|UFDC Home||myUFDC Home | Help ||
ALL ISSUES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS MAP IT! PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
SVOL. 1---NO. 17. JACKSONVILLE, FLA., WEDNESDAY, APRIL 27, 1887. PRICE $2 A YEAR.
CROSSING GRAPES. this case the pollen of the earlier blooms make most excellent ensilage, as it is The Linn or Basswood. district of Marion, South Carolina, is a
The Leon County Vieyard. ROSSING GAPES. could be kept several weeks in a paper very juicy and sweet more so than The beautiful tree which is known to in length and one or two in breadth. It
e l aren r ria Pronoment Eastern agultural I supperog flow- sweet was claimed that it would yield natives of Florida as linn. and which contains no trees of considerable magni-
we learn what in the going on among the g grapes to remove the cap and I I hope this may aid some poor. strag- several crops of forage a year, but in my Northernersrestin in our for- reognize as basswood, is tude, exept the cypress and a few pe-annual
rape growers in the neighborhood of pply thes pollen from the variety with ling brother along in the pah leading experience it would only stand cutting one of the most interesting in our for- rennial shrubs, but abounds withannual.
Tallahassee: which i is desired to effect the cross; to success. once, when it died out, but even one ests. The accompanying represents the Near the edge of aquatic plants and grapes.
situated on the shores of beautiful Lake those remaining with fine paper. We ARCHER, Fla., April 14, 1887. crop is better than most any other forage Northern Tilia Americana, but our season and state of the atmosphere al-
Hall, seven acres of vines yielded last find thatose remainin every case the pollen is ripe plant so far as yield is concerned This southern Tilia pubesens scarcely differs luded to, the honey-dew is produced in
Hall, seven acres of sines yielded last find that in every case the poen is ripe AMTT FIBRE year I am going to plant my teosintetwo Srn Ti eube se having rather smaller such quantities as to moisten every shrub
summer 5 barrels, say about 2 200 as soon as the cap begins to loosen. PALMETTO FIBRE. feet apart in the rows, and rows four from it except in having rather smaller such quantities as tmoisten every shrub
gallons of wines. This year there will With such experience it is naturally a feet apart, as I think it needs about leaves, which are somewhat 'downyfeed and to over the grass.
be in the same vineyard twelve acres matter of surprise to us that any one How an Incumbrance of the that space to develop to the best advan- variety, but Gray holds itto be a species, inity, may be found at eight or nine
-of vines in bearing and 3,000 to 3,500 should claim a cross-breed when the ap- tage. Inplanting cover about one and and in b Prof. Sargeit's forthcoming o'clock in the morning with their mane
gallons of ine are expected from next plication of the pollen is made after the Soil is Being Utilize. a half inches deep, and firm the ground. and in Prof. Sargerit's forthcoming o'clock in the morning with their manes
crop of grapes. The proprietors, Messrs. cap loosens, ormerely because two vines BY SILAS L. LOOMIS. After the plants come up keep well Sylva of North America it ill be rec- and tails agglutinated to a mass with
77E. Duboiacres & A J Lemort, bought latheir ow in lose proximity. Unless th This hitherto valueless growth, which cultivated until they get about two feet ecimens of the flower are needed leaves and grasses carbonated by the
77 acres of land adjoining planting grape blossoms are defective we belizinve has been considered a nuisance, is now high, when they will grow so rapidly as by the ai who is illustrating that fires which sometimes avage extensive
vineyards, and will keep planting grape ossoms are self-fertilizing assuming some importance. A certain to shade the ground and keep down by the arist w i ill be a service tractsof country in Mach and April,
every year until they have100 acres in definitealue has, within the past year, weeds and grass. It will pay well to great work, and it will be a service tractsof cquenty in Ma ch anted April,
grapes. HYBRIDIZING THE GRAPE. been given to the stems of the leaves, fertilize teosinte, as it will make a finer highly appreciated if some one who has are frequent and in situations where,
On the other side of Lake Hall Mr. These are manufactured into "mattress and heavier crop that will show itself linn trees within reach, will undering take large masses and in situations where,
acr e vineyard, and allt out th oughree y he vines The Artificial Method of Produc- fibre," "paper fibre" and plastering fibre." when fed to milch cows in the increased to supply specimens at flowering time apparently, the honey-dew could not
demand for mattresses is limited flow of milk. Any one who can and-will do so, will have dropped from overshadowing
acre vineyard, and although the vines The demand for mattresses is limited flow of milk. receive a mailing box, stamps and di- trees. Swarms of' bees inhabit almost
had never been pruned before this spring ing New Varieties, on account of the free introduction of H. G. BURNET. reactions by addressing Mr. E Faxon, every excavated tree, andhabitfrom their
they are now loaded of al ith embryo are, J. C. NEAL, M. D African fibre. The demand for the pa- ALVA, Monroe o., Fla. Arnold Arboretum, Brookline, Mass. honey the poor inhabitants of thisterile
grapes."Secure ripened stamens, remove the per fibre is suspended on account of the The tree is rather common in the north- region derive no inconsiderable support.
grapes secu ere S opened stamenrs,rouis disturbeduconditi o n of the tariff. The ryLESPDEZA western part of Florida, and is found in Fenega, in his history of California,
At Fort San Luis, two miles west of hoods from-the flowers of the motherh introduction of jute from a country *a some of the central counties and also says that Father Piccola observes that,
Ta'lahasse the San Leis Vineyards, grape, cut out the anthers, touch llen from where labor is ten or fifteen cents a day in neighboring States. in the months of April, May and June,
prietors), are putting on their iron dress; the selected stamens, cover the bunch prevents the payment of $125 per day In June well developed trees bear a there falls with the dew kind of manna
about twelve miles of trellises hiron drve with a paper bag, and ths over thing is donch for the same work. But the demandfor The Experience of One o profusion of cream colored flowers which becomes inspissated on the leaves
already been ut up and fifteen hands So it is in theory, but the practice is plastering fibre is unaffected by any Leadings Cultivators. They present a characteristic by which of trees. He adds that he tasted it, and,
kept- constantly up and sy fifteen hands So it isin theory, but the practice s foause and is increasing rapidly. It is the tree may be identified beyond all though not so white as sugar, it had all
cember doing t hat work, and aly busy ever since De- somethintending propagator of else. found to supersede hair wherever it is J. B. McGehee a planter of Bayou the sweetness of it.
member doing that work, and also The intending propagator o new known, as it is stronger, more durable Sara, La., writes to the Times-Democrat s
plowing, hoeing, and setting out vines, grapes learns by tiresome experiments and gives better work. This de Sara, La., writes to the Tihecking Ges-emoratth in Plats.
trees and cuttings. The stock of grape that the flowers are not always ready, and gives better work. This demand as follows;
vines now in nursery consists of over that often a few hours will find all the alone gives a certain permanent value to Checking Growth in Plants.
130,000 plants, a great number of which "hoods" gone, and every stigma self- the palmetto growth. I sowed the seed in March and early
ate already engaged for next fall fertilized, ruining all prospects for that There is also another new use for the in April last year, on growing oats, and i ar e f the principles of plth ant life were
planting by parties from all over the season r nt make an excellent "packing fibre" for my oats in last of May or early June, injury done to trees thantheroughtless-
San Luis plantation have been de 'ided blooms, ] endeavor to show the varied railway cars. The best packing fibre cutting from three to five tons per acre Much of the Injury is from thtughtless-
State. Three hundred acres of the Fort In the sketches taken from recent railway cars. The best packing fibre chesg.frot h I ve sw/r e ness A tree, for instance, is severely
San Luis plantation have been decided blooms, 1 endeavor to show the varied now used is the cocoa fibre, which, of of the most superb hay I ever saw or fed. when in full leaf, with the re
into 0-acre lots, to be sold exclusively course, has to be imported. The "pal- Year before last I sowedbelts on grass- pruned, when infull leaf, with'the re-
Fre nhr i metto packing fibre" is found to equal'sodin a meadow which had beencapturedsu't of greatly weakening the tree in-
Lastear trench gentleman, Mr J. he cocoa fibre, if notsuperior o i in by the brown sedge, I sowed inbelts stead of benef iting it as desired. Trees
Lemoine, bought one of these lots and / some respects. It is now being thor-' about fifteen steps apart, on account of cannotthrive without leaves, and this
set out three acres in grapes. This year oughly tested, and so far results are very a scarcity of seed. Last year these belts the gardener knows well enough. A_
he added two acres to his vineyard, favorable. The demand for this use is united, and after pasturing this meadow /// geranium or fuchsia oe.tixually cut off
which looks exceedingly thrifty. l prospective for the immediate future ..c lly until June1fI i tin the fall for cuttings will die. Wfo- t_ ay -.-
The adjoining lot was bought .In view of the valueof the plastering th and a quarter tns of hay, eigh- It is for this reason that good gardeners
February by Mr. C Linkey, who has fibre at the present moment, the question i three-quarters of-a ton shorthecut fortheir asparagus beds very spardenersgly,
already 3,000 vines of the best varieties f the value of tl-e palmetto crop of referredto wasuttheir asparagus beds very sparingly,
set out in vineyard. He had in South 6 Florida is one that comes to the notice a oor qua o upland-wet and, i LIN. (nia Americana). plants are very strong. It as recorded
set out in vineyard. He had in Soutd All of the land above referred' to was especially the first few, years, until the
Florida an orange grove which he sold -' of all interested in the manufacturing apoor quality .of upland-wet and, in LIpN. (Tla.Americana). plants are very strong. It is recorded
Floridas to range grove whi resources and of a interested of Florida. The manufacturing most places, what is called in the hill About % naturalsize. that where the leaves are left on a row
time in grape culture. points in its favor as against any other districts, white buckshot-just such soil doubt. To thepeduncle or common o n, thee ight of the scriop was 261
The actual appearance of the vines in crop, except lumber. as you find in the districts known as flower stem there is attached a large,wpounds, while on the .tiped row it
ctia s eargedo .eeies e It isao already plantedd and ready at White ak growth was. obtainedoblong bract,as shown in the illustra- instances the difference was less, yet
romis e a s cro Besi\e all times for harvest. As fine a growth was obtained on rich tion. The seed capsules when formed distinct and striking in all. This same
several thousands of new vines Mr.Dubois
se thousands pring fig treew esr.Dubois 2. 2. The crop is not an annual one, like chocolate uplands. I put up 300 tons of are in size and color like a common nciple applies to priking in all. This same
se utthispr 150 fig trees, 100 cotton or grain, but can be harvested any this grass principally, but in which was pill.princi summer, which should be omitted or
Japan persimmons, and a number of GRAP FLOWERS. (Magnified.) day in the year. a considerable sprinkling of crab grass, The lindens or lime trees of Europe sparingly per which should b e omitted or
pomegranates, olives, quinces, etc. He orolla, or "hood3. It requires no fertilizing or culti- Bermuda and other grasses. My stock are quite similar to the three American sparingly performed, except where the
proposes to ut in next year 200 olive Stigma. ovation. Invariably selected out every bit of the species, but they are utilized to greater ome check. B tly vigorous to bear
rpees ro mnd ar lietsome check. By always remembering
treesin grove from, and add at least he flwerassumes4. It enables person to realize money Lespedeza hay before they would touch extent than in this country. The bast thatleaves are essential to a tree, we
twenty acres to his vineyard, forms the grape flower assumes. No. any day, and relieves him from the ne- the other grasses. fibre, obtained from the inner bark, is may preserve the health of such as de-e
twenty acre is the immature bud; the hood is firly cessity of living against a coming crop. This year I hope to ship 00 or 400 tons manufactured largely into mats, which hired, or destroy obnoxious weeds, as
attached to the stem below the insertionAll the trouble of borrowing money, to New Orleans to market, and will fear- are used for horticultural purposes. The the case may be. s weed or tree con-
Artificial Fertilization, of the stamens. paing interest or getting credit. is lessly put it into competition with the wood is valued for a variety of purposes, tinually stripped of leaves will die.-N.
Any one can try this delicate art after No. 2 is ripe and ready for hybridizing avoided, and he has the money to do all finest red clover and timothy that can be the trees are much planted for shade, C. Farmer.
Any one can try this delicate art after The hood is loosening, and has changed his trading with. produced in the world, and they afford a large supply of honey,
studying the article by Dr. Neal and the to a light-brownish green. It is easily If anyone will carefully consider the -- I have never yet seen land to which it both from the flowers and from the Melitensi Oane
accompanying illustration. Less nicety removed, and soon the top of the stigma few reasons above stated, they will see was not perfetly adapted ],either too poor, "honey dew" which is especially abun- Melitensis Orange.
is-reqred .where plants are unisexual, becomes moist. If pollen is dusted over at once that the palmetto crop of Flor- too rich, too wet, or too dry, and year danton them. Dr. N. Hart, who lives some three
as is apt ta.ethe case with American this moisture, it is retained and absorbed ida anid the adjoining States is daily .before last when all the native grasses From Porcher's work we extract the miles from Brooksville, has a curiosity
grapes, but the stigmas should be pro- within three days; the fruit sets, the coming to the front, and will be taken succumbed to the drouth on my place, it following: "The inner barkof Tlia Amer- in the shape of a Melitensis orange tree.
tected from the air at the critical period, moisture disappears. If pollen be not into the calculation of everyone who is alone furnished all the hay I gathered. icana, macerated in water, may be It is only sixteen inches high, and has
The air is full of pollen grains of all applied within this time, the fruit interested in land or the products of our I have this spring sowed 150 acres on made into ropes and fishing nets, and is fully 100 blooms on it. Dr. Hart has
sorts of plants, but though a hundred blasts. hood is State. growing oats, and am now sowing last a good. application to burns. The plants two or three of this variety which he ob-
kinds may come in contact with a stig- in No. 8, the hood is removed soding We have the business cirulr of the year's oat fields after, burning them off or branches may be steeped in water for trained from the AgricultIl Depart-
ma, only those of its own species will stamens are released and are shedding [We nave tne circul nr o without plowing and without covering, three months, dried ant striped. For meant at Washington, but only the one
have would effet. hte pollen. It is rare that hybridization can Loomis Manufacturing Company of wit out plowing and without covering, three months, dried and stripped. For meant at Washington, but on5y the one
have any effect pollen. It ins rare that hybridization can Loom4 it sMani a tun w^ perceive rom which I hope and expect to every purpose of cordage on the planta- mentioned has any blooms on it.
grains arWe would observe thin vast numbthe pollen be effeted ino use tryhis case, aing. No. 4 it thernanssnau Plastering Fibre is- mow two and a half to three and a half tion or garden this material will be found Are we to have no oranges next sea-
graises are borne in vast numbers in would be no useeedsfor things delicate perform- commended by prominent builders in tons this fall. useful. The flowers of our Tilia I find son? Not nearly aU the trees have
plants arled "vated on "filaments and ane a small pair of curved dissecting Jacksonville and other towns. The Last fall I mowed so large a growth quite as useful as the imported 'Tilleul,' bloomed yet. It looks as if they forgot
that the filament and anther together scissors, fine forceps, a good pocket ma- price of this fibre is four and a half cents (full two feet high) and so late in season, a material for quieting, anti-spasmodic it. The weather has been so fine for
are called a "stamen." The pollen neither s r, a fine camels-hair brush, a little per pound. Cattle hair costs from three being just before frost, that I feared I teas, quieting nervous excitement, and growing purposes that they have not
are called a "stamen." The pollen nir a fne camels-har brushotte-and a littlcents per pound, and it is had lost the seed on this place, and did pleasant to the taste." ha time to think of blossoms, This is a
grain when it comes sein contact with a pill box or shallow botte-and a b claimed that the fibre is superior to hair lose them measurably, but have a scat- serious oversight on their part, and we
minute tube which penetrates to the The best time is after the dew is dry in at leastfifteen particulars. Suchbeing tearing stand there now. Itshouldnot be Honey-Dewear itis general, asthpapers saysuch
seed receptacle and 'there accomplishes in the morning. Then get a supply of the case, Florida builders ought to give mowed later than on e month before Honey-Dew.in I
fer eptacle and th ripened anthers from th e vine whose the company a liberal patronage.-A. frost to be sure of its re-seeding itself.: Having alluded in another article to Meade Pioneer.
The following noripened anthers from te vine whose mpMy stock of broodmares and work that mysterious source of bee food called
The following notes on this subject~ are good qualities you wish to preserve, re- stock off duty and cattle (not milch cows) honey-dew, we will quotean interesting Orange Wine, Syrup, Etc.
gather POLLed from exchanges: membering that, as a rule, the femal Teosinte in Monroe County receive no other food all winter and have contribution to the knowledge of the
POLLEN GATHEIN. will transmithe vigor of growth to T i no winter pasturage, and I think you subject, which appeared many years ago Orange wine is made from the juiceof
hpollenis the blossoms are full ex- e in t the ndye rouh regard to this e culia sub- thore
handed, but' before many of the anthers ln' dt, either by touching an open soil eightrinches to a foot deep was a These representation Thee.roduction of honey-dew is influ- profitable than the sweet variety.
mas at the nick of time when the nec- bunch of bds and blooms, cut away all Seeing your articles on this forage condition in any State or Territory in My design in this essay istogive a ngater. The juice shou measure 92
tar is secreted, eveinto n if the weather be bloomke 1, and 4. With the forceps plant i the issue of March 23d, leads me the United States. brief statement of certain facts relative degrees on Oeschles scale, and after-
quite unfavorable. Our pls taken of getting gently catch the hoods of those like No. to add my experience. I obtained thCombined with Dennett grass for to the appearance of the honey-dew in ward fermented by the same method as
as theya do no harm. In a day remove the sack, and see if the rains set in it grew very rapsykand ing the seed last f md ha alternatin with ce
pollen of dry, ar, plum, peach et 2 at the bottom and remove them do, apply kept the grom Burpee, of Philadedelpha. By Oto- I could save enough for myself, but sCarolina which appear to militate in making wine from grapes. Talso much
is rapid, and so farpen, has been stirrccess fully, then rapidly ut off the anthers. Planted latter part of March in rows when dead the vegetable mould to stim- against the e v es ofsor of the sour orange also makes a delight-
uwith a moistened pencil brush t w i away th ysaour magnifier watch for the three feet apand abouseedstwo in a hill, late andery, theo mdry stubble e to protect, a maon, together with one of command a ready sale at largely in-
take on pollen enoughto fertilize several hes careful record. ripened seed abundanly. The seed is yield of seedcamenea and modern writ- in the markets of the United State. aryWe
blossoms. Such in detail is the mods opesrandi produced et a art in the row, ceaseless round of superb pasturage i s rup of refined sugar. The viscidity of -Times-Democrat.
While the blossomsof the varieties to new varieties" of the grape. There re- would average about twelve stalks ten p t th e e t an o te e n O itceasestobe Our esteemed contibutorM. L-
Whne, uth blossoms are fuy h e x- mas, and as0soon as seen apply the pol- The land was newly cleared, surface could be obtained the year round, era with regard to this poeuliar sub- have always been of the opinion that
e fertilized are beginning to open, select mainst, carefuither by save the seeds ant, fesoil eight t inches to a f een eewas a Thesich r presentations might be sup- stance the leaves a shining and sourorange could be made more
ae ckidest athe lower end-made of N vether to the stigma, or covupperng it with dark sandy loam, and subsoil a heavy posed to be prejudiced by some who are Thes, pduon ofds and savannas. In the gatherprofitable than the sweet. variety.
tiles, no i special carei taken to asoii it, are visible in quantity on thestigma low, I only hoeddit twice. ankanitis but proper for me to say for Carolinait most frequently appears in much approved by our Lousiana house-w
light white muslin. hybrid, or a Chasselas scuppernong. In could be done. I should think it would doubled. marshes, ponds and savannas. In the gathering. A. H.C.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. APRIL 27,78879
Notes on Cattley Guava, Etc.
Editor ida Farmer and Pruit-Grower :
Tn June, 1884f I bought a few pot
plants of the red variety of Cattley guava,
but unfortunately allowed them to be
somewHat injured by the sun before set-'
ting them out. However, they grew
pretty well the balance of the year, and
in 1885 made a good growth. In Janu-
ary, 1886, we thought they were killed,
but to our surprise and delight they
bore quite a heavy crop that year and
are now a mass of bloom.
You say in your issue of March
Bd, that the yellow variety is re-
ported mibch hardier than the red.
I have not found it so. The
yellow vaifiey whichh -I obtained in
1885 fruited in 1886, and if there was
any difference in hardiness, it was in
favor of the red, though in a tempera-
ture lower than we had here in January,
1886, the result might have been differ-
ent. With me, the red has been the
We have not used the fruit sufficiently
to make.a satisfactory comparison of it
with the best common guavas, and, in-
deed, they can hardly be compared. The
Cattley, however,has two important ad-
vantages-hardness and sufficient acid
of its own for jelly making. I have
been assured by those who have largely
used both kinds,that the Catt'ey is much
to be preferred for all purposes, and that
its jelly making properties alone make
it more desirable than the common
Our Horticultural Society is now
struggling with the question of irriga-
tion, and though it is easy to foretell
what.our conclusi6ns as'to the necessity
of such a system must be, the matter of
how to bring practicable irrigation
within the reach of the truck farmer and
orange grower in a small way must
command the best thought of the people
of our State, until the problem is solved
beyond a doubt. It appears to me that
no other question is of greater interest to
us than this. Artesian wells and wind-
mills will answer a good purpose, but
few can afford them. What is to be
A. L. DUNCAN.
DUNEDIN, Fla, April 5, 1887.
[We have ascertained that the Cattley
guavas which were growing near the
mouth of the St. Johns before the freeze,
and which have sprung up again from
the roots, are of the red variety. Proba-
bly the statement we reported was based
on an exceptional instance.-A. H. C.I
Experience with Nurserymen.
Editor'Flor-da Farmer and .ruit-Grower:
Last fall I concluded to make a trial
of some of the fruit trees so extensively
advertised by our nurserymen, and,
taking the advice of one of our agricul-
tural journalcscpncluded to order from
those within the'State.
.---Sly-first order was sent to Mr. ---- ,
.of Glen St. Mary. The trees came in
time and in good order, though the
freight was as much as on the same
number of trees from Wilmington, Del.,
last year-so much f or Florida railroads
The stock from Mr. -was notf-quite
up to stock received in previous years
from farther North, but was very satis-
factory and all are growing nicely.
My next order was from nearer home,
and they, too, were as nice and as good
My third order was sent to Mr.
Greenland. These were not sent until
the season was well advanced, although
several letters were written. Finally a
demand for a return of the draft or the
trees at once brought them, but such
stock as representatives of a "first-class"
nursery! The order included 20 Honey
peaches, 10 Kelsey Japan plums, and 30
Peen-to. The peaches were stumps of
one-half to three-fourths of an inch
diameter, with a bud a foot long or
more, and as large as a pipe stem, com-
ing out of the stump, at an angle of
forty-five degrees. Many of the Peen-
tos had borers and gum was exuding
from the trunks when unpacked. Of
the ten Kelseys one has made a live of
'it, but is very feeble, being in its baby-
hood when planted. Although more
than a hundred trees were planted on
this same ground, outside of these nine
Kelseys only one failed to grow, which
does not go to show it was the fault of
These are facts and I stand ready to
prove them, if necessary. I do not write
thi3 expecting to be benefited myself (a
burnt child dreads fire), but in justice to
others who are liable to be mislead as
myself. And what resource have we,
except through the exposure of such
transactions? 1 consider it the bounden
duty of every one who is swindled in
like manner to let it be known. The
nurseryman demands cash with the
order. He has the whip in his own
hands, and if he is mean enough to take
advantage of it, he slhbuld be exposed.
Otherwise the honest men in the trade
E. W. AMSDEN.
April 10, 1887.
Wine Harvest of France forl 886
REPORT OF CONSUL ROOSEVELT.
The quality of the wine of 1886 is
mediocre, and poor in alcoholic property.
The viticulturists have endeavored to
remedy these defects by free sugaring.
During the first ten months- of 1885,
6,031,000 kilograms, or 12,062,000
pounds, of sugar were employed in sug-
aring wines. For the same period of
1886, the quantity employed increased
to 27,410,000 kilograms, or 54,820,000
In presence of the deficit in the yield,
foreign wines are more than ever re-
sorted to. For the first eleven months of
1885, 6,831000 hectoliters, of foreign
wines were imported into, France, and
for 'the corresponding period of 1886,
9,438,000 hectoliters Spain,as usual, be-
ing the largest contributor, sent during
this period 5,187,000 hectoliters, and
Italy following with 1,697,000 hectolit-
ers. Importations were also from Al-
giers and other wine-producing countries.
The decrease in the production has
given stimulus to another industry,the
fabrication of wine from dried grapes,
and from the residuum of pressed'
grapes by the process of sugaring. The
total quantity of this fabrication for the
year of 1886 amounted to 5,500,000 hec-
toliters, an increase of 1,533,000 hectolit-
ers over the production from. the same
source in 1885. During the past year
2,688,000 hectoliters of wine were obtain-
ed from the dregs of pressed grapes, and
2,812,000 hectoliters from dried grapes.
As the wineyards of France depreciate
those of Algiers increase in value. The
production and cultivation of the vine
in the different provinces of that coun-
try steadily increases, and the yield for
1886 shows an increase of 550,984 hec-
toliters. The total production was 1,566-
Bermuda Onions, Turnips, Etc.
Editor Florida Farmer and Fruit- Growver:
"What shall I do for a. living until the
orange trees begin to bear," is a question
that is agitating the minds of not a few
in Florida. Trie raising of cucumbers,
tomatoes and other tender vegetables is
attended with much risk and all feel in
need of a sure crop that will pay.
Bermuda onions are bringing $2.50 to
$4 per crate now in Northern markets,
and onions do well on most Florida
soils.. The seed will have to be sown
early in fall here to get an early crop,
and we do not get the Bermuda seed-
as they have to be imported-until Jan-
uary. I have thought that if we would
sow seed thickly and let them stand so
in January, they would make sets by
spring. Keep these sets until August
or September and then plant the sets--
and we could raise large onions by
March without much fertilizing.
If we can market them in March and
April they will bring good prices. The
seed being sown in January would notI
be troubled with grass and weeds, and
the sets planted in September would
grow even if the soil should be dry.
Onions are the regular crop of many sec-
tions of New England.
I hope some one is experimenting with
the castor oil bean. It makes a large
growth of weed here in South Florida,
but it may fail to fruit well. Many
would like to be fully t.formed on that
I suppose by the close of another sum-
mer we shall learn how Cuba tobacco
Do you think there would be any
profit in the common Florida sheep.
Turnips do splendidly here. You can
plant them on any soil and by a moder-
ate application of cotton seed meal,
acid phosphate and kainit, grow fine
turnips, and I should think it would be
well to grow them in the young orange
groves. The turnips, with potatoes, pea
vines and Bermuda grass would afford
cheap feed for sheep.
DADE CITY, Fla.
Formulas for Fertilizers.
The Commissioner of Agriculture for
Georgia communicates the following to
the Southern Cultivator :
Many letters are received by the Com-
missioner asking for a formula for mix-
ing a home fertilizer. In reply to such
the following is suggested -by him as
suitable proportions for general soils
and crops: Acid phosphate 1,300 pounds,
cotton seed meal 500 pounds, kainit 200
pounds, a total of 2,000 pounds. Such
a formula if the materials be of a high
grade, would analyze about as follows :
Available.phosphoric acid 9.00 per cent,
ammonia 2.00 per cent., potash 1.20 per
cent. These porportions may be varied
according to circumstances.
If the land be sandy or much worn
the proportion of kainit may be increased
and the cotton seed meal decreased. If
cotton seed (green) are used instead of
the meal, use acid phosphate 900 pounds,
cotton seed 1,000 pounds, kainit 100
pounds. This mixture would show
about the same relative proportions as
the first but would require a larger ap-
plication, say one-half more per acre, to
produce the same effect.
If stable manure or other bulky ma-
terials are to be used, the relative pro-
portions of the materials already given
should remain the same, and the stable
manure added without regard to its
quantity ; then Increase the application
per acre in proportion to the quantity of
stable manure added.
Fine Rye in South Florida.
Rye succeeds admirably in most por-
tions of Florida, and nowhere better than
in the Pease Creek country. Rye was
exhibited last year at Bartow measuring
7 feet 10 inches in length. J. M. Mor-
rison, of Bartow, had two acres of rye,,
which.yielded about 35 bushels. Its
height was 61 feet and in some stools as
many as 60 stems were counted. There
is a tract of exceptionally fine land lying
west ofPease creek, extending from
Bartow to Ft. Meade. It measures
about 20 miles in length by about 5
miles in width and is finely adapted to
oats, rye and corn. The latter yields
from 15 to 18 and sometimes 40 bushels
per acre. We would like to hear of this
"Springs" grain crop. About rye in
Putnam county, we learn something
through that enterprising paper, the
Palatka News. Its correspondent at
Keuks, writes under date of March 21,
as follows: My land is high pine, and
very poor at that. Last spring I cleared
a piece, sowed cow peas on it, and
broke it with a common one-horse plow.
The peas grew well, and made good for-
age for my horses, mules and cows.
The last of October 1 sowed rye on this
ground and plowed it under with a com-
mon turning p'ow. It came up well,
and grew well all winter. It is now
four feet high, and in full head, and will
make me a fine lot of good .feed. By
means of a cutting box I can prepare as
good.feed as a horse ndeds. A few bund-
les'well.cut, mixed with a little bran,
and slightly dampened will fill the bill
complete. When ripe I shall out it,
bind it in neat bundles, and stack
away in my barn for use, as mentioned
above. I may thrash a. part of it in or-
der to get some good chicken feed for my
After this I shall raise plenty of rye.
The drought does not seem to injure it,
and then a few acres will produce all the
feed needed for a horse, to be used in
connection with the green forage that
we can otherwise make. My neighbors
are delighted over my rye field, and af-
ter this more rye will be made in this
part of Florida.
A few days ago I saw in the western
part of Putnam county two fields of fine
rye, much better than mine, because
they happened to be on better ground.
One field is owned by a man who came
here from Missouri afew years ago, and is
making a success with this poor soil, as
some people call it. Last year he raised
good corn, and this year he has a field of
rye that would prove a credit to any
State. Considerable rye iL raised in
Putnam county, and I find that it gener-
ally produces well, even on poor land.
I hope to see a regular boom all over
the State on rye raising. A few acres
will make a quantity of good feed for
horses, and thus save money to the coin
munity. I know men who are paying
out hundreds of dollars for feed, in or-
der that they may cultivate groves, who
could nearly avoid this great expense
if they would only raise plenty of rye.
The Monthly Pelargoniums.
When I real about the new monthly
Pelargoniums [Geraniums] in some of
last spring's catalogues, I wondered
whether it was worth while to try them
or not. I have been so "taken in," many
times, by novelties and "desirable new
plants" that I was -rather skeptical in
this instance. But the idea of a Pelar-
gonium flowering the year round was so
attractive that I sent for four plants,
two Fred Heinl, and two Robert Heinl.
They were small affairs when they
came, but they began to grow at once,
and by the end of the summer were fine,
bushy plants. In foliage and general
habit of growth they are very much like
other Pelargoniums, and as they showed
no inclination to bloom for some months
after I procured them I began to think
the "monthly" part a clever dodge on
the part of the florists to sell the ordi-
nary varieties bf the Pelargonium.
But along in September, when none of
the Pelargoniums would think of flower-
ing, I noticed a cluster of buds on one
plant, and was glad to know that the
"greatest acquisition to the window-gar-
den for the last ten years," as one cata-
logue modestly put it, was not going to
disappoint me by refusing to blossom,
as I had feared, out of the usual season
of Pelargonium flowering. There were
fine, large buds in the cluster and many
more small dnes, and I saw anotheclus-
ter coming as tho first developed. and I
began to think that perhaps I might
have a succession of bloom from these
new plants. I watched the development
of the flowers as anxiously as flower lov-
ers watch the blooming of the Night-
The first flower was as large as the
average Pelargcn'um. It was white
with a rosy blotch on each petal, that
on the two upper ones being lather larger
and darker than those on the other
three. These petals are not like those
of the Pelargonium, which differ some-
what in size and shape, but were all
about alike, thus giving a round flower.
It fully answered my expectations.
I had not expected a flower as brilliant
or showy as our Butterfly Pelargoniums.
To look for such flowers, monthly, was
to ask too much. When the fine large
ouds had opened the effect was quite
like a cluster of some of the small white
and pink Azaleas. The flowers are durr-
able, and by the time the first cluster
had faded, the second one was ready to
take its place. Buds appeared on the
other branches, and soon the plant was
covered with flowers. A small specimen
had nine clusters on it, at one time.
From that one may see what the possi-
bilities are, with this new plant And
my plants have kept on flowering- stead-
ily. New branches have kept pushing
out, until each plant is well covered with
growing and blooming points. They
are vigorous growers, more bushy and
compact than the old varieties of Pelar-
gonium, and more tractable,I think.
Robert Heinl has larger blotches of
color than Fred Heinl, and the petals are
sometimes suffused with pink. The ef-
fect of the flowers is very pleasing.
They have a modest appearance, and
yet are quite showy. I am confident
that in them we have forerunners of a
new class from which we. may.expect i
great things by and by. That they are
free-flowering I know from my experi-
ence with them. If we can only get va- i
rieties with the gorgeous colors of the I
old Pelargonium, what a blaze of beauty
we can have in our windows!-E. E. R.
in Planters' Guide. "
Ashes as Manure,
Counting potash at five cents a pound,
nsoluble phosphoric acid at five cents
and the mixed carbonate of lime and
magnesia at one-eight of a cent, these
being the wholesale prices, we have 1
ard wood ashes worth $20 a ton; leached i
ashes about one half that much, soft
wood ashes from pine hemlock, etc.,
16.80; corn cob ashes, $50; soft coal
dishes 40 cents and hard coal ashes 16
:ents a ton. r
Ashes are a most valuable manure,
mnd every man's experience must con- e
vince him that a great loss is annually t
ncurred by farmers, owing to the i
want of a little thought and care in the
management of this one material.
Some have ventured to predict that i
the time will arrive when barnyard c
manure will be reduced to ashes, and-the ^
dishes alone applied to the land, the inor- r
"Pa, does the sausage, come out of his&
hole on Candlemas day and look around
for its shadow, so as to make an early
spring.? Ma says it does." "What are
you talking about ?" says the papa to-
the little boy. ,"It is the ground hog
that comes out of his hole, not the sau-
sage." "Well ain't sausage groquna hog?"
garlic matter of the manure being con-
sidered by them to be the most valuable;
or only essential part 6f it required from
the soil for the nourishment of plants.
It may reasonably be doubted whether
this prediction will ever be fulfilled;
nevertheless it series to show how
highly ashes derived from plants are
valued by some men-agricultural
chemists of no mean fame-and conse-
quently how desirable and necessary
it is to preserve and apply, them under-
Ashes will vary much in comp siton,
according' to the kind of plant; they,
however, all 'contain certain substances
which are useful and essential to all
plants alike. Many of these substances,
especially the alkaline salts, are readily
soluble in water, as every housewife
knows; it is, therefore, requisite that
ashes intended for manure should in-
variably be kept dry till they are to be
The most economical mode of applying
ashes is to scatter them on the land in
the same-manner as plaster or lime is
applied. They may be mixed with
muck, if used soon after mixing; but
they should never in their fresh state be
added to farmyard manure in bulk or
on the surface of the soil, unless har-
rowed in at once, because they would
drive off the ammonia it contains.-Ex.
Potash and Ashes.
Potash is potash, and as far as the
potash is concerned the sulphate of
potash may be a substitute for wood
ashes But wood ashes contain other
things besides potash-in fact they con-
tain all the elements of plant food. On
the soil where superphosphate does little
good, ashes are highly beneficial, alone
or in connection with superphosphate.
An Insect Pest.*
Editor Florida Farmer and Fruit-Grower:
Can any of the readers of the FARMER
suggest a plan for destroying small
black or grey lice, which, during the last
few wdeks, have swarmed on peach and
plum trees, indigo plants, and some
other plants, notably chrysanthemums ?
Strong tobacco water or soap suds
makes no impression on them.
W. P. REASONER.
MANATEE, Fla., April 11, 1887.
To Kill Roaches.
Put just a little condensed milk di-
luted with water, in a bottle with some
powdered borax, when you retire at
night. Roaches will come a long ways
for it ind prefer it to your nicest wrap,
though it is not so wholesome for them
as the wrap cr nice gift book would be.
To Kill the Tobacco Fly.
- A shallow pan partially filled with
water, and a small amount of kerosene
oil poured on the top, should be set in
tobacco fields, a lighted lantern to be in
it-on a brick or block of wood. The
light attracts the tobacco fly, and the
pan of water and oil soon holds him.
By destroying the fly the tobacco and
cucumber worm never come.--Salis-
New Use for the Tobacco Plant.
A new use for the tobacco plant has
been discovered. Its stems and waste,
it is claimed, are equal to linen rags in
the manufacture of paper. Tobacco
waste costs less than $10 a ton, linen
rags $70 to $80. There is no expense in
assorting the former and very little
shrinkage, as against a loss of one-third-
of rags. The yearly tobacco waste is
estimated by-the census-report at from
3,000,000 to 4,000,000 pounds.--N. C.
Different Brands of Plaster.
There is a difference between Nova.
Scotia and Uayuga land plaster. Pure
plaster contains 32.6 per cent. of lime,
46.5 per cent. of sulphuric acid, and 20.9
per cent. of water. Nova Scotia plaster
contains 60 to 98 per cent. of pure plaster
averaging 96 per cent. Cayuga land
plaster contains on the average 63 per
cent. of pure gypsum, and Onondaga
plaster 73 per cent. If these cost $8, $6
and $7 per ton, respectively, the cost per
owvt of actual pure plaster is 41.6c in the
Nova Scotia, 47.6c in the Cayuga and
47.8c in the Onondaga 'plaster. There-
fore Cayuga must be sold at $5.34 and
Onondaga at $6.07 per ton to furnish the
pure plaster at the same price as the
Nova Scotia brand at $8 per ton.
Sorghum for Ensilage.
Sorghum unquestionably produces
very large crops on rich land when sown
broadcast. There is no forage crops
sown broadcast that exceed it in yield in
this climate. For ensilage purposes we
recommend sowing broadcast and mov-
ing when the seed heads are at least
Sorglum contains so much sugar that
it is more liable to ferment in the silo
than almost any other crop. For this
reason there should be heavier weights
applied to the silo.-So. Live Stock
Although not yet out of the experi-
mental stage, electric street railways are
rapidly gaining ground in public favor.
Chicago, Baltimore, Philadelphia, Min-
neapolis, Toronto and other cities already
have electric street railways in success-
ful operation. About a dozen new roads
are in course of construction, and a
core or two more projected. Mont-
gomery, Ala., will be the first city in the
world to have a complete electric street
'ailway system. In New York it is
expected that a new and powerful Daft
electric motor will be making trips on I
he Ninth Avenuc Elevated road, haul-
ng a train of four or five cars.-Ex.
Mi'. Barry remarks that in tak-
ng up trees from soil enriched by re- 1
luced bones he has found every fragment
within reach of the roots inclosed in a
nass of root fibres.
Few of Many Comments by Cor-
respondents and the Press.
Judging from the expressions of ap-
proval which are coming to us daily
from correspondents and the press, and
from the rapid increase of our subscrip-
tion list, it is evident that the FARMER
AND FRUIT-GROWER has met with a more
favorable reception than we had ven-
tured to expect.
In a few instances we can give the seo-
timent of a letter by quoting one or two
sentences, as in the following examples:
Prof. S. N. Whitner, of the Agricul-
tural Col'ege of Florida, writes as fol-
lows; "I can say in all sincerity, it has
exceeded my most sanguine expectations.
Already it is without a peer in all the
Mr. Thomas Meehan, ihe distinguished
horticulturist and proprietor of the Ger.
mantown nurseries, in a letter dated
March 5th, writes: "I am very much
pleased with the FARMER AND FRUIT-
GROWER, and shall read it regularly,
which you know is a high compliment
for an editor to pay to an exchange."
Prof. D, L. Phares, the eminent pro-
fessor of biology in the Agricultural Col-
lege of Mississippi, says in the Southern
Live Stock Journal: "His [the editor's]
valuable paper already appearing in the
first numbers are fulfilling our expecta-
tion and prediction. They may be fully
relied upon for conscientious correc-
ness of statement -and scientific accur-
acy of detail."
Hon. J. Winm. Ewan, writing from
Miami, Dade county, says : "Certainly
you are doing a good work in establish-
ing an enlightened and scientific system
of agriculture, which heretofore has
been seriously neglected. Your paper is
inviting in .appearance, pure in senti-
ment, and progressive in principle, and
surely must succeed."
Mr. S. A. Stevens, of Sumter county,
writes : "I am in love with your paper,
,but am taking so many now that until
some subscription runs out I can't take
more, but calculate to be a subscriber to
your paper soon."
Mr. E. W. Amsden, of Ormond-on-the-
Halifax, wi ites as follows : "I am tak-
ing ten papers on agricultural subjects,
and if asked to surrender the FARMER
AND FRUIT GROWER, I would tell them
to take the other nine, but leave me
that. May peace and plenty and years
of grace be given you to continue the
Mr. J. V. Dansby, of Pensacola, whose
eminent success in truck gardening, as
well as his able writings on farm topics,
entitle his opinion to respect, expresses
himself as follows: "The first number
of the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER was
duly-received and is the best thing in its
way I have seen. It is just the paper
needed, and if you keep it upto the pres-
ent standard of excellence must become
popular with the people. I can't see
where you have left any room for im-
Mr. Charles W. Stevens, of Orange
county, writes: "Your able paper fills a
want long felt in this part for a good ag-
ricultural paper. Success to you." I
Rev. 'T. W. Moore, of Marion county,
writes: "I believe your paper will do a
good work in disseminating new ideas in
regard to fruit raising, farming, stock
A veteran nurseryman, who objects to
the publication of his name, expresses
himself thusI: "I like your paper first-
rate, and believe it will be the -agricul-
tural paper of Florida. I hope after a
little while to give you an article every
Mr. H. G. Daniels, of Amelia Island:
"Judging from what I have seen of the
FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER, it is the
best agricultural paper published in the
South. I predict immense success for it."
Mr. Arthur Brown, of Santa Rosa
county, writes: "Judging- by the copy
sent me the paper is 'A No. 1,' and I do
not wish to miss a single number."
Mr. S. L. Culler, of Seffner, Florida,
writes: "If you continue to make the
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER
equal to the first number, you will cer-
tainly furnish the agriculturists of Flor-
ida with a paper that will please them.
I am traveling through the' country
among the farmers, and in every way
that I can assist you it will be cheerfully
Mr. W. N. Justice, commission mei-
chant of Philadelphia, writes: "Having
received the first issue of your agricul-
tural paper, and being delighted with its
tone, we wish you to insert our card for
[From the Texas Farmer.3
Florida is not behind her sister South-
ern States in material progress.' It
ought to be called the land of fruits and
flowers, for each of these grand divis-
ions of horticulture are equally at home
there. The FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER is an ably conducted and ele-
gantly printed paper devoted to these
very topics, to which we refer the reader
for further information.
_From the So. Live Stock Journal.]
We regret that the first number [of
the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER] failed
to reach us; but the second shows a very
handsome sheet as to paper, typography
and general make up, while the addi-
tional department is all we expected of
the distinguished editor. Many of our
readers are interested directly and sec-
ondarily in everything connected with
Florida, and we cordially commend this
new and excellent periodical as worthy
of their patronage. With best wishes
for its success, we welcome this new as-
pirant for public favor and patronage,
feeling assured of the good work it will
accomplish in and out of Florida.
[From the Gardeners' Monthly]
"We are continually receiving new
agricultural ventures, but useful as they
are in their own special fields, we rarely
find in them anything of special interest
to the intelligent class of horticulturists
for which the Gardeners' Monthly has to
cater. We were, therefore, agreeably
surprised on reading among the batch
f exchanges on our table, No. 2 of this,
to find it of a very high order of intelli-
gence, and one which must have an ex-
cellent effect in fostering Florida's inter-
Winter Park Fla'
OYAL PALM NURSERIES
Rare tropical ornamental and fruit plants for
open air culture in Florida, and for the North-
ern greenhouse. Also, a full line of semi-tropi-
ical trees, plants and grasses and general nur-
sery stock adapted to Florida and the South.
Exotics from India, Australia and the West
Indies, many of them never before introduced
into the United States.
The most complete descriptive catalogue of
tropical and semi-tropical plants pub'idii.^ -;"
America. Catalogue maile post ii re-
ceipt of 15 cents. Tree to all cnjfTOers.
I ILEY, GROVER & CO.,
STATE AGENTS FOR
RASIN FERTILIZER CO'S
SOLVABLE SEA ISLAND GUANO
DISSOLVED BONE AND ALKALI
AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN
FRUITS AND PRODUCE.
Get our Prices before buying.
AAMPA, HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY,
General Business and Real Estate Agency of
W. N. CONOLEY.
If you wish a town lot, an orange grove, or
wild lands in this rapidly improving section,
or If you have taxes to be paid, or property to
be improved, or money to be Invested, write
to this agency.
Money can be placed on Real Estate with a
Margin on Iwo-thirds of values at 10
and 12 per cent.
;FREE OF CHARGE TO LENDER.
Ninety days to foreclose mortgage where
there is no contest. All col an attorney's
fees provided for in mortgage. Write for
further information and send-"for list of prop-
erty for Sale.
W. N. CONOLEY,
REFFRENcEs-Ex-Governor Drew, Jackson-
ville ; First National Bank, Tampa, andHon.
John T. Lesley, Tampa
Canada Hard-Wood Unleached
SCheapest fertilizer in use, and free from nox-
ious weeds. Supplied in car lots of 12 or more
tons. Guaranteed free of rubbish. Put up in
barrels. Price and analysis free on application.
Address CHAS STEVENS
Box 4W7 Napanee, Ontario, Caado.
KAFFIR CORN FOR SEED T"PORES,
AMBER CANE SEED,
CATTAIL, OR PURE MILLET,
JOHNSON GRASS, ETC.
Everything to Plant. Address
SO. SEED CO., Macon, Ga.
J: R. Ellis, President.
RED ROVER, WHIPPOORWILL AND CLAY
Send for treatise on Culture of Orange
C. S, L'E1NLE & CO.,
PRICES THE LOWEST.
C. S. L'ENGLE & CO.,
M AITLAND NURSERIES.
ALL VARIETIES OF
ORANGE AND LEMON TREES.,
Buds:not placed on small stocks, but on extra
large and fine ones.'
We make a specialty of the
---EARLY SPANISH RANGE- -
(the earliest variety known),
TOHITI LIMES and
VILLA FRANCA LEMONS,
and can show trees of the latter that stood the
cold last winter as well as the Orange, and
NOW HAVE FRUIT UPON THEM.
Send for Catalogue.
REDNEY & CAREY,
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. APRIL 27. 1887.
-~~~~ Cf grn
AN OLD, FARMER'S ADVICE.
Why Some Fail in Farming and
How All May Succeed.
BY W. P. HORNE.
I am often asked how it is that I always
make so much on my land with the
small amount of labor used in the culti-
vation of my place My answer is, I
feed my land the same as I do my horse.
The more I feed it the more I make
from it. Hungry land cannot make
anything, no more than a half starved
poor horse can. No man can make
money cultivating poor land, and almost
anybody can make good crops who has
rich land to cultivate. Therefore every
farmer should have good rich land to
make farming a success.
But some of your readers may say,.
the greater portion of the lands in Flor-
ida are naturally poor, and that every
one cannot get good land to cultivate.
It may be true that a great deal of our
lands are naturally too poor to make
good crops. But every man in Florida
can, if he will but go at it right, soon
have all the land he Should need to
cultivate made rich. If he does not it is
his own fault, and he is not worthy to
be called a farmer.
Right here is the trouble with nine-
tenths of the people who come to Flor-
ila and think that they can make a for-
tune by farming. A great many men
who never worked a day in their lives
on a farm, think, anyone can make
money by farming, if he only has a
thimbleful of brains. The time has
been in Florida, before our late unpleas-
antness, when a, strong arm and a will-
ing mind could make plenty of money-
though they might not have had sense
enough to go to Congress. But, my
brother farmer, that day is past and
new things have come to pass in the
farming world. The time has come
when a farmer has to put what few
brains he may have in his upper story to
work, or he may work himself to death,
if he does not step and think some as
well as work.
A man may study medicine for twenty
years and make a pretty fair doctor, and
learn how to kill a fellow pretty quick,
or to keep him sick long enough to get
a big bill out of him, so may a man
make a pretty good lawyer in twenty
years' practice, and learn just how to
size a client's pile and get all the poor
fellow has; but for a person to. make a
good and thorough farmer he should
have the very best education that this
country can give him, and he should
never quit school if he should live to be
one hundred years old, for lie never will
live long enough to stop learning some-
thing about old Mother Earth until she
puts him to bed at the last day.
Then how foolish it is for a man to
think that he can make a success of
something he never knew anything
about. Hence, the many failures in
farming. To make it a success a person
has got to learn something about it
I find that the greatest mistake with
most farmers is, that they will not read
so as to get other peoples' ideas-no one
man can learn everything by himself,
let him be ever so smart. I have picked
up some good things, which were good
and useful, even from the ignorant old
negroes. We have got to study every-
thing as we go along, learn a little here
and a little there, and then put it all to-
gether and see if it will work. Let me
say that I have made farming my entire
study for forty years, and now I find
that I know but very little about it.
Then new begigners need not think they
are going to learn it all in two or three
years. You have got to have as much
energy as an ant. If you fail once, try
again, and keep trying as long as you
My advice to all new beginners is to
read and learn, see what other farmers
are doing in other parts of the world,
see where your produce is worth most,
and keep yourselves posted all the
time. Qet out of the old ruts your
fathers trod. Their old paths have be-
come sandy and boggy and you cannot
get along fast enough in them in these
fast times of railroads and telegraphs.
My friends, I have learned to quit trav-
eling a road when it gets too sandy, and
everybody else travels it. Make a better
and nearer route to town and go that
way while it is hard and firm. Have
more than one string to your bow, and
when your bow gets a little old and
somebody else wants it, let him have it,
and get a new one. Never look back or
griex e over spilt milk. There is an old
sak ing, "There is luck if you fight a
Well, Mr. Editor, I guess this will last
your readers until next week. I will
then tell the farmers how I. make my
home-made fertilizer, and right there,
in this big pile of manure, is the secret
of successful farming. The good book
says, you must be born again to ever see
the happy land, so with that big manure
pile, you must have it or you are sure to
get left in farming in Florida. With it
you can live like a king.
PEACH HILL NURSERIES,
GLEN ST. MARY, Baker Co., Fla.
Prevention of Tobacco Worms,
Here is a valuable suggestion by ar
S old Tobacco-raiser, endorsed by Mr
Greer, and made public by the Lake Cit1
In any old fields can be found ths
Stramonium, commonly known ai
Jamestown or "Jimpson" weed. It is a
good plan to put one of these plants ir
every tenth "check." The fly produc-
ing the tobacco worm is fond of th(
bloom, and by dropping a little poison
such as London purple or Paris green
into the flower, the fly will be destroyed
By this means the work will be great.3
lightened, and we are informed thai
one hand can cultivate ten acres, where
as without this plan, he could only tend
five. We recommend and urge our
farmers to remember this. The stram- I
onium should be transplanted with the p
PRACTICE VERSUS THEORY.
The class of Fertilizers Which a
Pay best in the Long Run.
Prof. F. E. Sulley, of the Mississippi
Agricultural College, in writing to the
Southern Cultivator, states his views
on Agricultural methods as follows.
From my study of this question I have
about come to the following conclu-
sions, radical as they may seem:
1. That intensive farming as ge.er-
ally recommended for our worn lands,
is a fallacy.
2., That the attempt to keep up and
restore the fertility of these lands by the
use of commercial or chemical ferti izers
alone, will end in failure.
3. That relying on composts of chemi-
cal fertilizers with the refuse matter of
the farm will only retard, but not ward
off the result that will follow the use of
chemical fertilizers alone.
4. That the adoption of Furman's
formula or any similar scheme of com-
pounding and applying fertilizers gener-
ally to grow our staple crops would
bankrupt four-fifths of the farmers who
attempt it, if that is the only means
used to supply plant food. Of course, I
understand that soil may be made richer
and more productive by the applica-
tion of the chemical constituents of the
plant in sufficient quantity, and that a
barren, coarse sand may be treated in
this way and made to produce a most
What I mean is that the methods of
soil improvement referred to cannot be
made profitable in the long-run by the
average farmer on the worn and washed
lands of the Gulf States, or at least in"
this State, with which I am somewhat
I do not question the success of Mr.
Furman or of David Dickson in the
systems they practiced-such men
succeed in almost anything they under-
take, but I doubt the ability of the aver-
age farmer to grow cotton or the other
crops on worn lands and sell these crops
at the -prices that must prevail from
now on, and rely on chemicals and com-
posts to keep up the fertility of his soil
and make a living profit. I understand
intensive farming, as generally advocat-
ed, means doing a large amount of work
on and applying large quantities of fer-
tilizer to a small area, producing there-
by a large crop, and assuming that be-
cause the yield is large the crop will be
grown at a profit.
In the work at this college during the
six years that it has been in operation,
is a large tract of land, of which not
more than one-tenth could be rented to
croppers when it was turned over to the
college authorities. We have never made
or applied a load of compost, and we
have used almost no commercial fertiliz-
ers, leaving out experiments, until the
past year, yet our sales last year
amounted to over $5,000. Instead of
intensive farming we are trying to make
at least 100 acres .productive for each
hand and pair of mules.
Aside from the work at the college,
the writer had sufficient faith in the
system of farming to invest in a 400 acre
tract at $4.00 per acre, and with his own
capital, not as an experiment, but for
the money thought there might be in it.
On this place 240 acres are producing
something, and two hands and one span
of mules comprise the working force. I
mention this simply to show that I
practice what I preach.
I am by no means an advocate of poor
farming, as I expect to invest $150 in
tile for drainage during the year, if the
tile contracted for are made, and I be-
lieve in thorough cultivation.
S- The fact that we have large areas of
cheap land seems tome to call for some
method by which tLis land can be prof-
itably.utilized, and instead of lessening
the number of acres to the hand from
which a crop is secured I would increase
Allow me to ask, if the men who have
used large quantities of concentrated
fertilizers and compost on the Georgia
farms for the past ten years have im-
proved the fertility of their lands and
* made a profit on the business? Are they
free from debt and adding to their capi
r tal ih the way of permanent improve-
t ments or a bank account?
S I do not refer to large crops or in-
crease in yield or success of individual's,
1 but to the average success of a consider-
able number who have been testing this
method on-a large scale for several years
in the growing of our staple crops.
t Why Some Fail with Ensilage.
I Some parties have failed to find ensi-
lage a success because they. have had
imperfectly constructed silos, and they
Sbli me the silo for what in fact is due
their own ignorance and shiftless man-
a agement. Some have failed because
a they have cut the forage when too
young and immature, and thus did not
t succeed in securing that nutrient value
in the plant that they expected.
Some have failed because they failed
to put sufficient weight on the silo when
the process of filling had been completed.
Then they of course abused the silo as
S Some have failed of success because
They did not sufficiently tramp the green
stuff solidly about the walls and in the
S Some have failed to secure good and
s satisfactory results because they have
Attempted to secure a good yield of
Smilk and butter and beef by feeding
- ensilage alone, and that too from plants
e that were inferior in chemical as well
, as practical feeding value. The silo
, neither adds to, nor takes away (to any
. perceptible extent), any part of the
Actual nutrient properties of a plant,
'but does add to the value of the same
- overdry feed, only as itis more palatable,
I more succulent and thus more digestible,
which enables the animal to eat it with
less expense to the energies that are em-
ployed in masticating and digesting food.
The ensilage being more succulent, i
when fed in combination with dry
food, adds value to the dry.
The ensilage system of preserving
food is all right--and its great value as
stock food is all right, art the stock-
man who will consent to give it a square
honest trial, will ever become its best
friend.- So. Live Stock Journal.
A correspondent of the Tribune, gives
the following facts about drilling in
corn and his methods of cultivation:
By drilling three feet apart we get sev-
enty two rows with 216 growing stalks.
or 16,552 plants-a gain of 6.888 stalks.
an amount which means growing corn
at a profit, other things being equal. In
drills half of the marking is saved, and
if the soil was well prepared and picked
up free from trash, the light harrow can
be used to great advantage in cultivat-
ing the corn crop. It is much easier to
go over a corn field with a light drag,
with ten foot sweep, making the soil
still finer and killing weeds by the mil-
lion, born and unborn, and then when
time comes to use the cultivator the soil
is like an ashheap for mellowness, and I
fast work is possible with very little rol- I
ling clods upon the corn.
Perhaps we need a corn cultivator
which will do good work the most of
anything. We have all sorts of cultiva-
tors that go down and dig and throw up
the soil-and cut off corn roots-but the
close working corn cultivator that does
not go deep, but does do thorough work
and leaves the ground smooth behind it,
is a rare tool. The big-shoveled cultiva-
tors leave the soil in one or two ridges ;
that duties it out unduly fast, whidh is a
serious matter in diry weather. I have
a two horse six shovel cultivator, a fine
machine of its kind, that does excellent
ridge work, but as a level disturber was
not equal to the demands made upon it
by later ideas of a fine but smoothly left
soil. To remedy this, part of the shovels
were removed and spring harrow teeth
fastened in their places, and so set that
all traces of ridges were obliterated and
the ground left almost ideally fine, and
smooth. At the beginning we need tools
that will thoroughly prepare the corn
land, and then see that the soil is put in
No. 1 condition. Then we may plant
nearer, cultivate closer, and get far bet-
To show that corn may be grown profit-
ably in Louisiana we give the follow-
ing figures : Mr. E. F. Herwig reports
planting twelve acres in corn, May 15,
from which a heavy crop of oats had
been harvested. The yield was 578 bar-
rels of 1I bushels each, not taking into
consideration roasting ears used by the
family,or at the rate of 59.10 bushels per
acre. And this in this farm-a pine
Mr. H. V. Brown, Providence, St.
Charles parish, La., from 160 acres, 4,275
bushels, or 26i bushels per acre.
The writer has harvest. d from eight
acres of so called poor land in Tangipa-
hoa parish forty-eight barre's of a bushel
and a quatrer each per acre, or at the
rate of sixty bushels. The corn was
planted in drills in the water furrow,
fertilized with 'Stern's superphosphate,
applied to each hill at the rate of- 300
pounds per acre. It was cultivated three
times and laid by on a perfect level.
Afterwards a crop of peas was sown
broadcast, thus giving a big crop of corn
and a crop of areas for fertilizer. Com-
ment is unnecessary.
A South Carolina farmer, writing to
Home and Farm, says:
If your land is pretty level and free
from stumps, you cannot do a better
thing than check your cotton. Some
of the big guns around me have argued
that if I were to give 'my cotton distance
in the row and drill it in, my cotton
would make more; so, to satisfy myself,
these last two years I have drilled in my
cotton, and have failed to come up to the
check cotton in yield, and the same land
and manure were used. As regards dis-
tance of checks, one must be guided by
the richness of the land, all the way
from three by three to four and a half
by three and a half. My plan is three
by three and a half, cultivated both
ways alternately with sweeps or culti-
Preparation of the land is a. crop half
made; check cotton will stand no slip-
shod fashion. I have never failed to
get a good stand; of course, there are
drawbacks to checking; it is a good bit
of trouble to do the thing in the righ t
style, and you must not trust niggers,es-
pecially to the chopping and thinning out
processes. They are lost in check cotton;
but the advantages are offset by increas-
ed yield, large bolls, fair lint, and last,
but not least, you can control the grass.
Yes, I am, and always will be, a firm
believer in check cotton, and will back
it, when done and attended to right, to
beat drill cotton all the time; and I con-
tend that it is possible, with improved
cultivators, to 'grow cotton without a
hoe being used at all. And when some
of our enterprising machinery manufac-
turers can give us wire check-rower to
drop seed in checks, we shall overcome
one of the most troublesome processes.
In the healing of burns and scalds,
where there is danger of contracting
scars, rub the newjskin several times a
day with good sweet oil. Persist in this
rubbing until the skin is soft and flexible.
"I thought you were a vegetarian, and
now I see you eating mutton." "Well, I
am only an indirect vegetarian ; I eat
the flesh-of such animals only as live an
After the clerk had pulled down
everything in the store without satisfy-
ing'his customer, a woman, she asked
him if there was anything else he had
not shown her. "Yes, ma'am," he said,
"the cellar ; but if you wish it I will
have that brought up and shown to
A Promising Industry. I
Having several inquiries in regard to
castor bean culture, we will give such
information as is at present at our com-
mand. We are not aware that the crop
has been tested in this State sufficiently
to warrant a conclusion as to its profita- h
bleness. We would like to see a quarter t
of an acre of ground planted with it ]
after the manner of corn, and to have d
the development of the crop and the at- 0
tendant expenses carefully noted.
Colonel Codrington, formerly of the f
Agriculturist, expressed the opinion that f
hand-picking could not be afforded,
even with labor hired at 25 cents a day. t
Doubtless this is so, and we would not v
favor the culture of the plant as a pe-
rennial. Unless there be an exception- e
ally severe freeze to cut it down, the s
plant will attain the dimensions of a i
small tree and the seeds will have to be
reached by ladder. There was at Mait- v
land a few years ago a plant thirty feet s
high and nearly a foot in diameter, and
in Jacksonville we used to see castor d
bean plants which resembled ordinary f
fig trees. a
The best plan of culture, no doubt, is
to treat it like corn, allowing it but one t
year's growth, and at the end of the sea- c
son return all the rank stem and leaf r
growth to the soil. The variety with
green leaves and stems and yellow flow- r
ers are said to afford much more oil than
those of a purplish hue. We do not C
know where the seeds can be obtainedin c
quantity. It is rather late now for
planting; still, after so dry and cool a
spring, it may do as well planted now as
How They are Grown, Har-
vested and Marketed.
In continuance of the above subject
we quote the following, from an article a
which appeared some time ago in the
Florida Weekly Times: s
The seeds should be planted at the
same time as corn to ensure the greatest
yield of seeds, as the plants are con-
stantly producing new flower panicles
after it reaches maturity. Butone plant
should be allowed to grow in the hill,
and the distance apart will depend upon
the length of the life of the plant.
In the northern counties a very good
distance might be secured by marking
the rows sixty-six inches and planting
the hills four feet in the rows, thus giv-
ing 2,000 plants to the acre. The soil
should be dry corn or orange land, and
such as might give ten bushels of corn
to the acre. Culture should be flat and
clean until the plants are two feet high,
after which they will completely shade
the ground and smother grass and other
growths. To insure a full stand of
plants it is advisable to plant three seeds
in the hill, thus requiring 6,000 seeds for
K In Southern Illinois, Missouri and
Kansas-the plants are grown at the rate
of 2,500 to the acre on land that would
yield forty bushels of corn, and give from
ten to fifteen bushels for their crop; but
there each plant seldom ripens over six
branches before the frost kills it. In all
parts of Florida four to six times as
many panicles might be expected to
ripen before frost.
The harvest is done by passing through
the rows, and with a pair of pruning
shears, cutting off the panicles that show
signs of drying, and carrying them out
in baskets. The seeds should shell them-
selves, if they are placed in a bin where
they will receive the full force of the
sun's rays during the day, but protected
from all rain and dew. A wooden floor
will prevent moisture from rising from
the ground. It is advisable to turn over
the mass often to bring all in contact
with the sun. After they commence
ripening, the field must be looked over
every week or ten days. Twenty to
forty bushels per acre might be expected
as a fair yield in the northern counties
and double that amount in the southern.
Forly pounds is a bushel, and $1.50 a
fair minimum price at the factory, and
sometimes $83 is realized.
From the large quantity of leaves and
stems that will fall from the plants and
'he facility with which the stems and
roots will decompose without the aid of
fire, it is presumable that castor beans
may be considered a fertilizer rather
than an exhaustive crop.
The necessary machinery and build-
ings for expressing and preparing the oil
for market will cost at least $12,000, and
an additional capital of $8,000 or $10,-
000 more would be required to run it for
one year, or until the product can be
sold. Such a factory might use from
500,000 to 1,000,000 bushels of beans in a
year, or more than is likely to be raised
in this State during the many years to
come. There are but three establish-
ments for expressing the oil in the
United States-St. Louis, San Francisco
and New York. The two first obtain
their beans from their neighborhoods,
but the supply is insufficient. The New
York factory obtains beans from Ceylon,
and import as high as 500,000 bushels
yearly. Onb factory could take all the
beans that are likely to be raised in the
Without a home factory the seed
would have to be shipped to New York
or St Louis, but if it be proved that
they can be produced profitably at the
market price, there will soon be provis-
ion for its sale and manufacture within
the State. As the plant grows spontan-
eously in this State, and as. a larger crop
can be obtained here than in other States,
we believe castor bean culture in Florida
will prove to be a profitable industry.
We would here remind our readers
that the whole bean 'should never be
used medicinally, as it contains, beside
the oil, a poisonous element. The castor
oil capsules sold by druggists derive their
"strength" from an admixture of croton
oil. They are drastic and highly ob-
jectionable. The pure oil can be taken
.without tasting it by rinsing the mouth
before and after with vinegar and then
chewing a kernel of coffee.
A. H. C.
BENEFITS OF TILE DRAINAGE.
'he Forty and One Advantages
of Effectual Drainage.
The Sugar Bowl and Farm Journal
as evidently exhausted the subject in
he following enumeration of the bene-
its arising from thorough underground
drainage; at any rate we shall not rack
our brain for a forty-second benefit: .
1. It secures the drainage of the soil.
)pen ditches do so, but in part, readily
reeing only the surface from water.
2. It deepens the surface soil, permit-
ing roots to penetrate to the depth at
which the tiles are laid. I
3.- It insures against the ill effects of
ven very severe droughts with the|
ame certainty as against those of flood-i
4. It permits of cultivation at times
when, after moderate rains', the best of
surface drainage would not.
5. It permits of cultivation one to three
lays sooner than the most perfect sur-
ace drainage possible to our sugar lands
after flooding rains.
6. It raises the average soil tempera-
ure several degrees and renders the
crop from two to three weeks earlier in
teaching a stand.
7. It hastens the time at which crops
nay be.laid by.
8. It renders harmless frosts, which,
in open drained lands, destroy crops by
9. It causes the soil to retain from one-
half to three-fourths of such fertilizing
elements as, artificially applied, would
be carried off by flooding rains from sur-
face drained lands.
10. It prevents altogether the washing
off of the rich, loose surface soil in open
11. It renders more immediately avail-
ible unassimilative manurial elements
pre-existing in the soil.
12. It catches and retains a large
amount of fertilizing material brought
down by rain to be lost to the soil in
13. Other things equal, it actually
renders the soil more and more pro-
ductive, year by year, for the first 10 to
14. It tends to a rapid increase of hu-
mus in the soil.
15. It renders cultivation more easy
and hence more cheap.
16. It exterminates all so-called water
17. It does away altogether with open
ditches (except canals) and the great
expense of spading and cleaning these.
18. It does away with all bridges and
the expenses attending their mainten-
19. It does away with ditch-bank
cleaning and the heavy expense of this.
20. It does away with the cross-drain
nuisance and the cost of plowing and
shoveling these behind each cultivating
21. It prevents the necessity of work-
ing in mud to let the water off the crop
after flooding rains.
22. It puts an end to flooding rains.
28. ~It increases the net land under
the plow by the closure of all open
ditches and drains except canals.
24. It permits flat culture, as requisite
,to cane as to any other American crop.
25. It effects favorably all known
crops in approximately equal degree,
except as irrigated (rice, etc.), viz: with
us cane, corn, sorghum, oats, pea-vines
and garden truck.-
26. It permits the satisfactory employ-
ment of steam plows.
27. It renders sub-soiling unnecessary
to any but the very highest attain-
28. It renders the plowing down of
turn rows and headlands free from all
29. It increases the crop from 50 tc
even 100 per cent.
80. It causes crops to reach earlier and
more complete maturity, lenghtening
the harvest as well as the cultivating
season, at once increasing the saccha-
rine contents and co-efficient of purity in
sorgho, ribbon and other sugar canes,
It has actually doubled the sugar yield
the first season at the sugar experiment
31. It insures profitable stubble on
ands and during seasons which would
fail on surface drained areas.
32. It insures against loss of fall-
planted canes, by reason of weather wet,
dry br cold.
88. It prevents, in great measure, the
falling and blowing down of crops, sucl
34. It insures against the loss of seec
from all ordinary causes.
85. It insures a full crop from fal
planted oats, from good seed.
36. It insures almost to a certaintY
against the misfortune of "getting int(
87. It overcomes in great part.scarcitj
of labor by rendering necessary far fewe:
laborers, for given areas.
38. It prevents the rapid filling o
canals with silt.
39. It does not fill back caxials wit]
water and overflow crops on back lands
after sudden and excessive rains, before,
the power drainage machinery can bh
put in motion.
40. It permits hauling crops with cart
in wet seasons, which would either b
partially-lost or saved at a cost exceed
ing its worth, on surface drained lands
41. It contributes in high degree t
health of man and beast. Ague am
charbon are unknown in sections which]
have been generally tiled for. several
To secure all these and moral beside i
is necessary only:
1. That the tiles be properly laid.
2. That their outlets be kept clear.
3. That their outlets be closed against
4. That the woody roots of exogenou
perennials be not permitted to reac
A pleasant remedy fora cough is lem
on honey. It is made of the juice (
three lemons, one pound of sugar, quarter
of a pound of butter and six eggs. Th
mixture is boiled and taken hot.
DEVOTED TO THE
This journal will have for its leadingeobject
the promotion of rural industries in Florida, and
will advocate especially a more diversified and
intensive system of agriculture and greater
economy of home resources. .
Assuming that the agricultural adaptations of -
a large portion of Florida are. as yet but imper-
fectly understood, a special aim of this journal
will be to describe the best results which have
been accomplished, with the exact methods em-
ployed, and all influences affecting such results;
also to suggest experiment, describe new or little
known crops, fruits, etc., and record the progress
of agriculture in neighboring States.
Commencing with the first number and con-
tinuing through the season for
Thern will be a series of articles on fruits-other
than tho e of tho citrus group-which have
prov most successful in this State. Each va-
riety Wll be described and
n And- there will be notes from persons who have
had experience in its cultivation. This will be
followed by a similar series on
And other subjects will be illustrated to a limits
Much attention will be devoted to
f Live Stock -.
And to the home production of forage and fertili
Szers, two economies which are essential to sue
Questions relative to ailments of domestic
animals will be answered by an able veterinary
9 surgeon who formerly edited a like department
Turf, Field and Farm.
A due amount of space will be devoted
household economy and to reports of the ma
d kets, and the departments of
will be contributed to by persons who have made
specialties of those branches.
S All portions of the State will receive a due
amount of attention, and their interests will be
Y represented by able correspondents.
r Under no circumstances will this journal be-
come the "organ" of any association or locality.
f It will start out untrammelled and will repre-
sent all sections and interests with absolute im-
s Published at Jacksonville on Wednesday,
e of each week.
d PRICE OF SUBSCRIPTION:
l One Year 1200
Six Months 100
it Three Months 50
SPECIMEN COPIES FREE.
Address subscriptions and other business com.-
Ls munications to
h C. H. JONES & BRO.,
L- Communications for the editorial department
f should be addressed to
e A. H. CURTISS, Editor,
The Florida Farmer an Frnit Grower. ex
A. IJ. CURTISS, Editor. saw
C. H. JONES & BROTHER, PUBLISHERS. an
Office Cor. Bay and Laura Sts.
THE FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER Is an eight page48 column illustra-
ted weekly newspaper, devoted to the Farm,
Garden, Orchard and Household Economy.
and to the promotion of the agricultural and
I industrial interests of Florida. It is published
Terms of Subscription.
For one year........... $ 2.00
For six months 1.00
Clubs of five to one address ...... ........ ..... 7.50
Qith daily TIMES-UNION, one year...... 11.00
With daliy TIMES-UNION, six months 6.00
With WEEKEiY TIMES, one year ...... 2.75
.*-Subscriptlons In all cases cash in ad-
vance, and no paper continued after the
expiration of the time paid for. The date on
the printed label with which the papers are
addressed is the date to which the subscrip-
tion is paid and is equivalent to a receipt for
payment to that "date; if the date is not
changed Immediately after a new payment,
the subscriber will please notify us at once.
CORRESPONDENCE solicited on all sub-
jects pertaining to the topics dealt with in
this paper. Writers may afix such signatures
to their articles as they may choose, but must
furnish the editor with their full name and
address, not for publication but as a guarantee
of good faith. Rejected communications can-
not be returned.
ADVERTISEMENTS inserted to a limited
extent.. Rates furnished on application.
REMITTANCES should be made by Check
Postal Note Money Order, or Registered
Letter, to order of
C. H. JONES & BRO.,
TABLE OF CONTENTST.
FIRST PAGE-Leon County Vineyards; Artificial
Fertilization; Hybridizing the Grape (Illus-
trated); Palmetto Fibre; Teosinte in Monroe
County; Lespedeza; The Elberta Peach; The
Linn or Basswood (Illustrated); Honey-Dew;
Checking Growth in Plants; Melitensis Or-
ange; Orange Wine" etc.
SEcOND PA.G-Notes on Cattley Guava; Experi-
ences With Nurserymen; Wine Harvest of
: France: Bermuda Onions; Formnulas for Fer-
tilizers; Fine Rye in South Florida; An Un-
favorableSpring; The Monthly Pelargoniums;
Ashes as Mantire, eto.
STHIRDm PAG-An Old Farmer's Advice; A Pre-
ventive of lobocco Worms; Practice Versus
Theory; Why Some Fail with Ensilage; Drill-
ing Corn; Check Cotton; A Promnising Indus-
try; Castor Beans; Profits of Tile Drainage.
*FouRT PAGE (Editorial)-Notable Articles;
Florida's Agricultural Department; Local
Option Fence Law; Fighting Fire by Legisla-
tion; An Agricultural Bill; Floating Into
FIFTH PAGE-(Edited by Helen Harcourt); Our
Home Circle; Cosy Corner; The Family Friend;
Our Young Folk's Corner.
SIXTH PAGE-Veterinary Advice; Scientific
Horse Shoeing; Sheep Husbrndry for Florida;
SManagement of Geese; -Incubators; Poultry
SEVENMTH PAGE-Farm Miscellany (Illustrated);
Serial Story, "For Honor's Sake," t Far-
EIGHTH PAGE-State News in Brief:. The Ten
SThousand Islands; Letter from Marco; Sub-
Sd e position; Manatee River Farmers'
S Club;. May Weather; Reports of the New York
and Jacksonville Markets.
A subject which has been badly neg-
Slected in our columns is well introduced
in this'issue by Judge Knapp in his able
article on Sheep Husbandry for Florida.
We. are. expecting articles on the same
subject from persons in Western and
Southern Florida. We intend to express
our own views on this subject and also
on the question of a dog law in the next
We have surrendered much space to
the Virginia Agricultural Bill, believing
that' it contains some points which
should be considered in the framing of
an agricultural bill for adoption by the
Florida Legislature. We have not fully
considered its applicability to a State
like Florida, but it is evident that such
a bill carried out according to its letter
and spirit would have a great deal of
vitality and would be well calculated to
stimulate, encourage and directly assist
the farmers of the State.
Pro Bono Publico presents the subject
of forest-fire legislation in a manner cal-
culated to convince practical men of its
futility. Legislating against wild fire
reminds us of Canute's command to the
sea, "Let thy wild waves be still." We
do not see how legislation could reach
this subject except, by obliging railroad
managers to place 'spark arresters on
STATE AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT.
We trust that those of our agricultur-
ists who have influence with the Legis-
lature will give their best services to
certain measures while such such ser-
vices can avail anything. Foremost
among those measures is the organiza-
tion of a Department of Agriculture.
This Department should represent the
progressive spirit of agriculture, espe-
cially as manifested in tbe State itself.
It should be enlinently co-operative, ob-
serving closely what is going on among
the farmers, giving to all the benefit of
its observations, guiding, aiding and pro-
From an exchange we learn that
"The Agricultural Department of South
Carolina, last year sent out tobacco seed
free to farmers in that State and offered
prizes for yield and quality of crop. An
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. APRIL 27, 1887.
ert from Virginia awarded the prizes of breed is a thing hardly considered, fire-line was of avail. Alas for the the sale thereof, said sum to be placed to culture, secretary of the State Agricul-
d says the tobacco is 'as fine as he ever Their value comes to be estimated by fences alas for the grove heyondl alack the credit of the treasurer of the State 'tural Society, the secretary of the State-
Ssand cannt bacco .sass Itn is numbrT er rathe to q y Imand alas for the hundreds of tons of Board of Agriculture, to be paid out, as Farmers' Assembly, the secretary of the
Sand cannot be surpassed.' It is number, rather than quality. Improve- "fertilizing material," all vanished "into hereinafter directed, on the warrants of *State Pomological Societyr, and one
ught now that tobacco will become ment in quality involves direct, outlay the saccharine subsequentlyI" Therail- said treasurer, countersigned by the member from each of the three grand.
important crop in South Carolina." for expensive animals, and the average splitters whetted their axes and advanced president of the board.I divisions of the State-viz: Tidewater,
n Pennsylvania and Wisconsin far- cattleman cannot easily be brought to prices fifty cents a hundred rails. The Fifth. Of the said sum there shall be Piedmont and the Valley of Virginia,-
: Pennsylvania and Wisconsin far- scattleman cannot easily be brought to range tre sprouted slowly, the big annually applied by the Commissioner 'including Southwest Virginia-whose
rs' institutes are held at the public ex- see the ultimate advantage of such policy pines shed their scorched limbs and of Agriculture the sum of $15,000, duty it shall be to canvass the State in
se and are said to be productive of to his individual interests. He prefers leaves, the little trees gave up the ghost, together with such surplus, if any shall the interest of such bill as shall be
ach good. to realize what he can on the best ani- I was wispr-and badly burned. Never remain over and above the payment of adopted by this Assembly, and who shall
The Georgia Agricultural Depatment meals culled from his grazing thousands, thought of the Legislature! the sums hereinafter appropriated for report to the next session of the Farm-
largiclyrand DepathmeCoin-ndt o leaA good friend, high in office in another the promotion of the objects mentioned, ers' Assembly.
tributes seeds largely, and the Com- and to leave their increase& to nature, county, became elate at the prospect of for the purposes mentioned in the Act of
ssioner has recently issued a second Nature insures an increase of numbers, cheap fertilizing, and so set out a grove in Assembly approved March 29, 1877, FLOATING INTO DREAMLAND.
rtilizer Bulletin containing the anal- and also, under such a system of selec- the wire-grass. By great good fortune chapter 249, entitled "An Act to establish
es of over two hundred bands of corn- tion, degeneracy as to weight and quality a year or so passed without loss. One anDepartmentourinf Agriculture, Miningd softHalcyo air. daySsunlBright fadesun; to learsightky;
evil day, a wile away, an old dead pine and Manufacturing for the State," and soft air. As sunlight fades to twilight,
srcial fertilizers. In Virginia it is pro- of meat. caught fire. The wind arose, an hour acts amendatory thereof, establishing a and twilight deepens into starlight the
sed that the Department shall give Cattle, swine or other imppoved ani- passed by-where was the fence, the Bureau of Imnigration, and for such mellowing, delicious, soothing air like
ect assistance to agricultural fairs. mals, when allowed to live in a state of pretty grove, the tons of grass? "Ashes other purposes as are specified in this music, seems to floatd one ohff ntio dream-
The efficiency of Flonida's new De- nature, inevitably revert to their original to ashes, dust to dust," and my friendfAct, and not otherwise speciallytprovidedn'land. Youth and Beauty hold high car-
learned a lesson-yet he was in the Leg- for. nival at broad noon; the outlines of the
rtment will depend largely on the condition, and become scarcely fit for islaturethat same year Sixth. Out of the said sum there gorgeous pageant dimming and chang-
)visions of the bill, and it: is to be man's use. If we adopt that policy we Another good farmer had about 200 shall be annually paid to the agricultural Mg with the declining sun, sof en into
ped that they will be so wise and fib- progress backward. Through the adop- acres of old rough, likewise a little societies and associations belonging to romance and sentiment, and enchant-
li that under their operation the tion of that policy Florida has become stump-tai!ed, breechy bull. Wearied out the Department of Agriculture, the sum meant as .vening..asses-into night.
by the beast, one day he ordered his son of $20,000, to be distributed among these ss,anu; te ganrdoneynsfull oefxery-
ture Department will become a power encumbered with vast herds of cattle, to shoot at the bull with pellets of rosin, societies and associations rateablymin
the land' whose flesh is scarcely fit for food, and The boy obeyed. The .blazing bull made proportion to the amount of premiums whose t perfumes the air; and
..... t r mi~ms WhOodlands are deckued wthe wil;ad
the land.. ..~r"- l"s.l -isc aid b ach soce se woosns a e e
If it be so organized that the office of with droves of bony, slab-sided creatures, for the rough. The old man saw he had offered and actually paid by each sitY flowers. Coming hther" for the first
,mmissioner will prove a sinecure, not deserving the name of hogs. made a mistake when the fences, crops or association the preceding year; andfw.C.i"t.. ...
misioner will prove a sinecure, not deserving the name of hogs. and the bull were cremated, and never in ascertaining the amount of premiums time in glorious spring can we wonder
"'. ...... ." premiu"ms, the called it ''he Land of Flowers?"
rely a snug berth for an office-seeker, We think the retrograde or pulling- again allowed thegrass to grow in front speca premms oere y private i th .ao o r
will do the State more harm than down policy has been carried about as of his house. Why did he not think of -individuals through the society or asso- Breathing thioft, balmy,oothig air,
od. far as it can be in Florida and the South "legal" suasion? cation shall not be estimated; provided, d in all the o accident, can we
o. .... ...llnotbeesimte; rovide od ertesuhmngorcytl "
One year was very dry, and Farmer however, that in estimating the premi- wonder the sought among our crystal
S. generally, and that the time has come T., in Marion county, had 'a big tract of ums wbich regulate the distribution- s g t he mountain of Youth?" At:
LOCAL OPTION FENCE LAW. .to face about and commence building old grass that he was keeping. The military premiums or trials of speedWe spring is me
up. But let us not talkof building with- lightning struck a dead pine, the rough shall not be included-and that.the sums into summer-in such a land Ours ow
The system of fencing out stock bears out a foundation. It is but mockery to caught, the out houses, fences and crops thus paid shall be used exclusively for fair Florida! Brothers of the Pre ss we
out the same relation to the system of preach "advanced agriculture" to our were swept by a .'besom" of fire The the payment of premiums awarded by stand and- raise high our glass "to
out the same relation to the system of preach "advanced agriculture" to our old man lost his mind and took to the said societies or associations; and pro Youth and Beauty-Floida Dis-
ncing in that the feudal system of people while they h ive to contend with woods, and was not found for several vided, further, that no society or associ- patch. '
vernment bears to government by the laws fit only for nomads. The farmers dayF. action shall receive from said fund a sum It would appear from the above that
ople's representatives. The feudal of Florida ask the Legislature to give A week or so ago a new-comer from exceeding one-third of the amount the editor of the Dispatch has fallen un-
stem was adapted to the Dark Ages, them new fundamental laws to build Indiana lost his home and all it contained actually collected and expended for der- the spell- of wine Sr beauty,- or of-
dthefenytem ia s adapted to un D s the y ew at fdaentral lasu uiso by a forest fire that began miles away. premiums at .its last preceding annual t ot d
d the fencing out system is adapted to upon. They want a central supervision Still, "those who favor or tolerate the fair. A detailed statement of the amount both. Something is in the wind and we
people whose chief interest centres in of their interests at the State capital; practice of firing cannot have any con- thus collected and expended for prem:- shall await.developments with some de-
e pasturage of large flocks and herds, they want protection from the fertilizer ception of the damage done." 0, no! urns shall be furnished the State Board gree of curiosity. By the way, we claim
i within a comparatively recent pe- sharks, One of our best farmers near me gets by the treasurers of each of said societies to be specially skilled in wine ,analysis.
il within a comparatively recent pe- sharks, and from the extortions of "tired" when he hears that, and thinks or associations, such statement to be e g o f
Dd, the peninsula of Florida could serve portation companies; and last, but not of the day when a big rough only made verified by the oath of the treasurer of andwe generously offer,-for the sale of
Better purpose than to afford a hunt- least, they want a law which shall en-, him bear the cost of 10,000 new rails, each society or association, countersigned encouraging home industry, to give any
g ground for tribes of savages, but courage farming by removing the bur- He was saving that heavy grass land for by its president, and delivered to the sample sent us-of not less than a gal-
n the white ma demanded posses ns the "tons of fertilizer." It was an old secretary of the State Board on or before Ion-a thorough examination and to re-
en the white man demanded posses- den of extensive and expensive fencing in in his deadening, and the wind the first day of December of each year.
n, the inferior race vanished. So, a law which shall make the ownersof shifted and then-O, graciously He will Each society stall also be required to port on the same free of charge. Beauty,
while the lands of Florida are not want- swine liable for all damages committed be a candidate, if that will do any good. furnish a list of all premiums awarded also, is a thing whichh we are extremely
for agriculture, there is no objection by said animals, and another which shall But, bless you, dear souls, don't think at its last annual fair, either for animals, expect in criticising. But- we can give
using them for free pasturage; but if require each county to electwheth me in favor of that fire. I am only giv- implements, fruits, vegetables, cereals no thought in these directions till after
using them for free pasturage; but if require each county to elect whetherIng the facts& Can we legislate out of or other exhibits, giving the peculiar
ose lands are needed for legitimate cattle owners shall fence in their stock, existence the bad habits, dry grass, sappy excellence of the exhibit written by an the "Legislature adjourns. Till then.
riculture, the inferior industry should or require farmers to fence them out. pines, careless people and the fire from expert in such department, with the other subjects demand our attention.
t staid in the way. o- heaven? If we do not, I am afraid our name and address of each exhibitor. .
hat the two interests are antagonistic FOREST FIRE LEGISLATION. new brethren will have to plow big fire- Any agricultural society or association Hints to Correspondents.
That the two interests are antags FOREST FIRE LEGISLATION lines .and occasionally fight fire-and which shall make any false or fraudulent p. : v .
a parent fact, and one that h as been call in vain upon the law-makers, return of the amount of its capital as T'he readers of the FLORIDA FAMR
oved so by innumerable hard experi- Some of the Results of Putting Still, there's no telling what a Florida defined by the first section of this Act, AND FRu'. -GROWR are respectfully in.
Legilatue ca do.or o th amont atualy Colevtdta d tocontribaute to its columns articles
ces. The inevitable antagonism be- a-Theory Into Practice. Legislature can do. or ofthe amount actually collected d a noteton tiu tos c a pertaining to
eenPRO BONo PUBLICO. expended in premiums, shall be deprived an nes aln b.c hcs pxetan ig ohu
Aeen the cattlemen and farmers has Edor Flrda ilarner and_.~uiG-ower: ARCHER, Fla., April 14. 1887. of membership in, the Department of the farm gd oh and hue-
ren rise to a great amount of wrang- For many years I have been interested, Agriculture, and shall be debarred from .hold affairs. The .ange of topics- hich
3g and litigation, and to organized op- and wital amused, reading in our a- AGRICULTRAL BILL. the rigbt'and from will be discussed in this journal mav be
sition, in some cases, to the law.pers the articles on forest fires, usually ___-, such membership, for such' time as gathered from tbe subjoined table, whtiich
sition, some cases, to the law written by dwellers on city lotsxor new- e Board ofrDiretors shalldirect; but no my serve to suggest what might Oter-
the land, not by employing vi-comers without experience in the wire Prepared for Presentation to such expulsion shall take place except at wise escape attention:
nce, but by working quietly inconibi- grass and-piney woods.
tion These gntle critics are some s nhate the Legislature of Virginia. a regular annual meeting of the State FARM MANAGEMENT..
ion.e n c s s h v- v .Board of Agriculture, and after thirty Clearing land, draining land, crops for.I"
The las of Florida which bear on this ih with adjectives, and regularly want We present below the full text of a days' notice to such offending member, new land, succession of crops, inte, sire
a this "the useless, destructive, insane burning bill adopted lately by the Farmers' As-
bject evidently were framed at a pe- of the forests stopped by the Legista- sembly of Virginia'to be presented to Seventh. The StAte Board. of Agri- farming, treatment of different soils,
)d when the population of the State ture." Easy to do, and thus "save the the next General Assembly of that State. culture shall meet annually in the city resting land, soiling vs. pasturing, cow
as extremely small, and when two tons of fertilizing material annually It is endorsed by the Commissioner of of Richmond for the transaction of busi- penning. green manuring.
taken from each acre." Only legislate, Agriculture for Virginia, and by leading hess, on the second Tuesday in January DOMESTIC ANIMALS.
and the thing is done. So! Let us have agricultural journals of that State, an in each year, but called meetings of said Horses, mules, cattle, hogs, sheep,
dered almost valueless. Such laws the facts, analyze, give some examples, its passage is confidently expected. We board may be had at-any time upon the poultry-Breeds, feed, diseases, truat-
ay have suited those times, but the moralize, and-the Legislature will stop solicit a careful consideration of its va- call of the Executive Committee. ment. "
irit of progress demands a change, the fires rious features. The provisions of the byEighth. aThere Bo shall be establishedSPECIAL FERTILIZERS.
ie farmers of theIt of ost of this State, where uncultivated, bill are as follows: b t S B
covered with a growth, more or less First. Be it enacted by the General experiment station at or near the Uni- Cotton seed, cotton seed meal, barn-
i present Legislature. The "inevitable dense, of wire-grass, wild oats and sand Assembly of Virginia, That there shall versity of Virginia, said station to be yard manure, guano, ground bone, siU-
nflict" of opposing interests demands spurs as a basis, with a sprinkling of be established a Department of Agricul- under the management of. a general per-phosphate, gypsum, lime, 'kainit,
e attention of the people's law-makers, dwarf shrubs and annual weeds, and ture for the State of Virginia, to be corn- director, to be appointed by the Board of ashes, marl, muck, leaf mould, com-
everywhere the pines that drop a ton or posed of representatives of all the agri- Visitors of the university, subject to the posts.
he Legislature can institute the "be- so of dead leaves to the acre, each year cultural societies or associations now approval of the State Board of Agricul- FORAGE CROPS.
aning of the end" by, relinquishing stop the grass. The land is soon covered existing, the names of which shall be as- ture; said director shall keep accurate Bermuda grass, crab grass, Para grass
ate control of the subject ind delegat- with a heavy carpet of dry grass, leaves certained, and which shall include the and detailed accounts of the experiments Guinea grass, Terrell grass, orchard
.and weeds a foot or two thick. In a few State Pomological Society. The said made by him, and the cost of each grass, red-topgrass, Johnson grass, Texs
g it to the counties. Any.comprehen- andv n weeoseaefootsoruwosthickilt eraiew
years only the stronger grassS survive, department shall also include such other respectively, and on or before the first bun
ve State law on the subject of fencing The"rough" is almost useless as a past- societies as shall hereafter he incorpor. day of December in each year to furnish mille maize, kaffir corn, tebsinte, sorg-
r stock cannot but do injustice to some ure; the poor cows find but few blades ated, having a cash capital invested in a consolidated report of these eiperl hum, fodder corn, cow peas, desmodi-
uhties, for the interests of different of green grass, and eat quantities of dry, lands owned by the society, and used ments to the secretary of the State um, Mexican clover, l spedeza, alfalfa,
diverse. Any county woody stems, gradually starving. The primarily for exhibition purposes, per- Board in proper form $or publication.
unties are quite "rough" is the abode of hosts of rabbits, manent improvements, or other invest- The sum of $5,000 sball be applied an- melilotus.
which expects to build up in population foxes skunks and snakes, as well as a ments devoted to the improvement of nually by the board for the purpose of STAPLE CROPS.
d wealth, and, which has any special hiding place for the moths of cut-worms, agriculture, of not less than $1,000., The conducting th s station; provided, how- Corn, oats, rye, wheat-Varieties,
sire to encourage agriculture, should grass-worms, boll-worms and cotto-i- termlagricuIture shall include all horti- ever, that prior to the Stestablishmentoard of Agricul- tield per acuntere, gesoil and seasotment. difficul-
ve a stock law diametrically different worms. When dry, it is as inflammable cultural or fruit-growing associations this station the State Board of Agricul- ties encountered, general treatment.
as powder, and as uncontrollable when organized for the encouragement of the turo, through its Executive Committee, Cotton-Longand hortStaple-Plant-
om the present, but if in any'county a afire. growth of grapes or other fruits, shall enter into an agreement with the ing and culture, marketing crop, man-
ajority of the people think that the Our winters are dry, often less than an Second. The Department of Agricul- proper authorities of the institution agement of seed, products from the
untry should be a free cattle range, inch of rainfall a month, and March is ture shall be under the control and man- named, in which agreement it shall be seed.
ey should be allowed to be"a law unto decidedly breezy, averaging during the agement of a Board of Directors, which expressly stipulated that it will furnish .Sngar Cane and Sorghum--Varieties,
eyshouldbeallowedtobealawun last five years a wind velocity of ten is hereby incorporated under the name for the use of such experiment stat on a culture, making syrup and sugar, condi-
Lemslve ontha Ekujec suffi cient amount of land to conduct tion of m market.
themselves" on that subject. miles to the hour, and often for days a and style of the State Board of Agricul- suf i ienta amd o a mane free on market. o ,
There ought, however, to be a sweep- 80-70-mile gale-which, no doubt, is ture for the State of Virginia. The said suchexperiments, and shall make,free Tobacco-Varieties, historyin Florida,
g law in regard to hogs. A law which amenable to legal wisdom, board shall consist of the president and of charge, all such chemical analyses as recent experiences, seed, culture m~nu-
fords no practical protection against The universal habit here is to girdle three v'c--presidents of the State may be required by the general director; facture.
fords no practical protection against thenp the f ailure of such institutioS.
depedtinsofhos ndpigs s the pines and allow them to stand till Agricultural Society, the presidents of and p~ron h alreo uhinttto FRuITS..
e depredations of hogs and pigs is the sap and limbs fall, each spring to all the agricultural societies belonging o m this agreement, then the ex-
orthy only of savages. A law which burn the debris, and occasionally to cut to the Dephrtment of Agriculture, and periment station established at such Citrus Fruits-Comparison of vrie
fords a farmer no recourse for damages down a tree. A burning pine in a 50- three members, to be appointed by the institution shall be closed, and such ties, hardiness and productiveness, meth-
mile breeze, will drop sap half a mile, Governor, from the threegrand divisions station may be re-established at some ods of propagation, methods of planting
)m h-erds of ravenous swine, unless he ^ w ^ ^ t~l ^^^^ B 0 f 'hc tht mparative effect ofS^^^ fe-
oherds of ravenous swine, unless he and kindle anything combustible in of the State-namely, Tidewater, Pied- other location at which the facilities will andculture comparative effects of fer-
rtifies his domain with a pig tgl t lervee, that range. It's easy to change a habit mont, the Valley of Virginia, including be supplied. tilizers; marketing of fruit, preservation
an abomination which we cannot find by law. Southwest Virginia. The board shall Ninth. The State Board of Agricul- of fruit wine another products.
words to stigmatize. Repeatedly have Nearly everybody smokes, and many choose its president by ballot. The ture'shall, so soon as practicable, organ- peach, pear, fig, persimmon, Japan
migrants to this State been indicted are careless of matches and cigars. Peo- Commissioner of Agriculture shall be ex ize throughout the State of Virginia a plum. Kelsey plum, native plum, mul-
treated iths Ste oeln s pie move and camp out, children build ocio a member of the board, and also system of Farmers' Institutes, tor the berry, quince, apricot, guava, :banana,
Ld treated with the ignominy-of felons ires, women will wash clothes out doors, secretary and treasurer of the State purpose of considering and discussing pineapple sapodilla, mango, avocada,
cause of their shooting a vile "razor- engines have no spark arresters, and Board of Agriculture for the State of questions relating to pia' tical agnicul- pear, cocoanut, pecan, English walnut,
ck," whiechcouldtnot bedkePt out in a then there is the lightning. You see, Virginia. ture, horticulture, pomology, etc., and almond, pomegranate, olive, grape,
instt without d au about one tree in 500 is killed annually Third The president of the Board of they shall be authorized to employ one strawberry, blackberry, raspberry-Va
ring stat "h exPe ng by lightning; often, though, a dead pine Directors, the Commissioner of Agricul- or more persons competent to give rieties, their characteristics, effects of
red times its value in building a close is struck; careless-like, in the middle of ture, and three of the directors, to be instruction in practical and scientific soil, weather, etc., best methods of
id expensive fence, an old rough, and with a jolly 50 mile appointed by the board from the three agricultu-e, to'deliver lectures or read culture.
Let us have a decent stock law before breeze-ob, but there's the Legislature! grand divisions of the State-namely. essays relating to agriculture and kind- FLOWER GARDEN.
Comsino mmgain hnTidewater, Piedmont, the Valley of Vi'r- red p'rsuits. The sum of $5,000 is-
Commssio ofImmiraton. hen Long, long ago, I protected a lovely ginia, including Southwest Virginia-- hereby appropriated out of the aforesaid Plants adapted to this climate, out-
a offer ordinary protection to new rough. It's broad acres were seared, dry shall constitute the Executive Committee sum of $-, for the purpose of organ- door culture, management of green-
imers their numbers will increase and brown. In no place after a frost of the said Board of Directors, whose izing and equipping these institutes and house.
reply rough the better report which could a stray cow find a bite of green duties shall be defined by the Board of paying the lecturers employed. INSECT ENEMIES AND FUNGOID DISEASES.
iplygooutfrog the etate. lAt stuff-at least ten tons of "fertilizing Directors. Tenth. It shall be the duty of the Nature of damage done and remedies.
ill go out from the State. Atpresent material to each acre." But, alas! One Fourth. For the purpose of practi- Commissioner of Agriculture to cause to We d nt desire letters written mere-
.e State is suffering from prejudicial windy March day, in an adjoining field cally carrying out the designs for which be printed, with his annual report, such y i praise of special localities unless
it true reports which are sent out by was a dusky, innocent child of nature, the Department of Agriculture is estab- portions of the annual reports herein- claims to favor are based on the products
nmi-ra~ns, of the unbearable injuries burning chunks. Only a chance spark, lished in this State, an appropriation of before required to be furnist.ed, and o productiveness of the soil. Articles
and with a roar like a cyclone billows of $- for each and every year is hereby such of the lectures delivered and essays of an animated or vivacious'style are de-
ey have suffered through the operation fire sped over the grass." The tops of the made for the support and maintenance read at the Farmers' Institutes as the
our absurd stock law. tallest pines were scorched, and in a few of this department, said sum to be Executive Committee of the State Board statements and descriptions should be
Such laws are detrimental to progress minutes my years of care ended, acquired by the proceeds of a tax of fifty shall deem of sufficient value to be pre- concise and as much to the point as pos-
another way. Cheap ranges are pro I regret to this day the heroic exertions cents per ton on all fertilizers sold within served in permanent form. sibe.
we made to prevent the world fromh the State, as proposed by the State In conc fusion, your committee deem it sio et
active of cheap stock. Where cattle burning up. Nobody could face the fur- Commissioner of Agriculture, being an their duty to urge upon your honorable All communications for the editorial
id hogs are raised in a half-wild state, nace-like blast of forty acres of five- amendment to the bill for the inspection body the appointment of a committee, department should be addre to
ith but nominal expense, improvement year-old rough in a 60-mile breeze. No of commercial fertilizers, and to regulate consisting of the Commissioner of Agri- EDITOR FARMER AND FT-GEOWEI.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, APRIL 27, 1887.
HELEN HARCOURT. Editor.
With a helping hand and a Welcome for all
Who wish to be friendly and makd us a call;
With words of good counsel for old friends i
Who come to us seeking the best way to do.
All questions of general Interest will be
answered through these columns.
Personal Inquiries will be answered by mail
when accomp, nied by stamp for reply.
Subscribers are c >rdially Invited to take a
seat in our Cosy Corner, and exchange views,
experiences and recipes of mutual benefit.
"Help ye one another."
Communications Intended for publication
must be brief, clearly written, and only on
one side of the paper.
All matter relating to this department
should beaddre-sed to
EDITOR OUR HOME-CGIRCLE,
Fla. Farmer and Fruit-Grower,
Our Cosy Corner.
SUMMER IN FLORIDA.
We take the following extract from
letter recently received from a subscrib
at the North, and as several similar in
quiries have come to hand, some fro
far away Canada, inquiries which,
we know from past experience, repre
sent the doubts and hesitation o
thousands who, through ignorance
.the truth, look askance upon the-Florid
summer season, we have decided in th
and succeeding issues to deal fully an
honestly with this much misunderstood
Says the correspondent referred to
"My wife desires me to ask you about
the heat in Florida in the summer sea
son. How do you manage to endure i
Who reinain there throughout the yea
When does -the hottest period set in, an
how long does it last, and how are ou
door employment managed during tha
time? The statistics tell us that th
average summer temperature north o
latitude 28 degrees is 80 deg. 10 min
but we would like 'o know how it affect
one in general."
We have practically answered these
questions in their fullest sense in ou
forthcoming work, "Home Life in Flor
ida," and feel that we cannot do bette
-* now than to have resource to th
advance sheets of the same, as follows
If there is any one point concerning
Florida which is subject to more misap
prehensions than any other, it is that o
her summer climate. Ninety-nine per
sons out of a hundred would at once
jump at the conclusion that a climate
which is so much milder than that o
others during the winter, must becor
responding!y hotter during the summer
But put the question to those whi
live in Floridaallthe year round, "Wha
of the climate in summer?" and the an
swer will be, In winter the climate i
pleasant, in summer it is delightful."
This is the most universal verdict of al
who spend a summer or two in the State
-astonishment first, then delight.
"But how is that possible?" you ask
When the mildness of the winter is taken
into consideration, and also the fact tha
the line of latitude included in Florida is
also that embraced by Northern Africa
and a part of the Desert of Sahara, where
the temperature ranges during the day
about 100 degrees in the shade, and falls
to freezing at night, it is not to be won-
dered at that the Florida summer should
be regarded with suspicion by those who
judge from the process of natural indue
tion, and are without knowledge of the
Those who know Florida at all are
well aware that no such heated air as
reigns perpetually during the day ovei
Sarah ever sweeps even transiently over
The same peculiar location of our
treasured peninsula which influences the
winter temperature has also its effect
upon the summer. The very fact that it
is a peninsula, with a great ocean to the
east and south and a mighty gulf to the
west tells its own tale, if one but pauses
to interpret it, for it is simply impossible
that such a long, narrow strip of land,
its shores bathed by a great body of water
on three sides, and constant winds
sweeping over it, their extremes tem-
pered by its influence, should be either
as cold or as hot as land in the same lati-
tude, not solocated.
In the winter, the winds passing over
the Gulf Stream before touching the
land lose a great portion of their sharp-
ness; during the summer the current of
cold water that passes between the east
coast and the Gulf Stream tempers and
cools the warm air sweeping across it.
That is one reason why Florida is so
favored in summer as well as in winter.
Another that also operates in the latter
season, is the absence of neighboring
mountains to check the constant and
even circulation of the air. The result
of that is that Florida is never without
a breeze, morning, noon or night: first
from the one great body of outlying
waters, then from the other, a constant
succession of pure, life-giving breezes
are playing back and forth over her
broad bosom. Of all the eight summers
the writer has spent in Florida, the firot
unbearably hot day or night has yet to
(To be Continued.)
The Children's Aid Society.
It is with sincere pleasure that we note
the fact that the boys recently placed in
Florida homes (not orphans, as some of
our correspondents' have mistakenly
inferred) are, almost without exception,
doing well and feeling contented and
happy, as their letters to the society bear
We regret, however, t'ie following
passage in a letter lately received from
I regret to say that the new Inter-
SCommerce Bill will, for the pres-
revent the railroads from giving
special rates we have enjoyed,
beforee. we will have to suspend
a in Florida till the master can
on 'by the new Commission."
latter will allow the railroads
is stock. If not, apply to the plow manu- A delicious dish for the supper table,
ad facturers, B. F. Avery & Sons, Louis- and one whose wholesomeness cannot be
Dd ville, Ky. excelled, is made by stewing down the
Mrs. A S. D., Jacksonville, Fla.: berries, occasionally mashing them, so
o: Write to E. Ross & Co 254 and 256 as to get them as smooth as possible.
ut Summit street, Toledo, 0. Failure to When tender and well cooked, stir in
a- comply with required conditions pre- enough corn-starch, dissolved in cold
t, vents reply by mail. water, to. thicken it like a paste; add
r? ___ __ sugar to taste, then pour it into a bowl
d The Family Friend ready for the table. The addition of
t- The Family Fiend. milk or cream is "an extra fine touch."
at SORE THROAT. HUCKITBERRY BISCUIT.
ie Everybody has a cure for this trouble, Three-quarters cupful sugar, one-
of but simple remedies appear to be 'most quarter cupful butter, one cupful milk,
*, effectual. Salt and water is used by three cupfuls sifted flour, one teaspoon-
ts many as a gargle, but a little alum and ful baking powder mixed dry; with the
honey dissolved in sage tea is better. An flour, one teaspoonful salt, two well
3e application of cloths wrung out of hot beaten eggs, one pint of huckleberries
lr water and applied to the neck, changing stirred in last of all. This quantity just
r- as often as they begin to cool, has the fills twelve Saratoga roll pans, which
*r most potency for removing inflamma- should be warmed and well buttered
e lion of anything we ever tried. It should when the mixture is put in them. These
s: be kept up for a number of hours; dur- are delicious hot for breakfast or lunch,
g ing the-evening is usualiiy the most con- and are nice cold.
venient time for applying this remedy.
SHOW TO USE HOT WATER. Our Young Folks' Corner.
e One of the simplest and most affectual ITS STANDING OFFER.
e means pf relieving pain is by the use of STANDING OFFER.
f hot water, externally and internally, the A nice picture book each month to the boy
temperature varying according to the or girl who sends us the largestlistof subscrib-
temperature varying according to the ,ers for "Tue FL.ORuDA FARMER AND FRuiT-
r feelings of the patient. For bruises, GRowER" during that month.
sprains and similar accidental hurts, it A beautifully bound copy of the famous
o should be applied immediately, as hot as children's ,-vagazine,St. Nicholas, to the boy
n e m a or girl whe sends us. the largest number of
t can be borne, by means of a cloth dipped subscribers during six months.
in the water and laid on the wounded Write us letters descriptive of places, things
s part, orby immersion, if convenient, and or doings; write us on one sidethe page; give
the treatment kept up until relief is ob- Thebe st letter received will be published
I tamed. If applied at once, the use of each week.
e hot water will generally prevent nearly, Now go to work and see who wins.
if not entirely, the bruised flesh from
r. turning black For pains resulting from "MACHINE POETRY."
n indigestion, and known as wind colic, That is a funny name for poetry, is it'
t etc., a cup of hot water taken in sips not? It is a game that both old and
s will often believe at once. When that is young can play, and have a real good
a insufficient, a flannel folded in several' time over it, too. -
e thicknesses, large enough ro fully cover Last week I told about the donkey
the painful place, should be wrung out party, and if you are careful to keep the
s of hot water and laid-on the seat of the Young Folks' Corner, by and by you
L pain. It should be as hot as the skin can will have a nice collection of games,
d be-ir without injury, and be renewed as we'll as candy recipes, and "all
o every ten minutes, or oftener if. it feels sorts." "
cool, until the pain is gone. The remedy This present game is a good one to
e is simple, efficient, harmless and within play during our warm summer days,
the reach of everyone, and should be when it is pleasanter in-doors than out,
e more generally used than it is.' If used at least in the middle of the day.
s along with common sense, it might save It is played in this-way: Each person
r many a doctor's bill and many a course takes a sheet of paper, and writes at the
of drug treatment as well. bottom the title of his poem, and if he
FISH FRITTERS. chooses- the name', of the character or
Take the remains of any fish which characters, if any, to be written about,
Shas been served the preceding day, re- the hero and heroine for instance. Then
t move all the bones and mince fine, add each begins by writing three, lines of
equal quantities of bread crumbs and poetry(?); the first two of them to rhyme
mashed' potatoes, stir in. two beaten with each other, and each to be of an
eggs, season with pepper and salt, add agreed length,. say ten syllables. Fo'd
enough cream to make the mass of over these lines so they cannot be seen
Proper consistency to mould into little by the next writer, to whom the last
balls, and fry them in boiling lard. word of the last line is whispered. The
S. second writer, having passed along the
INDIAN WAFFLES. poem he has started, adds a line of ten
5Take a cupful of flour, a cupful of In- syllables to rhyme with the last, and be-
dian white meal, two cupfuls of sour gins a new couplet by writing -another
milk, one cupful of sour cream, half a line. The last word of this is whitpered
teaspoonfnl of salt, two tablespoonfuls to No. 3, who writes two lin s more as
of sugar, and one teaspoonful of soda, No. 2 did and so on around the circle.
one tablespoonful of cold water, and The result is finally read aloud and will
two eggs. Mix the sugar, salt, meal and not fail of being amusing. ,
flour. Beat the eggs until light. Dis- If there are six players there will be
solve the soda in the tablespoonful of six poems to be read, and as to their
cold water and stir it into the sour milk length, that is a point that must be
and cream. Pour the liquid upon the agreed upon beforehand, twenty lines
dry mixture, then add the beaten eggs would be a good length.
and stir we'll. Have the waffle-irons Here is a nice little letter from a nice
very hot, and after rubbing them lightly little girl who lives on the sea-coast, in
with a piece of fat pork, pour a thin what we know to be one of the most
layer of the batter into one-half of. the beautiful and healthful sections of our
iron. Drop the other half gently upon State; I can honestly say that it is a very
the first one, and then turn the iron good letter for one so young, well-
over. Cook until the waffle is brown on written and carefully spelled, all but
both sides-say about two minutes. one word; which I have made all right,
OLD MAIDS' PICKLES, for fear that fine fish, the mu'let, might
One small head cabbage cut fine, six bite our Cousin Grace for leaving out
large onions sliced, one ear green corn one of the l's it has a right to, for I sus-
sliced, one dozen green tomatoes sliced, pect that fish are just like the rest of us;
one-half dozen ripe tomatoes sliced, one they want all that belongs to them.
pint radish pods, green, two ripe cucum- Dear Cousin Helen: I saw in the FLOR-
bers cut small, two green cucumbers IDA FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER that n
cut small, thirty small green cucumbers you wanted children to write to your
used whole, one teaspoonful turmeric, paper. t
twelve green peppers used whole if I am a little girl, nine years old, and
small, three cents' worth of cloves, one- live on East St. Andrews Bay, six miles i
eighth of a pound of ground allspice, one- from town. I came from Minnesota a l
eighth of a pound of ground cinnamon, year ago.
one-eighth of a pound of mustard seed, The Bay is about a mile wide where I
one-eighth of a pound of pepper corns, live. I have a kitten for a pet; he will e
one-half pound brown sugar, one quart follow me wherever I go; we have lots a
good cider vinegar, one root of chopped of fun bathing ard sailing; we go along
borseradi h. Boil the vinegar, sugar, the beach and pick up shells. s
spices and tumeric, and pour hot over There are lots of fish and o) sters, and r
the pickles; having brought them to a there are sea-gulls, porpoises, jelly-fish, o
scald in weak vinegar, mullet, red fish and trout in the Bay. r
The following recipe for blackberry My pa takes your paper and likes it
wine we can personally vouch for as very much, but I like the letters the
being one of the best, if not the very best.
best of home-made wines-an article If this does not go in the waste basket,
which every h usekeeper should keep I may write again.
on hand, to be used in case of sickness: Your little cousin,
GRACE E. DAY.
BLACKBERRY WINE. PARKER, Washington Co., Fla.,
Measure the blackberries and bruise April 3d, 1887.
dresses at full length, or serve as a re-
ceptacle for hats and bonnets. This is a
particularly easily manufactured com-
fort, and almost any box will do for a
foundation. Boxes of all shapes and
sizes are used for this purpose by of-
ficers' wives, intent on getting the largest
d amount of accommodation with the
smallest cost and least addition to their
Any packing-case will do, if tolerably
stout. First purchase a pair of hinges
- for the lid, and four castors; when these
are duly screwed on, line your box
neatly with pink or gray glazed lining,
fastening it securely by tacks or glue to
the bottom and outside of the box. Next
make a cpshion to fit the top, and fas-
ten third also securely at the four corners.
This cushion may be made like a pillow
or a mattress, if you please. You now
cut a strip of the material, cretonne,
sheeting, .or whatever stuff you in-
tend as a covering, the depth of your
box, and long enough -to go around it,
allowing for fullness. Hem the lower
edge neatly, and gather the top into a
band the exact size of the box; this band
is then nailed on, or, if you are using a
trunk instead of a packing-case, is tied
or buttoned. Then cut a piece sufficient-
ly large to cover the cushion and lid,
and to this stitch a frill either kilted,
gathered or box-plaited, as you choose,
and fasted the whole with fancy nails
to the lid in such a way that the kilting
falls over and hides the band of the box
valance. Add a cord or ribbon loop to
the middle of the lid to lift it by, and
your ottomani is complete. If your room
is sutfficietly large, it is very nice to have
"two'otthese ottomans, 'he long enough
for dress skirts, and a smaller one,
which will slip under the dressing-table,
and hold your hats, etc., serving, when
needed, as a seat for the dressing-
SFLORIDA FERTILIZING GO.
E. T. PAINE, PRESIDENT.
Florida Orange Food per ton...............$23.00
Florida Vegetable Food per ton......... 28.00
Analysis: Bone Phosphate of Lime, 30 per
cent.; Sulphate of Potash, 12 per ceht.; Mag-
nesia, 6 percent. Lime, Soda and other val-
FREE, ONE SAMPLE GOPY.
Before yon decide where to go in SOUTH
FLORIDA, send for a sample copy of
THE ORANGE GROVE.
You will find better and cheaper bargains in
MANATEE County in groves, farms, ranches of
any size. Building lots on railroad, river or sea-
side. The proprietor of "The Orange Grove," is
an "old timer," but neither-moss backed or hide
bound; he is here to stay and 'There is millions
in it." Three Millions of Acres on his Books.
Address,.THE GROVE, LIVERPOOL, FLA.
Fancy Poultry 'and Huntin Dois,
Eggs For Hatching From Leading Va-
rieties of Domesticated Land
and Water Fowl.
-$1 -EKI2 13.--7
Also Thorough bred Young Setters and Hounds.
Address VILLA ZAZA POULTRY YARDS,
GRADED JERSEYS FOR SALE.
A few Graded Jerseys for sale in calf by a
J. C. C. Bull Panic, No. 9,420. Panic is a
grandson of Duke of Darlington, No. 2,640, and a
son of Uproar, No. 4,609, out of Brown Beauty,
daughter of Iron Bank, imported, No. 1,120.
Apply to SCHRADER BROS.,
TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN:
Sixty days after the first publication of this
notice application will be made to the Legis-
lature of Florida, for the passage of a charter
of the Florida Fruit Exchange," whereby
the capital stock may be increased to a sum
greater than Fifty Thousand Dollars; the par
value of shares to be reduced from One Hun-
dred Dollars to Ten Dollars ner share; to al-
ow the corporation to purchase and convey
such real and personal property as may be
deemed necessary to Its usefulness, Includ-
ing vehicles of transportation ; to lease or
erect buildings for storage of produce, and
advance on produce; to manufacture and sell
such materials asmay be useful to fruit grow-
ers and gardeners, and generally to transact
suchbusiness as may be for the interest of
members and others connected with fruit
Throwing and kindred pursuits, and for such
other powers and privileges as may be deemed
necessary and proper.
GEO. H. NORRIS,
M. J DOYLE
T. W. MOORE.
J. D. MITCHELL,
WM. E. STANTOM,
B. M. BAER,
Board of Directors,
Florida Fruit Exchange.
Jacksonville. Fla., February 16,1887
to favor such charitab'e enterprises as tbem; to every quart of juice add two Well, you see, little cousin, that if it
this, there can be no doubt, but, mean- quarts of boiling water, does go in the waste basket, it will be in
time, Florida must wait in patience Let the's mixture stand twenty-four yours, and the Young Folks' Corner will
hours, stirring occasionally, then strain have to go with it! Just think of that!
Answers to Correspondents. off the liquor into a jar or- stone jug. I have heard of putting a basket in a
To every gallon of juice add three pounds corner, but I never heard of putting a
W. F c .,e Dusnedin, Fla.: Inquiry of sugar. Throw a piece of netting or corner in a basket, never.
concerning soldering casket answered cheese-cloth over the jar to keep out in- So write again, and tell us something
Fby maFi 1. d. w Kt. sects; do not close up otherwise. more about the shells that the "great
W. tldridge, a., writes: *Kindly hen done fermenting, rack off into waters" cast up on the shore; describe
answer through the medium of the bottles, add a lump of sugar (white) them just as carefully as you can, and
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER to each bottle, then cork and seal, or else then perhaps I can tell you their names,
the maker's name and where I can pur- tie unglazed cotton batting over the and about the queer little creatures that
chase a 82-inch sweep, as mentioned in cork. This is less troublesome and even live in them, and that would be nice for
your book, ]Florida Fruits,' page 78."imore effectual. you, and for all the little cousins, don't
We have received many similar inqutr- Wine thus made will be very palatable you think so? Then a shell would be
iee to the above, and sincerely regret ourm'.. e...an .... "o shelh" to
inability the aboveply and e would wishgre.t our i two or three months, rich and beauti- something more than only "a shell' to
nality to reply as we would wish. ful in color, but, of course, improves you and them. We always feel more
At the tome the above reference was with age. It is wise to cork closely for interest in things that we know about,
made to the 2-inch sweep we supposed the first few days after bottling, and can think of.
that size to be as common as any other, ." And this that T ay tO you and our
but have since learned otherwise. The The recipe given below is equally And this, that I say to you and our
one then in our ,possession, which we good,and a most excellent remedy for sea-coast coins, I say also to those
valued as doing extra good work in the bowel troubles; it should havb a place in who dwell inland, and would like to-
grove, was obtained some years ago every household: sects know about they meet with from time tor in-
from a merchant, now deceased. It was BLACKBERRY CORDIAL. time. wi m time to
the only one of the kid min stock, and To one quart of juice add one table- I would fain teach my dear litt'e cou-
we have since been unable to duplicate spoonful of ground cloves, twd even sins that love and gentleness towards
it or trace its origin. tablespoonfuls of ground cinnamon, one animals, in their early days, leads, later
We can, however, point out substitutes tablespoonful of ground allspice, one on, to love, kindfiess and honesty
equally as effectual, and, in one respect, large nutmeg grated, and one pound of towards their fellow-creatures, and that
superior, since they are lighter for the, white sugar. Boil together twenty minm- these qualities lead onward and upward
horse. These are the 22-inch 'Hell utes, stirring occasionally; strain and to heaven.
Sweep" and the 20-inch "Straight bottle it while hot in small bottles, sealed A BOX OTTOMAN,
Scraper." We presume that our Jack-' or with cotton batting o- er the cork. A BOX OTTOMAN.
sonville dealers, S. B. Hubbard & Co. BLAKBEY PASTE A capital institution is the box otto-
and Geo. F. Drew & Co.. have these in BLAm CKBERRYh according to size will honld
ONSIGNMENTS OF EGGS
U CHICKENS, FRUIT, AN D
3. H. SUTHERLAND,
2S OCEAN STREET,
JACEKONT ILL E
ORMOND ON IRE HAIFAX.I
FOB REST OF HAMMOCK LAND OR BEARING ORANGE GROVES
--CALL .ON OR ADDRESS-
Ormond Land Agency,. -
East Coast of Yaolusia C iunty., ,: '.
NEW YORK & FLORIDA STEAMSHIP LINE.
TRI-WEEKLY SERVICE BETWEEN
NEW YORK, FERNA7NDINA AND JACKSONVILLE-
Steamers are appointed to sail from Pier 29, E. R., N. Y., every Tuesday, Thursday
and Saturday "at 3 n m. ., '
FROM JACKSONVILLE--- CBOKEE (new), and 8EMINOLE (new), every FRIDAY.
FROM FERNANDINA-DELA WARE and YERMASSEE every MONDAY, p. m., CITY
OPF ATLANTA and CITY OF COLUMBIA, every WEDNESDAY p.m.
The Freight and Passenger Accommodations by this Line are unsurpassed by any ships in
the coastwise service. Forfurther information, apply to
CLARENCE WAGNER, Agt., J. A. IESLIE, Agt.
Fernandina, Fla., Jacksonville, la. S W. ccbrTyand'Hogan.
TIEO. G. EGER, Traffic Manager, *WM. P CLYDE & CO.,
S8 i Broadway,N. General Agents, 36T: ) t 1 ,Iv ty, y. .
riaxe 8est Iejltla23 Ftesco,rt
Is on the Line of the Florida Southern.
Unsurpassed by any other section for the production of Fruits and Vegetables. If you are com-
ing to Florida, whatever may be your means or condition, you will most assuredly be pleased with
this Centre of the Lake Region. for further particulars a dress,
8. In REED, Pittman, Fla.
What 31r. Beyer says:a,.
best thanks for the splendid seeds received from your.firm.
It would be a rather lengthy list if I should name all, but
will y thatamong .f8irstredBsecon
S awarded e-tour fairs in Northern Indand an
SotEmrn.Michlgan, 28 first premiums were for vege-
"thi?" AUGUsT BETER, So. Bend, Ind.
Seed of this quality I am now ready to sell to every one
Swho tills a farm or plants a garden, sending them IREE my
wegetabte and Flower Seed Catalogue, for 1887. Old customers
need not write fort. I catalogue this season the native wild
otato. JAS. J. H. GREGORt, Seed Grower, Marblehead, Mas,
The Florida Times-Union
S PRINTING AND PUBLISHING HOUSE,
Best Equipped Office in the South
AT PRICES BELOW COMPETITION
A.TD .A-LL .KIFTIDS OC'
COLORED HANGERS m FOLDERS
Hernando County, Elorida,
Sixteen miles west of Hernando Hotel, Brooks-.
ville, On the shore of the Gulf at the mouth of a
beautiful Spring River.- Finest fishing, boating
and sailing. Good accommodations. Try-weekly
Greatest Vine Producers on the Market.
Ensilage Cutters. (Silos, made in
Everything to Plant at Bottom Prices.
SO. SEED CO., Macon, Ga.
J. R. Ellis, President.
Send for treatise-on ensilage and Silos.
Bees and Queens.
Orders will be booked now for delivery dur-
ing April, May or Junn, of my superior race
Italian Booe ani ies. -
Queens by mall a specialty,
Give me a trial order.
For prices or other information, address
H. C. HART,
Eustis, Orange Co., Fla.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. APRIL 27, 1887.
"* ( -" cannot be done without a proper tube
ive f ffor running out the milk, so as to prev-
ent handling the teat and squeezing,
Inquiries concerning diseases of domestic which is necessary in the usual way of
Animals may be addressed to Dr. D. 0. Lyon, abstracting the milk.
acksonville, Florida, who will answer them
through this column. .Scientific Horse Shoeing.
Veterinary Advice. A reporter of the New York Mail and
Sl arExpress has been interviewing a disciple
The following cases are treated of in of Dan Mace, who was famous as a horse-
the Southern Cultivator : shoer, and publishes his remarks on the
ACCLIMATING CATTLE. very important subject:
Please give some suggestions as to The majority of the people believe
management of cattle brought from the that it requires but little skill to.shoe a
North, during acclimation, with reme- horse. It is a task, they think, for
dies for acclimation fever, etc.-C. J. which an ordinary blacksmith is com-
E., Louisiana. potent. This is far from being true. Many
ANSWER.-Give such treatment as afine animalhasbeen seriously injured
would keep any animal in good health, by being placed in the hands of a botch.
Do not feed too high, neither starve, but A reporter learned many interesting de-
keep in moderate flesh. An occasional tails upon the subject from James
change of diet advisable. Keep out of O'Neill, the successor of the late Dan
the sun from 10 to 5 o'clock. Keep salt Mace.
always within reach. No special medi- "Mace," said Mr. O'Neill, was the
cation is advisable. It is deemed best most skillful shoer of horses in the
to make transfer from North to South world. His establishment gained a re-
in autumn after cool weather sets in, putation all over the country. He ap-
and it is generally believed that young preached the matter in a strictly scien-
animals are less apt to die. But statistics tific manner. I was with him for many
do not show marked difference in this years, and can thank him for much of
respect. When an animal gets sigk, re- my knowledge. When he died he left
lieve unfavorable symptoms as they arise me his horses and his business. The
but avoid active treatment of any kind; value of a horse is mainly dependent up-
the matter must be left largely to on the soundness of his feet. He may
nature. be perfect in every other respect, but if
HORSES EATING DIRT. he has a bad foot no intelligent horseman
Please give a remedy for dirt eating would want him. You can see, there-
horses, or tell me what makes horses eat fore, how important it is that his shoes
dirt, as I have lost one fine colt by eating should fit. If they are too small they will
dirt, and I also have a fine mare that cramp and pinch his feet, and may
will eat dirt, if I would let her. In plow- eventually make him lame. For this
ing she will eat enough to kill her; if reason all fine animals should be careful-
she can get her head to the ground ly fitted with hand-made shoes. There
she will grab up a mouthful of dirt. are some large factories in this country-
She is now with foal.-W. J. P., Ben- turn out thousands of horseshoes every
nettsvillp, S. C. day. These may do well enough for the
ANSWER.-Dirt-eating usually comes ordinary working horses, but the man
from diseased stomach, either some who would place such shoes upon the
form of dyspepsia or chronic inflamma- feet of the well-bred roadster would be
tion of the stomach. Animals restricted insane.
to the same diet for a long time, and es- Allowanes have to be made for exces-
peciallydry food, are veryapt tohave an sive heat and cold, which expands or ,
unnatural appetite. The remedy is contracts the metal.- We have to make t
change of diet, and a part ration of allowance also for,the nature of the
green food, if possible. It may be well animal. He may have a peculiar manner .
also to give some tonic, say powdered of stepping, which can be remedied by
nux vomica one scruple, carbonate of changing the weight of his shoes. To ,
potash one drachm, powdered gentian illustrate to you how important a con-
half an ounce. Give above quantities sideration this is, I have o;.ly to tell you
night and morning, and continue until that itas possible to change a pacer into
the animal is relieved or medicine loses a trotter by increasing the weight upon .
- its effects, his forefeet. This has often been done.
SK SEA MA horse cannot. pace -with heavy fore-
SKIN DISEASE IN MULES shoes. They have a tendency to make
* About three weeks ago one of my him take longer steps and throw his feet s
neighbors discovered a place on one of out straight forward. Frequently vete-
his mules that had shedded off all the rinarian snrgeons have to ask my 'advice.
hair; it being small no special notice was Ahorse may be lame and they cannot r
taken of it. Ini about a week the place ascertain the cause. Often it is because t
Swas muchlarger, the skin slightly ridg he is improperly shod. Horses are sub- w
ed and with a great many small bumps! ject also to corns, the same as human d
a few days later the skin began to break' beings. Sometimes we'pare them until A
and peel off, discharging pus at-the they gradually disappear. Wealso burn i
same time. Now it reaches from just them out. -
. below the hip to the knee, and is still "*
spreading ; does not limp when walking; SHEEP HUSBANDRY. -
the hair is shedding off in other places. i HUSBAN "Y
Ihave a mule affected in the same way, --
thoughin its earliest stage. Ple give A ery Profitable Industry if
name of diseaseand treatment.- Subscri- kVrProel ni
ber, Tennille, Ga. Properly Managed."
ASWER.-The disease is probably like BY J. KNAPP. "
eczema n6 man, 1-...-h-vou do not men- .- --- -
"tion itching as one of' Th ons The inquiry is often made by.t ose
Give a half ounce of hvpop ophrt& 'l well informed as to the capabilities
soda once a day for two weeks mixed of Florida, whether sheep husbandry
with bran and-put on green food It iscan be successfully. carried on in this C
largely connected with impaired diges- Sate. If there be any value to the opin-
tion andiswapt to return every spring ion of one who ihas been a somewhat
careful observer of many portions of the
SPASMODIC BREATHING IN MULES.. State during the past eleven years, not
We have a mule that is-fat and high ing its climates 'and natural vegetable
spirited, and has the appearance of be- growths, the'.hiabits of sheep in other
ing in good health ; at times she is taken States and Territories, and some reading
with spasms of something like asthma in of the history of sheep since historical
man. She stifles and with outstreelhed notes have been kept' of man and his a
neck and head wiil stand from one to domestic animals, with personal knowl-
five minutes at a time struggling for edge and observations, and much con- _
breath apparently, and at every inhala- verse with the owners of the large.flocks i
tion bellows like. a cow. If you can in Colorado and New Mexico, where p
from this description of the case tell us from 1,000 to 10,000 sheep are kept, year w
what is the matter and give us a remedy in and year out, under shepherds, with- t
it will be thankfully received.-W. W. out receiving feed or salt froth the hand a
.L., Gordon, Ga. of man, and*only enclosed in pens at
ANSWER.--The trouble is probably shearing time, even though I am not and
nervous,as asthma is. Feed three times never have been a keeper of sheep in "
daily, giving oats and only a little long Florida, perhaps my opinion may have
forage, so as to distend stomach as little some weight, and it is given for what it P
as possible. You might try five-grain is worth. n
doses of arsenic once a day for. two HISTORICAL
weeks "; mix arsenic with bran. TOICAL.
The earliest accounts we have of the
WOLVES IN CATTLE, sheep place them in Asia, and from
Can you give me some remedy for thence they have been taken to Africa
wolves in cows ?-I. M. W., Newberry and Europe, and finally to America and P
S. C. Australia, until now they are found,
ANSWER.-The wolves come from eggs with few exceptions, in all countries
laid in summer by a fly similar to the inhabited by civilized men. Though
S"beot" fly of horses. When the fly is at history notes the fact that, when the P
work the cows hoist their tails and run Northern 'savages overran the Roman
madly about. Possibly by noting the Empire, they destroyed nearly all the
period when the fly is about and smear- sheep then held in Southern Europe,
ing the backs of cattle with a little tar still enough survived and increased, un-
or grease and kerosene might deter the til now they outnumber all other four-
fly from depositing its eggs. But we footed domestic animals. ]
cannot speak positively on this point, THE FEEDING OF SHEEP.
never having seen it tried. After the egg Naturally, the she is as gross a
hatches, the grubs bore a little hole Natfeederally, the seep is as gross a
through the skin for breathing purposes. feede as the goat, and can make itself a
A drop or two of kerosene on each hole good meal upon weeds and bushes when
will kill them, or grease well rubbed in grass is scarce; yet, with its sharp front t
will do the same. Pinching the grub teeth of the under jaw, it is a close biter
between the fingers and squeezing hard when feeding succulent plants and
will force them out, and this is rather grasses that grow close to the ground
the better plan, as the sores they have iemany of the grasses of Florida, which
made will heal up more quickly when cattle and horses will not starve upon.
there is nothing left in them. Thus it is that sheep are able to sustain
themselves and even fatten during win-
Wars o-n Cow' Teas ter upon the short grasses of the Asiatic,
Warts on Cow's TeatS. Australian and American plains, and to
SThe following advise is given by Dr, gather the dried leaves and burrs of the
Wmin. Hornme, veterinary surgeon, in the gramas and lespedezas that grow during
.Jersey Bulletin: If the warts are large, the short seasons of rains. This charac-
with a reasonably narrow or thin neck, teristic of the sheep admirably fits it to
tie a waxed silk thread tightly around feed upon the dry pine ridges of Flor
each; thentouch the surface with butyr ida, and it may be safely concluded that
of antimony; touch morning, noon and sheep can find abundant food'upon such
night, if convenient at all. Care must land during the entire year, if they are
be taken not to touch any portion of the not wantonly burned over. The expe-
natural skin anywhere. If the warts rience of the Scotch settlers in Walton
are flat-I mean much surface-and no and other northern counties, has con-
defined neck, tie a small piece of sponge firmed this conclusion. Their sheep
to the end of a small stick about the size have for years, almost uncared for by
of a common pencil, dip this into the their owners, found subsistence in abun-
butyr of'antimony, and with a consider- dance on such lands, and proved both
able pressure rub all over the surface of healthful and prolific above those of any
each wart. This will surely and effec- other State or region in- the United
tually remove the excrescences. This, States. But Walton and the other coun-
ties, where sheep have been reared, pre-
senc no advantages over .all the other
portions of the State where pine ridges
THE MOST SUITABLE BREED.
Passing over the question of improved
varieties and breeds, which the careful
husbandry' of the English, French and
Germans has produced, and merely no-
ticing the breeds best adapted to the
climate and food production of Flor-
ida, .1 opine that undoubtedly the
breed best adopted to Florida will
be found originating from those
which found protection -under the
Moors, of Spain, during the raids of the
Northern savages upon the Roman Em-
pire, and which, from being reared in
the pastures near the sea, have taken
the name of "merino." This stock may
be traced to the mild, almost tropical
-climate of Pa!estine and Arabia; and,
though they may be distinguished by
small carcasses and short, fine wool, and
contra-distingu'shed from the larger car-
casses and long, coarse wools of the sheep
from the north of the Black Sea and the
Carpathian mountains, they are best
adapted to Florida. In Spain and other
places these sheep have acquired fleeces
of almost silky fineness, rivalling the
wool of the Cashmere goats, and there
is no valid reason why the fleeces should
deteriorate, either in weight or fineness,
here, because at no season of the year
need there be any want of food, or cold,
pinching weather to retard its growth.
Hence, the fibre should have a remarka-
ble evenness, and command the highest
If this position of the adaptability to
the climate and supply of food be cor-
rect, then there only remains the ques-
tions of the profitableness of sheep hus-
bandry in this State to be considered.
This merino breed of sheep arrives at
maturity at one year old, and the ewes
of that age, in Florida, will, in all prob-
ability, produce lambs, and the wethers
will be nearly full grown for the butch-
ers. Taking this fact,-and judging'by
the estimates of the sheep men of Texas
and- New Mexico, where the feed is
greatly inferior to that of Florida, the
sheep owner here may reckon his increase
of lambs raised by the number of the
ewes under nine years of age. Thus, a
man beginning with 500 merino ewes
and the requisite-number of bucks, may
calculate that, at the end of the year, he
will-have a flock of 1,000, with that
number of fleeces, weighing five pounds
or more each, for sale. Of these, he may
sell his 250 wethers for mutton, and
commence the second year with 750
ewes, to be again doubled. This can be
realized from the sheep feeding upon not
o exceed a mile square of pine ridge,
which, in the language of -those who
despise our lands, are "worthless."
About the only cost has been in herd-
ng, which may be done by a smart lad
Of twelve or fifteen-years, with the aid
of a shepherd dog, and be"driven each
light into their pen near the house.
Here is a good place to take an account
of stock, which would. stand about -as
ollows:- .. .
Dr. To 500 ewes at $2'50 $1,250
S" 10bucksat $3- . 30
pay of shepherd and dog,
p, O-*per month 240
Total outlay . .1,50
Cr. By 750 ewes at $2.50 $1,t75
5,000 lbs. wood at 20 cts. 1,000
250 wethers for market at
$2.50. .. .. 650
15buckat $3 45
Thus we have an increase of capital
above outlay of $2,050, or 185 per cent.
Can as great profit as this be made from
ny other species of husbandry ? Look-
ng at the matter in this light, one is
preparedd to agree with Lord Fitzherbert,
who wrote the first work upon agricul-
ture in the Eng'ish language in 152'4,
and said: 'Sheep is the most profitable
cattle man can raise." Their flesh is in
high demand as butchers' meat; their
leeces supply the raw material for the
clothing of more' than one-half of the
population of the world, and they fur-
nish the intensive farmer th% readiest
and cheapest means of keeping up the
fertility of the soil.
BENEFIT TO LAND.
4This last consideration is of vast im-
portance in resuscitating our burned-out
The method of their fertilizing may be
done much after the mode practiced in
penning cattle, by pens that shall con-
taim but little more space than will hold
the sheep, or about 600 square feet for
100 sheep, into which the sheep are to be
driven each night, and which should be
dog proof, and should not be used more
than one week before removal to other
ground,to prevent its becoming unliealth-
ful. It should be immediately plowed and
planted to some farm'or garden crop. If
the pen should become covered with a
coating of leaves, muck or other matters
that would not injure the fleeces, it
would increase the value of the fertil-
izer. The penning may be repeated
in Florida upon the same tracts
two or three times in the course of the
year. The droppings and urine of sheep
is the richest of all domestic animals,
and three sheep are a full equivalent for
a cow in the practice of penning, so
popular among Floridians.
HOW POOR PEOPLE CAN OWN SHEEP.
But we must close this already long
paper, with one more remark, in antici-
pation of an objection that may be
made, that few farmers in Florida have
sufficient means to make the first invest-
ment, nor have they the land on which
to herd the sheep. I reply to this, first,
if one man has not the $1,520 with which
to buy the 500 ewes, ten men may have
it, as that would be only $128 to each, or
the price of a quite common farm mule,
or ten cows, and they can be herded by
one shepherd and penned together. And,
second, if they have not the mile square
of piney woods, they can pursue the
practice of the country-herd them on
the unfenced lands of others, or of the
public. Inasmuch as the sheep are to
be herded and penned each night upon
the farm, the herder will get his break-
fast.and supper in the house, and sleep
there, and thus escape the exposure -of
the shepherds on the plains of Texas and
New Mexico, who are obliged to remain
with their herds night and day, without
shelter or cover.
Management of Geese.
There is very little, technical knowl-
edge involved in the "goose question,"
says the Poultry Journal, and yet in
this as in everything proposed to be
done it Is no disadvantage to know some-
thing about the matter. '
Three or four geese to a gander is
about the right proportion of the sexes,
and they will continue to breed and en-
joy health for years. Geese, like mules,
are said to be entirely exempt from the
malady known as "old age," or, if they
have it at all, it is only a slight attack,
and they emerge therefrom as young as
Geese lay very early in the season,and
should be allowed to sit as soon as they
become broody-about February or the
early part of March. When a goose has a
good nest,in a place safe from robb.rv it
is always best to let the eggs remain there
and she will begin to set at the proper
time without any outside interference.
Geese sit from thirty to thirty-five days,
are very faithful and persistent, never
leaving the nest except to satisfy the
craving of hunger, or for a bath, and are
loth to return.until their wants are satis-
fied. Therefore, it is best to provide the
necessities so there need be no excuse on
the part of mother goose.
The ganders need not be restrained dur-
ing incubation, as in the manner of some,
for they are harmless to the eggs and
young, and cheer and comfort to their
mates during the long and weary siege,
acting as sentinel to warn off approach-
ing danger and often doing battle in de-
fence of the garrison.
The hatching should be allowed td
proceed without interference from any
third party, and when fully accomplish-
ed goose and gosling should be penned
under good shelter. Feed on soft, diges-
tible food, such as boiled rice or oatmeal,
cornmeal, etc., -with lettuce or dande-
lion cut up fine or mixed therewith.
They should also have plenty of fresh
water in a 'shallow dish. After the
second week they may be allowed their
liberty. After this a. little -whole corn
at night and the attention necessary to
prevent decimation of the flock is all
the care required. But this' is not
essential, as a shallow tub set" in the (
ground answers every purpose except
that of furnishing food.
By common consent the Toulouse
goose is recommended as the best,
whether for flesh or feathers ; they are
also the largest and-not so noisy..as the
common goose. %. 1 .
-Considering the small amount of
trouble involved in raising geese the
nomial expense and heavy profits, it is a
matter of some surprise that this kind.'
of stock is not more generally diffused.
It is my candid opinion, says'Fanny
Field, the popular poultry writer, that
a good incubator is a good 'thing in 'the
hands of the poultry-raiser who has any -
use for an incubator, and a poor,' unre-
liable incubator is no use to anybody.
The poultry raiser *ho -desires to get out i
a large number of chickens in time to
have them ready for market when they
bring the highest price needs and should
have a good incubator; but the farmer
who only raises two or three hundred
chickens a year dose not need one; he
can hatch and raise that number cheaper
with hens. There are a few good in-
cubators in market; machines that will,
iftgiven intelligent care, hatch as well
as hens. Those persons who are
thinking of buying an incubator should
bear- in mind that the chickens need
care after they are out of the machine.
The incubator will hatch the chickens,
but it won't raise them afterwards.
It is folly to hatch incubator chickens
unless you have the patience for giving
them proper care afterwards.
Warmth is life for young chicks.
One thing that don't pay: having too
many eggs to a hen.
The shortest cut to relieving egg-bound
hens is the axe cut.
Dirty eggs should be cleaned as soon as
gathered. Shells ore porous, and if dirty
taint the meat.
Of this there can be no doubt: fowls do
better if .not kept in the same yard area
Gapes, it is said by one speaking with
authority, may be cured by the use of a
teaspoonful of turpentine to one and a
half pints of corn meal, mixed with
warm water and fed to the fowls.
Sour milk mixed with two parts
ground oats and one part wheat mid-
dlings, is an excellent egg-producing
food for hens, and will greatly promote
laying, as well as assisting to keep the
hens in health.
It is said that epicures prize the poul-
try that has had a good feeding of
roasted corn and celery for a few days
before killing. For laying fowls, corn
treated in the way mentioned is a wel-
come change of diet. Let these things
Accumulating filth is a prolific source
of disease, especially gapes, which is es-
sentially a filth production. After a hlien
yard has been cleaned, to sprinkle it with
a solution of two gallons of water, one
gill of carbolic acid and one pound of
copperas will destroy disease germs,
rendering the place sweet.
Roup comes usually from having damp
or drafty roosting places. The first
symptoms show themselves in a swollen
head, one side at a time, something like
the "mumps," which, if not stopped,
spreads to the other side, and a slimy
discharge from the eyes appears. Be-
ing very contagious, all sick fowls should
be isolated. A good treatment is feed-
ing with oatmeal with some green food,
giving one grain of sulphate of zinc
daily, and washing the head in tepid
,le lime for hatching is February and
March. It will be found quite early
enough for most breeders. The
first warm days of springtime have a
wonderful effect in developing young
chicks, and those 'that are hatched be-
fore that time, unless most carefully
brooded, are very liable to have their
lives cut short or their growth perma-
nently affected by the frosty air of the
earlier months.-National Monitor.
R. N. ELLIS, C. E. A. E. M CLURE, Architect.
ELLIS & McCLURE,
Architects & Civil Enlgiers;
HOTELS, PUBLIC & PRIVATE BUILD-
INtS, SANITARY ENGINEERING, &o.
P. O. ox784. Rooms 7 and 8 Palmetto Block,
w. -. PIILTLOW,
FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PACKING,
FORWARDING AND COMMISSION HOUSE.
Usully have orders to work our consignments into, enablingpus to make PROMPT BETUIIS
Extensive Facilities for- Repacking
for outside parties, to which prompt attention is given. Packages suitable for
SHIPPING ORANGES, STRAWBERRIES AND VEGETABLES,
both made up and in the flat, always on hand, and for sale. Also, Hoops; Wrapping Paper, ete
Best of location, viz:- ..W."
S., F. & W. R. R. WHARF,
Circulars and Stencils on application. JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
"r. -size 40x1l0 0 on Lake Kingsley, Clay Co., only S8. A
fROVEoet n.t in 50 choice a5-acre tract jfor an ORANGE
GROVE costs but $50.
S High rolling Pine Lands, Salubrious Climate, a good invest-
Smet. Send 2-eent stampfor Maps, etc., or remit P. O. Order or |I II
Bank Draft to JOHN T. TALBOTT, and get Warranty Deed, Title FL I
TIOPIO.ALT, TIAN_-D OOI=AwN-Y,
P. 0. Box 158,Jacksonvillle, Florida, 39 W. Bay St.
. P. CHAMBERLAIN.
SO U '.L'J- FOIO IDA.
A. W. ObOSADI
Real Estate Agency,
TAMPA, FLORIDA. Office: Twiggs St., two blocks east of Passenger depot.
Florida Winter Homes
ORIOLE, HERNANDO COUNTY.
Beautiful location, facing on Lake Oriole and on the South Florida Railroad.
Lands all high and dry. New settlement; between twenty-five and thirty new houses.
A Church, Scho-. i.iy' mails, stores, bakery, saw mill and hotel. Large area already-planted
in orange groves. Choice building lots for. winter homes for sale cheap. Ten, twenty and
for acre orange grove lots. A healthy settlement in a healthy State. -
SCalln on or Address,
J. W. GROVES, or CLARKSON & ROBERTSON,
Oriole, Florida. Jacksonville, Florida.
W. N, JUSTICE
Wholesale Commission Merchant,
NO. .318 NORTE[ WATER STREET, PHILADELPHIA.
Specialties: SOUTHERN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. Consignments Solicited. Return
.ade onday of sale. -
J". O^'. B3LOXTNTT,
*. BARTOW, FLORIDA.
Orange-Groves, Town Lots in Bartow, Winter Haven, Haskell, Punta Gorda and Charlotte
Harbor, fox Sale. Unimproved Lands in small and largo tracts, at $2.50 per acre, up. Choice ten
and forty acre tracts of good, high. rolling Pine Lands, near S. F. R. R. depot, at $20 to $35 per
acre. VA-propert guaranteed to be as represented or money refunded.
W Money Loans, well secured, negotiated at 15 per cent, net, to the lender.
ONE WAY OF MAKING PLANT LABELS
THAT WILL LAST YEARS.
Care of Spring Lambs-A Remedy for
Hog Cholera- How and When to
Water Horses-Simple and Ornamental
Beds for Flower Gardens.
When the question of laying out a
flower garden arises, as it will with many
at this season of the year, the locality is
the first thing to be decided upon. As to
"this, it is not advisable to renounce a
smooth, velvety expanse of grass in front
of the house in favor of flower beds. The
cultivated taste forms a lawn unbroken by
beds of flowers as thie most pleasing and
suitable approach to a house. Such renad-
ers as accept this idea will therefore locate
their flower gardens at one side or in the
rear of the dwelling. Where there is a
veranda at the back of the house this lat-
ter is an enjoyable location. The inmates
of the house enjoy a flower garden most
when it is within view of sitting or living
rooms. With the rounds of daily work
conime manuy opportunities to admire the
Beauty of the flowers close at hand. Then,
too, being much in sight, plants will not
be neglected, as might Ie the case if a
special visit were required in order to in-
TASTEFUL DEISIMoN iFOr FLOWER GARDEN.
The next consideration is the plan or-
design by which the flower beds and the
intervening walks shall be laid out. It is
Snot. well for the amateur to undertake
anything intricate in this line. Consider-
able_ experience is required to produce a
plan by which entirely pleasing results
are dbtaiued. The accompanying cut is
:-advised by The New York World as one
: of the simplest, 'and at the same time
most pleasing and graceful, arrangements
for a flower garden of ordinary dimen-
sions. Were the plot is lomg and some-
what uarro'w uthis',deicr, is easily made as
a parallelogram; where the plot is a
square it is as i'eaddily adapted to that.
-.The s ze of the beds will vary with the
size of the plot of ground, and ih.f-n large
1- 1 ,ll alT':'rd quite as nruc h opport-unmity for
-'--asL sjilftu. massing and combining of dif-
.r- urt.-L, varieties of plants as m..t readers
desire. The paths aboutt the beds should
be kept clean, firm. and compact, and the
-_ le.-s, for I:,,s-t effect, ought to ibe soi',i-'i
(on -fe-- edges. It should be remembered
to un.e lI. cgovwing plants in bed- nearest
thIe hlitse aiMtpaths and to set tail sorts
in the bn'kI-aroird. In circular bedls it is
,alhIaits best, of course, to place tihec tallest
growing plants in the center, as it is inall
beds that are viewedd from all idles biit a
be.l that is only seen from the front, like
a border, having a hedge, or scluething
Like it for a. backUr0-and, should have the
Back row of plants the tallest and the front
: ones the shl.rtest.
S The se-'oid cuct affuris a iM'de choice in
motlels for ornarni-ntal beds. ,Ior n -:ri]llU
garden Vick rtconiluen.is cres'ont-., sti ras
and dmtinonis, as beds easy to un ial... aid
care for, and in his popular monthly gies
souie maiuable hint tfor ariem-igin. .:-n-
tr: sting colors in them as f-:.':.'s- A
crescent can he elgect aronind vwmirli pink
phlox with a ,-enter tiot of wnit.e, ant tlhe
effect, will be very pleasing. A stur or
diamond can be plantedi m ithb tows of cldf-
ferent, colored flo.vers, or can be edgor]
with one color aint the center filled in
witlh another, in a mass, r',ihci that in
rows. The phlox and aster are two of our
best annuaJt for this uae. A crescent., in
which the inner curve is frout-ing the
house, can be made very effective by.
planting it to asrers of diffet-ent bei;gii.i.
SUse the tall growers for the further edlge
-.of the Clu-re. .In front of these plant,
some of a contrasting color andlw lon'er
growth. Edge the bied in froni.' with
dwarf varieties. Catalogues wil tell you
about the habit of each variety.
0OPN AAtENT.AL BEDS. -
Stars or di amends can be planted with
tall .gromN'ing plants in the center, using
lower growers about them a'd edginug the
beds with such plants as sweet al'.isum.,
candy tuft or nugnonette. A .chari'"-' .
circular bedl can.be made by usinf 1.
sis in the enter i u sufflcie- e r P-
form a o ass when the po i wit gl-to
oped. Surround it rwit. Teink al
usen ignonette as Uaet U phloxat amid
a plant of pere or -er. If y.-,u have
- tense blue var'l hi llakespr of the.in-
effiecto ...f .ety to set in the center the
verv e t hei ghtened 1. o You can make
ums o/f -tive combinatoimns with gerani-
ties ar.-different colors. Tile pink varie-
rities. liot pleasing when used in quan-
mor It mwill be found that aIl plants are
in aC, effective by themselves, or at least
S usiderable quantities, than when
imxed with others..
Remedy for Hog Cholera. .
-.. The Southerni Cultivator some time ago
published a' communication from a well
S known planter of Calhoun county, Geor-
gia, telling how he -had checked the.rav-
ages of cholera among his swine by
mixing with their food a moderate quan-
tity of soda. A recent issue of'The Culti-
vator contains a Jetter from W. K.
Crosswell, Marionville, S. C., who tried the
remedy. For ten days after the cholera
made its appearance he fed his hogs a
liberal quantity of soda and salt, mixed
wit hi ground food, twice a day, after that
giving occasional doses. He claims that
the sick animals recovered and lie has not
had a case of cholera since.
Treatment of Spring Lambs.
After the lamb is a few days old, if
thought necessary, it may be itaughlt to
suck some warmed sweetened cow's milk,
and any help to its growth, in the shape
of extra food, will be useful. There is
danger, however, of over feeding a young
lamb. which may be worse than under
feeding it, and caution ought to be exer-
cised iu this respect; no more should be
attempted than to encourage a thrifty
growth.' After the lamb is about one
month old it may be taught to lick some
bran, with a little salt mixed with it, or a
little sifted oatmeal. As a rule, it will be
safer to depend on enriching apd increas-
ing the ewe's milk rather than to force
the-lamb to swallow food which its stom-
ach is not prepared yet to completely di-
It is of importance to prevent the lambs
from being annoyed and depleted of their
blood by ticks or other vermin. To this
end the ewes should have been dipped in
the fall to 'ri them of the ticks. If, how-
ever, a few appear on the lambs, try hand
picking; in case the pests are too nunm :r-
ous, the lambs must be dipped.
How and "dWhen to Water Horses.-
If the owners of horses would bear in
mind the fact that the stomach of a horse
will contain only from twelve to sixteen
quarts, and that, therefore, a pailful of
water will fill the stomach of an ordinary
animal, much colic and indigestion would
The giving of water is not less import-
ant than feeding. During a journey, and
especially in hot weather, the team should
be allowed to drink at every opportunity
-if they will. But at no time should they
be allowed to fill themselves with water.
Four quarts is enough at any time, unless
a long distance has been driven. Then
'four quarts is enough fot the first draft.
At the end of twenty minutes each horse
should be allowed a pailful if he will
drink it. Generally he will not do so, but
if allowed lie may take two or three pail-
fuls at the first draft, and always to his
damage. The water drank does not re-
main in the stomach. It passes into the
large intestine and thence to the bowels,
being taken up along the 'passage by the
absorbents. Iflarge quantities of water
are given, the horse sweats or stales pro-
fusely, and the system is depleted. Colic,
indigestion and other complications aris-
ing from improper watering and feeding
kill more horses than all other causes
combined. -. -
Points About Silos and Ensilage.
The ensilage .system is becoming more
popular every day. The expense of con-
sti n:tmng a silo is n't. necessarily great.
Building it of stone, cutting or chaffing
the material,-putting it in as hastily-as
possible andl hbeaily eigltia it-all
these have been fouid'l not tob he .ls'l.itely
iie.estary. A sUA o can b", built of lumber,
the matptrial put in slowly, each layer two
or three feet deep being allowed to heIct,
and the whule car, be covered so as to
keep out the nir. The results will be sat.
If you ti want to make an experiment take
a bog-head, pack it with eet-u forage and
heavily weightit.i The chief points to be
observed are exclusion of air and solidity
of foundation. /
An Improved Plant Label. ,
Various-devices to prevent the washing
off of the flames written on plant labels
,have been invented from time to time. .A
n.-\i- l or:., suggest4ed 1.by an Illinois corre-
is shown in the illustration.
.: "It '2. + !" 5S
-_\ .f ,' ,'^ -' /
-NOVEL PLANT LABEL. /
This consists in fadtening with a malll
screw a short piece of label over the name,
as seen at Fig. 1, a cross section of the
label is shown fit. Fig 2, and at Fig. 3 ltb
corer is parLly r'isedl. This arran nt
may be applied to any sze L.1
Remo rin the Sigita Fings.
n of people every morning look
the sinal ngs o the public build-
ings in the cities to .know the forecasts of
weather for the day, but to great num-
bers they are only an exasperation, be-
cause -the interpretation of the red and
blue moon and star and crescent are con-
tinually slipping from mind, and the
memorandum card is always getting mis-
laid. An easy method of fixing the read-
ings in mind has been suggested by an ex-
change, and is as follows: Red, the color
of fire, means aommmt of heat; blue; the
color of the sky, amount of moisture; and
in each case that figures- containing most
surface means most in quantity. Thus,
the red moon means much heat--rising
temperature; red, star, less heat-station-
ary temperature; red crescent, less heat-
lower. temperature. The blue moon. is
much moisture-general rain or snow;
blue star, less moisture-local rain or
snow; blue crescent, least moisture-fair
weather. The "cold wave" is easily re-
membered without mnemonics.
milg U flidft
FOR HONOR'S SAKE.
By B. L. FABJEON,
Author of "Great Porter Square," "The
Bright Star of Life," Etc.
PART THE FIRST.
THE TRIAL OF EDWARD LAYTON.
The Attorney General-There is gener-
ally something in thie gait of a man which,
within limits, denotes his age-that is to
say, as whether he is young or old? Can-
not you be guided by that fact?
SWitness-Neo, sir. I paid no particular
attention to him. It was my master I
was chiefly observing.
The Attorney General-You have not
the slightest idea as to the age of the man
who came out of the Metropolitan Musio
hall with the prisoner.
Witness-Not the slightest, sir.
The Attorney General-Did you observe
nothing particular as to his dress? Was
there any peculiarity about it?
Witness--I observed iiothing pa rtic.ular
abortf-im \Vihatever I micht say of the
iman, 'p.liug such little attentiou'to him,
'.',tiim b't lie worth much. .
The At riii-iy Gecntral-I' recognize that
you are m:-c 1ing your evidence in a very
fair mnaiier, and if I press you upon
an& point it is for the purpose of assist-
in4 your memory.. You i ecollect that the
Ptri--,ii:r on-that. night wore a coat of a
tl riicr pattern? .
3 Witness-Yes, sir. He had on ain ulster
jwirh a Scotch check, which couldn't be
The Attorney Geineral-What wvas it
lined ,ie .'-
Witriie.-:s-With blue cloth.
The Attorney General--He wore this
ulster wvlien lie entered the iniis-ic hall P?
Witness-Yes, sir; and when he came
out of the music hall.
The Attorney General-It is this which
makes me think it likely you might have
observed some distinguishing mark in th(
dress of thIe. man who came out with
him ? I I
Witness-I have nothing in my .rind,
sir, respecting his dress. .
-Thef- Aittoriney Gc-neral-V:.ry well, I
will iio longer press it As to his hc.zlit'
WVtiiess-As well as I calln rI'cl!lculi',er,
he was about thile same., heigIlt, as uiv
Thie Attornicy General-Dil you notice
the color .f his hair, or whether it Miai
lolig 01o short"
Thii .A' ttoricey General-ift it had been
long --h te hair, you voutld most likely
"tv,:. noticed it?
Witness--Inu that case, yes, sir.
The Attorney Genterail-Wm imay as
'sunie, then, thct he hald not long mwlhite
IhI ir? -
>Wituess-1 think I am safein saying
te(at much. '
4heAltortuev General-Or white hair
Witness-1 -.. '", like to commit
myself there, sir. It fh, hair had been
White and short, I doL,'t, think it would
have struck me. __",.
,-^e Attceyei< l-Did"']B the
prisoner walk-out of sight? -
-Witness-No, sir.. They walked te 1'
corner of a street, and stood there -
tug for a little while-I shotild say f"o
fltften -minutes. Then the man
went away, O l street, which hid
him from mseteX -iaster returned to>
the carriage. -0"1
ThIetrt'.'v.eneral- While they were
talking, their backs were still tul'ned to
The Attorney General-Was their any-
thing observable in their manner of con-
versing? Were they calm? Did they re-
main perfectly still?
Witness-No, sir. My master was calm
enough, but his companion appeared to be
very excited. My master seemed to be
trying to persuade him to do something.
The Attorney General-From their at-
titude, should you have assumed that his
Witness-I can't possibly say, sir.
The Attorney General-Well, then, the
man went away and the prisoner returned
to you. What were his next directions?
Witness--To drive to Bloomsbury
square,' and stop where he directed me.
The Attorney General-You did so?
Here and There.
Iowa has issued a sweeping quarantine
proclamation against Illinois. It abso-
lutely prohibits all calves and stock cattle
from any part of Illinois, and all cattle
kept within the last six months in Cook
county (Chicago) or any counties adjoin-
ing it. Other cattle must come with un-
doubted assurance of being free from ex-
posure to contagious disease.
The timbered lands of the south are fast
falling into the hands of wealthy syndi-
cates of both native and foreign capitalists.
About thie middle of last month a Dutch
syndicate of bankers in Amsterdam, Hol-
land, acquired from the, Land and Mort-
gage company (limited) nearly 900 square
miles of heavily timbered lands in west
Florida. This is the largest single trans-
action in Florida since the great Disston
sale in 1881
All kinds of stock, except sheep and
swine, have decreased in value in Dakota.
In California sheep are advancing in
price, but horses, mules, cattle and hogan
are much lower in price than they were
two years ago.
SSheep are proving unprofitable in Kan-
sas, v.-here, however, there is a. large in-
crease of other farm animals.
A correspondent writing from Fort As-
siniboine, M. T., classes the winter just
past as the most severe one Montana has
experienced in twenty-five years, and be-
lieves that it marks an epoch in cattle
raising in the northwest.
Over $2,400,000,000 is the. estimated
value of the horses mules, cows, oxen
and other cattle, sheep and swine in this
country on Jan: 1, 1887.
The Attorney General-And then ?
Witness-My master and the lady en-
tered the restaurant.
The Attorney General-What did your
master say to you ?
Witness-He told me to wait near the
The Attorney General-Did you know
what time it was when you drew up at
Witness-It was 10:50.
The Attorney General-How long were
you kept .waiting ?
Witness--xactly an hour and five
GiWER, APRIL 27, 1887.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, APRIL 27, 1887.
Witness-Yes, sir, When we reached
the square in Queen street he pulled the
.check string, and I stopped there. He
got out of the carriage and looked about
The Attorney General-As if in search
of some person?
The Attorney General-Did hlie make
any remark to you?
Witness-He saW, "If you see a young
lady in a gray cloak pass by, you can tell
her I am in the square."I
The Attorney General-Did he remain
with you after that?
Witness-No, sir; he walked right round
the square. When he came up to me he
asked if I had seen a young lady dressed
as he had described. I told him no, I
hadn't, and he bade me keep a sharp look-
out, and left me again."
The Attorney General-To walk round
the square again?
Witness-Yes, sir. He walked round
three or four times, I should say, and
every time he came'up to me he asked me
if I was sure I had not seen the young
lady; if I was sure she had not passed me.
I gave him the same answer as 1 did before,
and he left me again. He could not have
been more than half way round when I
saw a lady in a gray cloak coming my
way. She was walking hurriedly, and
looking about her. I advanced to speak
to her, but she started back the moment I
made a step toward her, and ran to the
other side of the road, and crossed into the
square at a distance from me. I should
have gone up to her had I not been afraid
to leave my horses; but seeing that she
began to walk round the square in the op-
posite direction my master had taken. I
was satisfied that they must meet.
The Attorney General-In point of fact,
did they meet? Relate what you saw that
bears upon it.
Witness-A little while afterward I saw
them together, talking to each other. They
did not walk on the pavement close to the
houses, but on the side, close to the rail-
ings. I don't know how many times they
made the circle of the square, but they
must have been away about twenty imin-
utes.pr so. Then they came up to meto-
gether, and my master opened the door of
the carriage, and the lady got hi. When
she was inside he said to me that there
.was no occasion for me to mention what
I had seen, or that he had spoken to me
about the lady.
The Attorney General-All this time
was it raining?
The Attorney General-Did they have
Witness-Neither, of them, sir.
The Attorney General-They must have
Witness-,-They couldn't help getting
The Attorney General-Did they seem
to mind itW, -
.Witness--They ,didn't say anything
about it. '- 1 ... .
S The Attorney General-While:they were
walking round the square, did they meet
any pi-rs'oiH 1 :
Witnes*.-A few passed tbeii anid they
got out of their way, it seemed to me.
The Attorney General-As if they de-
sired to avoid observation.'
Witness-Yes, sir. '
The Attorney General-That would be
a repsoniable construction to put upon the
I circunustauce of their walking, during
their conversation, on the least frequented
side of thi- square, near tae railings,;'
Witness-Yes, I think so.
The Attorney General-Although the
neighborh-ood is a fairly busy oue during
the day, are there many people passing
through Bloowsbury square at night'
Witness-Not many. I should say.
The Attorney General-The square ;is
not rerty well lighted up?
The Attorney General-:Did you sed a
policeman while you were waiting?
Witness-One, and only once.
The Attorney General-Did'he speak to
Witness-No, sir, .. .
The Attorney General-He passed on
-through the .square?
Witness-Yes,. sir. .
The Attorney General-Reference has
been wade to an ulsdter of a peculiar pat-
tern wfuch the prisoner was in the habit
of wearing.- You said it was an ulster
which coilii notl be mistaken. Are you
certain of that.
The Attorney General-ls it within your
recoller-tion how long the prisoner has
Witness-He had it maidelast.year.
The Attorney General-Would yourde-
oguize it f you saw it? -
The Attorney General-Is .this it? (Ul-
ster produced. ,
Witness-Yes, that is it.
The Attorney General-You swear to itP
The Attorinev General-You have said
that the prisoner came out of his house
wearing this ulster. 'Now, on the occasion
you have described, when the prisoner left
"his carriage and returned to it, was this
ulster everoff his back?
'pitness-He wore it all the time.
TWTli^V ney General-You are posi-
tive lie dl aiany tkne leave you with
this ulster on, d return wearing an-
Other? .... "
* Witness-I am posfO5 e of it.. *:
The Attorney Genera--After the lady
got into the'carriage, ai tlhe prisoner
told you their* Was no occasion for0"r-5y to
mention whaf. you had seen, or that&
had spoken t4 you about the lady, what
did he do? I
Witness-4e told me to drive to Pre.
vest's restaurant, in Church street, Soho,
and then he 4ot into the carriage.
The Attormey General-At any time'
during the njht did you see the lady's
Wrtness-l-ot at any time.
The Attorjoey General-Were you fa-
miliar with Bevost's restaurant ?
Witness-Ifo, I had never been there
and I was it doubt where Church street
was. I had p inquire my way. -
The Attorpy General--Could not the
prisoner tell Iou ?
Witness-tasked him, and he said he
could not dhit me.
The' Attoiey General-However, you
found the reaurant ?
- "N .
Prisoner-Still with my ulster on? .
Prisoner-Did I turn my face toward
you? C .
SWitness-No, sir. '
Prisoner-If I had done so, could ypu
have recognized my features in the dark-
Prisoner-You know nothing more?
Witness-Nothing more, sir..'
Prisoner-I do not put the question of
fensively, you have been a good servant, :
and I have never had occasion to find
fault with you, but you are positive that
The Attorney General-That will bring the version you have given of my ater
it to five minutes to 12? movements is correct?
Witness-Yes, sir. Witness (who appeared much distressed.
The Attorney General'-Did the prisoner -I am positive, sir.
then come from the restaurant ? Prisoner-I hate nothing more to ask,
Witness-Yes, accompanied by the lady. Moorhouse.
The Attorney General-It was still rain- Witness-Thank you, sir.
Ljg? Re-examined-You are a strict teeto-
Witness-Raining hard now. taler?
The Attorney General-Did he appear Witness--Yes, sir. '
flurried? Was he excited? The Attorney General-Did you take
any ale or Spirits during the-day?
Witness-His movements were very Witness--No, Sir.'I hav'e touched
hurried, Which I thought was due to the neither for years. touched
rain, and perhaps to his having had a lit- nTher Attorney General- The prisoner's
tie too much wine. He opened the door of Te Attoneya nrt ual or er'
the carriage quickly, and the lady jumped fiure being familiar to you, andyour eye-
in, to avoid the rain, I suppose.. My mas- sight being so strong that you cmold d is-
tergotinquil ater her. tinguLish him in the darkness, is it likely
terg ttonekyateeral he gavethat you could-be mistaken in him on this
The Attorney General--But he gavenih?-, .
you instructions P Witness (reluctantly)--It is not likely,
Witness-All he said was, "Home," Witness ctanly)-It i no likely, :
The Attorney General-Calmly? The Attorney iierl-Sarcely poS-
Witness-No, sir.. Although he. only sible!, An e e --arcy pos :
said one word, I noticed that his voice ite- arl p le sir
was thick. It was because of that I sus- Wit n anely possie, eb. -
-pected he had taken a little too much Cl A IPTER I. .
wine. '* APTER 111
The Attorney General-Did you observe EVIDENCE. OF ADOLF WOLSTEIN, WA4TER.
that hle had his ulster on ? The next-witness called was Adoltf
Witness-Yes, he had it on. Wolfstein, a waiter in Prevost's res- .
The Attorney General-You drove home taurant. ..
-and then? The Attorney General-Your name .is .
Witness-My master got out, helped the Adolf WVolfstein? -
lady out-no, I am making a mistake. Witness-Yes.' --
The Attorney General--Commence The Attorney General-What is your
again.. -. :trade? : :' ''
.....Wi.tness--My. ,master got, out, 'pe[jed Witness-I am a waiter. ..
the street door with his latch key, :1 n 're- Tihe 'Attornley Geneal-Wh-ere are you
turned to the carriage and helped the lady employed? .. -
out; and they both passed into the house. Witness-At Prevost's, in Churech street, .
The Attorney General Were his ac- Soho. .. '
tons steady? The Attorney Gcneral--How loghave
Witness-They were not, sir.. e you been, in ,:-uniplyineit there.' -. :
seemed to be in a strange hurry. : Witie'-s-A little more than seven .
The Attorney'General-Didl he ,-iy nuoth- weeks. .
ing to you? : The A.ttorney General-Do you remem- .
Witness-Nothing.- And.- thinking my betr tie ilate on %vliih you c-ntered your :
day's work was dver; I tIooli ti-e iiorses to preFeilt sre' kei? -
the stable: Iwas glad enough. Witne-s-Yes; it was the 25th of March. '-.
The Attorney -General-The prisoner The Attorhiy General-So tiat the25th
was in the habit of. carrying a latch key? of March is impressed upon your memory? -
Witness-Yes; and always let hrinself Wit-.s--lt is for another reason in- -
into. the house. pressed upon myn memory. -- ..
The Attorney General-LDid you observe -The Attorney General-Simply answer
whether the gas in the hall was lighted? the questions I put to you. You are a
Witness It. was. It was A-lways- kept .German.?. ..- .. -
on when. my master was out. His habit Witness-No, I am'French.
was to turn it. off himself,.the, servants The Attorney.General--But your naine '
sometimes being, abed. is German, is it not? -
The Attorney General-Now, during the W netne-"-Wolfsten is. it vwa my-fa- ..
time you were in the prisoner's employ- ther's nanme, v-.-ho ettled in France when -- -
"intitVhadY you ever p-issed such a day as he was a yo:nig nianii.. ..
this you have described' The Attrney General-You understand :
W"itr es Never. -. English perfectly'
The Atturiiey Gerneral-Did you ever W uies.-Oli, yes; perfectly. 1 spoke it
know him to come home %with a lady, wheu I was a boy. h .-
alonie, at that hour of the night' The Attorney General-Look at the
Witness-Never. ^+ : ;prisoner -Do you recognize him?' .
The Attorney General-All the incidents Witness--Y-s. '
of the day were unusual. The Ai'.rhey (-eneral-Did you see him .
Witnessi-Very mnusnal. Thought them orn the. 2.ib of March .
very str-Ange Witne-s-Ves Monsieur (ame to the
The Att.,rney General-The question I restaiilt i: that day.
am about to put is, in another firrn, partly The Attorney General-At what hourly
a repetition of one yon hbare already an- Witness-At 11 o'clock at night.
swered. .Did you ever know th<: prisoner The Attorney General-WVas he alone ?
to c ame hlon t in the carriage late at night Witness-N6; monsieur had a lady with
with a strinue lady;' that. is, with any him? -
othei lady than his-wife?' The Attorney General-Did he occupy a
Wit ness-Never. With a'gentleman private room? If-you wish to explain
sometimes, and sometimes with inore than yourself on this matter you can do so.
one gentleman, but never with a strange Witness-I was coming down stairs
lady. when I saw monsieur enter from the street
The Attorney General-He occasionally with a .lady. He looked about him, and
cane home late with friends?- seeing me, asked if he could have supper
Witness-Oh, yes. but then his wife was in a private room. I showed monsieur and
always with him. n- madame up stairs to a room in which I
The Attorney General-During the last served.
few months was this usual? The Attorney General-What occurred
Witness-No. Mrs. Layton was an in- then? .
valid and seldom drove out, not once dur- Witness-I handed monsieur the menu ?
ing the last three or four months-at night. The Attorney General-In English, the
The Attorney General-On the day we billof fare?
have gone through, the 25th of March, did Witness-Yes.
you see aiything-of Mrs. Layton? The Attorney General-What did he
Witness-No-, sir: she was seriously ill. order? .
The Attorney General-That,howeveris Witness-Tortue claire.
not within ou personal observation? The Attorney General-In English, clear
Witness-No, sir. My.duties were-out- turtle soup.
side the house". Witness-Yes.
The Atti-rney General-The lady whom The Attorney General-Did he consult
he brought home on the night of the 25th the lady?
of March was not his wife? *' Witness-No.
Witness-No, sir. Mirs. Layton had The Attorney General-Was he long In
been confined to her room for several selecting the kind of soup he ordered?
weeks Witness-No. It was on the instant.
The Attorney General-You are quite The Attorney General-He merely .
positive on this point? glanced at the bill of fare? -C
Witness-Quite positive, sir. Witness-That is so.
The Attorney General-That will do. The Attorney General-Did you-get the
(To the surprise of every one in court, soup and place it before him?
who expected that the witness would be Witness-I first asked mosi .eur, "For
subjected to a long cross-examnination,'the twoP"' He said quickly, "Yes, for two." .
T hen I serve it.
prisoner asked butfew questions.) .ITen I serv ed Tt tII
Prisoner-You say that at five minutes The Attorney General -In a tureen?
to 12 1 came out of Prevost's restaurant? Witness-Yes, in a tureen.
Witness-You and the lady, sir The Attorney General-When you
Prisoner-It was a dark night laced the soup before him, did hlie order
Witness-It was, sir. ... .. any wine?
Prisoner-Did I call for you? Witness-I handed monsieur "the win6
Witness-No, sir. I saw you come out list, and he said, "Champagne." I asked
of the restaurant with the lady, and I him of what kind. He said, "The best."
drew up at once. I was within half a The Attorney General-You brought
dozen yards of the door. best?
SPrisoner-When the lady and I got into Witness-Yes. ?lthe most
rZ a 1 uTh''e Attorney tGenei
t',ioityiage, as you say, aud I called out The Attorney Gener t
"Home1)lt S,2 observed that my voice was expensive? sity. '.
thick and my mamn'r flu'ried. Witness- y General-When yo.
Witness-Yes, sir. The vine before him ob-
Prisoner-Did itnoccurm t you then, or, P1h "thingthat- .
does it occur to you now, tha the voice6 ?ne -
which uttered that word was not Oy'- -- u yold
voice? r L.e; -ruck y"c d asun..,.
0..";it was' that uItak, l
Witness-No, sir. -, they shou l thatv iee oth '
Prioner-You are certain it iineir soup or have fsed b ut the .y
Woitns-e ssi. y,'n had not drun it. seai;bt h"
Prisoner--I vore my ulster? fred from the te t en o th i -
Prisoner-You drove home, a Th .tItno:t touched.
saw me open the street door with
lady? -"'r e .
Witness-Yes, sir. o n. -eatmn- engage dn conver-
\ l'~(TRtoBc>ay .
\ o o '? .
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. APRIL 27, 1887.
all knights shall appear in the costume The fruits we have in bearing are the A FARMERS' CLUB.
lrWy W fld. which they represent. banana, lime, avocado pear, sapodilla,
Early in the season we cautioned our sugar apple, guava, pomegranate and
State News in Brief' orange growers against hasty and pre7- grape. we have other fruit trees but An Example Which Should be
State News in Brief. mature shipment of their fruit, and stat- not in bearing. Imitated in Every Locality.
-The Ocklawaha boats have been ed the belief that this season they would We think the time is not far distant The Manatee River Farmers' Club
withdrawn. excape damage by frost, and by holding when there will be a railroad to Marco. held their regular meeting on the 1st
-Work is progressing on the Winter on until the fruit was in perfect condi- There are about eleven feet of water on Tuesday in April, the 5th inst., in the
Park and Orlando Railroad. tion and the glut in the market, which the bar and it can easily be made three hammock garden of Mr. A. J. Pettigrew.
-A new canning factory at Apalachi- nearly always occurs at the beginning of feet deeper. From here south to Cape The president and eleven members
cola is said to be a.certainty, the shipping season, was over, far better Sable there are not more than six feet were in attendance. After assembling,
-From some cause the LeConte pear prices would be realized and a better of water to the keys, and the mainland the club visited the many crops in cul-
trees about Lloyd's are dropping their name given to our fruit. What we pre- is ten miles farther back This Is bound tivation in company with Mr.:Petti-
frui'. dicted has been realized. The latter snip tobe the end of a railroad some day. grew, who explained his manner of cul-
-There were set out during the ments of fruit have commanded profit- W. T. COLLIER. tivatioa, and gave his opinion and experi-
month of February and March seven able prices, and a large portion of the crop MARCO, Monroe Co., Fla. ence with the crop. At eleven o'clock
five-acre groves within the limits of held until lately has established an ex- the meeting was called to order by the
Orange City. cellent reputation for Halifax River SUB-TROPICAL EXPOSITION. president, who directed the secretary to
-The track laying forces on the F. R. oranges, neither has any loss from freez- read the minutes and constitution of
& N. line have reached the Hillsboro ing occurred.-Halifax Journal. the club; which was done, apd the same
river, some fourteen miles north of Plan of Organization and Ap- was approved. The following gentlemen
-A. M. Wilson, of Miakka, has been THE TEN THOUSAND ISLANDS. pointment of Committees. signed the constitution: C. L Dunham,
PAt City. WloD. C. Underhill, W. B. Hudson, G. H.
sent to the Everglades by the Govern- The following is the plan of organiza- Wyatt, Dan'1 Lloyd, W. E. Driscoll, A.
ment to locate the Indians there on A Peculiar and Little Known tion for the proposed Sub-Tropical Ex- ,P. Curry. J. R. Curry, E. E. Johnson, C.
homesteads. Portion of Our Coast. position, which was adopted at the re- V. S. Wilson, J. C. Phillips, A. J. Petti-
-The people of Santa Rosa are boast- cent meeting of the special committee grew.
ing of a big water oak growing near That portion of the southern coast of in Jacksonville: D. C. Underhill, Daniel Lloyd and G.
Milton, which has a limb spread of 111 Florida which extends from Cape Sable 1. Its name shall be "The Florida H. Wyatt, were elected to act with the
feet, a circumference of 16 feet and a northwestward some sixty or seventy Sub-Tropical Exposition." president and secretary as an Executive
height of nearly 100 feet. miles to Marco Inlet, consists for the 2. It sha1l be held annually at Jack- Committee.
-It is said that they charge fifteen most part of an impenetrable mangrove sonville, Florida, and shall be kept open On motion, it was directed that the
cents for a drink of buttermilk at Key swamp, threaded by innumerable shal- for as long a period as it shall be found next meeting be held on the second
West, but as a sort of offset they fling the low creeks, few of which are navigable advantageous, beginning with the win- Tuesday in May (instead of the 1st
customers four dozen oranges, and tell even by small boats. The groves of ter of 1887-8. Tuesday, on account of another appoint-
him to send a dray after the bananas. mangrove amidst which these netted 8. In its scope it shall embrace the en- ment.) and that it be held at the garden
-0. T. Harrison, of Palatka, is get- waterways ebb and flow are, by cour- tire State of Florida, and shall include of Rev. G. H. Wyatt.
ting together a collection of Florida tesy, called islands. Their boundaries displays from the West Indies and the The cultivation of rice became the
curiosities, including alligators, etc., are so indefinite that it would be impos- Bahamas, and shall be open to exhibits subject under consideration, which was
and as soon as his collection is complete sible to count them accurately, but by from Mexico and other adjacent coun- pretty well discussed, and members
he will take the road and visit all the common consent their number is fixed at tries of tropical and sub-tropical North present pledged themselves to the plant-
inportant cities of the North. ten thousand, and South America. in of eight acres, and on motion each
-Mr. Chas. A. Hamilton, of Charles- Untilrecentlyno attempt was even 4. It shall be located within the member of the club was appointed a
ton, S. C., was at the Saratoga Hotel in made to survey them, but the coast sur- limits of the city of Jacksonville, or in committee of one, to ascertain how
Palatka Friday. He says that the re-es- vey has at last taken them in hand, and its immediate vicinity, so as to be eas- many acres would be pledged for plant
ablisment of a steamship line between at no distant day we may exDect this ily accessible by a short walk from any ing in rice by our citizens generally. and
Palatka and Charlesto an assured portion of our coast to present quite a portion of the city, and especially from report to the secretary at an early day;
fact, and that freight rates over the new different appearance on the map from the hotels. the objAct of which is to got some datit
ine will be very low. what it has done heretofore. It may be 5. It shall be incorporated as a stock to govern a :committee in negotiating
-E. Johnson shows a specimen of thought that such a region is not worthy company, with parties to procure machinery for
ime found in the western portion of of a costly survey, but surely it would 6. Its capital stock shall be $100000 cleaning rice in time for the new crop.
Sumter county. After thorough inves- be a shame for any portion of the coast in shares of $10 each, so that it may be On motion, each member was request-
igation it proved to be second to none of the United States to remain unsur- made a general popular enterprise and ed to keep a record of the quantity of
n quality. There is no limit to the veyed. so that the shares can be promptly issued seed per acre used, time of planting,
supply. This discovery will, no doubt, These islands are covered almost ex- full paid. mode of cultivation, and' report the
rove a great benefit to Sumter county, Plusively with mangroves, from which 7. The board of directors, to whom same to the club after the rice harvest.
The talk of bridgingit may be known that they are wet and shall be delegated full executive author. On motion,the president and secretary
-Thiver at Palatka, grows morthe St. Johns itninhabitable. In a few localities there ity, shall consist of fifteen members, were appointed a committee to wait up-
River at Palatka,grows more positive are groups of islands somewhat elevated, who shall be elected annually by the on Mr..Stanton and confer with him,
, as if the ferry bo s rising to a height even of forty-five feet. stockholders. The directors shall elect to certain it he will procure the ma-
News, as if the ferry boats would soon These were built up-in large part by an- a president and three vice-presidents chinery for beating rice,and for how much
iav a to go, and that the St. Augustine cient tribes of Indians, as is known by from among their own number, and acreage pledged he will feel warranted
alifax Rairoad trains t.wilJohnru and theirmouno lai dsandbyof shell the vast accumu- shall appoint a director-general, a secre- in doing so.
Palatka by next season. There are tworinal of tary, a treasurer and such subordina'e After general interchange of opinion
There are two principal groups of habit- officers as they shall see fit on other branches of farming, etc., the
-The citizens of Micanopy are dis- able islands, namely, the Caximbas 8. In each county there shall be 6lub adjourned.
usingg the propriety of organizing a Islands, lying inside of Cape Romano formed by the citizens thereof a Sub- A J PETTIGREW President
rtilizing company for the manufacture (which is an island itself), and the Tropial Eposition Committee, which V. S. WILSON, Secretary.
:f a high grade fertilizer in Micanopv tChuckaluske Islands (we spell the name shall have charge of the interest and dis- Comenting on the above, the editor
Dr. Montgomery believes that a fertili- as it is pronounced), which are situated play of threat count inthe Exposition,- Commenting on the above, the says:editor
Dr can be made that when applied in the about half way between Capes Romano and shall elect from its u i We Manatee we Advocate says:
month of June, will be a complete and Sable. and shall elect from its number a We attended the meeting of the
preventative of rust on oranges. The soil of these islands is of extreme me er oa genera advisorycouncil, Manatee River Farmer's Club at Mr. A.
preventative of rust on oranges. The soil of these islands is of extreme which shall represent the exhibitors in J. Peitigrew's, near Braidencreek,
-Mr. Joshua Lovett, of Jefferson fertility, and on account of this and the their relations with the executive off J. ettigrews, near Braideneleven oe reek,
county, has recently been forced to kill almost total immunity from frost, they cers of theompny executeve o- where we met eleven others most of
three hogs, that were afflicted with are very finely adapted to the growing of 9 The Eo pany. whom, with ye editor, had some years
lydropholia. Several weeks ago a dog winter vegetables, which is the leading 9. The" Exposition shall be devoted experience in farming, o but ino-widely
vth the rabies appeared on Mr. Lovett's pursuit of the inhabitants. All such to a display of the soil, resources, manu- separated sections of our country; upon
lace, an, .attacking his bogs, inocu- islands are cultivated, and the garden features, curiosities, fruits, flora, birds, different soil, and under other climates
ated same with its saliva, hydrophobia lands-which altogether are of but and wild animals, and other natural and circumstances; but we met as ireth-
esulting therefrom. The dog' was small area-are held at a high price, as and industrial products of Florida and ren of a fraternity whose occulation
killed. much as $500 having been cleared in a adjacent sub-tropical countries. A large is among the most honored, ai.d to
In sinkinga well, Dr. Hammond, of season from one acre. aquarium shall be a special feature, whom all the people upon earth lo c for
con Hernandocounty, found aasupe- Last winter's frost was disastrous to Machinery shall be excluded at the dis- sustenance.
ic article of.i.e la ite f co- the people of these islands, and, in less creation of the director-general, except In many of the other States farming
erosion into the finest quality of c'ay degree, to those of the Reef Keys. The in sofar as it relates to the utilization and grdenng has been the occupation
i temperature fell to 28 degrees an in a ofsub-tropical products. of the great majority of the people for
pes, terra otta ornaments, etc., at the all the fields of 2omadoges. and in .10. The Exposition shall be a bazaar one or two hundred years Children
lepth of thirty-two feet, and it evidently night all the fields-of-tomatoes and egg-
sts hi e amount The d e. plants were killed, and a ear's income as well as an exposition. That is, sales have been born on the farm; grown uto,
ts in large amunt. hedscovery swept away. Of tropical fruits, the may be made .of articles displayed. lived and died' and during all of tle
i soon mamee sapota was killed; the banana Special prominence will be given to an years of their lives have had instructiolh
-There was sold at Mt. Dora this and cocoanut were considerably injured. orange mirt in connection with the dis- upon the subjects always present: th-. -
reek a homestead of 160 acres, known the mango and sugar a ple were slight- play of characteristic sub-tropical pro- times of planting, the kinds of crop best 1
s the McDonald homestead, for the ly damaged; the avocado pear and sapo- ducts. adapted.to the climate; to the soil, and'
um of $30,000. The land lies between dilla were unharmed. 11. It shall be the duty f the board to their needs. Then the mode of culti- -
he business portion of the town and the These facts we gathered during a visit of directors to request the railroads' ovation has beco-ne perfectly "familiar ',
'hautauqua grounds, and was sold to a to these islands in April last. We had within the State and leading to it to from constant observation and the
entleman from Utica, N Y., who, it is the pleasure of meeting again, after an make low excursion rates so as to induce councils and experiences of those older;
believed, represents a land syndicate of interval of five years, the patriarch of the largest possible attendance from so that there it appears that one requisite
hat.city. This property sold less than this region, Mr. Wm. F Collier and witihn the State itself, and to offer in- only is necessary-good -management-
ve years ago for $600. marveled to see him start off on a hunt- ducements to travel from 'the outside, to assure general success.
-An exchange suggests that figs are ing expedition as nimbly as if his age which-may result in an increased tide The settlement of Florida has been so
certain crop in Florida. On this there were 27 instead of 72. of immigration. recent that we have no forefather's ex-
an be little doubt. Then, the question Mr. Collier is a native of Tennessee. In '12. Aid shall be asked from the periences to guide us. Those who have
, why are they not more abundantly the spring of 1871 he settled on Big State Legislature, not as a donation to been here for a score of years are so few
cultivated? There is no fruit that will Marco Island, which is situated next the company or the Exposition, but first and far between (and their calling has
ome to maturity from the planting south of Marco Inlet. It has an undu- to aid each of the counties in the State been more that of stock raising than gen-
irlier than fig. 'Of course, as a shipper, lating surface, rising at one point to the in making a proper display of the pro- eral farming),that but few of us can have 0
ie fig is a failure, but the many and height of thirty feet. It contains 150 ducts and resources; second, to provide the opportunity of hearing their experi-
conomical ways of preserving it is a acres of the choicest shell land, on premiums liberal, enough to encourage ences and profiting therefrom, unless e w
great argument in its favor.-Sanford which, after fifteen years of constant that eager completion among the counties do it in the way proposed by this Farmer's o
journal. ultivation, Mr. Collier succeeds in rais- which will lead to the best display, and club, and we must say that no people i
-It is too soon to predict with any ing cablhages that weigh fifteen and third, to contribute to the cost of the are more willing to impart information
irtainty what will be the orange crop twenty pounds each. preparation and wide extended distribu- than they who have been the pioneers
extseason. It is true there has not Desiring to hear again from the good tion throughout the country of litera- of civilization in this remote portion of I'
aen as heavy a showing of blossom people of Marco and Caximbas, we turd advertising Florida and the Ex- our heritage. Theyhave obtained their
id setting of fruit as the average, but wrote to Mr. Collier some time ago, and position. knowledge under many difficulties and
many more trees are in bearing than in reply have received the following let- It'was then agreed that the following have been close observers, and now t
any preceding year, unless some un- taer. Our wish is that the writer's youth- sub-committees be appointed: On Plan a keen interest i the cultivation of he e
oked for disaster happens, there will ful vigor may be as lasting as and Prospectus; on Charter and Legisia- oil. We hope that the newcomers vill f
a larger aggregate of boxes shipped the fertility of his fields, and we hope tion; to Confer with Transportition be favored by their presence at tur i
xt season than this now closing.- that the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER Companies and others t. see what ma- meetings.
alifax Journal. will become a medium of frequent corn- trial aid can .be obtained; on a Build- Those who come ern-e
-We referred last' week to the fact munication between these and other re- ing Site; on Director-General locations have a learn over again,
at sixty thousand dollars would be mote regions and the 'more populous Colonel Papy, on behalfPf Mr. Duval, and some thin olto forget, for every- d
1vanced farmers on their growing crop portions of the State. assured the committee that his company things so diuerent. A general knowl- 9
tobacco. All that is required is for A. H: C. would assist them in any proposed can- edge. of far-g is of course a great 'ad-
e farmer to state the condition of crop, -.-- vass of th ) various conties in the State. van ea e e
ae number of plants, evidences of his A Letter. from Marco. Mr. Peabody, of Sanford, also assu must learn from e experience
liability and to state the purpose for Editor Forida F. mer and r.o.er. the committee that the peopllgi i d s.- This experience is what our
l e va i City withn R e to yor inquiries in regard Florida were heart ly cI s loOking for. The meeting Tues-
urto six week from this time.- to the effects of frost in this region I enteprise. He be would aid South day was highly enoed by every, one
'p i.^ .. ... "t'-- would say that I have been living at' Trop.ical Expositiith every other section present. One ofBtue'erf great
ke City Reporter. Marco sixteen years and never was in- a equall 'thought it would also "iteest in our etingsis t
Yesterday evening Mr. Charles John- jured by cold before January, 1886, when the State. Florida Exposition next at each other ens, where we can-
n, wife and child, who live on East the frost entirely destroyed our vegeta- a meeting then adjourned at examine work d onet. can see the're-
ry street, were phoned by eating ble crops. The fruit trees were no e call of the chair suts obtained and when the owner may
.ssel,t had clabbered in a new tin killed, but the avocado pear did not fr -' THE COMMITTEES. ave no ting special fo shbw he can ask
ig the pos fthe formation absorb- the following year. and receive from his brother members
iild whowasta the solder. The Our soil is a mixtureof sh cam, Later in the evening Colonel H-rt such council as may advance him in
reely, the discharge first, vomited with a subsoil of bon. and loam. named the following committees: future operations.
. tentn, but the father it to a We have used b tt'e fertilizer of any On Plan and Prospectis-Messrs. A. At Mr Pettigrew's we saw fine crops
-t' during the eve their kind The cnoipal thing done by us B. Mason, C. H, Jones. a-d J. H. Paine. of beets and onions ready for market
-'-.wre prono 1 in the wa'- of improving our land has On Charter and Legiilation-Messrs. and lettuce, celery, tomatoes, cucum-
ere terr 'vnty Time en to urn under the grass and weeds J. J. Daniel, F. B. Pipy,, and F. H. bars, kale, cabbage, radish, corn, melons
ure resting quietly a 'a in 1 me u during the summer. Orvis. etc, growing. He has a fine piece of
are resting que. afford myself an son cultivate about twelve To confer with transportation corn- hammock land, and it appears to be in
out of danger. m et will take p a res in vegetables, aout ten acres in to- panies and others to se what material good condition. Pear, persimmon, orange
Grand Tournam- Wedn ay, a 4th. to and two acres in egg-plants, etc. aid can be obtained--Mesrs. S. Conant, andsother fruit. trees abound; and many
Fort Meade on- Wednesvaey, eknight- 'We hae a 10-ton schooner which makes J. E. Ingraham, W. lM Davidson, J. experimental crops are in process of de-
There will be seventy eori^ weekltrips to Key West during the R. Campbell, and M. J.eoyle. veopment, one of which we noticed
cost rie who will come forhr g eet ele season, meeting the Mallory On Building Site-Mears. J. M. Schu- particularly ,strawberries. They are grow-
cashgrizes which are o resg the a ersat Key West. macher, John T. Graes, and J.'H. ing through holes at regular distances
knights who succeed in e honor ere are but six families in this im- Paine, in planks on the ground. These planks
greatest number of nga r ay and her iate neighborhood, and about On Director General-Messrs. J. T. prevent the growth of grass and weeds,
of crowe m thei Q*9 o r by the suer nty-five persons. All are engaged in Graves, A. B. Mann, a W. M. David- and give shade and moisture as a mulch t
m s veget business. son. to the land. A building was packed full
of nice sweet crab-grass hay, with some
rice straw, showing that Mr. Pettigrew
makes thW fodder fo. his stock.
We feel confident that, as a result of
the deliberations of the members of this
club an interest will grow in our midst
that will advance us to complete inde-
pendence; that home supplies will be!
abundant, and that prosperity will re-
ward our study, our labor. and our
Ladies' Purchasing Agency.
A New York lady of experience and
taste, enjoying the best facilities for.
shopping under- advantageous condi-
tions, offers her services to ladies desir-
ing to secure any kind of wearing ap-
parel, toilet articles or household goods,
at New York prices. Send for circular.
Address MRS. S. S. Jones,
179 Gates Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.
Seed Irish Potatoes.
The best potatoes for planting in this
State are those brought from extreme
Eastern points. Acting on this belief,
we imported last year from
large quantities of Early Rose, Chili
Red, Beauty of Hebrnm and other varie-
ties, and the potatoes raised from this
seed, were the finest we have ever seen
We will receive, in a few days another
cargo of the same potatoes, which we
will sell at the following prices:
Chili Red.........per barrel $3.50.
Early Rose.................... $3.00.
Beauty of Hebron..........$3.00.
Every barrel guaranteed as represented.
Remit with order, and we will ship the
CHURCH .ANDERSON & CO.
Jacksonville, Fla., Jan. 5th, 1887.
"We Know by Experience."
For three years we have used Brad-
ley's Vegetable" Fertilizer. After test-
ing along with other high grade fertil-
izers,- we, pronounce it better than any
sold in Florida. We shall use it again
We do not hesitate to say to the vege-
table growers of Florida that they can-
not use anything so good as Bradley's
Florida Vegetable Fertilizer. We know
by experience what we say regarding
WOFFORD & WILDER.
Ft. Mason, Fla.
Groves where Williams, Clark & Co's
Orange Tree FVrtilizer has been used are
looking finely. I
WILLIAMS, CLARK & Co.
JACKSONVILLE, April 22,1887.
MEATs-D. S. short ribs boxed, f8 87Y.,; D. S.
ong clear sides S 8 -- D. .. bellies s75;
smokedd short ribs S .'; smoked bellies 9 W;
-1 C. barns, canvassed fancy, 13; S 0. oreak
fast bacon, uncanvassed lie; S. C. shoul-
4era canvassed c-; California or pic-
nic uhams, 9yo. Lard-rifned tlerees 7%c;
Mless beef-iarr 1050, alfbarrellsrj75; mess
pork 81760. These quotations are for round
Iot from first hands; whole cattle 7-/4;
oiressed hours 8,c; sheep o c: pork sausage tc;
ioins lIe; long-'bologna 7e; head cheese 6%c;
rrankjfort sausage I-)c; rounds Sc.
BUTrTER--Best table 23@:8c per pound,
-ooking 15,-)c per pound.
Grain, Flour, Hay, Feed, Hides, Etc.
GRAI--Corni-The market quietfbut firm.
rhe following figures represent to-day's
values: We quote white corn, job lots,
Olc@... per bushel; car load lots'.59c per
bushel, mixed corn, job lots, 60e per 'bushel-
car load lots 57c per bushel. Oats quiet
and firm at the following, figures: mixed,
in Job lots, 42c, car load lots 41c; white
oatslare 2Fc higher all round, Bran steady
ind higher, $20 to $.1 per ton.
HAY-The market is firm and better, de-
nand for good grades. Western choice,
mall boles, $18@...per ton; car load lots $17 00
o $17 560 per ton; Eastern hay $20 per ton.
PEARL GRITS AND MEAL-8-3-00 per barrel.
SFLout--Dull, best patents- $5 60@$5 60;
rood family 85 00@S5 10; common 4 25.
PEAS-Black Eye, 160O per'bushel. -
SGREvD FEED-Per ton $24 to 25.
CorFEE-Green Rio 17@22c per pound.
lava, roasted, 30@33c; Myocas, roasted, 0@38c; I
ted, roasted, 23@25c. I
COTTON SEED MEAL--Scarce and higher.
lea island or dark meal 620 per ,ton, bright
>i short cotton meal 2150@2250 per ton.
ToBACcO STEMS-Market quiet but firm @
.IS 00 to $14 00 per ton..
'LIM-Eastern, job lots, 8160 per barrel, Ala-
oima lime $115. Cement-American $200,
English $4 75 per barrel.
iICE--The .quotations vary, according.to
liantlty, romS 3@6c per pound. /
:ArLT-Liverpoo, per sae,, tSoo; per car
P sDs--Dry flint, cow, per sound, flrst I
is,_12@R13c; and country dry salted 11@
lsc; butchers dry salted 9@9c. Skins-Deer I
int, 17c; salted 10@12c. Furs-Otter, winter,
ach25c@4; raccoon 10@20c; wild cat 10@20c,
ox 10@2c, Beeswax per pound- 18c; wool 5
ree from burss 22@25c; burry, 10d15cf goat
kins 10@25c apiece.
Country Produce. ,
CHEESE-Fine Creamery 16c per pound.
LIVE POULTRY-Limited supply and good d
demand as follows: hens 85c; mixed s0c; half- v
EGGs-Duval County 11 per dozen with d
limited demand and good supply. i
IRISH POTATOES-Northern potatoes $2 75 1
o 2 90 per barrel. -
ONIONS--Bermudas, $2 00 per crate; per f
rrel, r3 75 to $4 00. f
S cabbage, $2 50 per barrel. s
arre BETS-Good supply at $250 per I
NEW BEETS-Flor -te $2 25.
CAUL1LrowERS-Per ,)arre 0, and 6175
per crate .
NTOarATOES-Florida, per crate,,' Lake
Worth, $2 55 to 6825. .
NORTHERN TURNIPS--Good supply at g
per barrel. Y0 r
SquAsH--Per crate, $1 25.
SNAP BEANS-Per crate, 100.
NEW POTATOES-Per barrel, 64 50; per crate,
61 5b. c -
Foreion and Domestic Fruilt.
PINE APPLES--$I 75 to $2 00 per cozen.
LkMroNS-Messilnas, 84 00 per box.
APPLES-New York $5 50 to 6 00 per barrel
,FlGS-In layers lSc.
DATES-Persian-Boxes 9e; Frhils 7c.
GRAPES-Malagas, $5 60 per keg.
ORANGES-Florida-Per Box 83 00 to 85 00.
BANANAS--Good supply; from 750 to $2 00
NuTS--Almonds 18c; Brazlls 12c; Filberts
(Sicily) 12c' English walnuts, Grenobles, 18c;
Miarbots, l1c; Pecans 12c; Peanuts Sc;
uocoanuts $4 50 per hundred. ,
RAISINS-London layers, $2 75 per box.
CRANBEERRIE5-- 75 per crate; $1000 per :
BUTTEyINE-Creamery 20c; Extra Dairy I
Sc- Dairy 15. j
OHBES--Half skim lOc, cream 18o per1 i
This powder never varies. A marvel of
urity, strength and wholesomeness. More
economical tan the ordinary kinds .and
cannot be sold in competition with the
multitude of low test, short weight alum or
phosphate powders. Sold ioly in cans,
5OYAL BAKING POWDER CO., 106 aWall St..
Thefollowing quotationsare carefullyre
vised for Wednesday's and Saturday's paper
from stations finished by dealers in the'
Carrots wholesale at. 300 per barrel, and
retail at 50 cents per perk.
Green Onion s wholesale at wh cents per
hundred, and retail nts per bunch. e ar .
Florida. Cabbage wholesale 2 00 per barrel
and retail at s to 10 cents;
luail wholesale at 10 cents each and retail
%t15 cents, or two for a quarter.
oranges wholesale at 8300 to 500 per box,
and retail at 5 cents.
Spi aage wholesales at75c per bushel and
retails at four quarts for 25 cents.
Sweet Potatoes wholesale at 60 cents per
bushel, and retail at 5 cents per quart.
Lettuce wholesales at 15@20 cents er dozen
heads, and-retall at 5 cents per hea'
Parsnips wholesale at $275 per barrel and
retail at four and five for 10 cents.
Robins wholesale at 6 cents each and retail
at 10 cents.
Celery wholesales at 50 to 60 cents per dozen
and retails at three to four stalks for 25 cents,
according to size.
Eggs are in fair demand. Duval county
eggs are quoted af wholesale at 11 cents
per dozen, and retail at 20 cents. I
Boston marrowfat squashes wholesale at
6 50 per barrel, retail at 5, 10 and 15 cents
New York Irishotatoes, wholesale at2 75:to
$290 per barrel and retail at 10 cents per quart.
Northern beets are worth wholesale $250
per barrel, and retail at 10 cents per quart,
or two quarts Tor .15 centn. '
Radishes bring at wholesale 15 to 20 cents
per dozen bunches of seven radishes each.
They retail at 5 cents per bunch, or three
bunches for 10 cents.
LLve poultry--chickens, wholesale, from 35
to 40 cents each;-retail 40 to 50 cents each.
Dressed poultry per pound-chickens retail,
ll o2 cents. urkevs wholesale, Kl.00 t -
81.75 each, and retail a p cents per pound.
Northern menats rits a follows: Chicago-
beef from 18 s to25 cents per pound; Florid a
beef6 to 1I5 cents per pound; veal 20 o2cents;
pork 12 to Ia cents; mutton 10 to 20 cants -
venison 25 cents; sausage 15 cents; corned
beef 10 cents.
OUR SPECIAL HARK E'tS.
Lalest Quotations of .forlda Frit&
The following special dpatches, by special
arrangements with the' Florida Pruli Ex
change, are sent to the TixBs-UxtoN by the
agents of the Fruit Exchange in the various -
cities. They can be relied-upon as accuratee :
Special to the Timxs-UNIoN:]
NEW YORK, April 23.-The total sales
here this week amount to 66,lim boxes of
oranges and .54,ri boxes of lemons, while for .
nexL welk there arc due to arrive b7,0f) boxes
of oranges and l4r ) boxes of lemon pro-
vided the three sailing vessels now overdue
come in- If all arrive, it will make Mhe
heaviest week ever known, and these figures
furnish food for rerlctlon on the part o
every grower in Florida as showing what a
grand market New York is.
SGOBAL & DAY.
Commission Merchants' quotations.
Special to the TIMzS-TUNION:i
BIRMINHAM April 23.-Florida cab-
bagei are very dull at ii0 0@3a acrate, owing r
to lobiles arriving I thirteen hours after
shipruent, fresh and green. We do no ad-
rise more shipmenis to (blt market of Flor-
da cabbage. New potatoes, large Sta barrel,
small not wanted snap beans 2..k@'3 a
Tuhee, tomatoes e1 a peck, bushel 83.50,
itrwberries t 61 per 32 quart cases. We do not
advise shipments unless n5@6 a case will pay.
IT L AtDERKAN.
LEAF TOBACCO MARKET.-
NEW YORK, April 23-The Western
eaf market is dull, owgi to Ibe lght de-
.and. The New York leaf Is qilet, while the -
lavana leaf 'Is in active demand. NeWr .
York Pennsylvania and Western sell at from
4 to il5 per 100 pounds. Havana 60 cents to
1.05 per' pound. Sumatra, 1.20 to So.dOper
iound. A d
ST. OUIS, April 23.-The demand for
eaf sight, but improving,oand the outlook
LOUISVILLE. April 28.-There is a-ood
demand, especially for the better grade6-0-T
rhich there is-a scarcity.
-BALTIMORE, April 28.-The market is
lull, very little desirable stock being on sale.
Karyland leaf is quoted at from $5 to $15 per
SICHMOND April 2.-The market is
Improving with favorable weather for ship-
ing. The 'better grades of stemming leaf
ll rapidly at from to 18 cents er pound.
right wrappers for plugs command from 18
o a0cents. *
DANVILLE April 28.-Business -is om,
proving rapidly and prices have an upward
tendency. There Is a better feeling, among
planters, manufacturers and business men
pAIANNAH COTTON MARKET.
SAVA april 2.-The Upland Cotton
Market clo jth little doing at
the following sa :
Middling fair ......... ..... ..............
Good middling..........;.... """" 1
Middling .......... .......... 10
Good ordinary............. ......
The net receipts were 884 bal oss re-
Celpts 314 bales; sales 72 bales; c at this
port 5862 bales.
Exports to the Continent exi rti coast-
SEA ISmAND COTTON. -
The market continues quiet at a
common Floridas 15
Good Medium.......... 17
Medium fine............ 1is
i ane e 20
I,' 'I -- .1
** i l .