|UFDC Home||myUFDC Home | Help ||
ALL ISSUES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS MAP IT! PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
VOL. 1---NO. 15. JACKSONVILLE, FLA., WEDNESDAY, APRIL 13, 1887. PRICE $2 A YEAR.
Shardy in Florida. Several are described ability to nearly every variety of soil an
as producing a fruit of most exquisite location. In quality they are not firsi
taste. rate, but are especially valuable, grow
The ordinary species, Psidium guaiava ing as they do equally well in high anm
corresponds to the two species of Linna- low lands, where the fruit heretofore ha
eus. P. pomiferum and P. pyriferum, been a failure. Pomologists fear, how
the apple-shaped and pear-shapeo. An- ever, that this fruit will lose its market
other species said to be quite hardy is P. value, owing to the ease with which they
cejavitlus. We have not seen the fruit, can be grown.
but the leaves of the young plants re- The Le Conte is grown from cutting
semble those of the ordinary species from older trees, and succeeds best on
rather than of the Cattley. Psidium its own roots It can also be propagated
Guineense is a vigorous grower, but our by layers, and comes iuto bearing in
plants are still too small to determine three or 'four years, producing immense
relative hardiness. The fruit of this crops. The originator of this fruil
species is very favorably noticed by should have his name handed down to
Whitner. posterity as a public benefactor, for he
ROYAL PALM NURSERIES, has undoubtedly conferred a great boon
Manatee, Fla., March 25, 1887. upon the agriculturists of the Southern
Cattley Guava in Polk County. *
BY R. H. BURR. Insect Enemies of the Grape.
The Cattley guavas have not been suf- The following is from the paper by
ficiently tested here yet to allow a full Mr. B. F. Marsh, of which a portion was
estimate "of their future value, but the published in a previous issue:
past two winters have demonstrated the I found the past season that the grape
fact that the yellow variety is entirely sphinx, the larvae of the Philampelus
hardy, while the red variety is not much Achemon, was working on my vines.
more hardy than the common guava, You will find this worm hiding on the
standing frost very well, but not a underside of a leaf. If he is allowed he
freeze. will strip a ten-foot vine of its foliage in
The freeze of January, 1886, killed a short time. Another pest which I
THE GUAVA IN FLO RIDA. jars, with a little sugar, they retain thei
flavor and keep the year round. Th
same process is used in making jellies
The Prospects of Guava Culture etc., as with other fruit. Boil the fruit
in 1885 and in 1887. putting in enough water to keep front
sticking; pour off the juice and let the
In the year preceding the "big freeze" fruit drain; measure and set the juice on
the guava seemed to be coming forward stove to boil for ten or fifteen minutes
to take the front rank among Florida hard; then put in same measure of
fruits. It had fruited near the northern sugar, and let boil from twenty to thirty
border of the State, and in the Jackson- minutes; skim off all risings, to make.i
ville fruit market it had come to fill the more clear. Sift the fruit through a
much felt want of a fresh fruit for table pumpkin sifter, squeeze in a little lime
use during the fall. It could not be or lemon juice, put in sugar to taste, anc
placed on the market in the luscious stew down, and put in air-tight jars, oi
condition in which it is found in the or- put in the oven and do until hard, and
chard, when just ready to drop from the put in tumblers, with paper on top wet
tree, but when stewed with a little-sugar in white of egg.
and served with or without cream, it .-...- .
afforded a most desirable addition to the A FRUIT OF THE FUTURE.
meagre list of fresh dishes obtainable in
September and October.
Farther south in the State, where the An Inviting Field of Research
fruit was to, be "had for almost nothing, for Pomologists.
in some places for the picking where it BY P. W. REASONR
grew spontaneously by roadsides, it was nY '. W. REASONER.
used the year round, being easily pre- By some authorities all the species of
served in cans or otherwise. It was Psidium are regarded as natives of the
found that the fruit could be preserved American continent. Others credit
nicely by dessication. Guava jelly was China with one or more species; Loudon
becoming an article of home manufac- says of the Cattley guava, "Introduced
ture, and several parties were manufad- from China by Messrs. Barr & Brooks,
during it on a large scale, nurserymen, and fruited by W. Cattley,
When the disastrous frost of 1886 oc- F. H. S., in 1820." Other authors agree
curred, the guava was almost blotted out with Loudpn in giving China as its na-
of existence. Still, roots retained their tive habitat, though a few, notably Baron
vitality, and during the following season Von Mueller, the Australian botanist,
'they sent up vigorous sprouts, promisirtg name it as a. Brazilian species. It may
a renewal of the fruit within a very few possibly at an early day have been car-
years. Whether there will be much ried to China from Brazil before its in-
fruit this year we cannot tell, but there production, into England. The hardy
will be, without doubt, plenty of it next yellow guava by some is classed as a
year. variety of P. Cattleyanum, by others as
It has been proved that the Cattley a distinct-species-P. Chinense.
guava is considerably hardier than the Major*Rooks, of Fruitland Park, and
common kind, and being a more orna- Mr. E. H. Hart, of Federal Point, who
mental variety and very prolific, its have had much experience in the 'culti-
general cultivation cannot be too strongly ovation of these hardy guavas,, tell us
urged. As to foliage, flowers and fruit that by selection they may be much im-
Sit is a most desirable shrub if only for proved in size and flavor. Hybridization
lawn decoration. It is still more desira-,.would also probably work .wonders in
ble on account of its fruit, which is the case of the guava,. as it.has already
- borne in profusion at a height most con- done with the grape and other improved
\venient for picking. fruits.
The Cattley guava was injured in Thatthe guava is a fruit with a great
places, in others it was unharmed. The future, we have no doubt.. When the
specimen referred to by our correspon- dozens of different species, and hun-
dent at Manatee was truly a beautiful dreds of distinct varieties shallhave been
-object when in full fruit. The fruit was brought together, let us say in Florida
densely clustered and borne in great where they are so much at home, im-
quantity. We believe Mr Reasoner se- proved by selection, cultivation, hybridi-
cured most of the seed, and presume he nation, even one-tenth as much .as has
will lia'e a good stock of young plants been done with the apple, the each,
for sale next winter., the strawberry, who can even prophesy
As evidence of the prolifl'cness of the the result?
'Cattley, we may cite the statement of In Manatee, where perhaps more than
Major Rooks, that an acquaintance of at-any other spot in Florida, the com-
his made $80 worth of jellyfrom a single mon gauva (P. guaiava) had naturalized
bush in. one season, itself with but little attempt at culture
The red variety was killed to the and -improvement other than that of
ground, but as far north as Jacksonville Dame Nature, many varieties, far su-
the roots have sent up a new growth. perior to the original parent sorts, have
The yellow variety escaped injury, we sprung into existence. The first intro-
are informed, and having fruited since duction of this ordinary guava into
the freeze there will doubtless be nursery South Florida was in 1846, by Co1. H. V.
stock for sale next wint,-r. Messrs. A. Sniell, now of Gainesville. This gentle-
J. Beach & Son. of Palatka, inform us man brought the ripe fruit from Havana
that they prefer the red variety for eat- and planted the seeds at his home at
Ing and the yellow for making into jelly. Sarasota, The next year he brought
They write that the mode of propagation some which were planted at Manatee.
is from the seed, ,that thesoil should be These original trees still exist, at least
rich and rather moist, mulching being the roots, as the tops have been killed
beneficial,' and that the bushes commence down by frost.two or three times, and
to fruit when two years old, attaining a may be seen at the old Whitaker home-
height of eight or ten ,feet in five years.' stead on Sara Sota Bay, and in the
The season of fruiting is from July to grove of Mrs. Gates, in Manatee village.
September. From these trees most ,of the guavas in
A H. C. this part of South Florida have sprung,
and now a score or more varieties may
'PlantingRGuava,Preserving, etc. be found near here with fruit infinitely
ing reserve, superior in all good points, to that of
The following interesting notes ap- these original trees. Some are nearly
peared in th& Eustis Lake Region in seedless, others almost entirely without
1885: a the objectionable "musky" flavor and
The seed of guavas can be planted in odor, some as large as a good-sized apple
beds and kept nioist by being partially and some with flavor ap delicate as that
,covered, and will come up in five or six of a strawberry. ',
weeks; in two months they can be put To return to the more hardy species.
in small pots or old cans, and when set On the grounds of Major A. J. Adams,
-out 'their roots need not be disturbed, of Manatee, is growing a specimen of a
-and their growing will not be checked, hardy guava which is either a distinct
Ten cents a piece is the usual price for species or at least a very distinct and
them then, averaging about eight inches superior variety of the Cattley guava.
high. The plant was originally received, from
The Cattley guava is but little related the Department at Washington, but the
to the common guava; they both take label has been lost. The fruit is of
the. bush form and bloom in season and larger size than that of the ordinary
out of season, and here the likeness ""Cattley" as grown in Florida, of a rich
stops. The Cattley is said to stand as purple color when ripe (instead of the
'much frost as the orange; the leaves claret color. of the Cattley); in flavor
have the same glbossy green. It resem- much superior, and more inclined to
bles a plum in taste and shape more than grow in clusters than is the ordinary
a guava. As yet they are scarce, bring- Cattley, The bush seems to be more
ing twenty-five cents a quart, and only vigorous, more hardy (not a leaf was
a few to be had at that price. But singed in the freeze of '86), and leaves
great quantities of them have been set are thicker and of a darker green. If
This season, and in about two years we only a variety of the Cattley, this guava
shall have our wants supplied so far as certainly gives us grounds to hope for
the Cattley is concerned. The common even better things in the future.
guava one has to acquire a taste for, Von Mueller enumerates,in addition to
but every one seems to have a taste al- these sorts, the following species, na-
ready acquired for the luscious little tives of the West Indies and South
Cattley. The blooms are pure white, America: Psidium acidum, P. Araca, P.
and fragrant as the breath of a thousand arboretum, P. chrysophyllum,P. cinereum,
flowers. P. cordatum, P. cuneatum, P. grandi-
Mr. J. Hendrix has ten acres planted folium, P. incanescens, P. lineatifolium,
Sin this fruit, at, his place in Manatee. P. malnifolium, P.polyearpon, P. rufum.
Pies made of them are very good,.made Many of these species are found in cool
precisely as you would a green apple mountain regions, even as far south as
pie. Cut in slices and put in air-tight Uruguay, and would undoubtedly prove
two-year-old bushes of the red variety to had to watch was a little green and
the groulid--ome were even killed out- yellow c terpillar. They are gregarious,
right-while one-year-old plants of the and fee,'in companies and batallions,
yellow variety did not turn a leaf, and rangingthemselves along the edge of a
bore fruit the past season. The latter leaf and feeding as if they were soldiers
are now full of bloom, pr rising an on drill. :Next come the leaf-rollers. I
abundant yield the coming .seon. By think L-fnd two species on my vines,
the way, is not the yellow kind some- but I am lt prepared to give their names
times known as the "bull" guava? as yet. I D3tbois, to whom I wrote con-
The red Catiley ik a far more symmet cerning mge'n,repliedas follows: '"I think
rical grower, and has handsomer foliage that the Iseotyou speak of is the Desnmia
than the yellow. It is one of the most Afacilatis, commonly called the grape
beautiful plants in cultivation, leaf-folder. You have probably noticed
Of the relative fruiting qualities of that, instead of rolling the leaves of the
the two, I am unable to judge yet. In vines, it. folds them by fastening the
quality the fruit seems identical, but as edges together with its web, and the
Have never teated them together I may chrysalis is found inside the fold. The
be mistaken. The fruit has a pleasant, moth are seen early in the spring; they
sub-acid taste, and the absence of the can be easily recognized, being white
strong odor and flavor so characteristic and bl iok, bordered and spotted in the
of the common guava, will recommend same manner. As soon as they appear,
it with many who do not like the latter the best way of destroying them is tb
fruit. go at nigtit into the vineyard with- a
The Cattley guavas require rich soil, lighted' torch and shake the vines to
and an abundance of water is very ben- start them out, when they will naturally
eficial. fly iiinto the flame of the torch. Probably
HOMELAND NURSERIES. some will escape this treatment, and the
BRANDON, Polk Co., March 21, 1887. next thing to do is, when the chrysalides
form, to crush them between the folds of
P r F frm Blight : the leaves, as they breed until winter.
Pears Free from Bl g -," If they have not all been destroyed pre-
One great drawback to the successful viously, it would be wise to rake up and
propagation of pears in the South, is burn-all the fallen leaves." I also wrote
blight. Whether this disease is caused Mr. Jampes Molt, of Orlando, as I learned
by certain qualities of the soil or bacte- that h'e had seen a trap that caught the
ria, the real cause is still an open quea-" mothodf the leaf-roller. I have mislaid
tion. There are certain species which his ldtt'Or and cannot quote exactly, but
seem less subject to blight than others, he informed me that a gentleman in Ar-
and it has been. asserted that they are kansas'ad a patent trap for the moth of
blight-proof. Two are in existence, to the leaf-roller. It consists of a light,
wit.: the Le Conte and Kieffer's Hybrid. which is placed at' night among the
Both are seedlings of the- Chinese sand vines. A reflector is set up behind the
pear, supposed to be crossed with the light and a pan of kerosene is placed un-
Bartlett. der all. The moths are attracted by the
There is no question of their health light and fly against the reflector, when
and productiveness and their adapta- they fall into the kerosene. Mr. Mott
d says the trap works to perfection, and
t- the vines are, absolutely.free from the
v- rollers. Another enemy which I found
d on my vines was the Aphis, or plant
s louse. I dusted my vines with garden
- dust, and the Ayhides disappeared.
t Wasps are the worst enemies we have to
y' encounter. They puncture the ripe
grapes, and in such numbers that they
s soon spoil the fruit of a vineyard unless
n they are destroyed. Mr. E. P. Roe ad-
d vises trapping them by hanging bottles,
n partly filled with sweetened water,
e among the vines. The wasps enter the
t narrow necks of the bottles and are
About the Grape, Persimmon,
Guinea Grass, etc.
SEditor Florida Farmer and Fruit-Grower:
Last fall I planted -a quantity of seeds
of the "Pedee grape," hoping some
would prove Hybrids. Among the seed-
lings a few show dark coloring on the
under side of the seed-leaves and stems,
even where the seeds were from the saw
berry. Now, my experience with plants
has been that the under side of the seed-
leaf indicates the color of the flowers,
whether red or white in a marked de-
gree. The rule holds good in Phlox,
Petunia, Portulacca, Amarantus, Mir-
abilis, Datura, Pharbitis, Quamoelit,
Salvia, Verbena, Mimulus, Papaver, Im-
patious and Geransum. May I infer
that in the case of fruits, as the grape,
fig, etc., one can tell the color of the fruit?
I have never seen any reference to 'this,
but if true, it would be valuable to the
,Is it generally known that in Japan
they never prune the Persimmon with
a knife-only by breaking off superfluous.
branches. Why?. .. -. ..
The stems of the Guinea grass become
hard and troublesome to cut, hindering
the use of the early growth. I found it
best to burn off the tufts of old growth
during January. It does not harm the
There is no need for having moldy
jelly.. Get 60. grains of borax;and 60
-grains of salicylic acid, dissolvein J pint
boiling water. Cut out circles of tissue
paper to fit within the jelly glasses, and
as many larger circles of stiffer paper to
cover with; soak both in the hot solution
ten minutes, then dry. Fill the glasses
with jelly to within I inch of the edge
when cold and "set," press the smaller
circles snugly upon the jelly, dampen
slightly the larger circles, and with a
little starch paste around the outside of
the glassesfit the covers neatly to exclude
the air. When the paper is dry label
neatly with ink, set in a dry place and'
you will hve no complaints about
It is generally known that the proper
way to propagate the Satsuma and'.
Tangarine oranges is to graft at the'
ground, into sour or bittersweet stocks.
Trees thus grown, resisted 10. in Jan.,
1886, and do so regularly in North
apan. DR. JACIENNE.
ARcHOE.1a,) March 28, 1887.
[Her s liki petunia, ageratum and
balsam, whose- flowers vary much in
color, usually indicate by the shade of
foliage and stems whether the flowers
may be expected to be of light or dark
color, but we are not aware that this is
the case with shrubby plants, nor that
it bears any relation to the color of fruit
when that varies. It is, however, an
interesting subject for observation.
As to the anomalous seed-leaves, we
judgethey belong to inte rs,wildlings
which came up wlith mission. At
any rate, -the leaves enclosed in letter be-
long tono grape, but to the pellitory
(Parietaria debilis), a delicate herb in the
nettle family which is' characteristic of
The point in regard ,to pruning of the
persimmon we have referred to our
Japa6ese friend, Mr. Tamari, with re-
quest that he expedite his promised let-
ter on the persimmon in Japan.
The method with Guinea grass seems
to us much more commendable than
that with the persimmon. As to bud-
ding or grafting, if resistance to frost be
the point aimed at-and that is a prime
advantage expected from Japanese
varieties-the insertion should be made
at or below the surface, so that no bark
of the native stock will be. left exposed
to the air. The stratum of air next
to the ground is coldest and there is
where trees suffer most from frost.
In regard to the comparative hardiness
of sour trees the freeze of 1886 brought
some anomalous facts to light. Our ex-
perience showed that sour trees with t
their own tops suffered much more than
swiet seedlings, and that sour trunks
with sweet tops suffered least of, all. s
Thus it would appear that sour trees are a
the tenderest and sour stocks the hardiest,
an anomaly hard to explain.,
Again, in the freeze of 1886, we ob- e
served that there was scarcely any in- i
jury to upper branches, except as a re- t
suit of damage to trunks, while in the
freeze which defoliated trees some years
before the damage was confined to the
upper branches.-A. H. C.]
Favorable Reports of the New
Cereal and Fodder Plant. --
A correspondent of the Home and
Farm, finding that he has done injustice
to the Kaffir corn, makes the amended
honorable as follows:
For fear that I may have done in-
justice to Kaffir corn in your issue of
October 1st, I desire to say that from
subsequent developments, information
and consideration it is better and a more
desirable and valuable crop than I then
thought and is worthy of being planted.
It will bear thicker planting than any-
thing else of the kind. It bears heads
twice as long and has tw ice as many
grains to the head and fewer false and
rotted grains than' any other and will
do better on thin soil. The blades are
larger and heavier and make better and
sweeter ouied fodder than' the common
corn, and will stay green and uinfired
It makes the most superior batter-
cakes, excelling the buckwheat. It is
the most.delicate and splendid popcorn,
especially for children and people of de-
fective teeth, requiring but little and
easy mastication. As proof of this I
send you by mail the products of four
heads that you may have popped secun-
dum artem and, as the lawyers say,
"verify the record." It seems to me
that all your correspondents about arti-
cles of food ought to send you a good
mess, that you may see, know and taste,
and te-tify accordingly.-
- The heads of Kaffir corn, when shelled,
are as light as a wafer or chaff, while
the grains are beautifully white'6aid
very heavy and about the size of squir-
rel shot. I still stand by my offer..to'
give a small quantity of the seeds fori
the postage, packing, etc., but-'have
changed my mind-in this, that I will
plant. some of it again on my thinnest
lands. The seeds of all the sorghums
are so, exposed and tender that birds and
weevils prey upon them badly.
My yellow millo maize is still my de-
cided favorite over all. The stalks are-
now green and full of sap, although the
heads and blades have long since been
pulled, and we have had a. dozen heavy
frosts and one had one hard freeze. Cut them
up in half or one inch blocks and .stock
eat them greedily, thus utilizing every-
thing in the way of food. It also makes
a iph ndid popcorn, as you will say when
I sebyou a pound for trial. .. '
The Hoiu-tedo r -al-fiads---.
in a Kansas exchange the statement -
that Kaffir corn will produce more
bushels of grain with him thafi Indian
corn, makes good johnny cake, is liked
by all stock, and that this .crop stands
drouth better than corn. His crop
yielded fifty bushels grain per acre.
Another correspondent to same paper
said he planted it late and cut it twice.
The yield was heavy. It was ready to
cut the third time when frost came. He'
planted a small area of land to make
seed. He estimates the yield per acre at
fifty bushels of grain.
Cow Peas for Fodder.
The cow peas is one of the most valu-
able 'fdder plants for the South. We
have seen a crop of peas which yielded
four tons to the acre of most excellent
fodder, and it left the ground in the best
condition for sowing wheat.
Another farmer sowed peas among his
corn at the last plowing, covering them
with the plow, and we should climate
the yield on the ground, of both crops,
at a ton and.a half of corn fodder, and
forty bushels of peas, with the corn
equal to thirty-five or forty bushels to
the acre, and a large quantity of pea
straw, which makes good feed. The
common opinion that the South is not a
stock country is entirely unfounded.
With the long growing season, the really
rich, .but badly managed soil, and the
great variety of fodder crops and feed-
ing stuffs, it is not at all exaggerating the
matter to say that the beef-cattle can
be reared to 1,000 pounds in three years
at a cost of one cent per pound live
weight, and inaddition there is a large
quantity of manure left which is really
invaluable to the Southern farmer.-
As the subject of composts has been
treated of repeatedly in the FARMEt AND
FRUIT-GROWER, we infer that two in-
quiries recently received come from new
subscribers. We have been promised an
article on compost for vegetables by one
who has learned the danger from cotton-
seed meal, and have requested two oth-
ers of our correspondents, whom we
think to be specially skilled, to give in
CA.TTLLY LiU AVA. tPliliUifl, Cp tllyanu'ma.i
BERMUDA GRASS IN ORCHARDS
How its Presence may be Bene-
ficial in Various Ways.
BY S. POWERS.
My experience with Bermuda grass has
been confined to Bradford county, and
chiefly to my own orange grove. For
the past year I was guided solely by the
determination to exterminate it; I look-
ed upon it purely as a weed, and a most
injurious one at that. And, in fact, it
will probably destroy an orange tree,
when left to its own course, as rapidly
and as completely as anything that
For the first year, as I say, I plowed
and harrowed it incessantly; but the
rate at which I did not "exterminate"
it was remarkable-to me. An inverted
Bermuda sod turns -and grows right up
the other way, with perfect facility.
Close under the trees, where their fine
fibrous roots interfered with my "ex-
terminating" operations, my man and I
got down on our knees and pulled the
Bermuda roots out by hand. Around
other trees I stacked up sods and trash
a foot or more deep, hoping to smother
out the pestilent grass. But after a
while it put in a cheerful appearance at
the top, quite ready to adapt itself to the
new level and spread thence over the
surrounding surface. With pitchfork
and prong-hoe we pulled up the sods
loosened by the plow, shook the sand
out of them clean, and piled them up by
wagon-loads around the trees for mulch-
ing. When the weather was continuous-
ly dry the piles withered and the roots
mostly died; but if they received the
least encouragement from the rain, they
soon took on new life, began to grow
again, and my piles of "mulching" be-
came ornamental mounds of smiling
green! Then I turned the mounds over,
re-arranging them so that the "ins" be-
came the "outs;" but the roots which
were dead came to life again, and the
mounds were soon as green as before.
The outcome of my year's experience
was, that, in dry weather, a considerable
headway can be made against this grass
by constant plowing and harrowing;
but in wet weather about the only thing
which is of any efficacy is to shake out
the roots clean, and then, like a butcher
bird, hang them up in an orange tree!
I was amused at an acquaintance, a
fastidious orange grower, who got down
to it with penknife and toasting-fork,
cut and pulled up the pestilent stuff to
the uttermost rootlet, as he believed
dried and burned them on the spot. To'
day he has a flourishing patch of
Bermuda in the ashes!
But my views are changed. I no
longer regard the Bermuda grass as an
enemy, even to the orange tree. It is a
wonderfully vigorous and persistent
grower, and would, as I said above,
probably destroy an orange tree in the
end, if let alone. But if kept in proper
subjection I hold it to be a positive.
benefit to the ground and to the trees.
Among my smaller trees I still continue
to plow and harrow it; among the larger
ones I no longer use the plow at all,
leaving the grass to itself, except in a
circular space around each tree of about
eight feet radius. In this space, as well
as around the smaller trees, I employ the
prong-hoe once or twice a month. This
keeps the Bermuda reduced and weaken-
ed, except close around the trees. Here,
if the grass is particularly troublesome,
I heap up a quantity of earth or mulch
on it and.after two or three weeks pull
it away again; by this' time the grass-
roots and stems have become spindling
and stunted. If this operation is repeat-
ed three or four times during the sum-
mer, the grass will be kept down so as
not to injure the trees.
Now, as to the benefit's which may
fairly be set down to its credit. First,
during the great freeze of Januar-, 1886,
_-ihef- rotecte in the
S. immediate vicin was frozen three or
four inches deep (one neighbor states
that tht ground in his grove was frozen
six inches deep, though I do not.vonch
for this), at the summit of the ridge in
the tree-row, where the grass was thick-
est, I could at any time thrust a fork
down freely, which showed that the
ground was not frozen at all.
Second, it shades the ground. In this
respect it is superior.to -crab grass, be-
cause it does not make such an excess of
foliage in summer, to fall down and be a
burden of dry, coarse stiaw in winter.
The shading of the ground is important,
both winter and summer, and the Ber-
muda forms a constant carpet, a thick,
dense mat of grass, growing in this sandy
soil, only six or eight inches high. Of
the cultivated grasses of the South, the
Bermuda is really the only one I am ac-
quainted with, which forms an equiva-
lent to the sod of the Northern States.
Third, it enriches the ground. During
the rainy season it can be turned over
every three weeks, and yield each time
a very fair sod to rot and fertilize the
soil. Take the year round, and it will
furnish as much herbage to be plowed
under as rye, barley, oats or clover, and
that without any outlay for seed. Its
thick, hard stems and roots supply more
fertilizer when rotted than the soft,
watery stems of the above named crops.
It is ready to be turned under in the
spring as early as rye or oats would be.
Fourth, it compels cultivation. In
orange growing the requisite of para-
mount importance is cultivation; and
the Bermuda stems constantly coming
to the surface around the trees will force
the planter to keep the prong-hoe in
motion. Of course, this makes expense.
I should not care to introduce Bermuda
into a grove while it was young and
needing constant plowing; but after the
trees were old enough to be laid down in
grass, I should take pains to bring in
In this colony we are obliged to ridge
up our tree-rows; but where the nature
of the soil permits a level surface in a
grove, coarse manure, pine straw, wire
grass or sods can be heaped up under the
trees and be occasionally moved this
way and that, and so check the grass as
to prevent it from injuring the trees,
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. APRIL 13, 1887.
especially if they shade the ground pretty using it and expect to do so till June.
well. A Bermuda sod is not so tough I have more than I can use, so one of
and impervious anyhow, even if left my neighbors carries away a bushel
entirely to itself, as the wire-grass sod of every day or two. He boils and mashes
the B-adford county flatwoods. Orange it for his chickens, claiming that it
roots run through it apparently without makes food for them. I sold all the
much difficulty, especially when mulch seed I could spare to my neighbors, and
is kept on it, rendering it light and could not supply the demand. I also
rich. sent a few small packages of seed to
Bermuda grass, like mallows and parties in California. I think that
clover, loves richness and makes rich- everybody in Florida ought to raise some
ness. It gathers moisture and fertilizer. cassava, especially for poultry and fami-
A Bermuda sod will not dry out as ly use. Our poorest land will produce it
quickly as a red-clover sod; I have tried in paying quantities. It will not keep
them side by side in my grove. Bermuda long, out of the ground. I pull it as we
makes the ground mellow. Its powerful use it. In our loose sand it is easily
root-stems bore in every direction, pulled.-Farmer John, in Palatka News.
opening the way for the orange roots. 0
All that is necessary is to keep it Queer Behavior of Peach Trees.
smothered with mulch, moved now and ditor-lorida Farmer and F-uit-Grower:
then. Bjermuda is not a lazy man'o s to^. da ,mad utgrower:
If strongly handled, it will make For the past two weeks the mails have
grass. If strongly handled, it will ake failed to bring me your valuable paper,
In another paper I shall have some- but to-day I am pleased with its putting
thing to say of it as a pasture grass. in an appearance again, and I feel to
LAWTEY, Bradford Co. congratulate you on the start you are
making in this attempt to give to us
Canning Industry. Floridians an agricultural paper, one
The Canning Industry that shall be Florida, and that the new
The New Orleans Item makes the fol- comers may gather information from,
lowing presentation of a subject which and not be compelled, as many are, to
has been agitated considerably in Flor- start in on experiments which others
ida, and which needs to be agitated still have made before, and to meet with
further: failure in trying to grow some fruit or
New Orleans possesses particular ad- plant that the God of Nature made un-
vantages for the establishment of suited to this peculiar climate. ,
canned goods- factories, but in reply to My wife is raising chickens, with as
suggestions about the promising outlook pure a strain of Plymouth Rocks as is in
there is for this industry, it has been the State, and she says that cut of the
alleged that there is not sufficient market "soap box'" chicken coop, is worth to
in this city for. any great development her the year's subscription, for she has a
in this direction, and that it would be deal of trouble to keep the hens apart
difficult to build up trade. when sitting, for as yet she has no $250,
Now that canned goods from the great fancy hen house, and somehow I think
.northwest are seeking this port as an she is getting on better than some do
outlet to the markets of the world, the who are raising chicks on the fancy
question naturally arises: Why could plan. She has got lo:s of them anyway,
not home-made goods be shipped as well and she says it pays.
as those from Ka'nsas? Besides our Now I get puzzled sometimes, and
other advantages, the saving of railway right now I want to ask some questions,
expenses is an important element in our that I hope some reader, who is better in-
favor. formed,will answer. I want to know what
Few persons realize the enormous ails the peaches in this south part of the
proportions to which the canning indus- State; they seem todo so differently from
try has grown. For instance, one item what I .am used to seeing where I
alone, the tomato pack of 1886, according raised peaches formerly. Some. trees
to the American Grocer, reached a total that are on a lot I am planting-+I think
of 2,363,750 cases of two dozen tins each, they are Alexanders-have now con-
just 56,730,240 cans of tomatoes, and this siderable bloom on them, a few weakly
is only about the annual average pack. little leaves on the ends of the branches;
The work of the year, it is said, has been and while the wood is fresh and green,
profitable to all good packers, for not the bark is tight, no sap in flow, as there
enough tomatoes were put up to meet should be when the tree is in bloom.
the requirements, and light stocks have In another place, where I have a vine-
commanded rising prices. yard planted, are some trees planted two
Nineteen States are enumerated as winters ago. They are Crawfords, I
producers of this article, but Louisiana think, and are acting about the same as
does not figure in the list. New Jersey the Alexanders. I have cut away all the
heads the column with 710,183 3.ases, and tops to get new wood, and shall try to
Arkansas closes it with 4,500. This was, bud them in something else.
however, the first year for Arkansas, At another place I often visit are some
and that State will probably make a trees of Honey peach. They fruited
more creditable showing another year. quite well last season, and in February
The season lasted from about the middle this winter were red with bloom, but
of August until the 10th of October, somehow there was a big lack of leaves
though as far south as Maryland many to bring up the sap, and the blossoms all
crops were killed by frosts on October 1, fell off and no fruit set. Again, on this
About St. Georges, Delaware, the yield .old place is an.old native peach. It has
averaged eight tons per acre, and in the appearance of belonging'to an entire-
Maryland it ran as high as 600 bushels. ly different family-may belong to that
.It is not probable that the product of old spanish strain. It. behaves some
an acre of tomatoes has ever been meas- better. It fruited well last season, but
ured or weighed in. this State, but the only here and there a peach has set this
extraordinary profusion of the yield is year. Yet it seems a little more at
well known. The crop can be cheaply I-ome.
made;.beyond the cost of planting little Now why are so many of the leaf
expense or attention is required. Why buds on thi old family of peaches
cannot Louisiana have her tomato pack? abortive? Why this tardiness of sending
Canning factories can be operated out leaves when yet there is bloom.
here the whole year round. In fact, the Why, when we have winters of. on-
one establishment in this city does work siderable cold, .as was the case a year
all the year. Vegetables come early, ago, do they bear fruit, .while after a
and are rarely touched by frost until late warm winter, like the last, there is little
in November. In the interim between or bon, ? And the Peon-to, it seems so
the old crops and the new, the factory differentt from any of the others, it must
can be kept at work canning oysters, be an entirely different strain. This
fish, shrimp, beef, poultry, etc. trouble of abortive leaf buds and lack of
And as theltem pointed out in a re- circulation is not shown in the Peen-to;
cent article, we have unrivalled advan- it is at home here, except for a foolish
tages for preserving and canning fruit, habit of blooming too early and is
Plant the fig and the sour orange and caught by frost, as has been the case this
they grow without any cultivation what- season, and a very short crop will be the
'ever. The citron and quince, which result.
make delicious preserves, are easily Again, there are the Bidwell'sseedlings
raised. Blackberries grow wild and of the Peen-to, Bidwell's Early and Bid-
may be had for the picking. Strawber- well's Late, they have retained the same
ries, plums and peaches are cheap and vigor, no lack of circulation, plenty of
plentiful, and all grow alongside the leaves along with the bloom, but bloom-
cane fields, suggesting their kinship to ing later, and as yet no injury from
sugar, spring frosts either of the three seasons
. Here, suitable lumber for cases is they have been in bearing, and this new
cheap and convenient; fuel is also cheap child of promise has a look as if it had
and water abundant. A rich soil and ge- come to stay.
nial climate will afford an unlimited Five hundred or a thousand miles north
supply of vegetables. Under such cir- of here these differences of the habit
cumstances New Orleans ought to be and growth, and this want of proper
able to compete successfully with any circulation, are not seen, and I shall be
point in the United States in supplying glad if some one can, through your
the American markets, and if there were columns, explain these questions.
a surplus over home demands it could OCEOLA.
be shipped abroad by the ocean steamers ORLANDO, March 26, 1887. -
which come to our very doqr. *
SThe Flower Business.
Experience with Cassava. The extent of the flower business is
very large. Mr. Thorpe estimates the
Last spring I was fortunate enough to amount of glass used in this country for
procure cassava seed enough to plant this purpose to exceed 630 acres. Mil-
nearly one acre. I planted it in hills lions of lily of the valley roots are im-
four feet apart and cultivated it with ported yearly; cut flowers to the value
an Acme harrow. I was careful to of over a million dollars yearly pass
stir the ground not more than three through the lands of commission mer-
inches deep. It grew well the- entire chants, beside the large amount sold
summer. A drouth of four weeks in without their help. Probably not less
May and a similar one in September did than 15,000 people are engaged in this
not affect it in the least. It grew about business, either growing, arranging or
four feet high, and made the prettiest selling flowers.
field to look upon that I ever beheld. We export considerable quantities of
The outspreading branches shaded the tuberose bulbs and of Pampas plumes.
ground and made an excellent place for Indirectly, a very much larger number
my poultry to shelter from the hot sun of people are connected with this indus-
during August, September and Octo- try in supplying heating apparatus, coal,
ber. wood, wire and various tools and sup
In October we commenced using it to plies needed.
feed poultry, hogs and cows. We use a Large quantities of moss. wild ferns,
great deal of it in the family, having it ground pine and laurel are gathered bv
on the table nearly every day. My country people and sold toflorists. Boston
children eat it like apples. Not a day market uses yearly about 2,000,000 wild
passes that my two and a half year old ferns, 2,000 bbls. of moss, four or five
baby doesn't call fora piece of cassava, tons of ground pine, 20,000 yards of lau-
She will get a piece as long and as large rel festoons, not including the large trade
as her arm and beg some one to peel it at Christmas in the open street.-New
for her, then she will nibble away at it .England Farmer.
for hours. My good wife prepares it for *
table use in more than a half dozen To clean bottles, put into the bottle
different ways. some kernels of corn, a tablespoonful of
I planted it on very poor pine land, ashes, pour it half full of water, and
and it will produce more than two hun- after a vigorous shaking and rinsing you
dred bushels to the acre. We are still will find the bottle as good as new.
The "Pepino" or Melon Shrub.
In the Gardener's Monthly for March
we find the following notes on a fruit
which is being planted this year, for the
first time, in Florida The writer is
Gustav Eisen, of Fresno, California:
Under the heading of "The Melon
Pear," I find in your January number a
short account of this fruit. As I was
the introducer of this fruit to this conti-
nent, I may be allowed to say something
in the matter of "suspicious introduc-
tion." The Central American name of
this plant is "Pepino." Under this name
it is known everywhere in. the Central
American high lands, and under this
name only. But as "Pepino" in Spanish
also means "cucumber" it was thought
best to give the plant an English name,
I suggested the melon shrub, but
through the error or the wisdom of a
printer the name wis changed to melon
pear, which I confess is not very appro-
priate, but still not less so than pear
guava, alligator pear, rose apple, straw-
berry guava, mango apple, custard apple,
etc., all names simply indicating an en-
deavor to find an English name, recall-
ing certain qualities of a tropical fruit.
None of these need to taste of "suspi
cion" any more than the high sounding
names of aew strawberries and grapes
which are daily introduced and adver-
tised. In my late catalogue I call the
fruit with its native name, or "Pepino,"
and trust it will escape the observation
of the continental Spanish critics. As
to the value of the fruit and the success
of itin the States, only time will tell. The
fact that I found the plant growing only
on the high land where the temperature
in the shade seldom reaches 75 degrees
Fahb, suggested to me the probability
that it would fruit in a more northern
latitude. In California it has proven a
success in the cooler parts, such as in
Los Angeles City, in several places in
the coast range, and will undoubtedly
fruit in many other localities where it is
not too hot. In the interior valleys the
summer is too warm, and my plants
begin to ripen fruit first in late fall when
frost is imminent. There the first year's
fruit was nearly ripe when a frost oc-
Only very few fruits had ripened, and
I decided to pick the balance unripe -
about 1,000 fruits. This was the15th of
November or so about. I wrapped each
fruit in paper and stored away in cold
room. About the midd'e of February
the majority were ripe and proved very
fine, though not quite equal to those I
had myself grown in Guatemala. The
California fruit was much larger-the
largest the size of a goose-egg, the small-
est again the size of a plum. But they
were somewhat inferior in the way of
acid, which in the perffect fruit is of the
most delicious kind, allaying the thirst
for hours during the hottest day.
My friend, the late Mr. J. Grelck, of
Los Angeles, had a plantation of 10,000
Pepinos,' which grew and bore well in
Los Angeles City, and sold considerable
fruit. I do not think the fruit will be' a
success everywhere, but in cooland frost
free places where the fruit can be set and
ripen early I believe the Pepino will be
In pulp and .skin the Pepino resembles
somewhat the Bartlett pear, but in taste
more a muskmelon; but has besides a
most delicious acid, entirely wanting in
melons and quite peculiarly its own. In
warm localities this acid does not de-
velop, and this fact is the greatest draw-
bacli to the success of the fruit. The
fruit has no seed, as a rule. And in all
I have found only a dozen seed-and
those in fruit which came from Salama
in Guatamala, a place rather too warm
to produce the finest quality of the
The botanical name of the Pepino is
not known to me with any absolute' cer-
tainty; The same was described by the
Franco-Guatemalan botanist, Mr. Rous-
ignon, as Solanum melongena Guatamal-
ense, but it is to me quite evident that
this Solanum is not, nor is it closely re-'
lated to the S. melongena or egg plant,
which latter is a native of Central Asia.
The Pepino is probably a nat! ve of the
Central American high lands, and ap-
pears to have been cultivated by the In-
dians before tle conquest by the Span-
To Keep Bugs off Melons, etc.
To keep bugs off melon, squash and
cucumber vines there are as many con-
trivances as individuals'that suffer from
th ir depredations. Gas lime spread on
the ground under the vines, cobs dipped
in kerosene oil, and a hundred other
efforts of a similar nature, are used with
more or less efficacy. Procure some
pure Paris 'green, extend it in fifty times
its bulk of land plaster or clean ashes
and apply both to the upper and under
side of the leaves when the dew is on.
The difficulty is to get the stuff to the
underside of the leaves, and this can not
be done except with a pair of sulphur
bellows which can be procured of the
Green Cabbage Worms.
We also find it stated that if an outside
leaf of a cabbage plant which is in-
fested with green worms, is broken off
and placed flat over the top of such
plant in the afternoon nearly all the
worms in the cabbage will be found next
morning congregated on this leaf and
can easily be removed and destroyed. If
this be true, it is a most valuable dis-
If your locality is troubled by the green
cabbage worm, take our advice and let
the Savoy cabbages severely alone.
They are the tenderest and best flavored
of all, and the worm has a discriminating
The whites of eggs are more easily
beaten into froth if slighty salted. Never
put salt into soup when codlng, until
the soup has been thoroughly skimmed,
as salt prevents the scum from rising.
Salt will curdle new mi.k, and should
never be added to milk porrige until
the porrige is ready to be served.
5. N. ELLiS, c. z A. E. )iccLURz, Architect
Few of Many Comments by Cor-
respondents and the Press.
Judging from the expressions of ap-
proval which are coming to us daily
from correspondents and the press, and
from the rapid increase of our subscrip-
tion list, it is evident that the FARMER
AND FRUIT-GROWER has met with a more
favorable reception than we had -ven-
tured to expect.
In a few instances we can give the sen-
timent of a letter by quoting one or two
sentences, as in the following examples:
Prof. S. N. Whitner, of the Agricul-
tural College of Florida, writes as fol-
lows; "I can say in all sincerity, it has
exceeded my most sanguine expectations.
Already it is without a peer in all the
Mr. Thomas Meehan, the distinguished
horticulturist and proprietor of the Ger-
mantown nurseries, in a letter dated
March 5th, writes: "I am very much
pleased with the FARMER AND FRUIT-
GROWER, and shall read it regularly,
which you know is a high compliment
for an editor to pay to an exchange."
Prof. D, L. Phares, the eminent pro-
fessor of biology in the Agricultural Col-
lege of Mississippi, says in the Southern
Live Stock Journal: "His [the editor's]
valuable paper already appearing in the
first numbers are fulfilling our expecta-
tion and prediction. They may be fully
relied upon -for conscientious correc-
ness of statement and scientific accur-
acy of detail."
Hon. J. Win. Ewan, writing from
Miami, Dade county, says : "Certainly
you are doing a good work in establish-
ing an enlightened and scientific system
of agriculture, which heretofore has
been seriously neglected. Your paper is
inviting in appearance, pure in senti-
ment, and progressive in principle, and
surely must succeed."
Mr. S. A. Stevens, of Sumter county,
writes : "I am in love with your paper,
but am taking so many now that until
some subscription runs out I can't take
more, but calculate to be a subscriber to
your paper soon."
Mr. E. W. Amsden, of Ormond-on-the-
'Halifax, wi ites as follows : "I am tak-
ing ten papers on agricultural subjects,
and if asked to surrender the FARMER
AND FRUIT GROWER, I would tell them
to take the other nine, but leave me
that. May peace and plenty and years
of grace be given you to continue the
Mr. J. V. Dansby, of Pensacola, whose
eminent success in truck gardening, as
well as his able writings on farm topics,
entitle his opinion to respect, expresses
himself as follows: "The first number
of the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER was
duly received and is the best thing in its
way I have seen. It is just the paper
needed, and if you keep it up to the pres-
ent standard of excellence must become
popular with the people. I- can't see
where you have left any room for im-
Mr. Charles W. Stevens, of Orange
county, writes: "Your able paper fills a
want long felt in this part for a good ag-
ricultural paper. Success to you."
Rev. T. W. Moore, of Marion county,
writes: "I believe your paper will do a
good work in disseminating new ideas in
regard to fruit raising, farming, stock
'A veteran nurseryman, who objects to
the publication of his name, expresses
himself thus: "I like your paper first-
rate, and believe it will be the agricul-
tural paper of Florida. I hope after a
little while to give you an article every
Mr.-H. G. Daniels, of Amelia Island:
"Judging from what I have seen of the
FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER, it is the
best agricultural paper published in the
South. I predict immense success for it."
Mr. Arthur Brown, of Santa Rosa
county, writes: "Judging by the copy
sent me the paper is 'A No. 1,' and I do
not wish to miss a single number."
Mr. S. L. Culler, of Seffner, Florida,
writes: "If you continue to make the
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER
equal to the first number, you will cer-
tainly furnish the agriculturists of Flor-
ida with a paper that will please them.
I am traveling through the country
among the farmers, and in every way
that I can assist you it will be cheerfully
Mr. W. N. Justice, commission mei-
chant of Philadelphia, writes: "Having
received the first issue of your agricul-
tural paper, and being delighted with its
tone, we wish you to insert our card for
[From the Texas Farmer.]
Florida is not behind her sister South-
ern States in material progress. It
ought to be called the land of fruits and
flowers, for each of these grand divis-
ions of horticulture are equally at home
there. The FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER is an ably conducted and ele
gantly printed paper devoted to these
very topics, to which we refer the reader
for further information.
[From the So. Live Stock Journal.]
We regret that the first number [of
the FARMER AND' FRUIT-GROWER] failed
to reach us; but the second shows a very
handsome sheet as to paper, typography
and general make up, whi'e the addi-
tional department is all we expected of
the distinguished editor. Many of our
readers are interested directly and sec-
ondarily in everything connected with
Florida, and we cordially commend this
new and excellent periodical as worthy
of their patronage. With best wishes
for its success, we welcome this new as-
pirant for public favor and patronage,
feeling assured of the good work it will
accomplish in and out of Florida.
[From the Gardeners' Monthly]
"We are continually receiving new
agricultural ventures, but useful as they
are in their own special fields, we rarely
find in them anything of special interest
to the intelligent class of horticulturists
for which the Gardeners' Monthly has to
cater. We were, therefore, agreeably
surprised on reading among the batch
of exchanges on our table, No. 2 of this,
to find it of a very high order of intelli-
gence, and one which must have an ex-
cellent effect in fostering Florida's inter-
KAFFIR CORN FOR SEED PURPOSES.
AMBER CANE SEED
CATTAIL OR PURE MILLET,
JOHNSON GRASS, ETC.
Everything to Plant. Adduss
SO. SEEiD CO., Macon, Ga.
J. R. Ellis, President.
RED ROVER, WHIPPOORWILL AND CLAY
Send for treatise on Culture of Orange
C. S. L'EINGsLE & CO.,
PRICES THE LOWEST.
C.. S, L'ENGLE & CO.,
m AITLAND NURSERIES.
ALL VARIETIES OF
ORANGE AND LEMON TREES.
Buds|not placed on m mall stocks, but on e.x'r&
large and line ones.1
We make a specialty of the
--EARLY SPANISH RANGE--
(the earliest variety known),
TOHITI LIMES and
VILLA FRANCA LEMONS,
andi can show trees of the latter that Istood the-
coldl last winter as well as Ihe Orange, and
NOW HAVE FRUIT UPON THEM.
Send for Catalogue.
KEDNEY & CAREY,
P. 0. Winter Park Fla.
R. N. ELL1S, C. E A. E. MCCLUIE, Architect.
ELLIS & McCLURE,
Architects & Civil Engineers,
HOTELS PUBLIC & PRIVATE BUILD-
INIS, SANITARY ENGINEERING, &C.
P. 0O. ox 784. Rooms 7 and 8 PalmettoBlock,
_R OYAL. PALM NURSERIES
Rare tropicals ornamental and fruit plants for
open air culture in Florida. and for the North-
ern greenhouse. Also, a full line of semi-tropi-
ical trees, plants and grasses and general nur-
sery.stock adapted to Florida and the South.
Exotics from India, Australia and the West
tadies, many of them never before introduced
into the United States.
The most complete descriptive catalogue of
tropical and semi-tropical plants published in
America. Catalogue mailed, post-paid, on re-
ceipt of 15 cents. Free to all customers.
RILEY, GROVER & CO.,
STATE AGENTS FOR
RASIN FERTILIZER CO'S
SOLUABLE SEA ISLAND GUANO:.
DISSOLVED BONE AND ALKALI
AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN
FRUITS AND PRODUCE.
Get our Prices before buying.
T AMPA, HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY,.
General Business and Real Estate Agency of
W. N. CONOLEY.
If you wish a town lot. an orange grove, or
wild lands in this rapidly Improving section,
or If you have taxes to be paid, or property to-
be improved, or money to be invested, write
to this agency.
Money can be placed on Real Estate with a.
Margin on Iwo-thirds of values at 10
and 12 per cent.
FREE OF CHARGE TO LENDER.
Ninety days to foreclose mortgage where
there is no contest. All costs and attorney's
fees provided for In mortgage. Write for
further Information and send for list of prop.
erty for Sale.
S W. N. CONOLEY,
REFERENCES--Ex-Governor Drew, Jackson-
ville; First National Bank, Tampa, andHon.
John T. Lesley, Tampal
Canada Hnard-Wood Unleached
Cheapest fertilizer in use, and free from nox-
ions weeds. Supplied in car lots of 12 or more-
tons. Guaranteed free of rubbish. Put up in.
barrels. Price and analysis free on application~.
Address, CHAS. STE-VENS,
Box 437 Napanee, Ontario, Canado.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. APRIL 13, 1887.
HAMMOCKS AND MARSH LANDS.
Their Origin, Composition and
BY D. R. GREEN.
There are two classes of naturally fer-
tile lands in this State, known as ham-
mocks and saw-prasses. These two
classes have many modifications, but, in
the light of geology, both classes belong
to the same age and are deposits made by
the action of the water.
The cultivation of hammock lands is
generally well understood, and we will
mention their main characteristics, and
compare them with the saw-grass lands,
which really are but little understood.
The general formation of hammock
lands is as follows: The first was a de-
posit of marl, followed by one of clay,
and on top of the clay a surface soil of
sand was spread. All of this formative
process took place under water, and
after these deposits were made the
water, by some convulsion of nature,
found an outlet, or the bed of the lake or
sea was upheaved.
As soon as this bed was dried the
mineral fertility of the clays and marls,
combined with whatever vegetable mat-
ter was deposited in the deep water,
made a soil suitable for the growth of
live oaks and oiher trees usually found
in hammocks, whose seeds were scat-
tered over the surface by the aid of birds
These trees, drawing their potash and
other mineral food from the sub-soil, de-
posited their leaves and debris of vege-
tation on the surface, thereby continuing
the process of enriching and making the
soil more homogeneous. This process
continued for ages, and is only arrested
when man destroys the trees and begins
to draw on the accumulated fertility for
Hammocks are brought into cultiva-
tion at a cost of $30 to $50 per acre.
They have this advantage, that they
can be cleared up in small tracts at a
time. Their disadvantages are the com-
paratively small percentage of vegetable
matter in their soil as compared with
saw-grass lands generally, from which
cause they are soon exhausted, and their
extreme liability to suffer from droughts.
The general formation of saw grass
lands is. oftentimes exactly similar to
that of hammocks, though the vegetable
deposits are sometimes made on sand
,alone, but the conditions necessary for
-the richest deposits are, first,
a constant supply of water; sec-
onud, the water must not be
so deep as to prevent the growth of
water grasses and aquatic plants; and,
third, there must be no current to-dis-
turb the vegetation and wash away the
This growth and decay of vegetation
is carried' on for ages the same as in the
hammocks, only the shallow waTer
makes such a better aid to the continual
growth of certain vegetation that the
humus deposited increases much more
rapidly than in the dryer hammocks, so
-that the deposits of vegetable matter are
found in almost absolute purity in beds
from a fewi nches up to eight feet in
These deposits have never been util-
ized to any extent, owing to the utter
impossibility of reclaiming a small part
of any tract of saw grass lands. No
tract of level marsh can be successfully
cultivated, except by a system of drain.
age that includes the entire tract. But
we confidently state that where a tract
of marsh can be drained at all, the
average cost per a'cre of draining the
entire tract will never exceed the cost of
fitting an acre of hammock for cultiva-
tion, and generally it will be from one-
fourth to one-half that cost. -Then with
the drainageonce completed, there is the
much greater deposit of vegetable mat-
ter, which, with fair treatment, is inex-
haustible, and when properly cultivated,
is proof against any drought ever
The draining of small marshes costs
more per acre than in the case of larger
These are our cone'usions after three
years of earnest study of and practical
experience with saw-grass lands.
RECLAIMED LANDS EXPERIMENT FARM.
A correspondent of the Texas Daily
Express treats of an important and much
neglected point in corn culture, after the
From Kennedy Junction to Beeville I
saw more signs of spring than I have
seen this season. I saw the elms in full
leaf and, strange as it may seem, I saw
green grass, and thought if I could only
see a fat bull and see him paw the
ground and bellow I would be compara-
tively happy. I saw several car-loads of
cattle being shipped from Pettus Station,
also a few carloads of mares and horses,
showing to my mind that there is life in
the land yet. After the glorious rain
that has fallen here .(and I hope it has
been general), the sturdy farmer can
plant his crop with the hope of success;
and I hope all will keep in mind that
STexas is subject to drouth, and to insure
J a crop in a dry season, plants should be
given greater space than in a country
that is more seasonable. Here is the
great trouble with farmers. At thin-
ning time the plants look beautiful, and
it takes a man with wonderful nerve to
pull one beautiful plant after another the
whole day long. With each one that he
pulls he says to himself: "Now maybe
if I had not have pulled that stalk of
corn it mought had two large ears of
corn on it." With this thought, before
*. *thinning time is over, he begins to leave
his corn and cotton too thick, and the
result is a short crop without the merest
S : I once had a dear old friend living near
S me in Bastrop county. He was an old
; Texan. He was not a man of letters, but
? a. born nobleman and philosopher. We
w re both great hunters, and in our
rambles he would say many things that
I have thought of sinecs and which
helped me greatly in my farming opera-
tions. His name was Garden Dees. On
one occasion we were talking on the
subject of farming, and I asked him the
reason why some farmers in the neigh.
borhood were more successful than oth-
ers. He told me that the subject had
given him a great deal of thought, but
that he had figured it out last year, and
it ii just this:
"You know the Widow Rice and Sandy
Murchinson'make the biggest crops on
the creek? Well, the secret is this:
They both have niggers to thin their
corn, and this is the way a nigger argues
the point: 'Now, if I pull up this stalk
of corn it is dun' wid forever; but if I let
it stay dar, I will have to hoe it three
times, pull the fodder off one time, and
den pull the corn one time. If it tain't
dar to pull, why I saves all dat work in
a time when it's powerful hot weather.'
Now you see the idea, don't you? Them
niggers, to save work, leave the corn
standing" just about right, and every
stalk makes one and two big ears of
corn. I have studied the whole thing
over, Seburn, and I have come to the
conclusion that there is two things a
man ain't fitted for-one is to thin his
own corn, and the other is to raise his
own children. He is dead sure to leave
his corn too thick, and he is powerful
apt to spile the children."
So I advise all farmers to profit by my
good old friend's experience. Do not
leave your corn or cotton too thick, for
the chances aie against you should you
do so. It is far better to have one large
ear of corn than to take the chance for
having two very small nubbins.
Shallow Culture for Corn.
A writer in Prairie Farmer says of
deep plowing of corn: I believe the old
practice of deep plowing between rows,
mutilating and tearing up the roots is a
positive injury to the corn. It anyone
doubt- whether deep or shallow cultiva-
tion is best, let him try it on one acre,
running a shovel plow through one half,
and cultivating the other half 'only an
inch deep. He will easily decide at har-
vest time which is the best method.
Let any man buy a first class cultiva-
tor and tend ten acres with it, and if he
does not (with good soil and good season)
get ten bushels more to the acre than he
can with a shovel plow, 1 will pay for
the cultivator. The roots of corn extend
from one row to the next, and the flow
of sweet juices which comes from mu-
tilating them invites the attacks of pre-
datory insects, besides directly weak-
ening the growth of the corn.
Theyalue of Wood Ashes.
We often mention unleached -wood
ashes as a special fertilizer for -the orch-
ard, as having all the required elements
of plant nutrition nitrogen. Few peo-
ple, however, even when told that one
bushel of ashes represents about two and
a half tons of dry body wood, have a cor-
rect idea of the true value of the article.
According to Professor Kedzie, 100
pounds of (beech) ashes contain 16
pounds of potash, worth 80 cents; 83
pounds of soda, worth 2 cents; 68 pounds
of lime and magnesia, worth 7 cents,
and 54 pounds of phosphoric acid, worth
26 cents. These same elements, as con-
tained in 100 pounds of ashes, if bought
in the form of chemicals or phosphates,
would cost not less than $1.16. The
process of leaching divests ashes of i:s
larger part of potash, but leaves the
other elements nearly intact, and you
.can easily figure out for yourself how
much leached ashes are worth. Save
ashes, buy ashes, both leached and un-
leached. "No argument is needed; here
is the value and there is the selling
price."-Orchard and Garden.
The statement contained in the above,
says the Congregationalist, as to the
value of ashes, may surprise some of our
readers, but we have no reason to doubt
its truthfulness. We have long felt that
ashes were a cheap fertilizer at the price
they could be bought for. While all
ashes may not be as good as those made.
from h-eech wood, some would ba as
good, or even better. The ashes of the
soft woods would be less valuable. If
we take the beech wood as the average,
and call it worth, not $1 16, but $1 per
100 pounds, which would be $20 per ton,
we should do well to buy unleached
ashes as a fertililizer. We have bought
the past month the best Canadian hard
wood ashes, screened and delivered in
cars, for $16 per ton. Others have done
the same, and in many places in New
England they are bought at a less price
No one can deny the value of ashes, and
they can. hardly be misapplied. They
last for years in the soil. We believe it
would be wise for farmers to spend more
for ashes and less for some special fer-
tilizers that are offered for sale.
A Hint on Plowing.
Editor Florida Farmer and Thuit-Grower:
The reading of "Hints for the Plow-
man," in your paper of March 28, gives
me a desire to tell you how a neighbor of
mine improved on the usual way of
plowing here. The first time he plowed
his ten acre grove, he did it in the usual
way, and the result was, owing to crab
grass, weeds, etc., the land was left in
little hillocks and ridges, and altogether
it was very unsatisfactory to him. Be-
fore plowing again he sent away and got
a revolving cutter and put on the plow-
beam. The result was a clean cuit through
all grass, weeds or vines, and a smooth
clean furrow, well turned, with very
much less labor for horse and man.
A. G. ALDRICH.
The amount of bogus butter marked
in November last was 4,742,569 lbs.: in
December, 1,956,291 Ibs. less than
November; in January, 285,164 lbs. less
than December. This indicates a falling
off in the manufacture and sale of the
CASSAVA OR MANDIOCA. land freezing; and often parties lose time. But milk is what the dairyman
S_ their entire stock, but if successful in is after, and the more of his food he can
The Most Important Food Plant saving the seed, the plants will not start get his cows to use up for that purpose,
off in growth as do those that were the greater his profit.
of Tropical Regions. planted in September, nor will they ma- To be good food, ensilage must be
BY J G. KNAPP. ture roots as soon. properly made. In the earlier modes of
J If the 8,200 plants on the acre shall be preparing it the fodder was cut too green
Cassava is the Spanish, mandioca the properly tended, and produce twenty and immature. It carried into the pit
Portugese name given to the farinaceous pounds of roots to each plant, the yield too much moisture, raised too. high a
roots and starch of two species of eu- will amount to 64,000 pounds of roots, temperature, made excessive fermen-
phorbiaceous plants, the bitter cassava, equivalent in fattening qualities to 32,000 station, too much sourness, and so much
Manihot utilissima and the sweet cassava, pounds of corn to feed hogs or cattle, decomposition as to work loss and injury
M aipi, both highly important sources But as these starch roots do not decay, to the quality of the ensilage. Recent
of food starch. The plants are native because they are not raised before the investigations in the physiology of di-
of tropical America, and from them are plant" makes its second year's growth, gestion point out that a little acidity in
derived most of the bread food of the but only become a little harder and in- food tends to increase the fluidity of
population. In the tropics the bitter crease in size, during the second and gastric juice, and to make it more pene-
species is most important, because the third year, therefore good roots can be treating and active, so that the acidity
roots are largest and produce the taken at any and all seasons after the resulting from a little fermentation
greatest amount of starch to the plant. first roots have matured on the plants, if might be useful rather than otherwise;
The sap contains a large amount of the succession is kept up. but when the fermentation runs high,
hydrocyanicacid,andishighlypoisonous, Much more might be said about the and the acidity becomes strong, and in.
so that the roots cannot be eaten in a cultivation, preparation of the roots for addition to lactic acid, alcohol ind
raw state; but the poisonous property food, an its quality, but space forbids, acetic acid are developed, the ensilage
is destroyed by heat. A hot sauce, only to remark that no other plant can becomes injured, and the milk made
casareep, or "pepper pot" is prepared be grown in Florida which will yield as fromitbecomes faulty, or,in other words,
from this sap by boiling it with red large an amount of food for man and his is not so good as it might be. The
peppers. On the other hand, the sweet domestic animals as cassava. practice of putting green and immature
cassava is innoxious and the roots may ____ _. herbage into pits has pretty much ceas-
be eaten in a raw or unprepared condi- L .r r ed, and it is now permitted to become
tion as a table vegetable. Large Yields of Cotton per Acre. more ripened before it is cut, so that
The starch roots of both varieties are In the .last number of the Southern much of its superfluous moisture will
fusiform, and are often three'feet long Cultivator and Dixie Farmer, Mr. C. B. have passed away.
and four inches in diameter at their Ferrell of Montgomery, Ala., *states From this dried state of the food so
thickest part, and weigh from two to most emphatically that he made three little heat and fermentation develop as
twenty pounds each; they are perennial bales of cotton on one acre of land last to occasion but little sourness in the
and fasciculated from the common year averaging 500 lbs. each. preserved fodder, and hence it is spoken
base. There are well authenticated instances of as sweet ensilage; but, in fact, it is
Twenty pounds of roots may be in Georgia where four and even never sweet. It is only sweet compara-
estimated as an average for each plant, five bales have been produced on one lively. But there is not sourness enough
and yield as large a percentage of starch acre. in it to do any material injury; and the
as the tubers of the Irish potato, and of Mr. Ferrell says his land was sandy .milk made from it is palatable and
superior quality. The starch under,the with clay subsoil, to which he applied wholesome, and makes fine butter and-
microscope presents a stellate appearance 2000 lbs. of compost (Furman's Formula) cheese. But for this improved mode of
unlike all other starch forms, and much and 200 lbs. of what he calls Alabama preparation ensilage could never have
finer. fertilizer. He says: .made such progress in, the dairy districts.
The plant resembles somewhat the "The compost I used was made of -National Live-Stock Journal.
Palma Christi, or castor bean, but does stable manure, cotton seed meal, acid *
not grow as tall; the leaves are smaller phosphate and kainit, as I prefer the Home-Made Fertilizers.
and deeper cut and buds are nearer to- meal to the seed. The year before I took farm include barn-
gether. The three-lobed seed ovary forms five acres of very poor sandy land and Fertilizers on the fam include nbartents of
upon a single peduncle, of one to three fed it as I cultivated it, and made four y and chicken manure contents of
inches in length. The seed, which bales weighing 500 pounds each. I plant cesspools, etc., which may be increased
closely resemble the castor bean, are my cotton in checks and cultivate ex- in quantity and qualityby incorporating
oily and free from the purgative quality elusively with the plow, except inbring- cres miol an l as fro thee
of the order. ing it to a stand. It is better never-to corners, mold and leaves from the
PREPARATION OF GROUND AND PLANTING. permit the hoe in it at all. Thin out by woodensropice straw, etc. These subotted and compostances,
hand. It is the hoe that eats'up the when properly rotted and composted,
Inasmuch as the starch roots start profits of cotton." eats up the afford all the substance necessary for
from the buds of seed cuttings, which P He says also: "The trouble with the crops of all species.
do not rise to form the stem of the Southern planter is that he plants too In addition to the above, refuse salt,
plant, but spread out in nearly horizon- much land and cultivates it too little oyster shell lime, leached and unleashed
tal directions, and grow in mellow soil, My seed were the improved"Jones" ashes and the contents of wash kettles
the latter must be free from all roots, variety. I had on exhibition at the Stateshould be saved andutilized by mixing
sticks and stones that might hinder the Fair one stalk of cotton eight feet high them with muck or some other absorb-
advance and expansion of those roots, or and eight feet in diameter with 110 open ent, to which might be added bones and
prevent cultivation; therefore cassava bolls on it. It was seen and examined refuse from the kitchen. It would
should be planted only on ground free by thousands of visitors, who perceived astonish the average farmer to see the
from such obstructions. Thisis is also that some of the bolls were nearly or large quantity of valuable manure an-
necessaryin order to freely raise the te leastut ,,nually wasted on a farm of even moder-
roots from the soil. The land should be quite as large as turey eggs. -ate dimensions, and the amount of
thoroughly and deeply plowed, or sub- **m aney which might 'be saved every
soiled, to give depth to the feeding roots, ADVANTAGES OF ENSILAGE. season by careful attention to the saving
thoroughly harrowed and pulverized, of fertilizers.
and contain a good degree of humus, or The Method of Preserving Fresh Again. The cow pea has been known
fertilized with well composted vegetab The Method of Preserving Fresh to Southerd planters for more than fifty
matter, thoroughly mixed into the soil, Feed for Stock., years as a complete renovator of land,
if the largest yield of. roots are desired,- Though condemned by a few feeders, butahow many, excepting the sugar plant-
though several tons of roots may be ensilage is steadily growing In favor ers, avail themselves of its recuperative
taken from ground that will not yield to with dairy farmers. It has several im- powers to any large extent. We have
exceed eight bushels of corn to the acre. portant advantages, which are more and seen lands treble, nay, even quadruple
Sandy pine land well filled with humus more appreciated as experience with it their productions by resting the field one
is better adapted to the growth of cassava is enlarged. The first advantage-the season and planting it in corn and cow
than damp lands. one which strikes the practical dairymen peas. Neither is it necessary that the
The cultivation should be flat, that with greatest force-is the large amount farmer should be oblidged to go into the
the roots may extend in all directions, of succulent food for, stimulating milk market to purchase his peas for fer-
and all weeds and grass must be kept production at any season of the year, at tilizing when he can raise them so easily
down. After the land has been plowed, small cost, and from a small area of on the farm.
pulverized and smoothed, the marking around. It is useful alike in summer The main objectio -to producing
is to take place, so that the plants shall andwinter. Succulence in food is every- home-grown seed seems to have been
stand '49 inches by 88 inches, giving where recognized as essential to milk difficulty in harvesting the crop, but this
8,200 plants to the acre; and may be secretion, can. be done by women and children
cultivated in both directions, with It is not enough that food is rich or gathering them on shares, retaining one-
sweeps that shall not cut deeper than plenty. To be most useful to the dairy- third or even one-half as a reward.
two inches, nor ridge the soil. Cutting man .or milk producer, it must be Pursuing this method the cultivator of
deeper than two inches might uncover intimately incorporated with water as a the soil will have no difficulty in saving
or wound and destroy the starch roots, necessary condition for rapid digestion, all the pea seed he needs for his own use,
The seed for planting is a cutting four which is the corner-stone on which the a surplus for sale, and besides he willhave
to six inches long of the hard stem, from milk producer's profit is based. Milk the satisfaction of keeping himself out of
which the leaves have -fallen and the comes from the excess of food that cows the clutches of the speculator in cow
wood matured. The crown of the old digest above the food of support, and the peas, who yearly preys and fattens upon
plant, with enough of the stem to hold a flow of milk, other conditions being the necessities df the impecunious tiller
few buds, makes a good plant. The equal, depends on the quantity of food of the soil.-Times-Democrat.
best method of planting. is to set the they can digest above their maintenance. *
cutting upright, packing the soil tightly Whether that quantity shall- be .large HOW to Dissolve Bones.
about it, and deep enough tb bring the or small is determined by no condition A correspondent of Farm and Home
top an inch or two beneath the surface, so much as by the facility with which receives the following reply to an in-
This prevents the white ants and wood food can be digested, and this depends quiry: The raw bone at $15 per ton will
lice from reaching the cutting. The largely on succul'.nce. be a reasonably cheap fertilizer, if your
lower end will furnish moisture until It has been supposed by nany who time isn't worth much in breaking them
the roots have taken hold of the soil. have witnessed the increased flow of up and reducing. Pounding them up
If a hole be made with a dibble, in milk which followed when a change and composting with unleached wood
which the cutting is set, and a gill of from dry feed to ensilage was made in ashes is a slow process. Buy caustic
fresh cow dung, thinned with water be winter, that the ensiloed food had gain- potash in bulk, make a very strong
turned in, and made to pass under and ed greatly in nutritive value by the solution. by boiling it with water, and
around the lower end, and then the soil changes which it undergoes in the silo. put the bones in this. It will dissolve
packed around, the growth of the The large flow of milk and the sleek them, making a pasty mass, which may
cutting will not only be assured, but it coats of the animals, after living upon it be made easy to handle by soaking up
will give the plant a vigorous start in a while, are very suggestive of such an and extending with dry ashes or loam.
its growth. Some planters use cuttings effect; but nothing of' the kind occurs. This will probably be cheaper than
a foot or more in length, laid flat in the On the contrary, theie is an absolute ground bone at $85 a ton. Apply to
bottom of the furrow and cover them loss. strawberries in early spring as a top-
with the plow. This method, besides Theprdcess of fermentation is a destruc- dressing, cultivating it in as much as
covering the cuttings unequally and tive process, and never goes on without possible, and using say 500 to 1000 lbs.
taking more than double the quantity of occasioning the decomposition of some per acre according to the soil.
seed, -is attended with a loss of many portion of the substance fermented. # .
hills, from the soil not being properly There must of necessity be less nutritive Improved Cotton Seed.
packed about the cuttings. When it is substance in the fermented food than in
understood that the seed is a cutting not the green fodder before fermenting The improvement in cotton seed for
unlike an olive, LeConte pear, a quince, Ensilage has no advantage over green planting is a subject which has interest-
or currant, the manner of its setting fodder. Its great advantage consists in ed progressive planters for many years.
will be manifest to the handler of such its safe and long preservation in a suc- When a planter can obtain an advance
cuttings. culent condition at a comparatively of three cents per pound for his crop on
Planting may be done whenever trifling loss in feeding value, so that it account of the superior quality of the
mature wood can be had; and if there be can be used when green food could not lint, as in case of .the Allen and other
any preference as to seasons, it should otherwise be had. long staple sorts, or obtain 40 per cent.
be in favor of" September. In that In quantity of food constituents, lint from varieties like the Peterson, it
month the ground is moist, and n arm ensilage has no advantage over the same means for him a considerable balance on
enough to start the plants into growth, food dried. Analysis would show in the right side of the ledger.-Ex.
and the roots will secure a firm hold of favor of the latter. The superiority of *
the soil. They may be preserved from ensilage lies in the fact that cows can Improved Thomas Harrow.
frost by turning shallow furrows upon- digest more of it in a given time than Anyone who has ever used a Thomas
them, which must beremoved as soon as they can of the dried fodder. If one harrow will be interested to know that
danger of frosts is passed, and the plants was feeding simply to sustain life, he this reliable old firm have begun the
should commence to grow. Such plants would very likely do better with the manufacture of two new and very ad-
will commence to grow and make their dried fodder, because the fodder could vantageous implements. It will stir the
crop of roots considerablyin advance of be dried without loss, but it could not soil to any depth to which it may be re-
cuttings set out in the spring; moreover I be ensiloed without loss. The difference gulated, and is adapted to a variety of
there is a better opportunity to fill up between the two is that the dried food, soils. The other, a reversible harrow, is
any vacancies. .. on account of its slower digestion, does arranged so the teeth can be used in an
Seed cassava may also be kept through not allow of digesting so great an excess upright or slop ing position at will.-
the winter by cutting the wood, placing 'above the food of support as the more Farm and Home.
it in compact piles and covering it with easy digesting ensilage does, thus giving
straw, leaves, etc., to prevent freezing; a larger excess to be turned into milk, END YOUR
and then planting as soon as danger of but as more ensilage would be consumed v2-E YU
frost is past. Besides the labor of in a given time than there would be of Th Job Drittiit
handling and banking, there is danger the same dried food, the latter, though O J rl "
of losing the seed from drying, heating it makes less milk, would last a longer TO THE TIMES-UNION JOB ROOMS
This journ will have for its leadingobject
the piromotion of rural industries in Florida, and
will advocate especially a more diversified and
intensive system of agriculture and greater
economy oflhome resources.
Assuming that the agriculturaloadaptations of
a large portion of Florida are as.yet but imper-
fectly understood. a special aim of this journal
will be to desbriibe the best reomults which have
been accomplished. with the exact metbods em-
ployed, and all iaruences affecting such reastas;
atMo t:o inCagezt evperment., desenhe newor little
known cro|r., trails, etc., and re-cord the progress
nof agriultiu-re in ncitgnbring states.
Commencing with the first number and con-
tinuing through he caso for.afor
Thern will be a series of articles on fruits-eother
than tho e of the citrus group-which have
proved mort 6uc.:es-ful in ilis State. Each va-.
nrely V edl ribLd and .
And there will be notes from persons who have
.had experience in its cultivation. This will' be
followed by a similar series on
An d other subjects will be illustrated to a limited
Much attention will be devoted to
And to the home production of forage andtertil
zers, two economies which are essential to sueac
Questions relative to ailments of domestic
animalswill be answered by an able veterinary
surgeon who formerly edited alike deportment
Turf, Field and Farm.
A due amount of space will be devoted
household economy and to reports of the ma-
kets, and the departments of
will be contributed to by persona who have made
specialties of those branches.
All portions of the State will receive a due
amount of attention, and their interests will be
represented by able correspondents.
Under no circumstances will thisjournal be-
come the "organ" of any associationor locality.
It will start out untrammelled and will repre-
sent all sections and interests with absolute im-
Published at Jacksonville on Wednesday
of each week.
PRICE OF SUBSCRIPTION:
One Year PG.
Six Months ...................... 1 00
Three Months so
SPECIMEN COPIES BRaz.
Address subscriptions and other business com-
C. H. JONES & BRO.,
Communications for the editorial department
should be addressed to
A. H. CURTISS, Editor,
DEVOTED TO THE
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. APRIL 13, 1887.
The Floria Farmer and Fruit Grower,
A. MH. CURTISS, Editor.
C. H. JONES & BROTHER, PUBLISHERS.
Office Cor. Bay and Laura S
THE FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUI1
GROWER Is an eight page 48 column illustra
ted weekly newspaper, devoted to the Farm
Garden, Orchard and Household Economy
and to the promotion of the agricultural and
industrial interests of Flori da. t is published
Terms of Subscription.
For one year........... S 2.0
For six months 1.0
Clubs of five to one address..................... 7.5
With daily TIMES-UNION one year ...... 11.0
With daily TIMES-UNION4, six months 6.0(
With WEEKLY TIMES, one year...... .. 2.7Z
.a-Subscrlptions in all cases cash in ad
vance, and no paper continued after thi
expiration of the time paid for. The date on
the printed label with which the papers anre
addressed is the date to which the subscrip
tion is paid and is equivalent to a receipt for
payment to that date; if the date is not
changed immediately after a new payment
the subscriber will please notify us at once.
CORRESPONDENCE solicited on all sub
Jets pertaining to the topics dealt with In
this paper. Writers may affix such signature;
to their articles as they may choose, butmust
furnish the editor with their full name and
address, not for publication but as a guarantee
ofgood faith. Rejected communications can-
not be returned.
ADVERTISEMENTS inserted to a limited
extent.. Rates furnished on application.
REMITTANCES should be made by Check,
Postal Note Money Order, or Registered
Letter, to order of
C. H. JONES & BRO.,
TABLE OF CON~ENTS.
FRST- PAGE-The Guava in Florida; Plantin
the Guava, Preserving, etc.; A Fruit of tlh
Future: The Cattley Guava in Polk Coufit
S(Illustrated); Pears Free from Blight; Insec
Enemies of the Grape; Some Intertsting Sug
gestions; Kaffir Corn; Cow Peas for Foddei
Sorghum for Ensilage.
SECOND PAGz-Bermuda Grass in Orchards; Th
Canning Industry; Experience with Cassava
Queer Behavior of Peach Trees; The Flowe
Business; To Keep Bugs off Melons; Gree
Cabbage Worms. etc.
TmaRD PAGE-Hammocks and Marsh Lands
Thinning Corn; Shallow Culture forCorn; Th
Value of Wood Ashes; A Hint on Plowing
Cassava or Mandioca; Large Crops of Cotton
per Acre; Advantages of Ensilage; Home
made Fertilizers, etc.
FouTHz PAGE (Editorial)-Southern Forestry
Congress; Florida's Agricultural College
Concerning the Railroads; The Fruit.Ex-
change; Not an, UnInixed Blessing; Agricul-
tural Colleges, etc.
F.iTHn PAGE-(Edited by Helen Harcourt);Ou,
Home, Circle; Cosy Corner; The Family Friend
Our Young Folk's Corner.
SIXT PAGE-Hygiene on the Farm; Setting -
S Horse's Broken Leg;, Disuse of Horses' Shoes;
.Care of Extracted Honey; Diseases of Poultry,
SEVEzTs-PAGE-A Love Song; An Astral Body;
Among. he T'linkites; Drink and Learning;
Inks thatFade; Errors Concerning the Wea-
ther; Private Police in Europe; Physical and
Physical Activity; A Nice Present, etc.
S I, SEHr PAGE-State News in Brief; On the
Blackwater River; Botanical Notes; Electric
Railways; Speed of Circular Saws; April
Weather Record; The Orange, Cotton and To-
bacco Markets and the Wholesale and Retail
SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS.
We are in receipt of a pamphlet con-
taining the able address delivered at the
last session of the Forestry Congress, at
DiFuniak Springs, by its President,
Hon. C. R. Pringle, of Georgia.
The officers elected for the present
year are as follows: '
President, Hon. A. 0. Lane, of Bir-
mingham, Ala.; Vice-Presidents, Col. E.
L. McDennel, of Tennessee, and Col. M.
J. ('Shaughnessy, of Huntsville, Ala.;
Treasurer, Sydney Root, Esq., of At-
lanta, Ga.; Secretary, Mrs. Ellen Call
Long, of Tallahassee, ,Fla,
The place selected for the next meeting
is Huntsville, Ala.
FLORIDA'S AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.
In view of the wonderful increase of
popular interest in educational matters
which is manifested at the South, we
consider that this theme deserves con-
siderable space in a progressive journal
like the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER. In
ante-bellum times it was considered that
only "gentlemen'ssonse" needed a college
education at the South, and it would
have been considered demeaning to at-
tend an industrial school. But. times
have changed, and now popular senti-
ment decrees that even the negroes shall
have a good schooling, while agricultu-
ral and mechanical colleges have become
the boast of every Southern State-ex-
Unfortunately for this State, when the
question of locating her agricultural col-
lege under the United States endowment
law came up for decision, her Legisla-
ture, like that of nearly every other South-
ern State at that time, was controlled by
men whose chief object was public plun-
der. Hence resulted the monumental
folly of locating and erecting a college
building on an almost inaccessible coast.
It was a shabby building, but, of course,
an expensive one, exposed, with its ad-
jacent "farm," to the full sweep of At-
lantic winds aad gales. It would have
been cruelty to have exposed children to
the mosquitoes which swarm within its
walls. At the time it was built, Eau
Gallie was as difficult of access from the
populous portions of the State as Cape
Sable is to-day, and it would now be no
less absurd to erect a collegiate building
at Cape Florida.
In this manner the State Treasury was
robbed, if we have been correctly in-
formed, of $80,000. It may have been
more or less, but political job work is
enormously expensive, as everyone
knows. The Eau Gallie building proba-
bly cost not to exceed $5,000, but as the
locality was well nigh "out of' the
world" in those days,the contractors were
free from the annoyance of public obser-
vation. In this manner the youths of
Florida were debarred the privileges of
an agricultural college for nearly a score
of years. The men who were instru-
mental in thus robbing the rising gener-
ation of such privileges ought to have
their memory kept green, as that of Guy
Fawkes was in England.
In these virtuous times when the Leg-
islature inclines to be parsimonious of
the public funds, there may be no need tourists say, "We will be equally stiff
e of bringing up matters like the above as as to patronizing those roads. The
- a warning against corrupt legislation, Western roads deserve to be rewarded
a but there is no other way of apologizing for their liberality. Ho, for Californial"
for the backwardness of this State in As to freights, there are no concessions
the matter of agricultural education. It except to competition, which results
was only a few years ago that a build- favorably to some sections and ,detri-
ing (fit for occupancy) was provided for mentally to others. "Care and prompt-
the purposes of an agricultural college, ness" are words used to adorn advertise-
and for lack of funds it has never .ments. There is the much boasted Dis-
amounted to more than a preparatory patch line, which has had so large a
school. We believe the buildings were patronate from the fruit growers. At
s erected with the accumulated interest on has had its newspaper organ and its rep-
t the fund apportioned to this State by the resentative at every fruit growers'
act of Congress of 1861, and that the an- meeting, striving by words to make itself
nual interest on the same constitutes the appear the bona fide super-extra best
only reliable income of the institution, friend of the people.' We have watched
As the apportionment was based on re- the loading of its cars for hours on a
presentation in Congress in 1860, the rainy day as car after car was.packed
endowment of the Florida college was with water-soaked crates of oranges,
necessarily small, and is probably no when a little care would have kept them
more than sufficient to pay the current all dry.
expenses of an ordinary high school. We In a letter lying before us, written by
are not in possession of exact figures and a gentleman in Hillsborough county, we
facts, and shall ask one of the faculty to note the following paragraph: "The
favors with an exact account of the pre- Florida Dispatch line requires 22 days to
sent status of the college at Lake City. carry oranges from here to Milwaukee,
From all we know of the institution or 20 from Cedar Key. This of course is
we are convinced that it can never be an outrage, and we hope for something
of any benefit to Florida's agricultural better by the time we have much to
interests without liberal assistance from ship." .
the State. If there are any lands that "I am thankful," continues the same
have not been given away to railroad writer, "that you are independent and
corporations we would be in favor of are working for the people, and I hope
reserving and setting apart every acre of the people will have backbone enough
it for the benefit of this college. Other- to sustain you. It will be a grand thing,
wise we see no means of developing the if not a wonder, to* find one paper un-
institution except by appropriations trammeled, and free from the power of
by eaih Legislature, and as differ- monopolies." '
ent Legislatures vary in intelligence and And we in turn hope that the coming
liberality, and as the condition of the legislature will have backbone enough
State's finances variesfrom year to year to do the very utmost that lies within its
it appears to us that Florida's agricul- constitutional power to correct the ex-
tural college is destined to a rather weak tortionate practices of our railroads.
existence. And as this sort of backbone is cohiposed
If the conditions of the case be differ- largely of nerve force derived from con-
ent and the prospects brighten, we shall stituencies, let the people bear in mind
undoubtedly receive a statement to that that they still have a duty to-perform-f
effect, and shall be most happy to lay one which did not cease when the ballot
the same before our readers. Mean- was cast.
while we present them with a statement
of facts relative to the agricultural in- THE FRUIT EXCHANGE. a
stitutions of neighboring States, hoping
that it may arouse some additional in-
terest in subject which at the present How it May Better Serve the
mile, while south of there they are
charged 5 cents per mile.
"It is worth while to mention in this
connection," says the Times- Union, "that
the trans-continental railroads carry
tourists to California and return at the
average rate of rather less than one cent
per mile. We are quite confident that
an equally low rate to Florida would pay
the railroads a great deal better than
their present high rate-if not for the
regular tickets, then for great popular
excursions on fixed dates. But nothing
can be done until the S. F. and W. con-
sents to accept its pro rate along with
the other roads."
From this showing we think our
Massachusetts -correspondent will per-
ceive that it is not altogether the con-
sideration of shekel-saving that turns
the winter tourists towards California.
People have a great aversion to extortion,
and when it is found that the Southern
railroads are so stiff in their charges,
has animportantbeaingneach Interests of and a few timely and pertinent articles
time has an important bearing on each Interests of Shippers. on the subject calling attention to the
State's agricultural advancement. Editor Florida Fannerand .uit- Grower: injustice of the corporations in their
As it is much easier to find fault than dealings with individuals will eventually
CONCERNING THE RAILROADS, to apply the proper remedies, perhaps a prepare the reading public for united
few words may bring out the opinions action.
The following communication comes of those competent to advise. When Let us, then, each take our position
from a correspondent in Eastern Massa- the Fruit Exchange was inaugurated and use our ififluence, be it much or lit-
chusetts: one feature was apparently overlooked, tie, in opposition to oppression and mo-
That was the formidable opposition it nopoly, and with a medium to advance
"Are not the railroads leading to Flor- was to meet with from the commission our ideas, keep it before the people that
ida 'killing the goose that laid the golden men. it is neither economy nor justice to pay
egg?' I was reminded of that unfortu- That the business of the Exchange has double prices for single service, let the
nate procedure on reading an advertise- been managed by its officers as well as demand come from whatever source it
ment-one of twenty or thirty I have it was possible under the circumstances, may.
seen this season-of an excursion from I have no doubt. The fault was not COQUINA.
Boston to California and return at a with them, but the work laid out for Q
rate so reduced that at the same them was impracticable. In other words, AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES.
rate a trip to Florida and back would the mouthful was too large to properly
cost only $86, instead of $65" or $70 as masticate. They tried to swallow it--
now."Human nature ad human pockets whole and got choked. The Exchange, The Resources of the South for
being as they areis it anything stra instead of being a medium between the Agricultural Education.
that neither climate, nor fruits, nor wasntagonisd gains t th e latter, and In a report on Agricultural Colleges
hotels cause the great change in the tide was acting as middleman between the and experimental stations recently pub-
of travel, but only shekels and enter- oracting aproducers middleman between the listed by the government of Canada, we
praise? And is it not a pity to slaughter onge ortho andunot edsmalldeo ler a find a concise statement of the use
this valuable goose?" the North, and not held responsible for which has been made in various States
We suppose the folks residing near Had the Exchange been supported by Congf thress for suofthe appropriationes madein 1861.
the "hubof the universe" know little all shippers in Florida, and were they No mention is made ot Florida, but the
of affairs at the periphery of the wheel. able to attend to and' managethe di other Southern States receive attention.
The State of Florida has given to the have gone well, but that was the al ck We shall quote such portions as pertain
railroad companies snch extraordinary which split them in pieces. There are grida is natually assowited, rserving for
privileges and emoluments that they very many old and reliable commission the next number the two States in
seem- to have settled down to the con- houses that have been in business a long which the experimental system has been
eviction thatshe has madea goose of her- time,I have land-large experience in hand- best developed :
viction that she has made a goose of her- ling fruit, and a long list of customers. best developed :
self, and so they pluck her remorselessly. The Exchange tried to set them aside. FOUNDATION OF THE FUND.
Some might say, served her right for al- with what success is best known to our In the year 1861 the Congress of the
lowing railroads five cents mileage on orange growers who suffered thereby. United States, having in view the impor-
What seems to be most needed is good tance of encouraging the development
passengers and proportionate rates on reliable agents to act between the orange and progress in that country of the two
freight; but we of the present genera- growers and commission men at the great departments of industry,passed an
tion do not liketo be plucked of our sub- North, and to weed out the swindlers, act which provided for the endowment
stance and to see visitors turn away be- That was one of the main arguments in of a college of agriculture and mechanic
stancefavor of the Exchange when it was arts in each State of the Union, by mak-
cause there is a sharp dog at the gate. started. Our large producers understood ing a large grant of public lands for
The Times-Union has made some the situation, and knew their men at that purpose. The quantity apportioned
startling disclosures the past winter, the North. Although they took many to each State was equal to 300.000 acres
It has shown by figures carefully com- shares of Exchange stock, it was about for each senator and representative in
It has shown by fgues carefully corn-all -the "stock" they ever took in the Congress to which such State was res-
piled, and which stand unchallenged as concern. pectively entitled by the apportionment
to correctness, that tourists to Florida- Let the auction sales be discontinued, under the census of 1860. The Act pro-
those who come to Jacksonville from the and have the Exchange attend to the vided that the whole of the money re-
North-re txed 5 per head! t shipping of fruit, freight rates, dispatch, ceived from the sale of these lands
North-are taxed $5 per head! It has etc., at this end of the line. Select good should be invested in safe securities, and
shown that north of the Florida border and reliable commission men to attend the interest only used for the mainten-
railway travellers are charged 2 cents per to the receiving and proper disposal of ance of the several institutions. The
the fruit at the North; hold prices steady
and not try to force the market. Then
we would have a steady market and
honest returns. Have the main office of
the Exchange at Jacksonville, and
agents at all important shipping points
recommended by shareholders in their
respective localities. Reduce shares to a
minimum; let every fruit grower hold a
share, not as an investment, but to rep-
resent his interest and voice in the Ex-
With our Fruit Exchange in Florida
and our commission men at the North,
all .working together harmoniously,
without friction, confidence would be
restored, and Florida would enter on an
era of prosperity which would surprise
our most enthusiastic "Florida boom-
R. J. W.
TANGERINE, March 27, 1887.
NOT AN UNMIXED BLESSING.
A- New Railroad Doubles on
Former Rates of Freight.
Editor ?Forada Farmer and F-uit-Grower:
The readers of your paper may be in-
terested in knowing how the residents
of New Smyrna and vicinity are bene-
fitted by being in possession of a bran
new railroad which has been in process
of construction for the past year, and
which promised so much for those of us
who contributed of our means and prop-
erty to advance the railroad's interests
and thereby our own.
In conversation with a merchant of
this place a few days ago upon the facil-
ity of receiving freights, etc., I was
much surprised to hear that the rates
are greatly in excess of those by other
lines. A perceptible rise in prices of
some of the staple articles of merchan-
dise called my attention to the fact that
the rates of freight were unwarranted.-
A consignment of goods from Jack-
sonville consisting of nine packages em-
bracing the following articles, bne bar-
rel beans, one barrel sugar, four barrels
grits two barrels meal and one case of
canned goods, required the great amount
of $6.16 to satisfy the claims for trans-
portation. When it is considered that
with but one exception all were barrels,
the average of 80 cents per package is
exorbitant to say the least, especially
when former rates were but 40 cents per
barrel. From the itemized freight bill
the charges from Blue Springs to New
Smyrna werethe same as from Jackson
ville to Blue Springs.
No doubt the railroad managers are
copying from their Western brethren
in demanding all the commodities will
bear. But is this good policy? If rail-
roads are intended to benefit the people,
now is just as good a time to receive the
benefits as later. It is to be hoped the (
Inter-State Commerce law, which is to
take effect in the North and West April f
1st, will strike Florida sooner or later. l
With reduced passenger rates and an
equitable and right' tariff Floriida, will
build up in spite. of the efforts of Cali-
fornia to secure the majority of the win- s
Railroads, like machinery in motion, V
are good servants but oppressive masters, v
and to secure the best results for the t
public they should'be kept under strict c
surveillance and control of the State
from whom their charter emanated.
When the'day arrives that the people
rule instead of monopolists, life will be b
ess of a burden and the few will not b
flourish at the expense of the .many. 1
The cost of building railroads in Florida i
s small compared to the same distance sl
n the .North, and there is no tangible s8
eason why -such exorbitant charges b
should be made for either freight or E
passage as is done at the present time. I
Public opinion has much to do with e:
he methods employed by the railroads, ,
States were required to furnish the nec- have not the mental powers of a Bona-
essary land for the colleges, and no por- parte, but it is our duty to improve the
tion of the fund could be spent in the talents that God has given us, and'to use
purchase, erection or repair of any them to the best of our ability, for the
building or buildings. These must be benefit of our'fellow beings. I
supplied by the State or by the liberality It is necessary that we have lawyers,
of the towns and cities near which the doctors, ministers, merchants, etc., but
institutions were to be located. remember for health and substantial
In this way the foundation was laid wealth, for rare opportunities for self-
for the providing of a substantial and improvement, long life and real in-
permanent fund for the maintenance of dependence, farming is the best business
each college ; 9,600,000 acres of land in the world..
were appropriated, from the sale of which I have heard many say that farming
a fund of nearly $9,000,000 has accumul- will do very well for uneducated-people.
ated, with a considerable quantity of who have not the brains for anything
land still unsold. The aggregate of the, nobler or grander, but there is no nobler
value of grounds, building and apparatus or grander vocation, and none that brains
was given in 1882 at $6,531 844, making i can be applied to with better results than
a grand total of over fifteen and a half-1 farming.-Charles J. Beardsley.
millions of dollars devoted to furthering, .
the development of these great national Hints to Correspondents.
The Georgia State College of Agricul-
ture and Arts is a branch of the State
University, and is local ed at Athens
The endowment fund from sale of ag-
ricultural lands amounts to $242,202,
which yields an annual revenue of about
$15,000. This is divided between sev-
eral institutions, to be presently refer-
red to,the State College receiving $8,000.
The land, buildings and appliances are
valued at $50,000.
A full course of instruction is given in
agriculture, horticulture, botany, ento-
mology, &c. There is also an -experi-
mental farm connected with the Univer-
sity, where the students receive prac-
tical instruction. Many very valuable
experiments have been conducted on
this farm with different sorts of cotton
and corn, and the effects of fertilizers
on the crops recorded. A large chemical
laboratory, with all the necessary appli-
ances, affords ample opportunities for
the study of this branch of science, es-
pecially in its relation to agriculture.
There is also a museupn of agricultural
There are three other smaller agricul-
tural colleges in Georgia, each of which
receives $2,000 annual from the en-
dowment fund. They are known as
the North Georgia Agricultural College,
located at Dahlonega'; the Middle Geor-
gia Military and Agricultural College,
at Milledgeville ; the Southwest Georgia
Agricultural College, at Cuthbert ; and
the South Georgia Agricultural College,
at Thomasville. 'These all provide in-
struction in agriculture, horticulture
and kindred subjects.
The fund derived from the national
and grant, amounting to $191,800, has
been invested in State bonds, and the in-
terest, $11,500, is divided equally be-
tween the South Carolina College of Ag-
riculture and Mechanics, at Uolumbia,
for whites, and the Claflin College, at
)rangeburgh, for colored people.
In addition to a course of lectures, a
farjm is attached to the Columbia Col-
ege, where students acquire a practical
acquaintance with fa ming operations
inder a skilled agriculturist.
The college at Claflin also gives in-
truction in agriculture, and has a farm
of 116 acres with suitable outbuildings,
valued in all, at $10,000. The main
rork, however, of this institution seems
o be the primary education of colored
The Agricultural and Mechanical Col-
ege of Alabama is situated near Au-
burn. The quantity of land occupied is 3
00 acres. .The cost of the main build- E
ing was $65,000. There are separate
structures for chemical laboratory, work-
hops, &c., the total value of grounds,
buildings and apparatus being $100,000.
endowmentt fund from sale of public
hands, $258,500. Total revenue $22,500; h
expenses about the same.
Practical agriculture in its different
ranches, and an experimental field of t
wenty acres is devoted to the testing I
f fertilizers and experiments in the t
cultivation of field crops, fruits and I
owers. The course of study covers
our years, but very few of the students
main long enough to graduate. The e
students in the scientific and mechanical d
apartments greatly outnumber those u
ursuinz agriculture. I
Water in California.
Circumstances alter cases. There is
o more common expression than "free t]
s air and water," and yet in California a
Lyone who can secure a good water tj
ght has property that is worth $1,000 p
n hour. It is much better than a gold n
.ine. The San Francisco Chronicle says h
iat in distributing water for irrigating o
irposes in Southern California, it is v
ilculated that one inch of water will f,
office for ten acres. One thousand dol- m
rs per inch is the average value affixed c
the title to water, or at the rate of h
.00 per acre, although sales are daily c:
ade at from $150 to $400 per acre, said" d
nds being absolutely worthless without n
after. At this figure, the value of water
San Diego county aggregates the enor-s
ous sum of $1,800,000,000, while the b
ater of Los Angeles county, where the
lue is $8,000 per inch, is worth $2,- c
How True Success is Won. p'
To young men in moderate circumn- m
ances who have to think and act for fl
emselves, time and money are valuable ti
.d should not be spent in acquiring an se
ucation more ornamental than useful. th
rave that to young men with soft bands al
occasionally soft brains also), who Bs
uld not harness a horse or make a bill lil
sale, if their lives were at stake on of
The most successful men in our coun- l
y are those who in early life, and in- cl
ed all along, depended on themselves, 0
d whose parents were in humble or of
not more than well-to-do circumstan- of
s and generally tillers of the soil. st
Rural surroundings in youth are con- c
cive to developing individuality in si
mankind. On a large measure every
an makes his own circumstances.
circumstances? said Napoleon, "I d(
>ke my own circumstances. All men
The readers of the FLORIDA FARMER
AND FRUIT-GROWER are respectfully in-
vited to contribute to its columns articles
and notes on all subjects pertaining to
the farm, garden, orchard and house-
hold affairs. The range of topics which
will be discussed in this journal may be
gathered from the subjoined table, which
may serve to suggest what might other-
wise escape attention:
Clearing land, draining land, crops for
new land, succession of crops, intensive
farming, treatment of different -soils,
resting land, soiling vs. pasturing, cow .
penning, green manuring. *
Horses, mules, cattle, hogs, sheep,
poultry-Breeds, feed, diseases, treat-
Cotton seed, cotton seed meal, barn-
yard manure, guano, ground bone, su-
per-phosphate, gypsum, lime, kainit,
ashes, marl, muck, leaf mould, com-
posts. FORAGE CROPS ., "
Bermuda .grass, crabgrass, Para grass -
Guinea grass, Terrell grass, orchard
grass, red-top grass, Johnson grass, Texas .
blue grass, pearl millet, German millet,
millo maize, kaffir corn, teosinte, sorg-
hum, fodder corn, cow peas, desmodi-
urn, Mexican clover, lespedeza, alfalfa,
Corn, oats, -rye, wheat-Varieties,
yield per acre, soil and season, difficul-
ties encountered, general treatment.
Cotton-Long and Short Staple-Plant-
ing and culture, marketing :crop, man-
agement of seed, products from the
Sngar Cane and Sorghum-Varieties,
culture, making syrup and sugar, condi-
tion of market. ,
Tobacco-Varieties, history in Florida,
recent experiences, seed, culture manu-
Citrus Fruits-Comparison of varie
ties, hardiness and productiveness, meth-
ods of propagation, methods of planting
and culture, comparative effects of fer-
tilizers, marketing of fruit, preservation -
of fruit wine and other products.
Peach, pear, fig, persimmon, Japan
plum, Kelsey plum, native plum, mul- ---
berry, quince, apricot, guava, :banana,
pineapple sapodilla, mango, avocada,
pear, cocoanut, pecan, English walnut,
almond, pomegranate, olive, grape,
strawberry, blackberry, raspberry-Va
rieties, their characteristics, effects of
soil, weather, etc., best methods of
Plants adapted to this climate, out-
door culture, management of green-
NATIVE TREES AND HERBS.
Planting trees for ornament or utility,
he burning over of forest lands, the
umber and turpentine industries, the
manning industry, phenomena of plant
ife, weeds and noxious plants.
N. B.-Specimens may be sent to the
ditor for identification. Information is
desired respecting popular names and
NSECT ENEMIES AND FUNGOID DISEASES..
Nature of damage done and remedies.
Bees and bee plants, silk culture and
he mulberry, hunting and fishing, dogs
nd dog laws, fences and roads, legisla-
ion for farmers, homestead laws, trans-
ortation, marketing produce, experi-
mental farms, agricultural education,
ome manufactures, natural history
f Florida, historic points, sanitary ad-
ice, farm buildings, house furnishing,
arm machinery, farm implements,
water supply, cooling appliances, re-
ipes for cooking, home decorations,
household economy, mineral and earths,
limatology, hints on the care of chil-
ren, on dress, habits, reading, amuse-
In treating of the above and related
objects, practical expArience is much to
e preferred to theoretical know,
dge; yet there are topics needing dis-
ussion which have to be treated of
om a somewhat theoretical stand-
In describing any method of experi-
nent it is desirable that all external in-
uences be explained; for example, in
ie case of a crop, the character of the
'ason, of the soil, of the sub-soil and A
he method of planting and cultivating, "
l have an important bearing on the re-
alt. Bare statements of results are of
ttle value, though they may be worthy
We do not desire letters written mere-
* in praise of special localities unless
aims to favor are based on the products
r productiveness of the soil. Articles
an animated or vivacious style are de-
rable by way of variety, but practical
atements and descriptions should be
oncise and as much to the point as pos-
All communications for the editorial
apartment should be addressed to
EDITOR FARMER AND FRUIT-GEOWER.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. APRIL 13, 1887. 117
sewed the top and bottom to the frame, made of pale blue or cream colored can- young cousins not to try stories at all a pound; cream of tartar, half teaspoon- Queens.
ur f ytf i*. by passing the twine through the bag- ton flannel trimmed Pith antique lace, yet awhile. Write, first of all, abaut ful. Bees and ueens,
L_ V_ going, around the frame, and drawing it or with velvet ribbon feather sticthed real things and real people and real Do not stir; let it boil slowly; when
Sas tight as possible, the sides, of course, on, and finished with fringe made of places, and leave the "made-up" stories done, it will harden if dropped in cold Orders will be booked now for delivery dur-
HELEN HARCOURT. Editor. received the same treatment, and the re- split zephyr or Shetland wool. for the old folks, for they require knowl- water; pour into buttered tins. ing April, May or June, of my superior race
sult was a fine "taut" foundation for our SPANISH LACE, TO CLEAN edge and experience that the little ones BUTTER-SCOTCH-NO. 2. of pure
With a helping hand and a Welcome for all machine to work upon, looking not un- following by experience we know them. One cup of butter, one cup of sugar,
Who wish to be friendly and make us a call; like the miniature sacking-bottom of a Th e pin e we knoe it t s out yo your one cup of molasses. Boil (and stir) till pte1itn
With words of good counsel fo old friendand bed, with the inch e to v be good. To one pint of strong coffee homes and real things. The stories will c m aeB ans
With words of good counselor old re nds and bed, with the inch of twine space to givleft from breakfast, put one tablespoon coie later on, perhaps. it hardens in cold water, then spread it nt Tes ad Qu
Who come to us seeking the bestwaytodo. hen, with a basket of odds and aqua ammonia, wash the lace in this, But here is Gracie's, for this once: thin in buttered pans and cut it intoalty
All questions of general interest will be ends of cotton rags at our feet, we took after which dip it in skim milk to which Dear Cousin Helen: squares. specialty
answered through these columns, our first stitch on our new mat, the frame has been added one-third water. Stretch I thought I would write a little story Give me a trial order.
when accompanied by stamp for resting against the wall; in and out ran the ace out on pillow, bed or carpet per- this week, and see if you would have OTICE. For prices or other information,.address
Subscribers are cordially invited to take a needle and loop-spring-click, click, fectly smooth, leave till dry, and you room to put it in your paper. I do not
seat in our Cosy Corner, and exchange views, click, click, and after a while we turned will be rewarded with a piece of lace as expect you will think it is very nice, as -- NC T
experiences and recipes of mutual benefit, the'frame round, and looked to see what good as new. it is my first attempt to write a story. I '.TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN:. .
.Communications intended for publication we had accomplished, and there nestled A CHEAP AND SIMPLE FLUID FOR REMOV- will stop now, as I want to write my Eustis, Orange Co., Fla.
must be brief. clearly written, and only on several rows of loops, of mingled colors, ING GREASE SPOTS FROM WOOLEN story, which I hope you will print Sixty days after the first publication of this
mutne bieof, e paerly notice application will be made to, the Legis.
All matter relating to this department pretty and neat enough to satisfy any- CLOTHS Good by now; from nature of Florida, or the passage of a charter
should be added to ths depatmen ne is made by dissolving one ounce of crys- Your little cousin, of the Florida Fruit Exchange" whereby FLORIDA FERTILIZING GO.
EDITOR OUR HOME-CIRcLE, It had been an experiment heretofore, talized carbonate of ammonia in one GRAIE MURDEN. the cap ital stock may he increased Dollars; therum
Fla. Farmer and Fruit-Grower, now it was an assured fact that we were pint of water. Scour the fabric with a' GRANDMA'S STOR value of shares to e reduced from One Hn- E. PAINE, PRESIDENT.
Montclair, Flat.g to hv a "shua 'nuff" door-mt a' dred Dollars to Ten Dollars Der share; to al-
goingoag to have n a "shuh 'nuff" door at piece of cloth or sponge wet in the solu- "Grandma I grandma I" I hear a voice low the corporation to purchase and convey l ..
Before, we went any further we laid the rin .loraa lo the coo,.,. to puchs an.dey
rfre wn ont fr, ad wth tion, and let the cloth dry in the air. A sweet to my ears calling, and I rouse such real and personal property as may be Florida Orange Food per ton....... .......00
Our Cosy Corner. frame down on the floor, and with a grease spot removed by this method myself from my afternoon nap and 0o deemed necessary to its usefulness, includ- Florida Vegetable Food per ton......... 28.00
small oval waiter, traced an oval in the g p o thsmehd myef + fhe tr on n anpnd. g tag vehicles of transportation; to lease or
A MOTHER'S PRAYER. centre of the sacking, and then two never returns. to open t oor. n opening to my erect buildings for storage of produce, and Analysis: Bone Phosphate of Llme,. 8per
mr rovals insd of thefirs. TO REMOVE LEATHER STAINS FROM surprise I see not only my little grand- advance on produce; to manufacture and sell cent.; Sulphate of Potash 12 per cent.; Mag-
more ovals inside of the first. daughter Dotty, as I expected, but three such materials as may be useful to fruit grow- nesia, 6 percent. Lime, soda and other va-
By Dora Dean. Finally, out of our oats-sack and cot- TOC d little girls of about hr si ers and gardeners,, and generally to transact able ingredients.
Drat 13 years of age.) t i i tt-e e girls si z..e. such business as may be for the Interest of
(Writtenatyearsofage.) tonrags, there evolved a remarkably Soak the stockings in tepid water, with her. members and others connected with fruit
What is there on the earth more rich and rare pretty door mat that promises to be rubbing in soap; do this over night; They had been running, and were growing and kindred pursuits, and for such -TTI.
Than the hallowed boon of a mother's prayer, durable and serviceable, with a red, then wash out and rinse well in clean quite breathless. Finally Dotty caught other powers and privieges as may be deemed iJJ, UON 'AlIVPLE gUP,
As it gushes forth from her heart in love, whiteand blue centre, and mixed colors warm water; lay the stockings flat on her breath, and exclaimed: necssaryand FAIRBANKS, Before decide where to go n SOUTH
outside the oval, a mat that attracts the wash-board, soap the stained parts "Grandma, this is Molly Dawson and GEO. H. NORRIS, FLORIDA, send for a sample copy of,
Where God in His majesty reigns supreme, universal attention and admiration, well, then roll into hard rolls, commenc- LT6y Myers and Annie Ames; and, oh, D. GRBENLEAF, THE ORANGI GROVE.
It falls on his earlier a golden beam, soft, thick and close, and it did not cost ing at the toe. Boil for six or eight grandma, please do tell us a story, won't TW' .MoRo You will find better and cheaper bargains in
Smile when they hear a mother's prayer, a penny, and less than two days work. hours, frequently changing the water you, grandma?" J. P MITCHELL MAATEE Count in groves, farms, ranches of
We lined it with an old piece- of felt and always adding cold water; when And out of breath by this long seech WM: E. STANTO, any size. Buildinglots on railroad, river or se-
For they know when the judgment day shall druget otherwise .useless, letting throughout of beath by this ong eech, ROBT BULLOCK, side. The proprietor of "The Orange Grove is
oedrugget, otherwise useless, letting thoroughly boiled wash out in cold she sat down in her little chair an gave RB. M. BAEROCK an "old timer but neither moss backed or &ide
Calling us all to our final home. scalloped edges project beyond the water and hang to dry, if Balbriggan wae to such a comical sigh that it made Board o'f Directors, bound; he is here to stay and '"There is millions
In the great Life Book, in letters fair, mat. manufacture, in a dark room;. if ordi- the others laugh quite heartily. Florida Fruit Exchange. in it." Thres Millions of Acres on his Books.
Will stand recorded a mother's prayer. We noted an item in a paper the other nary British hose, then in the open air. "I am very glad to see you, little girls; Jacksonville. Fla., February 16, 1887 Address, THE GROVE, LIVERPOOL, FLA.
S God made this earth beautiful, fair and bright, day, that ragmen were wanted in Gaines- This recipe will not do for lisle thread or and so you want me to tell you a story?
And filled it with pleasures for man's delight; ville. If there were any more treasures for colored American or French hosiery. Well, what shall I tell you about ?" -- -
But there is naught on earthbso rich and rare like ours around the ragmen would haveSOUTHERN GUMBO SOUP "Oh, grandma I exclaimed Dotty, m
As the hallowed boon of a mother's prayer. a hard time of it, for there is not a scrap SOUTHERN MBO SOUP. al abou ae how he sved
cotton, woolen or silk rag that could not Cut up one chicken ad fry i a light te about e, a w e save I
Mbe utilized with ease, and converted into brown, with two slices of bacon. Then eyour well, my dears. And now, fl. T U n-00
Make YOur Own RugS. handsome rugs, mats, chair or table pour on them three quarts of boiling Dot "ery down stairs and tell brother
Taking up an exchange a few weeks covers, to save money and- beautify the water, add one onion and some sweet D do RIrTIN Adown saran Ielbo he
ago, the following paragraph from one home. Much of the work can be done herbs tied up in a bag. Let this all sim- Harry to bringu, your sofa and your RIN NU UIN- HUU
of its subscribers met our eyes: "I wish while sitting in a chair. mer gently three hours and a half. Then lAe rocking chair.
that every one of my sister readers would At this moment we have nearly com- strain off the liquor, skim all the fat; "All right, grandma; come on, girls
get themselves one of the little Novelty pleted a very handsome cover for a par- then put the ham, cut into small pieces, pdtorhappy alth the pros ectl of earning
Rug Machines, for I have one, and would lor chair, made of otherwise "waste" back into the liquor; add half a tea- story they all rus he shelter shelter
not be without it again if it cost ten dol- silk rags, on an oats sack foundation. It cup af okra and half a cup of rice. Boil find broth i a Ti fo d tnn T o T l
lighted with it, and its work, and have durable as any of the expensive chair serving add half a glass of wine and a torry in the kitchen, ut mamma, who
made some rugs for my parlor that only materials on sale, and the more itis used dozen oysters, with their juice, and and soo the sofa and call s up or tem,
cost me two dollars for materials, and the better it will look and wear. serve hot. and soon they were all seated around
are as handsome every bit as one a And on another frame is stretche-l a ORANGE DRESSING FOR FRUIT SALAD. grand knee, patiently waiting to
neighbor has-cost fifty dollars in the handsome regular rug design, in colors, OA G a FOR F I ha -e T
store, a Turkish rug-and mine looks ex- worked in carpet yarns, as thick and Squeeze the juice from three oranges "A lon time ago, when I was a little
actly like it! I cannot tell how much I, handsome as though it had cost $30 or and a lemon. There -should be about girl just ike you, I lived in Salem, Vir-
This is what we read, and the writer So you see that we, too, have reasons more or less, according to the quantity rod, and my.mother used to let my sis-
had only one object in view, to serve her to wish that "all our sister readers had of juice, and the white and shell of an terand 'myself go out and play on the
fellow-housekeepers, just the object to one" Of these simple little clickers We egg. Beat these ingredients together, track [a very queer sort of mother, that I
which our own work is devoted, so it trust that they will soon be advertised in heat them to a boiling point and let them -ED. J and gather wild flowers that grew
Made an impression on us, all the more these columns, but meantime those in- simmer four or five minutes. Strain the near.
so that we had read of these "Rug Ma- terested have only to send us an ad- dressing and let it cool. Arrange sliced "Well, one day we were out playing on
chines," and intended investigating dressed postal card to learn where they oranges and bananas in alternate layers the track, and Rake, our big Newfund-
them, to see if they would "pass exam- can get one for themselves, so as to use and pour the dressing over them. Set land do, was laying near by on the T
nation" in this age of humbugs. up waste material, and add beauty and the salad on ice or in a cool place for an grass, half asleep in the sun.
We have had too much faith in human comfort to their homes, "without money hour or two before serving. "Suddenly 'I heard a rumbling noise
nature several times, and vou the and without price." CASSAVA PUDDING behind me and looking back, I saw the
old "Aroverb "A dog tlhat higg been w. train thundering around the bend just .
scalded with hot water, ia ever after Grate one or.two roots of .cassava into below the house.
afraid of cold .." Answers to Correspondents. a large pudding-pan, pour in enough, "I sprang to my feet, stood-still as if
Oddly'enough, only a day or two after D G. cold water or jilk to make aw Cream petrifiedd for a minute,,then, pushed
rd b s es dos des W., Pinellas and several others, consistency, add one cup of currants, one sister from the track; I then started A T PRICES BELOW COMPETITION
reading the above interested edoe- dere information with regard to presses b flf b
Sand other machinery suited f cup o sugar, one taespoonu of utter, ump, but my foot, caught, and tI fe l.
t-hese very Rug Machines for sale, and a orange wine. The inquiry reaches u. a pinch of salt, a little lemon juice and Rafe saw me fall; he spangup, caught
frame with an oat-sack tacked on it, to s swe go to press, but we will en- grated rind, and bake about one hour. my dress, and dragged me from the track
show how it worked! deavor to give.a satisfactory reply in our CASaVA TAPIOCA. st as the train thundered past the
We are morally certain that, only for next issue. After the roots, are. grated, put on, a "Mther ran out ofl the house calling us.
the said accident of our having seen L. N., New York, inquiry answered quantity of cold water and stir vigor- Iran c in leantdherhwif
them praised by an outsider, we by mail. ously until the starch is well washed i it nto he.fr rand told her how if
should have sent that poor man away in sincere reret th'at we are unable from the pulp, then let it settle for sev- if it hadn been fn or Rafe I would ,A.Lj :r S F
righteous indignation; as it wasyWe We sincerely regret that ae unableralh tor ad p the ate a have been run over. Mother laughed
grasped the said machine, fund wead o report further additionsto te Da asoda with and cried over us, and Rafe had the
caughthe stitch at once, dropped the Fund, having che yet abandon d d tour befaief th at pulp, and scrape out the star h d biggest supper tht ght he eve d ,
little worker in our pocket handed the among our charts ofe ealorida a sufi- has settled on the bottom of te vessel. f ess
and sDread on broad boards to dry. Itg
seller a dollar, and then bohthsad t apreservave. Boys, here is something that may be Uo1eRte tH en -l L D sn
long, with augnd wended our several ways, abe the sufferer forreondent tellswhom our aphepe yellow sreadya fin maduse y the oil sed usefulbyat to know, and practice;
them, sally three inches apart; a set of sisters t o the partial relief on sewing machines thcan be most delicate of And noicew, warm rugs for think of myeet
pletedHow much we are benefited, we will an artificial hand and to send him any ever tried.-Tavare bit of cloth wet know story, my dears? ve" them, SPand keep CIK AND OR BEARING OANGE GROVES
tell you. The first thing we did was to forth, in an humble way, as a peddler. Mix ae carid soonate of soda with the "Spre thinkle some is just splendid, Grand-
get a frame, a very simple affair, four choice som e men yet abandoned our faith in water in which flowers are immersed, ma, don'tthe skins we,girls?" says Dotty, and
strpieces of yellow pin e a half inches, wide would do the kindly hearts f Flrida y, and it willxtupreserve them fr a fortnight they all chime insafe' ALL O AyesDDSS
have san d-papered and varnishe e gfet as good results as from many women black eper in powder, one of brown HOW TO DRESS SKINS. A
inch thick; two of the four, six or seven Common saltpete is also a very good
feet longrame, ran there than stained ito, thforee few who take m washing sugar and one ofoys cream, here is something that may bother
long, with auger holes bored through Put as welcome correspondent tell as our The yellow stain made by the oiled useful to you to know, and practice;
them, ay three inches apart; a set of sisters of the Home Circle of on sewin machines can e removed if, furs make nice warm rugs for the feet
four common iron bolts, with nuts, com- eforewashing in soapsuds, the spots be on cool winter days, so it is well to
pleated the frame, except that being A EASY WAY TO WASH CLOTHING. rube cail ref ully with a bit of cloth wet know how to reserve them, and keep FOB ESTOF HAMOCK LAND OR BARIG ORANGE GROVES
made of common pine, we stained the Altana's letter suggests easy wash- with ammonia, them in good orler till wanted.
strips to imitate black toalnut, hemateri g, as practiced here by many, even Flies are said soon to disappear from Sprinkle some insect powder among
If we had some of our choice some men botchingg it," as it is called, a room containing a plate of the follow- the skins whenyou put them away, and
pieces of yellow. pine at hand, we would do their own washing in this way, and ig mixture: Half a teaspoonful of they will be safe. --CALL oN OR ADDRESS -
haot sand-papered and varnished the get as good results asefrom many women black pepper in powder, one of brown IOW TO DRESS SKINS.
frame, rather than stained it, for few who take in washing. sugar nd one of cream mixed together. Rabbit, rat at, alligator, orany other
woods are more beautiful than the strip- Put as much soap or pearline as you PRESERVING MEATS. skins may be. nicely cured as follows:
ed and grained yellow pine, of which we think will be needed to wash the goods, A pt ino n t s i na br n e
of Florida build our houses and our into cold water; put in also a limited A writer in the Farming Word gies Stretch the skins on a board and scrape A ro R"N ever Te
barns--a fact, by the way, that- th amount of kerosene, but be sure not tohre clean on the flesh sider with a blunt JIi Nf4e vs-rO ( new ande IN L I
northern cabinet makers ae just be- put too much for the soap to neutralize which he says: "It is simple the width of the canvas to leave a FROM FEknDLAWAE and MA every MNDAY, p. m., deTY
ginning to realize, stir up well, then put in makng these, economical, and I have never nin inely powder-F ATLATA and ITY OF COLUMBIA, every WEDNESDAY p.m.
Of course, having our frame made in Then boil fifteen minutes to half an to fail or to give the meat a fresh, sweet d; place there e skins inpairs, flesh side to-he
this way, wecould put it together, by hour. Rinseetonne, cout ou two or three waters, tate:" S STANDING gather, and let them remains a few days; Orm ond and AgeJancy, Fla- S.W. cor.Ba anond.
means of the bolts, and make it of any and the work is done. A. After smoking thoroughly with hick- then stretch and rub with a piece of
edown to the size of an outside door-mat, wael [d to place a bouquet of flt n1 bG Ecry or sassafras wood, each piece is chalk until quite dry and soft.
turnsize or shape desired, to sit the ma terial [Wcentre eachrd of this scaop. Method beforeff scalded by being dipped into boiling An gs our girlscan amuse themselves in ast ast f usa unty
firmly o n the k ewing machine; this was ut have also been informed on good water. The pieces are then dried in the a useful manner by making
There vent fraying orpular designs for rugs, authority that the action of the kerosene un and hung awy in doesti sacks A PHOTO GRAPH PORTFOLIO.production o Fruits and Veetables I you arecom
ottomans, foot stools, lap-robes, and very soon causes the material t become which have been nipped in a thin solu pon the inide of the canvas; then ths Centre of the Lake Region. For further particulars addre,
other things, stand ed in their appropri- tender. Will ourcorrespondent kindly tion of lime water. The lime Ill not A ver eth end c about four and a half
sizate colors upon burlaps and to be work- inform us how far this statement is cor- through to the inside of the sack holding pictures and photographs of NE YORK & FLORIDA ST ley, ClASH P LINCo., on.
edthan with carpet-yarn. Theso b e worked upon. powder mret? xed with an equal quantity of N go but forms a coating on the outside an the pockabinets of tiz e m ay be evolveBind from th e inner I- WEE SE E BETWEEN or
thick, beautiful rugs, like those refereed LAt QUINS. give this weekat a purlittle flastory by a lit- rench canvas (a stiff linen fabri on
to in th strong twine, and proce quoted to fasten ry petty, but inexpensive ambre- the sacusin, beca use antit is her first a ound the remaining four edges with BankDrato JOHN TALBO and get Warranty Deed Title
bthare orners of the barrgging" the k nowledge n fin e unbleached muslin into the thin as paste. Put in the se t i e ribbon sar a sit lth,, titching it upon u the mar s perfectd, from the
th e frame, being carefr would condescend to shape TAiL i s. print." It is a nice story for a nine- chine to m ike the case firm and strong. ta rePpint t. s mR.,AN. .ery Ay T.
(novery tight, ansewe d ogether, though), and that scallop being the deepest, yar-old girl to write "allmaking the piece twenty-one inches by nine inches. ATANT. and CITY OF.COL UMIA, every WEDNESDAY p. .
theThe Freight and aenr comoations by this Line are usurped by any shippers all right, we next Inexpensive, yet handsome, may be self," but, as a rule, I would advise my Sugar, one pound; butter, one-third of o. Box 158, Jacksonville, Flori usurped by any ships it.
the space; the corners all right, we next Inexpensive, yet handsome, may be self," but, as a rule, I would advise my Sugar, one pound; butter, one-third of P,. 0. Box 115$, J~acksonvillle, Florida, 89 W. Bay St.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. APRIL 13, 1887.
should endeavor to efficiently protect the
VJ animal-and that 'is, the euffluvium from
the urine aiid dung of the animal, and in
Inquiries concerning diseases of domestic particular the former.
Animals may be addressed to Dr. D. 0. Lyon, That the ammoniacal gas furnished by
,acksonville, Florida, who will answer them the urine of horses(to say nothing of any
through this column, noxious effluvia their dung may emit), is
of an injurious if not poisonous nature,
Hygiene on the Farm. no man will doubt who has ever in his
[Paper Read by N. H. Parren, M. D. at Tex- life entered, the first in the morning, a
as Cattlemen's Convention.] stable containing several horses,the doors
and windows of which have been kept
As much mortality arises among am- all night closely shut up. His eyes will
mals from want of attention to the pres- not fail to convince him should his
ervation of health as from disease itself, breath and smell not inform him, of the
In a domesticated stite all animals are ammoniacal noxionsuess of the confined
more prone to disease than in a natrual atmosphere.
state ; but those that live in closest ap- But can ventilation, however effective,
proximation to a state of nature are still entirely free the stable atmosphere of
greatly disposed to disease. For exam- such gases ? Will the urinous surfaces
pie, sheep live in a nearer approximation and gutters cease to emit them? And
to the naturla state than any other do- would it not be more rational that we
mesticated animals ; and yet from 3 to 6 should look a little to the fumes of im-
per cent,may be taken as the annual loss purity rather than exclusively bestow our
in that c ass alone (besides the lossocca- attention on ventilation ? Does ventila-
sioned by dogs). An animal will not tion remove the stench from any corner
bear wet and cold without injury; and if of the street that may have been used by
he be exposed to such debilitating influ- the passers by as a place of urining ?
ences a larger amount of food will be re- Rather, is not our nose sorely offended
quired. You frequently find that a hog, every time we pass a place of this de-
when fattening, turns sick and refuses to scription, even though it be completely
take his food. Remove the exciting out in the open air. ? Not that for a mo-
cause-over repletion-and you will find ment we should decry ventilation. 2t
him fattening more quickly and in a bet- the same time we cannot but regard it as
ter way than before. a matter not consonant with reason that
Whenever you find land wet, you will we should devise every means of getting
find disease prevalent. In like manner rid of a stenching impurity save that of
you will find disease prevalent where the removing or rendering unproductive the
homesteads are bad, sinking into a hole, source of it.
where the stables and other buildings The great difficulty connected with the
are low, where the cow stalls are dirty, bringing of sheep under closed cover to
and there are no proper means of re- fatten, is to keep them clean when they
moving the excrements and urine, are brought into a confined place. When
Often when there is an inveterate scour collected together.their coats send off a
it will be found on examination that it great quanity of effluvia.. This is of
arises from a filthy stall having that sour more importance than is generally sup-
unwholesome smell which I need not at- posed, and requires that special attention
tempt to describe. -Remove this, leave be given to ample and proper ventilation
the animals merely to nature, and they and general cleanliness of such premises.
will perhaps readily recover. Swine are, Independent ol effluvia, arising from
I know, considered by some to thrive bad air in a stable or other building,
best in filth ; but wash them, give them another fertile source of impurity and
clean straw, attend to their condition, disease is to be found in marshy, damp
and you will find them thrive more than situations. If an animal be fed in a low
animals which are destitute of these ad- situation it is desirable that it should not
vantages. Again, take milch cows, give be left entirely to such a situation ; ex-
-these animals clean beds, remove the cept perhaps, during the heat of the
dung and wet from their straw, comb summer; it will actually get fatter in bet-
their coats,nay, even clothe their bodies, ter situations, though fed from an infe-
. and then you will find that the vital rior kind of food, than"if fed upon rich
heat, minstead-of being wasted is collect- food when exposed to the deleterious in-
ed and laid by in the form of fat or rich- fluence of cold and damp.
er milk. Attention must be given to quantity as
What do we really mean by health ? well as quality of food. Animals will get
This may seem a very simple question to fat upon straw though it contain but a
put, but it is really one of the most diffi- small quantity of nourishment. Feed a
cult questions to answer. Many will horse upon oats alone and he will become
say, perhaps: "We know that our ani- emaciated; give him plenty of straw and
mals are healthy when they are thrifty." he will get fat. This arises from the cir-
But in truth animals may be thrifty with cumstance that in one case there is, and
a mass of disease in their lungs or their in the other there is nota sufficient bulk.
liver. The condition of the disease may for the digestive organs to act upon.
be such as'to prevent them from thriving. Hence arises thefactthat all animals ap-
To say that an animal is healthy, and to epar to get fatte on green food than on
say that it is healthy because it is thriv- arIt is merely because there is in the
ing, are two verydifferent-things. former case a greater bulk than in the
It is one of the wise provisions of na- latter.
ture that every function of the body With regard to the steaming of|food,
has the power of correcting or assisting that practice has grown into favor in
othTr -nctions. This we see exemplified many places. I am disposed to think
in the case of lambs which have the black that by this means a great deal of indif-
scour. If you watch them you will find ferent food might be made much more
that they do not inhale the proper vol- beneficial. The cooking of food is a very
ume of air. You see it also occasionally important point to consider, and a given
in cattle, though it is not so prevalent in important point to consider, and a given
th~se mimals, because not so easily ex- quantity of vegetable matter in a steam-
th se animals, because not so form will produce much better re-
cited; they are not so frequently put into sults than in a raw form.
a state in which the lungs are apt to be- The quality of water has great in-
come diseased. You find it occasionally fluenceupon animals. As many evils
among ewes which are suffering from. arise from bad water as from scarcity,
the results of difficult lambing. IHis very and I have seen fearful consequences
frequent among swine suffering with proe eding from that cause. Without
lung disease ; and I am greatly disposed proSeeding from tha t cause. Without
to believe that the latter is caused from reapitulation leof metisay evilsthatthat may
confinement of these animals in impure desirabl to endeavor to get rids that maof
styes or damp yards. their causes, first,by the perfect cleansing
I need not say that the perspiration, of the stables, buildings and sheds ; and
bile,urine saliva and respiration are some secondly, by the draining of the yards.
of the pricpal functions of, the body. It is a sine qua non that the animal
Now, as these are in a state of equilib- should have comfort, and that care
rium, one with the other, nature posses- should be taken to give it only the right
ses the power of resisting disease ; but kind of food.
supposing anything should arise bywhich _
a single function becomes either sus- Sett
pended or excited in too great a degree, Setting a Horse's Broken Leg.
the effect is to destroy the equilibrium, A correspondent of the Cultivator rec-
and in proportion as that is more or less ommends plaster of Paris as a bandage
deranged will there be danger to the ani- for a broken limb of a large horse.
mal's life. Of course, therefore, the The difficulty of managing an animal
earlier we can deal with the disease after in the ordinary way with a broken leg
the disturbance of the equilibrium, the is that it keeps straining the leg, thus
better will be our chance for restoring it. preventing the broken parts from knit-
If an animal be exposed to a cold north- ting together. If the leg is swollen cold
eas'erly wind, it will be chilled, and water is one of the best applications for
probably the cold will be accompanied removing the swelling, and this should
with an attack of fever, unless proper have immediate attention. After the
precautions are taken. If,after exposure the bone is carefully set, encase the
to cold, the animal betaken into a warm fractured parts (also a space above and
place, and steamed or cooked food below them) with heavy leather, some-
be given to it, probably by the next day thing like a boot leg. Tin or wood
it will entirely recover ; otherwise the might answer the same purpose. It
illness will progress from simple cold to should be large enough td leave two
fever, and ultimately, instead of having inches space all around the leg, which
a simple disease to meet by a simple rem- should be filled with wet plaster of Paris.
edy, you have complicated disease with The latter will harden very quickly and
which it is extremely difficult to deal. hold the bone as securely in position as
How is food to be given ? Is it to be though it were in a block of .wood, sti'l
given wet or dry, in large or in oft- allowing a free circulation of blood
repeated small quantities ? What is to within the leg.
be its character ? These are essential .
points in an inquiry concerning the gen- Disuse of Horses' Shoes.
eral state of the thriftiness of an animal,
and in investigating a disease on a large There are men in and around Boston
scale it is imperative that we should who have used horses for years without
include them. When an animal is ill, we shoes on paved and other hard roads,
should ask, what is the cause of this ? and the more they use them the better
Possibly it may be confined to one single they like it. One man might be named
animal; but in a matter of this kind it is who is now using a horse 22 years old,
desirable, at all events, to remember that which was lame for years before taking
by ascertaining the cause we shall be his shoes off, and he has become as
placed in a position to put an end to the sound, to all appearances, as when a
evil. This remarkk applies to horses, colt. The writer of this paper has used a
cattle, sheep, swine, poultry, andall other pair of heavy farm horses for nearly
animals, two years without shoes,'and can hon-
Then in our buildings, as regards air estly say be believes them worth a hun-
and ventilation, there is a lamentable dred dollars more than they would have
deficiency in our general farming. With been if their shoes had been kept, on
very' few exceptions the cow shed and them.
the pig sty are a mass of filth, very No one need fear thet he will ruin his
crowded and wholly inefficient for the horse if he takes its shoes off. -Only three
purposes intended. Very few of them weeks of tenderness, and your horse is
have kept pace with the improvements in all right for hard work. At first a little
other respects, Besides defective venti- care, tinctured with common sense, is
lation, there is Another source of impuri- all that is needed. After your horse has
ty-if not a greater or more harmful one, learned his ability to travel, he will put
still one of acknowledged evil, and one bis bare foot down with all the confi-
against which, so far as we know con- dence imaginable, and he will do it, too,
cerning it, there is every reason that we with little danger of producing muscular
and osseous defects upon his limbs, which
are so common with iron-shod horses.-
Good Breeds of Cattle.
There are sundry breeds of fine cattle
which have adapted themselves to our
Southern climate but the most promi-
nent are the Jersey, the Devon and the
Much has been said and written about
the Jersey, and it is pretty well under-
stood that they are unsurpassed as a
dairy and butter cow. They produce
milk of a better quality than any known
breed. They make more butter and of
a better quality. They cost less to keep
and the cows are kind and docile. They
however, are considered too small to be
profitable to the butcher, although the
flesh is of the best quality.
The Devon, however, seems to possess
many good points that must not be over-.
looked. First, the color, always deep
red, without spot or blemish; next, their
activity and fine shape, asking them
valuable as oxen; thirdly, their weight,
being second only to the famed Ken-
tucky shorthorns; fourthly, the quality
of the beef being unexcelled for delicacy
arid beautiful marbled appearance.
The cows are kind, giving a moderate.
and sometimes, when a milky strain hits
been bred, a large quantity of milk of
fair richness. We do not think that the
Devon is appreciated to the extent they
should be, and solely for the reason that
they are as yet comparatively unknown
in the South Taking all their final
qualities into consideration, including
their adaptability to the far Southern
climate, we think that we can safely re-
commend the Devon as the Southern
farmer's breed par excellence.
The Brahma was introduced in various
portions of Louisiana and Mississippi for
the purpose of increasing the size and
weight of the native stock, thus making
them more profitable for beef. Being na-
tives of a hot climate, it was thought
that they would be more healthy and
-hardier in the Gulf State than the larger
English and Kentucky breeds. And the
result, when tried, seems more than to
have justified the expectation.. The cows
are not noted as milkers, though there
have been exceptions. But the mules
make valuable oxen of. good size arid
quality, noted for their extreme hardi-
ness and vigor-Times-Democrat.
Mange on Dogs.
This disease, like itch, ring worm,
and some other skin troubles in man
and many beasts, is caused by certain
minute parasites. There are several
species of Sarcoptes; one attacts dogs
and hogs, another cats and rabbits and
sometimes children, another the horse
and sometimes man, another goats,
another foxes, chickens, and from -the
latter horses, and other species fix on
animals, causing mange, etc. These
mites burrow in or under the cuticle.
The Desmodex infests the oil follicles of
dogs and, other animals, and so of(
other similar parasites on other ani--
As we have several inquiries, we
answer all under this heau, for the
treatment for the dog will, with slight
modification, ser e in other animals.
With a rough rubber-nothing better
than a corn cob-rub off scabs and scales
and dead skin from the diseased parts.
It will sometimes be found necessary,
first, to soften the parts with oil (lard,
fish or whale), and then washing off
with soap and warm water. After pre-
paring the parts wash with the follow-
Take one ounce of thymo-cresol and,
from a spout, pour on it one and a half
pin ts warm water. As the wash may not
reach all eggs, reapply once or twice at
intervals of tenor fourteen days. This
mixture allays the itching very soon, and
destroys fleas and other vermin on all
animals, tones up the skin and promotes
a healthy growth of hair.-Dr. Phares,
in So Live Stock Journal.
Care of Extracted Honey.
Honey after drawn from the extractor
must be left in open vessels until evapo-
ration ceases. The thinner the honey is
when extracted the more evaporation is
required. For this purpose we use large
tin cans holding 100 pounds each. These
are made air-tight by using a screw cap,
and by leaving off the cap or occasion-
ally unscrewing the cap and letting out
the gas. Thd work of ev iporation goes
on very nicely. If the cans are not left
open entirely, they should be opened
In placing extracted honey upon the
market we use glass jars. We find that,
the quart jar, holding just three pounds
of honey, is the best seller we can find.
These glass jars show the honey just
what it is and if you have been- success-
ful in establishing a home market by
gaining the confidence of your patrons
in selling a pure article, you will not
need any smaller package than the quart.
Extracted honey will granulate and
become hard and grainy on the approach
of cold weather. If of a good quality it
will become very white and beautiful,
and is preferred in this way for use by a
great many. To restore it to its liquid
form set the vessel containing it in warm
water and bring it gradually to the boil
ing point until the honey is melted. If
sealed up in this state it will not granu-
late again while sealed. Extracted
honey is much easier cared for than
comb. It will keep well for years, and
I believe age will never affect it.
There is quite a difference in honey as
gathered from different flowers. White
clover is the lightest in color, and is, I
believe1 considered the finest honey we
have. Basswood probably comes next.
Sumac produces a beautiful golden col-
ored honey. Poplar honey is pleasant
to the taste, but dark in color. Buck-
wheat produces dark, strong honey.
Honey from fruit bloom is of a reddish
cast, but pleasant to the taste. So much
has been said of the fine quality of the
White Mountain Sage honey of Califor-
nia that we were curious enough to send
and get 100 pounds of it, and we must
say that it was the most beautiful and
the most pleasant tasted honey we ever
In extracting we can take honey from
any colony, weak or strong, and at the
same time get a good article. Hence the
advantage in extracting. We often ex-
tract quite an amount of honey from our
queen rearing nucleus, and from colonies
from which it would be impossible
otherwise to get comb honey. We
would advise beginners to use the ex-
tractor, and let the veterans raise the
comb honey.-National Stockman..
DISEASES OF- POULTRY.
the Health of Fowls.
BY E. S. RICHARDSON.
Our fowls should have humane treat-
ment. They have feelings and can ap-
preciate being nursed when sick, as is
proven by the condition of tameness the
birds get in when under treatment from
the constant handling they get. They
have senses and are not forgetful of the
good we do them when sick. If our
horse, cow, dog or any of our 'lye stock
get sick wegivethem attention, and why
neglect the fowls? Let not a critic find
fault with this, for even though a small
matter, they should receive their atten-
tion in proportion. The merciful man
will be merciful to his fowls.
The diseases to which fowls are liable
are not many in Florida compared to
the diseases fowls are subject to in the
North. Yet-there are a few that should
be understood in order to make poultry
a success, and we will try to give our
readers a description of those most
prominent and their cure.
In many instances the same medicines
that are used for the human being are
used for fowls, but in different propor-
tions; consequently the size of fowls
renders it necessary that a poultry
keeper should not only know the kind
.of medicines to administer, but also the
amount. This can only be ascertained
by experience or analogy.
We have heard some claim that fowls
are not worth "doctoring." Common
dung-hill fowls are not valued highly,
hence their ailments are not very im-
portant to their owners; but the im-
proved, pure-bred poultry has a high
value, and the disorders are noticed and
cured, and this one thing gives rise to
the common opinion that pure-bred poul-
try are more liable to disease, which is a
Of the diseases of poultry, the most
serious are group and cholera, which are
multiform in their symptoms. Right
here let the reader be advised that, in
order to treat these diseases, he should
know something about
Housing Space.-A coop twelve feet
square is large enough for twelve fowls,
and an acre iL large enough for one hun-
dred hens, but do not think you can put
five times this quantity in five times the
above dimensions. The poisonous exha-
lations and evacuations from a very
large flock of fowls together are very
dangerous to the health of not -only the
birds, but their keeper. Consequently,
sound policy dictates the separation of
your flock, if large, into divisions.
Overcrowding.--Nothing can be more
hurtful to the success of the breeder
chan a violation of the above rule. Over-
crowding is very dangerous on account
of the bad air, which forms a good basis
for many of the poultry diseases and
the development of the germs. At the
same time, the fowls' system becomes so
lowered in the close quarters that when
disease attacks they are unable to with
Ventilation.-On this subject you will
have no trouble, provided you build your
houses as directed in the preceding arti-
cles. Do not build your poultry houses
in a hollow, as the writer did, because
you will find it very warm in summer,
especially if between two hills.
Cleanliness is a necessity if diseases
are to be avoided. You must not stop
by simply removing the "droppings,"
but must go deeper.
Go to your hen house and look. Do
you see that little crack? There is
where you must look. Do you ever look
under your perches? There is where
you must look. In fact, it is not what
we pan see that is the most dangerous-
it is the hidden, that which is in the
dark, that we must look to and remove
from its hidden quarters.
Whenever there is any sign of lice,
every crack and corner should be white-
washed thoroughly and purified by the
use of some good disinfectant, such as
carbolic acid or carbolate of lime, and
the scourges killed that suck the juices
from both old and young chickens.
The "runs" should alpo be kept clear
and occasionally plowed or spaded.
After chickens have run over a piece of
ground quite a while it becomes "stale,"
and whenever it rains the ammonia lets
loose the poisonous gases which the
fowls breathe, causing much sickness at
times in the flocks.
Shade is a subject that should be
looked well to, but have no nooks
and corners that cannot get a sun bath.
occasionally. It is very beneficial for
the health of your fowls.
Dalmatian, or, as it is often called,
Pers'an Insect Powder, sprinkled on cat-
tle, destroys lice. It is best to use a
small bellows to blow in the powder
through the hair to the skin; cost of
bellows, 10 cents.
As a rule the size of the seed will in-
dicate the depth to plant it, starting with
the smallest at one-half inch, such as
celery, parsnip, etc.; while peas and
beans may be put one and a half inches
A correspondent of Country Gentle-
man straightens out the hair of the cow
with curry-comb or card, and then rubs
in sulphur, one pound to the cow, to kill
lice. He repeats in a week.
BAYPORT,' ONSIGNMENTS OF EGGS
B c CHICKENS, FRUIr, AND
Hernando County, Elorida, SOLICITED BY COUNTRY PRODUCE
Sixteen miles west of Hernando Hotel, Brooks- J. H. SUTHERLAND,
ville, on the shore of the Gulf at the mouth of a WHOLESALE PRODUCE
beautiful Spring River. Finest fishing, boating COMMISSION MERCHANT,
and sailing. Good accommodations. Try-weekly 28 OCEAN STREET, JACKSONVILLE
Hack Line. JACSONVILL A.
W. -:. PITLJTLOW,
FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PACKING,
FORWARDING AND COMMISSION HOUSE.
Usually have orders to work our consignments into, enabling us to make PROMPT RETURNS
Extensive Facilities for Repacking
for outside parties, to which prompt attention is given. Packages suitable for
SHIPPING ORANGES, STRAWBERRIES AND VEGETABLES,
both made up and in the flat, always on hand, and for sale. Also, Hoops, Wrapping Paper, etc
Best of location, viz: '
S., F. &- W. R. R. WHARF.
Circulars and Stencils on application. JACKSONVILLE, FLA..
WhatMr. Beyer says;"Plea.
best thanks for the splendid seeds received from your firm.
It would be a rather lengthy list if should name all, but..
will say that amongst38 first, and 3 second premiums
S awarded me at our fairs in Northern Indiana and
SSouthern Michigan, 28 first premiums were for vege.
Stables raised from your seeds. What firm can beat
fmthis? 0 AueUST BEYER, So. Bend, Ind.
ALO Beed of this quality I am now ready to sell to every one
who tills a farm or plants a garden, sending them FRE Emy
Vegetable and Flower Seed Catalogue, for 1887. Old customers
to.ed not write for it. I catalogue this season the native wild
P. A potato. JAS. JN. H EGOI Seed Grower, Marblehed, MaDE
* P. OHAMB'ERLAIN. A. w. OUSOAOD
$O CTTEI FLOIRIDLA.
- Real Estate Agency,
TAMPA, FLORIDA. Office: Twiggs St., two blocks east of Passenger depot.
ORIOLE, HERNANDO COUNTY.
Beautiful location, facing on Lake Oriole and on the South Florida Railroad.
Lands all high and dry. New settlement; between twenty-five and thirty new houses.
A Church, Scho., .....y mails, stores, bakery, saw mill and hotel. Large area already planted
in orange groves. Choice building lots for winter homes for sale cheap. Tesr, twenty and
!for acre orange grove lots. A healthy settlement in a healthy State.
Call on or Address,
J. W. GROVES, or CLARKSON & ROBERTSON,
Oriole, Florida. Jacksonville, Florida,
W. N. JUSTICE
Wholesale Commission Merchant,
NO. 813 NORTH WATER STREET, PHILADELPHIA.
Specialties: SOUTHERN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. Consignments Solicited. Return
made on day of sale.
J- O'C. BLOTTI\TT,
t T^ A 1" E ST'-A.'T'E SBnaOJES.-
Orange Groves, Town Lots in Bartow, Winter Haven, Haskell, Punta Gorda and Charlotte
Harbor, fo0 Sale. Unimproved Lands, in small and large tracts, at $2.50 per acre, up. Choice ten
and forty acre tracts of good, high, rolling Pine Lands, near S. F. R. R. depot, at $20 to. $856 per
acre. All property guaranteed to be as represented or money refunded.
I- Money Loans, well secured, negotiated at 15 per cent, net, to the lender.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. APRIL 1%, 1887.
A LOVE SONG.
Fair were the fields to-day, ana thou had'st tour
Hearest thou me, ah I hearest thou me?
Sweat were the bonds of love, and thou had'
Hearest thou me, my love?
Sweet is the sound of the redbreast's song
When the owl flies out from cover,
Sweetest is sleep, if the day be long,
But love Is best-true love is best-
Ahb hearest thou that, my lover?
'AN "ASTRAL BODY."
S"This means death, sudden and inglo-
ious," said Charlie Pettrie," despair:
ingly, as he'tossed to his companion i
arms a document he had been poring ove
as one determined to extract some diffe:
ent meaning than thewordi conveyed.
"What now?" questioned Frank John
son, yawningly, laying down his book
"Has Belle Havedy given you the mitten
S.war been declared in. Europe, or the In
dians risen en masse to reduce our mag
niflcent army below even a fighting con
"Read and be enlightened, and dis
gusted," and Pettrie arose and wake
the floor with bowed head and sadly
troubled face. ..
Picking up the official dispatch bearing
the legend and great seal of the war de
apartment, the young lieutenant hastil
mastered the contents. Then his ligh
manner changed, his usually merry eye
became saddened, and he answered slowly
"Our death warrant, sure enough Thi
far northern fort is at least healthy, ani
to -be transferred to the extreme south
leaves nothing of hope." '
"Especially at this season. -Ican't im
a ine what the powers that be were think
i: ig about when they promulgated such Ia
order." -. -
"Evidently not of the precious health a
lieutenants Pettrie and Johnion," :wa
the dry response. .
Life -has not been the most pleasant
here, cut-poff from home and civilization
by cold and snow for nearly six months ir
the year, and Indians are not the mos
peaceable of neighbors," continued the of
"Yet I would sooner fight all the tribe
combined than the enemy we will have t.
meet, who, single handed, can discount
them when it conies to wholesale slaughter
and never gives one a chance to strik
'"Yon mean the yellow feverx,,"
"The very thing I was thinking of, and
going from a northern to a southern lati
tude just as summer is flinging open it
S. furnace gates to .invite its approach."
"True, but we have nothing to do bu
obey-hum-therflrst duty of a soldier, a
we-have been forcibly taught."
"And there is some comfort in the fac
..that we are to go together."
: 'And.haven't anv'wife or'children ti
"Better uso; in fact, a soldier Las ni
right to mafry. No, nor wife nor children
but yet we w-ill be remembered, for both
of us, like the soldier of the Legion who
mourned for 'fair Bingen on the Rhine
have held a little band tenderly and con-
fidingly and dreamed brighter dreams of
that what might be."
"Yes," bitterly; 'land as all the swee
mingled with the bitter of the cup is ooa
non-separation, we must be more to each
other than ever before-must swear fealty
to the end of our earthly career."
"Hand and glove I am with you; and
should one thdie before the other, the sur
vivor must execute any last wishes or
Commissions, or have a blighting curse
follow him all the remainder of-his days.'
The oath, taken upon their swords, was
a solemn one Both realized its meaning
to the full, and shuddered as they thought
how very near the time might be when
they would be called upon to fulfill its
sacred obligations. With sad and heavy
hearts they bade farewell to their com-
panions and turned their faces southward,
following the drum tap of duty and nerv-
ing themselves to meet bravely whatever
For a time the depressing premonitions
were banished from their minds in new
scenes and new associations. Everything
of their surroundings had the attraction
of freshness and novelty to them. Never
before had they known anything of Span-
ish life. It was a great change to pass,
and so quickly, from the giant forest, the
huge rock builded mountains, the wide
prairies, to the quaintly constructed town,
the coquina walls, the perfume of the
orange and jasmine, the shade of the pal-
metto and pride of India trees, from icy
winds to tropical softness, from the almost,
repulsiveness'rof Indian women to the
witching, dreamy loveliness of the dark,
almond eyed daughters of the land of
flowers; to turn from the sterility of na-
ture and watch the ocean amorously kiss-
ing the sands and purring contentedly and
Their duties were lignt and before the
sensuousness of sky and blossom had rime
to pall upon them a new sensation came,
terrible in its contemplation and de Uy
in its .consummation. From strowag
upon the wharf and along the sea wall,
"from flirting with Che graceful and will-
ing to be flattered beauties, they rambled
to feast their eyes upon the wilderness
bloom of the Checokee rose, the verdure
of magnolia and myrtle, the flaming bells
of the trumpet flower, the unalloyed gold
of the jasmine, the creamy white of the
orange, and drink in the intox-icating per-
fume of all; to taste of the freshly
plucked scuppernong and dream waking
dreams of a fair face that rarely deserted
them by day or night.
As if with the irony of fate the hideous
serptnts of 'loom crept into this glorious
Eden when their hearts were the most
sensitive to iove and their longings for its
fulfillment the most powerf-ul. By their
side as they lay couched upon, pillowed
and. canopied by flowers a physician
paused and told the mos, ill omened of
"The yellow fever has come and is un-
,. commonly virulent. AUl who can are pre-
^"*' ,-"J-"' : .: '.- ? : _
paring to make a- hasty flitting. I wouli
to heaven I could be of the- number, bu
duty chains me here."
"As it does us, answered Pettrie, ant
he looked at his friend and both though
of their oath.
nd Days of the most terrible anxiety fol
lowed. The foe was one against whica
'at no picket guard could be stationed
against which sword and bayonet, in
fantry and artillery were alike impotent
In the sun of noonday and the blackness
of midnight it walked unseen, unwarning
and resistless. Its breath was noisome
and its kiss death. Against it proud
uniform and brilliant buttons were of nc
more avail than the rags of the poorest,
It cared nothing for honors or for name,
and its poison festered the same within
the veins of the courted and the despised.
The cry of "to the north, to the mount-
ains," rang warningly and trumpet loud
r in the ears of the two young lieutenants,
r- but they were powerless to obey. The
in rules that had sent them there bound as
r- with shackles of steel, and the loathsome
death was swifter than any furlough and
n- laughed at the slow unloosening of red
, The fever grew worse and worse until
- even the commonest tenets of the religion
g- of humanity found few followers. 'Men
at %nd women- shunned the homes where the
black vomit raged, and enough of the liv-
d ing could scarcely be found who could be
d tempted by gold to bury the dead. Si-
Slently the two friends met, performed
y their duties and watched over each other,
Watched for the first sign of doom, for
e the foul miasma stealing among and over-
y coming the fragrance of the roses.
e To Pettrie the fever came first and vio-
a. lently. There was no mistaking the fast-
y ening of the fangs of the yellow fever ser-
pent upon his heart, ne possibility of his
is escape from a swift and horrid doom. It
S needed no physician to tell him this.. He
;h had seen enough to know that his days,
even hours, were very few, that whatever
be v-.inllI do, must re done quietly.
"Old friend, tried and true companion,"
a he said to his brother lieutenant, "the
curse we so sadly anticipated has come,
f and upon you wdil fall the fulfillment of
Sour oath. It is too late for me to write,
to say more than a few words, -but should
t you-live (which I pray to heaven may be
n the case) tell her-you know who-that
n mylast thoughts were of her, my last
t prayers for her, my last'-blessing on'.her
. dea' name. One thing more before the
bi-,niig ieil within my breast, the horrible
s anguish within my brain, robs me of con-
Siciousne-s. In my trunk isda package of
t letters. Bring them to me. Thanks.
r, Now fotr ywu' oath. When I am gone
e promise, sw.eatr, that you will burn them
so that ui-V even the tracery of a word can
be found in the ashes."
"I swear it by all my hopes of life, by
d all my-hopes of mercy in the hereafter,"
- was answered, with eyes and hand up-
S raised to beaten.
"You think they are the secrets of lo'e,
t but a thousandfold more is hidden within
them. Given to.the world, they would
not be understood and would compromise,
Perhaps ruiti many. Burn them, and. my
blessing be upon'you; fail todo soand the
o curses of the dead, have they power to
curse, will fall upon you."
"I have promised, svorn and will not
S 'Aun hour later the y':uzi lieutenant had
o gone to answer the call of the numberless
army beyond the skies. With his own
hands his friend and comrade was forced
Sto encoffin his form. Assisted by a heav-
Uy bribed colored man, it was carried to
t the last resting place of earth iand buried
With a single, sent prayer.
h "Poor fellow!" sighed his former com-
panion as h'e sat in his quarters with the
shadows of evening gathering around. "I
did all possible for him, buried thm be-
Sneath the shade, the blos-oms and theper-
fumes be loved. Ahl mel I maybe the
Next to follow; and shouldwe m:-et on the
Sold and jeweled parade ground of heaven
I can stand before him with an unshamed
Face, for I hare faithftuilyv done my duty
Sto-him and kept my oath."
S In the sorrowful excitement of death
and burial he had ertirely forgotten the
package of letters. It lay upon the table
where he had placed it-the most im-
portant part of a11 intrusE.ted to him neg-
As the -hadows deepened and the night
wind stol" in laden with honey swe-tness
that was sickLening, his.ear caught -the
sound of ,a eibt footste:p. He challenged
the intruder, but received no answer,
looked up almost angrily at his privacy
being disturbed and saw-
Moon and starlight so filled the room
that every object was plainly to be distin-
guished, and standing by the table, with
one hand resting upon the package of let-
ters, and dressed even as he had been
buried in his uniform, was his dead
friend I -
Doubting the evidence of his senses, to
convince himself that he was not dream-
ing, he arose and concentrated all his
powers of vision upon the single object.
As certainly as be had ever been .he was
awake; as surely as ever he saw mortal
the form was that of Pettrie, and upon
the face rested a sorrowful frown.
"I understand," Johnson exclaimed In-
voluntarily, "and will fulfill my oath to
the uttermost.I" .-
The frown changed to a smile, the eyes
were lighted, the hand was raised from
the package of letters to Heaven, and the
figure slowly faded away. -
Thrilled, dazed, not in thejeast fearing,
but driven by an overmasrering impulse,
the lieutenant arose, kindled a fire, seated
himself before it and burned the letters
one by one, even. stirring the ashes to
make comply ete amalgamation with those
of the wood.
It had grown late before he finished,
but, restless and nervous,-he could not
sleep. He had fulfilled all that could
possibly lie required, and yet was not sat-
ileied. The face and figure of his dead
friend haunted him. He must know if
his rest was unbroken, if he slept as he
had left him beneath the wilderness of
bloom of roses and the tangle sprays of
With the single feeling of reverence he
went out into the night, traded the de-
serted parade ground, passed the limit
and stood by the newly made grave. All
was silence and. -.peace. .The breeze
scarcely swung the bells of tih_ trumpet
S flower or scattered the perfume of the
t With a sigh of intense relief he was
about to retrace his steps, when he heard
d his name distinctly called. He looked
again' and saw, even as he had done in
life, the form, the. uniform of Charles
SPettrie. The pose was a military one, the
eyes looked tenderly and thanikfully, the
, lips were parted with a smile, there was
Sthe customary salute and the spirit sem-
t balance, the "astral body," slowly sank
S within the grave and never again ap-
; peared to the eyes of the wondering man.
e The fulfillment of the oath had severed
Sthe mysterious chain that linked together
o the dead and the living.
t Only well authenticated facts have been given
. in the above sketch. No attempt at explanation
- has been made, but whd will question that there
d "are mental'experiences, mysterious, indefinable,
which suggest the action upon us of conscious,
Intelligent powers?"-William H. Bushnell in
New York Mercury.
AMONG THE TLINKITS.-
SLIEUT. ScHWATKA'S ACCOUNT OP
n WOMEN'S RIGHTS IN ALASKA.
s The Social Customs of a Peculiar Tribe
S of Alaskan Indians-A Bargain Not
Always a Bargain-Succession to the
S The first characteristic I shall speak of
is their peculiar treatment of their women.
How the Indians on one side of the T'lin-
kits brutalize their women, making beasts
of burden and slaves generally, is too
Swell known to my readers to repeat it at
Length here. The Eskimo, on the other
side, are far more considerate and just in
their dealings with their women, but the
T'linkit, instead of being a sort of mean
between the two, as one might suppose, -
and as they are in many other character-
istics, go far beyond the gentle natured
Eskimo, and as a consequence, in the land.
of the T'linkit, a curious kind of
"women's rights" exists that is not ex-
celled even among the nations calling
themselves civilized. In all their busi-
ness transacuous, in all their family af-
fairs, atfl in nall matters whatsoever where
it is possible for the woman of the house-
Shold to have a word to'say her decision is
needed to make these affairs final.
SEvery time aman wants to undertake
a busint.ss transaction he takes his wife
along uvitb himn to ratify or veto the bar-
gain, and should she blie absent at the time
she may afterward put in an appearance
andupset the whole affair. Funniest.of
all, the same equivalent, transactions of
the women are not subject to the same
supervising power of the men, who have
nothing to say regarding ThO bargains of
their wives or daughters, except to foot
the bill, if any compensation is promised
by [he squar-s that t-he men are expected
to fil, as work, utensils they can make or
even money, where they get it from white
men and understand its value. I have
"known several ihstaic-; where the men
have closed certain bargains, only to'flud
them opened again when the absent wife'
put in an appearance. As white men are
not very liable to undo a bargain which
they think is to their advantage they sel-
domn acquiesce in the demands of the
woman in canceling the contract, and
some of the worst personal misunder-
standings between the two races bare oc-
curred on this account. I, of course, do
not know bow the T'linkit man fared after
he got tome from such a bargain; but I
think we cau all imagine pretty well.
Nothing was more exasperating to me, at
times, upon my two expeditions iLto
Alaska-in 1$83 and 18.qI-i%-henever 1
c:iiii acroos some man from whorn I
viwant.l to biiy some triflinug article or to
empl,:y for a short time, to havrn to .tart
out for, the-Indian village, probably a
mile or two distant, to consult his wVife
about it, or to bring her to me to talk the
SThen the, succession to the chieftainship
of the tribe- is r most zin.lar one, based
also on women'ss rights" or something
akin to it. Neither rhe eldest son of the
king and queen, or the chief an.d hi3 wife,
n,1l, in fact, any of the sons or daughters
succeul their rather to the headl of the
tribe when he lies, but some one, of the
nearest male relatives of the queen is
made chief' when her husband dies It is
easy to see that this curious and rounda-
bout method of handing down the scepter
may transfer the crown to auybudy in the
Strike, and] that three' can be no such thing
.as a true royal succession or hereditary
Descent of the chief's power.
When the parents, or either of them,
hare died, all of the effects that they pos-
sessed desccud by inheritance on *' the
mother's side, none of the descendants of
the father receiving anything out of the
estate. One would imagine that it would
lead to some curious muddies, but some-
how they manage to keep it straight.
The same as am6ng all savages, the men
have often two or (hree wives, and in rare
cases even more; but the women, not to be
outdone in the matrimonial line, have in a
few cases-two or three of which I know'
of personally-two husbands. They are
nearly always rich women, who have had
a great deal left them by inheritance, or
who had made a large amowunt them-
selves-for, as I have 'said, the women do
nearly all" the business-and who can
afford such expensive luxuries. One
T'lindi woman, a Sitka woman, who went
by the name of Mrs; Tom among the white
people, and who had already one husband,
bought another, a slave, for about $1,000
in goods and chattels, and when ISaw the i
two together afterward I think he was the *
best looking one of the pair. When a man
and woman marry they try and adopt a
boy and a girl. if the man dies the boy
becomes the woman's husband, and if the i
woman dies the girl becomes the wife of
-the man.-Lieut. Schwatka in The Inde-
Driink aand Learning; 4
One of the chief aphorisms of Brillat- ]
Savarin, the philosophical gastronome,
was: "Tell me what you eat and I will i
tell you what you are." The famous Dr. i
A.rthaudwhowrote learned dissertation E
on vines and wines, said: "The witty i
magisrratea.pproached the trul' had .ho I
written, 'Tell me what you drink and 1
will tell you what you are.' ". He insists
that a tea drinker never was, never can
be, a jolly good fellow; that the poverty
in musical genius of great tea drinkers,
such as the Chinese and the English,
arises from no other cause. Bacchus gave
up a part of his empire to incense, myrrh,
nard and opium, and with the introduc-
tion of these drugs art, science and litera-
ture declined, and the civ.Tization of
Greece passed with the vine into Italy.
Dr. Arthaud was a Frenchman and a lover
of French wines; therefore he detested
beer and those who delight in it, saying of
the German people generally, that If they
had, multiplied their wine stocks instead
of hops and pies, they would have com-
manded an enviable political position.-
One of Mexico's Quiet Cities.
Our next stop was made at Siloa, a quiet
city of 15,000 inhabitants, the towers,
spires and minarets of its massive houses
of worship rising high above the low
thatched dwellings of its residents, rich
and poor. Its beautiful gardens and clean
kept courts are filled with choicest flower-
ing plants and semi tropical exotics. The
city band gave a concert in the evening in
honor of our visit. Our Pullman train
was side tracked for the night, and we
slept soundly,-to be awakened w'th the
morning light by a jargon of bells-as
though struck by a thousand sledge
hammers. The bells in this strange land
all bame from Spain, and every old cath-
edral, church, monastery and convent, has
from three to twelve-never keyed to 'con-
ctrt pitch nor rung as chimes, bufit ham.:
mered Nigorously with -the. clapper, and
these people think it exquisite music.-
Mexico Letter. .- .: :
ils That Faide.
In as chatting the other day with the
vice president of one of the trunk lines
of railway, when a messenger entered
with an important contract, having 21
years to rim. It was a traffic agreement
with a competing line, and was a very
valueal)e (lodoument It happene:l to be
written with a typewriter in aniline ink.
Upon seeing this he positively refused to
sigu the paper. He then took the contract
td the president of the: roadand-said:'
"Mr. --, if you wan t to sign this con-
tract, you can do it, but I never will."
When asked why, be replied: "It is writ-
tefi in ardhne ink, which fades, and long
before the expiration of this contract this
document will be entirely faded ati d prac-
tically worthless." The result was the
return of the contract-, with a request that
hereafter all important documents, the
preservation of which fs desirable, should
be written in ink that would not fade.
During Gen. Grant's term as president
one of hi 3s cabinet officers discovered that
the records of an important branch of one
of the departments had been for two
years un-itten in purple ink. Ho at once
issued an order forbidding its use in the
department, purchased a new set of books
into which two years' records were copied,
and thus saved what in a few years would
otherwise have been lost. Ic is one of the
problems of chemistry to find something
Wtich will make permanent the beaunuiil
aniline colors, but thus far all efforts have
failed. It is growing more and more the
custom to have deeds, contracts and valu-
able documents printed on a typewriter in
aniline ink. This is a great mistake,
because in a few years they are sure to be
obliterated. The Loungersuggests, there-
fore, that merchants have all important
papers which it is desirable to keep for a
number of years written in ink which, in-
stead of fading with age. will grow darker
and more permanent. There are a num-
ber of Anmerican and foreign Inks which
are unexceptionable in that particular.-
Errors Concerniug the Weather.
Few erroneous notions are spread so
readily and cling so tenaciously as those
respectin_- the weather. In noticing com-
mun errors of this kind, Professor Cleve-
land Abbe, the distinguished mnieteorolo
gist, urges attention t.' these facts: That
while the moon might well be expected to
influe-nce our weather, scientific evidence
shows that it dqes not; that there is no
sound reanion for believing that sun
spots have any appreciable effect in pro-
ducing storms, or other local changes,
that animal instinct ranks greatly below
human intelligence as a guide to future
weather; that the indications furnished
by plants are due to the hydroscopic
condition of the air, as are also other
"signs," and are less delicate and i'i-.
ablei than the accurate iulstrumental tests
of meteorologists; that electricity and
ozone do n)ot produce the effects often
ascribed to them; that thunderstorms do
Tinot cool the air, but the cool inrush-re-.
suits, like the storm, from the rise of hot
air--it least in nimany cases; that it has
not yet. been proven that the removal of
forests and the extension of-railroads and
telegraphs have influenced our climate;
that the weather is materially the same-as
In-old fashioned-times, scientific records
disproving the faulty recollections of the
oldest inhabitant; and that severe storms
are no more liable to occur at t-he date of
the equinoxes, or on certain days of the
week or month, than at other times.-
The Stomncl> Blowi Most Go.
The impression is growing that pugi-
lism must get rid .of -its brutal qualities,
and the first step toward that end will-be
the abolition of the stomach blow. Scien-
tific sparring Indicates chiefly the protec-
tion of the face. llow the stomach has
no protection. There is.no bone there, as
in the case of the breast, to protect it, and
a blow is just as serious as it would be on
the belly. We might as well lower the
belt below the waist. Two or three suc-
zessful stomach blows will do the strong-
set man. From what I have heard, the
sentiment of local pugilists and boxers is
against the blow. If some paper would
take thb matter into consideration there
might result definite good. Another blow
is the knock out. It generally settles the
nan who gets it, but the question is of
getting in on the right spot. It's a ques-
tion of skill. The blow goes straight
from the shoulder to a small space on the.
dde of the neck. With bare .knuckles it'
s a dangerous blow and is apt to kill a
nan. But with gloves it is only liable to '
Work Done in a Mine. -
A gentleman in St. Louis said recently:
"People talk of the old Comstock mine,
but they have -little idea what it was,
or what an immense 'amount of work
was done- there. Take. the Coisoli
dated California and Virginia. Every
month for nearly four years 8,000,000
feet of jurmber was used there for tim-
bering-enough to build a large city
three times over. The amount of hoist-
ing done was sin iply wonderful. Eight
hundred men were raised and lowered
three timds in the twenty-four hours, the
tools were several times a day brought to
the surface for sharpening, 5,000 tons of
ice were lowered for daily use, and 2,000
tons of ore raised to the surface. Men
coming out of the mines on the hottest
day of the summer -were chilled on
striking the surface air, the change was
ao great.. You can get some idea of the
immensity of the works from the fly
wheel at the Union shaft, it alone weigh-
ing 105 tons. There is a great deal oi -
work done on all paying mines, but thi'
one was a great institution. I iam some
times asked if there ever will be such a
mining excitement as there was in those
days in San Francisco. I don't see why I
there shouldn't be, and I think there i
may be sometime, but another Comstock I
will .have to be discovered first. This is ,
the only thing necessary. "'-New Orleans
Was it my fault, or was it yours,
Thtnr, hn you danced for men to see
Your yeilUow gown caught in my 'purs
And made a wiUing slave of mr?
I kicW yo.u Unow, but, as it was,
I loved you long before I knew;
I n.-ly CsaVC one lady pa3s
[n all the dance, and t hat sas you!
put a man to sleep. They fell me that
the blow produces a paralysis of the spinal
cord. There, is science in that, but none
in the stomach blow.-Pugilist in Globe-
The German Way.
If the police authorities of the United
States were to consider it a part of their
legitimate duty to publish analyses of
"cure alls," it might seriously interfere
with the -profits of proprietory medicines.
-In Germany this is looked upon as the-
correct thing, and the result is that such
facts as these are frequently set forth in
the list of "secret remedies:".
'"Bauer's consumption cure" consists of
a decoction-of malt and apples; "Volk-
mann's drunkard's cure" is a mixture of
gentian and lycepodium; "Baretta's
stomach powder" is a mixture of bicar-
bonate of soda, with cream of tartar,
milk, sugar, sal ammoniac, chalk and a'
trace of pepsin; "LHarz's mountain tea"
consists of a mixture of peppermint, lac-
tuca, liquorice, sassafras. lavender and
milfoil.-Herald of Health.
S Without Warning.
Lady (in uptown store)-Why, Mrs. S.,
is this you, and. in mourning? I hadn't
Mrs. S.-Yes, AlMr. S. was laid at rest
two weeks ago.
Lady-I anm soshocked] Was his death
a sudden one?
Mrs. S.-Very; without warning. He
died of a cold contracted only the day be-
fore. Aren't the shops lovely.-New
N .o Extravagance There.
A hard up looking young man who had
accosted a citizen on Canal street, for 10
cents was answered with:
"See here, didn't you hit me for a dime
only three days ago:"'
"I bebeve I diil, sir; but do the- very
best I can I can't, keep my expenses down
to less than :3 1-3 cents per day. Your
dime is all gone."-Wall Street News.
Phosphorons In the -oil.
There is considerable phosphorous in
the sod in portions of Georgia -In .Albany
this spring the light emitted lhas been re-
markable, and a corresponleut writes:
"Pedestrians have cauLght this luminous
substance on their feet, and their path
would be marked for a short distance by
the bglht."-New York Sun.
Private Police Jn Russai.
A few years ago there also exited in
Russia. a sort of private police system
which was so peculiar in organization and
conduct that a description of it may be
interetiug. It was called the "--Holy
League." The death of Czar Alexander.
II terrified the people no less than the
comrt. The Holy league was an as.socia-
lion of loyal people to protect the young
,.zar, who might well have exclaimed
with Hemry IV: -May the Lord deliver
nie from my friends; I can take care of
my enemies myself." The idea of the
itssociatiou was to protect the young cza
from the fate of his father. The H,,ly
league (Loiataja di-uzihal- was a secret
order, or brotherhood. The members,
am-nong them many of the nobility,
formed a sort of unpaid volunteer police
corps. The. founders of the league liad
the idea that they must fight the NUililists
with tlheih- own weapons, and so every.-
thing was conducted with ominous sec-
cesy. One t hem' was to offer rewards
to workmen and peasants for information
about evolutionists or their affairs. Tliis
led only to futile endeavors to follow up
The folly of the beads of the league
went 'o far as to attempt to imitate t'c
Nihilists in secret associations and warn.-
ings-even to send men to Switzerlanui.
and England to put out of the way living
NiMlists. Like every novel proposition.
however for-lisli, the plan found nurni.r
o-_t enrthisi ,stic supportei-rs anong thi,
loyal r.le. It was received witli joyftic
applati,-,. Many, among them the Jewb
contri-iutel money to the undlrtaklirg
.with great ostentation, in order to, shone
their loy:dlty. But the league was a mere
fiasco. They capturEd few Nliilists, and
indeed more police officers. Ou the othet
band, many of the so called Nilusts atr-
r,:sted lby the policrmen were shown to be
members of the Holy league. So the league
brought confusion into the conduct of the
government and died after a year of spas-
modic life. Tie amount of contribution
was about $223,000l, which was so skillU-
fully managed by the gracious pidinier,
who acte-I as treasurer, that thlero was
nothing left in the treasury at the end ol
the year -
Thoroughly Content. -
How a young creole girl enjoyed herself
at her first ball: Her red lips smiled, her
lithe form was all a quiver. She saw
Arthemise and rushed over to kiss bher-
as young girls kiss each other.- "Oh"
said Olympe, clasping her palms and roll-
Ing her heavenly eyes heavenward, "Oh,
menon Dieul but I have amuse myself this
night I I have been so gay-I have been
happy" "Yes? What do you do?"
isked Arthemrlse. "Me? Oh, L go out
to supper with my papa, I dance one
lance with my cousin Albert, I dance
seex -dance with my brother Jules,'ad'
tben-I sit by my mammalt"
. '. -
Great Claverse looks at her and miles, -
H b thinokLs tlt she's fair and his;
But, dd h.de ce ler other hiles
Th,'n lie nould know ->wh ce lore she is.
Ah.. I-i- him nerr- Eeeus then,
Be'd surely klull me d he knew; .-
Irai -.]aly on': among lhis men,
A.] t,--.uns were uot too good for you. -.. .
Tihe- sa h-: bears a lcharmed life, .
Tr-' I :Ud1: bullrt glances liy
B e lk,-,: L. s hie, Lut a lat his ei'e -
He lost her, though he cannot die. .-':
And "ere he king (.-C Scotland yet .'
'iA allant soldier Is be, t ijool
And were a queen beside him set,
LLY s et, tLhat queen would not beyoulI
Plihical and Psychieal Activity.
Starting from the common ohservatim
that. when we do hard thinking we can-
not at the same time use our muscles
actively, Dr. J. Leob has attempted to"es'-
timate quantitatively the relation'bet*eei
physical and psychical activity." H fk
method was to record his maximum a-rip. -
on a dynamometer; then after a short--:
rest, to begin some mental work; and, .
while engaged in this, to record' the maxi- .-- .:
mum grip once more,- The result -was
that the latter grip was decidedly -lest '.- -
powerful, and thatthbe difference between
it and the former-grip was- the,.greater .
the more difficult, and absorbing the miien- -"
tal process. For instance: in one case the .
normal grip with the left hand depressed
the lever of the dynamomeitei- to 77 degs;,,
while reading and understanding ti. e., .-.h
could repeat the substance of it in.his own
word-i a scientific work only to 15 degs.:;
while simple reading it asso many sounds,
07 deLgs. Another gentleman (Professor
Zuntzi cold uornnally depress the lever to
69 deKL ; but while reading a catalogue of
names requiring little mental strain), to
Dr. Loeb's average maximum grip
when not occupied with mental work was
mean of both hands) a depression -of the
lever to 85 degs.; whib multiplying one
number under ten by another such num-.. -
her the depression was F1 degs; when the-
two numbers were between, ten and -._
.wenty only 35 degs.; when- between -
iwenty and thirty-only 14d.1egs.- 'This
shows very clearly how the energy.given ._
over to the mental exertion Is taken off .
from the muscular effort. It. must,' 6 ...
course,-be understood that these results.'
have only a general value. The method .-
presents many mechanical difficulties; the
question of attention is an important
factor; and Dr. Loeb simply offers these
results as a preliminary statement of his
intention to work unon this problem._---
.1 Nice Present for -a Friend. -
Some time ago.a friend of minJe inter- -
ested in zoology received one day a box -
from New MeMco without any mark upon -
it as to what. it contained.. He iustrucded
his housekeeper to open it on fliidingit in-- .
his hall and went utip stairs. Presentlyhe-
was aroused by a considerable outcry, -
and found that the box contained. a creat-
ure about a yard long, not unlike a croco- -.
-dile. It was really a, lizard, and my.-
friend immediately packed it off to the
'zoological gardens, with a letter- to the
curator, presenting it to the collection.
Next day, to his astonishment, he re-
ceived a letter from the curator, saying:
"Pray, next time you send us an animal
for tho collection warn us of its character,
for this lizard you sent us is a poisonous
one. The moment it was taken out of its -
box it bit a rabbit, and the animal almost
immediately died. As we took it out of
the box without any hesitation tas might
just as well have happened to the person
who unpackedl the monster."
The existence of this poisonous lizard
was unknown to the recipient, and was, I
believe, not known at the zoological gar-
dens. My friend wrote ont to his corre-.
spondent in New Mexico, and found that
he, too, was unaware -of the poisonous
nature of the animal, and bad bnly sentit
on account of its rarity; "but," said the
New Mexican with-charming fraukness'in
writing, "now you mention it, I do re-
member that one of these lizards bit a
man, and certainly that man died."-
Liverpool Pos.. -
: 'New Cse for Delivery Stamps.
The heads of the departments who have
to deal with office seekers are considerably
annoyed at a -new use which has been
made of the special delivery stamp. Per-
sons in want of employment and failing
to get an audience, or who cannot obtain
any answer to their communications, now ::
make sureof the delivery of their inquiries
or requests by investing ten cents in a
special delivery stamp. The letter, so-
marked'goes direct to -the secretary'or teo
whoever it is addressed, and if an answer
is not obtained there is a satisfaction in
knowing that the missive has reached its
intended destination, and that the official
memory has been jogged and his promises
made during the winter recalled to him.
With the use of the special delivery
stamp there can.-be no claim on the part
of the official that he did not receive a let-
ter and that it had been filed without his -
knowledge, in the regular order of busi-
ness. There seems to be no escape from
the workings of this new scheme unless
private secretaries are-directed' to receipt
for all malls so starnDed --nobe-Demo-
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. APRIL 13, 1887.
S*i That it will pay we do not doubt for a
Oirwiana. moment, and we see no reason why it
should not become one of the staple
crops of Florida. We know of a planter
State News in Brief. in this State who netted $75, a few years
The spring term of Rollins' College, ago, upon one acre of rice ; and what
The spring term of RoUins College, has been done once can certainly be done
Winter Park, will commence Tuesday, ain. Many complain that they cannot
April 5th, at 8:80 a. m. The term will cultivate this crop because there is no
close June 2d. machinery in the country for cleaning
Subscriptions amounting to $18,526.25 it, but if the people generally will en-
have been made in Monticello for the gage in its cultivation these mills will
proposed railroad from Thomgsville to necessarily be built.
Monticello. The Times has information from a
Tomatoes are being brought to Key trustworthy source to the effect that the
West from Windward Keys in large F. R. & N. system of roads lies been
quantities. Over 1,500 crates were ship- "scooped" entire by the Richmond Ter-
ped last week to New York. minal people, and that the connecting
The survey of the Palatka, Welaka link between the E. T. V. & G. and the
and. Silver Spring Railroad has been F. R. & N. lines will be made as quickly
completed, and work will be begun as as possible, and the road put in first-class
soon as the profile is completed. trim in every way, and be made one of
Plans and specifications for a hand- the best of its kind. The management
some Episcopal Church to be built in of the road is to be changed within, a
Titusville are now in the hands of a con- short time, and Mr. Cutting, who is the
tractor for estimates on the cost of its principal owner and one of the largest
building, holders in the Richmond Terminal, will
The town council of Daytona have in- reorganize the line and take it out from
structed the Mayor to contract for two under the receivership. It is also pro-
chemical engines of the Holloway pat- posed tod ut the Cedar Key division, of
tern. The machines will be delivered in the road in good condition-the laying of
tern. The machines will benew steel rails to begin in a few days-
a few weeks. and a strong effort be made to carry the
The Leesburg Commercial learns that Havana mails over the line via Cedar
a company of Tennesseeans with a cap- Key.-Bronson Times.
ital of $100,000 will locate lands in Sum- The sensation on the river last Thurs-
ter county soon, and invest that amount day was the arrival from Waveland of
in improvements, the original, veritable sloop yacht Out-
The assessed value of taxable property ing. It will be remembered that the
in the town, of DeLand for 1886 was Outing sailed from New York some time
over $380,000, and the precinct of De- last year under the command of Capt.
Land has been paying one-third of the Cloudman, an experienced sailor and
taxes for the entire county. journalist to make the circuit of the
It is reported that there will be a rail- world. He reported the Outing wreck-
road from Plan, City to Naples by way ed with scarcely a vestige of the yacht
of Pine Level and Fort Ogden. The left. This was, however erroneous. She
survey has actually commenced, and is a staunch little craft. Capt. H. E.
the work of construction will soon fol- Olds, of Wavely saw her in the surf and
low. bought her as she ray. When the sea
The old Buck place between Fort went down he got her off, and found
Meade and Homeland in Polk county has that only a couple of planks had been
been purchased by English gentlemen started off one of her sides. With these
and isbeing divided up into small tracts replaced and the rents in her sails sewed
of land for a colony which is soon to up the Outing was herself again. Capt.
O it olds has cut down her keel so that se
occupy i. now draws about twenty two inches
A rumor has been in circulation on against twenty eight before, and has
the streets in Bartow for several days placed a centre-board in her. This
past in regard to the South Florida Rail- famous yacht is now listed with the
road Company buying the Charlotte boats on Indian River, and her home
Harbor division of the Florida Southern, port is Waveland.-Cocoa Messenger.
No details can be learned, President P. A. Demons, of the Orange
Friday the South Florida Railroad Belt. Investment Company, was a wel-
placed its fares at, if collected by the con- come caller at our office last Monday.
ductor, 5 cents per mile ; straight tickets He returned last Saturday from New
44 cents per mile ; round trips 8 cents York, where he had been. for several
per mile. This is a reduction on the weeks making arrangements for the com-
last two of 121 per cent. pletion of the Orange Belt Railway to its
The oil portrait of Prince Murat,which Gulf terminus at Point Pinellas. As our
was dilapidated and almost- destroyed, readers all know the road has been in
has been patched up, substantially operation fiom Monroe, near this city, to
framed and again placed in the public Oakland for several months. President
library at Tallahassee among the inter- Demens says positively that all the steel
testing relics of former days. rail has been purchased to complete the
The Town Improvement Co. of Cedar road,and that the first cargo is now being
Keyhas deeded the lands necessary for loaded in Philadelphia. The boat wil
terminal'facilities to the Suwanee and leave about April 1st, and will probably
Gulf Railroad at Cedar Key. The in- arrive at. Jacksonville in ten' days. Im-
dications are that the road is now on a mediately upon receipt of the rails, the
solid basis, and work will begin on it work of track laying will begin, and bar-
during the summer, ring possible delays, will be continued
The dredge boat engaged in dredging uninterrupted until the road is finished.
the Apopka canal is now at work near Twenty-two miles or more of road Dbed
Eustis, and will soon have completed the are ready for the track, andh Mr.nDemens
contract on which work has been con- ays that cessful operation the Novembere line
tied fo r the past seven ears and a in suessl operation by Novemer
ehain of lakes connected,as well as drain- 1st of the present yeax.-Sanford Argus.
ig thousands of acres of land suitable
for gardening purposes.
Mr. J. A. Cloud, of New York, has
been in Bartow for some days and has
ON THE BLACKWATER RIVER.
made a proposition to the leading citi- The Interesting Features of
zens to supply Bartow with water, and Sat R s COn ty
also electric lights, for $15,000, and to Santa Rosa County.
accept -in payment bonds of the cor- Editor.Forida Farmer and Fruit-Grower:
portion legally issued on thirty years' There is no more fertile section of
time, bearing interest at 6 per cent. Florida than the Blackwater region, but
Many improvements are being made owing to the numerous saw mills, farm-
at Daytona over on the Halifax, and the ing and stock raising are yet in their
past season has been a most prosperous infancy, and logs, lumber and shingles
one. -Ridgewood avenue is being shelled are almost exclusively the only industry
from Blake to Holly Hill. Mr. E. E. of this rich valley. Milton, the county
Vail, of the St. Augustine Hotel, has seat of Santa Rosa, is 18 miles by
contracted for lumber and will, during rail and 25 by water from Pensacola. It
the summer, erect one of the best hotels has some 1,500 inhabitants, two hotels,
in the State. Two banks are about to several stores, churches, schools, court-
commence business, and real estate house, postoffice, railroad depot, saw
transfers made by Messrs. Douglass & mill, grist mills, shingle mill, foundry, i
Jones are very heavy, some weeks reach-, ship yard and a glass factory in pros-
ing as high as $40,000. pect.
The following is an official statement One mile from Milton is situated the
of the standing of Orange county: There lovely little town of Bagdad, now Black-
is in the county treasurer's hands to ac water, on Blackwater Bay, one of the
count of building fund $5,045 24; road cleanest, prettiest and busiest little
lund $1,525 79 ; revenue fund,$15,845 93; towns in Florida. It has some 500 in-,.
makingatotalof $21,918,96 cash on hand. habitants, stores, postoffice, two saw
There are unpaid warrants outstanding mills, sash factory, two ship yards,
to the amount of $3,750 92. After these churches, schools, etc.
warrants are paid there will still be cash Two miles down Blackwater Bay is
to the amount of $18,168.04. This does another beautiful little town-Bay. Point
not include what A. M. Hyer, F. T. -with large saw mill, etc. The hum-
Hardeman and J. R. Montage owe the ming and buzzing saws, cutting thous-
county. ands of feet of lumber daily; the tugs
Following are the steamship exports towing barges of lumber down the bay,
from the port of Fernandina the last where large ships await their loads of
weefromk:Per Mallory Line steamship Caron- lumber for all parts of the world; and
delete 71,421 feet of lumber, 345 cas then other tugs towing into the different
cedar, 185 logs cedar, 148 barrels cotton mills thousands of logs to be cut into
timber of all shapes, sizes and kinds.
seed oil, 38 pails shrimp,55 packages mer- The toui ensemble of all this, in conjunc-
ehandise. Per Clyde line steamship tion with hundreds of little and big
Seminole-173 cases cedar, 408 boxes of boa's, ai ig and oyster boatsand skiffs
oranges, 63 crates vegetables, 89 cases boa and going, makes these threes
paint, 76 packages sundries. Per Clyde coming and going, f impoakes rtanhese and cothren-
ine steamship Yemassee-20 cases cedar towns the time and attention of nine-
756 boxes oranges, 58 crates vegetables, sumtenths ofthe population of Santa Rosa
5,000 feebags cotto lumber, 91 packages sundries, county, leaving the rich and fertile
55,000 feet lumber. lands in their primitive condition of
We have recently made an estimate of wildness, where the deer, turkey, etc.,
the number of acres planted in oranges roam almost at will.
in the immediate vicinity of Manatee, A few enterprising men have large
and find there are in all about 620 acres flocks of sheep and herds of cattle, and
on the south side of the river in the here and there, scattered through the
Manatee district, and within four miles piney wood, are a few patches of rice,
of the village. Of these about one-fourth corn, millet, cane, sweet potatoes, etc.,
are now bearing, one-fourth more will of the most luxuriant growth, and culti-
bear in from one to three years, and the vated in the most crude way, but still of
balance in five years. Allowing the low wonderful productiveness.
estimate of five hundred oranges to the On the east side of Blackwater Bay
tree, it will amount to the large number the land is extremely fertile and beauti-
of thirty-cne million, oranges or enough ful. The soil is a dark loam from six to
to load over six hundred cars.-Manatee eighteen inches thick, with sub-soil of
Advocate. clay from two to three feet. Anything
The Sumpterville Times says: The cul- that will grow in Florida will most cer-
ture of upland rice is a matter that our tainly do well on this land, and the nat-
glanters should reflect seriously upon. ural pasturage of Bermuda and other
grasses points to this section as the stock "Abrus precatorius, Achras sapota,
section of the State, and at no distant. Achras sapodilla, Achras mammosa,
day hundreds of fat cattle and sheep will Agave Sisalana, Agave Pulque, Anona
be'grazing where the deer now reigns squamosa, Anona muricata, Anona
supreme, and the cracker patches turned cherimoyer, Arnotto shrub, Arrow-root,
into large fields of grain, fruit and pe- Arum esculentum, Arum sagittifolium,
cans. Bamboo, Benaorellana, Bombax Ceiba,
At Milton and Bagdad the traveler Bombax pentandrum, Bromelia pita,
should stop over and be amply repaid Cactus coccenililifer, Cactus 5 species,
examining the many beautiful homes Capsicum var. species, Carica papaya,
and lovely scenery, not only in these Cashew nut, Cassava, Crescentia cujete,
towns, but along the Blackwater Bay, Crescentia cucurbita, Crescentia pepino,
where splendid fishing and large, fat Custard apple.
oysters are plentiful. On this bay one "Dolichos tuberosus, Dolicbos bulbosus,
can enjoy sailing or boating, and if fond Eddoes, Erythrina corallodendron, Flax-
of hunting, the woods afford a supera- grass, Flax tropical, Flax of leaves, Flax
bundance of game, from bear, deer, pine-apple, Gourd-economical sp., Grass-
turkey down to rabbit, squirrels, doves, flax, Grass-sitk, Grass-rope, Hemp of
partridges, woodcock, etc. Sisal, Hemp of Manila, Henequen,
The ride from Milton to Pensacola, Hibiscus Sabdariffa, India Rubber tree
either by rail or water, is beautiful and Jatropha Cassava, Jatropha Manihot,
grand. As the cars whirl along the well Jatropha Curcas, Logwood.
kept road,of the many novelties presented "Mammea, Mango, Manilla mulberry,
none gives more pleasure than the cross- Marantha Indica, Marantha alloni, Melia
ing of Escambia Bay over a bridge three sempervirens, Moringa pterygosperma,
miles long, and shortly after the majes- Morphia, Pitafloja, Poinciana pulcher-
tic ships lying at anchor at the old city rima, Rocn, Sebesten Plum, Sesbania
of Pensacola. gloriosa, .Srbania grandiflora, Spondias,
This city has some 15,000 inhabitants, Strawberry prickly-pear, Tamarind,
and is quite a busy place. Pensacola has Tea, Terminalia Catappa, Tobacco-Mex-
a large lumber business, and at certain ican varieties, TrophisRamon,Turmeric,
15,000 inhabitants, and is quite a busy Zingiber officinalis.
place. Pensacola has a large lumber "Sycios edulis, Persea gratissima,
business, and at certain seasons of the Chrysophyllum cainito, Chr.sophyllum
year this brings to her wharves hundreds oliviforme, Sapota elongata, Anona
of the largest ships from all parts of the Humboldtiana, Citrus Medica, Citrus
world, limonum, Lucuma Bonplandi, Melicocca
The ride out to the Gulf, some eight ;bijuga, Anacardium occidentale, Jam-
miles, 'visiting Fort Barrancas, Fort bosa vulgaris, Sapota mammosa,
Pickens and the navy yard, is one of the Diospiros obtusifolia, Coffea Arabica,
attractions of the city. The brick used Cordia Sebestena, Bixa orellana, Cur-
in building these forts were made on the cuma Americana, Hibiscus tiliaceus,
land opposite Bagdad, which is justly Corchorus siliquosus, Cedrela adorata,
celebrated for its rich soil, beautiful Cathartocarpus Fistula, Cotton vine,
scenery and majestic old pecan trees. Cotton Thedpey seed, Cotton Nankin."
ARTHUR BROWN. We have copied the list verbatim. It
BLACKWATER, Fla. will be noticed that some of the genera
0 were evidently misspelled by the printer;
BOTANICAL NOTES. others have slightly changed in spelling
during the fifty-four years that have
-intervened since the list was originally
A Record of Dr. Perrine's Work. published; and others have been placed
in entirely new genera by botanists of a
Editor Florida Farmer and Fruit- Grower: -later day.
Having just read with interest a short It is interesting to know that in a list
article by Mrs. Hester Perrine Walker, of plants (published in the same book),
in the last FARMER-with editorial notes that were then known to be growing in
following-the remark that Dr. Perrine Tropical Florida, the Oreodoxa regia
only sought for useful plants, made us (Royal pa'm) is mentioned. The three
think that perhaps a partial list of the large specimens, which once stood on
plants introduced into Florida by Dr. 'ape Sable, seem to have been widely
Perrine fifty years ago would be of in- known at that time, serving, as they did,
terest. The list, though "only a very as a beacon visible as far as Bahia
small number" of those plants intro- Honda, 18 or 20 miles to the Southward.
duced by him, contain very many that As near as we can learn from authentic
are only ornamental, and as Dr. Perrine sources, two of these splendid trees
introduced many species of palms from were cut down by vandals at some time
Central and South America, we are during the late war, and the only re-
almost inclined to agree with Mrs. mining one destroyed by the gale of
Walker in regard to the origin of this 18. 72.
palm. Whether the palms of Rodger's river,
To show that the botanists of the An- or those of the great Hammock of Cape
tiles and Gulf shores have not always Roman,diacovered by Prof. Curtiss a few
proved infallible, and that perhaps some years ago, were generally known at that
tropical species of palm may have es- day, seems doubtful. There is a legend,
caped them for years, we' quote an in- that long years ago a single Royal Palm
stance from Mr. Morris' report of; .the stood on Anna Maria or Palm Key
Government Gardens of Jamaica, for (whence the name) at the southern ex-
1884. tremity of Tampa*Bay. But in one case
"I may mention that in working up thisfond delusion was doomed to a sud-
the botanical classification of the indi- 'den and unpoetic end, in much the same
genous plants capable of yielding fibre, manner as the stories of Pocahontas and
it was found that the common native William Tell are treated by modern
I agave (aloe) of Jamaica known as the historians. In conversation a few years
3 Keratto was not (as it has been repreo- ago with the venerable Capt. Fred Tresca
sented in all books treating of Jamaica (since deceased), than whom no one has
plants for the last two hundred years) beeu more familiar with the Gulf coast
Agave Americana, but an entirely differ- of Florida for the last fifty years, he re-
ent species; possessing well marked char- marked, in speaking of the Royal Palm
acteristics and to be distinguished there- on Anna Maria Key: "No such a ting-
from. This native aloe of Jamaici is but there was a tunderin' big cabbage
mentioned in Sloane's Cataloguei. p. there once."
117, and named Agave\Americana. This
name is quoted by Brown (Nat. Hist. of
Jamaica, p. 199), and by Swartz (Obs.
Bot., p. 128),- and included under the
common name of. Keratto. Since that
time writers have been content to adopt
this determination; and even in i.the
Flora of the British West India Islands
(Grisebach), published as recently as
1864, our .native plant is called Agave
Americana, L., and described 'as com-
mon on barren rtcky "hills' of Jamaica.
"Our plants, however, proves to be
agave Keratto of Salmdyck, mentioned
by Mr. J. G. Baker in his' excellent
Monograph of the genus agave (Garden-
ers' Chronicle, Vols. VII. and VII., New
Series), under the name of Agave Salm-
dyckii, 'a native of Mexico.' Its inflo-
rescence (so abundantly produced here
every spring) is said to be unknown to
"The mere botanical determination. of
our plant may not be of general interest,
but the application of the question to
the industrial arts certainly is so, for
under the belief that this plant .was
Agave Americana and therefore capable"
of yielding'valuable fibre, laige sums of
money were invested (and lost in a neigh-
boring island) in getting out machiner-y
to clean the-fibre, which is of. inferior
This little instance proves to us that
even "Grisebach and other botanical
explorers of the Antilles and Gulf
shores" have their weak points, and it
seems to us quite probable that this
palm (Chamephbenix Sargentii) may be
a native of some other part of tropical
America, and may have passed for some
species of areca or oredoxa for the last
two hundred years under the observa-
tion of botanists less careful than Prof.
Curtiss and Prof. Sargent.
Even Prof. Curtiss himself in his notes
on the Chammsphcenix says, "At first
sight we thought them to be young trees
of the Royal palm, but on perceiving the
fruit borne by one of them we knew at
once that it belonged to a very different
It would not at all surprise us if when
careful botanists have thoroughly- ex-
plored the great primeval forests of
Central America the Chammsphcenix
Sargentii would be found growing there,
and it seems to us quite probable that
Dr. Perrine may have originally brought
the seeds to Florida.
We are indebted to Mrs. Walker's
courtesy for the loan of the Congres-
sional Report containing the following
partial list of the plants introduced into
South Florida by her father, Dr. Per-
P. W. REASONER.
MANATEE, Fla., Mirch 27, 1887.
Speed of Circular Saws.
In some of the great saw .mill estab-
lishments of the West six-foot circular
saws are run 760 revolutions to the min-
ute; the teeth of the six-foot saw are
revolving nearly three miles a minute.
Six-foot saws have been driven at as
high rate of speed as 880 revolutions to
the minute. In Michigan, a few years
ago, a Canadian company geared up its
mill to run its six-foot saw 850 revolu-
tions to the minute. A saw mill at Pad-
ucab, Ky., which had a seventy-six-inch
saw and steam feed, cut one day 10,571
feet of one-inch poplar boards in- about
seventy minutes. In this trial the saw
made no sawdust; each tooth tore out a
strip of wood one-quarter of an inch
long. Michigan sawyers have boasted
of a mill dropping sixteen one-inch six-
teen-foot boards a minute, but this seems
like an exaggeration,-N. C. Farmer. .
. The following table, compiled from the records
of the Jack-onville Signal Station by Sergt. J.
W. Smith, represents the temperature, condition
of weather, rainfall -and direction of wind for
the mouth of April, as observed at the JdBk-
sonville station during the past 15 years:
TEMP. WEATHER. go '
YEARS. 1 .
1872 90 5668 8 11 2.48 NE
1878 89 152 69.1 14 10 6 2.56 SW
1874 91 4270 11 12 7 1.60 SW
1875 86 4467 18 7 5 2.98 SW
1876 88 47 68 13 13 4 7.89 NE
1877 85 4568 9 12 9 3.01 SE
1875 87 50 71 11 9 10 5.88 NE
1879 88 8968 17 8 5 2.97 NE
1880 91 4271 10 14 6 1.50 SW
1881 88 3767 16 9 5 4.57 SW
1882 85 671 12 12 6 5.23 NE
1883 88 5' 70 5 20 5 4.48 NE
1834 88 4769 14 11 5 2.V8 SW
1885 88 4768 11 17 2 1.24 NE
1886 86 4466 14 10 6 3.08 NE
J. W. SMITH,
Sergt. Signal Corps, U. S. A.
--- .4-. --
Ladies'.. 'Purchasing Agency.
A New York lady of experience and
taste, enjoying the best facilities for
shopping under advantageous condi-
tions, offers her services to ladies desir-
ing to secure any kind of wearing ap-
parel, toilet articles or household goods,
at New York prices. Send for circular.
Address MRS. S. S. Jones,
* 179 GatesAve., Brooklyn, N. Y.
Seed Irish Potatoes.
The best pot .toes for planting in this
State are those brought from extreme
Eastern points. Acting on this belief,
we imported last year from
large quantities of Early Rose, Chili
Red, Beauty of Hebr n and other varie-
ties, and the potatoes raised from this
seed, were the finest we have ever seen
.We will receive, in a few days another
cargo of the same potatoes, which we
will sell at the following prices:
Chili Red........per barrel $3.50.
Early Rose .................. $3.00.
Beauty 6f Hebron... ..... $3.00.
Every barrel guaranteed as represented.
Remit with order, and we will ship the
CHURCH ANDERSON & CO.
* Jacksonville, Fla., Jan. 5th, 1887.
"We Know by Experience."
For three years we have used Brad-
ley's Vegetable" Fertilizer. After test-
ing along with '9ther high grade fertil-
izers, we pronounce it better than any
sold in Florida. We shall use it again
We do not hesitate to say to the vege-
table growers of Florida that they can-
not use anything so good as Bradley's
Florida Vegetable Fertilizer. We know
by expe-ience what we say regarding
WOFFORD & WILDER.
Ft. Mason, Fla.
Groves where Williams, Clark & Co's
Orange Tree Fertilizer has been used are
WILLIAMS, CLARK & CO.
This powder never varies. A marvelof
purity, strength and wholesomeness. More
economical than the ordinary kinds and
cannot be sold in comnpetition with the
multitude of low test, short weight alum or
phosphate powders. Sold only in cans,
BOA, BAKING POWDER CO., 106 Wall St..
ggs are quoted at wholesale at 16 cents
eggs are quoted at wholesale at 16 cents
per dozen, and retail at 25 cents.
Boston marrowfat squashes wholesale at
2 50 per barrel, retail at 5, 10 and 15 cents
New York Irish potatoes wholesale at$2 40 to
$2 50 per barrel and retail at 10 centaper quart
or two quarts for 15 cents.
Northern beets are worth wholesale 8250
per barrel; and retail at 10 cents per quart,
or two quarts for 15 cent%.
Radishes bring at wholesale 15 to 20 cents
per dozen bunches of seven radishes each.
They retail at 5 cents per bunch, or three
bunches for 10 cents.
Live poultiy-chickens, wholesale, from 35
to 40 cents each; retail 40' to 50 cents each.
Dressed poultry, per pound-chickens retail,
18 to 20 cents. Turkeys, wholesale, $1.00 to
$1.75 each, and retail at 20 cents. per pound.
Northern meats retail as follows: Chicago
beef from 18 to 25 cents per pound; Florida
beef 6 to 15 cents per pound; veal 20 to 25 cents;
pork 12 to 15 cents; mutton 10 to 20 cents*
venison 25 cents; sausage 15 cents; corned
beef 10 cents.
Nassau tomatoes wholesale at 50 cents
per box and retail at 15 to 20 cents per quart.
LEAF TOBACCO MARKET.
NEW YORK, April 8.-The Western
leaf market is dull, owing to the light de-
mand. The New York leaf is quiet, while the
Havana leaf is in active demand. New
York Pennsylvania and Western sell at from
$4 to' 15 per 100 pounds.. Havana, 60 cents to
$1.05 per pound. Sumatra, 1.20 to 81.60 per
ST. LOUIS, April 8.-The demand .for
leaf is light, but improving, and the outlook
is rather encouraging.
LOUISVILLE, April 8.-There is a good
demand, especially for the better grades of
which there Is a scarcity.
BALTIMORE, April 8.-The market Is
dull, very little desirable stock being on sale.
Maryland leaf is quoted at from Si to $15 per
RICHMOND, April S.-The? market is
improvingwith favorable weather for sbip-
ping. The better grades of stemming leal
sell rapidly atfroni 9to 13 cents per pound.
Bright wrappers for plugs command from 18
to 20 cents. '
DANVILLE, April 8.-Business is ia-.
proving rapidly and prices have an upward
tendency. There is a better feeling among
planters, manufacturers and business men
Fancy Poultry and Hntinu Dogs.
Eggs For Hatching From Leading Va-
rieties of Domesticated Land
and Water Fowl.
Also Thoroughbred Young Setters and Hounds.
Address VILLA LANZA POULTRY YARNS,
GRADED JERSEYS FOR SALE.
A few Graded Jerseys for sale in calf by a
J. C. C. Bull Panic, No. .9,420. *Panic is a
grandson of Duke of Darlington, No. 2,640, and a
son of Uproar, No. 4,609, out of Brown Beauty,
daughter of Iron Bank, imported, No. 1,120.
Apply to SoncRAma BRos.,
JAcKSONVILLE, April 8,1887.
MEATS-D. S. short ribs boxed, $9 00; D. S.
Long clear sides 88 879; D. S. bellies $8 87%;
smoked short ribs 9 50; smoked bellies 9 50;
S C. hams, canvassed fancy, 13 S. C. break
fast bacon, uncanvassed lIc; C. shoul-
ders canvassed_ 9c; California or" pic-
nic hams, 9%c. Lard-riflned tierces 7%c;
Mess beef-barrels$1050 half barrels 575; mess
pork $17 50. These quotations are for round
ots from first hands; whole cattle 71;
dressed hogs 8yc; sheep 8yc. pork sausage 9c;
loins 1Oc; longrbologna 7c; head cheese 6yc;
Frankfort sausage 10c; rounds 8c.
BUTTER--Best table 23@28c per pound,
cooking 15@20c per pound.
Grain, Flour, Hay, Feed, Etc.
GRAIN-Corn-The market quiet but firm.
rhe following figures represent to-day's
values: We quote white corn, job lots,
61c@... per bushel; car load lots 59c per
bushel, mixed corn, job lots 60o per bushel,
car load lots 58c per bushel. Oats quiet
and firm at the following figures: mixed,
in job lots, 43c car load lots 42c; white
oats are 3c higher all round, Bransteady
and higher, $20 to $21 per ton.
HAY-The market is firm and better de-
mand for good grades. Western choice,
small boles, $18@...per ton; car load lots $17 0
to $1750 per ton; Eastern hay $20 per ton.
PEARL GRte s AN:D-MBA-L-$2 90 to 300 per
FLouR-Dull and-lower, best patents $5 50@
$5 60- good family $5 00@$510; common 64 25.
PAs-Black Eye, $1 0 per bushel.-
GROND FEED--Per toi$24to 6$25.
Co3rPE- GIeen Rio 16@20c per pound.
Java, roasted, 50@83c; Mocas, roasted, 30@88c;
Red, roasted, 23@25c.
COTTON SEED ..MBAL-Scarce and higher.
Sea island or dark meal $20 per ton, bright
or short cotton meal $2150@2250 per ton.
TOBACCO STEMS -Market quiet but firm @
$18 00 to 814 00 per ton,
LIM--Eastern, job lots, $100 per barrel, Ala-
bama lime 8115. Cement-American -200,
English $4 75 per barrel.
RiC-The quotations vary, according to
quantity from 83@6%c per pound.
SA.--iAverpoo per sack, $100; per car
Country Produce, Hides, Skins, Etc.
CHEESE-Fine Creamery 16c per pound.
LIVE POULTRY-Limited supply and good
demand as follows: hens S5e; mixed 30o; half-
EGGs-Duval County 16 per dozen with
a limited demand and good supply.
IRtaH POTATOES-Northern potatoes $2 50
per barrel; Early Rose $2 60; Chill Reds $2 75.
ONioNs--New York, 3 50.
Florida cabbage, 83 00 per barrel.
NEW YORK BEETS-Good supply at $2 50 per
NEW BESrs-Florida, per crate, $2 25.
CAULIFL.OWES--Per barrel, #3 00, and $175
TomAToss-Florida, per crate, $3 50 to $4 00.
NORTHERN TURNIPs-Good supply at $2 25
GREEN PEAS-Per box $3 00.
CucuuBns-Per crate, $6.
SQUASH-Per crate, $2 75.
SNAP BEANS-Per crate, $2 50.
NEW POTATOES-Per barrel, 65.
HIDES-Dry flint, cow, per sound, first
class, 12@13cs; and country dry salted i15
llYc; butchers dry salted 9@93c. Skins-Deer
fint, 17c; salted 10@12c. Furs-Otter, winter,
each 25c@$4; raccoon 10@20c; wild cat 10@20c-
fox 10@20c, Beeswax per pound 18c; wool
free from burs 22@25e; burry, 1d815; goat
skins 10@25o apiece.
Foreign and Domestic Fruits.
PRUNES--French, 12c. I
PINE APPLES-$I 75 to $2 00 per frozen.
LEMoNS-Messlnas, $4 00 per box.
ApPLE-New York 85 5 0 t5600 per barrel
,FIGS-In layers 13c.
DATES-Persian-Boxes,9c; Frails 7c.
GRAPsMalagas, $5 00 per keg.
ORANOS-Florida-Per box 00 to $5 00.
BANANAS-Good supply; from 75o to $200
NuTs--Almonds 18c; Brazils 120; Filberts
(Sicily) 12c; English walnuts, Grenobles, 18c;
Marbots, l5c- Pecans 12c; Peanuts co;
Cocoanuts $4 50 per hundred.
RAISINS-London layers, $275 per box.
CIRANBERRIES--2 75 per crate; $1000 per
BUTTERINE-Creamery 200; Extra Dairy
l6c- Dairy 15.
dHEDSE-Half skim 10c, cream 180 per
The following quotations are carefully re
vised for Wednesday's and Saturday's paper
from quotations furnished by dealers in the
Carrots wholesale at 3 00 per barrel, and
retail at 50 cents per peck.
Green Onions wholesale at 60 cents per
hundred, and retail 5 cents per bunch.
Florida Cabbage, wholesale $2 00 per barrel
and retail at 5 to 10 cents.
Quail wholesale at 10 cents each and retail
%t 15 cents, or two for a quarter.
Oranges wholesale at $2 50 per box, and re-
tail at two and three for 5 cents.
Spiuage wholesales at 75c per bushel and
retails at four quarts for 25 cents.
Sweet Potatoes wholesale at 60 cents per
bushel, and retail at 5 cents per quart.
Lettuce wholesales at 15@20 cents per dozen
heads, and retail at 5 cents per head.
Parsnips wholesale at $2 75 per barrel and
retail at four and five for 10 cents.
Robins wholesale at 6 cents each and retail
at 10 cents.
Celery wholesales at 50 to 60 cents per dozen
and retails at three to four stalks for 25 cents,
according to size.
Eggs are in fair demand. Duval county
As a newspaper the TIMis-UNIoN now stands
without a rival in Florida, and the peer 'of any-
the South. Having the exclusive right to the
and essocated toress pahes, its own correspon-
dent in Washington, and special correspondents
throughout the State, its State and general news
is complete, comprehensive, accurate, and trust-
worthy. No Floridian' who-wishes to keep
breast of what is going on in his own State and
in the world at largo can afford to be without it.
Terms [in advance) ;10 per year; $5 for six
months; $2.50 for three months; $1 permonth.
THE DAILY TIMES-UNION (without the
Sunday issue), by mail, six months, $4; one year,
$8. The Sunday Tis-UmoN by mail, one
The FLORIDA WEEKLY TIMES, the weekly edi-
tion of the TIMES-UNION) is admitted to be the
best dollar newspaper in the South and one of
the best family journals m the country. It is a
great 56-column paper, eight pages, filled to the
brim with State and General News, Market and
Weather reports, etc. Its Agriculturrl Depart-
ment, edited by Judge KNAPP, agent of the Na-
tional Bureau of Agriculture, is written with
special reference to Florida's climate, soil and
productions, and alone worth ten times its
subscription price Also, a large coloredmap of
Florida to all yearly subscribers free. Terms
(in advance, $1 a year; 50 cents for six months.
Remittances should bo made by draft, money
order, or postal note or registered letter.
.H. JONE BO., Publisher