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UFPKY NEH LSTA



Florida farmer & fruit grower
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055763/00017
 Material Information
Title: Florida farmer & fruit grower
Uniform Title: Florida farmer & fruit grower (Jacksonville, Fla. 1887)
Alternate title: Florida farmer and fruit grower
Physical Description: 3 v. : ill. ; 50 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: C.H. Jones & Brother
Place of Publication: Jacksonville Fla
Creation Date: April 20, 1887
Publication Date: 1887-1889
Frequency: weekly
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Jacksonville (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Duval County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
newspaper   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Duval -- Jacksonville
Coordinates: 30.31944 x -81.66 ( Place of Publication )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan. 5, 1887)-v. 3, no. 3 (Jan. 16, 1889).
General Note: A.H. Curtiss, editor.
Funding: Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Library Services and Technology Assistance granting program of Florida, the State Library and Archives of Florida, and other institutions and individuals.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000454290
oclc - 11040152
notis - ACL6442
lccn - sn 95026760
System ID: UF00055763:00017
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Florida dispatch (Live Oak, Fla.)
Succeeded by: Florida dispatch and farmer and fruit grower

Full Text




























VOL. 1---NO. 16. JACKSONVILLE, FLA., WEDNESDAY, APRIL 20, 1887. PRICE $2 A YEAR.


THE JAPAN CLOVER.

A Source of Wealth Found ii
a Naturalized Foreign Plant.
The following treatise on a subject
which we& have selected for special de
scription and illustration, is from th
pen of Dr. D. L. Phares, professor c
biology in the Agricultural College c
Mississippi, and the recognized authorit-
on southern forage plants.
INTRODUCTION OF TRE PLANT.
A few seeds, arriving in the United
States, germinated, contested a few fee
of soil with other native and exoti
Plants that had long pre-occupied the
land. It gained strength and increase
in yield of seed till, becoming somewhat
abundant, it commenced its westward
invasion, simultaneously extending its
conquests northward and southward
firmly holding all conquered territory.
Since 1870 its strides westward have
been immense. It now extends from
the Atlantic seabord across the Missis-
sippi, and its out-posts are pushed fai
toward the western border of Texas.
Denuded, soulless hilltops, sandy plains,
gravelly slopes, bottoms and banks oi
washes and gullies, pine thickets, open
woods, fields, dry and damp soils, all
seem as if specially created for its
home. It seizes upon all with equal
facility.
It maintains its dwarfish habit on
sands, gravels and other spots too poor
to produce any other vegetation, dense-
ly covering the surface with its green
robe and affording delighted live stock
delicious, nutritious grazing for eight
months of the year.' But on richer soil
it doffs the dwarf and dons the tree style,
justifying the American name of "bush
clover;" sending its long tap root deep
down in the sub-soil and its stem two
to three feet up into the light and air,
wilhj tj.anyb.r.heethillkbr<"'flh
--leaves inviting Loom ani .a.u.e.
It has, no doubt, been much improved
.--..... by introduction into this country. It
takes possession not only of unoccupied
land and pine. thickets, but grows
S among sedges, grasses, briers and weeds,
completely eradicating many species of
noxious grass and weeds. It subdues
eve k broom grass and holds equal con-
test with Bermuda grass; in some lo-
calities one- yielding, in other localities
the other succumbing, while in other
spots both maintain equal possession; or
one year one may seem to rule and the
next year the other.
ITS vALwABE QUALITIES.
On sands, gravels, or denuded clay hill
tops no other plant known to me is so
valuable for grazing. Taking a succps-
sion of ten years, the same assertion
would not be far out of the wayfor
rich lands, while few forage plants on
these would yield so much or so valuable
hay.
It is superior to other, forage plants In
several important particulars not gener-
ally observed by the careless stockman.
1. The growing plant contains less
moisture than any other very valuable
forage plant, with perhaps a single ex-
ception.. Hence, we. never, hear of ani-
mals having hoven, or bloat, or scoudrs
from eating this plant as when they
have free access to red clover, pease and
many grasses. 2. We have never found
on the Japan clover any fungous
growths which are so common on other
plants as to cause many deaths annually
among animals grazing on them or fed
with the hay.3 8. Heavy grazing for a
few weeks destroys the clovers, lucerne
and most of the grasses, while -this plant
may be grazed however closely, whether
the season be wet or prolonged drouth
prevails, without damage. 4. There is
less difficulty of obtaining & catch with
this plant than most others. The seed
may be scattered on bare, poor, barren
ground, rich soil, among weeds and
dead. grass, or in March on small grain
sown the previous autumn-or winter and
a catch will be obtained, 5. The grain
being harvested when ripe does not in-
jure the Lespedeza, which is ready for
the mower through September and Oc-
tober. 6. It is, more- easily cured than
the clovers, pea vines and many grasses.
7. It does-not lose the foliage in curing as
do clovers, pease and some other plants.
8. It furnishesgood g razing from May,
some years last of March, till killed by
frost in November.
PRODUCT AND QUALITY OF HAY.
S Oni medium to good land it ranges
'from one to four tons p, acre; and this
may be obtained after l-4'ig during the
--summl '? harvested fro,.he same land
a g oiijop of grain and straw.
S So.- .f die farmers, who have been
mow .Lespedeza striata for five to ten
yean 'gard it a- tire soundest, best,
S mos -.golesome and palatable hay they
twv-asld. These mowings have ranged
from three to, -four hunred tons on
S single farms i iSor seasdn..Wet no com-
p plonic as to quality or relish of animals
foti.toras to. its nutritive value and
gqod effect on the stock, ]as ever reach-
ed b. -Those who have used it longest -


and in largest quantities and kept animals
-cattle, sheep, horses and mules-in
best condition recommend, it most
SECEDING.
A measured half bushel of seed per
t acre may be sown broadcast the first
. week in April south of parallel 32 degrees
e latitude, a few days later as we proceed
f northward for each degree or two. Sown
f in the fall or. winter it springs up but
r freezes often throw it out and destroy it.
As already stated it germinates and
grows on land in any condition, if the
surface is not so loose as to let the seed
I sink too deep. When land has been
t prepared for or sown in grain, the win-
? ter rains put it in about the best condi-
a tion for growing this plant for heavy
crops of hay.
t The only complete proof of the value
of a forage plant is found in the -concur-
rence of chemical analysis and the ob-
servation and experience o'f the stock-
man. When the relish of an animal for
the forage is keen, the health preserved
and improved, growth promoted, a max-
imum quantity of excellent beef or mut-
ton or pork, and if superior milk and
butter are obtained, we certainly have
an admirable food plant. The judgment
of the cow, the convictions of the far-
mer arising from his experience inde-
pendent of, and, indeed, in utter igno-
rance of, any chemical analysis, confirm-
ing the decisions of the chemist, give us
the best of all evidences of the value of
forage. And all these we have in this
case.
A SOIL RENOVATOR.
Japan clover is also a great ameliorator
and fertilizer. : Its abundant long tap
and side roots.. decaying, render the soil
porous and leave in it much nitrogenous
material and humus. It releases and
brings up from the subsoil valuable
plant food; the ashes containing nearly
40 per cent. potash, 29.60 oxide lime,
ric acidi-- 1'ej -- -^* n,


a ie a01 rowt. Soils are tht*
renovated, slopes prevented from wash'-
ing, gullies filled, moisture solicited and
retained, atmospheric fertilizers gath-
ered and garnered; bald, barren wastes
covered with living green to fill the
stomach, delight the eye and cheer the
heart.- .
After a careful study of Japan clover.
for fourteen years in an area extending
from the Tombigbee to the Mississipp
river and from the- Gulf of Mexico toi
Tennessee and beyond, and the litera-
ture on the subject accumulated-for two
centuries, we are gratified with the
unanimous testimony of all who have
tested this animal and soil constructing
industrious little plant.
For growing cattle, sheep, swine,
horses and mules, ?or rapid .growth,
soundness and good condition. the year
round,we can do excellently well restrict-
ed to Bermuda grass and Japan clover
alone; indeed, I would not exchange
them for any other twenty forage plants.
For live stock, no other one plant has
the principles of nutrition so accurately
proportioned and adjusted-hone is so
near a complete and perfect food as
Japan clover.
Table read. at West Point by D. L.
Phares, October 16th, 1886. Per cent. of
nutritive matter in, and value per ton of
hays for feeding live stock: -


Sg g
a

> s 0


Lespedeza. Southern Hay Makers.
The botanical name of Japan clover It is stated in a recent issue of the
is in quite common use, -ind we urge its Columbus Index that Mr. H. H. Brooks,
general adoption, first, because it is a of Noxubee county, Miss., has put up
simple and euphonious word; second, be- 600 bales of lespedeza hay this season,
cause it is more distinctive, the words which he rapidly disposes of at $16 per
clover and Japan entering into the names ton. He expects to realize $85 per acre
of too many plants beside this; third, be- on his grass land. Mr. John Rand, of
cause it commemorates one of the this county, makes a specialty of Ber-
Spanish governors of Florida, M. muda grass hay, and says there is more
Lespedez, a patron of botany. money in this crop at $10 per ton, than
The Lespedezas or bush-clovers are any crop he knows of. He has been in
very neat plants of erect or prostrate the business for several years., Dr. Con-
growth, which abound in the eastern nell, of this city, markets a large amount
portions of the United States and Asia. of Johnson and Bermuda grass hay
They are next related to the desmodiums every year, and has done so for many
or beggar-weeds, and both are included years'. He says it pays him hand-
in the legumious family, to which near- somely.
ly all herbaceous forage plants belong. Dr. Saxon, of Lowndes county, is
The species we are considering was making the hay business a specialty.
named Lespedeza striata, because its He has a large acreage of Bermuda
leaves are striate, or marked with paral- grass. He finds ready sa!e for it in the
lel lines; this is due to their variation towns of eastern Miqsissippi, as do the
and is more or less characteristic of all others mentioned. The Aberdeen Ex-
the species. As in nearly all leguminous aminer says that Capt. J. W. Howard, of
plants the leaves are trifoliate (composed that city, is largely engaged in raising
of three leaflets), and the flowers are pea- hay for market.
shaped. The seed-pods are small and We have been told that Mr. John Rand
oval, each containing a single seed. A averages four tons hay per acre from his
few of the flowers, which are very small Bermuda. We are also informed that
and of a purplish color, are represented he secured fifteen tons of Bermuda hay


JAPAN CLOvIM'. (Leapedea striata.)


02900 J ,ca near the middle of the accompanying fom two acres, of land. Who can beat
_Ss | S cut. ft? It is only a question of time, and a
44 .4.p 4N. > The Lespedeza is supposed to have short time,.too, when western hay will
d been introduced into this country about be run entirely out of our southern
13 rr0 .o om a forty years ago, the original seed having countiy.n-So. Lib Stock Journal.
a9 q g been brought in a tea-chest, perhaps, -
Sfrom Japan or China. In the latter The Curculio Going.
S) Q ML country we believe it is called Hoop- That breezy journal, Popular Garden-
&0, S&8 Koop. It has spread widely In the ,ig, bring us thie gratifying intelligence
S, southern States and has adapted itself that some of the orchardists' inveterate
Ito nearly all soils and locations. We enemies are growing beautifully-less. It
S cji have seen it beside mountain roads i says:
North Carolina and on the brick-like clay It is a matter for great joy that our
fields of lower Georgia. In the former enemies, the Curcolio, the Pear Blight
location it was of slender, erect growth; and perhaps the Codling Moth, are less-
in the latter it had the prostrate, wiry ening their former tight hold. Such is
C? growth of knotweed. On tilled land of the case especially in the eastern portions
good quality it is erect and inuch- of the coiintry. President Barry lately
branched, and furnishes a most valuable said before w.large body of fruit growers
hay- ,. that the prospects for pear culture at the
S"- --L85!-i- o- Mgg '2" In Florida we think it is confined thus presnt. time Were better than at any
a far to what we would term the north- previous time for many years, so far as
Western half of the State. .We saw it the light was concerned. Plums have
around Ocala last summer and have no never been more productive than for the
doubt that it will do finely in cultivation past year or more, while the Codling
ig g, :, iin all calcareous sections of the State. M.i- syema certainly to be turning the
Sg On clay lands its success is 'not to be cdr'. e may next ectt5 hear bf
,0.0 .^ : : : .^ doubted, but we think it will not thrive the decline of the Cabbage worm, and
on pure sand unless rendered compact who knibwswhat others. Take courage,
i isture Waldo lst summer D brethern, .bt don't dismiss the remedies
AWhen at Waldo last summer, Dr. at onc e.
| Ambrose showed us the plant in his. .
SI I front yard, complaining thet it was nlthe northern,-eastern and, western
g ...60: : ..6 crowding out the Bermuda grass in spite States sorghum is coming rapidly to the
& 0,0%a 0 J ,l0 .4 of his efforts to eradicate it. Weadvigsed fronttvaforagedrop. For soiling pur-
00 C . a. him to encourage its growth. On moist poseait fsurpassdA rop -as it yields more
o gi .(i atlands which are not cultivated, but pe. acre. stands-drouth better, is easier
5.gO-0. ag09 trampled and grazed, continually, it grO(wm,. It-is a-fine milk and butter pro-
C 0a, :-9o=-g,8 forms A.finegreen-swar nd affords u ,perior to corn. Wedo.notap-
Soood pasturage. A. H, pC. ppitt as we should atthe South.


ORANGE CULTURE ABROAD.

VIII.-Some Suggestive Points
in the Consular Reports.
- Having described in detail the man-
agement of a grove from the seed to
bearing age, as practiced in one of the
oldest orange growing districts of, Eu-
rope, we will now cull from the consu-
lar reports some miscellaneous hints on
the treatment of citrus trees, then on
the manipulation of the fruit, after
which we will take up the subject of
diseases and their treatment.
CLEAN CULTURE,
is advocated in all the reports and is
shown to be practiced pretty generally,
though in varying degree. In the bear-
ing groves of Sicily it is considered
"necessary that the ground be kept per-
fectly clean," being worked, five times.
from March till October. In Spain they
are plowed in March and May ten to
twelve inches deep in the middles, and
in August, September and October they
are hoed.
In Mitylene (at the eastern end of the
Mediterranean) in the latter part of
March, after a thorough pruning, the
ground is worked two to three inches
-deep around the trees and ppaded ten to
twelve inches deep in the middles. In
April each tree receives two or three bask-
ets of manure. At the end of November of
alternate years manure is buried around
them a foot beneath the surface. In the
neighboring province of Tripoli groves
are cultivated five to seven times a year.
In Beirut they are cultivated three times
a year, when the gi-ound is dry. I'n
Turkey they are plowed in June, and
hoed at intervals. In Morocco they
are cultivatedd with a heavy hoe once a
year."
TNTERCROPPINO,


.nlLm i M. .......


Sicily we are told that vegetables are
planted in groves for fire or six years, in
the eastern districts they are often
thus cultivated, but the practice is
not approved of by the best cul-
tivators. Jn- Spain where,, accord-
ing to. hese reports, trees are
pStlanted iunch farther apart than in
Sicil, leguminous ,r root crops are
planted in the grove* for five or six
years, but notipaer than a yard 'from
thetrees. In Jamaica and Poito Rico,
the orange groves are planted with all
sorts of crops and sniall fruits, but the
"best growers prefer to keep up a clean
cultivation."
MIXED ORCHARDS
are frequently met with in- Italy, ac-
cording to the Consul Gener4l's report.
He says: "It sometimes happens, and
that not infrequently, that olives are
grown together with oranges and lem-
ons. When it is desired to substitute a
lemon and orange orchard for a vine-
yard the vines are left -and bear fruit
until the trees grow large enough to
cover them with shade, and then the
vines are cut down. Olives grown to-
gether with oranges and lemons are use-
ful to these latter by reason of the.shade
afforded: and the; resulting. increased
dampness of the ground.
"'During the six or eight years suc-
ceeding the planting of an orange and
lemon orchard the ground can be used
for growing vegetables (excepting some
few exhaustive kinds), as the consequent
manuring and watering favors the
growth of the trees."
IRRIGATION.
On this subject the authority just
quoted, says: "Generally speaking, ir-
rigation is indispensable for obtaining
an abundant yield of fruit. Water is
provided in various ways-by damming
up springs, digging wells, even to a
great depth, making reservoirs and
raising the water, when necessary, by
artesian wells. Water, for intercrop-
ping, is brought by means of little canals
or pipes into small ditches dug about the
trees, and which are filled two or three
times a week. The water used should b
not be cold, and, when necessary, should
be tempered by exposure to the open air
before using it for irrigation."
Irrigation is considered necessary in
Sicily, where water is brought from
mountain streams or raised from wells E
by horse power. The same methods are '
employed in Malaga. In Andalusia the a
groves are watered every ten or fifteen
ays, commencing after the blossoms
drop, though many think it injurious be-
fore July. k
In Morocco water for irrigation is
raised from wells by horse-power. In
the countries of the Levant much atten-
tion is paid to this matter. In Mitylene
irrigation is begun the end of May and
kepftup.eyery -week or two until autumn.
In other provinces it is commenced late
in June and continued two or three ]
times a week during the summer and
early fall.


FROST
is a danger to which growers are more
or less subject in the countries lying


north and east of, the Mediterranean.
The Consul at Tarsus says, "Some lem-
ons and sweet oranges are most sensi-
tive to a cold temperature, especially the
former, which are sometimes completely
ruined."
Ini Venetia the orange growers place
vessels of water in their groves, and,
"-when the water begins to freeze light
their stoves. Some begin beating when
the thermometer indicates six or seven
degrees above freezing point."
In Spain "should the weather be cold,'
the or hard is irrigated if possible, -and
thus the trees do not suffer so' much
from it. Should a period of dry weath-
er be followed by a lowering of the tem-
perature at the time when the :orange'
trees are not fully seasoned, the fruit is
likely to get frozen, and, to however
little an extent this may "occur, the or-
ange is useless for shipment."
TO STIMULATE BEAmING,
Without resorting to methods which
are only of temporary- efficacy, and
which impair the health of the tree, the*
Consul at Kingston. Jamaica, describes
the following process: -
"To stimulate a bearing tree to its ut-
most productiveness, the following plan
may be followed: Let a cord be. passed
loosely round the trunk of the tree, and,
with the distance of the -outermost
branches from the stem for a radius, let
a circle be marked on the ground the
entire circumference of the tree. A
deep trench, fully a foot wide, should be
dug along this line and be filled up with
a mixture of bone dust and ;well rotted
manure; finally, let the trench-.be cov-
ered- by the-loosened soil.,: The effect of
this treatment will be to stimulate "a
growth of young rootlets,. which will
feed upon the enriched soil of the
trench; the result of this will be that a
strong growth of young shoots, will ev-
ery where take place amongst the branch-
_e ; and, as a final coriseguenn. the tree


will .be ouna that tffe tree WaW ai
in size -to the outer dimensions of the
trench."
TO RETARD BEARING.


beyond the natural season, or to has-
tenit -(in countries exempt from frost)
methods like the following may be re-
sorted to, as described by the Consul at
Kingston:
"As the orange tree is so pliable under
conditions imposed by. art, that, in a
tropical climate, it ema be made to give
a crop-at any desired time of the year,
its blossoming may be hastened by culti-
vation and irrigation, and it may also
be retarded by suppressing the blossoms
as they appear. The retarding process
can be effected by beating off the blos-
sdins by means of a whip formed out of a
cocoanut palm frond. This retarding pro-
cess, I have been informed, is actually re-
sorted toby the Spanish colonists in Nica-
ragua and Honduras."-A. H. C.

A New Japanese Orange.
W. R. Barbour, of the Azusa, went up
to San Fra cisco early iast month to
look at a new Japanese orange just be-
ing introduced into this country by the
Japanese Tree Importing Co., of 120 Sut-
ter street. He was. so favorably im-
pressed with the fruit that he purchased
500 trees .and will -distribute them
throughout Southern California. This
new candidate for public favor is named
the Oonshio, and is grafted on wild
lemon, the stock being partly deciduous,
very hardy, and calculated to stand con-
siderable frost. The orange is described
as resembling our Tangerine, the skin
parting freely from the pulp, being very
sweet and entirely seedless. The tree is
a dwarf, growing 12 to 15 feet in height,
and doing well when planted 10 feet
apart, being characterized as "a prolific
bearer."
We judge thatthis will be a valuable
addition to the citrus fruits of this State,
because it can be grown -in localities
where the Navel would be killed or
stunted by cold weather. We hope to
get an engraving of the tree and fruit
before another season and to have some-
thing to report of its practical success
here.

French Grafting Wax.
Editor Florida Farmer and Fruit-Grower:
To make French grafting wax take
one pound rosin and one ounce tallow
and melt. Then add one tablespoonful
spirits of turpentine and seven ounces
strong alcohol, and let it boil until it
looks like honey, taking care that it
does not catch fire.


SLIGH, Fla.


A. B.


@
Germany teaches horticulture, in her
schools. A small nursery is attached to
nearly every common school, "and the
children are taught to grow trees and
vines from grafts and cuttings as well
is to plant the seeds and watch the va-
rious stages of growth. It would be of
9reat advantage if such a system could
be introduced here.


ra


pa


|


mg


--3









FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GOI)WER...APRIL 20, 1887.


HINTS TO ORANGE GROWERS.

Methods Based on Experience
and the Laws of Nature.
BY H. E. LAGERGREN.
WHY DO WE CLTIVATE ?
We stir the land to promote phys-
ical and chemical changes. In ev-,
ery :grain of. -sand is lbcked up lime,
potash, silica, phosphoric acid, magnesia
-ne rly everything that enters into any
plants compoliot.- These ingredients
are e~mic y combined in the, spil, butt
nitrogen Epd b'cbonm-two- ipant
elemetetw--are unWtedjithb -- cha'ni-
cally-hel'l in suspension between its
particles. You put'a new cast-iron plow
in the ground; it is then rough and dull
After a few. days' plowing 'it becomes
smooth and bright. What-caused this
change? The friction of the soil parti-
cles against the plow. But in wearing
the roughness off the. iron, the grains of
sand themselves become disintegrated.
Put one under a good micromeope-lo I it
resembles a piece of rock just -blasted
from the mountain. It has innumerable
spursnesspines, corners and fissures. To
grind off these inequalities-to break up
the particles into atoms small enough to
enter the plant by capillary attraction, or
to give more surface for co!d and heat,
light and water to act upon, is our pur-
pose in tilling the land.
What the mere f. action of an imple-
ment can do to this end is inflnitessimal.
but its exposing the soil to the action of
the elements is highly beneficial. Be-
sides, it changes its texture from com-
pact and non-absorbing to loose and
spongy, so that-it can receive and retain
moisture. At night the ground gets
cool enough to condense the water of
the air that enters its interstices. This
water contains nitrogen and carbonic
acid, so that, apart from being a solvent
Sof the soil and a vehicle for carrying its
reclaimed bounties into the plant, it is
also a fertilizer.
The sun shines on a grain of sand. A
tiny atom of water had entered the
grain byan invisible fissure, which had
become clogged up The water is vapor-
ized by the heat and bursts the grain
into fragments. Similarly, another
grain contains a little water. This is
rozen by a frost, and is thereby ex-
panded until it bursts its shell.- If those-
two grains had been a couple of inches
below the surface this disintegration had
not taken place. .
Besides similar direct- influences which
ever reduce the individual soil-particles,
steam, generated by- heat, contraction-
by. cold, -pressure by wind and rain
water,' keep loose soil in -con-.
stant motion; tending to atomize by
attrition mineral and vegetable con.-
stituents; and we all know how mueh,
longer it can'rain ona new-pipwhd piece


Ua J'O uw' u Lu W 'V V AIUU7 g AVG AA A'-
stices being so. numerous as to leave
room for the water.. -
When arable land has been undis-
turbed by the p'ow for'aiy length of
time, its particles are practically at-rest.
No physical changes take place, and the
chemical ones are rather for the w'dise.
Its granules crowd together tdo tight,
both for capillary attraction -of ground
water an for bsortion and retenatibn
of atmospheric moisture. The surface
is smooth' and of smaller area; it presents
little resistance to the wind, and heat or
cold car improve it in but a very small
degree. -


N


what ne met with in his travels. i7s
primary object in coming to this State,
is to encourage the growth of the poppy
and the manufacture of opium. His ex-
perience in this branch of production is
of fifteen years standing, and he has
grown the poppy auccessfuly in the
East Ind'es, Persia. Germany, France,
and in the Levant, whilst on the Ameri-
can continent he has experimented in
Massachusetts, New York, Illinois, Iowa,
Minnesota, Dakota and Florida. The
plant grows everywhere, but best of all
in Florida, producing larger bulbs and
capsules. The difficulty of hitherto pro-
ducing" oium in the U(nited rStatta e,,-.


4o 5larm or plantation should be with-
out a good vegetable garden and an br-
chard and vineyard of seed varieties of
fruit. This should be in all case anted
near and in full view of the dplane d
and protected by a first-class hog, 3
and theif proof fence. For this pur
nothing is so effecutal as a barbed wire
feuce, fastened to prepared posts and
covered with 'a hedge grown from the
McCartney rose. TaM species 'of rose
not being so rampatW-trow'e' as the
('herokee, will, if properly treated, cover
the wires in one season and Ie. per --
nently established by the third Year.
shul b nnnlva inyrd miaa


AS TO ORANGE TREES. cessfully-has been the high wages paid shape thus. A Thelian of this wil
Thus we seethenecessityand economy to labor. Dr. Whithrop has invented a be obvious, as it will be- seen that the
of frequently cultivating. our groves, plan, however, by 'which opium can be sun will strike every portiQn of the plan
But other benefits, independent of the produced here better and cheaper than and prevent the accumulation of dead
atomizing of the.soil, are derived there- in India, where the average wages are wood and leafless branches 'in the in
from in an orange .grove. While the ten cents per day, and the cultivation is terior of the hedge. -
trees are smaTI the ground must be kept so perfect by his method that 16 plants Being an evergreen, perfectly hardy
loose for easy penetration of their ever- can be made to produce an ounce of and covered with a profusion of blos.
extending roots, and when they grow opium. The gentleman assures us that soms for six months of the year, Ait be.
larger and into bearing, for the expan- at the present price of the drug, that a comes a striking feature of the 1.qnd-
sionof, their roots. As the roots grow net revenue of one thousand dollars per scape. adding much to the beauty ol
they compress the dirt between and acre is an exceedingly moderate esti- the surroundings. A fence of this Wind
around themselves in a similar manner mate. comes as near being stock and theli
to piles driven close together in the Every orange grove can be ;aid out be- proof as possible. Nothing can ge
ground.- If the soil is not loosened by tween the trees with this plant and the through or over it without a great deal
tilling implements, the earth a little. way demand for the same atgood prices, is il- of trouble, and it will last and prove an
down cannot give way to accommodate limitable. An. English syndicate of capi- effective barrier for many years.-Times
the ever-increasing expansion, so that talists is going into the cultivation of Democrat.
the tubes in the roots are compressed to the poPpy largely on Indian River, and -. -
the extent that their capillarity is des- Dr. Winthrop is prospecting and perfec- Culture of the Sweet Potato.
troyed. r ting the arrangements of the company. tato.
Letting cow pea vines go to bearing The poppy will grow and ripen every BY A JEFFERSON COUNTY FARMER.
among large trees, is, I think, a bad month in the year, and thus doubtless If the ground is rich enough, lay off
practice. They not only rob the trees of another 'large source of income will rows four feet apart. Open with a large
moisture at a time when they stand most shortly be added to Florida.-Titusville shLve plow, deposit whatever fertil-
in need thereof, but their greedy, pow- Star. izer you intend to use, then bed on it
erful roots pack the dirt until the for- ''... with turn plow or twister, putting up a
nation of feed roots by the trees isseri- Boiled Oranges, high ridge. Drop the potatoes on the
ously retarded. It seems to me that pea Many of the street orange peddlers in centre of the bed fifteen or twenty inches
vines is an expensive fertilizer, anyway, San Francisco have of late been resort- apart. Step on them, so as to bury them
How would it do to turn under young ing to the practice of boiling their stock a little. Drop some cotton seed oin'top
cotton planted broadcast? As long as a in trade in order to'increase its value as to give them a start. Draw up one side
plant contains humus, it matters little in a salable commodity, and cover well, but not too deep. When
this climate whether it contains more or An orange that has undergone the boil- they come up draw up the other side so
less nitrogen. ing process increases in size and im- as to kill all the grass on it and the other'
During the summer nothing should be proves in appearance generally, but it side, first working. Throw up two turn
planted among bearing trees. The does so at the expense of its flavor, for it plow furrows, then draw up and around
ground should be kept mellow and cool becomes worthless as an edible. They the plants lightly, never covering the
by cultivation with any implement that can generally be detected by the absence ends of the vines.
does not hook intp the roots. After every of any smut on the skin, the oranges When the bed and alleys are suffi-
workming, run deep plow furrows in the looking as though they had each been ciently covered with the vinis let them
centre of the rows both ways. This is the recipient of a careful hand-polish, go. If grass and weeds come up pull
to prevent very vigorous trees from 'Those who do not care to be victimized them up by hand. Never cut the vines
preying upon weaker neighbors. About had better beware of an orange that is short. It will ruin your potato patch to
the last of October sow oats or rye too clean. have the vines cut short and pulled
thinly all over the grove, These should This is a new wrinkle in the chapter about.
be plowed in and the dirt thrown to- of fraud.-Rural Californian. PINHOOK, Jefferson Co., Fla.
wards the trees. -At the end of February *
turn under the young grain. This time Co-operative Horticulture. Prickly Pear for Feeding Stock.
throw the furrowsiawayfrom threes, Co-operation is valuable, and especially We have heard various rumors of the
theroots.keesin thewisunfromstimuling dirt on among horticulturists, from the fact edibleness of the native Opuntia and
them onot waeerms the sun from stihoulad then that no single individual can achieve a have supposed that it mnight'avert star-
suthem on warm days, sothe shourfaceld to bey in fullmeasure success unaided and alone ovation for a while, but never thought
warmed. Whenever a single "Acto be" is many persons have failed in hor- bf its being more practically useful until
warused ave thne traces so long that is ticulture and fruit growing who have n reading a Texas paper we came across
used, have the traces so long thatit settledmin sections far removed from the following :
bark off what roots it comesn crape the market and transportation facilities. Maj. T. M. Harwood, of.Gonzales, and
witbark off what roots it comes in contact Hence the necessity of this class settling Capt. B. F. Buzzard,of the Zavalla Land
..with. in communities where they can band to- and Cattle Company, met in our office
MANURING TEEE. gether for mutual advice and protect last week, and as they are both enthu-
The bestway to manure small trees is each other's interests Horticlturalsiasticdvocates of icky pear feeding
to dig orplow a furrow on two-say the societies, grange halls, educational insti- we had the subject pretty thoroughly
north and south-sides of the tree by the tutions, experimental plots, facilities for ventilla'ed. Maj. Harwood, we believe,


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plants will so.w signs of vigor by the
appearance of miniature leaves. If the
vessel is. full of roots, repot anI give
water gradually, increasing the amount
as the plint .advances in growth, and
kou will .'gobno be rewarded with blos-
She Euchsia, however, will often lose
ai lsB y. esout of season. It is
a v lant and will resent
anythingcontrary to its nature by re-
fusing tobe.autiful, and healthy ; in
fact will" o'Cuch '9lUe a sulky child.
If the v _1XnRi which it grows does not
have prpdrainage it will take one of
theeq' e ks!;be' use the soil becomes
Ifie'soil bec' nio very hard and dry
and tl an o. dose of water is given
it willRye a ispell" and seems to suf-
fer justis a ciild that has long been de-
ptived of no .hment and then is al-
lowed an-tjnlimited amount will suffer,
and in the case of the plant just as it is
with thebchild, the consequences may
prove fatal, In short, to grow Fuchsias
successfully, give good porous rich soil
good .drainage, shift to larger pots be-
fore toe roots become cramped. Use
great care in watering, giving what the
plant needs and no more.
*
Horticultural Brevities.
The pruner should, before commencing
operabris,g look each vine over, and trim
icceding to the vine's condition. He
will invariably find that upon a thrifty,
strong-growing vine the buds upon the
mediumn-sized canes are swelled larger
and stand out more prominently than
the buds upon the largest canes. ,
I have tried the experiment over and !
over, and this is the sum of my observa-
ion, that the medium sanes are the ones t
hat develop the best fruit buds'when-
ever the vines are strong.-D. S. Marvin. 9
To let green cuttings of any kind wilt v
but once is to do them irreparable dam- '
age.
The bright, richly-embellished cata-
ogue covers must not come to the child- t
men's mouths. V
Thousands who cannot have fruit trees
r bushes might grow grape vines to a
erfection against buildings. t
On one account commission seeds t
light perhaps be praised. They never r
wear out from muchA travelling. o
Aim to have every plant and tree a F
specimen." That is how to acquire n
much pleasure from horticulture. 0
A touch of nature in the form of climb- f<
ig vines way render the most humble P
house a most charming sight. ft
It is claimed by European vintners a
iat very old grape vines bear finer fruit
lan younger ones ,of the same variety.
For-get-me-nots make nice pot plants. ar
n forcing they are impatient of much fi
Sat. They like plenty of water and to
ght. M. dissitiflora alba is a useful f,
variety for its white flowers. ca
A generally good soil for potting ferns su
is composed of equal parts turfy loam of
id fibrous peat, mixed with coarse tc
nd and fine charcoal. Although, they gt
ve moisture, free drainage is of real cx
importance es


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--W',tI i'paper. Success to you."
Rev. T"W. Moore, of Marion county
writes: "I believe your paper will-do
good work in disseminating new ideas ii
regard to fruit raising, farming, stock]
raising, etc.':-
A veteran. nurseryman, who objects t,
the publication of his name, express
himself thu.: "I like your paper first
rate., and believe it will be the agricul
tural paper of Florida. -1 hope after i
little while to give you an article ever
week."
Mr. H. G. Daniels, of Amelia island
"Judging from what I have seen of thb
FARMER AND FROIT-GROWER, it is th<
best agricultural paper published in th(
South. I predict immense success for it.'
Mr. Arthur Brown, of Santa Rose
county, writes: "Judging' by the copy
sent me the paper is 'A No. I,' and I dc
not wish to miss a single number."
Mr. S. L. Culler, of Seffner, Florida,
writes: "If you continue to make the
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUrr-GROWER
equal to the first number, you will cer-
tainly furnish the agriculturists of Flor-
ida with a paper that will please them.
I am traveling through the country
among the farmers, and in every way
that I can assist you it will be cheerfully
done."
Mr. W. N. Justice, commission mei-
chant of Philadelphia, writes: "Having
received the first issue of your agricul-
tural paper, and being delighted with its
tone, we wish you to insert our card for
six months."
[From the Texas Farmer.]
Florida is not behind her sister South-
ern States in material progress. It.
pught to be called the land of fruits and
lowers, for each of these grand divis-
ions of horticulture are equally at home
there. The FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER is an ably conducted and ele-
gantly printed paper devoted: to these
very topics, to which we refer the reader
'or further information. '
_From the So. Live Stock Journal.]
We regret that the first number rof
he FARMER AND .FRUIT-GROWER] failed
o reach us; but the second shows a very
handsome sheet as to paper, typography
,nd general make up, whi'e the addi-
iona* department is all we expected of
he distinguished editor. Many of our
leaders are interested directly and sec-
ndarily in everything connected with
'lorida, and we cordially commend this
new and excellent periodical as worthy
f their patronage. With best wishes
or its success, we welcome this new as-
irant for public favor and patronage,
selling assured of the good work it will
accomplish in and out of Florida.
[From the Gardeners' Monthly]
"We are continually receiving -new
agricultural ventures, but useful as they
re in their own special fields, we rarely
nd in them anything of special interest
o the intelligent class of horticulturists
or which the Gardeners' Monthly has to
water. We were, therefore, agreeably
irprised on reading among the batch
) exchanges on our table, No. 2 of this,
o find it of a very high order of intelli-
ence, and one which must have an ex-
ellent effect in fostering Florida's inter-
sts."


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KIDNEY & CAREY,
P. 0' Wiwter Park Fla-
,R. N. SLLIS,'C. A. E. MCCLUtRK, Architect.
ELLIS & McCLURE, "

Architects & Civil pi eers,
Plans for-
HIOTELS. PUBLIC & PRIVATE BUILD-
rINS. SANITARY ENGLNEERING.&c.
P 0. ox 784. Rooms 7 anm-SPalmettoilock,
Bay SLrt.
ITACRSONVrLLK.,FLA.
ROYAL PALM NURSEBIHES

MANATEE, FLORIDA.
Rare uropicala ornamental and fruit plants for
open air culture inFloridaf and for the North-
ern greenhouse. Also, a full lie of semi-rropi-
ical trees, plants and grasses, and general nur-
ery cock adapted to Florida and the South.
ExotiC from India. Australia and the West
Indies, many of thbe, never before introduced
into the United States.
The most complete descriptive catalogue of
tropical and eM1.-u-opical plants publShed In
America. Catalogue nDalled, potr-paid, on re.
ceipt of 15 cents. ree to all customers
REASONER BROS,.
Manatee, Florida.
RILEY, GROVER & CO.,


R


STATE AGENTS FOR

ASIN FERTILIZER CO'S


J3OLUABLE SEA ISLANDGUANO,

DISSOLVED BONE AND'ALKALI *
PHOSPHATE,
AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN

FRUITS AND PRODUCE.

Get our Prices before buying. -

TAMPA, HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY,
T FLORIDA.
General Business and Real Estate.Agency of
W. N. CONOLEY.

If you wish a town lot, an orange grove, or
wild lands In thls rapidly Improving section;
or If you have taxes to be paid, or property to
be improved, or money to be invested, write-
to this agency.
Money can be placed on Real Estate with a-
Margin on wo-thirds of values at 10
and 12 per cent.
FREE OF CHARGE TO LENDER.
Ninety days to foreclose mortgage where
there Is no contest. All costs and- attorney's
fees provided for in mortgage. Write for
further Informat i and send for list of prop.
erty for Sale. *
W.N. CONOLEY,
Tampp, Florida.
REFPRsNCES-Ex-Governor Di-ew, Jackson-
vile; First National Bank, Tampa, andHon.
John T. Lesley, Tampv.


Cai


nada


Hard-Wood Unleached


ASHES!
Cheapest fertilizer ia use, andfree from nox-
Ious weeds. Supplied in car lots of .1 or more
tons. Guaranted free of rubbish. Put iup I
barrels. Prc andianalstfree on appIoa on
AddressV S 'EVE, p. ondo
Box 07 Napanee, Ontario, Canado.


122


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ends of the longest roots. This furrow
should be about four inches deep. There
deposit the fertilizer and cover up.
When you repeat the process, let the
furrows be on the east and west sides.
This prevents injurious cutting of ropts.
For large trees, whose roots are every-
where, apply the manure broadcast and
plow or harrow it in.
If barnyard manure or muck compost
is used, one application a year is suffi-
cient. It ought to be made in January,
unless applied with oats or rye in the fall,
Artificial -manures should be applied
twice a year-in February and July-on
account of their solubility. Any ma-
nure that "smells bad" should not long.
remain uncovered. Any manure that
does sot fall immed ly over.on..by, a,
eq is nt ated.. annotactbefore
be carried both literally and downwards.-
PREPARING FOR A FREEZE.
Young trees are much benefited by a
mulching of straw, etc. It keeps the
ground at an equal temperature night
-and day, causing a slow, even, healthy
growth ; but anything that keeps the
;sun's heat from entering the earth also
keeps the warmth inL the ground from-
coming up. Therefore, at the'approach
of cold weather, rake off the litter-and
put it in a small heap on the northwest
side of the tree.
I have seen trees trained ttraine to grow in a
conical shape, with the ends of the lower
branches bending down to the ground.
The upper ones were trimmed very even
and their end tufts so close that a mock-
ing bird could scarcely get through.
When a cold wind strikes such a tree, it
is mostly deflected upwards ; what
reaches the trunk has been tempered by
the warm air caught by the tree as it
rises upward from the ground. If the
ground is rough from recent plowing,
the wind blowing along it wiil lose'much
of its intensity by the friction, and the
warm steam can escape from the earth
everywhere.
A small orange has as many or more
seeds than a large one. The seeds take a
great deal of substance from the land.
If you remove one-half of the young
oranges, you save your land .without
losing by the fruit, for they will make
up in size what they lack in numbers;
and they will have thicker rinds, which
better withstand both exposure on the
the tree and shipment.
STARKE, Fla., March 10, 1887.
[The above observation on reduction
of seeds is well worthy of consideration.
It .is based on the well established fact
that the maturing of seeds is the fun&-'
tion most exhaustive to plants and to
the soil in which they grow. The fur-
ther idea suggests itself that a seedless
or nearly seedless veriety. must require
less fertilizer than one which produces
many seeds.-A. H. C.] '

Poppy Culture on Indian River.
We take great pleasure in welcoming
totheriver, Dr, W. ,W. '%Vintbrop, of St.


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cool storage of fruits, box and basket
factories canning faconries, -these, and
other industries of like character inevit-
ably follow the settlement of farmers
and fruit growers in communities.-Ex.

Interest in Ramie Reviving.
From the following .in the New Or-
leans Picayune we learn some new de-
velopments in the much talked of Ra
mie manufacture :
"Mr. Julius d'Alessandro of El Paso
Tex., informs me that he has already
planted 40,000 ramie roots. Several
thousand were set out early in Decem-
ber, and, though they had been twenty
*days on the way, the sprouts cape up
,'in ten days and growing finely. The
j1te seed which- was ordered from Cal-
cutta-last October will soon arrive, and
--fr}.-d'Alessandrn intends to-plantt.-dur-
ing the present month 200 acres of jute
and .ramie. Two decorticators of dif-
ferent .construction will be ready for
operation by the 1st of May. o
"According to the estimate of Mr.
Fremerey, Louisiana, which last year
raised eighty-three acres of ramie, will
plant 4,000 acres during the coming
spring. This season. too, large expert-
ments in raising jute will be tried in
different States-and on various kinds of
,soil.
"There is now a strong probability
that these new textile industries, so
fraught with possibilities of national
wealth, will soon achieve success. They
have at last attracted the earnest atten-
tion of both inventors and planters.
Eventually this widespread interest in
the culture of fibres will greatly increase
the resources of the United States."
We think the above statement quite
extravavagant,' but would be glad if it
could be proved strictly correct in all
respects. There is no trouble about
making these crops. Louisiana alone,
on her fertile soil,- could in a few years
make ramie and jute enough to astonish
the world. The machine is all that Is
needed. Give the South a fibre machine
that will work as well as the cotton gin,
and -seed could be multiplied in five
years sufficient to plant the whole sur-
face of Louisiana in ramie and jute, or
in either of them. o
The machine of Mr C. C. Kaufman,-
of the New Orleans Produce Exchange,'
is now exciting more interest than any
other machine yet invented, so far as
we are informed. We have sQenit work,
and to all appearances it bids fair to be
a success. It is simple, substantial and
not expensive. It decorticates the
whole fibre from end to end. It com-
pletely separates the bark from the
'woody matter within, in complete order
for bailing.
Mr. Kaufman has a process for sepa-
rating the gummy matter from the
fibre, which he claims to. have tested
and to be ps great a success as the. ma-
chine. Some of the shrewdest capital-
ists of New Orleans have taken stock in
this new enterprise.


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yas the first to cook pear for stook feed,
.and after much experience, pronounces
it, prepared in this manner, and -fed in
combination with a small proportion of
grain or cotton seed, with good hay, a
perfect fattening ration, and specially
valuable for dairy feeding. Capt. Buz-
zard says that pear makes goodensilage,
because he has tried. it. Took a large'
barrel down to the prickly patch and
sinking it in the ground leaving but a
.few inches above'the surface began to
Ill it with pear, chopping it. up. with a
sharp spade, as they did the krout in
the o'der time. Says it surprised him
how much of the stuff that barrel held,
*but he finalygot it full, and putting
some gunnyfacks on top he weighted
it heavily, and left it till along in- Jan-

uary, when- Aheopened it, but did not
like the smell of it. Took off the top to
a depth of two or three inches, when it
appeared perfectly fresh and sweet. The
thorns were so soft that he could fifth it
with his hands andnot feel them. The
cows and hogs ate it greedily, and on
the whole the Captain is 'well pleased
with his experiment '
without n ry.
Jin the Flower Garden..
From the last number of the Planter's
Guide we clip. the following cultural
hints which are applicable to this cli-
mate:
To grow large fine. Pansies give the
plants a bountiful supply of liquid ma-
nure.
Do not water the leaves of, Rex Be-
gonias. It injures the lustre. The
leaves of"the flowering varieties may be
watered without injury.
The Auratum Lily maybe planted in
the spring. It should be planted deep
and in a position that it can occupy for
several years undisturbed. It does not
come to perfection for two or three
years after planting. When in bloom
this lily is magniificent.
The Fuchsia is emphatically a sum-
mer-bloomer, preferring a shady and
moist location to. heat and sunshine.
Plants may be, bedded-out during the
summer like geraniums, or, as we see
-them in our neighbor's front yard, plant-
ed. in butter tubs which are painted red
outside and filled with rich soil. They
are quite ornamental, indeed.
The White Funkia or Day Lily is one
of our best hardy plants. From the ap-
pearance of the leaf, this plant is often
called the Plantain Lily. The leaves are
quite large and of a pale green color.
Late. in summer it sends up a flower-
stalk a foot and a half or two feet high,
which bears a multitude of beautiful,
pure, white,'bell, shaped flowers. The
blooming season continues a long time.
As a lawn plant it bas no superior.
Fuchsias, -periodically bloom and
take a season of rest. When ready to go
to rest the leaves turn yellow and grad-
ually drop off. When this is the case
partially withhold water. giviungonly


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Few of Many Comments by Cor-
respondents .and the Press,.
Judging from the expressions of ap-
proval which are coming to us daily
from correspondents and the press, and
from the rapid increase of' our subscrip.
tion.list, it is evident that the FARMER
!AND FRUIT-GROWERhas met with a more
favorable reception than we had ven-
tured to expect.
In a few distances we can give the sen-
timent of a.letter by quoting one or two
sentences, as in the following examples:
Prof. S. N. Whitner, of the Agricul-
tural College of Florida, writes as fol-
lows; "I can say in all sincerity, it has
exceeded my most sanguineexpectations.
Already it is without a peer in all the
South."
Y Mr. Thomas Mbehan, the distinguished
horticulturist and proprietor of the Ger-
mantown nurseries, in a letter dated
March 5th, writes: "I -am very much
pleased. with- the FARMER AND FRUIT-
GROWER, and shall read it regularly,
which you know is a high 'compliment
for an editorto payto an exchange.".. .
SProf. D, L.Phares, the eminent i pro-
,fessor of biology in.the Agricultural Col-
lege of Mississippi, says in the Southern
Live Stock Journal: "His [the editor's]
valuable paper already appearing in the
first numbers are fulfilling our expecta-
tion and prediction. They may be fully
relied upon for conscientious correc-
ness of statement and scientific accur-
acy of detail."
Hon. WiJ.Win. Ewan, writing -from
Miami, Dade county, says : "Certainly,
you are doing a good work in establish-
ing an enlightened and 'scientific system
of agriculture, which heretofore has
been seriously neglected. Your paper is
inviting in appearance, pure in senti-
ment, and progressive in principle, and
surely must succeed."
Mr. S. A. Stevens, of Sumter county,
writes :' "I am in love with your paper,
but am taking so -many now that until
some subscription runs out.I can't take
more, but calculate to be a subscriber to
your paper Soon." -
Mr. E. W. Amsden, of Ormond-on-the-
Halifax, whites as follows: "I am tak-
ing ten papers on agricultural: subjects,
and if asked to surrender the FARMER
AND FRUIT GROWER, I would tell them
to take the other nine, but leave me
that. May peace and plenty and years
of grace be given you to continue the
good work." .
Mr. J. V. Dansby,of Pensacola, whose
eminent success 'in 'truck gardening, as
well as his able' writings on farm topics,
entitle his opinion to respect, expresses
himself as follows,: "The first number
of the FARMER AND FRuT-GROWER was
duly received and. is the best thing in its
way I have seen. It is just the paper
needed, and if you keep it up to the pres-
ent standard of excellence must become
popular with the people. I can't see
where you have left any room for im-
provemnent." '
Mr. Charlies V. Stevens, of Orange
c-unty, writs_ ,y.... rhloa nnner fitlisa


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AITLAND NURSERIES.



ALL VARIETIES OF

ORANGE AND LEMON.TREES.



Budslnot placed on small stocks, but on extra
large and fine ones.1

We make a specialty of the
-EARLY SPANISH RANGE- --
(the earliest variety known),
TOHITI LIMES and
VILLA FRANCA LEMOiS,
and can show trees of the latter that [stood-the
cold last winter as well as the. Orange, and
TOW HAVE TRUIT UTPON TEEM.'



Send for Catalogue.


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1

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KAFFIR CORN FOR SEED PURPOSES.
AMBER CANE SEED
GERMAN MILLET,
CA'TrAIL OR PURE MILLET,
SPANISH PEA-NUTS,
JOHNSON GRASS. ETC.
Everything to Plant. Address
SO. SEMD Co., Maeon, Ga.
J.. Ellis, President.
COW :E.A.8 -
RED ROVX, r.wHIPOOWz0RLL AnD OAY
FORB "s "
Send for treatise on Culture of Orange
Tree.

C. 8.L'Em'LE & co., "


STOVES,

CROCKERY

I GLASSWARE.
LAMPS,

OIL-STOVES, "'
SAR GOODS,

WOODENWARE.


PRICES THE LOWEST.

c. S. I,'ENdil & CO.,
SJACKSONVILLE, FLA'


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in


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123


FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, APRIL 20, 1887:


feed. If the slips are put out the first of
May, hogs may he turned on them by
the first of September, or earlier, be kept
on them till the middle of October, and
SEASONABLE FARM TOPICS. then turned upon the groundpeas, and
by the end of klovember be ready for the
knife. It is a mistake to suppose that
Advice to Southern Farmers by farmers cannot raise their meat to ad-
a Leading Agriculturist. vantage at the present low prices of
e flying discusio i bacon. A farmer can raise almost any-
The following discussion of topics thing that he needs on his farm cheaper
which deserve attention at this season is than he can buy it. In the matter of
derived from the last number of the meat, all that is required is that he
Southern Cultivator : should arrange properly for it-not de-
THE FODDER SORGHUMS. pend exclusively, or evenjargely, on the
We repeat the recommendation hereto- corn-crib. Grazing lots, Bermuda and
fore given to supplement the corn crop clover, Johnson grass lots for hogs to
with one of the recently introduced mil- feed upon rootsetocks of in winter,.plm
lets or sorghums, as kaffir corn or millo orchards, wild cherries, needling peach
maize. Kaffir corn is nothing like ordi- trees, acorns, persimmons, etc., together
nary corn; it resembles millo maize, but with sweet potatoes, peas and ground
has a dwarfer habit and matures earlier, peas, present a cheap, inexpensive bill
It and millo maize have been widely ad- of fare-upon which hogs can be very
vertised as forage crops; we value them easily raised and fattened. We are not
more for their seed, which are about as, enterprising enough; we work on from
valuable as ordinary corn for stock feed. year to year in the same old ruts, raising
If not more valuable than corn, why corn and cotton and little elsb, and
plant them, asks one. Because they trusting t6 the cotton crop to supply all
stand drought better, and will make a our wants. Year after year we have
crop where corn would utterly fail. If failed but hope never dies. The fault
one is forced to rely upon thin uplands is in the seasons, or the guano dealers,
to make corn, he had better plant kaffir or the merchants, or something else; we
corn or an early maturing strain of millo are blind to the fact that it is chiefly in
maize; rather than common corn. The ourselves and our methods.. We give a
former is much more certain to produce thousand excuses for our failure, but
a crop under the conditions mentioned never the right one. Now, before it is
-especially in a dry season-than the too late, put some of the land you had
latter. Plant corn on bottom lands and prepared for cotton in sweet potatoes,
on fresh rich lands, but confine it to some in groundpeas !and some in kaffir
these, and plant kaffir corn on thin up- corn, some in German millet and some
lands. To those who have never culti- in forage corn.
vated the latter, we may say, its culture ---***
is similar to that of ordinary sorghum- SOURCES OF MANURE.
nothing peculiar or difficult about, it. -
Raising supplies at home is the fore-
most and most important of all How to Avoid Expenditure for
problems to the -cotton raiser. It is Commercial Fertilizers.
useless to attempt improvement of
any kind until the farm is made self- BY S. POWERS.
supporting. He will certainly fail if he The average American farmer dislikes
buys provisions. The experience of the to acknowledge that he is poor. A'big
last twenty years has most thoroughly manure heap is a confession- of poverty
demonstrated this. Go where you will, -of soil at least. It is so much easier to
the men who raise supplies at home are draw *sight draft on Nature, on the
the prosperous farmers. Their lands are natural fertility of the earth, than to
not mortgaged. They do not have to ask accumulate a bank 'deposit by ,slow and
merchants to run them. For this reason laborious gatherings into the compost
we stress every crop which will help the 'heap! It is so much more to our likipg
farmer to raise the provisions he needs; to draw on a big national bank of a
kaffir corn and millo -maize strike us as hammock or an Iowa prairie (even if
very promising grain-producing crops. our paper goes to protest at last) than to
They are- generallyextolled as forage acquire a safe bank account i-n the dime
plants; we do not prize them highly for saving society of a manure pile.
that;'ordinary corn sown in drills has no As I write this article the pickanin-
superior as a forage plant. If one will nies are going on their rtheunds, with
manage it properly there is no occasion old gunny sacks on their heads, collect-
to hunt up any other crop as a substitute ing the dried cow chips, which the or-
It is urged upon every farmer who is at range growers are glad to purchase from
.all short of forage, or likely to be, to sow them at 20 cents a barrel. Let no man
a good breadth of land in drilled corn despise their vocation. Old and bleach-
this month. It may be sown at any ed cow chips are barely worth the col-
time from April to August, but the early electing, but those of more recent origin
sowings are tee most satisfactory-most are valuable for application to trees, but
apt to succeed. Prepare the land very not for gardens. They are said to breed
thoroughly by repeated plowings, roll- cutworms and grubs to such an extent
ings 'and harrowings; make drills ifour as to overbalance their fertilizing value.
feet apart to admit plenty'of air and The only way in which they can be
light; sow-seed so that grams may be used forvegetable crops is by filtration.
from two to three inches apart, and A barrel is about half filled with the
when up cultivate with sweep. Some chips and elisug vater piled in to fill
think forage corn should be sown very it; the massis then thoroughly churned
Ofthickly, to make thlarge stalks very small. objectionith a stick and allowed to stand
Of course very large stalks aroe objection- awhile, after which the solid parts are
able, but if each plant has not the oppor- skimmed off and thrown away, leaving
tunitycf developing itself pretty thor- the liquid manure for use. In this. way
oughly, the forage will lack quality; it the pgs and larvae of worms are given
.will. be tasteless and not relished by the slip. .
stock. Each stalk ought to have suffi- I n a man into the woods with a
cient opportunity to enable it to make a sythe andhave him cut a quantity often
little nubbin, and the crop should not be p woods grass, which makes bedding
gathered until the little nubbin is only inferior to peat moss. The stable
Roasting ear. is kept so well littered with this that
GERMAN MILLET. very little'liquid manure is lost. The
-Another very valuable food crop,which stable is cleaned out once a week; thie
may be started the last of this month, is abundunce of the bedding prevents the
German millet. It is an -exceedingly Iforse's feet from being injured in this
strong, nutritious forage-stronger per- length of time. A manure shed adjoin'
haps thanany other, unless exception be the stable, and in this the weekly de-
made of clover hay and pea-vines, posit is spread out thin, and about an
Whilst it may not-equal these in some inch of swamp muck is spread over it to
respects, it is a better balanced food. It prevent the escape .of ammonia. This
calls for rather rich land, but grows well muck is hauled and piled up beforehand,
on poor land when manured and prop- becoming dry and pliable. A few buck-
erly prepared. Stable manure, cotton eta- of water are thrown over the
seed meal, ammoniated -fertilizers or pile occasionally to keep down the heal
composts will answer. The land should and promote the rotting.
be prepared, as described above, for I also have this swamp muck hauled
drilled corn, a half hushel of seed sown. up and thrown under the orange and
on an acre and very lightly, harrowed in other trees, about a bushelto, a tree be-
- and then rolled. All small seeds, which ginning to bear. This pile is flattened
must be planted shallow, shodid be little, and- oyster shell lime or fresh
rolled after they are harrowed in. It ashes thrown on it. This leaches. down
insures both more prompt and more cer- through-it and assists ifl correcting the
tain germination of the seed.: Remem- acidity of the muck. After awhile it i1
her that German- millet should- be cut mixed with the muck with a prong-hoe,
promptly as soon as blossoms appear! and the whole scattered under the tree
the seeds form and mature very quickly and worked in.
after the bloom, unusually so. and it is Another excellent manurial substance
not desirable to let the seeds mature. is piney woods ,sod, scalped off about
They are sosmall they, are not properly two inches deep with a heavy plant.
masticated, may swell in the stomach tion hoe, or with a Texas Rangerplouw
and do harm, or else pass through undi- in the hands of a skillftil holder. When
tested and are lost. The 'extreme ease laid in piles under the trees and allowed
- with which, this millet is cut and cured to rot, especially if treated. with oyster
also commends it to our high esteem; it shell lime, this sod gives the orange
has decided advantage over corn forage leaves, if not quite so rank a growth ai
in this respect. commercial fertilizers produce, at least
GROUNDPEAS. a very clear and glossy look, and ren
GROUNDPEAS.en ders the bark as clean, green and bright
Increased interest has been developed as that of the most thrifty, hammock
of late in the groundpea crop on account tree
of the introduction of the variety termed The manure pile under the shed is the
"Spanish." We do not know its origin receptacle for everything of manuria
or history, but on trial have found it a value, rags, weeds, sods, leaves, etc.
very excellent variety.. The pods fill A barrel is kept standing at the bad
well, and cluster largely around the door, into which the son suds is thrown
main root, making the digging of them This is carried out (I should have th<
quite easy. On suitable land that mi barrel on wheels if the surface of the
rather sandy and with lime in the soil, grove were not so rough), and throw
"the groundpea is a very valuable adjunct under the backward trees. A wago:
to the food crops of the farm. Scarcely loadr to of muck is deposited at the
anything is better for fattening pork, back door, with a hollowed surface, andc
and as farmers are much more disposed into this is thrown dish water, etc., until
to raise their meat than they formerly themuck becomes sufficiently charge
were, we'commend this crop to their at- with refuse, when it is hauled away inter
tention also. It should be planted at the groveand a fresh deposit made. Abar
once; it is better to shell and plant the rel of lime stands hard by, and a cupful o
seed out of the hull; they will come up it is dashed over the muck if it happens te
-more quickly; drop at least two in a hill; stand too long in warm weather.
rows three feet apart and hills twcfeet The water closet is built high enough
in the row. to receive underneath it two water-tigh
GROWING FEED FOR HOGS. boxes, arranged to slide in and out 1uk
In this connection 'the sweet potato bureau drawers. Lime is .used free:
Should receive attention. The large, whenrequired. The drawers are pull(
early varieties, like the St. Domingo out on to a wheel barrow, wheeled awa:
yam, and the closely allied red skin with into the grove and the contents buried
yellow flesh, are unsurpassed as hog The trees stand on ridges, with dea(


I


furrows or ditches between, and in these
ditches a good deal of fertilizing mate-
rial runs away when it rains. At the
lower end of the grove is a foot ditch in
which the drainage of the grove stands
to' some extent. Here a considerable
amount of this fugitive fertility is de-
posited as sediment, and this I occasion-
ally have wheeled back into the grove
and thrown under the trees. It pays
wellto send a man to clean out old road-
side ditches. in dry weather and haul
away a thin layer of their sediment,
which is often almost pure vegetable
mold, and that better seasoned than
swamp muck. The abundant growth of
smartweed (Polygonum hydropiper) in it
attests this fact.
Doubtless our friends of the hammocks
will smile at these puttering devices for
saving fertility. But it seems to be or-
dained that in Florida a fertile soil and a
salubrious atmosphere shall not often
abide in company, and these devices are
the price we of the piney woods pay (not
unwillingly) for our perfect health.
LAWTEY, Fla.

CALIFORNIA'S ALKALINE SOIL.

An Ever-Present and Increasing
Obstacle to Farming.
BY J. G. KNAPP.
One scarcely passes west of the Missis-
sippi and Missouri rivers before he will
see tracts of land covered with a whitish
substance, which has a bitter, saline
taste, and the dust arising from such
ground corrodes the skin and inflames
the eyes, nose and mouth, and excites
great thirst. Water standing on such
places, though comparatively clear,is un-
palatable, always sickening and some-
times causing death. When the rust of
the soil is broken through, it presents a
dark clay, but produces only a scant
vegetation of coarse grass and plants
adapted to growths in a saline earth.
This material is known by'the general
name of "Alkali." It -is a mixture of
salts, compounded largely of sulphate,
carbonate and chloride of sodium(glauber
salt, washing soda and common salt), all
of which are poisonous to most vege-
tation. In a few instances sulphate salts
of potash, lime and magnesia, and oc-
casionally nitrate and phosphate of soda,.
occur. These last are the only fertilizing
salts ever found in alkalies.
All these salts of the alkali are rolub'e
in water; and where pure water is abun-
dant and irrigation possible, with abun-
dant drainage, it is possible to wash
them dut of the soil,- and fertility be
gained for such lands. But such a course
is often impossible from the situation of
the place to be redeemed, and from the
want of a sufficient supply of pure or
nearly pure water. But even where the
situation and water supply are all that
could be desired, the irrigation will be
inefficient, perhaps impossible, by such
irrigation as would be productive of
crops of grains, grasses or other farm
products.
This condition may be traced to .the
ct that not only the surface of the place
is charged with the poisonous salts, but
the sub-soil and earth to an unknown
Depth is also charged with the same salts,
and these in their turn are drawn to and
, deposited upon the surface, by the action
of the water intended to carry then*
away; and thus instead of redeeming
these alkaline lands their areas-have
, been enlarged, without diminution of
the quantity, at the original location.
; Whether this has happened in any of
a the States or territories of the United
t States, or if it has happened, been ob-
served and the fact recorded, I will not
a undertake to say; but in Mexico and
SCentral America, where irrigation has
s bee in cultivation of crops during
q the long droughts that prevail, such in-
- stances are not uncommon; -and very
striking examples are given of such in-
) crease of alkali in the districts of Oudi
s and Punjaub in India by irrigation in
, attempts to rear crops on alkali soils
Geologists are pretty well agreed thai
6 these salts were deposited in the soil and
t. subsoil during the cretaceous und early
tertiary periods of the earth's existence.
I. and while these lands were covered with
I the seas of those periods, aid they have
- ot been washed out by the immense
E rains that fell east of the Mississippi dur-
i ing the quarternary period, freeing this
region from alkalies. A strong argu-
e ment may be drawn front the alkaline
s soils to the west, that since a very re-
, mote period, these .regions have beei
e affected by an intel continental and arid
climate; although there may occur cloud
e bursts, cutting out the canyons. and
t melting away the adobe soils, rendered
- more susceptible by the alkali contained
* yet, there is no prospect of such an in
* crease of rains as may render irrigation
d unnecessary to cultivation, or wish the
r poisonous ingredients from the soil.
e Though Florida has no portion of iti
s soil poisoned by alkali, and there is noth
t ing to fear on that score, it may be o:
- interest to Floridians to know what they
t have escaped, and what they have in
k herited in their sands; and what the ag
riculturist of California must foreve:
e encounter in the race of competition in
l their cultivations. Sands may be lean
, mn the elements for plant life, but ax
Abundant supply of vegetable matter
which these may produce in a few years
With our good supply of rains, will giv
Stem fatness; and Floridians should no
n complain, but rather thank God for their
n inheritance of sand freed from the curse
e of alkali.
S Some idea of effects of alkali may be
1 gleaned from the report of Prof. E. W
d Hillgard of the University ef California
o I have now only space to quote a fev
- sentences from his report upon the "al
f kali soils and irrigation waters of Cali
o fornia." He says: "The immediate
source of the alkali is. usually to be
Sound in the soil water, which rising
t from below and evaporating at the sur
e face, deposits there whatever of dissolve
y matter it may contain. For since th
I soil, acting like a wick, draws up the
y soil-water and allows it to evaporate a
1 the surface, it is therd, of coursethat al
i the dissolved matters accumulate, unti


the solutioU becomes so strong as to in-
jure or kill all useful vegetation. The
injury will usually he found to be most
severe just at or near the crown of the
root, where the stem emerges from the
soil." The Professor sees no relief, but
rather an increase, in irrigation by the
waters of the rivers and artesian wells,
as they all contain more or less alkali.

/ THE TOBACCO CROP.

A Columbia County Planter's
System of Management.
"Just when the Georgia and Plorida
farmers are ready to branch out into to-
bacco culture," says the Southern Cjdti-.
vator, "the tobacco-growers of Kentucky
are calling a convention for the purpose
of reducing the acreage in that State.
The same depression is felt in Virginia,'
North Carolina and Tennessee, and, few
farmers have paid out the past year on
their tobacco crop. In South Carolina
the most of the experiments last year
were unsuccessful."
There are special inducements in Flor-
ida to stimulate an interest in tobacco
culture, and according to reports a large
crop of the "weed" has been put in this
spring. The result cannot be expected
to be as favorable as if Virginians had,
the management of it, yet there are
many farmers in the central northern
counties who hawv had long experienqp
with this crop. One of these is David L.
Geer, of Columbia county, who contrib-
utes to the Lake City Reporter the fol-
lowing instructions on general manage-
ment :
THE SEED BED.
In order to finish the first crop before
the rainy season, seed should be planted
during the latter part of De 'ember or the
first of January.
Select a spot in new ground, not too
wet nor too dry. A bed ten feet square
is large enough for one acre,and requires
a half ounce of seed.
Rake perfectly cleap. Pile some logs
or brush on the bed and burn them. Do
not burn the land much, only enough to
destroy the sourness After burning,
while t.e land is yet warm, put some
cotton seed on the bed and -rake them
with the ashes into the ground about
three inches deep, taking, out all sticks
"and trash.
-For every acre you intend to plant you
will need to have an ounce of seed. Mix
the seed with ashes and sow them over
the entire bed. Sweep the ground
lightly with.& broom to *cover the seed.'
Then press the surface with a roller, or
by walking over it. Cover, with brush
to protect the young and tender plants
from the rain.
If you plant seed in January, you will
have nearly three months to prepare the
land for transplanting.
THE LAND.
A ny land that is not "drownedtjout"
wilr make good tobacco. If you fertil-
ize, let it be with material on the farm
or cotton seed meal. Cotton-seed meal
ia thb best, Fertilizing increases the
yield of tobacco, but a satisfactory crop
can be made 'without fertilizing. The
land must be thoroughly cleaned up, all
roots and trash taken off. A month be-
Sfore transplanting about the first of
March, throw two furrows together,
with a turning plow. It is best to do this
c so as to'allow the rain to pack the
, ground. Let the rows be three or' four
" feet apart, you may.check them if you
desire. A little cotton seed meal or
' stable fertilizers dropped into the check
I 7 l greatly increase the yield.
TRANSPLANTING.
TransplaAt about the first of April, or
as soon as the danger of frost is over. Do
Snot wait for rain to transplant, but if
necessary set out the plants in the even-
ing and water them, covering them with
moss-or palmetto.
. To set out the plant take a stick about
I five-inches long and about an inch' and
a quarter in diameter, the end must not
t be sharp. but rounding so as to make
the impression on the list Take the
-stick in the right hand and the plant in
the left, make a hole, fill it with water
Sif the ground .be not wet enough, press
w ith the stick against the rootlets of the
plant. One good hand can set- out :an
acre a day.
i CULTIVATION APRIL 1 TO JULY 1.
After danger of frost is over trans-
e plant and as soon as the plants are
- found to live it is best to go over* the
patch with a weeding hoe, taking out
d- whatever grass there may be.
- ; Then take a sweep and run through
d -the.rows ; if you check, you can rur
1 both wavs.
; Tobacco requires the same cultivation
- as corn or cotton, onlyjt should be done
1 more lightly.
S- wORMS. ABOUT MAY 1.
You must look out for the budworm,
It is best to kill the fly that makes the
worm. Build the fires in the evening or
, stumps or scaffolds throughout the
_ field.
TOPPING, ABOUT JUNE 15.
r When the tobacco is three or four feet
n high the seedpod may appear. When it
n does appear, pinch it off; then watch fo]
n suckers. They must-be prevented fromni
, growing as the quality of the tobacco.
. Leave one sucker at the bottom for s
e sucker crop; keep all the others broker
t off.
r Keep the plants clear of worms, pici
e them off and transplate on them.
RIPENING FROM JUNE 15 TO JULY 1.
e When the tobacco is ripe the leaf will
" acquire a yellowish color in spots, and
" when it is folded over between the
Fingers it will break off. Some stalks
. will be ripe before others.
- CUTTING ABOUT JULY ,1.
e When you find the stalk is ripe take
g a sharp knife and split the stalk dowr
- through the middle to within four inches
d of the ground, and cut it off close to the
e You can do both these things in twc
t quick strokes, holding the stalk in the
1 downward to within a few inches o0


TI~EJ


the bottom, then another stroke across
the bottom and let the stalk go. Let it
lie in the sun till it wilts, probably half
an hour.
CURING.
Do not allow it to .remain in the
sunshine longer than an hour at the
farthest; it would sunburn and be in-
jured.
You will need long cords in your barn
stretched across. Lay the stalks astride
of these by means of split. The object.
of this is to allow as fr. e circulation of
air around the tobacco as possible.
Do not ruin ypur tobacco. by building
fires under it. Just let it hang in peace
till the stalks and stems have become
perfectly dry.
When the rainy season sets in, and
the tobacco absorbs moisture to such an-
extent that it will not break, take the,
whole stalks down and pile them like
cord wood in heaps on the floor. Cover
with any old clothes or bagging. The.
longer it lies in this state the better
it. becomes, but from four to six weeks
will do.
PICKING OFF THE LEAVES, AUGUST 1
Pick off the leaves from the stalk,
laying.-aide those which are free from
worm holes, as they will command a
higher price.
Put a dozen leaves with the stems to-
gether like bundling fodder; take one of
them, pass it around the others near the
stem end and tie it. Then fill a white
pine box with these little bundless; pack
it down tightly; nail the cover on; and
it is ready for the dealer. I will give
further instruction in due time. -

About Liquid Manure.
Editor Florida Farmer and ruit--Groer:
In your issue for March 23, "C. H. G"
speaks of "Fquid fertilizers." He is mis-
taken about them. Stable manure, or
night soil does not yield any soluble
plant food until decomposition is well
advanced, and they can be immersed in
water for five years without any danger
of their decomposing. d
A small amount of ammonia and min-
eral salts are obtained from the urinal
portions only, Ind aside from these, the
results he*obseFved -were obtained by the
watering alode. "
D. R. GREEN.
RECLAIMED LANDS EXPERIMENT FARM.
SARASOTA, Fla.

Precept for Farmers. -
Less cotton and.more grass and hay.
Evdly farm should own a good farmer.
The best politics for a farmer is pro-
duction.
Cultivate few acres and cultivate them
better.
Every farmer should try experiments,
but with care and caution.
A farmer with thirty irur years ex-
perience'says, more work can be got put
of men on the ten-hours system than on
the sunrise to sunset plan. -. -
Half of tie land now in cultivation in
this'country can'be made to yield more
than is now produced on the whole, and
with less-labor and-expense.
The present postage on seeds, plants,
etc., is 16 cents per pound. In England
and Canada the, rate on'the same class
of matter is 4 dents or $80 per ton,
which. is as high as it should be in this
country. .
Diversifldd jfrming, :rotation in crops,
a knowledge of the soil and planting
crops to which it is: best adapted, with
close attention and thorough cultivation,
will cure had,' ,times' and fill the land
with plenty.
A correspondent of the'tRural Canadia#
says, "the Canadian farmer. waters his
Cattle to a large extent by growing a
crop of roots, about 90 per cent. of which
are water. The American farmer buys
a windmill, and feeds dry forage, I
think the difference between the cost
of cultivating .ten acres of turnipsgand
3' ten acres -of clover would- pay for
a a windmill in a single, season. The
windmill would supply the 90 per cent.
r of water found in the turnip crop, and
S clover would more than' furnish th.
3 other 10 per cent. of solid nutriciouE
I matter." .
Let nolYarmer attempt longer to make
a crop on poor, started, sterile fields.
Cultivate no laud that will not yield a
fair compensation for the labor it re-.
s quires. -One acre, well manured anc
t well cultivated, will produce more that
twenty acres of poor land, lazily, work-
ed; and instead of throwing away time
I in the attempt to make a crop on suct
lands, let only so much be put in. as cap
be manured and receive proper attention
e One good -,hand can tend twenty-fivp
acres in corn, which at twenty bushels
to the acre will make 600 bushels; thi
same hand, and with the same labor anm
-. expense, can tend twenty-five acres, that
B with proper attention will make 1,250
bushels of better corn. To secure thi
e increase in yield only requires the appli
cati6n of such fertilizers as are within
the reach of every farmer, and thorough
. cultivation.-Planters' Journal.


Fr


I


DEVOTED JouTHE
DEVOTED TO THE


Farm,

Garden,

Orchard

AND

OUSEHIOLID EOJi Y




A. H.CURTISS,
EDITOR.
ThS journal will'have for iteleadinglobject
the promotion of rural indasr-esin Flornda, and
will advocate especrilly a more divers4trid and
intensive system of agriculture and greater
economy of.home resources.
Assuming thatthe agriculturaladaptations ofl
a large portion of Florida are as yetbut imper-
fectly understood, a-special aim of this journal
will be to describe the best results which bave
leen accomplished, uwch the exact methods em-
ployed, and all influences affecting such results.
also to -ugge-t experiment. describe new or-litnle
known crops, frniea. etl'., and record the progress
of agriculture in neighboring States.
Commencing with the dtrat number and Ion-
tinuing through the season for


Tree aPlanting,
Thern will be a ceriee of article" on fruits-other
than tho e of tho citrwu group-which have
prore' most &nccessful in this State.- Each va-
riety will be described and

Illustrated,
And there will be notes from persons who have
had experience in its cultivation. This will be
,followed by a similar series on

Forage Plants,
And.othersubjects will b alluiitrdted to a limiLe
extent.
Much attention will be devoted to

Sthe ive Stock
And to the home production of forage and fertile
zers, two economies. which are essential to sue
cessnfultfarmihg.
Questions relative to ailments of domestic
animals will be answered by i n able veterinary
surgeon who formerly edited- a like department
of the
T"'Tur Field aind Farm.

A due amount of space will bo deoted
household economy and to reports of thr, ma

Truck-Gardening,
Floriculture,
Poultry,
Veterinary 0
Practice, etc.
will be contributed to by persons who hae made
specialties of those branches.
All portions of the State will receive a due
amount of attention, and their interests will be
represented by able correspondents.
Under no circumstances-will thisjournalbe-
come the "organ" of any association or locality.
It will start out untrammeled and will repre-
Ssent all sections and interests with absolute im-
partiality.



Published at Jacksonville on Wednesday
of each week.


PRICE OF- SUBSCRIPTION:
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Address subscriptions and other business com-
munications to

C. H. JONES & BRO.,
PUBLISHERS.
Communications for the editorial department
should be addressed to
A. H. CURTISS, Editor,
Jacksonville, Fla.


FLORIDA






-AND-


t

t


i.
e

e
9


y
n
a
E





E

















14


Hernando County, Elortda,
Sixteen miles west of Hernando Hotel, Brooks-
ville, on the shore of the Gulf at the mouth of a
beautiful Spring River. Finest fishing, boating
and sailing. Good accommodations. Try-weekly
Hack Line. .


Cl ONSIGNIIIENTS OP EGGS


ONSIONMENTS OF EGGS,
c CHICKENS, FRUIT. AND
COUNTRY PRODUCE
SOLICITED BY
J. H. SUTHERLAND,
WHOLESALE PRODUCE
COMMISSION MERCHANT,
28 OCEAN STREET, JACKSONVILLEA.


(- END YOUR

Job priptip?
TO THE TIMES-UNION JOB ROOMS


TdAYPOXT,


ATP OT,


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124


The Florida Farmer and Fruit Grower,
A. H. CURTISS, Editor.
C. H. JONES & BROTHER, PUBLISHERS.

Office Cor. Bay and L4ura Sts.

THE FLORIAi'F&RMER AND FRUIT
GROWER Is an egifit pa'ge'48 coldimn illustra-
ted weekly newspaper, devoted to the Farm,
Garden, Orchard and Household Economy,
and to the promotion of the agricultural and
industrial interests of Florida. It is published
every Wednesday. :'
Terms ofSul0scrlpti44i. Z
For one year........... .....- ,.... 2,'00
For six months..... ...:.0....-..;.--.1.- 0 0
Clubs of five to oneadess....,......;. 7.50
With dally TIM-ES-UNION one0yeS....'. 11.Q0
With daily TIMES-UNION4, sixmonths 6.CO
With WEEKLY TIMES, one year ...... .. 2.75
A0-Subscrlptlons in all cases cash in ad-
vance, and no paper continued after the
expiration of the time paid for. TheA date on
the printed labe#'y'th whlchl.thle ppers are
addressedilb: te date tori.huftlih Acrlp-
tion is pairdanriia uival.nt.tp'-tecl.ft for
payment .to- 4ia.1ftte;. it tuie-idbtMlt not
changed immediately after a new payment,
the subscriber will please notify us at once-
CORRESPONDENCE solicited on all sub-
jects pertaining to the topics dealt witlinj
thispaper. Writers may am sqj.j sig atuirs
Sto their articles as they mtty aso, -t must
furnish the editor with 1tl'_I 4All nple a.id
address, not forpublicatfon bufas a guarantie
ofgood faith. Rejected communications can-
not be returned.. .- -
ADVERTISEWfS' iqt serted.toa limited
extent.. Rates furnished on application.
REMITTANCES should've made by Check
Postal Note -Money- Order, or Registered
Letter, to order ofv i "
S"" C: H. JONES & BRO.,
Jacksonville, Fal

TABLEOF-CON'iEiTS.. -:

FJRaT PAGiE-Japsn CloV5r;"- Iespbdeza (illus-
trated); Southern Hay Makers; French
Grafting Wax; The Curculio Going; Orange
Culture Abroad; A' New Japanese Orange;
Proportion of Useful Plants.
SECOND PAGE-Hints to Orange Growers; Poppy
Culture on Indian River; Boiled Oranges-
Co-operative Hortciulture; Interest in Rame
Reviving; In the Flower Garden; A Rose and
Wire Fence; Feeding Prickly Pear ro Stock;
Horticultural Brevities. -
STimRD PAGE-Seasonable Farm Topics; Sources
of Manure; California's Alkaline Soil; The
Tobacco Crop; About Liquid Manure; PrA-
Scepts for Fanrmers; Culture of Sweet Potato.
FOuaRTH PAE .(Editorial)-A Valued Con-
tributor; Weighq4l and Found Wanting; Laws
Which Benefit- Debtors; Mistreatment o1
S Horses;. Judge.Kelley onFlorida; Agricultural
Colleges; Farmers in the Legislature.
F.: IFT'r PAOE- Edtred by' rHelen Harcourt); Om
:. Home' Circl; Cosy Corner; The Family-Friend;
,' Qur Young Folk's Corner.
S :" -SIXT PAsE-Veterinary Advice; French Ideas
S about Horses;.-An -Experience with Milch
: Cows; Care. of the Hoofs; Seven Points in
Butter; Poultry in Flo;ida; -Growtlof Young
Chicks; How' to Raise Turkeys;- Comb Foun-
dation; Management of Bees.
SzVEgzrr PA&z-Farm- Miscellany (Illustratedj;
Serial Story, -'For Honor's Sake," by B. L.
Farjeon.
EIGHTH PAGs-State News in Brief; Relies
of the Red Men; Fencing -ui or Fencing in
Getting Muck from Lake Bottoms; Fallacies
about Food; Home-made Foreign Goods; April
Weather Record; The Orange, Cotton and To
bacco Markets and the Wholesale and Retail
Jacksonville Markets. ,,
::-*:-'-'-'4 0:. _'
A VALUED CO.NTiRIBUTOR.

We learn thatouresteemed friend, Mr
S. Bigelow, is new to be addressed at
Lake Mary-instead of'Sanfr6rd. He ham
not gone to. Lake Mary, but Lake Mary
has.come to him, in other words there
has been a post office of that name es-
tablished near his place of.residence.
Mr. Bigel6w, writes, "You are making
a really first class paper and no one car
afford to miss a singlenumber." Thej
all sayz. so, and as we find nd minority to
side with, we are constrained, however
reluctantly, to adopt the same opinion
We feel sorry for those who do not take
the FARMER AND FRUiT-GROWEt, for we
know that one .of5 these, days -they -wil
be wishing they had the back numbers
very- few of which' will be'Obtainable
Subscribe at once .and you. -will thank us
for the advice.' -
I % .: q '4 ,.
Mr. Bigelow writes, "I have some
thoughts pushlig for utterance as soon
as work will allow." We are glad to
hear that, for it is a sign that we shal
have something good to serve to our
readers presently. No one better than
we knows what it is to have ideas press
ing for utterance. For years past we
have .Suffered from the pressure-of pen
up sentiments in regard to the various
shams and frauds from which this'.StatiE
has suffered, but, now, having a vehicle
for free speech, we-begin to feel a sensi
-, ble degree :of elitef.-A.,;,, ;:. ,: : '
And here we would say.again to all who
hesitate, about writing for publication
-' if you have ideas which you think-migh
J- < benefit thp ubljc,. go straightway an(
.' put them on paper. Do not be cohcernem
S-., about the handwriting, spelling .o
T grammar. .We put all manuscript
through-a machine which removes such
"" minor defects.


- It may be of interest to posteriO t'
know.what article was the first to be se
in type for the FARMEIt AND FRUiT
GROWE.R. .Mr.'B rgptoq atdcle. ,sor
managementt of a C' rove" Is ,the on
which will bver enjoy' that.distinction
We place the fact on record and hand i
down to posterity. In the exordiur
to this able article the writer bid us God
speed and expressed the fond hope tha
we were.so well fitted for the work be


FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. APRIL 20, 1887.


fore us that we.would be able "to corn- ces or amount of sales, but it seems that MISTREATMENT OF HORSES. -On her alluvial fields and reclaimed n
mand respect, attract attention, meet many think they have lost by following lands blow the frost line; her tobacco c
the demands of modern, independent, bad advice and giving it their patron In Support of a Much Needed "will equal the best of Cuba, while the si
production of her north-western coun-
progressive thought, and thus insure age. Act of Legislation, .ties will compete .with great advantage
"p"o-"ress...ve.. .....gftLeanth thhtobcionrownen the.aleit*
success in the fullest sense of the word." We are very sorry for those who have I notice in the proceedings of our Leg- With the. tobacco grown in the valleysof
That such words as those should have lost by following out patriotic motives, islatur that Duval county'es representa- onnecticutatPennsylvaonia and other
raNortheirn States. Nothing: but'an earth-
been given to the printer first Nf all, and but we have no syftiathy whatever for tive in the Senate, Mr. P. McMur ray, quake that shall swallow up the Penin, ti
by mere chance, is a circumstance which the prime'mdvers in. this-big advertising has introduced a bill to prevent cruelty sula or such fatal legislation as shal
to.anmals. Thi is. surel a step in, the sua.' suc faa gla._a hl
cannot fail to convince all who believe scheme. If anyone claims to have dis- right direction, and I hopr e the measure repeal the protective duties on iribe and ti
in the efficacy of signs thatthe FARMER covered thb writing-on the wall within will become alaw. The wanton cruelty sugr and retain the onerous and har- c
AND FRUIT-GROWER was predestined to two :years past, we hereby put, in a inflicted on the hose inthis city and r ngtwafultilment of.baothse pree-
success. counter claim of prior discovery. But suburbs"is a disgrace. It is a sore trial ,, f dic- -o
to the feelings of many of'the ethought- t --n"
". we.are glad to know that some who, f0or ful and humane people of this commu .. n
WEIGHED AND FOUND WANTING. 1 thegood.of the. public, ought to have nity, besides being a source of great AGRICULTURAL' COLLEGES. i(
h r e o-ran of champio o seen it long ago, have at last had. their loss tp the lees-feeling and ignorantown- P
To ptics opened to its every word and let- ers of stock.
theFruitExchange at last o ahd There are few, if- any, cities in the The Resources of the South for A
the Fruit Exchange at last 'throws uP ten. conr ftesz"fJcsnil hr
thepon6-. ad cie inwofl'o Pesercountry of the size of~acksonville where .: Agricultural Education.-:
the sponge and cries in woful tones, there are 'a many -fine horses in
"Mene, Mene, Tekel Upharsin!" Thou LAWS WHICH BENEFIT DEBTORS. b th iiveryand private use as in this We resume the account begun in the a
art weighed and foupd wanting,and thy ... .. city, and this class .of stock is well fed last lumber of the provisions made by in
kingdom is divided! we -have received a communication and cared for, but there- are also many Florida's neighbor States for agricultural v
kingdom is divided, l We -have received a communication agricultural^ ^^ w
well! We did not suppose the from a prominent citizen of tine of the that do the drayage. and other heavy education and experimentation.Missis- is
Well well! We did not suppose the from a prominent citizens e of the work of, the.- city, which are neither sippi's agricultural college ranks third, c
Exchange was so far gone- as that; but southern counties, who has had his caredfornor fed, and mans 6f the last we believe, among'those of all-'the w
when -we see its fondest friend' close its sympathies strongly aroused of- late by named class are compelled to pull heavy States, as regardsthe practical efficiency c
eyes, so to speak, and fold its lins seeing oneof andshis neighbors stripped lods.and at an.unneessarily fast, rate of its methods of instruction -Such is 1
e y e s o t o s s e e i n o n e k f h i s ei 8 'h b r s st r p p e d t o f o s p e e d 1 h a 't iif e n o t fe d b a l f i ie n u g l( b it s r e p u t a t io n t h a t h u n 'd r e d s o f ,a p pl ic a n t s f
over its breast, we cannot but believe- all his wordly possessions, including a sustained. tht.e not fe. hal ,eu t are refused admission simply because of t
that-the vital spark has departed, and beautiful home which he "had made for Frequently they do this work with its, limited capacity. The farm attached t
that, like Scrqoge, it is -"thoroughly himself during many years'residence in sore backs and shoulders and in constant was a Wvorn-out -plantation,"' :but -by
dead." this State. This was -in execution of a pain.' This.is partly from neglect and 'judicious management -has been brought 1
deadn me ,like thisStaten oThis was .in execution oa partly for want of proper harness, aand up to a high point of- productiveness: -a
When men like Wm. P Neeld, Of judgment obtained many years ago in. more often from the carelessness of MISSISSIPPI :
Pinellas, and Dudley W. Adams, of another State to satisfy debts for which, drivers irnot properly adjusting such MSI.
Tangerine, begin to "kick," we think it the defendant claims not to have been harness as they have. The fund resulting from. the sales of
is about time for 'the ringmaster and responsible. While his wife was living It is not an infrequentrthing to see public lands granted for the education of-
to t et t the wa y n responsible. While his wife was living mules driven at heavy work on a brisk the people of Missipfpi in agriculture and'
whippers-in to' get but of the way. he was protected by the homestead law, trot through our heavy, sandy streets, mechanics has een divided equally be-
Meanwhie, passive spectators like but on her death the creditors seized on with double the load they are capable of tween the white and, colored races.
ourself can sit andcontemplate the scene estate. pulling with' ease,' the dray or other Reference wll first be made to the in-
with the utmost equanimity. During.the .d.wdar a: vehicle squeaking f6r want of grease, a thh
-oi.th ditor.'mrida er anr o-p-rowe. used for a backbahd cutting intoas the Agriltur and Mehanicl Co-
winter, when our contemporary was. Among the incongruities of our stat- the poor beast's back and a cruel' driver, lege of Mississippi and is situated about.
heaping whole pages of eulogium on the utes in relation to limitation of action, plying the whip with one hand an ame an aStarkville. It
Exchange, and exhorting everyone to is the fact that a person may commit Jeiking on.the reins with the other. -. fcupies 1,750 acres of land, about 600 of .
patoniet, oa ex temelyo any sort of crime, not punishable by -Every horse or mule that is compelled which is under cultivation. -About 400
patronize it, our paper was so extremely death or. imprisonment. for life, remain to pull a heavy load,' should have a acres arq good land; the remainder is
young that it appeared to us best not to in this State two years, and then be pro- proper harness to do this work in. Their known as gullied- and hill land, and leav-.
raise our infantile hands in opposition tected by thie Statute of Limitation, but backs and shoulders should: be properly ing out. of consideration 200 acres of
to the desperate efforts wwhich were be- should he have.the.misfortuneto become. cleared to preventtheir becoming sore, woods consists chiefly of worn-out cot-
ing made to keep, he- sinking ship -invOlved -in. debt, and have judgment and ye' icles shquld be 'properly luIbri: ton fields. These worn out lands are, by
in md entered on same, the Statute of Limi- cated. liberal treatment, being gradually re-
afloat., station would hold. him subject to attach-- The pernicious habit of jerking the stored to their normal condition- of
We cannot say that.- the Fruir -Ex- meant for twenty years. reius and cutting the lips of the' poor fertility, and are being converted into
c change was ever "dear to Our heart," This holds good for crimes, committed beast should be punished, and the prac- fields of corn, grain, grasses etc.. -
and debts incurred .out of the*State as tice will soon cease. "The-endowment-fund is $113,575;-the P
and were notamong the murn well as in it. For instance, should a man iT f persons'owning stock were once to land, building and appliaces are sti-
We wnd on o-..6. .. 1k, r I ":"--: "" '"'= .. '"'-: ...:.... :mated at. $203,400. From interest On4
SWe owned note of its stock, and so.we commit a robbery in New York, come understand that if they neglected to feed d at. $208,00. om eeston
Lose nothing. It did not take. us between to this State and live her .ortwo years, and care for their own stock that the endowment-fund an annualincome is
Stwoand three years to weight in the. the Statute of Limitation would protect State would feed it at their expense they derived of $5,678, which is supplemented
him from. prosecution, but should the would soon adopt the better policy of by.Statea&ppropriations,.
balances, and it is long since we ceased game man get in debt in New York, caring for it themselves. The leading object f .this college is ,
; to be disappointed in it. We cannot emigrate to -this State-providinbg also Half the suffering-of work stock arises declared to be tobenefitagriculture .and'
tell the exact date when our judgment that his creditor .obtained judgment from uncleanliness. If the harness -is the mechanicarts. Its effort are, heo v
ofitspractical efficiency was ormed, against him for said debt either in this removed every time the horse is fad and ever, Jike most similar itnsi.tutions,
o its praccal eoncy was forme, Ste rNew York-he would be subject the.back.andhniders'washbed wil co'd chiefly directed towards general eduu-
butitwas onuthd very day when we to prosecution and his available property water, and the collar and bickband cation, with a special olass ordAivision.in
read its first'prospectus. That caused us subject to attachment for twenty years. sponged off, there would be I'ttle or' no agriculture. --' ---,, -----.:t-'i; I
Sto exclaim Tekel' -. is is all wrong, and one of the best harness sores to annoy the poor animal, In the stook department theollege
we confess that our hopes never were and most needful measures the present and his work would he done with much has pure bred Jerseys;, Holsteins, Ga.1lo-
Weconfess that our hopes never were gislature could possible adopt, would mnoredease. ways and Shorthorns, Merinosheep.anud.
, dashed worse than o0n reading~that pros- be that of giving relief to the debtor, as i hope that this humane measure' will Berkshire-swine, all of whclare used
* pectus. Like. thousands of, others, we California and other prograssiveStatep be'1ome a law, and that then the law w to illustrate the lectures .on, stock given
had counted on. some radical changes db; afe a residencetherein 6f fiveyears be enforced. a e COllege. .
from the old-syktem of marketing. The A.re all of our legisate so. sensitive'on D.0. LYON, Veterinary :Sutgron.-* A-special- dairy:department has been
ufroml the ase o- e etit the this matter of debtthat none dare-take' JAcKSONVTLE,Fla., April 11, 1887. established, so contruced as tofiecure.
s public had'cause to expect it, and the the initiative in framing or supporting as far as possible, an .even temperatwie
I newspaper press of the State had cause a measure so urgently needed as this?; .'. throughout summer and winner; the
t demadit fo hadhotth news.pe.r,--- JUDGEuKELLY-ON FLORIDA. milk obtained from the college herd, .
gto demand it, for had not the newspapers tre th tls hcar numbering about 200 in all,-being used
given their services .to the new scheme It is -true that laws which are per- .Among Florida's distinguished visitors for the manufacture.of butter. Theicol-S
freely and without price? The Exchange fectly just in themselves may work most ding phae pest 'eason was the Hon legs creamery also draws supplies of

t' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ h s as .. "" .. bpeaue : o cropsmofromtheoneighoring suarmaer,
obtained thousands of-dolrswr'thof' 'ie'ous hardships, and we-fully believe- Kil who c-r
free advertising simply on' th strength that our extravagant homestead law hasenow s ofPuntant ia ty winchthed b- is materially
sri.yoth- servgh haing -his -fourteenth term in the, -ncreased- --
of its patriotic motives and its intention worked great wrong to many Hst house of-Representatives. We-had the The field experiments include the test-
t of working a radical reform in the sys- and often needy creditors. Creditors os
of working -raical -pldasu~re'of meeting Judge Kelly several'-ing Of. the value of different fertilizer
Stern of marketing Florida fruits. certainly have rights which ought to be imeswhilehe was in Florida and kne o cotn on, sugar e..,
.. -.h a d"n e s o r g h u m w h e a t a n d o t h e r c e e a l ,
The press and the public generally had respected. Still, as between the credi- f s conversati that hewould grasses and foragerops; reports n the
enetandnotouh f certain o1addetrclsesorsyptIe from his conversation that he 'would grasses and forage crops; reports on the
e entertained no thought of concentrating tor and debtor classes our sympathies arry away a good report of the State value of ensilage in stock feeding, a~so
S a o l d 'W ya orport- of the State. value of eneilage in stock feeding,lso
. patronage on, an ordinary commission are strongly with the latter, aid 4e be- 1 he did sois evinced in an "inter tcomaativ t ofiee ng ith
patongear That he dtid o seice'na."nInter'- the. comparative results of feeding wi *thG
house Such a proposition in- advance lieve that any laws which may result in viw" so i an cottonseed meal and other nutritive, sub-
viewdha"which he favored a reporter of stances. .'.The farm has been worked so
would have been ridiculed by the peo- curtailing the-credit system are beneficial an Alabama ato return i revenue and in increase
and th pres woul have emanfed tothe frming opulaion. heprctlc" n Alaamarpper.n--i- aetoerturnamnreveue an incicreas
u pie, and the press would have demanded to the farming population. Thepractice -It is well known that Judge Kelly has of'stock more thau on equivalent for the
full rates for advertising it. It was not which, has prevailed at the S )uth of ob- been the leading advocate of a mney spentupon: t. hrtiul
Y- till after all, this-advertising and after training credit from merchants on crops poective tariff, and it seem 100 acreare devoted to horticulture,
th0 epet ra xethdpegd-eoe hyaehretd n oe protective tariff, and it seemsethat during. including 9 acres -,of small fruits, -an
the people to a great extent had pledged before they are harvested, and some- his Southern tour he has been studying orchard of over 5,000 trees, including-
their support, that the managers of the times before they are planted .is recog- the adaptationof protectionto this sec- 1,250 apple, 600l.,pesr,0800 plum, 2,0001',
the adaptation of Protection, to this seec- 11iapl,50tes,'0 lu,200
Scheme made known their plan of oper- nized as the greatest obstacle to profit- tion of the.Tnion. We quote from the pach' 875 mulberry,,20 JapanesaPer-
ations, and behold! it was exactly like .able farming, und it is believed that laws si-mo and 80 apricot, a vinpeyard .with
-ehat of and beld interview the portion-which'pertains ,to a.large assortment of'grapes,-a nursery
that of the well established and reliable will be passed for its suppression insome Florida: "nd' a 20-acre field devoted to vegetables.
commission houses we already'had. The of the States. "o,. or u ht Newvarieties of' fruitsboth.large and
paperss might with as -,much, or even We do not believe that wrong can be ,The assembling of Congress brougtsmallas wellas vegebles-areeonstant-
Smore propriety, have urged the claims of righted by compensation, but if good re- bama and Georgia to an early close an- -.being plantdd to test theirmerits.
baatheGe'r-riyhtedbe ad l-students are required to devote
Mr. Bean, orof Mr. Pillow, or of Higley sults indirectly from a wrong it is grati- left me with an eager desire to see more t ^n ^ 'uren e day former daysu.rin the
& Smith;. The fact that there were nu- fying to note the good. As, to limitation of the 'New South'; that ishof those por- week to work on the farm or in.,the
e merous'tbckholders,gak th Exdhange -of time for the collection of, a debt we a ted a desireofthe garden or workshop. S w h.-b.e y
a ru6ic "gav6 the . .,..fled arid animated by a desire of the gar n. o w ork oUIpiNA.
Snostronger claim on the press than if 'see no less justice in firing the period at people to promote their own 'prosperity -...'.OU.ANA. .
* there had been but one. five years than at twenty. If it be a and that of the country by manufactur- The State University and Agricultural
1 On reading'the prospectus, which we purely arbitrary matter, as ir appears to ing the material products oteir re- and Mechanical College is situted' at
believe.was gratuit circulad b- we w d us i. f -. o spectLveStates, for home use and ex- Baton Rouge, as dis the result ofia com-
h believe was.g ratuitouly., circulated py be, we would in favor .o pa g portaflion. On the adjournment of Con- bination "of the old State Ui..rsity,
Sthe newspapers, we saw but one ,ray .of Florida, in this respect, at least on agrees I proceeded directIly to Florida and formerly at Alexandria, with the a.ri-
' hope, and that was the :"guarantees footing with California. where, accord- with the best aids that courtesy and en- cultural and mechankca. college. The-
e id that meai thatth,Elxchange woild i'g to-our correspondent, a debt' cannot terprise could lend medevoted myself .bombnedendowmeit nfnds, amountn- to
retii~2br .to the study of the resources of that. $318',000;, and the land', buildings an'd ap-
Sinsure gQod -returns.f-r, fruit consigned. be collected after standing for fieears. wonderful State, whiqh has, too gener- pliances are valued at $350,000.
s :toir? .,--We,gputitble questioan:to-theam.an- In fact, we-would outbid California and' ally, been believed capable of producing The annual income derived frrm' the
Q- aget.- .,,A1No,'he relp-tid, ,we- oat tdnly make it four years-. onlyorangesa, early vegetables for ex- endowment .fund is $14,500, to which
e insure coiii'ctl returnss" -This implied. We..like the idea of making F'loida a rationoand flowers, but which is must be added an annual State app-
-that the Exchange, Would deal moire "CIity'of refuge"- to all-but-felobie. -- The esed tkfrnrakmoghepiinofbut$000aig$2,
Sthonestly or honorably tl deal mor t. city' of refge to allbut felons The agricultural States of the country in the 500 in all. This. is sufficietint' to' meet
honestly or honorably ta Bn' reat- majority of beneficiaries under production of great stap'es. the 'current expenses, the l rgest item.
o or Mr. Pillow. '"Would you," we asked such protective laws are, womeb and "Her industrial history is a story of of which is the salaries of thi" teahllng
i hit again, "do0 a'Mr. Beandid with us children, who, without such protection, iceb e blun n an .e-'- ta ff m of this institution ist pro
lat ..'dllr. oxi wol fro fo whch mento byute free trade theristswho The ai fti intiutonis topr--
.";las winter-pay us a dollar a abox nad- would suffer from causesfor which they controlled her destinies prior to the War. -vide general instruction and education
d ditlon to the returns of a Northern are in no wise responsible. A great It affords a splendid object lesson for in all the. departments of literature,
d'commission house, which- were. 'evi- many men become hopelessly involved' those who would .impress upon the science and art, and 'includes special in-
r ;dntly fraudulent?" "No," he-said,-.we in debt through the. fault-of. others. .-Southern mind the beneficence of the struction in agriculture andth mechanic
.acouldyno affrdume tod that." -. Thw e qan otev sayg "no" to a frind and trut., hs embodied in the system of nation-K arts. The 'education in agriculturein-
Ws could not afford to do that." aeThey cannot say "noc to a friend, and economy with which the protection- eludes a training 'ii. the cultivatiomi.-df
h We perceivedc that the Eoiabnge was they cannot see a reckless son-disgraced, sits'of America confront the cosmopoli- sugar, cotton and rice and in general,
not going to do any better for the public and they cannot deny the wants of'an ex- tan political economy pressed upon us by farm work. Instruction is also given in.
tl .-a ,t a ar.d fail. I i s, for such reaon the Cobden Club, and other agents of farm architecture, sutveyin-g roads,.
o th~an ,,thepusaes ahreadY established, travagant family. It ts, fhr suoh reasons t.teel and iron workers, and cotton levees, ditches, etc., also in veterinary
t and that, having .inexperienced officers, that the debtor class has been so much and wool manufacturers of England.. I surgery. One hour a day is devoted to
r- it could hardlybe expected to do as *ell; favored in modern legislation. Still we ,ye- tnre the prediction, that if the South- labor in the field, garden or workshop.
n But public interest has been so'-fixed, favor/this class of lawsmovepon account brn Democracy and their Northern free According to the latest published returns
on' idea of concentration and he" whole e i e e eer trade allies, shall fail to repeal the ex- the number of students attending is
e on the idea of concentration, and so of.the wholesome influence ,they exert isting duties on sugar and rice, and will 159.
L. eager were the people to accept anything i making people more' cautions- abopt, consent to-repeal of the tobacco tax, the A station for the production of vaccine
it which gave promise of reform, that the giving credit, and 'that results in 'less census which shall be taken in 1900,-lymph has been established, the work of
a Exchange obtained a large pattdnage, borrowing and lesspaying of interest, from which we are separated by less which is carried on chiefly by the eta-
_ == ... ,, ,.=. - =.,, , v : e. -. t.i" anl8',years,will show Florj~a to bepre- dents,-under. the direction of the profes-
I- and but for the big freeze it would have the rate of which, t. thiscountry, s I eminently the cane, sugar and rico grow son in charge. It is sald that the'vacctne-
,t paid a handsome dividend, to its stock- higher than any-but speculators can af- ing State of the Union, and will stand department has been self-sustaining, be-
i- holders. We know nothing of its finan- ford to pay. I high as a grower of tobacco. I sides gratuitously distributing a large


umber of points every year, .nd has re-
eived the -hearty approval of the phy-
cians of ohe State. i ("** "
0.
FarrmersJn the Legislature.
The Helena (Ark,) World say:,.
"The farmers of "Arkansashive cap-
ired the Senate and House : in this
tate, and if they do not shape legisla
ion to siit' themselves, they will most
certainly make a great mistake. There
rill be fifty-eight farmers in the House
f Representatives and twelvee in the
Senate, giving them on joint ballot a
majority. We expect from: them a rad-
cal change in many things, that have
.rov' eiinimical to their interests."
Colman's Rural World c6miments on
he above as follows:'-. -
"But if the.farmers allow the lawyers
who arealso~members),..ithe ringmasters
nd lobbyists to hoodwink them into.do-
ag just what they ought not to do,
where is the gain? In the Missouri Leg- -
slature we. have as good representation
of farmers as;could be wished for, and
ye hope to see them stand by edch
either and by the catise they represent,
.nd not permit outsiders tor insideis,
or that. matter to bree.I dissentrtions in
heir midst -.or.. to otherwise hoodwink
hem, to defeat the purpose for which
he people elected farmers. .Be on your
guard, gentlemen: stand by the people
and the interests you represent."
.- .- "
Hints to Correspondents.
The readers of the'-FLORIDA FARMER
AND FRUIT-GROWER are respectfully in-
vited to contribute to its columns articles
and notes on all subjects- pertaining to
ihe farm; garden, orchard and house-
hold affairs. Thb range of topics which
vill be discussed in this journal may be
gatheredfrom-the subjoined table, which
nay' serve to suggest what might other-
vise escape attention: .
FARM MANAGEMENT.
Clearing land, draining labd, crops for
new. land, succession of crops,.intensive
farming, treatment 'of different- soils,
resting land, soiling vs. pasturing, cow
peflnig, 'green manuring.
). ,)MESTIC ANIMALS.
Horses, mules, cattle, hogs, sheep,
poultry-Breeds, feed, diseases, treat-
nment. ,- ...
: '; SPECIAL FERTILIZERS.
-.Cotton- seed, .cotton seed meal, barn-
yard. m~a manure, guano, ground bone, su-
per-phosphate, gypsumn, lime, kainit,
dishes, marl, ..muck, leaf mould, com-
posts. . ': ...
S FORAGE CROPS.
SBermuda' grass, crab grass, Para grass
Guinea grass, Terrell grass, orchard
grass, red-top grass, Johnson grass; Texas
blue grass pearl millet, German mi'let,
millo maize, kaffir corn, teosinte, sorg-
hum, fodder corn, cow peas, desmodi-
am, Mexican clover, lespedeza, alfalfa,
melilotus. .
STAPLE CROPS.' :- .
Corn, oats, rye, wheat-Varieties,
yield per acre, soil and season, difficul-
ties encountered, general treatment.
Cotton-Long and .Shorl Staple-Plant-
ing and culture, marketing crop, man-
agement of seed, products from the
seed. -
Sngar Cane aid Sorghum-n-Varieties,
culture, maling'syrup and sugar, condi-
tion of market. .
Tobacco-Varieties, history in Florida,
recent experiences, seed, culture manu-
facture. '
FRUITS.
Citrus Eruits-Comparison;-of varie
ties, hardiness and productiveness, meth-
ods of propagation,-methods-of planting
and culture, comparative effects pf fer-
tilizers,-marketing of frult, preservation
of fruit wine and other products.
Peach, 'pear, fig, persimmon, Japan
plum, Kelsey plum, native plum, mul-
berry, quince, apricot, guava, banana,
pineapple sapodilla, mango, avocada,
pear,:cocoanut, "pecan, -English walnut,
almond, pomegranate, olive, grape,
strawberry, blAbekberry, raspberry-Va..
rieties, their characteristics," effects of
sdill' weather, etc., best methods of
culture. "
S, 'FLOWER GARDEN. ."
Plants adapted to this climate, out-
door culture, management of green-
house.. ., ,: : ,. -- '
-NATEVE TREES-,'ANDHERBS..
Planting trees for ornament or utility, -
the burning'ovet of forest lands, the
lumber and' turpentine industries, the
tanning industry, phenomena of plant
life, teeds' and noxious plants.
N. B.-Specimens may be sent to the
editor for identification. Information is ,
desired respepting' popular names and
u ?s ... .. ....., '- '.... .', .. ;; *
iNSECT ENEMIES AND FUNGOOJD DISEASES.
Nature of damage. done and remedies..
M.iIn treating of,'the.above an&d related
sisubjepts, practical. experience is much to
,e.: preferred i to theoretical knowly
edge;. yet ,t4ere are topics' needing dis-
cussion ',w..luph -have ito be treated of.
froi fa ,,somewha( 7. theoretical stpnd-
point,.. .... ,: *... ..,
In describing any method of experi-
ment it is desirable that all external in-
fluences be-explained; for example, in
tie case of 'a crop, the character of the
season, of -the soil, .of the sub-soil and
the method/of planting and cultivating,
all have an important'bearing on the re-
,sult. Bare statements of results are of
little value, though they may be worthy
of mention. :
We do not desire letters written mere-
ly in praise of special localities unless
claims to favor are based on the products
orproductiveness of the soil. Articles
of an animated or vivacious tyle are de-
sirable by way of variety, but practical
statements and descriptions should be
concise and as much to the point as pos-
sible.. ..
.All communications for the editorial
departmentshotld be .addressed to
EDITOR FARMER AND FRUIT-GEoWEE.


'*' .- .' *>".' '







FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. APRIL 20. 1887. 125


ur am Wi. o tendedd with much more dangerous re- STRAWBERRY SHORTCAKE (PLAIN), .that title, provided it is a new thing to PaIy Pou lry HUU ltll DoLs Baes and Queens.
+ ults; for not only is deafness caused by A piece of butter the size of an egg the guests invited. Some aui beu EggsForHatchi ngaFromLetading0Va-
ur om fe ue whh rupture (as ch chopped thor roughly O and Quo eens.
iially do) the drum of the ear, but the fuls of flour, a pinch of salt, two ta- they will be sure to be very sonry for it rieties of Domesticated Land Orders will be booked now for deliverydur.
HELEN HARCOURT. Editor, inflammation of the internal cavity, spoonfuls of baking powder, one cupful afterwardsif they do. Prepare for the and Water Fowl. tngApril, May or June, of my superior race
which is so frequent a result, may be f sweet milk. Handle as little as pos party by cutting from some thin, dark -r 21 13- of pure
followed b disease of the boneW frivin ^be f e by d s of cloth (woolen is best) the figure of a don- Also Thoroughbred.YoungSetters and Hounds. ....
Who wish to be friendly and make us a call; rise to abscess of the brain, and having aab ree etrop Address LAN PR
With words of good counsel for old friends and 'fatal termination. Medical men, alone SALT WATER FOR THE EYES. tionately high. Pin or paste the donkey Manatee, i la. T ani-w ui fioob
new.*. can be-fully aware how fruitful source Many persons are suffering pain from upon a sheet. This interesting animal IGRADED JEREYS FOR SALE
. Who come to us seeking the best way todo.- suffering and danger is represented by weakness of the eyes. This sometimes should be as perfectly represented as GRADEDQueens by maJERSE aspecialty.YSFOR SALE.
All questions of general interest will be a box upon the ear. There are, for ex- proceeds from local inflammation and possible, with the one exception of the A few Graded Jerseys for sale in calf by a Queens
answered through these columns. ample, under observation at the present sometimes from other causes. Several fact that he is made with no tail. Then J C. C. Bull Panic, No. 9,420. Panic is a Give me a trial order.
when accompanied by stamp forreply. moment two school boys who have been persons who have been thus afflicted in- cut from the cloth as many tails as there grandson of Duke of Darlington, No. 2,640, and a For prices or other information, address
Subscribers are cordially invited to take a .the victim of such an assault. Surely, form us that they have derived almost are to be guests, And stick a pin through son of Uproar, No. 4,609, out of Brown Beauty,
seat in our Cosy Corner, and exchange views, the schoolmaster ought to have learned, immediate, and in some cases, permanent the upper end of each. daughter oflronBank, imported, No. 1,120. H HART -
experiences and recipes of mutual benefits S A f mod
elp erie one anothereci."s of mutual benefit long ere this, the danger of a mode.of relief from the application of salt water When the guests are all assembled- Apply to........ SORADE BROS: .
Communications Intended for publication personal, chastisement. that has appa: as a bath; and where.the pain has been produce the sheet and pin it upon some Tallahassee, Fla. Enstis, Orange Co., Fla,
must be brief. -clearly written, and only on rently usurped the place of others; which, aggravated, form a compress saturated 'wall where it will have a chance to hg -TICE"
one side of the paper, departmentif more disgraing, were not 'attended with salt water, laid on the eyes and re- smoothly, with as wide and long an open .. .. R
should beaddressed to with an equal amount of peril. newedatfrequent intervals Opening the space in front of it as possible. The -. ...
souaED Ts a Ho E-CIRCL eyes and submerging them in clean salt donkey should be about on a level with TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN' E T. .P'AINE REIDT
Fla. Fare and HFruitGrower, .Tl* Fr i. water has been found beneficial to those the shoulders of a person of average xt days after the first publication of this, -
Montclair, Fla. The Family Friend. whose eyesight begins to fail. height. One o' the tails should be given notice a pplication will be made to the Legis- 1lorida iange Food per ton .s2..00
S'"I venture to hope, writes a sub- RAT EXTERMINATOR. to each person. The first victim is then latureof orida, for theasage of a charge Florida ge Fo er t....... .00
OurGoy Gorner. srierrom Pinellas, representing also This is how, it is said, the Germans get u fr.on te the capital stock may be increase to a um veooper ....
WILD FLOWERS AGAIN. several others, that you will tell us ridof A mi f n wa greatethanFifty Toundollars; par nalys: Bone Psptef Lime, per
where an orange wine press can be had. well bruised common quills -and three ten or a dozen steps (according to the value of shares to be reduced from One Hun- cent; Sulphate r4 Potash 12 pler ceht.: Mag-
A correspondent from WestApopka We hvetredto make orange wine by parts of finely chopped bacon s made space), turn around three times, and low the corpos to Ten Dol purc share; to a- conve iab pngredrcent Lime. o and otherva-
Swrites us as follows n this subject: land; but I have fancied there must be into a stiff mass, with as 'much meal as then-go and pin the donkey' s tail on I such ral and personal property as may be
"Iam very much interespied in the sone 4ac1iffYbr the squeezint-T the may be required and then baked 'into In advancing he must hold the tail out deemed necessary to its usefulness icu SA PL gO'.
FARMER AND- FRnuiTGROwFa.,.and hg oger ,ad fi stining e ingvehices of transportation; to lease orand
haks cntained rtegrdingthse though ...a.ittEn 'o th.e j'ic&, hut small cakes, which aae put down for the before him, with the f in ia position, o vehicles orange of produce, and lUea9 -RE SA MP.'
taken special interest ithe rtices hou a written two eto rtsto eat Several correspondents 6f and, without any fum ling about $t at advance onproduce; to manufacture and sell Before yon decide where to go in SOUTH'
has contained regard the wild flow- not theeditoef the FA R the Geran, Agricultural Gazette write all, pin the tail on the place which his such materials as maybe useful to fruit grow- L[tRiDA, send fora sample copyot ,
ers of Florida. I have lived in the Sbte AND FRUIT-GRowR), and sent for cata- to announce the complete extirpation of hand first touches. erand gardeners, and enerally.to transact THE ORANGE GROVE .
nearly five years, and have made special loes, Lhave not the least bit of infor- rats and mice fromp their cow stalls and o Anyone who has ever seen the ancient members and others comay b ected with fruit You will fid better and cheaper again in
studies of all the wi powers ndplat May I ask. u could t4ie piggries since the adoption of this sim- game of "bowing out the candle" will growing and kindred pursuits, and for such MANATEz County in groves, farnisranches, of
which come in bi e Xi.vy, 0r r a chme@din 4be tU i pele plan. gimaine the laughable results of th herpowersand privi egesas may he, .deemed an sizel.Bin ots on railroad, river, or sea-
health would permit my searcilitg- fo aks, heir cos a where- they can h attempts, and can guess at the shouts of ne" e O. R. r AIRBANKS, an "oldtimer," bUrite hefe moss bck' or ide
them. be had? An answer inserted in Our Our Young Folkv ^ s' Corner. laughter which will arise as the tail gets G-EO. H. NORRIS, bound; he Is here tostay-and,.'Therels.millions
"But in all that time I have not been Home Circle would be helpful to pin Youngned carefully to the donkeys ose, D. GRENEAF, init. Three Millions of Acres on his Book.
able to find a Fairy [or Eiastr] L'l, oran mav."y '4 ?** ITS STANDING OFFER. its left eal, a hind hoof, all over the DO Address, THE GROVE, VERPOOL, FLA.
Evening Glory, or the Borua Nox, so' th-at- Another stibscriber -also asks: "Is A nice picture book each month to the boy sheet and outlying 'wall space, or even .' -: D. MITCHEL ENDYO :
I have concluded there must be none in there any press that will squeeze or- or girlwho senidsusthe largestlistof subscrib- upon stray articles of furniture. dr un- WM. E.STALTON, X. N) .YOtR ..
by fine hammocks and many beautiful but linow there must be, somewhere." GRoER duin that'moth. e nm T. B. M. BAER c
flowers." In response to these and other inquir- children's magazine, tNicholas, to the boy A prize should be given 1o the one F F EI
We onfess that we are surprised at i we now as promised in u or girl whe sends us the largest number of who gets the donkey's tail most exactly Jacksonville. Fla., February 16,188 TO THE TIMES-UNION JOB ROOMS
the statement above, as we had supposed issue, give the following practical notes suuring six months. in position, and a consolation prize to
that the Fairy. or Easter Lily, Eveuing concerning 6r doings; write on o d sidet e page; give. l the mortification of him who got
Glory and Bona Nox were comparatively your WINE " .... yohage- eI. 11/I \ b published
commonin all parts of the State. OANGE WINE PRES. The best letter received wil be published te farthest wrong.
sections (if there are any) where hese le, Fla., we learn that thy have sold, Now go to work and see who wins. To make burnt watch receivers of
beautiful flowers likewise "turf up miss- with satisfaction to the purchasers, a We cordially welcome oe of the "Old spice boxes: Crochet cover; begin with
,ing." Why they should-revel in wild large number of the Enterprise Fruit Folks" 'to the Young Folks' a chain long enough to reach around
luxuriance in some p ~ of the State, Presses, for the express purpose of mak- C oe he on os s the bag;. join it and crochet it deep .. O E
Sand hoope he will drop tmo Eeeus again Fuoverebg Thn^ akea OB REST OF HAMMOCK LAD OR BEA ORINORANGEG ,.L
and till ni o pa li thob ve ~t and induce others to-follow his exam- row of scallops around the topand hot-
is mystery. judge from the illustration of this fruit pie. tom, but do not put a bottom In, as the
... press, now lying before us. TA FISH. bag will stay just as well, if it is not too, j. ..".,s
.r It clamps to a table, and its construc- One of our Nvrthern visitors, while loose. Now-make a chain about half. a- --'-CALL ON OR ADDRESS---
Commodore Norris' Offer. tion and use are very simple; fruit of stopping at my house, was late at break- yard long, and sew it on opposite sides
With regard to the offer of a free any kind dropped into the hopper is fast call. After a little search, he was of the cover to hang it up by.
gift of land and mulberry re. by the pushd -forward by each revolution of found down bythe bke, sitting on FOOT STOOLS.' A. /T T
above gentleman,i rf rrdt orecentlast ew r ed bya rnk.int ag er w itnh hihead don Take small es su as ink comes M ESand oneN E,
in the FARMER AND FR-IT.. GROWER, W. and still smaller space, until ihe juices hand in the water. inquired the cause Take small boxes, such as ink comes
K. D., of Philadelphia, Pa., writes: aa.& all extracted, passing through a of it-if he had lost somethmg valua uilt or o peces o e th (y a s .. .. ..
"The offer of Commodore Norris is strainer into a vessel placed beneath, or was he testing the temperature of te quilt as much pieces of cloth (you -ca it th .
certainly a most generous one, and re- while the seeds and skin are ejected at water to find if it was warm enough to t as much as byou like), and lay it o- the"- n
markable as the offer of an individual another point. make suicide agreeable. But it was botomx upside dow Now aside, a or tiecof rm. and .Agen y, Orm ond.
and not of a land company. I would- Thecheapness of this press equals its neither-hee was layibg with the b ox upside down. Now ai a a piece 'round f o .
not be surprised if the re sheuldsoon boosts effti nes. Th fruie r t rss prope. 'his 'hand, and the little fish we call the side, turning the edge and nailing it Ea t f i .
mhoredapplica t hate laares b suppose' hichbs samiee dthgnug ,hpeaer bream" were having their morning on the inside. They make pretty, inex-' o u t -
should be devoted solely to the silk in- and s _er costs :6f.\We should meal, taking e it o hd Sae pensive stools.hs S i--- ,
terest, and additional land ud e prefer e l f oranges. that time I ave fed them many times. 7 T
necessary in order to subsist, as silk cl- om the Fairbans'Fa. Wine Corn- They are so tae I often raise them out Fallaies About Food N YO & FLORIDA STEAM SHIP LINE.
ture i generally simply an adjunct to .pay., we hav the olowing pins.on of the water with my hand, but as soon Tat there is any nutriment in beef .
some other occupation."- the same subject, which are im' t as they are out of the water they strug- ea made from extracts; thereaisnone TRI-WEEKLY SERVICE BETWEEN
Will the Commodore "please step up to thtib who desire- larger prejseA l.h n gle a" bard I hav te -ds none
tothe catain's officeand settle" this i- those m. ionedabove. morn la rge rou as yca the -Tha atilnesnutritiusLit will not NEW YO FERNANDINAAND JACKSONVILLE
plied query? There'i ;an excellent process, "cotig in Florida-we call tem bass at the keep cat alive. Beef ea and gelatine. .. .
Our opinion, and doubtless .his own about $18 t f.anu'fa~ory which North) came out from under the log and however, possess a certain reparative stumirs are anpp,,ii o -ail from Pier s, E. R, N. 1, every Tuesday, Thursday.,
also, is that the land could be cultivated will make on, X 0'housand gallons frightened themjum power, w know not what. r .e a"dFre M apdc.n lfrE-C-HEROKE (newl and SEMIvOLE (new), every FR1DAY.
between the-mulberry trees to their ad- of -wine-during the season,-and -willdo the water in every direon. iner That an egg is equal to a pound of FROM FERN-ANDNA-DELA WARE and EMAEE erer MONDA, p. m., CITF
vantage, rather than otherwise, and that the k well." Address for further time I put a wide blade of grass meat, and that ever sick personcan eat OF A TLANTA and CITY OP COLUMBIA, every WEDNESDAY p.m. .
Th~^'~ d ^frin'hts, "Manufacturers ofbWine ami My sicrf pers o The Freih n ?a6ne comdtosb this Line are unsurpassed by any ships in
the land offered affords space for other parts, "Manufacturers of Wine among them 'and thy were s right- eggs. Many, esYecially those of nervous t The 5Fvrei ~foeur mmoaTn, y ap Line are tosup dbynyherl
trees than those devoted only to silk and Cider Presses, Belleville,l." We ened.tey would not come to ,, pace or billions temperament, cannot eat CLARENCE WAGNER, Agi., "J. A. LESLIE, Agt.,
culture are under the impression that George for several days. them, and to such eggs are injurious. Fernandina, Fla., Jacksonrile, Fla. SW. cor. Bay aun Hogan.
The correspondent abovealluded to. ew & cksonv have There are aboutsef he, I That, because milk is an importantar- TEO. G. EGER, Tra Manaer,. General. P CLr 0.
sends us T.haIt., rarliI'f. ",: hv i fo se o t.' On tide of food us po a 35 BrdadwaWN. Y. -General Agents e5 Broaduway, N. "-
Northern paper, apropos to. the subject., patron our Ame dealers. Write a of the g., out x i es ng patient. Food that a person cannot en- inche B e t ealt Mles lt
The statement. borderjon (ceinmpossible, see.. : a scar on the ac ',h c. dure-will not cure. .. .. -
Sbut in this age of progress one hardly u trust $at these data will supply likely caused by some hungry .trout.' That. arrowroot is nutritious. It is. : i' -ionrthe Lineof the Florida'Southern.:
wonders at anyl.fiihg: --'r tsation desired. I call Brt e I can't g ve simply starch and water, useful as a re-ruit and Vegetale. I u are co
--VERY MPORTANT, IF TRUE -- CHEAP PAINr" W '. more names, or I shalimahe mY' sh storative, quickly prepared. Unsurp ssed any other section for the production of Fruits and Vegetable.' If you arb corn
--VERY IMPORTANT, IF TRUE. ^CHEAP PAIN o .too long but if a y of my young storat ive quickly prepared ing to Florida, whatever may be ;our means or condition, ou will most assuredly be pleased with
In a letter written by Philip Gilbert At a cent meeting the Elm frids'who lie. oy or near one o our T deese st ris aliases. Centre of Lake Region further particulars a Pian, a
Ifamerton, occurs the following strange Farme Club the -fo was re: clear water lakes i -iFlorida will try it is,as a r tble, but iis con centra-indiated, being usu
story: "Here is something new. A rich "In tBe discussion on ass patiently for a few times, they will find aly idigsmti, hut i is one a "r a
French count, Count de Chardonet, who prsto note that th'~ eiftand bhs it a very interesting aad pleasant amuse- ur'""d repairer, and
lies at Gregy, on the banks of the pai of all that I I an nowle e ment; but leasedon't -forfeit th confi- crae of patients areI
Shone, hear Chalons, has recently per- o .'as not men ioued. rl farm s deuce your little pets have- in -you by f... pa t 5 I -
fctedamostwondrfdiscoer.Here- nt, for it ut. sweet hanging them on a great cruel hook as whi ndsTh I IU
places the silk worm by amachne which immed milk e (eme. bait for largfishach often needs, craves for and -
digests certain common substances an he chemicals uaesp(ace- a b UNCfsJo. .... cr -.art ilsntlaid down in 4 -l .any dietar
afterwards gve off ral silk in gre twee caeineof e TAGERINE,Fla.,Apil, 17. r, PRITING AND PUBLISHING HOU8E
quantity, sixty threads at once. '. m obab (athe.film of ate. .. jam, 4cake, ham or bacon with fat, PRITIN AN UBLISHING .. 'u.
ilk so produced can be treated in al w end other in this c ~ Perhaps some of my little cousins have chese, butter aid milk.
ects for manufacture exactly ke oruiin ieard of. taming fshTh an inflexible diet may be ar -.. .
worm silk, from which it is i tin- yr860 f iage house, stabi while it is new to me to learn thaout which shall apply to ever ase. .
uishable. It can be manufactu into anar wed, unplan bream can be tamed me t Choiceof a given list of articles owa
velve', etc. The food of the ma fine er- nrone footwlde.Ja e -of some kinds of fih, pciall i ble in a given case must be decided l it it
eludes rags of different, kinds, with dressed, wo-t h o some s of f, especially carp. i theopinion of the stomach. The stomach I
papers and'even sawdust. Th ig on tens t ats this p t on "Carp can be tamed so readily tha they s right, and theory wrong, and. the UIIIU U t IU
solution is forced by hydrai presurld and. nted will c e for their food when called, judgment admits no appeal. A diet
into a tube, out of which issues by a tr i b corn, door just like chickens. The kings of Fr'nce which would keep a -healthy man
number of invisible orific ha rub- e8) w per de of i bad their carp ponds, the ish being used healthy ghtkill a sick man. and a diet
tntagpsr haing tnd um edi ow de it was theoy fr teer royal tabe fish bane ousfa
tliougb water, its w d off upon las th tf gt it eest a they Iwere allowed to gro to ea greanot ep a well man .alve. In yeaed
rel. I have examine ens, whir h me, which size, even to seenty pounds weiglit, be- quantity of food, especially of liquids I I| III 11 1 II
have all tegloss and aarentcbrowngth Pbtel does not mean increased nutriment; "iI flU KdWt te bU oMh aU-U
wmi. yi, bg trown p ltt andptngal, foreatgy were killed, rat
worm silk M ayn t is not oor ak .m water lime f course it took them many years to ra r decrease, since the diges n is I HI I
imitation of silk he fc g on, $7.75. r o sa d theadies and chi- overtaxed and weakened. Strive togv U
aduced in a new ne' cspecl- fify- feet f d ood in as concentrated ao form as .
ntage eis hat i dyeawh twen u ieet deep; and h them. possible. Consult the patients stomach
i squidstate be it Omes al e bles wi -feet side posts- hey became absurdly tme sa i in preerence to his tastes, and if the .. .
:- we r"ne h ,myt, d i r~OOF, PAINT. a famous naturalist who went tosee them smflol ree t ce taino article o Aot .
-eBo. 'O l e I 'th Take siq ts of finely-sifted slacd "crowding to the bank on the least en- to"-- t "E .m: "' .- ; A P. .: O.. O
o th e E me, e q t rock salt andone gal courtagement, and poking their great -. .. -
eWecanr < too earnestly cai wb-et. il all togetherand stir w heads out of the aater iu anxious epc- Always keep, some ammonia m the
mention mothers an hers n w Oi off the skum and ta ttion of the desired food. It is most house. -, -Afew dtops.pf it poured into i s N
school t chars ti the e facts tf a dd one pound aluntandeitcurious to watch tiese great create ures hard water makes the Water. soft to the
we takefrom 4 nedic We es ppras finely pulverized, t d swimming lazily along, and to fee how handsas silk, and this-atertakes the
have slmetimgp see n i theit sx slowly whilst stirring, twea completely they har-e lost the inherent dirt off of paint more quickly -tha an
ignorance, adnihister c1t doaes o6un powder ed potash, and finally dread of man by the aid of their reason- other, takes stheains out or oarperts d -
a thie ear" t6he children an e foul b funds wood ashes well sifted. Tis" ing powers, which tells them -that the' ter than anything else, oleaps combs
1s shuddered a sl ave lookeda'1or bh-emes quite hard after it has been once feared biped" on the bank will do and hair brushes, and makes gold andu .
Swe knew thia mysterious d with a brush, and will do for w d them no harm, but in all probability silver look as good as new. A good -
m ens b o z Ipo n th e e a r ey e ri s T S"h r T C'an d w ElTr w "de s tt fWry padO p h o l d b r n e e o cA T P R I C E S B E L O W C O M PEr
-ae" of' life-lonh has resulted -'iron.' o o wil bte Noithe mad -oftail, their a quat i
Btter for the -nit been beate s 'Sr of P TA E, o you of e that tame fish are realities, known iniwashig blankets which, hard
until sore andbruis Wah good sized potoes, bake th and I hope you will take Uncle Jo' ad- to wash at th best, are ruined if soap is -
The blindna .of the ing of Hano r in the oven for 30 minutes, take them [t vice and find out all about it from your directly used upon them. f 1t tfyetflZ if.,trt
wassoccasio a understood, b n and with a fork carefully remove t- own experience; but do not forget his
aecidentaio means t e g the shells whole; parting injunction-do not be treacher-. Chloride of lime is an infallible prven-
blow upon-he ye. Scarcely day Bon h tates with salt, pepper ai ous, even to a fish, or I shall be ashamed tie of ats, as they flee from its odor as
passes,iwe b wlevefwthout some-achoo.l- utr tt p h fo y from a pestillence. It should be thrown 3 3
master (or ..li ol fellow, i nat..r.al in.. the oven. a few' ihuts, and Here is something new for the amuse- down their holes and spread about .A-lJ AL .cS.1..L.D'l*-.i,.) PU'
mutation 6f his master)-givifl. a lad a t s-teaming i't ,. ment of our older young folks. 'It is wherever- they are likely to come, and i
s smart "'box" Upon the ear. rew per STRAWBERRY SHORTCAKE E ISWEET). "all the go" just now in many parts of should be renewed once a fortnight. 'jfl
-ee as. a part upon which- pelt sugar/,*onlenTplA-.off sweear-mi&l 'kse deal of innocent fun. It it called a Turpentine. is very useful. A few onro
ent to inflict a violent blh- byvway of tegg; .w.o 4easpQonfuls ,-baking ;fw~i* drops sprinkled where cockroaches" con- "'
^oral education, but thea isaipparefitly' -twdtablneilibnfuls-melted btteR?' DONKEY PARTY. -. gr-egate will exterminate the at once ; UU '
^.^fld -ile" .. '.rthe ''It will create 'considerable mystiflca- also nts, red or black:" Moths will flee a /" "! .......
ga---tw^ ....... *"- BB"IBHB-- tion if invitations are'sa sent 'n iut- under" '"from tlie odor of it. ; .... ^ SPECIAL J" "++'* *


;I







FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. APRIL 20, 1887.


Inquiries concerning diseases of domestic
Inlmals may be addressed to Dr. D. 0. Lyon,
jacksonville, Florida, who will answer them
through this column.

Veterinary Advice.
HORSE EATING SAND.
Will you tell me through the FLORIDA
FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER what to do
for my horse? I cannot trust him a min-
ute 'but what he will scrape up a mouth-
ful of sand ad and eat it as greedily as
grain. Would it be best to give him two
or three doses of physic? If so, what
shall I give him?
Am sure he has got some sand in him,'
but have taken care that he did not get
much. It is a great trouble to watch
him so close. Have. been feeding him
on bran lately for a change from oats,
but don't see any improvement. He has
plenty of salt. If you can give .a rem-
edy and preventative you will greatly
oblige a subscriber. Know of several"
other horses in the same condition.-E.
R. M., St. Augustine, Fla.
ANSWER-The unnatural appetite is
the result of confining the horse too long
on one kind of food, and is the cause
of great loss'in this sandy region.
Would advise an entire change in his
food. If you have been feeding oats and
hay, would advise you to continue the
bran and if possible give some green
food. If you think'he has already eaten
enough sand to retard digestion, give
the following at one dose:
One qt. Raw Linseed oil,
J oz. Spts. Turpentine.
Give him all the clay he will eat, com-
mencing with one quart a day and in-
crease until he refuses to eat that quan-
tity. Then you can put a box filled
with clay in his manger and allow him
to eat it at will. As soon as the appetite
for earth is satisfied he will no longer
eat sand and the clay will do no harm.
If the stomach has become weak, the
appetite for food impaired, and the
hlrse is losing flesh in consequence, give
him the bark from a few poles of poplar.
We think the tree grows in your neigh-
borhood, and it is a splendid tonic.
D. 0. L.
A SICK JERSEY.
Will you be so kind as to inform me
what the disease of my cow is, and what
to do for her. The cow is of the Jersey
stock. She has been a very fine cow,
but she is falling off very fast now. She
fails to eat such things as oats, brah and
corn, but will eat some swill from the
kitchen. She seems -to be going down
all the time. If you can tell me some
good remedy I would be glad. I give
her some horse and cattle powders, but
net much.-J. R. W., Lake Butler, Fla.
ANSWER-It is impossible 'to prescribe
intelligently in this case, as there are no
symptoms of disease given.
Loss of appetite occurs from nearly all
the diseases the cow is subject to. How-
ever, in the absence of a more detailed
description of the symptoms, will* rec-
ommend the following tonic,' which we
hope will be of benefit: 380 grains of
quinine dissolved in 1 teaspoonful aro,.
matic sulphuric acid and 1 pint.of water.
Give at one dose once a day.
Give all the swill she will eat, with
fouB quarts of bran mixed in each feed,
and five pounds of good hay per day.
D. 0. L.
N. B.-Inquiries on veterinary subjects
will reach Dr.: Lyon sooner if addressed
on the envelope as follows: Dr. D.- 0.
Lyons, St. James Stables, Jacksonville,
F1i. Inquirers will serve their own in-
terests by describing symptoms as ex-
plicitly as possible.

French Ideas About Horses.
In a letter from Paris to the N. E.
Farmer, some ideas are advanced which'
may interest owners of horseflesh:
The question- of feeding;horses is one
of capital impdrtanie, is influenced by
several circumstances, such as the kind
of work to which the animal is subjected,
the season and the price of the food ma-
terials. To economize oafs and hay is
the main object. Now, in the case of
the former, especially, any reduction for-
hard-worked horses must be undertaken
with prudence. After many expert,
ments, conducted.over a lengthy period,
the Omnibus Company of Paris has
adopted for its 'Hdrsds the following, type
ration: Hay, 81 lbs.; straw, 8 lbs.; bats,
44 lbs.; maize; 3J lbs.; beans, 15 oz.;
beans and carrots, 11 oz. This repre. ,
sents a total daily feed of nearly 80 Ibs.,
and less cannot maintain, the organs of
the animal in a conditio.o'f healthy ac-
tion, nor would it:-be soundfeconomv
attempting to do so; .
Both the hay and straw are chopped
and the grain crushed. As in the case
of the human stomach, so in that of. the
horse; the food must present, to be prof-
itably assimilated, % certain volume orr.
bulk as well as richness. Pemmican
will not keep in a healthy. state either
man or beast, because the stomach re-
quires distensioni in order'to develop the
action of the gastric ducts, and .hence
facilitate digestion. The heaviest, that
Sis, the most voluminous feed, ought to
be reserved for theniglit, relying on oats
for feed during working hours, as most
quickly disposed of and being less vol-
uminoQus, oppression is thus less on the
lungs.
A. imanufactiireri residing at Jatm-
bach, in Brunswick, has produced t
bridle, of which the bit is in leather. It
has for' aim to guard against the ill-
effects of the dangerous pressure on the
bars of the bridle, making a hard mouth
tender and more readily accustoming
the sensitive mouths of young horses to
the bit.: The latter have frequently the
mouth so delicate that the slightest pull
at the reins causes them intense pain,
and hence their restiveness. The leather
bit is kept soft by the humidity of the
mouth, the horse mumbles naturally at,
it, and becomes docile to the action of
the bridle. The leather is said to be less
hard and cheaper than the bitin gum, and


as it is made to rest on that part of the
jaw where there are no teeth, it cannot
be eaten.

An Experience with Milch Cows.
A Welaka man, in a letter to'the Pa-
latka News, gives some interesting facts
and figures based on his own experience:
Many think cows cannot be kept suc-
cessfully in Florida; others think they
must run out in the woods and thus
bother their owners about finding them.
In order to overcome any such objec-
tions, I propose to give a stateme. t of
two cows I bought last fall. One is a
guinea cow, the other about one-quarter
Durham, the former very small, the lat-
.ter of average size. I do not count the
forage these cows have consumed, I
raised it all and have a quantity on hand
yet. They were on old field pasture until
December, since then have keen kept in
a small wood lot and well bedded every
night. Nor do I make any item of fer-
tilizer that was saved, and was valuable.
This estimate is from October 1st to
March 1st, and, I may add, the cows still
keep up regular mesd, and will increase
when Iget green feed. I can sell them
any day at a good advance over the first
cost. They were raised about Tallahas-
see, so must be acclimated; are gentle,
and free from such vices as jumping,
kicking, etc In this purchase I was
perhaps, rather lufky, if such a word
will apply. I see no reason why almost
every family cannot keep one; and if
this article is the means of adding a good
cow to any family I will feel well repaid.
From October 1st to the middle of March
the cows were not fed anything, hence
the, estimate of eighty-five days. The
(orage fed was corn blades, and was
about ten pounds per day, five pounds
each.
Cr. Dr.
Two cows bought in Sept. '86, $50
each, expenses $5 each............ $130 00
Feed per day,8 quarts cotton seed
meal and 18 quarts bran, cost 4
cents; 85 days 34.00
Average milk pei-day, 18 quarts.
Average sale 7 qts.,per day for 5
mos 150 days, at il.cts. per qt. $105.00
$105o.00 $164 OQ
This leaves the cows now standing me
as an outlay only $59. The above is
money dealing, and, as a big balance in
my favor, I will say that we have made
all the butter (No. 1 and yellow) a family
could eat, and sold about $5 worth a
month. We have also had all the milk
we could drink three times a day, an-
other big balance. We never felt better
and the milk seemed to fill a long felt
want, and the amount of store bill saved
I will not try to estimate. BUCKEYE.
*
Care of the Hoofs.
Rightly viewed, but very few hoofs
should be cut off at the toe, yet not
more than one blacksmith in ten can
resist the temptation to set the shoe back
upon the hoof, cutting off all the pro-
jecting portion. Horses that have been
driven barefooted for a time invariably
wear the foot off in the front all it will
bear; hence, the smith should be told to
set the shoe forward' flush with the toe. -
The average smith does not like to be
told anything about shoeing, but the
personal interest of -the owner'should
take precedence over the ideas of the
smith, no matter how deep-rooted these
are, nor how difficult to yield to the in-
terest of the party most concerned
about the present.and future of the feet
of his horse. In shoeing young horses
for the first time, the size of' the feet
should be carefully looked after, and on
no pretense whatever should the smith
be permitted to narrow or shorten the
hoof.-Live Stock Journal.' ....

Seven Points in Butter.
Professor Arnold lays down the fol-
lowing seven points in butter-making:
1. To make the finest flavored and
longest keeping butter,- the cream must
undergo a ripening process by exposure
to the oxygen of the air while it'is ris-
igg. The ripening is iery !ard.y werin
the temperature is low.
2. After the cream becomes sour, the
more ripening the more it depreciates.
The sooner it is then skimmed and
churned the' better,-but it should not be
churned while too new. The best time
to skim and churn is just before acidity
becomes apparent. ,
3. Cream makes better butter to rise
in' cold air than to rise in cold water,
and the inilk will keep sweet longer. I
4. The deeper :th4e milk is set .the-less
airing the creanm-ets -while risi tg.' :
5. The depth of setting should vary
with the temperature. The lower it is
the deeper the milk may be set; the
higher, the shallower it should be.
6. While milk is standing for cream to
rise, .the purity of" the cream; ami, con-
seque tl'tl'e fine flavor abn keeping
qualitiesof'the butler, will be injured if
the surface of the cream is exposed
freely to air much warmer than the
cream. '
7. When cream is colder than the
surrounding air, it takes up moisture
and impurities from the air. When the
air is:colder-than thecream, it.takesvup
moisliire andwhatever escapes'fronm the
hild1. '-In le formndri oase the co~eam
purifies the surroundingair; in the litter
case the air helps to pritty the cream.
The selection of a creamer should hinge
on what is most desired-highest quality
or greatest convenience and economy
in time, space and labor.

Teaching Clvoe to Eat.
Teach the calf to eat dry bran by put-
ting a little in its mouth occasionally. It
will rarely eat enough dry bran to .hurt
it. To teach it to eat hay, tie a little
wisp and hang it just in reach 'of the
calf. It will play with it at first, then
gradually beginto chew it,. and getting
a taste will soon learn to eat all it needs.
There is danger of feeding grain with
the milk, unless great- care is taken not
to give too much, nor to have it swal-
lowed too fast, when it becomes more
or less indigestible. The saliva of the
mouth should be mingled with the
food, and will be if the food is slowly
eaten.


POULTRY IN FLORIDA.

Points About its Management
Learned by Experience.
BY E. W. AMSDEN.
To get the best results from laying
hens, keep before them pure water at
all times. This is as necessary as good
feed.
A medium-sized, light-feathered fowl
is the one best -suited for Florida. For
general purposes, the Wyandotte is the
best; for eggs, the Whlte Leghorn.
Remove droppings from the hen house
at least twice each week and keep the
floors well covered with leaf mould or
dried muck as an absorbent. If allowed
to drop on the bare 'boards you will"
always have an unhealthy stench and
cause of sickness in your flock,
As hen manure contains rates and
solids, unless absorbed, the former. (the
most valuable) will evaporate. This is
one reason why the analysis of drop-
pings is not higher and the commercial
value greater. Gypsum or land plaster
is excellent to scatter over the floor and
keep the pens sweet. Never use ashes or
lime or any form of potash in connection
with hen manure. The night droppings
for 100 fowls for one year will average
three tons, which is equal in value to the
average commercial fertilizer, for which
we pay $40 per ton.
If you use an incubator and, turn the
eggs by hand, always wear glove while
turning or handling the ,eggs. The
proper temperature for the best results
I have found to be 108 'degrees, less
rather than more. Withhold moisture
until the 6th day, and after that the -at-
mosphere must never become dry, or
the chicks will die in the shell.
An excellent feed for young chicks
until three weeks old is one pint each of
the following: Oat meal, corn meal
and wheat bran, half the amount of
buckwheat flour, tea tablespoonfuls of
baking soda, one tablespoonful salt, half
pound meat chopped fine, the whole
thoroughly mixed and baked.
After a week old chop a little cabbage
and'add to the above once a day. Keep
fine screenings always before them when
ten days old; also a little fresh oyster
shell and charcoal, ground fine, within
reach.
If you use a brooder, avoid bottom
heat. It causes leg weakness and crowd-
ing, which is fatal when many .are con-
fined in one brooder. After chicks
are three days old, give plenty of water
in such a way that they will not get wet
or wet the floor of the brooder.
The best drinking fountain for young
chicks I have ever tried I made from old
quart cans. After removing one end of
the can I have a round piece of wood
that fits it nicely. With a coal chisel I
cut five holes an inch indiameter, two
inches from the bottom of the .can. The
little chicks soon learn to put their heads
in an drink without getting wet or slop-
ping the water.
ORMoND-oN-THE-HAifiFAX.
March. 80, 1887. .

The Growth of Y.oung Chicks.
The Farm and Gardet, Philadelphia,
says ."Considerable discussion asto the
growth of young fowls having reached
usi NmB give here the result of careful ex-
periments.
The growth of chicks, as ascertained
by us during the past three months was
as follows, viz.:
Egg weighs 2 ounces.
Chick newly hatched weighs......... 1% "
1 week old weighs.................. 2 "
2 weeks old weighs................. 4
"' ".... 61-6 &
SU 4 5 "" ........
S 5 ................ 14
5 .... 14
6 ...... .......18 2
7 .............. -6
5- .......... 8'2
S 9 ........... 2..2
10 .
11 ... .4t -
The chicks experimented with were
Plymouth Rocks, though. considerably
mixed with other bloods. They, were
fed mostly on a mixture of bran, oat-
meal-and corn, meal, moistened with
milk and water, and baked, sometimes
merely cooked with boiling water.
Whole wheat and skim milk cheese
served as a variety, during the first four
weeks, and the cake was sometimes
made'richer by the addition of a little
animal meal, ("pulverized dried bone
and"'meat.") Out of quite a large flock,.
not one chick died from disease.
They were fed very regularly, three
times a day, and all they would eat up
clean. A flock which increased two
pounds in weight a day consumed less
than six pounds of corn meal, or its
equivalent in other food, in twenty-four
hours,and what vegetable or animal mat-
ter they could pick up, which, in spite
of unlimited range, did not appear to be
.very much; at least they were always
hungry whe i they came to their meal.
From the above, you will see that 'the
actual expense of making one pound of
"spring chicken" was, in this case,; not
more than four cents.' We might have
grown these chicks still faster by giving
them a greater variety of food, but did"
not attempt to force them."
A good showing, and it suggests that
farmers might add a nice little sum to
their income by more attention to the
poultry yard. Utilizing every opportu-
nity on the farm should be our motto.
Having something to sell every week in
the year would do much to break up the
unfortunate credit system which the cul-
ture of cotton has brought upon us.

How to Raise Turkeys..
In addition to as large a stock of poul-
try a's can be well cared for, every farm
should raise turkeys. The surplus above
what is needed for home consumption
can always find ready sale, and if the
market is watched, command good
prices. The turkey forms an. important
factor in home comforts and the com-
pletion on festive occasions when birth-
days areto be celebrated, wedding feasts
solemnized and Thanksgiving apprecia-
tively remembered. The effort of every
farmer should be to produce all articles
necessary to supply his wants-buy as


little as possible, and always have some-
thing raised on the farm for sale.
In raising turkeys, we are strong ad-
vocates of the bronze or a cross with the
wild turkey. The bronze has more of
the blood of the wild than any other
breed, and the nearer we approach the
wild turkey the better they are and the
easier they are to raise. The bronze grows
larger, fattens faster and is freer from
diseases fatal to the young chicks than
any other breed. Turkey hens lay two
litters of eggs, generally beginning in
March. The litter should be given to an
Asiatic hen, not placing more under her
than she can well cover; let the turkey
hen have the second litter herself. It
requires twenty-eight days for the eggs
to hatch. When hatched, the mother
should be -placed in a large, roomy coop
in a dry, she'tered place, and keep both
mother and little chicks under cover
about two weeks. The little ones should
be fed frequently during the day, giving
them the yelk of an egg' boiled well
done, and laler, bread crumbs, curd and
a mixed feed of oat and corn meal made
into a stiff dough,with an occasional mix-
ture of chopped onions. The little ones
should not have their liberty, except
during bright, clear days, after the dew
is off the grass, until six weeks old,
taking care to coop them in the after-
noon before the dampness of evening
*sets in. They should be carefully pro-
tected against approaching showers, and
with the mother confined to the coop
until the grass is dry. When about six
weeks old they begin to show red about
the head, when the principal trouble and
care is over. Let them take their own
way, only feed regularly every night to
keep them-attached to "home" rule,"
unless kept in close quarters, when they
should be fed often.-Planters' Journal.

Comb Foundation.
H. M. Gates, of Shideler, fnd., in a
communication to -the American Bee
Journal, thus discusses the subject of
comb foundation:
"Does it pay to use foundation?" is
often asked, so I will give my experi-
ence with it. My way of increasing my
number of colonies is by natural swarm-
ing, and I hive the swarms that issue in
June on empty frames. If it should be
a good season they will just about fill
the brood-chamber of a Langstroth
hive. Where I hive swarms on old
combs or foundation, each colony will
store from forty to sixty pounds of fine
honey, and leave plenty in the brood-
chamber for winter. I)eduting from 80
cents to $1 for foundation, leaves me a
nice profit per colony. I have used
foundation iu sections in half sheets and
i-inch guides on the top-bars, and I
found that it pays just the same in pro-
portion. The past season I placed from
one to two frames of foundation in the
centre of the brood-chamber, and as soon
as I.dared to spread the brood apart, I
took out the outside frames that had
little or no honey or brood in them, using
thpm to hive swarms on, and getting the
foundation drawn out better and more
even in. that way than in any -other. I
then hived the swarms on but two frames
of old combs for the first twenty-four
hours, placing at the same time oh the
top (using division-boards, of course),,
from eight to twenty-four-pound sec-
tions; this forced the bees to occupy the
sections immediately. In this way I
find that -it is best to use only J-inch
guidesin sections. ,
Oneething that I have often noticed in
hiving swarms on full sheets of 'foun-
dation is that in the centre of a hive, es-
pecially at the top of the frames, they
will often build new comb on top' of the
foundation, instead of drawing out the
cells to the proper,length. This led me
to try getting it drawn out in the early
spring, and using old combs gave the
queen a chance to commence laying at
once, and forced the majority of the
bees to use-their wax in comb-building
in the sections.

'"Manageinent of Bees.
An experienced hpiarist of Iowa, in
writing to the American Bee Journal,
gives-the following account of his man-
agement of bees:
My knowledge of bees is drawn mostly
from observation and experiment. I
used comb frames before the war, and
one'pound sections in 1867. I have had
the best success with the Langstroth
brood chamber, containing from ten to
sixteen combs, with division boards and
the bottom boards clamped on the lid
with a two or three-inch rim. (Both can
be.dispensed with in tiering up the hives
in the cellar for winter.) I have supers
(with rabbet in the side board of the hive
dispensed with), slatted honey board,
and the hive with au additional story high
enough to hold four-and-a-quater-inch
sections, with a flange of light hoop. iron
nailed on the lower Outer edge to shut
on the hive like a band-box. These
hives can be tiered up to any desired
height. I put on a super, spread a cloth
over it, and as soon as it is pretty well
filled with honey, take it off, place an
empty one in its place, and put it back
to be finished. Seven and a half inches
is too shallow for caps, as only one case
of sections can be-placed under it at a
time. I consider it important to give
room in the honey season, without wait-
ing for all the sections in one case to be
finished.
-4**-*
Nice beef tea is made good with beef.
GCut off every bit of grease or tallow and
cut the beef into little bits and put in a
wide mouthed bottle ; cork or tie a cloth
over, and put into a kettle of cold water,
When the juice boils out turn it all off in-
to a glass or cup, season with a little salt
and pepper ; give little at a time to one
who is very weak. The meat can be
used by any one who is stronger or well.
A writer in the London Agricultural
Gazette thus gives the cow her dues:
"The Hindoo worships the cow. The
Irish peasant lives with her on a footing
of social equality. She is the friend of
man in every zone. a peace offering from
nature to the human race in all climes.
Great is the cow.


Circulars and Stencils on application.


S., F. & W. R. R. WHARF,
JACKSONVILLE, FLA


Sfli, size 40xlOO 1 I hTS1 'tYV ou LakeJKingsley. Clay :Co., only-8. A
a rfeet in LAM Wa Wa choie 6-acre tract for an 'OAWsE
GROVE costs but $50.
| High rolling Pine Lands, Salubrious Climate, a good invest- R
| ment. Send 2-cent stamp for Maps, etc., or remit P. '0. Order or bFL Dll -
JJ perfect, from the .

TIR.OPI.OA.I T.-A.esoF3D i00 iKEA- .'=S-, -
P0. Box lSs,Jacksonvflle, Florida. 3a it. Bay St.


P.0iAusiat, IIN.


SOUTI, BLiOIID


A. w. cuscOAD


Real. Estate Ac*y,:
TAMPA, FIOBIDA. Office: T.wiggs St., two blocks east of Passenger depot.


Florida Winter Homes

*-~ ~~ ,


ORIOLE, HERNANDO COUNTY.

Beautiful location, facing on Lake Oriole and on the South Florida Railroad.
Lands all high and dry. New settlement; between twenty-five and thirty new houses.
A Church, Scho".......y mails, stores, bakery, saw mill and hotel. Large area already'planted -
in orange groves. Choice building lots for winter homes for sale cheap. Ten, twenty and
[for acre orange grove lots. A healthy settlement in a healthy State.
Call on or Address, "
J. W. GROVES, or CLARKSON & ROBERTSON,
Oriole, Florida. Jacksonville, Florida.


W ..N. JUSTI' ::- :

Wholesale Commission Merchant,
NO. 813 NORTH WATER STREET, PHILADELPHIA.
Specialties: SOUTHERN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. Consignments Solicited. Return
made on day of sale,


T 0. O'O. BILOT7T2 T,_.
" n. A T. .isyjL'TE BROJE.fi
BARTOW, FLORIDA.
Orange Groves, Town Lots in Bartow, Winter Haven, Haskell, Punta Gorda and Charlotte
Harbor foi Sale. Unimproved Lands in small, and large tracts, at $2.50 per acre, up. Choice ten
and forty acre tracts of good, high, rolling Pine Lands, near S. F. R. R. depot, at $20 to $36 per
acre. All property guaranteed to be as represented or money refunded.
SMoney Loans, well secured, negotiated at 15 per cent, net, to the Tender.

SWhat Mr. Beyer sys:
-etj--. SS beat thanks for the splemnid seed received from your firm.
S S '.S It would bearather lengthy li1t if I Bhould name all, but


126


.- PILLOW*,

FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PACKING,

FORWARDING AND COMMISSION HOUSE.
-------
Usually have orders to work our consignments into, enabling us to make PROMPT RETURNS
Extensive Facilities for Repacking
.for outside parties, to which prompt attention is given. Packages suitable for
SHIPPING ORANGES, STRAWBERRIES AND VEGETABLES,
both made up and in the flat, always on hand, and for sale. Also, Hoops, Wrapping Paper, etc
Best of location, viz: -









FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. APRIL20. 1887. .. J27
_Witness-Yes, sir. Witness-Yes, sir; tothe-oest oi.my
n a tt i perfectly sweet, and in any kind of crooked growing wood. To The Attorney General-In what da- knowledge.
ft ji^ retain the bark, which is necessary for its ogamil# ^# v d ft# pacity? The Attorney- General-The prisoner
e,( Cr+ xperimentost ands will made bethe pastinter best rustic appearance, it must be cut _n____ _---"- Witness-As his coachman. called to you to stop. What then?
several dairymeninNewEngland indicate S hil three is in a dormant state. It nT' ATL The Attorney General-For how long Witness-I drew upimmediatelYand he
DECORATIVE SEATS FOR LAWNAND that where ensilage is fedfreelya higher Soak it well in with one or more coats o FOR ON were you so employed ? gotout.
theatre seied r unig petroleum, and it will thus be rendered as Witness-For a matter of three years. The Attorney General-What were hbi
GARDEN WALKS. sotemperature ithas required or churning.ecessary Into durable as cedar. .----- The Attorney General-Are you a tee- next instructions ? -
f GARDEN WALKS some cases it has been found necessary In another figure is represented a double By B. 4 FARJEON totaler? Witness-H told meto wait for him
o-- hae therwsesixty-wo orsixevty -thre would be seat-one that is movable and therefore Author of "Great Porter Square," "The Witness-Yes, sir. and to turn the horses' heads. .
Whe to Chrn Fast and When to Churight When cream must be churned may be placed wherever it chances to be Bright Star of Life," Etc. The Attorney General-During the three The Attorney General-Toward Loir
..... .oCanrs n about righk Wlhen cream must be churned most needed. The remaining figures of --- -.years you worked for the prisoner were don? .;- ..
Slow-Points In Bee Keeping-Cheap at such high temperature, says the author- st he rmpet d e o years you worked for the prisoner were don
and Easly Constructed Feed Pens for ity quoted from, we would recommend trusivehe ofU forms; these implefurnish convenient o- PART THE FIRST. you in the habit of driving him out regu- Witness-Yes, sir.-
Chickens gradually pouring in cold milk or wate-as seats tor a brief resting place during the THE TRIAL OF EDWARD LAYTON. larly? The Attorney General-Did be say how
Soon as the cream begins to break and be- interval of outdoor games, such aslawn Witness--Yes, sir; pretty nearly eVery long he would be away ?
All who attempt to raise chickens in the fore it gathers, otherwise the butter may interval of outdoor games, such as awn A day. eWitness-About five or een minutes. he
old style way know how difficult it is to be gathered too suddenly, shutting in a tennis, croquet tc. CHAPTER I. The Attorney General--Were you the 'said
evenly distribute the food and insure mass of buttermilk which will be difficult only coachman in the establishment P The Attorney General-In point of fact,
enough of it to the young birds. to remove. Much difficulty in churning Is Things Farmer Tell One Another. A STRANGE DECISION. Witness-I was; s:r. how long was it before he ret urned ?
caused by having the churn too nearly Soaps s and waste water from the This morning, at the central criminal The Attorney- General-'Being in his Witness-Thirty-two minutes .by my
iled with cream. No churn should ever house will furnish no incolsiderable court, Mr. Justice Fenmore resumed the
.. r-'S \ 1 be more than haf full of cream for the amount of fertilizer for the soil tril of his wife, Agnes Layton : or the wil perfectly familiar with his'flguare? :. The Attorney .General--ou :-alway.
-. .. most perfect separation. Toomuch cream The use of a common potato digger or mr of h f a yt ad- t Witnss--I am, sir- without hearinghs -time yourself?. y
P- prevents, the proper amount of concussion hook to spare the backs of the boys some ministration of poisonous narcotics h voice,: should know him in the dark. tss-r-Yes, r, always; It's a abit
and thus retards the separation. Thinning what is suggested when picking'up stones ministration of poisonousnarcotcs in such e .. r The Attorne y General-Ds i t a he makbe
cream with water and washing the milk from the soil is in order. As there Is a- quantities as to produce death. Extracor- -Th Attorney General-Y ou are any remark upon his return about his be-
diaya a h xie etcue y that...':'- .. .. --Any ...
away will sometimes make slow churning, ways more or less of this work to be done dinary as was ngs the public excitement caused byer- Witness-Qut sure, sir. g away longer than he expected
away~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ra mn-v or ae s or h taksoudb yesterdayspoedns h ulcItr ins-ut ,sr n wylne hnh xetd
cream come more quickly. The cream and every boy hates it, the task should be est in this mysterious,murder was intensi- The -Attorney General-Is your eye Witu ess-No, sir; he seemed to be
must stand some time for the fatty por- lightened if possible.. fled by the strange.decision :arrived at: by sight good? e Attorney General-.Occupied
Stion to rise. Good butter may be made Lucerne is a valuable leguminous plant, the prisoner on this the third day of his -Witness-Itris very strong. I can see h Attorneo General-Occupied
without the use of a thermometer,'but we that thrives in all good soils of a free cal- trial lngshway thining o- something?
would as soon think of sending ,butter to careous nature: on w'et land it produces The attorney general, Mr. J. Protheroe, -The Attorney General-You have ;been Witness-Ye, sgir. ?
market without weighing, andguess 'at Ithree or four abundant cu tings Q. C., and -Mr. Standing .conducted. the in the habit of driving the prisoner often The Attorney eneral-dViben he left
the"weightwhen rendering acount,.as. you, in what direction did he g? -
Sthe weight when rendering.Ianou account, as The sulky or riding plow, on which the case on behalf of the crown. at night? Witness-He walked on toward High
POE FD M.to think ottch anid6 without athermom- plowman is carried around the field while The widely spread rumor that an epi- .. Witness-Yes, Sir. Barnet till he came to a betid'ii the road.
POhE f Ed i n eter by whse aedregulateD the tern- gework is done, revolutionizes all the sode of a startling character was impend' ,TheAttorneyGoeneral-And o eyes He.went rouud that, and I lost sight ot
Whenever food ihs thrown out to the pkerature. _____' old ideas about plowing. ing received confirmation immediately -therefore, have: got trained to s figure, ..
young chicks, the old hens rush and pick '--r- s u t .The Attorney Gerheral-.Did e retu
it up, crowding dr driving the little ones Langstroth on Bee Keeping. Bone meal is a very desirable Ingredient upon the trance of theprsoner in .the as it were? ". .. ? ..
it ~~~~~dock. -He presented a careworn aippear- Witness-Yes, aihrtore.eerlDd. ertr
away. In such feeding, a pen which the The following principles, says Lang- to mix with the poultry food at all times, ance, and whe the usual formalities were -: The Attorney General-You have had e a way?
chickens can enter, but which will not stroth, the eminent bee culturist, underlie and especially during the breeding season, ance, and washl observed that h were and his to look out fort him on dark nights fehad re. i;om nhestartld-me a b
admit the old hens, is, if not quite a necess- and govern profitable bee keeping and and the keeper should see that this ingre- counsel (r Bainbridge C). were in .distance? withness-I was looknotor him i
ity, a great convenience and help. The honey producing: diet is carefully supplied during the earnest consultation, and it appeared as If Wine.s-I have had to do that sir. Witness-I was looking ut -for him I%
Rural New Yorker tells how such pens 1. Bees gorged with honey never volun- early spring months, the learned gentleman, was endeavoring to T.he Attorney General-When the peo- the direction he had taken, when I sud-
the eared enteman wa eneavrin to Th Atorny Geera-Whn te ~ detily heard him speak at. my elbow.
-can be readily made. teer an attack. A PATTI overcome some resolution.- which the pris- ple were coming out of the theatre, f0o he Attorney General-bHow do yona,.'
The one shown in the first cut furnishes 2. Bees may always be made peaceable "ADONIS" DIXEY AND PATTI. oerchad formed. At the trminatisn of instance o the-th f ;
the model for a pole pen and is made by by inducing them to accept of liquid Actor's Do. this conversation Mr. Bainbridge, turning Witness-Yessir; and.at other places Att orn G a d y
laying poles up, log house fashion. The sweets. Trouble Caused by the Actor's o to the bench, said: R as well. W. itnes cHet must. have taken a short
spaces between the poles are just large 8. Bees, when frightened by smoke or Irishman and Songbird. "I have to claim your lordship's in- The Attorney General-Therefore,it s cut back. across some ields. hi
-enough to let the chicken run out and in. by drumming on their hives, Ol them- Mr. Henry E. Dixey is the owner of a dul gene for a statement which I fimd it not likely you couldbe mistaken in him? bue stands n in thae roead, andhteiere m
Boards are placed over the top and held in selves with honey and lose all disposition St. Bernard dog that weighs perhaps 800 necessary to make. It is in the rememnt- Witness-It is hardly possible, sir. wa s standing inmoe than man high, n the
.lace by stones or blocks. to sting, especially if the motion jars their pounds, and, after the fashion of the lamb branceof your lordship that on the first eThe Attorney General-You o remember s he me b t u
combs. thatwas platonically attached to Mary, day of this trial the prisoner was unde- the night of the 25thn of March?" sidea he am e back t m a e. on
V1 i 4. In districts where forage is abundant this dog accompanies Mr. Dixey wherever fended, being, as it appearsresontely de- Witness-Yes sir, and th-e day too. The Attorney General-What did you
^fa~f^ 'iUt~l only for a short period, the largest yield Mr, Dixey goes. Twice across the ocean termined to defend himself. Yesterday The AttorneyGeneral-Why do you In- es prepare t '
of honey will be secured by a very mod- and all over this continent makes Prince orming-hat is, upon the second day of e lude the day inyour answer? TeAttorn e General-WoDidh de 11 ydh
erate increase of managing bees. the most extensive traveler of 'the canine monfgta %-pntescn ayo ld h a nyu nwr The Attorney Genecral-Did hie -tll Yout
erate increase of managing bees. the most extensive traveler of trial-Ithe canine informed your lordship that Witness-Because it was the hardest immediately where to drive to? :
T5 Queenless colonies, unless supplied kind. Mr. Dixey and his leviathan dog the prisoner had. been prevailed upon by day's work I have done for many a year. -Witness-No sir. He stood ;conslder-
with a queen, wll inevitably dwindle were having a romp through the four or five his friends to intrust his defense to me. The Attorney General-The. hardest g, just as he did when` we.flrsto- st;out.
away or be destroyed by the bee moth. or rooms occupied by the Clan Dixey at the Ig uta edd.,w,1s e n
away robber be destroyed by the beemothor rooms occuphelieu. First Mr.Clan Dixey wouat thld Being satisfied in my own mind that day's driving, do you mean? The Attornev General-And then? .;.
So by robber ti c olonies should shut tRihelie dog up in th e folding beywod and ng would dcur to disturb this ar- Witness-Yes, sir. I was on the box Witness-He told me to drive back he
Sordinarily be confined to the season when hide himself in the wardrobe; then the rangement-which I venture to say was from 11 o'clock in, the morning till. an ay we had o-e but not.to drive too
lift bees are accumulating honey; and if this dog wbuld break away from the folding an advisable one-I did not feel called hour past midnight. a nwy eha o bu ..t
<:U" beeor any other operation must be performed bed and begin a hunt for Dixey, humor- upon to mention that the prisoner's con- The Attorney General-Driving your qThe Attorney General-You did so?
.STAKE PEN.: wn a s ser th tables and chairs s s oent to accept legal aid, was very reluct- master, the prioner. Witness-Yes, sir. -. .
Pwhen forage is scarce the greatest pre-ously tipping over cb antly given. That this was so, however, witnes-Ye, sir. ThAtoneyGnera-here lyo
In Fig. 2 stakes are driven into the caution should be used to.prevent rob- humorously breaking the crockery, and is proved by what has since tran-p,'re ." The Attorney General-WAd no other nextsto? -- her. "e. :
Inn Fig accomanyin hitneTeAE~~e eeaAdn ohr etsop
ground with an axe, the proper distance bing. still more humorously acmpanying hsa pove uy w hat assnce wor npru th e trers nextstopi. w e e didcoU
apart: Boards or brush can be laid over 7. Theeessence of all profitable bee keep- labors with volcanic vocal eruptions ex- Both in writson nwInsis o ondf mouthing personn, Witness-Midway be tween Fincwey
--- the top. g is contained in this golden rule, "Keep pressive of fear, hope, anticipation, joy, l o n h d n nctly informed Wabout-- -No tillevening, sir." It was
ressivehi owf carseeatcpain y . and has distinctly nomdad ruhEd
-.your stock strong." If you cannot sue- etc. This play lasted for about an hour, m that he will not per. mit e to act for ao The Attorney General-hA w n rt a tt a ef
"doing thisthe more money you I- Mrs. Dixey sitting in the front room mean- at his The Attorney Genera-We come Witness-No, sir; ata part of the road
veed in beedoing thisethe ier willbe money yousse; in-le smiling contentedly and thinking to him. lam empowered to say that his de- to the particulars presently.' 'You were wherethere were no houses.
es eshhAV erio eis notes in nas'th ncnte notn drivin agll th r"-H '1e oy
while if your stoek- are-strong you will herself how muchim better it was for Henry cis.on is not in any sense personal to my- nol driving all the time The Atorey General-HecaUedtoyo,
show that you area be mas ter as el as be passing quiet afternoon at home self. It Is simply, and regrettably, that Witness-No, sir; the horses couldn't oretostop '
a bee keeper and" may safely calculate am than to be frittering away i timen he he has resolved not to be -defended or hae stood it. .... Wire-Yes ir He-got out, and
generous returns fron e your Industreo n any of frivolous men about town represented by counsel. ,In these circum The Attormiey Geueral-Do you mean said, "Moorhouse, -nieeV me er in'&bomt
100the stances I have no -option but to place my- tht hrewrstoppagesp
generous returnsfrom yor ndus i Patti, whose apartments at anceshavenooptionbtto place my that there werestoppaes? an hour or an hour and t-uater:" I.
s ", -Ichelieu are .located directly" under the sself in your lodsi' hands. Wirnes-Yes, sir. s said, "Yes sir," and I asked him whether
/Pm eserv, on lof Egg. Diey iooms, must have thought different, Priso-er-My lord-- The Attorney General-Dldtheprisoner I should bait the horses at, an inn -we'had
SAustralian eggs are preserved iU the for while Mr. Dixe and his do were i Mr. Justice Fenmore.-Silence. Your usually vrork his horses so hard?-. pased fa mile down the-rdad-. Held
following simple manner: The vesel In e midst of their genial sport-or, w. counselwilspeakforyou. Witness-Not -at illi-Sir. -He was a not'inswer me, but walkedquicklyiaway.
which the egogs are to e plad are glassig s wil es s wr at Prisoner-.My lord, I have no, counsel. good master to man and beast. TIfe Attbrney General-Can you say wby
=mght'SI sywiehfsi is re I am defending myself,'and no person The Antorney General-Why do you look he did not answeryou? .... -
LATH PEN. jars with patent stoppers, vulcanized In- their height, there came a knock at the I "a dfn me p so eqsenlyattheerisoyer u l.-' o e did not
--------g--dpreients a little more elaborate b joints making'them perfectly 8 M Justice Feunombre-Prisonerhat the e frequently at 'the.prisorfir-, esstN O sN exept-tht.e did not.-
affair. This is onstructed-of lath- and air tight. As soon as the eggs have been looking l like o.ie of m e "Two Or Mre-PriShnae at thee, Witnes'--I can't tell. you, air, except en. e..
scantling. Food and water placed on the collected the jars-are placed in hot water presented this message: an a r, it is my duty to tell you that the de that Ishouldn't like to. say anything to The Atorney.
neggs enwrapped ton per, a p rce Dioey su hihly t e Mr. Justice. Fenmore-You may not be. The Attorney tGeneral-For txasions mentss ate bewas at. al deaf ?
FeitThe cream of different cows, if kept a fd se th e koi ng the an plce not cr so yuc far arrived, bu the in-
churned separately, will be found .to re- in a-warm receptacle, their pointed .ends suit t,) the dog was one that he could It ms-scarcely necessary for me to poin o whichwhayou mrehave gi'Venh your otremembranceofMrht .woeoin tas-o sir; ..... a bto hae aoseme4~theng0a,
quire different temperatures for churning, ,being uppermost. The jarS. are inmmedi- scarcely brook. Next meriting, as he lay out to you, a manof intelligence and good ofwa-ccuri oii-h .~ho Mac is. Wi
a nd the creamfron the same cows may closed up, and then, and not until inhi -,s he became cognizant oanan educationthat thereare pintsin every ely o be exceptional faith .O ,- hl a thit de, t a om.thi.

require different temperatures for best then, are removed from the hot water. gelic voice :arlng In ong-a voice s caseand especiallyina case so momentos W a itness-For-those and oter ,rhetso of anything ese, or attending ,o" .it..
Scinside^^ a oo ^S^ the has^ ^^ beesm thoougly ar An
S results at different seasons of theyear, The great secret of success in carrying evenly hat it stayed not in the porches asr thi, which an unjudicialr, I sir. The Attorney General-After e
and for different portions in the milk giv- out the method described is no doubt to of his ear but penetrated to.the irxuermoyt, moe correctly,-a mind eotlegally trained,. The Atorney General--Now, commence quickly away what. did ybit do? -
ngperiod between calving and going dry. thoroughly heat the a~r in the jars. 'The recesses of Mr. Dixey's very soul and ma almost certain to-overlook. "- on-the morning of that. day. What wereWtes-A a hreta nhu
lug~bo Witeo-A It hadyy moehhnehu

s u le ,F eggs will stand a better chance of keeping tilled hi whole being with an ectacy of Prisoner--I ulrstad your lordship, s si attorney oGeneral-an b d abit
.i or andw Churning. thank you; bat if m a i o Witness-To bntend-No r pead Ith the carr i
I the crue, fros new miae chrlnsr thepaper inhic theatre packed is n ffal rdecainght. -" .ht.i-myhartand Y witness-tb e ly ,sr eriata yebi l
r ie d c lrm than tamet fm cowos w hn t previously k baned and Uosed Wa n m p Patent "Id, y dear," casieed Mo. Dixey tob his the terrible crime- sfor which I am now be- at ke bra wr, and heei nealt d .
Th more brediffedent andmchws, whi c st oa a not crie, so wuc frhsewinbu te inn Igt is -obesbr- en
cih are nearly dry. As a rule, fream that a s opr arthe nabsoluering wce- oow wo was t i a dos echnicalities, I shall prefer not to owe my Witness--oYes, sire.-i poin ese ene e "
long incoming requires a higher tempera- sn f ary, an opper a ueris whi tt n oou telans. oI b yde g legal The Attorney General-I whe reo Mardi Attorney General-btheeln to .
q- ture for churning than cream Wrhich will naly excludes the air. r "What is it Henry?" se answer reles to tios mte I, bete t ywn
Schrn in a short time. Feed, thehealth At the late Birmingham (Englaod l shw "You'rei n unusually good voice tis m an ere-dunci sn ndeedt -theactualre p-. ou fix the tlime e By guessing? W'gno'c b.. ar. i
of the c.t ohoel me with oset a is ee for the best dozen of t morning, my dear," said Mr. Dixey. I deer be presentknow whether I am -t Witness-B .my watchIDA sr-th bes Th e Attorney General-o th inkg youe
requir diffrent empertures forbesf diroru the ot waer. gAic vice .,arig lu'ongnocevoieoromguilty, Wandpsinr thee coursee xIohavef timekeepere -oin London.n

the-acidityof, the cream aret o ndiostions, all preserved eggs, and these were givemi, as don't know when I've heard you sing wh determindto phursa a i hat Te .r Attorney'General-At 11 o'clock asft usual, wrse yak oeno the spoy
of which influence the length of time re- was the case tle yearh previous, to those pleasantly:" to be m best ies Yoorrhetyou, w-erea th boxole fo wan The Attorney General-?M be .
Squired for churning. Each dairyman preserved in simple lime and water, or "Why. Henry," exclaimed Mrs. Dixey, I believe Withne-en 'he hod watine fo wa s -a. a
S should endeavor to ind out othe nest tem- packed intdry salt Samples are shown I've not been Singing; that was Mie lordship has referred totmeas a man of y iur s j T marine -toe enrz lm te. i
in peraube t fo chaur ing te rediaml y ofnd shi The Attoe y e ea- wo .he th a tin A odt
,aange is chunings th seamato v is ore with melted suet, beeswax, oil or Patti you heard-she is practicing Proch' itelligence and good education. These W n s Ye, you? r .
own dairy, eand it can be determinedly lard, and all these were good. But variationn s, and isn't it jIust too lovely" qualifications will sufficiently serve me, r i Attorney General-He came out o r th t

As ao -rule say th e w b Es qu y cows churns i t epa er i Whc ae p c e isa g W~eff a re ld t eligh t ha.eol aeb i n ot thatk -I ; have cogen a cquimp rtt v al of "Divnes to bexa inhle ,onthe caroad to seare I Td frwrov b ackt h i deo
by experiment. The ae crea may strange to sa one exhibit which had been But there was a cold, meaningless gtlt- but I do not rely upon therl w m alone. I have you? W tn -o. -er.IYsa notin v<
realey srwin some courned l to 1id Thhe Attorney General--e, he tell? y Attorney" General-:--id ae of,
make more butter f it ism churned an hour, rubbed over with pure vaseline as soon as terIn Mr. Dixey's eye as he straghtway I se that h o s e all tn nd Witness-Yssi. fo nthe rr atw h yomu g-
than if it comes in one-fourth Or one-half laid w as the worst of all.- All the eggs arose from ie te trousers, and aur o w a al h arne ea d e te o The Attorney General-Di he
| the time, but we-never like to be so long were putrid. _____ put on one of his red Hibernian wigs. A my own defense in a manner which will immediatelyrwhere to drive to? t Witness--roa srh .eq.itte eadk yuu?
Squaring a s aulewmipot ti e alfew momentslater, when, in answer to a recommend itself to my heart and my Witness-Not immediately, sir. ee wre Te theA Ht or nbak nn
S rnig, nesarc a.rl brutal knock, Mie. Patti opened the door conscience, so do I believe that, l f I choose m stood with his hand on t carriage doors othe y r a bee
foor from twenty-five to forty-five minutes, in far sou then latitudes is that the qual- The Attorney General--Ar b ef ili
Oueor per own p of the releai goi wool of era parlr temaincomprab ni rd' torexese t -ial wae thand I s em tme in s toe o nsai derIng. w Wtnyess-Yes sir a before.
and f the cow are alright, the cream ityof thewol deteriorates. Where the sl like rbsbehldwhatseemedto be a my position wold.so choose-I have legal -The Attorney General-Did he remain T s tt er-atme
Prrchurn g inashorttime.elds then, bhuealth l It "You'rawe iiiusua stanodigic thi per- l Atre 'ieetThe Attorney General-for Yhourself
properly ripened and at a proper tempera- climate is not cold enough to make tm gnot", mstr diea stadis bieng c, th leVrdge oseNs le aSm rot f Irr m e Witness- em astherer rge for es t u i Witess--n? o. He s yo
Sturebl i gt shouldbce wthine ascon r elimiets ta "itr Dixeyss Wcomp l t t learned cuard yu nsse whonhas oaddresed yor Wt Ttehe corny heheora four d minutes, sirn W tnesse veno'lyok. or y
tureit. Shouldced mi ,sthin hosimits heeo p natue aelas o nderatetisn lshs yees, mum," said this hulking appari- Mlordosehi has, phutohe emonatern was fly, e Attork Gengis n time.n a Ator
tp and yield all the butter thate could hie oh-s wol a yi the o he n et t re Ia a ik a t e o t h
j -tained by longer churning. Cream is all carefl nto mainainys quaidrt, It lsoo rio, "and wad yeea moimud shopping the Mycoanslent t atr reshudefepdt mws Tel Attneys--Ghenheral-Ad me thdie Toney r i gti
carh twhenmning puet it t ninto ar ind f haliry a soon tra-la-le-laedo, mum, till Misther Dixey r ibeluta t ithly gti on angreast eeuv tich m l W rnesn.the tol mi nd tot drrve .
Srigt beg ca nge u im itelr degeneratesit a i o and wths h ro have a bit avslape?"--Chicago News. gh with d si. ehse men- n Witness- I as aeak ad
han i bgi e o i edl and the loses its values wool. dFn tl s 1 reso sted that t- his wichd aw alh ais not personal The Attorney General-What addr ess begi nirn to e eriaz l"e.
seprati. C o ln d l se. t alt o wide lf Ietly sist. T rohabyoiveaedd he, gi v you The Attorney General-Whatoere tmrht
-noor n shree igwn ees deweiined only- v ios, a Traveln "UnlucyDs ogh ers, wu Is intr tht myo defenseve wr tse ni in ptl sr H hnextt in1 catnihionns
complete. Butter that comes sudd enles s isit- an advantage oe thoe arhersoth
not oftrientof the bstqality forteam strp- g to__ Wen arebi ldc tod believe thtpopeae be- ut I onot thtIrael pognthe alnd yoeuv ad Div oFnhco h ra ins-odiv oteMtooia





Thin it with sweet skimmed milk to retard 'Everything that can be supplied at a years and generations pass. Be that as i displease one so earnest and high minded The Attorney General--Well?
the process. moderate expense for increasing the at- may, I believe that they are, at any rate, as he whenI state that he once gave me Wtness-I drove as directed, and when there? -
aouk d cream that is quite stiff, and a traction of a country home deserves at- becoming more and more superstitious his friendship, and that I felt honored by we were about midway between Finchlay Wut

tnin St ue Each year I notice that the number of s YoIur lordship Will pardon me for this and High Barnet he called to me to stop. The Attorney General--Saying what
little too warm, begins to separate almost tn et nthe w a e of tre people who object to traveling on certain statement, the admission of which I feel The Atto ry General-Were you then Witness-Moorhouse, he said -"Idon't
~eartsoon athegchun-s butatermil prsoducds introducedmhae apleatsing effect. Thoel "unlucky" days is increasing. Americans to be unusual in such a case. I hav~e at the gate, or in front of any house?knwhwlgIshlrmaner.I
liable to thin he remaining portion of the Country Gent-lemai advises the models unare strongly opposed to startingnon a madeit only for the purposeof emphasir Witness-No, sir. We were on the mayHbe an hour or onlyHa few minutes.
.,crean particularly that attached to the -shown in the accompanying cut as being asourney onjc Fri atuday. Other ainltes in- hisp o rrect view. Myill orduItayond high road and there was no house within Keepunear."
i cover anin sides of the churn, so that a not only sightly and convenient, but eas- ase la' es objcti to aurd ie fere- uon myrhse I t TheAttorney General-and obeyedtis-Ninstructionsir hi
Frida andit reai over. all nigh meel defense."ay





-,- considerable per cent. of the cream may danr The trial was then proceeded with. bithe Atton G er-e youalityP' n cionessetwhh
it hsneew sary.e Ouaway wn th efbterm neik On of becus theyulie thin itoin "unlcky toscene star do I eiveta, fIcooe.sto ih sbud6' eaa dor he






inProper churning yields thin, blue look-that on Friday.- Of course if they had CHAPTERI. With thneylo snra- he an Witness-Yes, sirt I t whasfor. inh
imroe f te cw no aThme Attornmey General-You had never The Attorney General-WAlone? i was
opg but termtlt, imdroper churning may made stop it would have been all right, eTHE EVIDENCE O JAMES MOORHOUSE, driven yourImaster there before? Witness-tNo, sir. Hekwas accompanie
po ssibyi ih be eldmeied anousecond time which but halng stopped they fear to start r COACHMAN.tnreer fur. it then?
Spossibly scaldcomewhied m set Ind sl ow a again. That idea of "unlucky. Friday" The first witness called was Jamest Th e attoney G e .' Witness-Nvren, srblyouagman
pan yields a t ick, ap cea whichal tU theprev durn g the t fordo whogreatminters as likel able to mark the point of stoppage onan les has bcme, srai tosh ei tra Moorhosent, w shose e A einat me wasl- The Attorney General-Asy -un orang
asyed hc,p ra h~need~s thinning to penttoo -aidad-. map- of thetrbteeth road n betweenngte at Firnt wt get ners' sliey aeblehyra btee inheyan ites-Iea' eY andsth Witness-It daVr t nmUhrae.Itotllhavlyethrtsay.gintth
waiteiu l e churning. iCream tioll thteIda at anysoner He is a sturdy man, of e High Barnet? '' Thet Attorney General-A-But you saw
repa wae, ing utes, rskillfully pi se- Witness--I will try, sir, but I shouldn't him?
nteOfficer in Globe-Demcrat. age, with an expressionHof intense earnest- liketo be positive. Witness-Only his back They walked
t handled mato bc churned Without much -'g,, -- Autographs of Scott. ness in his face, sond although he gave his
mwathd Criterm deprai lssed y th inCooldy-, ... -" Two autograph letters of Sir Walter eincinaerctysaghowrd (A map was here handed to the witness, away from the carriage.
who, after a careful study of It, made a The Attorney General--There Ia .gener-
waterhis sor tin othat ite rarelynes ethin-Cl Scott, sold recently .in Edinburgh, brought -manner, it was apparent that his sympa- mark upon it with a pencil.) dlly something in the gait of a ma which
chwanger is onthinus t illseparareynestion- nothr sheeps grower will always has furhe einc himswelf. Itith true. Tori maoealoner.ieTeAtonyGnea-htee'h







icong to make It behave well in the churn SEATS FO GARDE AND LAwN. p The Attorney General-You will not within limits, denotes his age-that YOUt
noh cream is of re likely to suffer from One figure in the cut shows a seat that indifference to Scott exists in Edin- The Attorney General-uYour name e s swear that this is the exact spot ? say, as whether he is young or old Ca-
heeieing too sweet and toot tphpn, requiring which can be readily made at the side of a burgh. One of them fetched $4.50 and James Moorhouse? Witness-No, sir.
too long churning. Cream slightly sour, tree, and may be let into or fastened to the other $8-or the price 6f an old wash- Witness--It is, sir. The Attorney General-But to the best not you be guided by that o act
If alike all thogwill churn quicker the trunk._ The framework may be of_ stand.--Chicago_. Herald. pioesThe AttorneemlymenGeneral--Were .. .you In the of your knowledge It ist [T(O nz OoIrITINUD I


9 '. -4
I i;: ~- 'I. -
*~. A --- .a --










FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. APRIL 20, 1887.
'~~~ ~ ~ -* .' *' ; !, : i *t L'S .i i **s ,* i i i *: ; : *'


State News in Brief.
The footing of the oranges sent front
Palatka during the past season show
69,079 boxes.
SSeven thousand seedling orange trees
have just been shipped from Sumter
county to California.
The people of Brevard county will ask
the Legislature to pass an act protecting
the fishes, oysters, etc., of the Indian
River.
The Ocala lime works are now turn
ing out forty barrels per day, This new
industry is an important one for Marion
county.
Through cars will soon be run over
the South Florida and Midland roads
from Sanford to Apopka. The connec-
tion'between the two roads is made at
Longwood.
The cattlemen ot Volusia and Orange
county are taking steps to petition the
Legislature to make certain amendatory
laws. in regard to the killing of cattle
Sand the damage thereof by railroads.
A company, composed of various citi-
zens of Apalachicola, is -now being or
ganized with a capital stock of $10,00(
to ,engage in the canning of fish ano
oysters. Some $2,000 have already beer
subscribed.
A heavy hail-storm occurred at Spring
Garden on Thursday between the hours
of 1 and 2 p. m. lasting forty minutes.
Hail stones two inches in circumference
are reported to have fallen, yet nc
serious damage has-been sustained. -
The^Gainesville city council has- pass-
ed an ordinance allowing the construc-
tion of a street railway from the F. R'. &
N. .depot to the square, anid from
thence'to the east boundary of the city,
and which will be built to Newuians'
TLake.
There are five churches in Kissimmee,
one bank with a' capital of $50,000,which
commenced operations November. 80,
1885, an opera house, and the printing
office of the Kissimmee Leader, and
some forty-six business establishments.
Captain S. C. Tucker, Register at the
United States Land Office at Gainesville,
says that 88,000 acres of land in the Ar-
redondo grant has just been placed on
the market by the Government. The
land lies principal in Columbia county
and north from Lake City. .Fifteen
thousand acres ofthe land is open to
homestead entries. ..
About two years ago, says the Sumter-
ville- Times, Mr. H. E.' Staunard pur-
chased four acres'of land on thd lake,
near Panasoffkee, and planted out an
acre or more in strawberries and from
this crop alone hei has realized .enough
to support his family comfortably and
spentsi months of the year 'in the
North.
Farmers in the Okahumka,Center Hill,
Webster, Massacre, Bushnell, Wildwood,
Rutland,, Oxford, Adamsville, and
SSuimtervlle neighborhoods, 'Sumter
county,are planting corn, potatoes, sugar
ane,,peanuts, etc., to a greater extent
this season than heretofore, and paying
good'attention to their hogs and cattle.
.7 Six'hundred bales of cotton valued at
$89,000,were shipped from Waldo during
the past season. -There were shipped-dur-
ing the past season nearly 20,000 crates
of oranges, valued at $50,000. -Vege-
tables, grapes, strawberries, Peen-To
peaches and other fruits- will amount to
about $80,000 if. no disaster befalls the
present crop,
The transplanting of tobacco in Co-
lumbia county is progressing rapidly
since the rain, and the prospects are
good for a considerable acreage, though
niot.quite so large as at first hoped,
through the failure of a portion of the
plant beds. Some are resowing oven
now, however, and will thus be able to
secure a good late crop.
It Is reported that the S.,F. and W.
Railway Co. will build a line directly
from Branford or Fbrt White to Pem-
berton's Ferry, on an air line, to con-
nect their two systems of roads, and give
a direct outlet from Southern Florida over
their lines. This route will cross, the F.
R. and N. at -or near Bronson, and will
open up one of the finest sections of ag-
riculture, timber ,and orange lands in
the7State.
The line of the AlabamaFlorida and
Atlantic Railroad now being surveyed
by a corps. of engineers under County
Surveyor Fries, of Orange, crosses the
Sanford and Lake Enstis road on the
west end of Mr. J. C. Young's home-
stead. From there it runs down close
: to the mill at Indian Spring, and the
surveyors will continue north via Lake
Joanna. 'It is said' that the new road
will cross over the Sanford and Lake
Eustis on a trestle work.
Lieuetnant Pillsbury, United States
Navy, on surveying steamer Blake, has
been in Key West during the past week.
SDuring his last trip between Cape San
Antonio and the Yucatan coast, he -suc-
ceeded in anchoring in 1.150 fathoms of
water. This is the deepest water in
which'any vessel has ever been anchor-
ed. When the survey of the currents' of
the Golf are finished, the survey will be
extended through the Carribean Sea and
among the Windward Islands.
Last month fifty seven vessels, having
an aggregate tonage of 41,885, entered
Pensacola; of'these forty-one were from
foreign ports and seventy-two cleared
with-a tonnage of 45,768 ; of these fifty-
eight were from foreign ports. Shipped
to foreign ports 98,830 cubic feet hewn
timber, 13,525,000 superficial feet sawn
timber, 138,679,000 feet of lumber, 14,168
cubic feet of cedar, and 1,260 white oak
staves, valued at $819,889. Also to
American ports 4,898,000 feet of lumber
valued'at $88,000.
The following are Fernandina ship-
ments by the New York steamers last
week: Per Mallory line steamship San
Antonio, 192,424 feet lumber, 1,700
pounds fresh fish, 218 cases cedar, 78 bar
rels oil, 50 cans shrimp, 50 packages
merchandise, 72 passengers. Per Clyde


line steamship Delaware, 133 packages
sundries, 690 boxes oranges, 500 crates
vegetables, 92 crates berries, 105 -cases
cedar, 200 cedar logs, 75,000 feet lumber.
Per Clyde line steamship City of Atlanta
S105 packages sundries, 815 boxes oranges
'521 crates vegetables, 58 bagscotton, 42,-
000 feet lumber.
Two capitalists are in Gainesville to
r cousult with the citizens in relation- to
the establishment of water-works. They
propose to erect water-works and put in
S75 fire plugs at $75 each, and 75 private
9 plugs at $18, the contract to extend for
S25 years' duration.. The city is to have the
privilege of buying at any time after
- the expriation at $100,000 or by arbitra-
v ted advance on cost.. The stock is to be
* taken in shares of $100 each and the citi-
zens of Gainesville to take 200 shares,
r and they guarantee to complete the
s work within one year from date and also
Agree to provide a pressure of 40 pounds
t to the square inch.
SPostmaster Woodward, of this place,is
e a genius of no small order, as evidenced
e by the several useful inventions which
Shave emanated from his active, working
Brain. His contrivance for running
street cars by springs, instead of horse
or steam power, and the camera that he
Shas just succeeded in perfecting, display
0 a talent that is attracting attention at
home as well as abroad. He is now at
work on a stereoscope, which is arrang-
ed to work with springs; aud. will dis-
play one thousand pictures. It is made
of Florida wood, and is so highly polish-
s ed and artistically constructed that it
Should adorn any of the fine parlors of
the country.-Sumterville Times.
Two excursions by prominent citizens
have been had 'the past few' days to
what is known as the Eight Mile Post
o 6n the St. Joseph- road. These excursions
Were composed of gentlemen of means
who have in view the location of a pop-
Sular summer resort on the bay some-
where." The bathing facilities at this
Point are described as excellent, and the
location one of great natural beauty. The
i entlemen who have the matter in hand
, propose (if they finally conclude to oc-
Scupy this point) to run an electric railway
1 eight miles in length from the resort to
Apalachicola. By this means transpor-
ftation will be rapid and nominal in cost.
-Apalachicola Times.
After an extended tour of some three
i months, during which the yacht Sans
SPeur has visited almost every bay and
estuary from Key West to Pensacola,
- the Duke of Sutherland and party hqve
Returned to 'Perinandina, to rejoin the
yacht and prepare for the "run home."
. It appears that our State proved so in-
terestingthat the Duke's contemplated
trip to MWexico has been postponed, till
next year; when we shallthave the plea-
sure of welcoming the Sans Pour, and
possibly some of her sister craft to our
Sweaters, as the most convenient rendez-
vous on the Southern coast for' yachts of
deep draught of water. The yacht will
leave this day for. Bermuda and the
Azores,. arriving in England early in
Miay.-FernandnmaMirror. '
r The prospect now is one of a most pro-
r lific season of fruit in the vicinity of
b Archer, with the Peen-To and Honey
Speeches half grown, the natives bending
their limbs, the Kelsey plum for the first
time, and the luscious Hamburg, Mala-
ga Sweetwater and other California va-
rieties of sub-tropical grapes, oceans of
blackberries and native plums to be had
for the mere gathering, the LeConte
pear coming into liberal patronage, and
strawberries, Japan plums filling the in-
itial dish along with one of the very best
p ie fruits, the Scotch mulberry to be fol-
owed later by the melons, huckleberries
and oranges, which are blooming liber-
ally and holding their fruit with won-
derful tenacity. Truly the prospect is
very bright for good eating, and along
with an increased acreage of corn and
cotton incident to the failure of the
early vegetable crop, our people ought
to be able to make both ends. meet.-
Gainesville Advocate.
9
The Proportion of Useful Plants
Of more than 120,000 species of plants
known to botanists only about 250 have
been utilized for the wants of the human
race yet this proportion is much greater
than in the animal world from which
only 200 species have been selected,
while the animal kingdom, reckons mil-
lions of species. De Candolle names 247
useful cultivated plants, of which 44 ap-
pear to have been cultivated for more
than 4,000 years, and 67 for less than
2,000 years.
The plants of modern adoption are
chiefly artificial fodders, 'and .within
the last 2,000 years men have com-
menced the cultivation of not a single
species which can rival maize, rice, the
sweet potato, the potato, the bread-fruit,
the date, cereals, millets, sorghums, the
banana, or soy. The ancients enjoyed
the use of these-8,000, 4,000 or 5,000
years, perhaps even in some cases, 6,000
years ago A remarkable fact is that more
than three-fourths of' the plants which
have been cultivated for more than 4,000
years are still found wild in identical
form.-Ex.
C
Home-Made Foreign Goods.
As illustrative of the extent to which
'the American people fight shy of the
goods manufactured by their own fellow
citizens and ape the manners of for-
eign people, the Orange County Farmer
says :
Russia leather is made in Connecticut;
Bordeaux wine is manufactured on Kel-
ly's Island, Ohio ; French lace is woven
in New York ; Italian marble is dug in
Kentucky ; English cashmere is made in
New Hampshire; Parisian art work
comes from a shop in Boston ; Spanish
mackerel are caught on the New Jersey
coast ; and Havana cigars are rolled by
the million in Detroit. These indicate
a tendency to ape foreign snobbery-a
desire to patronize any industry but that
of home. This is not creditable,it is not
patriotic, it is not 'wise nor, economic.
Encourage rather local industries, with
the genuine stamp of the American
maker thereon. The best goods in the
world are now made in this country.


These. are, no doubt, the variety -that Fean gr Pen cing.in.
-"v. :In tha "''Iocauity "b1the -,, no ...,,.. ,=,=
were cultivatedin that locality y the Or Fencing in.
aborigines. In the .vicinity of 'Brick The much agitated fence question is
House cove on the west channel of the thus discussed by a correspondent of
Hillsborough river, 'th .oysters 'atre of a the Ocala Banner: :
different appearance,l, bin shorter and Among the live questions of the pres-
deeper, with heavr shells. Many of the ent day is the law in relation to fencing.
beet are procured in deeper water than We know what the law has been and is'
that on which the coon'oyster abounds, now on this question. If a person has
and in that locality they are generally his crops destroyed by his neighbor's
found on a hard bottom. stock, horses, hogs or cattle, he has no
As to the method. of opening the redress, except he has a legal fence, and
oyster, from the presence of pieces of a legal fence in this State is good enough
pottery, it is evident that a- form of to warrant the belief that the stockmen
basket, work was made, which was dictated the framing of the law.
plastered on the inside with clay, and Twenty-five years ago, I think, the
then burnt until suitable for heating idea was embodied In the statutes of
water, in which the oysters were dipped every State, that it was a man's business
until they would open. The absence of who. was farming to fence against his
broken edges on the shells as found, neighbor's stock. On what principle of
would warrant this conclusion. justice this was predicated, I believe no
Several varieties of conch shells are one can tell. I do not know on what
often found, which invariably are broken moral ground my neighbor should be
near the apex for the purpose of remov- compelled to protect his crops with a
ing the contents. An occasional pocket fence against "the depredations of my
of the shells of the periwinkle or small cattle any more than against my child-
sea clam are sometimes found, which ren, and if the idea has no better moral
indicates that their value as a material foundation, the law is an outrage on hu-
for soup was known to the natives as man .rights.
well as to those of ud -who appreciate But though theoretically unjust, it is
something good at the present day. : easy., to imagine conditions where some-
In relation to the banks of clam shells, thing iike the present law would be prac-
they are composed of broken shells to a tically wise and work for the general
great extent, and there are indications good. Where all were more in-
that the clams were more plentiful than terested in stock than in crops, and
at present.' Clams are generally found could easier fence in the land they culti-
at -the head of small creeks running vated than to' protect their crops from
through the marshes, and in limited their own stock in any other way, we
quantities only. Whether the clam will could not, say the law was evil. And
pay to cultivate is a matter of conjecture,' this condition has been substantially
asit is slightly roving in its nature, tiue of many parts of the country, in-
From all that can be learned from the eluding the most, if not hll of this State.
shell banks it is very probable that the But it is now reversed in many parts
cultivation of the oyster on the mud fiat of the country, till most of the np-p e
would be profitable, and that the small would be greatly benefittect in a prac-ical
oysters which can readily be broken way by squaring the law with the ab-
from theclustersof coon oysters would stract principles of right..
furaish the material. to start with, and It has been tested in several States,
thus in a short time situations of no and has been found to work better and
practical value at present coulidbe utiliz- give more general satisfaction than even
ed for the profitable production of oysters its sanguine supporters imagined. Ne-
for domestic and 'foreign consumption. braska took the lead, and the innovation
There are thousands of acres of over- has added thousands and thousands to
flowed lands that could be utilized for the emigrants thither and added corres-
this purpose, and it only awaits the pondingly to her wealth, increasing her
coming of capital and labor to develop importance in ten years more than could
an industry that will be second to none have been done under the old law in
in the country. thirty. The agricultural portions of the
Time only is required to open up the States of North and South Carolina have
resources of the locality adjacent to made a trial of it more recently, and
Musquito Inlet. 'Now that railway corn- though it called out intense e r-rposition
munication has been completed with the at first, resulting in many cases of vio-
outside world, the travelling public may lence' and bloodshed, it now finds its
seb for themselves the unbounded op- warmest supporters in those who were its
poi;tunities for profitable investment most bitter opponents.
that are afforded by few other localities I was told by an intelligent represen-
in Florida. tative man that the present plan of
NEW SMYRNA, Volusia Co., Fla. everyone caring for his own stock and
keeping it out of mischief is. popular
Muck From Lake Bottoms. with all thrifty land owners, and none
would go back except negroes and shift-
A correspondent of the Times-Union, less whites who never expected to get
writing from Putnam county, gives the ahead enough to 'buy real estate, but
following interesting account of two hoped they might prosper enough to en-
methods there employed for extracting abe them to own a hog or a cow, and
muck from the bottoms of lakes and thought it would be nice to'tcompel their
ponds: more thrifty neighbors to fence against
In walking around a day or two since, them.
your correspondent noticed two methods I believe the time has come
of obtaining muck from the deposits, of when this question has assumed
which a description may be of interest to a practical aspect in this State,
many of your readers. Muck is consid- and that its importance ought to be
ered a valuable component in fertilizers, pressed upon the Legislature at its next
and many think it valuable in that di- meeting. I think it should be referred
reaction by itself. One of the methods of to each county to adopt or reject the


RELICS OF THE RED-MEN.-

The Shell Mounds'of the Halifax
Sand Hillsb.orough Rivers.
BY JOHN Y. DETWILER. -
From thq head of the Halifax to In-
dian river- the shores are covered with
vast numbers of oyster'shells, from a few
inches deep to many feet. These de-
posits of shells are the reminiscences of
an age and generation that have long
since passed away. In Some localities
clam shells predominate, showing con-
clusively that the storehouse of Nature
provided bountifully for the necessities
of the inhabitants. Who they were,
whence they came, or where they have
gone, are questions that are unanswer-
able in this generation. That they exist-
ed is evident from the enormous deposits
of shells scattered all along the shores
of the rivers and reeks. The fragments
of pottery and an occasional bone are
satisfactory proof that they are the re-
sult of human agency instead of the ac-
tion of the ocean, as is claimed .by
some.
As we examine the vast piles of shells,
the questions arise, Where did they
come from? Why are oysters not so
plentiful at the present. time in this
locality as formerly? The greater part
of the oysters are what' are termed
"Coon Oysters," which grow in bunches
or clusters along the margins of the
rivers and in the creeks adjacent. A
careful examination of the shell banks
show that the shells are separate and
single, and that the edges are intact to a
.great extent. As to size, the shells are
long and narrow, indicating that the con-
tents were of good size.
It may be possible that we of the pre-
sent generation can learn something of
oyster culture from a careful study of
these monuments of a past generation,
and by analogy arrive at something
which will benefit us in our present
situation.
. From the size, shape and general ap.
pearance of the shells the conclusion is
arrived at that they cultivated a variety
of the "Coon Oyster" of the present day.
On a hard or shell bottom the oyster
grows short and thick, and in the
majority of cases independent of the
cluster, especially'in dbep water. In the
case of the "Coon Oyster" it is generally
found on pauddy bottom& where sediment
is forming to a greater or less extent,
which causes the oyster when separated
from the cluster to grow long and nar-
row in order 'to prevent being covered
with mud. '"
What are now mangrove islands,' at
that date were, no doubt, sand bars or
mud fiats, which would be suited.for the
propagation of the oyster. In the vicinity
of Turtle Mouud i& the largest deposit of
oyster shells on the east coast. Shells
six to eight -inches long are found there.


obtaining muck practiced by Mr; C. W1
Joiner, who is from Illinois, engaged in
orange culture here, is to extract it from
the bottom of .lakes, where, it can be
found in suitable condition and quantity
with an implement, like a post-hole dig-
ger, but with long handles. A person
who understands the use of this imple-
ment goes out on the lakewith a boot
made for the purpose, raises the muck
from the bottom with the digger, and
heaps it on the deck of the boat. When
the boat is loaded it is moved to the
shore and the muck transferred -to a
wagon and hauled to the place where it
Is to be used or thrown out on the shore
where it can be removed at any time.
Mr. Joiner, who is a very practical man,
and usually asks, in undertaking an' en-
terprise, the important question, "Will
it pay ?" seems to be well pleased with
the operation of this method, and while
I believe he is the first person who used
this method of obtaining muck, he does
not claim the exclusive right to use it,
The other method referred to above
was invented by Mr. Howard Roop,
from Missouri, who is now a citizen of
this place and hard at work to develop
and increase the prosperity of Florida in
making himself a valuable orange grove
and nursery of fruit trees. This method
is on a much more extensive scale, and
consists essentially in moving by a simple
horse power an endless rope, which
travels from the shore to the deposit of
muck and poUt to shore again, to which
rope is attached or detached at pleasure
readily steel scoops for the purpose of-re-
moving the muck to the dry land,
somewhat thus: The horse starts around
in his circle, the endless rope moves
from the machine or horse power to the
muck bed, carrying with it empty scoops,
When the empty scoops reach their des-
tination, they are quickly detached from
the in-going rope and attached to the
o-t-going rope, and the attendant directs
the scoops so that they load themselvess
with muck while traveling to the shore.
When the point is reached where the
muck pile is to -be made, another atten-
dant then raises the handles of the scoop,
and after it empties itself, detaches it
from the out-going rope and attaches it
to the in-going rope while in motion.
Thus, you see, there is a continual mov-
ing of empty scoops going in and loaded
scoops coming out. Muck can be re-
moved very rapidly by this machine. It
is very simple, while itis very efficient. I
learn that a patent covers this apparatus.
In explaining the meaning of the words,
out-going and in-going, I would say in-
going means going into the deposit of
muck, out-going means going out to' the
shore. ..... ':
Muck, which is very abundant in al
most every section of this State, is be-
jieved to be able to ,olve :the question;
"How to make barren lands produc-
tive'?" -


Ladies' Purchasing Agency.
,A New York lady -of experience and
taste, enjoying the best' facilities for
shopping under 'advantageous condi-
tions, offers her services to ladies desir-
ing-to secure any kind of wearing ap-
pareltoilet articles or household goods,
at New York prices. Send for circular.
Address MRs. S. S. Jones,
* 179 Gates Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.
:. .. $*
S Seed Irish' Potatoes.
SThei best potatoes for planting ,in this
State are" those brought from extreme
Eastern points. ,Acting on this belief,
we imported last-year from
., : NOVA SCOTIA
large. quantities, of Early Rose, Chili
Red, Beauty of Hebrom and other varied
ties, and the potatoes raised from this
seed, were the finest we have ever seen
here.
We will receive, in a few days another
cargo of the same potatoes, which we
will sell at the following prices:
Chili Red........per barrel 3$8.50.
Early Rse.;............. $3.00.
Beauty of Hebron.......$.. .$.00.
Every barrel-guaranteed as represented.
Remit with order, and we will ship the
potatoes promptly.
CHURCH ANDERSON & CO.
Jacksonville, Fla., Jan. 5th, 1887T
5*
"We Know by Experience."
For three years we have used Brad-.
ley's Vegetable" Fertilizer. After test-
ing along with other high grade fertil-
izers, we pronounce it better than any
sold in Florida. We shall use it again
this year.
We do not hesitate to say to the vege-
table growers of Florida that they can-
not use anything so good as Bradley's
Florida Vegetable Fertilizer. We know
by experience" what we say regarding
this fertilizer.
WOFFORD & WILDER.
Ft. Mason, Fla.

Groves where Williams, Clark & Co's
Orange Tree Fertilizer has been used are
looking finely.
WILLIAMS, CLARK & Co.
JACKSONVILLE MARKETS.
Wholesale.
JACKSONVILLE, April 12,1887.
Provisions.
The provision market is flrm with advanc-
ing tendency. Short ribs show an advance
of 50c per 100 in Chicago during the past two
days.
MEATS-D. B. short ribs boxed, 9 25; D. S.
long clear sides $925; D. S. bellies $920;
smoked short ribs 9 75; smoked bellies 9 75;
S C. hams, canvassed 'fancy, 13; S. C. break
fast bacon, uncanvassed, lUc; S. C. shoul-
ders canvassed, 9c; California or pic-
nic hams, 9%c. Lard-riflned tiercess 7%c;
Mess beef-barrels$1050, half barrels $575; mess
porkt1750. These quotations are for round
tots from first hands- whole cattle 7T;
dressed hogs 8 c; sheep 8%c, pork sausage 9c;
loinalOc; long ologna 7c; head cheese 6%c;
Frankfort sausage 10 c; rounds 8c.
BUTTER-Best table 228c per pound,
cooking 15@20c per pound.
Grain, Flour, Hlay, Feed, Hides, Etc.
GRAtN-Corn-The market quiet but firm.
The following figures represent to-day's
values: We quote white corn, Job lots,
61c... per bushel;...caf-load lots 59c per
ushel, mixed corn, Job lots, 60c"Der bushel;
car load lots 58c per bushel. Oais quiet
and firm at the following figures: mixed.
in job lots, 48c, car load lot,. .,A2c; white
oats are 8cr higher all round, Bran steady
and hlglher,,20 4o 621 per ton. -. .
HAY-The market is firm and better de-
mand for".good grades.? .Western choice,
small boles, 618@...per toft tload lots $17 00
to 817 50 pero.Eastern per-ton.
PEARL GaITS ANn MEAt-S 00 per carrel.
FLour--Firminer best patents $5 50@15 60;,
good family 5 O&510; commpn ( 25..
PEAS-Black Eye 61 60 pek'bus el.
BOvnTzf-Fito er tonht24-to $25.
CorFrx-Green Rio 1 6@20c per pound.
Java, roasted, 50@83c; Mocas, roasted, 80@88c;
Red, roasted, 28@25c.
COTTON SEED MIAL-Scarce and higher.
Sea island or dark meal $20 per ton, bright
or short cotton meal 62150@2250 per ton.


I


measure for itself. Several counties, in-
cluding Marion, ought to be ripe for the
change. ..
Destroying the Curculio.-
A correspondent of the Fruit Recorder
says: "I raised a good many grapes (in a
small way) which were sometimes
troubled with mildew, one vine ,especi-
ally, which I had trained ,up 'a plum
tree. I dusted: the foliage with. sulphur,
but when I came.to the one on the-plum
I could not get at it conveniently, but
happened to:think of. having some sul-
phur and assafoetida with water in a
vessel which I had kept for giving to
miy hogs occasionally. I tried syringing
the vine, tree and all, with the ,mixture,
which had stood '" -long as to turn
black. The odor was not pleasant, 'but
the :curoculio didnot'puncture a plum on
that tree, 'and it was loaded with large
blue plums. Other 'experiments have
been' equally- successful. I commenee
using the syringe .as- soon :as -the tree
blooms, and continues often as washed
off oy the rains, until the plums are
nearly full size."
"Are cigarettes injurious? "- demands
an excited exchange. '%As the cigarette
is: fast wiping out the dude population,
we are inclined to believe that .they: are'
not.-New Haven News. .,
APRIL WEATHER.
The following table, compiled from. the records
of the Jack-onville Signa Station by Sergt. J.
W. Smith, repreSents ,the temperature, condition
of weather, rainfall and di-ec0ion of wind for
the month of April, as observed at the Jack-
sonville station during the past 15 years: ,


128


rEAP. WKATEL.

VEARS. j I


1872 90 56,68 -8,- 156 7 2.48 NE
89 52 69.1 14 10 6 56 SW
1874' 91 4270 11 I2 7 1 60 5W
1875. 86 -4467 18 7 5 2. K SW
1876 -88 4768 18 13 4 7.89 NE
S1877 85 4568 9 i8 3 01 SE
1875 87 5071 11 9 :" 5..8 NE
1879 88 8968 17 8 5 2.97 NE
q M -91 4271 '10 14 6 1.0 SW.
.- 181 88 3767 16 9 5 4.57 SW.
188i2 8, 5671 ;12 12 6 5.23 NE"
1883 88 .5 70 5 20 6 4.48 NE'"
S1834 88 '769 14' 11 5 2.82 SW
1885 88 4768 11 17 2 1.24NE
188 86 4486 14 10 6 8.08 NE


S--ToBAcco STMS-Market quiet but firm 9 ':
8I 00 to $1400 per ton. ,
Lxm--Eastern, job lots, 8100 perbarrel, Ala-
bana lime $115. Cement-American $200,
English $475 per barrel. '. -" ..Z.-
RIcF-The quotations vary, according to
quantity from'S3j6yc per pound.
SALT-Liverpo6l, per sack, 1 00; per car
toad, 85@90c. .
HinEs-Dry flint, cow, per sound, first
class, li acn.; asd country dry salted lJ@
Llyrc; butchersdry salted 9a9'cn Skius-Deer .
dl at, 17c; salted 10@i12c. Frc-O4)ltter, winter,
each 2c'S.i4; raccoon 10,'5j2e; wild cai 10@"20c.
fox l0-,k2c, Beeswax, per pound. 18e; wool
free from.burl, '2,_-,ic; burry, 10@Ilrc; goat- "
slIns4i-10@26i.apiece. .
fotry Produce. .
CEESr1- FiW Creamery 16c per pound. "
LIVE POULm. L1Rn'ied supply and good
demand foUows: hens3ic; mixed 3c; half-
grown .2k.. .
Eods--DiVal.-County 16 per dozen with "'
a lilalted dlenand and'good supply.
it.Si-PoVhko's-Nortbern potatoes 82 50 "
per barrel; Early Rose32.0; Chdili Reds 276.
ON [iblqs-New York, S 6.
Flor'ida.cabbage, 3 00 per barrel.
NEw YoMBEBE'S-Oood supply at 82 50 per
barrel :: -
NEW BEETS-Florida, per crate, 2 25 "
CAUrLirFIOWBS---Per barrel, d$3 00, and $175 '
per crate. "
TOxATOzS-Florida, per crate, 63 50 to 6400. .
NORTHERN TURNIPS-Good supply at $22 -
per barrel. ... 2
GREEN PEAS-Per box $3 00.
Cucu-BEEs-Per crate, 6. "
SqUASH-Per crate, $2 7-. '-
SNAP BEAKs-Per crate, $2 50:. a
NEW Porwj.zS-Per barrel, 165.
Sij'o i-g ind Domestic Fralts.
PauNxs-French, 12c.
PINK APPLES-S-I 75 to 6200 per dozen. "
LEMONs-MessInas, 64 00 pet box.A .
APPLES-New York 550 to 6 00 per barrel-
.FIGS-lInlayers 13c. .----.
DATES--Persilan-Boxes 9c; Fralls 7c. "
GRAPEs--Malagas, 6500 per keg. -
SORANoES-iiorida-Per box 8300 to10 500.
B&NA.NAS--Qod supply; from 75c to $200 '
per bunch. .
NuT--Almondk' 180; Brazils 12c; Filberts
(Sicily) 12c; English walnuts, Grenobles, I ;
arbors, 15c; Pecans 12c; Peanuts. .
Cocoanuls 4 50 per hundred. ---' _
RAISINS-London layers, $275 per bx "'.... -
CBAN:BErBs---276 per crate; 1000 per ",
barrel. y
BuTE=rxs-Creamery 20c; Extra Dalry 6
I1c6 Dairy 15,
CHEi S--Half skim M0c, cream '13c per
pound. B o
Retail. *.z
The following quotations are carefully r ,
vised for Wednesday's and Saturday's paper
from quotations furnished by dealers in the -
City Market. -
Carrots wholesale at $3 00 per barrel, an d'
retail at 50 cents per peck. .
Green Onions wholesale at O0 cents per
hundred, and retail 5 cents per bunch.
Florida Cabbage. wholesale 82 00 per barrel
and retail at 5 to 10 cents.
SQuail wholesale at 10 cents each and retail
%t 15 cents, or two for a quarter.
Oranges wholesale at $2 50 per box, and re- "
tail at two and three for 5 cents.
Spinage wholesales at 75c per bushel and
retails at four quarts for 25 cents.
Sweet Potatoes wholesale at 60 cents per
bushel, and retail at 5 cents per quart.
Lettuce wholesales at 16@20 cents per dozen -
heads, and retail at 5 cents per head.
Parsnips wholesale at $2 75 per barrel and
retail at four and five for 10 cents.
Robins wholesale at 6 cents each and retail
at 10 center.
Celery wholesales at 50 to 60 cents per dozen
and retails at three to four stalks for 25 cents,
according to size.
Eggs are in fair demand. Duval county
eggs are quoted at wholesale at 16 cents
per dozen, and retail at 23 cents.
Boston marrowfat squashes wholesale ats
62 50 per barrel, retail at 5, 10 and 15 cents,.
each. -
New York Irish potatoes wholesale at$2 40 to
$2 50 per barrel and retail at 10 cents per quart..
or two quarts for 15 cents.
Northern beets are worth wholesale 6255S
per barrel, and retail at 10 cents per quart,
or two quarts for 15 cent,.
Radishes bring at wholesale 15 to 20 cents,
per dozen bunches of seven radishes each,-.
They retail at 5 cents per bunch, or thre6-
bunches for 10 cents.
Live poultry-chickens, wholesale, from 85
to 40 cents each; retail 40 to 50 cents each. >,
Dressed poultry,per pound-chickens retail, '1
18 to 20 cents. Turkeys, wholesale, 1.00 to U
'$1.75 each, and retail at20 cents per pound. .-
Northern meats retail as follows: Chicago ;
beef from 18 to 25 cents per pound; Florida
beef 6 to 15 cents per pound; veal 20 to 25 cents;
pork 12 to 15 cent4; mutton 10 to 2) cants; .
venison 25 cents; sausage 15 cents; corned
beef 10 cents. ,'.
Nassau tomatoes wholesale at 50 cents
per box and retail at 15 to 20 cents'per quart-"

LEAF TOBACCO MARKET.
NEW YORK, April 16.-The Weten
leaf market is dull, owing to .tle light de- -
mand. The New York leaf is quiet, while the
Havana leaf is in active demand.' New .i
York Pennsylvania and Western sell at from A
$4 to 415 per 100 pounds. Havana 60 cents to' -
$1.05 per pound. Sumatra, $1.20 to 61.60 per..-
poundi -,
ST. LOUIS, April 16.-The demand for
leaf is light, but Improving, and the outlook
is rather encouraging.
LOUISVILLE. April 16.-There is a good .
demand, especially for the better grades of '
which there is a scarcity. "-'
BALTIMORE, April 16.-The market Is
dull, very little desirable stock being on sale.
Maryland leaf is quoted at from $5 to $15 per.
100 pounds.
RICHMOND, April 16.-The market Is
improving with favorable weather for ship-
ping. The better grades df stemming leal
sell rapidly at from 9 to 13 cents per ound.e
Bright wrappers for plugs command from 18
to 20 cents. .
DANVILLE April 16.-.Business Is fi-.
proving rapidly and prices have an. upward..
ndency. There Is a bettr feeling, amo.
planters, manufacturers and business q.
generally. .. ..




-~~ ~ !


/-- -.-_ *- *


I


Abbotiftly Pure.
powder never varies. A marvel cl
purity, strength and wholesomeness. More
economical than the ordinary kinds and
cannot be sold In competition with the
multitude ofj-low test, short weight alum or
phospphate. powders.,JWy onlf n;Cans
BARING POWDER Co. w 108 Wall St
New York.


J. W. SMITH, ,
Sergt. Signal Corps, U. S. A.
0


3