S his taste. All we ask is a law for the vote of those who wereformerly "fence" experience of such owner or keeper, shall sible. 7 : -... a
SHEEP RAISING N' FLORIDA. protection and encouragement of sheep men alone. constitute knowledge In the sense of this All communications for the editorial
husbandry, such as many States have, Small farmers have found out that section. A prc *ution under this section department should be addressed to
Very little attention has been paid to and such as all must have if wool and they save more in labor and cash, which shall not bar any civil proceeding author- EDTOR F ER AND r-GEOWER
sheep raising in this State, except in the uch would be expended for fencing under izedby this act, nor shallsuch civilpro- EDITOR F R F r-GO .
f ar western counties, yetwe incline themutton are to be counted among thirthe od system, in proportion to their ceeding bar said prosecution. MISCELLANEOUS SUBJECTS.
far western counties, yet we incline to staple products. ability than their wealthy neighbors do, SEC. 8. Be it further enactedetc., That Bees and .bee plants, silk culture and
believe that wool and mutton ought to Before attempting sheep raising on a and the laborers have discovered that all laws and parts of laws contrarytoor themulberr, hunting and fishing, dogs
have a high rank among Florida's pro- largescale, person should have some those of them who wish to keep pigs or inconsistent with the provisions of: this and dog- laws, fences and roads, legisla-
ducts. It has been demonstrated that cows can obtain better pastures from act be and the same are hereby repealed. tion for farmers, homestead laws, trans-
they can be raised profitably, and what experience. Lack of 'this -has caused their employers and have more milk and portation, marketing produce, exper-
one has done a thousand.may do. Flor- some bad failures. We met a young butter than they could have when their Agricltual Papers. mentalarm, agricultural education,
idonehasgrdone athousandmayghdo. Flor- man last year in Walton county, who, stock was permitted to run in the lanes A gentleman whohad taken the pains home manufactures natural history
da-grownwoolcommands a hgh price, tndin a flock of several thousand and woods. to find out the exact number of agri- of Florida, historic points, sanitary ad-
and it is an article alwayssure of a good after tending a flock of several thousand It is the almost invariable practice for cultural papers taken in each township vice, farm buildings. house furnishing,
market. For mutton, the home m- sheep for a year or two, became dis- employers to give free pasturage for the of a certain county, found thdt the arm machinery, farm implements,
market. For mutton, the ome mar- courage and gave up the business, be- cattle of their employes, the employes success of each particular township, as water supply, cooling appliances, re-
ket ought to consume a large supply. cause he found that his flockdiminished, generally assisting in maintaining the given ih the State census of 1884, was in cpes for cooking, home decorations,
- The dry pine woods afford excellent astue fences and in removing porta- exact ratio to the number of-farm papers household economy, mineral and earths,
anges for heep, the nature of the soil rather than increased in number. Ana- e fences and in theirown time without taken, andin no cae did the figures climatology, hints on the care of chil-
and herbage bein favorable to their tive with whom we conversed on the extra charge, though the landowner show differently. In one township not' den, ondress, habits, reading, amuse-
and herbage Doing favorable to their subject assured us that the young man's almost invariably furnishes the timber an agricultural paper was taken,- and: ments, et,c. -.
health and to cleanness of wool. They failure was due to inexperience. He had for rails or boards and pays for making the average price of butter for the year NATIVE TREES AND HERBS. .
should be kept within fenced enclosures kicked his sheep in Georgia, each them. t v was ten and one-third cents. In another Planting trees.for ornament or utility,
in order that the power may have the pcked up hee Ge each One thing very noticeable in theno- township214 agriculurl papers were the burning over of forest lands, the
benefit of them on his own land, and man selling him the poorest of his flock, fence counties is the great improvement taken, costing about $250, and the-butter lumber and turpentine industries, the
benthaeft ofthem on his own land, and Thus he had a weak flock to begin with, in cattle. The old piney-woods cows are sold at an erage of twventy-three and tanning industry, phenomena of- plant
er owners may no e and afterwards weak lambs. Then, af- being replaced with blooded Jerseys and two-thirds cents in tbe same year. As. life, weeds and noxious plants. -
cause for complaint; als, in order that Alderneys and Durhams, and the-cattle the amount sold in eaqh township was N. B.-Specimens may be sen- to- the
cause for complaint; als6, in order that ter turning them into an extensive are almost invariably in better condition not eatl different it showed that by edor t ation. n a i
they may be kept away from swampy range, he did not know how to look than ever before known. While the nintliencethe receivedtor fordentificaion. information is
land and within convenient bounds, them up and properly care for them. number of cattle has in some instances Foryit a dividend $8,100 over the twn- dsed respecting popular names and
They are found to benefit orange groves consequently, m y of them were lost, been reduced, the aggregate value ha ship that took no papers. In other uses.
especially if penned around weak and all ered from undue been increased. Many of the townsin words, the farmers who saved $250 by
trees. and a suffered from undue e these counties in which Northern butter not taking farm papers to tell them Bee and Q
Half the increase may be expected to and neglect. If he had employed a good was formerly extensively sold are now something new about their buisness, .eeOOs Uan e ns.
Hathbe destroyed by wildcats, eaglxpected to exi- native herder the results would have stocked with home-made butter and actually paid $8,100 for the privilege of
be destroyed by wildcat, eagles, Mexi- different ship considerable quantities of itrt to learn anything-New- Orders will be booked now for delivery dur-
can buzzards and the like, but if the bal- quite different, other cities. England Farmer. ing April, May or June, of my superior race-
ance of the flock were protected from It is important to have good stock to The old arguments for and against of pure
dogs and hog the increase and wool beginwith, and it is a great advantage the no-fence" law have long since been Hard Times.
would yield large profit. Those re-tohavesuperior rams. We were told worn threadbare. The knowledge of the hat
practical operations of the law and its We hear a great deal 'about "hard
tures enjoy such extraordinary privileges that some Cotswold rams hadbeen in- effects on the farming and stockraising times" through the South. When the a B s a i
under the law, that .soeep raising and produced at the head of the Manatee interests is what convinces. Nonaie but majority of our farmers buy all the meat 7
farming stand in thelight of secondary river. Mr. Wyatt informed us that the what are known as grazing counties can they eat, and their work stock.and only Queens by mail a specialty.
fr annual clip of wool amounted to about much longer afford to follow the old raise cotton and a little corn, not enough Give me a trial order.
tically, until laws are enacted for their three pounds, and it brought twenty-two counties have ohly to visit the "no- when they buy every thing on credit For prices or other information, address
advancement. Meanwhile, it is well to cents per pound in the Boston market. fence" counties and make honest in- and pay big interest, give mortgages on
consider what may he done under We understand that Dr. Lane, of Rye, is vestigations to be aroused to a sense of all they possess and never able to meet E H.C. HEART,
changed conditions, most extensively engaged in sheep rais- the folly of maintaining a thousand dol- them--no surplus money from their cot-
lars' worth of fencing to keep a hundred ton crops or any other crop, no wonder Eustis, Orange Co., Fla-
Thus far, sheep raising has been con- ing. We addressed a party at Miakka, dollars' worth of stock out of their we hear "hard times." Under the cir-
fined mainly to Walton and adjacent who had engaged in the business, asking fields. is not still louder. why the outry A, FLORIDA.
counties in Western Florida, and to for his experience. In reply, he wrote: is not still louder. General Business and Real Estate Agency of.-
Manatcounties in West ern Florida, and o "I had very,poor luck with my sheep THE DOG LAW OF LOUISIANA. Be Brief and to the Point. GeneraWl usi CNLEY.ate Ageny o
The western range has natural advan and sold out, but am satisfied now Itended fo the Protection f^ Many a farmers' meeting has been
Soer th suter n t li that Iacted unwisely, as I hada ne Intended fr the P tectio talked to death. Peoplelike short, sharp If you wish a town lot, an orange grove, or
stages over the southern, in thatlittle bor who had more patience, or better Sheep Husbandry. and lively papers. Take one of these wild lands in this rapidly Improvng section,
fencingisneeded, though this advantage who stck to is The following is the text of an admir- long, wordy essays and cut out all the orIfyou have taxes topbe ald, or perty to
will disappear as the country comes to judgment than I, who has stuck to his able law which was passed by the State introduction and start right in about the o this agency.
be taken up for farming purposes. The sheep and has made it pay." Legislature or General Assembly of facts. Then cut out all the guesses and Money can be placed on Real Estate with a.
branches or small, water ways are bor- With some encouragement from the Louisiana at its last session: the things that may be so because the Margin on iwo-thirds of values at-10
b ranches or small, water ways are bo law-makers at Tallahassee, and with per- ARTICE IIT, speaker thinks so,' and leave only what and 12 per cent.
dered by almost impenetrable swampy aan he knows to be true. There won't be FREE OF CHARGE TO LENER.
thickets of titi, and by means of these severance and intel client management SEcTION 1. Be t enacted bi the Gener much left in some cases, but what there Ninety days to foreclose morge wher-
naturalhedges and short strips of fence on the part of individuals, we believe al Assembly of the State of o a is left will be worth more than the whole there is no contest. All ose mortgage where
Sheep husbandry can be made to That te police juries of the several before it was cut.-Ex. fees provided for in mortgage. Write for
crossing from one to another, a sheep sheep y e o pay parishes of this State are hereby adthor- further information and send for list of prop-
owner may have an enclosure of a hun- well in almost all parts of Florida. At ized to pass all such ordinances as they Hints to Correspondents. erty for Sale. W.N. CONOLEY,
dred or a thousand acres at very small any rate, it calls for serious considera- may deem necessary to encourage sheep Tampa, Florida.:
ensured or a thousandition acres at very smalltion and discussion. Judge Knapp's husbandry, to protect sheep from the The readers of the FLORIDA FARMER REFFRENCES-E-GovernoTr Drew Jackson-
exaense. Such conditions, however lengthy article in the last number ended ravages of dogs, and to impose such fine AND FRUIT-GROWER are respectfully in- vlle; First National Bank, Tampa, andHon.
can only be regarded as temporary; they engty e lasnumer opened and penalties to enforce said ordinances vited to contribute to its columns articles John T. Lesley, Tampa
can exist only where the population' is up the subject handsomely, and we hope as they may deem proper, to be recover- and notes on all subjects pertaining to NOTICE.
very sparse and land of little value, others will follow. Let us have argu- ed by ordinary process -before any court the. farm, garden, orchard and house- -
n the neighborhood land of Manatee last ments for and against both sheep and of competent jurisdiction in the name of hold affairs. The range of topics which
In the neighborhood of Manatee last the police jury of the parish will be discussed in this journal may be TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN:
summer we found a flock of 165 fine dogs. If the dogs have rights which SEC. 2. Be it f rather enacted, etc., gathered from the subjbined table, which Sixty days after the frst publcaton of thi
sheep on Charles H. Foster's place, man is bound to respect, we would like Whoever shall violate any ordinance of may serve to suggest what might other- notice a alication will be made to the Legis.
owned jointly by him and by Mr. J. B. to have the fact proved to our satisfac- a police jury passed ursuant to the wise escape attention: lature oFlor da, for the assage of a Lehari
owned jointly by him weand bysome in- tion. If anyone has 'reason to believe foregoing section of t is act shall be FARM MANAGEMENT. the capital stock be incre se toa
Wyatt, from whom we learned some in- s d s noba deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and Clearing d draining land crops for great than Fifty Tousand Dolars;
teresting particulars, that sheep should or should not be al- upon conviction shall be punished by a Clearinig an, og ro, intsve value of shares to be reduced from One -un-
Mr. Wyatt said that for some years lowed in orange groves, or that they fine not to exceed $100 or be imprisoned new lan, succeson of cinerent soise Dollars toa Ten Dollars share; to al-
after they commenced keeping sheep may or may not be raised on wild lands nt exceeding thirty days, or both, at arming-, atont vso dasturin cw low the rno ration to purchase and convy
they had a good deal of trouble with profitably, let him reduce his opinions to that the imposition of a fine by civil pro- pennming, green manurming, ing vehicles of transportation; to lease or
them and derived but littleprofit, but by writing, and he shall have as good a cess shall not be a bar tlo a prosecution DOMESTIC ANIMALS. erect buildings for rage of prodfeo, and
perseverance they had of late years ob- chance as we before the public. Having under this section, nor shall a prosecu- Horses, mules, cattle, hogs, sheep, such materials as may be useful to fruit grow-
perseverance ey e years placed the subject .well before our read- tion under this section bar a civil pro- poultry-Breeds, feed, diseases, treat- ers and gardeners, and generally to transact.
tained most satisfactory results. Though ers, we solicit a free and full discussion ceeding to recover a fine as provided in ment. suchbusiness as may be for the interes o
losing half the lambs by preying of it. section 1 of this act. SPECIAL FERTILIZERS. growing and kindred pursuits; aind for such
animals, and ten per cent. of the A Law About R istered Stock. Tha IONt Be it further enacted, etc., other powers andprivegs as may be deemed'
flock by a disease called staggers The American Jersey Cattle Club; fifty tax-payers of any parish, it shall be yard manure, guano, ground bone, su- E FAIRBANKS,
(probably induced by over heating), yet through its committee, amend their the duty of the police jury to pass,and it per-phosphate, gpsum, lime, kainit, GE H.. NORRIS,
he estimated that the annual increase proposed act to unish false pretenses shallpass the ordinances authorized and ashes, marl, muck, lea mould, com- E. DOELE,
and product of wool yielded a profit of min obtaining certificates of registration contemplated by this act; and the said po.- posts. ToA Rs J D. MOOITRHE,
100 cent. This seems an almost in- of cattle and other animals, and to pun- lice juries shall have ;he power and it FeORAGE CROPS. gW. B. ESTANTO.L
100 per cent This seems an almost, i fal pedig rees," and suggests shall be their duty o devise ways and Bermuda grass, crab grass, Para rass ROBT BULLOCK,
credible.profit for a farm industry, but that all other associations of live stock means to destroy dogs,, owned or kept Guinea grass, Terrell grass, orchard B.. BA DireR, tor
as Mr. Wyatt is a candid and cautious breeders aid in getting State legislation contrary to their said ordinances and at grass, red-top grass, Johnson grass, Texas -Florida FruitBexohange
man, and as his statements were made to pass the following: the expense of the parish if neccessary. blue grass, pearl millet, German millet, Jacksonville. Fla., February 16,1887
FLOOR IDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MAY 4, 1887.
HELEN HARtCOURT. Editor.
With a helping hand and a Welcome for all
Who wish to be friendly and make us a call;
With words of good counsel for old friends and
Who come to us seeking the best way to do.
All questions of general interest will b(
answered through these columns.
Personal inquiries will be answered by mail
*when accompanied by stamp for reply.
Subscribers are cordially invited to take A
seat in our Cosy Corner, and exchange views
experiences and recipes of mutual benefit
"Help ye one another."
Communications intended for publication
must be brief, clearly written, and only or
one side of the paper.
All matter relating to this department
should be addressed to -
EDITOR OUR HOME-CIRCLE,
Fla. Farmer and Fruit-Grower,
Our Cosy Corner.
SUMMER IN FLORIDA.
IFrom advance sheets Home Life in Florids
by Helen Harcourt ]
We do not claim that Florida sum-
mers are not warm, very warm, in th
sun, or in violent exercise, just as else
where, but we do claim, and flinety-nine
out of a hundred of her citizens will bea
us out in the assertionii, that her summer
is more pleasant and less oppressive than
that of any other State, North or South
Who has not suffered from the oppres
sive-heat of the sumrAeriseason-,iith th
thermometer ranging 'high up+ amnoi
the nineties, and not a breath of air stir
ring to cool the fevered pulse and throb
bing head? .
Not one who hjas ever .passed a sum
S- mer outside of Florida.
In our own old home, Philadelphia, we
have many a time marked the thermom
eter at 96 degs., 98 degs., 100 degs., ever
occasionally 104 degs., and this, too, it
the shelter and shade of the interior of a
large brick dwelling, where it should
have been cool, if anywhere; we have
seen the same thing, also, in other parts
of Pennsylvania, in New Jersey, in New
York, in Maryland, and with it all, there
was a close, sultry "feel': in the air, thai
seemed to sap one's life -away, and t(
make the very effort of breathing toc
'great for endurance. .....
Even in the :couiiufy,wilh open. fiel*t
all around us, and a great river near by,
we have experienced, night after night,
heat so intense, so close, that it seemed
as if we must suffocate; sleep, rest even,
was impossible, and while wandering
over the house in the vain hope of find-
ing a .'shadow of_ a.- breez," .we have
noted our neighbors wn"ndemnig likewise
in the dead of night about their gardens,
looking more like uneasy ghosts
than merely unhappy mortals, slowly
melting away in the vain search for a
That is a search that no one ever takes
in Florida; it is more of a problem how
to get out of the breeze, than h6w to get
into it. It is always on ihe q'd i'be,and
never waits to be hunted for-it hun ts
for you, in every crack and corner.
It frequently happens thatit is too cool
to sit on the porches- in comfort, when
the -thermometer actually marks 90
or 92 degs., and common sense tells you
that you- ought to be feeling very
warm, and would be excessively so with
the same temperature in any other
It looks mysterious, does if nit? but it
is true, nor is the mystery very deeply
In Florida, during all the long sum-
mer. the thermometer and the-breeze are
perpetually warring with each other:
they quarrel night and day. and have a
lively time together, to the incalculable
benefit of all-living creatures.---- -.
The thermometer says one thing, the
breeze says another. For instance, the
former declares the time marking to be
96 degs., the latter insists that it is not
over 82 degs., and hardly that. -I
And the breeze is nearer the truth; at
least, so we should decide, did we con-'
sult our feelings rather than the ther-
The reason is self evident, if one stops
- to think about it. When we have no
ice, and want to cool some water to
drink, we set it in the shade and in the
breeze. The latter passing over it causes:
a rapid evaporation that at once pro-
duces the desired effect. -
-Exactly in the same way, the breeze
striking a moist skin produces that sen-
sation of coolness, which is so refresh-
ing and so vainly sought for when there
is no such kindly, stirring friend near
(To be Continued.)'
The Novelty Rug Machine.
In our issued of April 18th we gave our
experiences with this wonderful little
toiler on the rug-ged path of life, and
right pleasant ones they were and are.
"What do you ,mean?" writes one
fromttlfe far away.T'orth. "A year ago
I bought a NoveltRug Machine and I
could do nothing-vith-it. How is it? I
am not stupid agut such things,.either."
We found the explanation very easy,
when, a literb later, we heard from.
- another source that4here are imitation
rug machines on the market, and also
called Noylty. "
Therefgre, aswe have but this moment
-turned from the completion of one of
the most beautiful rugs-: we have ever
seen, even-of the most expensive kinds,
though this one was .made by our own
hands (stamped with' pattern and yarn
filling), and as we are also well aware
that. some of our readers are sure to see
the advertisement of a Noveltry Rug
Machine, and to' send for it-an imita-
tion as likely as not, and then lay subse-
quent failures upon our devoted should-
ers-we have decided, in justice to our-
self, to depart from our preferred .rule,
and state that the Novelty Rug Machine,
par excellence, is, the one owned and
manufactured by E. Ross & Co., of To-
ledo, O0. We cannot vouch, for any
We have already received a number of
inquiries for this address, and now here
Editor Our Home Cirele:
Since seeing my recipes for some cas-
sava dishes in the last FARMER AND
FRUIT-GROWER, I feel encouraged to ask
admittance for a few moments to give
another cassava preparation, which is a
favorite with us, and also to correct a
slight mistake in the recipe for cassava
tapioca. [We did not know the author
of the-recipe above referred to, or would
have given credit. We copied from an
exchange, which credited the Tavares
Herald only. Thelatter is also responsi-
ble for the mistake mentioned.-Ed.]
[Correction of cassava tapioca recipe,
. In making the tapioca, after grating
the roots, I put thiepulp into my "Hun-
ter" flour sifter, filling it about two--
thirds full of pulp, then have some
one pour water slowly on it, as I revolve
the handle rapidly. This works out the
greater part of the starch very quickly.
Hold the spter over a large, flat dish or
dripping,an, and catch the water in
them. *s each dish is filled set aside to
settle, and when the water is clear, pour
off gently and scrape out the starch on
flat boards to dry. Continue in this way
until all the pulp is washed. It,(the
pulp) will still be good for puddings,
made up immediately, and also in frit-
ters, which I make by salting and pep-
pering the pulp, shape into cakes, roll in
flour and fry.
This spring we have greatly enjoyed
One teacup of cassava tapioca, soaked
in cold water half an hour; add half
teacup of sugar, one tablespoonful of
milk (condensed), half teaspoonful of
salt; pour one and a half pints of boiling-
water over this, and it is cooked imme-
diately. Have one quart of strawberries
ready, spread layer of berries in bottom
it is for present use, until it appears i
our advertising columns.
Since our first announcement of th
household treasure we had unearthed
we have been indulging in some expert
ments as to the full measure of its use
fulness, and while satisfied that we ar
only on the threshold as yet, we wi
tell what we have found out so far.
We have already referred to th
e stamped patterns and yarns for filling
them. These, while cheap for the resu]
I obtained-very cheap-are still not s
cheap as one's own rags and oat-sacki
We would, by all means, advise those
who are able to buy the above, but fo
those who have not the wherewitha
and must utilize the odds and ends o
hand, rugs, handsome enough for ord
t nary mortals, may be made from th
homely materials mentioned above, an
even in patterns. "
With an oat-sack stretched in th
frame and then laid down upon th
floor, and a box of colored crayons o
pencils in hand, outline any pattern yoe
may fancy and rub in the desired colors
, An elaborate pattern is not necessary
two or three oval lines in the centre, an
a few straight lines around the borde
- of the rug, these lines being each of on
o solid color, and the filling in of mixe
- colors, would make a very pretty,rug.
a A square in -the centre, lines around
r the borderand triangle in. the corner, o
r large initial letters in the centre-sa'
scarlet-set in an oval of solid black o
, seal brown. These are merely hint
upon which our sisters can improve am
* amplify. -
S'As o the filling for these n6bbost rugs
there are usually enough rags about thi
house to make up the desired assort
ment; if not, call the diamond dyes into
service, the more especially if wo6lei
stuffs or silks are used. Cotton will dyE
well, also, but the colors are less perma
nent if sunlight reaches them.
At the present time we are meditating
the feasibility of dyeing a lot of moth
eaten white flannels, good for nothing
else. in colors requisite for filling in a
regularly stamped rug, and we see no
reason why the experiment should noi
be successful, as the dyes will give the
requisite shades of color, if properly
used, and thus the handsome design wil
be obtained at a nominal cost. For pat-
tern and dyes for a large rug, a yard and
Sa balf, long;,. would not _cost ovre, one
While clipping our yarn rug before
mentioned (clipping is not necessary, but
gives a -richer, velvety softness), we
looked with real regret at the little pile
of fine, Hright-colored "snips" that lay
at opur feet-such. a mass of brilliancy it
4 seened.a shaine tLothrow it away.,
* So weput'Mn our'thinking cap. and'as
, a result, cut -some pasteboard into the
shape of a photograph frame, and some
in circular form. Then we spread flour
paste rather thickly over the surface,
dropped the fine clippings on the paste,
so as to cover -well, and then, with a
roller, pressed them down firmly. When
they came out- frobue- under the heavy
weights pJiced on them till dry, we
found ourielf in possession'of a very
pretty.~id very'unique frameend lamp
or wool clippings could be uaed
the sante w'ay; also as suffing fo
cushion .n -*. .'
-writes Mrs. A. S. D., of Jacksonville;
"can find quantities of Fairyor Easter
Lilies up the Little Pittsburg or Arling-
ton Creek. That is about three miles
We-ari p-oadfo s' t-e t'haoF_'ef t
Apcpka correspohtdent is now supplied.
with bulbs of the Easter Lily, seeds of
the Eenipng.Glory, and has discovered
lie "Bna Nbox on an island in Lake
Apopka. We would that all. .our sisters-
might -haA their wishes fulfilled as
quickly as in this case. 1
Mrs. .harles, the correspondent in-
questiq' kindly contributes a cassava
recipe7to our current Family Friend,
and promises in the near future a corn
muiiication relating to Florida's wild
flowers. We know of-no one more com-
ptent to deal with this subject, which
is of interest to all our readers. We wait
our sister's convenience.
The Familyv Friend.
FLORIDA FERTILIZING GO.
E. T. PAINE, PRESIDENT.
Florida Orange Food per ton...............$23.00
Florida Vegetable Food per ton......... 28.00
Analysis: Bone Phosphate of Lime, 39 per
cent.; Sulphate of Potash, 12 per cent.; Mag-
nesia, 6 percent. Lime, Soda and other val-
n of dish, sugar, then layer of hot tapioca,
and so on until all is used.
e Eat cold for tea.
I, MRS. CHARLES.
i- SPICED BLACKBERRY WINE.
re Put ten pounds of berries into a stone
l pot and mash with a wooden spoon; stir
in three pounds of sugar, and let it
stand in a cool place for a week, stirring
e it once a day, and always with a wooden
lgt spoon; strain first through a colander,
l and then through a fine cambric bag.
SI To every quart of syrup allow one pound
s of sugar.. The next day boil one pint of
' water with a half pound of sugar in it,
r and add to the syrup; let it sand another
' week, then add cloves, cinnamon, gin-
- ger and nutmeg to taste. When the
e froth is all off bottle it tightly.
d BOILED BLACKBERRY PUDDINGS.
One quart milk, one quart flour; add
e two teaspoonfuls Royal Baking Powder,
e four eggs, little salt, one quart blackber-
*r ries, well floured. In mixing, pour the
u beaten eggs and milk on the flour. Have
s. the water boiling. Boil in a floured bag
'; one and one-quarter hours. Sauce for
d the pudding: One tablespoonful butter,
r four tablespoonfuls powdered sugar, one
e egg, three-quarters cupful sherry wine,
d Heat butter, sugar and egg over a tea-
kettle; add the wine gradually.-Brook-
d lyn Cook..
r Blackberry or huckleberry shortcake
y may be made after the recipe given for
r strawberry shortcake in our issue of
S A i. 1i ot.h-.
all the "bad spells" that overtake Our
Home Circle I rom time to time are not
credited to its editor.]
Mamma would like to suggest through
you that the FLORIDA FARMER AND
FRUIT-GROWER, Iheing such a valuable
paper to file, be printed on better paper
-paper not quite so heavy, but stronger.
Frequently when we get our copy from
the post-office it is nearly worn out in
[Mamma is right-right all through.
The FLORIDA. FARMER ANiD FRUIT-
GROWER is a valuable paper to file, and
she is, by no means, the first to call at-
tention to this one literally weak spot.
[The matter printed upon the paper
certainly does deserve a firmer founda-
tion, and without a doubt this one fault
will shortly be remedied, since the march
of the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER, dur-
ing its brief existence, has been steadily
"upward and onward."-ED.]
Now I'm going to tell you about John
Henry, my pet alligator.
He was a foot and a half long; he was
black with yellow stripes on his neck,
body and tail; he had short, stubby legs,
and could run very fast; his eyes were
long and narrow, and well back on his
head. Instead of dropping the lids over
his eyes, they closed from the bottom;
when he went under the water a thin
skin came up over them to shield his
eyes from the water, though he could
see as well as when on land.
He was tied to the corner block of the
house; he had a vessel of water that he
pONSIGNHMEN TSO O EG, O F E "
cJ CHICKENS, FRUATN, .ANDA AU bV
COUNTRY PRODUCE -
J. H. SUTHERLAND,
8 2 00EAN STREE'I';
HOTELS PUBLIC & PRIVATE BUILD-
INS, SANITARY ENGINEERING, &C."
P. 0. ox 784. Rooms 7 and 8 Palmetto Block,
ORMONOD ON THE HA R IFA
FOB REST OF HAMMOCK LAND OR BEARING ORANGE GROVES
---CALL ON OR ADDRESS-
Ormond Land Agency, Ormonrid.
EBEast C ast of .OZllusia E- iiltyi-
NEW YORK & FLORIDA STEAMSHIP LINE.
'TI-WEEKLY SERVICE BETWEEN
NEW YORK, FERNANDINA. AND JACKSONVILLE
Steamers are appointed to sail from Pier 29, E..R., N. Y., every Tuesday, Thmrs-da
and Saturd at m. .
FROM JAC NON-SLLE-OHERO0'E5 (new), and SEMINOLE (new), every FRIDAt.
.FROM.FERNANDINA-DELA WARE and y 48SEE every MONDAY, p..-i, CIT'F
OF ATLANTA cand- CTY- O1OOLUfMBIA, every WEDNESDAY p.m.
The Freight and Passenger Accommodationa by thia Line are unsurpassed by any ships in
the coastwise service. For further information, apply to ES I-A .
CLARENCE WAGNER, Agt., J. A. LESiE, Agt
Fernandina, Fla., JackaovDJie, Fla.,S. W. cor. Ba and Hogan.
TMBO. G. EGER, Traffic Managert -M. P CLYDE & CO.,
.5 Broadway, Y. General Aaents,85 UB:~.sl av, N. Y
H ERRYAE could go in when he chose. Sometime
HUCKLEBERRY CAKE. he would go under the trees, sometime
o, One cup of butter (or lard), two cups under the house, sometimes into th
e of sugar, three cups of flour, five eggs, house.
t- one cup sweet milk, one teaspoonful We fed him tender bits of beefstealk
o soda dissolved in hot water [we prefer a When we gave him bread or anythinE
n good baking powder.-ED.3, one tea- he disliked, he wauld spit it out. Whei
e spoonful nutmeg, and the same of cinna- he wanted some delicacies he would
- mon; lastly,, one quart of ripe, fresh nearly close his eyes, throw up his uppe
huckleberries, thickly dredged with jaw, when the flies, attracted by th
g flour. gummy substance that covered hi
- Stir the butter and sugar to a cream, tongue, would light on it, and he wouli
g add the beaten yolks, then the milk and snap his jaws, open his eyes, move hi
a flour and spice, the whites whipped stiff tail from side to side, and looked happy
o and the soda (or baking powder). At as if he had accomplished his object.
t the last stir in the huckleberries with a He liked to play very well, but whei
e wooden spoon or paddle, not to bruise he was tired and we would not stop, he
them. would blow at us. Pussy and Johl
1 Bake ina loaf or card, in a moderate Henry played nicely ,together. Whei
. but steady oven, until a straw comes out John Henry caught pussy by the tail shi
d clean from the thickest part; it is a good would spit at and claw him, when Mr
idea to lay a greased paper over the cake 'Gator would retreat to his tub of water
to insure it against burning. When pussy took hold of John Henry's
e (Says Marion Harlana, in her Common tail and he was tired of it, he would
t Sense Cook Book, from which we take blow at her, and then pussy would take
the above: "This is a delicious cake, "Frenchlleave."
and deserves to be better known.") One day as usual we fed John Henry
RULES FOR CANNING. his dinner and left him-all right- About
t Within th f2 o'clock Auntie Lou came in to see us
fruits nhiae e te gleat ete ars canned I went out to bring John Henry to show
b eue r mu her, but found only a part of his string
preserves, because thy are muccheap-We traced his tracks towardthelake,bu
er, more ol a esomeand v could not find him. A, few days after
r prepare, and if proper attention is paid colored man told us tah&--saw him in
rt, b ,e scre the rs all in the lake with the,' ~ig still ,ound hi
irste sure a arsneck. So we wreassured that n
order; second, let the fruit be scalding had taught hin. to return to his iNaev
hot when sealed, roll the jars in hot eenment, for e was caught on the short
water, and then stand them in a pao of of Lake Etusis.
to oerlowg, ior the rui wil srink ll yo p S tell me if Picarro ha
as it cools, and y6u do not want a vacu- Y o uo sin,
im left; fourth, screw the tops on several eY. VOGT
times, as the jar cools, unless house P-i-c-a-r-o-one c and one Tdo no
--l ng tis,-- how eve, f th" e om nder onu0 e bit that you nave been -ed
mer tophe fth, if the 3as are g ass, tified over that name. Messrs. N. P
k teep them in a ndark nlace and as cool as to their "abl, and tap at....-w
bhe. l.in a darkr lace ans d as cool as evidently thought I did not know, and
possible; if no dark pae s conenient, proved hat they did not; but I suppose
wrap the j or i fte nnwspa s they meant to be sure to hit it some-
SCANNED BERRIES. times, for they rang all the changes on
Heat slowly to boiling in a large ket- th c's and r's Picaro got h is rights,
tle. When they begin to boil add though, all the way through, "unto the
-sugar in the proportion of one. table- end of the chapter' l g."
spoonful to each quart of fruit. Before Just now, as I write, Picaro and Mrs.
doing this, however, if there is much Picaro are very happy in a full-fledged
juice in the kettle, dip out the surplus; family of four saucy little ones, who
it is not needed, and only makes more come to their table, and tap at our-win-
cans to fill. The berries should be almost dow as impudently as their parents.
dry before putting in the sugar; then But their day will soon be over. The
boi all together for fifteen minutes, and eggs are already laid to furnish their
'can as directed. successors, and very shortly the elder
Huckleberries, grapes, blackberries ones will be sent out into the world to
and strawberries put up in this way are earn their own living. "The king is
very good, whether as preserves or for dead; long live the king" Such is life.
The surplus juice may be utilized in A HOME-MADE LOUNGE.
'the case of the huckleberries and black- Here is something that our boys and
, berries by using it to make cordial, by girls can work together upon, and when
recipe already given, it is done, what a satisfaction it will be
For our own use we prefer evaporat- for the dear mothers to have such a com-
ing our fruits to any other method. We portable place to rest upon in their leis-
'are now using huckleberries dried in our ure moments (if she can find any) during
'evaporator two years ago, and they are the day.
sound and sweet. V e have also recently Put a frame together, no matter how
made jelly, spiced fruit and marmalade roughly, so that it is strong and stands
from guavas evaporated the same sea- squarely on its legs. This frame may be
son. composed of four strips of wood, two
. MOLASSES LEMON PIE. the length that is required for the
Peel and take thejuice of "six lemons lounge and two the width, about twenty-
four cups molasses, two cup's sugar, four eight inches. Nail this firmly on the
tablespoonfuls flour, two cups water four legs, which should stand about
(boiling); take the peel of three lemons sixteen inches high. The frame made,
put in cold water, set it on the fire till it either nail slats across the top, or, better
comes to a,boil. Change the water three tell, strips of stout canvas or webbing.
times; this will remove the bitterness Next manufacture a mattress of suitable
Chop this peel with the pulp of the six thickness of fine hay, oat straw or other
lemons after they have been peeled; put desirable material. Cover the mattress
.all together. with cretonne and make a valance bor-
o dered with a ruffle of the material to fall
Our Young Folks' Corner. around the lounge and hide the frame
c IT w from view. Also cover a large, square
ITS STANDING OFFER th pillow to place at one end of the lounge.
or girl who sendsusthe largestlist of subser Ib- you cannot get a pretty pattern of
.era fo "THE FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT- cretonne, use percale, or any goods
GROWER" duringthat month, that corresponds with the room and
A beautifully bound copy of the famous it surreondi ngs
children's magazine, St. Ncholas, to the boy its surroundings.
or girl whe sends us the largest number of LEMON TAFFY.
subscribers during six months.
Write us letters descriptive of places, things Boil together till taffy is formed, three
or doings; write us on one side the page; give pounds of light brown or Florida sugar,
The best letter received will be published one-quarter of a pound of sugar and one
each week. pint of vinegar.
Now go to work and see who wins. +
It is the opinion of the Supreme Court
JOHN HENRY. of Illinois, that if a railway company di-
EUSTIs, April 22, 1887. verts the'flow of surface water from its
'My Dear Cousin Helen: natural channel, and conducts it through
Will a ditch it has made~along its right of way,
Willyou please ask "those naughty and empties it into a slough, at a point
printers" to set up my manuscript cor- where it overflows the land of another
rectly? I'm sure I didn't spell little with it may be liable for sutich damages as re-
one t. My name is spelled Vogt. sult from its own acts; but will not be hlia-
[Messrs. N. Printers will please take ble on account of any water that may be
notice that, although our Cousin Louis is brought into such railroad ditch, by ar-
.a "true-blue" citizen, he yet drops his tifical drains of other parties, made with-
h's when spelling his name.out the sanction or approval of the com-
[And our Cousin Louis will please take payout the sanction or approval of the co
notice that he is not the only victim; if pany
,he lost his t(ea), I had my "orange If the power to do hard work is not
press" transformed last week by a curl- talent, it is the test possible substitute
ous "process," and I can only hope that for it.
Unsurpassed by any other section for the production of Fruits and Vegetables. If you are corn- -
mito Florida, whatever may be your means or condition, ou will most assuredly be pleased with
thi Centre of the Lake region. For further particulars address,
S- S.L. REED, Pittman, Fla.
The Florida Times-Union
PRINTING AND PUBLISHING HOUSE.
Best quipped Office in th S
d cc in 0e'Sout
AT PRICES BELOW COMPETITION
.AT.JD A.IJ.T. h.K.J JUS 0.1'
COLORED HANGERS FOLDERS
FREE, ONE SAMPLE GOPY.
Before yon decide where to go in SOUTH
FLORIDA, send for a sample copy of
THE ORANGE GROVE.
You will find better and cheaper bargains in
MANATEE County in groves, farms, ranches of
any size. Building lots on railroad, river or sea-
side. The proprietor of "The Orange Grove," is
an "old timer," but neither moss backed or hide
bound; he is here to stay and "There is millions
in It." Three Millions of Acres on his Books.
Address, THE GROVE, LIVERPOOL, FLA.
Fancy Poulty and Hunuting Dogs.
Eggs For Hatching From Leading Va-
rieties of Domesticated Land
and Water Fowl.
--$1 PER.', 13.--
Also Thoroughbred YoungSetters and Hounds.
Address VILLA ZANA POULTRY YARDS,
Greatest Vine Producers on the Market.
$E1ISTI..AG.E CO1 TR-,
Ensilage Cutters. (Silos, made in
Everything to Plant at Bottomn Prices.
SO. SEED CO., Macon, Ga..
J. RK.Ellis, President.
Send for treatise on ensilage and Silos.
Hernando County, Elorida,
Sixteen miles west of Hernando Hotel, Brooks-
ville, on the shore of the Gulf at the mouth of a
beautiful Spring River. Finest fishing, boating
and sailing. Good accommodations. Try-weekly
TIl on the Line the Florida southern.so
Is on the "Lne of the Florida Southern.- .; ". -
S. N. ELLiS, o. Z. A. E. MCCLURE,,Architect.'
ELLIS & McCLURE,
9A n-.. Q-
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MAY 4, 1887.
Inquiries concerning diseases of domestic
Animals may be addressed to Dr. D. 0. Lyon,
,acksonville, Florida, who will answer them
through this column.
Swelled Legs in Horses.
Horses which are fed high and exer-
cised sparingly are often subject to
swelled legs. This condition always ac-
companies general debility,and in severe
cases of the latter the swelling will
extend to the sheath, breast and belly.
The animal will also appear very weak
and stagger as he walks. Among the
-causes of debility enumerted by McClure
are purges in treatment of disease, also
insufficient food, or that of in inferior
.If the swelling is the result of debility,
first see that the horse has an abundant
supply of choice hay and sound oats,
Feed regularly three times daily. By
this it is not intended that the patient
should be gorged, as that will soon cloy
the appetite. Mix three ounces of pulveriz-
ed sulphate of iron copperass) with three
ounces of powdered gentian, and divide
into twenty four powders. Give one of
these powders night and morning until
all have ben used. If there is much
swelling about the body, add five grains
of powdered Spanish fly to the evening
powder for three days. Give the animal
a good rest, and when put to work use
lightly at first and increase by degrees
until thoroughly seasoned.-American
Loss of Cud.
Both sheep an.d cows are ruminating
animals, or in other words, they rumi-
nate or chew their cud. The peculiar
arrangement of the digestive organs of
thee animals makes it necessary to do
this. When they take their food it is
very indifferently masticated, and taken
in this condition at once to the so-called
first stomach, where it remains awhile to
soften, the water which the animal
drinks passing directly to the second
stomach. When the first stomach is done
with the food, it passes to the second
stomach, after which it is brought up in
moderate quantities from time to time,
to be reduced by mastication.
The constant motion of the second
stomach rollsup the food into balls at the
same time it is softening it, and these
are the balls or "cud" which the animal
brings up to chew. When the food has
been thus reduced, it is swallowed and
passes directly into the third stomach,
remaining there for a short time, and
then goes into the fourth, where it is
If a cow loses her cud the stomach is
out of order, and the proper way to res-
tore it is to restore the cow to health-
fulness, not by applying mechanical or
other means to help her regain it.
-Ex. h s .
Care of Mares and Foals.
No mare should be permitted to
occupy a small enclosure with another
approaching foalingtime; the reason is
that they become irritable, and a sudden
kick may undo the care and precaution
of a year. Mares in advanced pregnancy
should not be taken -across lakes or
rivers, or taken long distances, or put
into any circumstances of danger. If. it
be absolutely necessary to transport
them through such circumstances, they
should be watched for twenty-four
houis, to see that they receive every care
and attention in case of premature de-
I bought a mare last summer that
liked two or three weeks of foaling
time. She was brought across .a
lagelae whlak ile the weather was
.strmy. The little stranger made
her appearance that night, but by
prompt and careful work both mother
and filly were brought through all right,
although both were very weak.
The farmer should be very careful as
to the surroundings of mares; no blood
or any kind of skins should be permitted
in the neighborhood, or cats in the hay,
nor entrails of chickens or other animals
should be thrown near where they are
kept. When mares foal they should be in
a placewhere they can get no water,
and where there are no pools of water.
Warm drinks should be provided, made
, of middlings or ground oats; no corn or
other heating grains should be fed.
The mare should not be taken from the
colt for longer longer than an hour at a time.
If ,it is necessary to plow with the
mother, both she and the colt will do
better for such an arrangement as will
provide for frequent sucking.-Amer-
Care of Sows.
A writer in Colman's Rural World,
addressing himself to beginners, offers
the following advice:
A sow expected to come in should be
put in separate quarters some days be-
fore her time, so that she will get over
her uneasiness and restlessness over
closer confinement. While she should
have the most comfortable quarters for
her bed chamber, it is not best to deprive
her of open air exercise if it be possible.
While her bed should be warm and dry,
she should have but little of ittle ofit, and it
were better if her bedding were of short
cut straw, or at least very short,straw.
The sow will naturally make her bed
Sin the corner of her pen near the walls.
If there are not benches around the pen
fastened against the walls, about eight or
ten inches highad nd as many wide, there
is danger of the young pigs being crushed
between the sow and the wall of the pen.
But if the bench is made right, when the
sow is in the act of lying down or turn-
ing over, the pigs can slip under the
bench and escape being crushed or over-
laid. A careful preparation of this na-
ture will save many thousands of pigs
for the hog crop of next winter.
A.sow should be disturbed as little as
possible for at least three days after far-
rowmng. They need no gorging with
extra feed. Cool water to quench' her
fever and warm slop when she demands
it, is about all that is needed: Generally,
nature teaches the sow the necessity of
quiet rest, and a reasonable demand for
food. Little, sleek, chubby, Poland
China pigs are deeply interesting to the
true agriculturist, and he must not dis-
turb the sow by showing the pigs, or in
attempts to fatten them too soon.
We are aware how interesting young
pigs, calves, lambs and colts become to a
farmer whose heart, affections and social
nature are all right. The sight and asso-
ciation with these lovely little domestic
pets are one of the best compensations
one gets for his care of them and the
drudgery he undergoes on the farm.
And if there be no love for and pleasure
in these little innocents, he had better
quit the farm, as he will never succeed in
stock raising. There must be something
more and better to induce one to care
properly for them than the mere idea of
the money to be got for them when
slaughtered. If this be all, attempts to*
prosper by raising stock will be miserable
Sheep on Poor Farms.
It is the benefit to the farm that one
of the profits on sheep is derived. Many
farmers do not take this into account; it
is one of the most important items in
sheep raising. In this connection the
Nebraska Farmer says:
"If you have a field which is poorer
than any other part of your farm, make
of it a pasture for a flock of sheep. If it
be necessary, throw up a movable fence,
so as to confine the sheep somewhat and
pasture the field in sections. The im-
provement will oe so marked that you
'will never forget the value of this ex-
periment If you have no sheep the ex-
periment is worth the purchase of a
small flock, and the sheep will be no loes
to you afterward."
We do not believe in keeping sheep on
the poorest part of the farm, as that is
where the sheep raisers have for centu-
ries made their grand mistake; but the
solution is given in the above, by con-
structing the movatfble fence and pastur-
ing the sheep in sections. Such a method
is the only true one, and will always
give a large profit.
The Piney Woods for Sheep.
The pine lands of Louisiana and Mis-
sissippi have long been noted for sheep
raising, for the following reasons: The
country away from the railroads is
sparsely settled; hence, there are few
dogs to worry and annoy the animals.
The herbage, though coarse, is very
abundant and nutritious, besides, there
are plenty of clear water streams-so
very necessary to the health of the ani-
mals. And the nature of the soil is such
that they are rarely ever troubled with
As to the best breed for this climate,
if for mutton, the Southdown cross on
the native; if for wool, the Merino on
Success in sheep raising is not so much
a question of capital as it is of prudence
As a ru'.e, we,believe hogs get salt less
regularly than any other farm stock.
Especially is this the case in the winter.
In the summer time it is not hard to find
convenient and good places to drop the
salt.on the ground; but a good plan is,
always winter and summer to have a
place ready for the salt, and we do not
doubt but the safest plan would be al-
ways to have salt where the hogs can
get it. And we have found it the better
plan to always mix the salt with ashes.
The amount of ashes need not be limited,
for the hogs relish them very much.
While sometimes a hog may eat too
much clear salt, we do not think there is
the least danger when mixed with
ashes, if the quantity of ashes is in ex-
The opinion holds with many that it is
dangerous to let a hog have all the salt
he will eat; hence, they salt sparingly.
This opinion gained ground from the fact
that hogs that have' been salted irregu-
larly and in short quantities have some-
times eaten so much when salted liber-
ally as to kill them. But when they
once become accustomed to a full sup-
ply, and have it by them all the time,
they will never eat enough to work
harm. This is the testimony of men
that keep a supply of salt always within
the reach of their swine.
Cow for Sale.
Bill Nye places his cow before the
public as follows: Owing to ill health I
will sell at my residence,. in town twenty-
-nine, range eighteen, west, according to
Government survey, one crushed-straw-
berry colored- cow, aged six years. She
is a good milkster, and is not afraid of
the cars-or anything else. She is a cow
of undaunted courage) and gives milk
frequently. To a man who does iot fear
death in any form, she would be a great
boon. She is very much attached to
.home at present, by means of a trace
chain, but she will be sold to anyone
who will agree to treat her right. She is
one-fourth Shorthorn and three-fourths
hyena. Purchaser need not be identified.
I will also throw in a double-barrel shot-
gun, which goes with her. In May she
generally- goes away somewhere for a
week or two and returns with a tall, red
calf, with long, wabbly legs. Her name
is Rose, and I would prefer to sell her to
The Cincinnati Enquirer gives this
remedy for "bumble foot" in fowls:
When toes and feet swell up and fill
with matter, wait till each swelling
ripens fairly, cut open the puffy protub-
erance and let out the gathering pus
freely. The incision should be made
crucially (thus, X) and-quite down to
the bone or ligament beneath the skin.
Cleanse off the matter and wash in a
mixture of equal parts of alcohol and
Illinois farmers find broom corn seed a
desirable and profitable food for fatening
cattle. It must be ground fine before
using, and then takes the place of cob
meal or corn and cobs ground together.
DISEASES OF POULTRY.
II.-How to Detect Diseases and
BY E. S. RICHARDSON.
FoOD.-On this subject "too much can-
not be said." "The half was never told."
We do not pretend to be able to "tell
the missing half," yet perhaps our views
and practice on this will not come amiss.
The food is a very important matter.
The digestive organs of all beings are of
great importance, and in laying fowls
they are especially so. Hens manufac-
ture eggs from food, and, consequently,
we must feed them the best egg-produc-
On this subject one might write a
book, but at present our remarks must be
limited. The foods that should be
guarded against are whole corn in hot
weather, all damaged grain, all tainted
meat, all offal when not perfectly fresh,
very fat articles, too much green food,
too much meat, especially raw meat.
Peas are too stimulating for general use.
Irregularity of feeding and over-feeding
should be avoided.
DRINK is a matter of importance,
also; Anything but pure, fresh water is
objectionable. Many causes of 'disease
can be traced back to the drink, so it
behooves us to be very careful, not only
with the drink for our fowls, but for our-
MEDICINES AND THEIR ADMINISTRATION.
Every breeder of poultry should be his
own medical adviser. He must depend
mostly upon himself, for it is out of the
question to consult a physician on ac-
count of the expense, and then, again,
there is not one out of every hundred
that knows anything about a fowl. The
poultryman must learn to detect the ap-
proach of a disease, and not wait to cure
it, but check it. To get this ability does
not require a course of medicine. The
facts and symptoms lie on the surface,
and are easily learned with a little expe-
rience and attention.
First, learn well the appearance of
your fowls when in health, and then you
will know when they are out of health.
One ought to handle and feel of his
stock, and learn how a healthy muscle
should feel, how the eyes should look,
what the heat of the skin should be,
whether the breast-bone is straight (as it
should be) or crooked, etc. Find out
what the trouble is by comparing the
symptoms with those we shall describe;
make a diagnosis, and then treat accord-
ing to the following directions. Of
course, you must use a great deal of
judgment, as you will rarely find two
cases exactly alike. The easiest way to
give medicines to fowlisis in solutions,
but pills are not very hard to give, if
thrust downan the throat.
TABLE APOTHECAMIES' WEIGHTS.
20 ins make 1 scruple.
1 ?;scruples make I drachm.
8 drachmas make 1 ounce.-
12 ounces make 1 pound-o -
TABLE OF FLUID- NJr-SURES.
60 minims lnei,' drachm.
8 drachms-i aaje 1 ounce.
16 ouiluces make 1 pint.
Foie rough measuring the following is
considered very good:
1 teaspoon holds 1 fluid drachm.
1 tablespoon holds I fluid ounce.
1 wine glass holds 2 fluid ounces.
1 teaspoon, or fluid drachm, holds 60
drops of water.
1 tablespoon,or fluid drachm, holds 120
drops of water.
Care should be taken not to use this
last rough measure for any of the pow-
erful drugs, such as striohnine, aconite,
or tartar-emetic. Under each disease we
will give the remedy. Where moremore
than one is given, the first we consider
AmongWthe drugs most used in the
poultry yard are the following:
Cayenne, gentian root and assafoetida
are good digestive stimulants, but be
careful to get a first-class article.
Charcoalis a good purifier of the di-
gestive organs, and also absorbs all fostid
or'poisonous matters. Feed it in their
food (mush), or give it to them in small
pieces about the size of a grain of corn.
Sulphur is a valuable drug for remov-
ing lice from very young chicks, and for
sprinkling around setting hens. 'Great
care should be taken in using it around
young chicks, on account of the danger
of it blinding them if it gets in their
LIME WATER.-Fiveou ounces of lime to
one gallon of water'; slack. the lime with
a little of the .water, and pour on the
rest. Cover and let it remain for four
hours, then pour off the clear liquid
from the top and use the lime that is left
as a deodorizer.
DOUGLASS' MIXTURE.-Dissolve one
pound of copperas in two gallons of rain
water, then add,'s'irring well, one ounce
of oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid); keep
corked. This is a very good tonic, in
doses of an ounce to a gallon-ofmdrminking
water, twice to four times per week.
CHICKEN POWDER.-Four ounces each
of copperas, cayenne, sulphur and resin,
pulverize and mix. Two spoonfuls for
each dozen fowls several times weekly.
This is also a good tonic.
Dr. H. D. Walker, of Franklinville, N.
Y., has been investigating gapes in
fowls, and decides that earth-worms
contain the embryo of this dread disease.
He suggests that they be destroyed in
infected poultry yards to prevent the
spread of the disease. This may be done
by covering the ground with salt, lime
or ashes, the latter preferred Saturate
the earth with solution of one or two
pounds of salt to a gallon of water.
Mr. L. H. Cutting, in California Cack-
ler, argues that poultry, to be killed and
dressed fQr home use or otherwise,should
not be permitted to run at large for at
least ten days before killing, for they
are apt to range in farm yards and pick
up filthy food, which: will permeate all
through the bird, and frequently they
are unfit to eat after being prepared for
R IILEY, GROVER & CO.,
STATE AGENTS FOR
RASIN FERTILIZER CO'S
SOLUABLE SEA ISLAND GUANO
DISSOLVED BONE AND ALKALI
AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN
W. H I. PILLOW
FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PACKING,
FORWARDING AND COMMISSION HOUSE.
Usully have orders to work our consignments into, enabling us to make.PROMPT RETURNS
Extensive Facilities for Repacking
for outside parties, to which prompt attention is given. Packages suitable for
SHIPPING ORANGES, STRAWBERRIES AND VEGETABLES,
both made up and in the flat, always on hand, and for sale. Also, Hoops, Wrapping Paper, etc
Best of location, viz:
Points About Geese.
No doubt the most profitable kinds are
those that grow largest. A goose is
never noted for its great number of eggs,
as they usually lay but one litter, unless
broken up. The number ranges from
eight to fourteen. A goose will nearly
always sit anywhere you wish, if you
cover her for a few days, or until she
gets wanted to her nest. She should be
accustomed to handling while sitting, so
that at hatching time you may be able
to lok over the eggs occasionally, for
if a shell should slip over another egg it
would be nearly impossible for the un-
born gosling to break both shells. The
food for goslings may be the same as
that for chickens, but after they have
learned to eat grass they care but little
for anything else, and will grow finely,
They should be allowed quite a field with
Geese will injure crops if allowed, but
there is nothing on the farm that can be
taught their places more readily than
they. Old geese can be picked four
times during the season, commencing.
about the first of May. Goslings are
picked three times. They are ready for
picking when there is no blood in the
quills, and this can be ascertained by
pulling out a few feathers. Always re-
member to leave the feathers at the side
of the back. They are too large to be of
use, and, if left, they prevent the wings
from drooping after picking. They are
called bolsters. Geese can be fattened
on any kind of grain, if you feed all they
will eat, commencing about ten days be-
fore you wish to market them; but corn,
peas or barley have the preference.
To kill geese have a place where you
can hang them with the head down, and
then stick a sharp knife through the
neck close to the head and let them
bleed. This causes the meat to be very
clear and white. After they are through
bleeding, roll them up, one at a time, in
three or four thicknesses of blanket and
put them into a boiler of hot water, let-
ting them remain about one minute; af-
terward lay them where they will drain
about ten minutes more, and then pick
them. They will pick very easily and
the down will not be wet. It is the
steam that causes the feathers to loosen.
It is an everlasting job to dry pick geese
and this is a sure process. The entrails
should be immediately removed, the
head cut off, and the skin drawn neatly
over the neck and tied. Afterwards
place them where they will keep cool
but not freeze.. Those kept over should
be fed "grain, and they love hay very
much and will pick off the heads of dry
grass very rapidly. They should com-
mence laying in March.
Some Ideas of Bee-Keeping.
BY J. Y. DETWILER.
In perusing the numerous bee journals
of the present day it is amusing to see
what ideas are advanced by some indi-
viduals in their communications to the
The present'low price of honey is
striking the pockets of many of the pro-
ducers, and a Honey Producers' Associa-
tion to regulate the prices' is under con-
sideration. Just as if the balding to-
gether of the principal producers could
control the price or advance the market
value of the commodity. There are too
many individuals who .re dependent
upon quick returns for the honey ob-
tained in order to support their families
or procure the common necessaries of
life, to hold for a higher price, even did
they join such an association. The law
of supply and demand will alone govern
the price, and the apiarist who can pro-
duce his honey the cheapest will be the
one to make the most money out of apia-
A few would-be monopolists are ad-
vocating the passage of a law securing
the individuals establishing apiaries in
certain localities the exclusive right, by
virtue of priority of location, thereby
shutting off all competition in their
special line. Competition is the life of
trade, and he who by legal powers en-
deavors to prevent a neighbor from se-
curing the nectar which is distributed
so bountifully in all localities, in order
to utilize the same,for his own exclusive
benefit, deserves the censure of all right-
The merits of' certain patented bee-
hives are being brought prominently be-
fore the bee keeping public. Said hives
are claimed to embody all the new,
novel and necessary features required to
make apiaculture a success Many of
our prominent writers on the subject are
enthusiastic in their articles, and claim
untold advantages for the new depart-
ure. On the other hand, equally gifted
writers profess to .have had in use all
the features embodied in said hives for
years past, and there is nothing new or
novel that is of vital importance to suc-
cessful aplaculture in the claims made
by the patentee.
Thus it goes. How the minds of
would-be great men do differ, especially
when the almighty dollar is the matter
in consideration. A common movable
frame hive, adapted to the climate of
Florida is free:,to all users, and costs
nothing but the material and labor nec-
essary to construct it. It would be well
for all to go slow in paying for patent
bee fixtures of any kind. The same
amount invested in reading matter for
the family will pay a better dividend on
the investment many times over.
NEW SMYRNA, Fla.
S., F. & W. R. R. WHARF,
T size 40x100 on Lake Kingsley, Clay Co., only $10. A
I OW fee tin St M V.a W choice '5-acre tract for an ORANGE
GROVE costs but $100.
High rolling Pine Lands, Salubrious Climate, a good invest- F
ment. Send 2-cent stamp for Maps, etc., or remit P. 0. Order or
Bank Draft to JOHN T. TALBOTT, and get Warranty Deed, Title I- kU'l UA
perfect, from the A .
TI:OPICA.L jLAckNvTD COIM:PAW.-B-,
P. 0. Box I5S,Jacksonvflle, Florida, 89 W. Bmay St
. P. OHAMBSR LAIN.
A. V. CUSOADX
SO U 'J-'i. H- -OIID.A-
Real Estate Agency,
TAMPA, FLORIDA. Omlee: Twiggs St., two blocks east of Passenger depot.
ORIOLE, HERNANDO COUNTY..
Beautiful location, facing on Lake Oriole and on the South Florida Railroad.
Lands all high and dry. New settlement; between twenty-five and thirty new houses.
A Church, Scho.-, ...y mails, stores, bakery, sawmill and hotel. Large area alreadyLplanted
in orange groves. Choice building lots for winter homes for sale cheap. Tex, twenty and
[for acre orange grove lots. A healthy settlement in a healthy State.
CaHl on or Address,
J. W. GROVES, or CLARKSON & ROBERTSON,
Oriole, Florida. Jacksonville, Florida.
W. N. JUSTICE
Wholesale Commission Merchant,
NO. 818 NORTH WATER STREET, PHILADELPHIA.
Specialties: SOUTHERN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. Consignments Solicited. Return
made on day-of sale.
T-. 'O. BsOT -WT,
32 19n A T =iu&-A-A'ES TRO 3E L8EL Ft.
Orange Groves, Town Lots in Bartow, Winter Haven, Haskell, Punta Gorda and Charlotte
Harbor, for Sale. Unlmproved Lands, in small-and large tracts, at 50 per acre, up. Choice ten
and forty acre tracts of good, high, rolling Pine Lands, near S. F. R. depot, at $20 to $86 pe
acre. All property guaranteed to be as represent or money refunded.
S Money Loans, well secured, negotiated at IS per cent, net, to the lender.
What Mr. Beyer says : e
Sbest thanks forth splendid seeds received from your firm.
It would be a rather lengthy list if I should name all, but
will say thatamongat.S first, and 8 second premium
awarded me at our fair in Northern India anad
SouthernMichigan, 28 first premiums were for vege-
tables raised from your seeds. What firm can beat
AuGesT Bzta So. Bend, Ind;
1 Seed of this quality I am now ready-to sell to every one :
who tills a farm. or plants a garden, sending them FREE my
egetab ,eandFlower Seed Catalgue,for 1887. Old customers
eed hot write for it. I catalogue this season the native wild
potato JAS. J. H. GBEGORY, Seed Grower, Marblehead, Mam
FRUITS AND PRODVUE.
Get our Prices before buying.
Circulars and Stencils on application.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, MAY 4, 1887.
A MODEL FLOOD GATE WORTHY
Timely Suggestions for the Month-De-
stroying Canker Worms-Treatment of
Girdled Trees-Various Modes of Graft-
For best results in grafting there must
exist a close affinity between stock and
graft. As a rule all grafts succeed best
on trees of their own species or those
closely allied to them. When perfect de-
velopment as regards size and duration
is-desired, a stock of a similar nature to
the graft should be selected, as an apple
seedling for an apple and a pear seedling
for a pear. If, however, dwarf trees, which
come into bearing ve.y young, are required,
then an allied species of slower growth
may be employed' foi the stock, or if the
soil and climate be unfavorable a stock
adapted to the soil, or one which by its
hardier roots endure the cold, can be se-
lected.- In rfian~ casesthe peach and
apricot are grafted with beneficial results
on the plum, aild the pear on the quince,
but an apple is never grafted on a peach
or -a cherry on a pear. The pear, apple,
quince, miedlar, thorn and mountain ash
-a naturally allied group-have been
more or less successfully worked upon.
j SPLICE GRAFTING-WIIIP GRAFTING.
In grafting, as in budding, the princi-
pal object is to increase the varieties that
cannot be produced with -certainty from
seed. Grafting is also performed to fruit
a new variety. In this latter 'case a cion
inserted in a branch of a bearing tree will
produce fruit oftentimes the second year
from the graft, while if the same cion had
been put on a young seedling it would not
have fruited perhaps in ten years.
Stocks may be of any age from seed-
lings to old trees. Cions are usually shoots
of the -preceding year's growth. These
are cut in autumn after the fall of the
leaf or in, winter, and are .preserved in a
dormant state until wanted for use. Cions
should not be cut in very cold weather,
but with this exception they may be taken
from the trees at any time between the
falling of the. leaves in autumn and the
swelling of the buds in spring. They are
better if cut a few weeks previous t4
using, though th- apple aind pear have
been grafted with success with cons taken
off at the time the work was done.
Splice grafting is the simplest form of
grafting. The root or stock is cut across
at an angle near the collar,. the cion at a
like angle-or slope and the two fitted and
bound together. (See first cut.) This
method is much used with stocks of small
Whip grafting (see same illustration) is
a modification of splice grafting, differing
from the former in the splitting or tongue-
ing of the stock and cion midway on the
sloping cut of each, thus increasing the
extent of surface brought into contact
when the pieces are fitted into efch other.
: and bound together with yarn or bast.
Cleft grafting is practiced on trees, or
branches too large for whip .grafting, also
in the renewing of the tops of orchard
trees. 'The stock 'is cut square across,
then split, and t'e cions, which have been
shaved down t,. a wedge :shape, are in-
serted, care being taken that the inner
bark of the cion shall meet that of the
stock. Our second cut illustrates the op-
eration. In large stocks two dions are in-
serted. After the cions are set the ex-
posed or rounded parts of both stock and
cion are covered with good grafting wax.
A wax made of equal parts of resin, bees'
wax and tallow melted together, and ap-
plied warm, will be found effective.
A common mistake is the one of graft-
ing too. early; remember that the cion will
not makeany union with the stock until
the latter starts into growth.
Girdled Fruit Trees.
Do not be in despair about your young
fruit trees that have been girdled by mice
and rabbits. Unless the inner bark is
completely gone the tree may, with pro-
per treatment, be 'saved. The object
should be to keep the wound moist while
nature heals it. The usual mode of ac-
complishing this is to apply a thick dress-
:,ing of cow manure and clay, mixed to-
gether with a little water to form a plas-
ter' .This dressing iq. kept in place by a
banidage*of old. bagging-or cloth. It is
also well to reduce the head of 'the tree by
cutting back its branches. When the
wound is very severe The American Agri-
culturist advises that it be bridged over
by the use of aInrge cons, one endinserted
under'the bark below and the other end
above' the wound. But unless a tree is
large and especially valuable, it will rarely
pay to be at -this trouble.. Better replace
I he injured tree by another of the safime
size and age.
The Canada thistle, while subdued
somewhat by repeated and frequent mow-
ings, is not often destroyed by this means
alone. The thistle root has numerous
points, each one of which has power to
send up a shoot, consequently while the
main stock and its immediate root con-
nections are killed it does not follow that
the numerous root points are likewise de-
stroyed. In fact, they seldom are, and
herein lies the secret of the plant's irre-
pressibility. The best, results are gained
when' the thistles are cut in their early
Jbloom and before the seeds have
formed; it is also well to cut during
or just, before a warm rain. Ex-
pIrience appears to have proven
that the most effective mode of treat-
ment for the extermination of this trou-
blesome pest is to choke or smother the
plants with the ranker growth of some
field crop that overtops them and deprives
their leaves of light and air. Rye sown
on infested fields reduces thistles by its
quicker and taller growth and prepares
the ground for seeding down to clover and
timothy, which in a year or two so preoc-
cupies the ground as to drive out the this-
tles. The mowings they receive when the
grass is cut also assist in enfeebling the
growth o0 the thistles. Thistles will die
out in a few months if burled all the while
underground by plowing. Once turned
under deeply, if the soil be heavy the
,plowing need not be repeated for at least
one month. In light soils it must be done
oftener, extermination of the plants de-
pending on the prevention of any growth
above ground. Never allow the plants to
Instances ai'e on record where thistles
have been entirely eradicated without
losing the use of the land, but growing a
crop every season. One plan is to make
the land rich as possible, at least get it
seeded to clover or similar crop and by
fertilizing get an early growth so as to
mow for hay just as the thistles begin
to show bloom. After mowing apply a
little stimulating fertilizer so as to quickly
start up the grass, and when about one
foot high plow the land with a plow that
will turn all the soil; roll down .and har-
row so as to cover the thistles root and
branch. A-few thistles will show them-
selves after this, but by hoeing thoroughly
with cultivator or hand hoe, so as to cut
them all down, the field will soon be
cleared and by another spring Will be
ready for almost any crop.-New Yo:rk
Destroying Canker Worms.
The female of the canker worm does not
-possess the power of flying, and-can only
reach the extremities of the limbs on
which she deposits her eggs by crawling
up the trunk. They begin this with the
first warm days of spring, weeks before
buds and leaves are ready to put forth.
It is quite common for them to do this
while the nights are cold enough to harden
tar in vessels around the trees intended to
obstruct their progress. This old method
has therefore "given way to spraying the
trees with water in which London purple
or Paris green has been dissolved, thus
killing the worms aftei they begin to eat.
It requires very little poison to do this.
Too strong .a solution might burn the
apple lives, Which, when young,;aie very
A Good Flood Gate.
The Ohio farmer attests the merits of'
the flood gate here represented. The gate
from which the picture was taken was the
only one iip the neighborhood that with-
stood a trying flood which swept all others
A FLOOD GATE.
The sketch explains itself: Get two
mud sills, oak, 8 or 10 feet long and 15 or
20 inches in diameter. Hew one side and
cut a mortice in center of 'each-. Lay one
on each side of stream, hewn. side up, with
top about level with low waiter mark.
Next set two posts in the mortices. These
should be high enough to, allow the gate
to be hoisted above high water mark.
Then frame a stiff pole on top of these
posts, first squaring two sides. Spike
braces on the down stream side of the
posts, to mud sill, and board up the sidee
to post and sill tight, to keep hogs from
creeping between gate and post. The
gate is made by nailing strips, on a 2x4
piece of.scantling, or using light iron rods
braced by stiff wire, as shown in cut.
Hang the gate by chains with hook at one
end. Hook on about two feet from each
end of gate,, and one in the middle., Bore
holes through the top log to pass chains
through, and put an iron bolt or pin
through a link. The gate must swing
clear of posts and bank. You can raise or
lower this gate at will, to allow drift, ice,
etc., to pass through.
Suggestions for the Month.
Help horses and cattle to shed their
costs by frequent Applications of the curry-
comrb and brush. As the time approaches
for cows to "come in" reduce their food,
giving plenty of good, sound hay. Teach
calves to feed from the pail from the first.
Give ewes with lambs an abundance of
food. Give swine:a roam in the orchards.
Provide poultry with dust baths and a
variety of food. Wherever tent caterpil-
lars are seen cut off the twigs and burn
them. Remember that few crops pay bet-
ter than hay. Devote to timber any space
on the farm that cannot be profitably cul-
tivated in crops.
Mu6h has been said against the practice
of exposing fruit to the fumes of sulphur
during the process of drying. If sul-
phured fruit endangers the health-ofth those
who use it, or is unpleasant to the taste
or smell, then the practice ought to be
discouraged. But according to Professor
'Green, of the'Ohio experiment station,
there Is no evidence that, such Is the fact
when sulphur is properly used.
Facts Farmers Ought to Know.
The value of merchantable coin is re-
ported, for the whole country, 2.7 cents
,higher than one year ago. The farm
prices average about 836 cents per bushel.
The weight of the wheat crop of 1886
surpasses very slightly that of 1884, being
58.4 pounds per bushel against 58.3. The
estimated weight of the crop of 1885 was
only 57 pounds.
The past winter proved one of the cold-
est for many years in the northern states,
and the warmest in nearly all the south-
New York state does not produce, prob-
ably, half the grain consumed within its
There are now about 5,000,000 owners
of farms in this country.
A factory has been built in Florida for
the production of wine from oranges.
Since Jan. 1 there haNv been exported
from this country 20,034 barrels of apples,
9,799 barrels of beans, 1,248,360 barrelsof
flour, 38,047 bushels of oats and 8,641,703
bushels of wheat.
The trade in American apples in Eng-
land is growing steadily and will continue
to do so if care is taken to pack none but
first class fruit and brand it with a trade
The Bealuty of Hebron potato has be-
come one of the leading varieties for gen-
eral culture in Great Britain.
It is said that not less than 2,000,000
pounds of dried sago leaves are used an-
nually in the United States for various
FOR HONOR'S SAKE.
By B. L. FARJEON,
"Author of "Great- Porter Square," "The
Bright Star of Life," Etc.
PART THE FIRST.
THE TRIAL OF EDWARD LAYTON.
The Attorney General-And speaking
The Attorney General-Did -you hear
anything they said?
Witness-Not a word.
The Attorney General-Upon observing
that they had not commenced their soup,
did you make any remark?
Witness-Yes. I said, "Does not'mton-:
sieur like the 'soup?"
The Attorney General-What was his
Witness-He answered: "Oh, yes, it is-
very good," and slightly pushed the tureen
away with his hand.
The Attorney General-Indicating that
he had done with it?
Witness-I regarded it so, and I re-
The Attorney General-Did he objectto
its being removed?
Witness-No, not at all.
The Attorney General-Did the lady
object-did she seem surprised? "
Witness-No; she said not a word, nor
did she look surprised.
The Attorney General-Your answer to
the last question causes me to ask whether
the lady was old or young?
Witness-But I do not know.
The Attorney General-You said shli
did not look surprised? .
Witness-w!It is that she did not appear
surprised -,She did not look rp. In
,truth, sho.had her vel diow-.
" The Attorney General-Haad ste re-
moved her cloak?
The Attorney General-Did she keep It
on all the time she was in the room?
Witness-Yes; all thetime.
'The Attorney General-Now, when you
asked the prisoner if he liked. ,the soup,
and he answered: "'Oh, yes, it is very
good," you were surprised to find that
they had. not drank a spoonful.
Witness-Why, .yes, it was surprising.
The Attorney General-Did the prisoner
pour out the champagne?
Witness-I filled a glass for madam
and one for monsieur.
The Attorney General-Did the pris-
oner order another dish?
Witness-I asked- monsieur: "'What
will you have to follow.?" .and handed him
;the menu-the bill of fare. He said:
"Salmon cutlets." "For two, monsieur?"
:I asked. "For two," h .said. I served
The Attorney General--Did he at any
time summon you by ringing the bell? .
Witness-No. It appeared to me that
monsieur did not wish to be disturbed;
therefore I did not disturb him, but I no-
The Attorney General-You noticed
Witness--That, as with-the soup, -mon-
sieur ate nothing, and helped madam to
nothing. I waited till I thought it was
time, and then I went to the. table, and
asked whether he did not like the: salmon
cutlets. Monsieur answered. "Oh, yes,
they are very good," and pushed them
away as before. I removed them, as.with
the soup. "What will monsieur have to
follow?" I asked. Ices, he said.
Vanilla?" I asked. Yes," he. said,
vanilla. I brought them. They were
The Attorney General-Did they drink
Witness-Monsieur once raised his glass
to his lips, but tasted it only, as if he had
no heart in it.
The Attorney General-Did he order
Witness-No. When I asked him he
said, "The bill." I brought it."
The Attorney General-What did it
Witness-One pound four shillings.
The Attorney General-How much of
the champagne was drunk?
Witness-Half a glass-notimore.
The Attorney General-Did the lady
drink any of hers? '
The Attorney General-Did the prisoner
make any remark as to the amount of the
Witness-Oh, no; he gave me a sov-
ereign and a half sovereign, and said,
"That will do."
The 'Attorney General-Meaning that
you could keep the change?
, Witness-I took it so, and he said
The Attorney General-A good .cus-
Witness-A very good customer. Not
The Attorney General-Without a
murmur or a remark, the prisoner paid
you thirty shillings .for half a glass of
Witness-That is so. It was, as I say,
surprising. I did not forget it.
The Attorney General-It was not a
circumstance to forget. You say that the
lady who accompanied the prisoner did
not remove her cloak or veil. Was that
the case the whole of the time she was in
Witness-The whole of tHe time.
The Attorney General-Her gloves-
did she wear those the whole of .the timeP
Witness-But, no. I remember. once
seeing'her hand ungloved.
The Attorney General-Her right or
left hand? Be particular in your answer,
and think.before you speak, if it is neces-
sary. My object is to ascertain whether
the lady 'was married, and wore a wedding
Witness (smiling)-But a wedding ring
matters not. Those wear them who are
The Attorney General-Reply to my
question. Was it her right or her left
hand which you saw ungloved?
Witness-I cannot remember.
The Attorimey General--Try.
Witness-It is of no use. I cannot re-
The Attorney General-Can you remem-
ber whether it was a small or a large
Witness-It was a small white hand.
The Attorney General-The hand, pre-
sumably; of a lady?
Witness-Or of a member of the thea-
tre. Who can tell? We have many
The Attorney General-Were there rings
upon her fingers?
Witness-I observed one of turquoises.
The Attorney General-Was it a ring
with any particular setting by which it
could be identified?
Witness-A ring set with diamonds and
turquoises. That is all I know.
The Attorney General-Would you
recognize it again if you saw it?
Witness-I cannot say. I think not. I
did not particularly remark it.
The Attorney General--Did you remark
the color of her gloves?
Witness-They were black gloves. :
The Attorney General-Of kid?
Witness-Yes, of kid.
The Attorney General-At what time
did the prisoner and his companion leave
Witness-It must have been about 12.
l.. The Attorney. General-Why do. you
say "It. must have been about 12?"
Witness--Because I did not see them
leave the room.
The Attorney General-You can, how-
ever, fix the time within a few minutes.
Witness---Oh, yes. At 11:45, as near as
I can remember, I had occasion to go
down stairs. When I returned, after
three or four minutes, monsieur and mad-
am were gone.
The Attorney General-Were you aware
That they had a carriage waiting for them?
Witness-Only hat I heard so. I did
not see it..
(The witness was then briefly cross-ex-
amined by the prisoner.)
Prisoner-You. say that you saw me
enter the restaurant from the street, and
that I asked you if I could have supper in
a private room? ,.
Witness-That is so.
Prisoner-Did you show me into a pri-
Pr,-oret--Where other persons could
Witness-Oh, no; it was a room for six
or eight persons.
Prisoner-During the time I was there
did you attend to other persons besides me.
Prisoner-The room was not strictly
Witness-As pfivate-as I have said.
Prisoner-What was the first thing I
did when I went to the table you pointed
out to me?
Witness--You removed your. overcoat.
It was ert with rain; and it surprised me
that madam dia inot remove .ners, wincn
was also wet with rain.
Mr. Justice Fenmore-Do not make re-
marks. ply answer the questions put
Witness'-Yes, my lord.
Prisoner-What did I do with the over-
coat when' I had taken it off?
Witness-You hung it up behind you.
Prisoner-On a peg in the wall?
Prisoner-Was this peg quite close to
the table -at-which I sat?
Witness-No, it was at a little distance.
Prisoner-At'the back of me?
Prisoner-Did I put the, overcoat on
before I left the room?
Mr. Justice Fenmore-You have said
in examination that you did not see the
prisoner and his companion leave the
Witness-But when I returned after
being away for three or four minutes,
monsieur was gone and the coat was also
Prisoner-Then you did not see me put
on the overcoat?
Prisoner-I have nothing -more to ask
Re-examined-Would you be able to
recognize the overcoat which the prisoner'
Witness-Oh, yes; it was remarkable.
The Attorney General-Is this it?
Witness-Yes; it is the same.
At this stage the court adjourned for
CHAPTER IV. Witiess-She would not generally be
'tE EVIDENCE OF LUMLEY BICH, DETECTIVE considered so. .
OFICER-THE NINNOF HEARTS. The Attorney General-Is this a fairly
OFICER-THE OF HAT. good likeness of her?
Upon the reassembling of the court, the (Photograph of the .deceased produced,
first witness called was Lumley Rich. which, after the witness had examined it,
The Attorney General-You belong to was handed-to the jury. It represented a
the detective force? woman, very plain, with a face which
Witness-I do. seemed to lack intelligence.)
The Attorney General-On the 96th of Witness-It is very like her.
March were you called to the prisoner's The Attorney General-Was she strong,
Witness-Yes. Witness--No, she was not; but she was.
The Attorney General-At what hour very obstinate when she took it into her
of the morning? head.
VWitness-At 7 o'clock. The Attorney General-How old was she
The Attorney General-Was the prison- at the time of her engagement with the'
er in the house at the time? prisoner?
Witness-He was not. Witness-Twenty-eight.
The Attorney General-Whom did you The Attorney General-Do you know
see for the purpose of information? the prisoner's age at the time?
Witness-The prisoner's coachman, Witness-My mistress told me he was
James Moorhouse, and Ida White, lady's twenty-four.
maid and other servants. The Attorney General-Was she well-
The Attorney General-What passed be- formed?
tween you and the coachman? Witness-No.
Witness-I asked him at what time on The Attorney General-Had she a good-
the previous night the prisoner returned figure?
home. He said at about 12:20, and. that Witness-No.
the prisoner entered his house accom- The Attorney General Many plain
panied by a lady, opening the street door women have some peculiar attraction,
with his 'latch key. I asked him if he either in manners or features. Had she
had seen the prisoner since, and he re- anything of this kind to distinguish her?
plied that he had not. I asked him from Witness-I cannot say she had." '
what part of his dress the prison took The Attorney General-But there might
the latch key, and he replied from the have been other attractions. Was she
pocket of the ulster he worI. brilliantin conversation?-
The Attorney General-Although the Witness-On the contrary. She had "
prisoner was not at home, was this ulster very little to say for herself upon- general
In his house? subjects.
Witness-Yes; it was hanging on the The Attorney General-But she was
coat rack in the hall. passionately in love with the prisoner?
The Attorney General-Did you take Witness-Passionately.
possession of it? The Attorney General-Did she lir
Witness-I did. Witness-Yes. One leg was shorter
The Attorney General-Did you search than the other..
the pockets? The Attorney General-'Had she known
Witness-Yes, the prisoner for any length 'of timd before.-
The Attorney General-What did you the.engagement?
find in thbm? W' Witness-For a few weeks only, I be-.
Witness-The latchkey of the street door lieve.'
and a playing card. The Attorney General-In-what way did
'The Attorney General-Nothing else? he make her acquaintance?
Witness-Nothing- else. Witness-He came to the house.
The Attorney General-Is this the latch- The Attorney General-In a friendly
key. (Latchkey produced.) way?
Witness-It is. Witness-He came first upon business,
The Attorney General-Is this the play- The Attorney General-To see whom?
ing card? (Playing card, the nine of Witness-My mistress' father, Mr.
hearts, produced.) 'Beach. -
Witness-It is. The Attorney General-TUpon-what busi-
The Attorney General-How do you ness?
recognize it? Witness-Upon betting business, my
. Witness-By a private mark I put in mistress said.
the corner. The Attorney General-What was Mr.
The Attorney General-There was ab- Beach's occupation?
solutely nothing else in the pockets of the Witness-He was a bookmaker.
ulster? The Attorney General-A betting man?
Witness-Nothing else. Witness-Yes. He used to make large
The Attorney General-Did you see the books.
prisoner before you left the house? The Attorney General-Onracing? -
Witness-I did. Witnes-Ye. '
The Attorney General-Describe what The Attorney General-Was he an edu-
passed. cated mnan? .
Witness-The prisoner suddenly made Witness-No. -
his appearance while I was .question- The Attorney General-Would you call'
ing the servants and inquired my him a vulgar man?
business there. I told him I was an offi- Witness-Yes.
cer, and that I was there because of_ his- The Attorney General-Did he move in
wife being found dead in her bed. "Dead!" good society?' .
he cried; "my wife I" and he rushed to her Witness-He did not.
room. I followed him. He looked qt her The Attorney- General-'Bubt he -was
and sunk into a chair. He seemed stupe- rich?
fled. I had his ulster coat hanging on ihy Witness-Very rich. He drank a great.
arm, and I toli him I had taken possession deal of champagne.
of it. He nodded vacantly' A moment The Attorney General-You say -the'
or two afterwards he laid his hand upon prisoner first came to the house upon.
the ulster, and demanded to know where tisiness. Do you know uipon what aZ-
I had obtained it. I informed him, from ticular business?
the coat rack in the hall. He cried "Im- Witness It was something about.
possiblol" and as it seemed to me he was horses,"and bets he had made'upon them.
about to speak again, -informed him that, The Attorney Genera--Bets which he,
anything he said might be used in evi- had lost? -
dence against him. "In evidence!" he Witness-Yes.
cried, "against me!" "Yes,"' I replied; The Attorney General-How. was. it that
"there has been a murder done here." ,your mistress became acquainted with
"Murderl" he cried; "and I am sus- him on 'that occasion, when the fact was
pected?" To that remark I did not reply, that he came upon business? : .
butrepeatedmy caution. Hesaid, "Thank Witness-He was asked by Mr. Beach
you," and did not utter another word. to stay to dinner, and he.stayed.
The prisoner .did riot cross-examine the The Attorney General-Mr. Beach, you
witness; and this was the mere surprising say, was not in good society. Hadhieany
as it was remarked by all in court that desire to get'into it?'. : ..
upon the production of the playing card, Witness-He was crazy about it.
the nine of hearts, he was greatly agitated.. The Attorney. General--Upon, the first
occasion of the prisoner dining at Mr.
CHAPTER V. Beach's house, did your mistress make
any remark with reference to the pris.
THE EVIDENCE OF IDA WHITE, LADY'S oner? wit reference to te pri
MAID. Witness-She :never ceased speaking
The next witness called was Ida White, about him. She said .she had seen the
an attractive looking woman about 80 handsomest man in the world, .
years of .age. The Attorney General-Narrate as-
The Attorney General-What is your briefly as you can what occurred between
name? y6ur mistress and the prisoner up to the..
Witness-Ida White. time they were engaged.
The Attorney General-Do you know Witness-He came five or six times to
the prisoner? the house, and every time he came my.
Witness-Yes, he was my master. mistress was more and more in love, with
The Attorney General-In what capacity him. I understood from what she told
were you employed? me that he was in difficulties, and that.
Witness-I was lady's maid to his wife, he had lost a great deal of money at horse -
my poor dead mistress. racing.
The Attorney General-Were you in The Attorney General-Did he keep
her service before she was married? racing horses? "
Witness-Yes. Witness-I did not understand that,
The Attorney General--What was her but that he had been betting upon horses..
maiden name? There was money owing not only to Mr.
Witness-Agnes Beach. .Beach, but to other book makers as well,
The Attorney General-When you first and the prisoner wished Mr. Beach to ar-
entered her service were her parents range the whole matter. "Those things
alive? are easily arranged,'! I said to my mis-
Witness-Both of them. tress; "all you have to dois to pay." "But
The Attorney General-Do they still supposing you haven't the money to pay?"
live? asked my mistress. "I thought Mr. Lay-
Witness-No. Mrs. Beach died on my ton was a gentleman," I said. "There are
mistress' wedding day; Mr. Beach died in poor gentlemen as well as rich gentle-
February of this year. men," my mistress said, "and my papa
The Attorney General-Was your late gets a lot of money out of all sorts of peo-
mistress much afflectedt at her mother's ple." That was true enough; I have
death? heard him and his friends chuckling over
SWitness-She almost lost her reason, it many times, and Mr. Beach used to call
She fell into a fever, and was scarcely ex- them a lot of something fools. I heard a
pected to live. It was weeks before she great deal about "swells," as Mr. Beach
recovered. called them, being ruined by backing
The Attorney General-Have you any horses, and I knew that that was the way
knowledge of the circumstances of your he had-grown rich. He used to say that.
mistress' engagement with -the prisoner? he had got a lot of stuck up swells under
Witness-She was very much in love his thumb. "I can arrange Mr. Layton's
with him, business with papa," my mistress said;
The Attorney General-And he with and when I found her practicing songs at
her? the piano, out of time and out of tune-
Witness-I don't think so. for she had no ear for music-I knew that
The Attorney General-And according she was making up to him. It came
to your observation, not being in love with about as she wished, and one night she
her, he engaged himself to her? told me she was the happiest woman in
Witness-Yes. the world-that Mr. -Layton had proposed
The Attorney General-Was she a good and she had accepted him.
looking woman? .. [TO En COOIWNUED.]
144 FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MAY 4, 1887.
*." ^^rt^^ pines in a ceaseless clatter. The storm be inferred from what I have said, is in ter, or to indulge a taste for fruit-raising, are followed hy rain; all big fires in cities -'
pursued a beaten track through the the proximity of large bodies of salt and if you will come here I will show are accompaniedby the same. Bothpro- W ^
____________ easily distinguishable. Capt. water, and from thence we get those you a bluff on a beautiful bay that in ten ducea vacuum which nature abhors; air
Raybon thinks that it would have been constant breezes that, if not absolutely years will be a perfect nest of villas and rushes in from all points and creates a fl
State News in Brief, an impossiblity for a person to have curative of disease, are certainly to a ornamental gardens. This is the true concussion, then condensation takes A
-Mr. J. C. Sloan, of Polk county has beenexposed to the storm and live. He large degree preventive. All Florida locale, too, of the lemon, and the groves place and rain is precipitated.--Ex.
r Peen-to peaches of the would have been pelted to death by makes the same claim, it is one great- of that fruit will in time outnumber the L -i7
the first ripe the hail.-Apalachicola Times, peninsula between two seas, but here oranges. 1 WAY WEATHER. N RALM
Season.MrBudcoLioB viwHilbrCoF. m
A party living near UmatillaOrange Mr. Burdick, of Limona, has gathered we cannot get away from it farther than BAYVIEW, Hillsboro Co., Fla. pa h
county, vnetted this season $1,100 clear this year from bushes of the running three miles, while, in fact, the resi- The following table, compiled from the records J.
cou^ntynttedthiseas In1,100 clear blac y g g bof the Jack onville eignaf Station by Seion by r J.
of all expenses on three and three quar- nblackberry150 growing peblackbeiesof an old denceout area locationllon nsat water cas nat-We Introduction of Sisal Hemp. W. Smith, represents the temperature condition ,
trares of cabg.fence 150 quarts of ripe blackberries, pick ou af loainwnea wtra another oaifMay, and obsrvedtio the windf-
ter acres cabbage. The space occupied by the bushes was urally as the people I of Marion or Orange Editor -orida Farmer and Fruit-Grower.: of weaer, rainfall and direction ot wind for-
-WaldonBros., of Arreaondo, have only about ten rods long and six feet take to the lakes. I do hear of a Before it is too late to give credit to sonvllle station during the past 15 years: .
cleared over $2,000 this season, in cash, wide. The bushes were volunteers plant- little malaria occasionally, but it is rare my father for his wonderful work in int- MP. WEATHER
from a ten acre field of cabbage, which ed by the birds and sold readily at 10 and easily managed. If people would producing new trees and plants into ;a WEATHa.
cost them less than $100 to cultivate, cents per quart. An acre of land would trust not quite as much to the climate Florida-even Florida's new palm (?)-, I 7. .re b ge h e i _
-Professor Cater, of the East Florida sustain 32 rows of bushes as lpng as this, and more to common sense in regard to wish credit to be given him for one of YEAS
Seminary, is in Tallahassee trying to get and the cultivation would be less than eating, drinking and general exposure, Floridas greatest sources of ealth,
a bill through the Legislature locating any other crop the farmer-could grow, there would be no such thing as ma- namely, the Agave Sisilana from which 5" E 5
one of the normal schools at Gainesville. and at the same rate of yield the crop laria, the most valuable hemp of commerce is---- --- -
-The schooner Silver Spray from would amount to 4,800 quarts, equal to What do we do here? Well, prettymuch produced. With Yankee genius there 1872 96 778 8 17 6 1.25 sw
TheschoonerSilrSpray,- 4,800 quartsequal pretty p1873 94 6475 0 17 8 5.52 SE
Appalachicola, arrived in Tampa a day $480 per acre. These are wild berries the same as elsewhere. Fruits grow must surely soon be invented a machine 1874 98 6275 12 14 5 5.88 NE
or two ago with a full cargo of shingles and any gardener by making a careful nicely and we have oranges, lemons, for cleaning the fibre of its superfluous 187594 5275 5 20 5 9.08 N E- -
and canned oysters. The oysters were aeecind r -h al ni^^ cely an we^ h fo 187 94 52 5 20 o *. 11 NE
and canned oysters. The oysters were selection from the old fields may do as figs, bananas, peaches, grapes, persim- pulp. Iwould suggest to such inventor 1876 95 5176 13 13 5 1.86 NE
canned in Apalachicola. well as Mr. B. The prices need never be mons and other things in reasonable a "rotary scraper, 'to be used without 1877 96 4874 12 66 2.48 NE ':
anoohet 1878 98 6578 8 17 6 1.52 SE
less than 10 cents a quart or $820 a quantities. The old settlers are not the rotting process employed in its native 1879 91 6074 14 14 8 4.26 sw : .-
-The killing of birds for their plumes bushel.-Tampa Tribune, much given to experiments, and the country by the ignorant natives. 1I60 95 5874 13 8 10 6.24 NE flflfl :
continues toattract those having time bh k h he finish new settlers have come in too recently Seven of these Agaves were sent to 1881 94 53 10 i 2.6] NE B n.
man of South Florida sold $20 worth as ~~~-Ted bunngw therfirst kimpnyhv o fbick and moemnyadetrrs.1d o ftee w eepatdo e 1882 90 5474 10 18 8 2.20 EE D E
to devote to the business One t ed burning their first kiln of brick and to know fully what can be done with Florida, if my memory serves me aright. 1883 9g 5172 12 14 5 3.16 SE
man of South Florida sold $20 worth amoneyand enterprise. I do not Othese, two were plantedOn Key West 1834 91 6176 13, 13 5 5.45 sw u v *l- n
the result of one day's hunt by himself rom samples taken from near the top think the oranges are any better in (I am informed they have "increased 188589 )5674 8 14 9 7.74 s .
ther man. which were shown us the other day, quality her than they are farther Immensely"), one on Indian Key, one 1 5 .TH,
and another man, ct oOrunhesitatingly pronounce them equal to nrtyh, the e86 92 5h76 i15 2.81 W Absolu'tely Pure. :
-There are six men in the city of Or- the finest brick made in the South. north, and they do not seem to mature oi lower Metacombe (under its broad, Sergt. Signal Corps, U. S. A. This powder never varies. A. marvel ofl:
lando whose weight collectively amount They are of good color and weight and any earlier, butthey hang on the trees spreading leaves the charred remains of purity, strength and whoiesomeness. More
to over 1,500 pounds, and there are have a sufficient hardness to withstand later. Theyareless liable to be frozen my lamented father were laid, as their economical tan the ordinary kinds.. and -
twenty men who weigh over 200 pounds the ravages ofinad wind weather. and they bring the high prices of a late most suitable resting place), three on Ladies' Puchasing .Agency e f old in compet iion with theluor
mepmultitude of low tst, short weight; alumor
each. The finest advertisement the city E. T. SKendrick, who has had an experi- market. I believe .in regard to other the "Hnntinx Ground." It is now fifty A New York lady of experience and phosphate powders. Z: n, in can,-:
can possibly have as a health resort, enceof 16 years in burn brickandin fruits, that anything will mature here years since these were introduced. So taste, enjoying the best facilities for OYAL BAKING POWDEB Co., 108 Wall.t.. .
an p osil he as h reso ence of 16 years in burning r brick and in that will grow anywhere in Florida and Iqng agoAgaves and all like plants were shopping under advantageous condi- New York. .
-T.made a shipmentBoyd, of Sanfordanges. His fruit the statem in buildings, corroborates kiln which is worth growing at all. I have known only as "century plants," except- tions, offers her services to ladies desir- .
masold in market of oranges $7.20 per box, which will teurn out made about ve. The kilngood little faith in tropical fruits and I don't ing to a few botanists, ing to secure any kind of wearing ap- CAUTLIFLOWES-Per barrel, 3 00, and 175
sold in market for $7.20 per box, which will turnout about 60 000 good brik, like alligator pears or mangoes, so I Fort Dallas, on the Miami river, was parel. toilet articles or household goods, poor -Florida, per crate, 2 50; Lake .
willnned il ab tu $6 20 or $ 4 pe bo, ndthy il g t wr per create to 5 ]Lake
The fruit was of extra good quality and put another in readiness f or burning, t will say nothing about them. My weak- within easy reach of the Hunting at New York prices. Send for circular.. Worth, P2.5o to 3 25 :
recdthe frmiwaketringonecodityond ps notherobaleetiaes ness is for the peach and persimmon, Ground, and as these plants increased Address MRas. S. S.- Jones, NORTHER4 TURN 'rps-Good supply at 32 25
reached the market in fine condition, is not probable that th e brick makers ofsup- and I will write more about them here- the United States officers used to dig and 179 Gates Ave, Brooklyn, N. Y. Serb -Per crate, 1 2.-
-At Interlachen Mr. Friedlander con- Atlanta and other places who have sup-after send them North to "friends" and green AP BEA-Per crate, i.
tinues to ship strawberries to Cincinnati. plied us with material for our numerous sendous athmNothn ta friends" and green .S APEN-Per cre, 14 .
They pay him about 30 cents a quart net new blocks, will again have the pleasure The present destiny of the Hills- houses, and also when transferred to oth- Seed Irish Potatoes. Nw POr.ATo-Per barrel, 14 '); per cratee.
profit. He ships to a firm who makes of filling orders from Tampa.-Tampa eboro Peninsula is more allied to veg- rot a on o The best potatoes for planting in this Cuv --Perbox, $3 00. -
quick H sales t an p iromptwrturn.aTes Tr iibng re. sfo ap-ap tables than to fruit. So far this busi- gons tbcm uhavxto o Tebs oaosfrpatn nti uu~~lPrbx 80
S quick sales and prompt returns. The Tribunethis busi- e ed th r State are those brought from extreme Foreign and omestilcFrui. -
fruit arrives in Cincinnati two days after ness has been followed, and successful my father, that he appealed to the Secre- Eastern points. Acting on this belief, Pu --French, 12c. .
fruit arrives in Cincinnat~i two days after has benflowd n tary of War Itpeen t erasi yea from AF s 61 5t24100 per -dozen.
starting.THE HILLSBORO PENINSULA. in Alachua and other northern counties, nowy well th o prevent it. Perhaps it is awe imported last year from Le, PmoNs-Messnas, wiprdPper -box.ent. r7nt
but as they had for many years the ad- nthey did this, for in this way aL os--Messnas, 640 perbox.
-Nare at work upon the Orlandored and Wi n- Afty Salubrious Region Between vantage, in point of time, over Virginia this useful plant has spread and grown large quantities of Early Rose, Chili Fs-In layers 1 550 o 0per barrel
r Salubous e on Betwee and the Carolinas, so now they must abundantly. Indeed, one planter has Beauty of Hebrn and other Va- DATES -Persian- Boxes 9c; Frails7c.
ter Park Railroad, the estimated cost of Gulf and Bay. take a back seat behind Hilisborough told me that "he grows it and strips t IG, a te an ot h ORAP .Es-Malagas, 00 per ke g. '
which will be $40.000. Nearly all the G-ul J. YT and Manatee. We have here aills tht apart the fibres to use in place of strings ties, and the potatoes -raised from this ORAN s lorida-Per oxO 60toS5 00.
stock has been taken. and it is expected BYJ.K.HOYT. and Manatee. We have here all that rrop e." is seed, were the finest we have ever seen BANANAS-Good supply; from 75c to 8200 -
tends to success, climate, soil and rain, here. per bunch.
that trains will be running by the first o The terra incognita of Florida is being and our frosts are generally so light a Its blossom is peculiar. Instead of lre i NuTs--Almonds 1Se; Brazils 12c; Filberts
September. gradually removed farther and farther todono damae ven whn as seeds, each blossom forms a young plant. We willreceive, in a few days another gSicily) 12c English walnuts, Grenobles, i8c;
from the metropolis. Time was when 1o 6o tno charge. oven when, as bu It remains on the stem until about five cargo of 'the same potatoes, which we arbots, i5c; Pecans 12c; Peanuts 6c;
Mr. Barnum, on Lake Arietta, has 1886 the cros are cut off, we have but on tstem untl f will sell at the following prices: Cocoanuts 450 per hundred.
nbeen shipping stray stories that might be told in regard to go to work and replant and we are inches long, and then dropsto theground Chili Red.... .... per barrel $3.50. RAis-N-London layers 275per box. :
strawberries ever sine w b and takes root. It alrso"suckers." CABE --$7 per crate; 1000 per
January from a little patch ofabout five- Newto kechk Sun o nce publied a still the same number of weeks ahead of and o t s o also "suckers." s arly Rose .................. $.00. barrel. 000 per
eighths of an acre, and will ship for Bey- Alachua and Duval, for no freeze can tiasoamosthardyplant. Toillus- Ery Rose.....-........ 0 Extra Dairya-r
eighths of an acre, and will ship for s from there which contained discoveries a tua an the late Can .. n Beauty of Hebron.......... $3.00. BuTE----Creamery 20c Extra Dlr
eral weeks more. On the 9th he shipped aas kable astehe of e affect us that does not more seriously af- e ate Colonel Maloney, of Ke y asreresented. d ar -
60 quarts, on the 11th -40 quarts, and on remarxanld y s those w f al s onw feet them. The plan here is to plant in West, ten years ago cut close to the Remt wh ore rand we wlh nted poum 10n ream l per -
the 1th had 30 quarts. Hoax, and yet they were all swallowed he o en ground and also in a covered, ground, not leaving even a rootlet, a Remit with order, and we wo mpthyp th. poun.-
the18h ad30qurt. by a gullible public. Indian River was t ... patfurfe ihadsn tb potatoes promptly. ]ea." ":
-South Apopka is shipping large an unknown region ten yeas seed d. If hose plants that are out are plant, four feet high, and sent it HURCH ANDERSON & CO. The following quotations are carefuly re'
.uantites o ago, bandit killed they are immediately replaced by steamer and rail to my Albany home. It 1887.Hd for WedneU.:day' and Saturday's gare
tt f tomatoes, cucumbers and is not yet certainly known whether the Jacksonville, Fla., Jan. 5th, 1887. i fuo ns tarnished byS dealers e
Bermuda onions. Mr. Raper reports $8 land around Charlotte Harbor is fertile fresh plants from the seed bed, and ts todin my hallacirwaoo..h s o y l afr io utyn b es
is kept up to the end, so that except in tion to my, friends. For a curiosity, I W nwb Eprec. Carrot, wholesale at 6830O per barrel, and
net per crate as return on tomatoes. Mr. soil ae o tW .o te enu, soor a exneps m orass. e .. "We Know by Experience." "ity b-ole a
net per uce. has rtmuen on tomatoes Mr.d Hin-lorcatndl morelinas labor there is nothing lost Last year, stood it upon iaflower bed when I wished retail at 50 cents per peck.
J. K.Duke has some of the Bermuda Having located myself in a region as nta here t to get rid of it To my astonishment it For three years we have used Brad- reen onions who sale at 60 cents per
onions measuring 6 inches in diameter yet uninvaded by a. rai-aod it strike ble rootedmgm ie ze e eg m btui, re dn andon r oesa le at 0 p er b nch. pe
aniond weighring 6iv py a rme-osil, t s -o y rieos ble crop of this section was the' largest te and when winter approached levy's Vegetable" Fertilizer. After test- hundred, and retail 5 cet is per bunch i
and weighing 11 pounds. , m sosbeta oeo orraes e Erasttue Cor.. pra i' g along wih.hrhghgaefr Florida Ca bage wholesale 82(k) per barrel
Sevee s sd andtheost prss s o rning took it into his gree n along with other high grade ferti and retail at 51 to 10 cents.
-At Rocky Point, Indian River, D. maybe interested in knowing what the Thed andin m okt prtble: i house,-where it still lives. izers, we pronounce it better than any QuaU wholesale at. 10 cents each and retail
.WL Theo leadingy-iv markes plant- is the L 15 hetso twgreenqarer
W.L Barton haswthirty-f.ve acres plant- confines of Florida civilization are like, tomato, and it grows here to Asolute At another time, from the Hunting sold in Florida.- We shall use it again 5t15cents'ortwoforaquarter.
- ed intomatoes. He will ship about 1,- what we do for a living and what our section The tomato is o l Grounds, there was sent me a dozen of this. year. Oranges wholesale at S to 5( per box,
400 barrels of cabbage from-s place at prospects are for the future. There is are iothese plant se a el appac Wee do not hesitate to say.to te rge- p ae oTl es at75c per e and
Rocky Point this spring. On Tuesday more than usual interest in South Flor- rised and iectthes so prolific that somee ently quite dry but I planted them and table growers of Florida that they can- retJsaiolrquar or cents
of last wpek he shipped a large lot, in ida just now on account of the freeze nth et reathurtao sce thenyadorn the green houses of friends, notuse anything so good as Bradley's Sweet Potatoes wholesale at 60 cents per
ws in their too great hurry to Secu- the they adorn the green houses of friends B e shel, and retail at 5 cen per quart.
which was a head weighing fifteen of last winter, and many inquiries comeresults they miss them when just within with the exception of two, which I Florida Vegetable Fertilizer. We know Lettuce wholesales at lb5g20 cents per dozen
pounds.. even to me whether it is possible to find. their reach. There is an a. t in do brought with me to Fernandina nearly by expe-ience what. we say regarding heads, and retail at .5 cen ts per head.
-There is now on exhibition at Mr. E. a good healthy location for fruit andhe imp"s'tthn andif a mans b eight years ago, but these sucumbd to this fertilizer. vs.2 75 per barrel and
L. Evan's store, a cabbage weighing vegetable culture, where the risks are andsimtrdepl6 s n th e fatal freeze of a year ago. h WOFFOD & WILDER. Robins whoieeaie a d cents each and retai
twenty-four pounds, raised by Mr.W.M. reduced to a minimum, without going to devote .ms. to the study of all the HESTER PEERINE WALKER. Ft. Mason, Fla. at 10 cents.
Heudry at his country place three miles the Everglades. f FENADIA Fla,.. Celery wholesales at 50 to 60 cents per dozen
east of town. Two others were taken Hillsboro Peninsula, lying as it waysand meansby which success is at- FERNANDINA, Fla, Groves where Williams, Clak & Co's accord tofsize.tai recent,
from the same patch which weighed does below the 28th parallel, ought to fore ripening bu ther isares e the keysis h em stil s acf Orange Tree Fnrtilzer has been used are Eggs are in fair demand. ,Duval county
w-8wer ic g a a rin g t thersed by Mrs. Walker, as 1 eggs are quoted, -at wholesale at 11 cents
nineteen pounds each, and the cabbages anwe an reasonable requirements in when they may bere is ee safely. If well as on others, and at the WHunting oking finely.' per dozen, and retail at 20 cents.
received no extra cultivI wtion 1 asae gar ot hera. Id au H tth wo WILLIAMS, CLARK & Co. Boston marrowfat squashes wholesale at
-Forec Myeived n rass cutiation whatever,.re d to chate. Ir t wcoud bre, w oro gathered too soon they will not color up Grounds, which is a noted loqeity a lit- 8250 per-barrel, retail at ,, 10 and 15ncents
it does every winter, or nearly so, 0o' properly on their way to market, and if tle south of Miami. A few years ago each.
SThe water works for the Leon Hotel ii l m t gateedtoo late they will both ripen the crop on Indian Key was cut and car- New York Irishpotatoes wholesale at2 75to
Tallahassee, were completed Saturday sndh z ..... gi -A and decay, and a rotten tomato in a riedoff by schooner for manufacture. 90per barrelan retalat 10 cents per quark
and set to work. The capacity of the f hre as well as elsewhere, but there, crate is as bad as a rotten orange. Next Previously this plantation presented aNrer bee, a reti wot 1oesae 2,
pump is about 7,600 gallons per hour. is amodification of all cold weather by to this comes the packing, and those grand spectacle, the huge flower stems, q otwoquarts lor15centr.
The source of the water supply is a who handle crates on their way. North twenty-six feet -in height, appearing JACKSONVIIE MAR T& adises bring at wholesale 15 to 20 cents
the southern latitude, and by the prex- .. prdozen bunches of- seven radishes each.
spring near the gas works Three largely it nd b t soon learn who are the scientific pack- like a small grove. The true Agave Wholesale. y rtal at cents per bunch, orthree
jets of pure water burst out of the hill e. A en l six ers ae no, who will receive Ssalana grows olywhere planted, buu h bunches for 10 cents.
ofthlag miles wide, wfth the Gulf on one whde' heeiv lJASOILE, April,27,1587.
side in sufficient quantities to much h nd i lt witer bw hon lh ote s' good returns and who will grumble at the spiny-leaved, caulescent variety JACKSovnI. Api27,1887. Live poultry-chickens, wholesale, from 85.
more than supply the demands of the ee'l withles ten it h ot h s their commission merchants because rigid occurs as a wild plant in ham- rvlll on. to 40 cents each; retail ,0 tsepl per ound-'chckents each.
Leon t .e e ey those cold spells tey make such poor returns, mocks and on rocky shores on the keys, Tong clear sides s 75 D S bellies i- to 2D cents: po u rkeys wholesale, 1.0 to .
n. u Tomatoes should, as far as possible, be and as far north as Mosquito Inlet.-A. noked short ribs 9 6; smoked bellies9 175 each, and retail at 2 ents per pound.
-The dynamo to be used in lighting this region is as vet hardly known to Tand be beef Nrom meats retail as follows: Chicg
the town of Fort Myers by electricity ar- the outside world, andbefore Isay any- assorted as to size, and especially should C.] 5 C. hams, canvassed shoul beef om 8 to 25 .cents per pound; vFlorida
an bfoeI ayan-fast bacon uervse, 1151 .sou-be to 25 cents per pound; ve l or0t a5cns
rived one day last week. As Mr. Edison thing about its soil and productions, it miserable small "culls" be left out, as ve d al r to 15 cents on 10to20ents
is very busy andhis stay short we have will not be amiss to give a few lines to well as the wormy and otherwise defect- From St. Andrew's Bay. ar-rlfined tierces o 2 5 cents; mutton 10 to 2 centscoed
wrom Stt itsdrew's pepe pein that.barrels$576; messvenison 25 cents; eeusage 15 cents; cornea
our doubts as to whether he will light i p fromt. beef 10 cents.ET
Fort Myers by electricity- this year or now wholly from the point of view of- and the box should be filled, and when I As I am veryr mrc p.aned ith your.- kts hom1 frst hands whoIos cattle fsas .c;un
not They are very busy at present at feared from the coast of Tampa Bay. say that I mean that it should .be full 'As I am rymuh p lease wthyou dressed ho1s8 sheep, cpork sausage 0; OUR SPECIAL MA9RKETS.
down A roection of two inches o auntry. gat. A ndrews ay, our e lovely eiAn -Corn-T he market quiet but firm. cha; are sent to the TIMs-UIO by the
tth rd woud b ve hamlet by the sea, is rapidly beng ehe folowting figures represent to-day's roenud of the Fruit Exchange in the various
thtim lae a o ,to. put tip theanlam ps,Ca h rletc.,whichsp thare urs" Omm ay b~ne seen of veiavtaso aka.ie-nd n cimni theit South, I shall do, alol in,:, Latfestkndi t eSo th. I h lldoal.i quoortuTatisoanae~tle0 e~~~u ds(z~ 0.er p c ro", ~ es uo ato $ O ]~oda ]z'|
-.ext tt-daF gMyr-g hsth is it ir PTressmmrgazi r n 2@ner ound pti cl
also here and ready for use. However, extaaordiary accounts of visits to the fu w n packed, should ,, reur o my power to have it beom t -- ..."he frien owoing speclal perac's pound.al
the plant will be put in in good season West Coast, and to readtelasn siderable pressure to bring the cover of. evr hoshl in my seto of, Th folwn eca "e s by speci.
-next winter.-Fort Myers Press. Magazine articles, the reader would be down. A projection of two inches country. .St..Andrew's Bay, our -lovely GPIr--Corn--The market quiet but firm. crrangemr ents wto the FlXW~orid Fruithex
little ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ cane hamle byn the sea, Tis'a-Udo beyn theolwn 'iue ereett-a'
-Mr. Speir's career po class the yach above the sides is about right, and let nents of the Fruit Exchange in the various
-n r. Speir's career as postmaster, just apt t h me ctsmen and hunters cf b settled up and booming. The corps of values: We quote white corn, job lots, ies. -They can be relied upon as accurate.
ended in Orlando, began when the mail among the modern discoverers. They the fyuit be put in the boxithr a little Be, 8 per bushes car load lots 69 c per Special to the T imed-U on- a u.
s te ^ A ~ ~~xsa59 perA.? Special tos^s thei^ TIMs -UN~oN:
are antedated, however, by men who scrouging. Vegetables that are allowed engineers of the Eufaua and Lake Anbs, mixed corn, job lots 65c per bushel-
was brought to his office by an ox team, aneae, owev v drews Railroad have just hove i siiht- bar load lots 67c per n bushel pats quiet NEW YORK, April\ 29.-Small sales of1
and the entire contents of the bag being came more quietly and with no subse- to Move even in a slight degreefor the fbu- and firm at the following. figures mixed, Florida oranges con nue at auction at prices
ountedonthefingers. The time now flourishes of trumpets. Nearly- come a mass of pulp before they reach everything loo njob lots 42c, car load lots 41e; white ranging from .$5@2 per box. The auction sales
,90unted on the-fingers. The time now ture. oatslare h9o igher al on ,, useady ofMediterranean fruit this weak amount to.
consumed in the transmission of a letter forty years ago, a pioneer, stout, hale teNorth. 2c round, Bran o ranean e o
fort hearty, f u d h s w y to hi sde N ext to the tom ato w e set et' nr e Ayt e J. H JA S N US, 3L D tn higher, O $20to 21per to~n. 53,200 boxes of Qranges' and 49,4 boxes of
from New York City to Orlando is less and hearty, found his way to this side N extyt the tomato we set nte e lemons. There aAe at our wharves waiting
Than half that required in the earlier from Georgia, and his descendants and. egg-plant as a market vegetable. It Arln mand for good grades. Western ohoic sale 56,400 boxes of oranges and 41 00 boxes o
days of Mr. Speir's administration tore relatives are the yet prominent citizens. stands a light degree of cold without in- April 16, 17. small boles, $18@.. per ton; car load lots 617od lemons, and these heavy arrivals will last
ysof~r. per'670prto;Esrenhyn2eo- Another family, almost equally Ifi jury and itbrings a goodeek yet. The receipts and sales
ceive one from Jacksonville. All the of- t f a...yC aR bd AND MEAL- 0 per arrel. here during the onth of May will probably
ficoe required at that time for the con- are a few miles distant, ang their shipped early. It is necessary to have Comparative Size of Florida. -FLoU-Dul, best patents 35008560; exceed any ever known of, the crop of both
venient transaction of its business wa a groves, set out. long before a strict go seed, and one grower lost some Foidisor t .s t ood family 68000$510 common 425. oranges. and lemons being ver ,large In-
rebentt a o is ineg o. hwentefo urpg dr tr n0 dora i more than seven mes as PEAs-Black Eye 1 0 per bushel. cly.
q arebocontngtwentf e Northern man found his way here, 're hundreds of dollars through defective large as Massachusetts. With the ex- GROVED FEEDi;er ton VAto W2. SQODEL & DAY.
I~~~~~S~ u 8AY 1-xO pDn edbuh foeo h ags elr
holes paced on an empty flour bar- now bearing splendidly and return seed bought of one of the largest dealers of Georgia ichiaosFc-Green Riot 1722c per pound. Commission erchants, quotatlons.
rel yearly enviable incomes, of the North, a house that makes a great cepti- .d 'Michigan, it'is Java, roasted, S30@8c; Moeam, roasted, 80@38c; Special to the TIMMs-UNIoN:]
The advantage these first settlers en- boast of its carefulness and reliability, the biggest State this side of the Mssis- Red, roasted, 23025. EW YOK pri -The receipts of
-Lieutenant Purssell has returned to dwas in their abtyto Thus the plant needs rich ground and sippi river, it is larger than New Hamp- COTON SEd MEA--Scarce and higher. Florida veetales bytsysstereitser
Titusville from his trip to Jupiter to land, and to take their choice of the careful treatment, With proper culti- shrer Vermont, Masshusetts, New or short cotton meal 621602210 per ton, only moderate, and prices continue farmy for b
locate the line of the Government signal t an which thu cos but a fe vationitields largely and it o Jerse Maryland, Delaware and Rhode ToBAccOTzs--Market quiet but firm 0 wax andgen, soldat a crate, in'erlor62
telegr n hs engaed rooms at thecents, is now che .. ff damage eaily in shipment. Island. Our adjoining county of Orange 1800 to 64 per ton. 2.50, cucumbers selling at .560 with re-
teerpadhseggdrosa h et, Is no hap at fifty dollars per dmge eaiy in shpet is almost as big as both Delaware and LnrE--Eastern, job lots, S150per barrel, Ala- ceipts large beets 62.50, tomatoes firstname.lastname@example.org, and
Titus House for the signal station which acre and upward, and an entire town Cucumbers do well here, but there are -^ho Isan. Florida i o-ur bama lime 8115. Cement--American 6200, fancy acme 6, cabbage 5803.50, squash very
wle sonr emovedro Sanford site was then obtained that will be few plants so susceptible to frost, and I liar than the .rea E State of 6, 7 p bre. plenty and selling slowly at a0@75i. Prices
The telegraph line crosses the St. Sebas- worth in a few years a small fortune. know of one young man who became New York, an rot per cent, bge c-h quotattyon s vaery,n"... acodn to will continue favorable, and the season Is
*uandity fo....eou. very backward at all sections north e1 Flor-
ATLiepo perrs A a' ,0 6100 perou ear^^ Ida. Fancy orange s 6508 russpt 685 ,
i rivers bSuch opportuities are now becoming discouraged wth Florida because he had than OhT. Steppig acos th Atatilod 8SA 90.-; strarrriesirussc0
there may probably be several repair s e d n o h t a d i ih c r n finde. it covers more territory thand H Di. f
stations on the route, possibly one at a faifr' mnare va lue ne forrS w ha t tey t hey P ~waaere ans ultter fail~ur u [e. s aH e woud irece Sitzoerlan mond Belgiumory th an s 120Fc-= ; alnd, cow e ounty dry fisate sta beres5@4
Melbourne and one at St. Lucie. The bu-i m'bars dry2a; salted lountry Ski asaDe r d pit .hheT ra.no arve
c ycloneshave done well not to put all his eggs in bined, and it goes squarly over.th ta will; b ens dr Furs-aoteter. wint-.er BIe IGa M Api t-e.trwoweries. e
establishment of this service on our e nhave no trouble in reaching the one basket. Onions pay handsomely, whole of Englan d by nine thousand eac tie; raccoonel0. c -wld ca B Ior0-traw@2re
oassn w hil be great orfxfitcBewouaxoper poun d becw inne good orer sel readei lly hatn toman ate o 82
catwiofrellin b he of prbanefi to e oursc Northern markets with produce, and they are being largely, cultivated. miles--Ex. r ffom burs Beeswap pon,1c; huri oio; goatdqu rts; so el piceadiny athearainearrive
ioneforet well h aprc h ow a les. o and each year the communications will In fact, I know of nothing that can be "kins 1025 apiece. 25c; b. c; atq tomep in th ranar
byclonea well a cold we improved, gho wn anywhere in Florida that will for t.Raints. An- mouldy and are worthless. Large new pota-
grow ynamte rodclngCoutry rodcetoes are in demand at 64, small Bostoes not
Capt..J.S. Raybon reports that some Now 'what d5 we do here that cannot not do well here, and some things can of tle ior whunt cln, o D onntv 1rde. wanted. Cabbage selling readSy at S 3 a
dayssine whle n Talorcounty he be done. elsewhere, .or that can be probably be grown here that will not do The balloon theories, with dynamite z-SpoFinaCeamery 1s60pervpaound. crate, beans 62.0 a crate, tomatoes 68.50 a -
witnessed a hail storm that for intensity done beter tan farther North? Have well elsewhere. explosions to produce rain, are not mere demand as follows: hens 5e. med 80c. half- r a La box. "
beats, anything he ever saw or heard of, we ady avantages over our neighbors? WVhat I have said is for the benefit of visionary thoughts. Any great concus- grw e Tli3y are scarce and In great de- _HDE J RSE POR S ALDER .
He hardthestomh coingsomrdi-cIoustrefrBaainno teicimae.gIdo hosswh mus wok t lie!iT suh-son fmthlatosperewhentwoclods sos-uva Conty12zpr ndzenwit
tance off roaring and bellowing like a not astsert tat t ig helthiQerhe~Iare hOthan aur S :gene~rous n htwt idrretn rdcs an seilys lmtddmn n od twluppilymUh an A few ia~y~smGRADED JERSEYS FOR sale i afb
lot of infurated demons let loose from it is on the St. Johns river or the lakes, climate andlthe cheapness of living gin- is the case when one strata of clouds are Ixsa PolATOzs-Northern potatoes 2 75s
sheol, and soon the hail, varying in size but I do assert that it ought to be, erally, he must be "a poor stick" who, positive and the other negatively elsec- t~moais-ermudl', ..... J".C.ulPac,1..40.ancia
from a partridge egg to a guinea-egg, be- Fr~esh water streams or ponds are rare, with a small capital, cannot make both trifled. The principle is correct, and only barrel 687 to 640 62 00 per.. crt; per- grandson of Duke ofDarlington, No. 2,640, and &
gan to pour down in- every direction, L ake Butler at Tarpon Springs being the ends meet, but this country will not be needs a proper mnode of procedure to be Florida cabbage, 62 i'0@225 per .barrel. sonhte of Upron ar kmpre, No. ,0,ot, rw 1,1 uty.
knocking the bark from the trees and largest known,. flled u entirely with laborers. Men of invented. to make a sticcess of produc- 'r"'eoas BOR zEs--ood supply at 0050pe daughter otIon nak impotd, BNos.1,10
uprpigth baglmbrroel.tl .' g w s-loip prca erApply0t Scalah~snzaeBaFl
snappng te yong lmbs rom he tll Te charm of the peninsula, as may wealth will come here mer ely for the win luga rainfall at will, All great batt'es N "w BzzsFordpe rte.20