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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
VOL. 1---NO. 14.
JACKSONVILLE, FLA., WEDNESDAY, APRIL 6, 1887.
PRICE $2 A YEAR.
FORAGE PLANTS TESTED.
An Unfavorable Opinion of
Alfalfa and Teosinte.
.ditor Floridh Farmer and Fruit- Grower:
I have heard it said that when a man
comes to Florida, the first year he thinks
he knows it all; the second year he listens
to advice but don't follow it; the third
yer he wishes he remembered what had
n told him, and the fourth year he
asks everybody for advice, for he finds
he don't know anything at all. I have
been here long enough to find that I
-don't know anything. I have worked
and experimented, and what is the re-
Well, if I had listened to those poor,
looked-down-upon Florida crackers I
would have plenty of feed for stock, but
as I did not I have to buy hay and corn
like other new comers. We generally
come with a large bag of seeds: there is
clover, lucern, blue grass, timothy,
-orchard grass, teosinte--yes, that
teosinte that the papers say so much
about nowadays. And observe how
-smart the new comer looks whenfhe is
,explaining to half a dozen of those poor
crackers how this and that will grow.
It almost makes one wish he had a saw
mill just to saw lumber to build barns
tohold all the hay that sack of seeds will
At the end of the season we call on
him again to enquire about his grass and
clover, but there is no need of asking for
we find him just in the act of paying for a
bale of hay raised in Iowa; and that is
answer enough. Now I don't blame
others for doing what I have done my-
self. Many a dollar which would help
keep soul and-body together during the
long hungry gap between the pine woods
and an-orange grove-, has gone-torthe.seed
merchant, who must find every-year
three or four new kinds of forage plants
adapted to Florida, which will yield
immense crops of fodder or hay-but we
never see it.
Now after the new comer gets over
all this exaggeration and cools off, he
remembers that an old cracker gave
him some guinea grass to start which he
planted in an out-of-the-way place, and
he has noticed that the cows seem crazy
for that spot of grass and often eat it
off. liHe also recollects that they told
him beggar weed-or better, Florida
clover, for it is a clover-is an excellent
fodder plant, growing as high as 10 feet
on rich land. Then it occurs to him
that somebody has said that rice does
well on rather moist land and is a good
-fodder plant when cut green, also corn
planted in drills ftom January till March
for a succession, also that oats and rye
sowed in succession from October till
December will furnish good winter
pasture or cut feed.
Let me tell you something of my ex-
perience in this.line. In a report written
by.Peter Henderson for the U. S. Depart-
nient of Agriculture in 1884, the writer
expresses surprise that plants like alfalfa
are not more cultivated in Florida, where
forage plants are so much needed. After
reading this I inquired if anybody had
tiied alfalfa, and I found a party who
had three 100-feet rows of it in his
garden on flat-woods land. He praised
it highly and wished to plant acres of it.
I had noticed in Mr. Henderson's
report that alfalfa wants a deep sandy
soil, and as I had- just such soil. I imag-
ined I would do still better than my friend
Son the flat-woods.- Iprocured from Mr.
Henderson 1 pound of seed and a barrel
of chemical fertilizer for $5.00. I also
had muck and night-soil well mixed on
hand. I prepared the row's carefully,
filling the drills with this compost, then
run abull tongue through to mix it and
sowed the seed.
-The seed came up 'and made a good
start. I already imagined 4my cows get-
ting fat on it. But the stuff stopped
growing' and seemed at a stand-still.
Then I commenced to use the chemicals,
and soon it became dark green and made
two inches of growth. Then I gave it 2
Barrels of liquid manure, stirred the soil
and weeded: it as carefully as a cotton
patch; again a few inches of growth.
Then I sowed 3 barrels of ashes broad-
cast, and after tending the alfalfa-for six
months I had enough to feed three cows
three times for one day. I came to the
conclusion that it would be cheaper to
buy hay from Iowa. The next' year I
asked my friend in the flat-woods how
his. three acres of- alfalfa was doing.
"Haven't planted any 'more," said he,
"that stuff -in the garden dwindled
away, and I don't plant any more of it."
So I know all I want to of alfalfa.
After that I went and gathered some
t-eggar weed seed and sowed it in drills
,on the poorest spot I have, high, rolling,
worn-out land. It grew 18 inches high
without fertilizer, when L cut it. I cut
At five times during the summer, and
then let it go to seed, and got 2 bushels
of seed from it.
As to teosinte' it does all the seedsmen
;say of it, -but I think we cannot raise it
profitably on account of the budworm,
which-is the only thing that prevents us
from raising two crops of corn in our
long season. My teosinte and that of
some of my friends was rendered unfit
for use by that pest from June until fall,
the stalks being eaten down to the
ground. I further fear that if teosinte
be grown on a large scale, the budworm
will so accumulate as to endanger other
crops. I think people had better use
their money for cow peas or Guinea
INTERLACHEN, Putnam Co.,
March 10, 1887.
A Naturalized Asiatic Plant
Suitable for Greensward.
It has come to be a well recognized
fact, that almost all the fruits which
succeed well in Florida are of Asiatic
origin. Reasoning from analogy we feel
confident that the same quarter of the
globe will furnish therherbaceous plants
and grasses which will be found most
profitable in cultivation. Some have
been introduced already and a few have
come unbidden, to stay whether man
desires their presence or not.
Among plants of the latter class,
which have come of their own free will
and established themselves-on Florida
soil, we recognize with pleasure a
humble little plant which we think can
be made to supply the place of the
northern white clover, not as a honey
plant, bit for covering 1 iwns, and per-
haps for pasturage. Anything that will
carpet the door-yard with green the
year round will add materially to Flor-
ida's attractions. We advance that
opinion with -great confidence. As to
the plant in question, actual cultivation
isneededto prove.its qualities. ....
As cldver-is-a~name of very loose ap-
plication, not being confined to the
clover -genus, or -even to the clover
family, we feel warranted in applying it
to the subject of this article, it being a
plant- extremely. like some of the low-
spreading clo-vers. The leaves are tri-
foliate and have the stipular appendages
characteristic of the pea family. The
manner of flowering and seeding is quite
different from that of riWfolium (true
clover) and proves it to be a Desmodium,
.the genus to which the beggar weed be-
longs. Any one who has come in
contact with the latter knows the pecu-
liar structure of the seed-vessels. They
are like strings of flattened beads. When
ripe their attachment for a woolen gar-
ment is stronger than for the parent
plant-that is a "beautiful provision of
nature" for their distribution.
There are other trailing species of
De.amodium, but none approaching the
diminutive proportions of this. All of
the others differ from this in having a
terminal inflorescence, while in this
species the flowers spring from the axils
plants, coming from remote regions, are
going to do good service for the land of
We came across this clover-like Des-
modium near Tampa about the last of
April, 1886. We found it growing along
the edge of a sandy road, teaching out
almost to the wheel tracks, flowering
and seeding freely where most plants
would quickly perish, flourishing on
sand that was hot to the tonch. In
August we found itagain at Manatee on
low grounds bordering the- river,' and on
visiting the Clearwater region there we
found it again growing along roadsides
near Dunedin. We pointed it out to
Mr. A. L Duncan, and recommended
him to give it a trial in cultivation.
Mr. Reasoner ought to procure a lot of
it and give it a trial at his nurseries near
By means of our description and
illustration we hope that many of our
readers will succeed in finding this in-
teresting plant, and if any one finds it
in localities other than those mentioned,
we shall be glad to receive a specimen
(pressed flat and dry) for identification.
We presume the plant is to be found in
a green and growing condition at any
time of the year. In India it is said to
bloom from December till February. In
this State its flowering season probably
is from February till May. The plant
makes its principal growth in summer,
growing most luxuriantly on low and
VonMueller refers to Desmodium tri-
florum as "a densely matted perennial
herb growing in tropical regions of Asia,
Africa and America." He cites Dr.
Roxburgh's statement that "it helps to
form the most beautiful turf in India,
and that cattle are very fond of this
herb." Coming as it does from the West
and East Indies, and not having-as we
can ascertain-any name suitable for"
popular use, we suggest that it be called
Comparative Value of Lespe-
deza, Peas and Bermuda.
The following is a specimen of the
work performed at the Mississippi Agri-
cultural College as described in an ad-
dress delivered by Prof. J. A. Meyers at
the recent Dairymen's Convention at
In order to get at the recuperative
action of the grasses upon the soil, Prof.
Gulley and I last fall began the study of
some of our Southern grasses as a means
of returning plant food to the soil, as
one of the branches of 'an investigation
that we are carrying on, and which will
occupy us for some time before we ar-
rive at definite conclusions. But I will
give you sbme of the results so far at-
tained as they bear directly upon thel
subject in hand.
His assistant, a conscientious young
man, was directed to go into the field
where they were growing good crops of
the following plants and select, as nearly
as possible, an average square foot of tt e
surface. This was carefully measured
and the crop upon the surface preserved.
The earth: was then cut down all
around this square foot until the bottom
of the roots were reached, and then' all
of the roots upon this area washed and
secured. -This gave us the total growth
upon the square foot, and from that we
can calculate it for the acre. I think
that the work was performed with as
much care as possible, but I am respon-
sible only for the analyses which are
of the leaves, singly or in twos or threes,
each borne on a short, -slender pedicel.
The flowers are purplish and pea-shaped,
but very-small, and are succeeded by 3
or 4-seeded legumes. As the seed pods
are very small and borne next to the
ground, it would not be practicable to
gather them in any quantity. Propa-
gation would have tobe from the plant
itself. It grows in mats, the running
stems sending down roots from the
nodes. Thus each node or joint may be-
come a distinct plant, and an. old plant
by being cout in pieces and replanted,;
after the manner of. Bermuda grass,r
may be used for planting quite a piece
of ground. '
In what year the Desmodium triflorum
reached the United States no one knows.'
Probably some seeds were brought from
the West Indies attached to something
that was landed at Tampa. Thence it
readily spread throughout Hillsborough
county, and now is found in Manatee
and probably in Hernando county. By
this time it may have met'the Japan and
Mexican clovers, which have been work-
ing their way southward. These three
of N. K20
Vines........... 4000.00 89.82 29.42 25.04
Roots......... 645.34 1028 6.5 2.81
Total............. 4645.4 99.55 35.-7 27.85 5:24.81
Tops.............. '5293.84 72.9a 17.19 28.07
Roots.; ........ 2129.03 24.80 62.44 12.79
Total .......... 65.52.37 97.7 79.63 45 86 027.80
91'3.60 85.841 6.41 a34.18
4304 17 39 74 .912 12.74
1873767 125 58 85 53 57.22-
(N.. K20 and P205 are cbemIcal formulas
repreoc-nting nitrogen, potash and phosptiorle
If time permitted, other similar figures
could be added. -It is evident from the
results of 'these analyses, that in thesp
crops we have the necessary means for
regaining the lost fertility of our lands,
and I may here say that for the general
farmer in the South I see in them allt
that can be asked. Suppose the farmers
were to attempt to -buy and apply the
amount of fertilizer per acre represented
by the crops of these plants ? Is it not
evident at a glance that it is impractica-
ble? Prof. Gulley says that -suph an.
.enterprise would, bankrupt the South,
and I can see no better fate to those who
pursue such a system. "
It is true that Ville claims that fiom
80 to 40 per cent. of the total nitrogen
so added to the soil is lost by the process is reduced to a minimum. Being be- pass a stout piece of twine through each
of decay. He may be correct. I do not yond the reach of fowls, i they may be pair of holes in stick and paper, and then
know the data upon which he bases his permitted to run in the vineyard, where through the other stick and tie the ends,
statement. But it is not 'the plowing they destroy countless insects in the thus fastening the paper securely be-
under of these -crops that enters into course of a season, and help fertilize it tween the two sticks, 'which act as a
any consideration at present. In using with their droppings. The only ob- holder, The projecting ends. an hang
them for recuperating our worn out jection we have to arbor training when on two brackets properly placed against
lands, I propose that the farmer get from grapes are grown on an extensive scale, a wall.
them a higher value than that repre- is the difficulty- in pruning-a back- For binding we use two pieces of 2x4
sented by their fertilizing powers. I can breaking operation. pine, each two feet long ; one and a half
see how the farmer may, by feeding them Training the grape vine to trees is also inches from each end bore a three-quar-
to stock or using them for pasture, practiced to a limited extent, but as a ter inch hole, then trim the ends down
secure from them their values as flesh, plant grown in this manner is very to a thickness of one and a half inches,
milk and butter producers, and also have difficult of access, it is generally neglect- leaving one under side on each piece un-
them remain upon his farm as manure. ed. The fruit becomes small, the vine touched, then bevel off an upper corner
This plan, it appears to me, is the only filled with dead wood and useless on corresponding edges down to one-
feasible one for the general farmer in the branches. Being beyond protection, the fourth inch, procure two heavy bolts six
South to pursue, birds harvest most, if not all, the crop. inches long, with nuts, and threads cut
S. These are reasons why the grape should well down, place the bolts through the
Diseases of Fruit Trees. not. be grown upon trees. Still, this holes in one piece, then lay- the papers,
system has its advocates, who are very one by one, on this bottom piece, placing
A Mississippi fruit-grower having often enthusiastic In its favor, them evenly, with their backs projecting
written to Dr. Phares concerning the Training the vine to single stakes is one-half inch beyond the edge that was
increasing number of fruit tree diseases, practiced by many. This, we think, is beveled on its under side; after the pa-
receives the following response through done from mistaken motives of economy pers are all in place put on the upper
the Southern Live Stock Journal: and to save the expense of posts and piece, with it beveled .corner uppermost,
It seems t6 me there should be no wire. Confined to the stake, the native and screw down nuts on bolts as tight as
great mystery that in Mississippi in late grape being of vigorous habit, soon possible, then with small bit and brace
years the trees die out, bear little fruit, covers it with a dense mat of- wood and drill a series of holes, one inch apart and
and thal of inferior kind. Nor is it foliage, is difficult to handle, and the half inch from edge of papers, through
necessary to seek imaginary causes and fruit crowded with twigs and leaves is which sew a stout cord and fasten it so--
fanciful explanations when the real apt to rot. curely.
causes'are so palpable to every one who These ways of training the grape are A durable cover can be made by plant-
will be at the pains to see them. Fifty the ones most generally practiced. One. ing a stout piece of Manilla wrapping
years ago our lands were new and rich, thing certain is, that some system must paper on bottom -and top of pile and
but now poorer, especially in humus, be followed and persisted in. The arbor sewing cord through all at same time,
potash and phosphorus. Then- we had and trellis method is the neatest, most and after taking from press a piece of
few species of insects, and these limited systematic and practical way of training sheeting or of dark colored calico can be
iin individuals, attacking our trees. Our the native grape. pasted on the back, and may be extend-
trees then needed but little care for ed to cover both -sides completely, thus
their health and usually received none. PRESERVE YOUR PAPERS. making the manilla cover more durable.
A fruit tree was planted and received no RELAIMED LANDs EXPERIMENT FARM,
more attention afterwards than if on an .B ... Sarasota, Fla. -
island never visited by man. HOW to File and Bind the Far- *
Now we have insects assailing our mer and Fruit-Grower. ImportedInsect Parasites.
fruit trees etery month in the year. Large quantities of oranges and
We have sixty. species working-. on the BY D. R. OREEN. lemons are importedd. yearly from.-
grape. eight on thequince, forty-six. on Farming-and- the- cultiLationf oL the Palermo, Naples and- SiyT ., ancmnd- e f
the Cr, twenty-five on the- peach, soil in general, is no longer considered a fruit from these-ports are infected with
forty ve on the plum, thirty-seven on disgraceful occupation, fit only for the the dreaded red scale.
the pear, and eighty-one on the apple; utilization of ignorance and brute force To illustrate the disastrous effect of
some.eating the roots, others the trunk but is now recognized as a distinct pro- parasites we will cite the effect of the
and branches, others the leaves, buds, white scale upon orange trees in the
fruit and seeds. As orchards have in- \ t parish of Plaquemines All infected
reased in numbers these- insect destroy- Q i trees-exposedtot-the col& were-rkiled-to.
ers through neglect have increased still I __ the ground, while those not infected
more rapidly in numbers, while new '-- standing alongside escaped. Notwith-
species have been imported. No doubt I standing the injury done by white scale,.
Mr. Lambert himself imported with his it can be, with a little care, entirely ex-
foreign'trees some species new to Mis- 1 1 terminated. But if the red scale, or the
sisslppi, and many others have been| | cottony cushion scale, once obtains. a
brought from our Northern States and foothold in our Louisiana orange orch-
other countries. ards- it would be the means--of- de--
Many new species have been imported I stroying many thousands of trees every
with new varieties of the orange, and year.
that is now infested by thirty-two spe- MI We have sounded the note of warning,
cie04oienemies. b ut few appreciate the danger from the
N arl this all. ,Many species of mi- introduction of new insect pests. Every
crophytes have been introduced,carrying HOME-MAD F. IL FORPAPERS, tree imported into the State should be
deiy and death to our fruit trees, by carefully examined, and if scale, of any
bla.k knot, blight and other fungous fession and has engaged in its interests species is found upon them, they, to-
maaies. some of the best educated minds of the getier with the paekagethey were ship-
-. Tho "burnt" appearance of the age. ped in, should be burned. This is the
blooms, lack of pollen, rotting fruit, The press, and the agricultural Jour- plan followed in uninfected districts.in
short life of trees, find sufficient explana- nals in particular, are the medium California. An ounce of prevention is
tion in the josts of insects and mi- through which this professional knowl- worth a ton of cure. A prohibitory tariff
crophytes mentioned. edge is given to the public. A doctor or would be a good thing just now for our
is evident that we can have good lawyer who wishes to succeed in his Louisiana, Florida and California orange
fruit and plenty of it only by ceaseless profession, must keep posted on all new growers,-Times-Dem ucrat.
vigilance, untiring warfare on the hosts ideas, and to this end they spend large *
of enemies, study of vegetable physiolo- sums: in supplying themselves with A Warning from California.
ond soils, wise restoration of needed 'libraries of'standardauthority and books About one year ago a gardener em-
ltooad to the soil and industrious, orefience in a o
incouticultivation. The reading matter and information pot ehad io a SnDeg orchr d watme
Shorizotaubrisyssehand ery edrinan rau hagric that he had found a-shruba- infected with
published in an average agrculttfral the cottony cushion scale. He carried
T raining Grape Vines. journal during a year would fill many samples to the office of the n and that
At this season of the year, when the oe paper published his statements. At once
young vines are making vigorous a hue and cry was raised about the mat-
groa th, is the proper time toigo inoto the ter, and the truth of his statement was
vineyard and rub off all superabundant -vigorously denied. The man was "boy-
and useless shoots. A safe rule to follow r e osr an -, dotted" in his efforts forfurther employ-
with one-year-old vines is to allow two the. ment, and the business men threatened to
canes -.to grow until they are strong withdraw the irpatronage from the Sun
enough to sustain themselves, and then for having published the truth.
remove one, allowing the other to re- t- Now comes Mr. Frank A. Kimball,
main- without further pruning, only one of the foremost orchardist in that
keeping it tied to the, stake. On two- V county, and says that the white cottony
years-old vines prune to four buds and N cushion scale exists all over San Diego
gro^ two. These form the future arms ci, and that it will ruin the orchards
of t e vine, from whence you grow four APPARATUS FR ILING PAPERS. unless promptly checked.
to stx canes on each (according to their The gardener was right one year ago,
vigfe and growth) for fruiting the third We decide with all fair minded per- and the men who denounced him will
season g sons that the FLORIDA FArMEm AND discover by and by that it will be easier
The third year's pruning consists in FRUIT GROWER is so ably edited and even now to "face the music" and take
cutting back every alternate cane to managed as to furnish the greatest pos- steps to kill out the pest.
onebud, leaving from three to five buds sible amount of valuable information to It will cost one hundred dollars now
on the others for the first year's crop of its readers on the subject coming under to do what one dollar. would have done
fruit, and extending the last' cane as a its heading, and while we all read each last spring, and it will cost onethousan
continuation of each arm. This is called number through with interest, yet dollars to do next March what one
the horizontal arm system, and a very memory is so faulty .that in a month's hundred will do now.-Rural Californian.
good one it Is. Should a vine set too time, we cannot repeat in full any -
much fruit, the bunches should be article or experiment recorded therein, The Fig Tree BOrer.
thinned our, as it may dwarf the plant no matter how much it interested us at This destructive pest has become quite
and otherwise impair its future health the time; hence it is to the interest of common among the fig trees in various,
to allow them to remain, each one to preserve each number, and portions of Louisiana. Examine the trees
,.Arbor training upon low structures is at the end of the year bind them all occasionally, and where they have ob-
.a v.ry profitable way of growing grapes, together for preservation and future tamined lodgment they can only be de-
.fThis is done by setting a post near every reference, and to aid in carrying out this stroyed by digging them out. A wash
alternate vine, nailing prepared wooden idea, we give our method of filing for of lime, soft soap or other alkaline
strips at the top, and stretching gal- use and a simple home-made arrangement wash applied to the trunk and in the
vanized iron wires across the arbor, wire for binding. crotches will prevent any further dam-
beting neater than wood, and will last a For filing we use two pieces of pine, age.
long time. The arbor should not exceed or leaf stalks of a cabbage palmetto, each **
siyfeet high for convenience of pruning 2 feet long, and drill a hole 4 inches from Prof. Dubois thinks the methods with
and gathering the fruit. each end; then 51 inches from each end grapes described min Mr. Marsh's paper in-
. The advantage claimed for this system drill another, and 111 inches from each velve altogether too much expense,
is: the vine having good ventilation, the end drill the 3d holes; then punch holes Prof. Dubois promises soon to give us an
fruit is not so apt to rot. Shading the I inch from back edge of paper to corre- article on viticulture, "for practical
soil with their dense foliage, cultivation spond with those drilled min stick; then growers and not for amateurs only."
FLORIDA-FARMEER AND FRUIT GRO()WER, APRIL 6. 1887.
I t ^ .' __ By this method one may counton having.
0,iiiha ui1d dnd& J1den a paying.grove in the near future and
-'" -. with comparatively small expense.
The rejeton tree, as I call it, is'of Vig-
SCULTURE OF ORANGE GROVE. orous growth. Before one growth
--" seemingly hardens another putsjorth,
Views Entertained by the Dun- land at theexpiration of thtiied year
Enwr..~ta d by -makes.a tree of surprising size "A cum-
edin Horticultural Society. pared'with.h naturally grown tree-bear-
dor id ,,,., r,. inog a-v'aluable crop of.-fruit. :-
i,,r o n .,..,, i Desiring to testt theiutrinsic v-lue of
Our horticultural society, at its last this;'fruit.l hauled a load to Leesburg.
meeting, -heard an3 discussed a report Oi" my atrival I was told'I cbuld'.qt sell
by the committee on fruit culture,, on'thenim,' a'.the tovn ws *.f.dll'-aliteady of
'-The Best Method of Cultdvating an Or- valuableiorangeA-.of kiioWn-Teb-utaion.
range Grorve." As the report was neces- After some consideration. .I.fl,-d my
arily somewhat lengthy, we shall send pockets and started down the street. The
Syou only what we consider the mrst im fruit stands were full fo'f-, brangei.a..A
portant points touched ou, and condense -every merchant that dealt in tbhed'! -i,
:" them as much as possible, a'sign at t.heloor.. s p. d I along
From3anuary tlU the advent of the would itake'a'or' e pocr0 et"
rainy selasoi the culthaton.. shold-be and band it j6i1mIbn&tie iitd~aa
frequent, and at uo "time of the year him tory i' ft.-UP "eIT I bne I'I
should grass or weeds be allowed to some of the parties I had handed the
grow near the bodies of the trees, oranges to overtook me and wanted to
S By running a harrow, or light culti- know what price I asked. So I turned-
vator, over the soil, after rain, a mulch back and very soon disposed of my load,
..,.. of.loose, dry sand is formed which will to my great satisfaction. Since then JI
retain. moisture; while the keeping of have.had applicationsfor all-the oranges
the top soil open admits the free-access I could supply. -. ..
of the atmosphere, so necessary. for the -. LADY LAKE, Sumter Co., Fla. :
growth of plant life. The committee ...March 25, 1887. .
recommended that bearing groves should ...-. .
have an application of fertilizer, rich in
phosphoric acid and potash, but especi- OLIVE CULTURE.
ally the latter, late in November or
early in December to promote fruit What Major W. P. Cooper Has
The young grove .should not be- fertil- .to Say on the Subject.,
ized till February, and manures contain- jo o h ifE
ing an excess of ammonia should be Major W. P. Cooper, the ChiefEn-
-avoided as-being likely to stimulate an gineer of the Florida; Southern Railway,
unhealthy growth.. and also thlid Chief of the Land -Iepart-
Witih the rainy season,.one of the mentof theCompany,'is probably as Well
main reasons for clean culture and con- posted as any man in Fl6rida .as: to the
stunt stirring of the soil, viz:, the reten- capabilities "and the productiveness of
tion of moisture, no longer exists, and -our soil. For severalryears he has taken
-with exception of the space immediately a lively interest in olive culture, his at-
- round the tree, the ground; may be al- tension having been attracted-to the sub-
lowed to produce some, crop, such as jbct by a visit toSt. Simoh's Island; near
cow peas or crab grass. In considering Bruuswiick, Ga.,' where is located a- suc-
the-question of. constant clean, culture cessful and profitable grove. Knowing
-the objections were that the frequent these facts a Palatka News reporter,
Stirring and-- exposing -the land, in, a catching the Major in his office,' made
moist state, to the heat of the sun's rays; some inquire pon the subject.
had the effect of dissipating the .vegeta- Ma3or, What isthe outlook for olive
ble matter by fermentation and. decay culture in Florida ? asked the reporter.
That experience demonstrated that "Very promising, indeed. A number
land thus treated became barren, or of intelligent fruit growers have become
"dead" as it is frequently called,- and interested in the subject, and the exper-
that in no case could any additional or- iment is sure to have a fair trial."
ganic matter, in: which our sandy lands "What induced you to give such par-
are deficient, be obtained.- in -this way, ticular attention to this tree?"
except by the small amount of carbonic ."Several years ago I visited an olive
acid and ammonia which might be. grove, or orchard, on St. Simons Island
brought- down by rain; that by- the near Brunswick. Learning that the
growth of a crop, the land was kept trees produced a greater profit than the
-shaded and mellow and a large ainbunt two hundred acre farm surrounding,and
of the above valuable -constiutent&..ob- the climsateband sol of the Island being
-tained in an economical manner, while very simiiar- to hat-t w' bavd in Florida,
Ste expense of- cultivation was re- I thought the tree would flourish here as
duced. -- -- well as.in Greece and Italy, -orat leastas
.['he: space immediately around "the successfully as it is grown in li"
tree might be profitably covered at this fa. ., .
S- season with a. good coating of--oak or "The impression prevails, in the minds
palmetto leaves or other mulching, to of most people, that it requires from fif-
boe afterwards plowed in along with the teen to twenty.years to realize a profit
'peas or grass. After plowing in the from the trees. That is true so far as
pea or grss Ate poingi h
summerr growth, oats or Southern rye thetrees common to-the Southern States
might be sown on the middles to be are concerned, for they grow slowly and
._plowed under late in the spring. This to a large.size before they even bloom.-
-was recommended especially for grove, The tree best suited to Florida I think
recently set out, as in.such cases there is isthe 'Mission'mintroduced into Crlifor-
Sno particular necessity for very early ma many years ago by the Catholic
spring plowing in the centres. -,N -ef- priests. It is a quick grower, requires
..fort should be spared to.add to thev.eg- but little care, and is very profitable."
.-etable raatter in the grove. "Suppose a grower should put out a'
.- Therustlness was- considered at length groveof olives, howloing would he have
in the report and the various conditions towait for a profit ?"
Most favorable for its development dis- have a letter here from Frank A.
-cussed,, without. however any satisfac- Kimball, of National City, in San Diego-
-torysoltion.of.the'irnportant,,po in ,of county,; California, a gentleman who has,
getting rid of it being obtained. As. ob- had large experience in olive culture.
,servation- showed that trees, in .fence, He says that in three years a grove of
corners, ,or.places where they were,.not Mission trees should begin to pay; the
cultivation -and more mulching might hasrealized aprofit.of$0toetree. Y
have ithe.desired, effect. see his experience explodes the impreP
Ifyonu would, inthe columns of your sion that it takes'the tree a'lpngti-ie .o
Valuable paper; give us some practical bear. I am firmly convinced -that -the
guidance in this matter, you -would con- olive will do as well or better in Florida,
Safer a boonnot only on us but on hun- as our light sandy eil is weltl -adapted
dreds of orange growers Min the State. for the tre-e. And ju dging from Mr.
-WM Y. DOUGLASS, Sec'y. Kiaball's experience, olive culture is
more profitable and as sure as orange
..g *-- rowing."
SPROPAGATION FROM THE ROOT. "But how" are thetrd6es'nqw ,doing in
-. .. =. : + -.... .- ,-. Floiida ?" : '
-- -B.aring rr ngGrove. A.own trees which I planted out at
.An-Eay Bearing range rove- Lake Harris ibout four dt five years ago
Produced WithoutBudding. are doing splendidly. They ame of' the
"- -" -old variety, '-add "'re now blooming.
BY MATT COLEMAN .
S BYMATTrCOLEMAN. .. Judge King basa free'ht Gainesville that
The natural seedling orange tree usu- has also blossoms. 'I know of no frees 'of
ally requires "as much-as fifteen',years' the Mission variety, which -is a'.much
growth before it comes into goodrbear- more rapid grower, and cannot .say
ing. By budding it may be made to positively what that tree will do. I havep'
bear earlier... There is another process ordered four hundred of the young trees
by which the same: object may "be ac- from Califorhia, and will put them oit,t
complished, and I am not aware that in a grove "immediately dnitheir arrival,'
Anyone besides myself has practiced this and .wiUll give them q fair test They9
method, or that anyone else has fruit w"ll surely pay a good-profit in sixyears,
produced in this way. My method is by whetas'the old- variety of trees 1ill e-
propagation from matured roots by th'e quire a much longer time to bring int a-
follbwing process:" I :- paying crop." I ,
At any time of the year detach the "On the margin of this letter I gee
collar roots from the trunk of a tree, grapes are mentioned. Are you going,
preserving all the laterals, and if possi- to put out a vineyard also ?" asked the
ble let the main roots be, six. feet long. reporter. '
T,. hen reset them by digging- a hole two : "'.'Yes .;. I have ordered four of the best
feet deep, in which place them in a slant- varieties of the California grapes, and
ing position, carefully packing and shall put them out as an experiment. I
wetting the earth as it is replaced. Let believe Florida can produce as good
the collar end rise from six to twelve grapes as California or any other cpun-
inches above the surface, leaving a basin try, when- once we get the proper va-
around it for watering if the: weather riety, suited to the soil and' climate.
should be dry, and keep the earth around This grape industry is going to surprise
well stirred. you in a few years by its proportions.
Within five or-six months after plant- Even now the pioneers in the business
ing eyes or buds will appear on the are reaping a rich harvest of profits. I
exposed portion of the root, and in the shall give the California grapes a
course of from three to six months sev- thorough trial, and if successful will
oral sprouts will have developed a yard give the results to all who are interested
or two in length. After these have in such matters."-Palatka News.
hardened, up remove all but one. ". .
Then if the ground is thin it should be .... 7 r Frui" -r .
well fertilized to stimulate further A Good Wash for Fruit Trees.
growth. In the course of three years One quart slacked lime, one peck un-
the tree will reach the height of ten feet leached ashes, one-half ounce carbolic.
or more, with a stem three inches or acid; mixed thin and applied-with a hard
more in diameter and a spread of brush or broom.
branches of from six to ten feet. To kill the moss and lichens on orange
A "tree of this age has produced two trees, dissolve eight boxes of concentrat-
boxes of oranges of a more uniform size, ed lye or.potash in a barrel of water, and
and shape than those of the parent tree. ,apply with a garden engine. This will.
A tree so produced is a more prolific and benefit the trees and destroy all fungus,
reliable bearer than the natural seedling. growth.-Ex. "
Stgeistons for April .,
.Y D. RED4OD. -
-l"Io le ,inclenl A.Ilbin calendar, in %-ultlh
these yt'arwas repr-esentced as acooslnt1- oI len
inounnihs ot..jrr:.ular length, April stood illsi,
wlth lhiirlty- x d vi to is I.redal In Lhb <.a-
endardf-Roiiuu.'it1 hd iithsecond pIlac,-.and
was..oo'posd,.j thirty dd \'. Ntima 6t ,i.u -
mionjtji 'alc-oDar It.lW-iid It tue fort i-1-:i,
a-ltBwrwetv-tnlo- : .,,v-. i] wh o-1t remained till
toe reformation ..I irin, ,,,br by Ji!u Ca-c, ,
S ben it eI ':,cred i ir forn,.,r tinhty d.:y .
.hina it h.a..sine refalae'd.' -Book -i4 t ra-
April in .Florida and5along the5 south-
ern margin of the adjacent States cor-
r-s'onds to Jurie u .inthe N'ortl., and .is
gnerally regarded as'ahe most. deight-
ul mnth 1n th.yeai,e It is always .,a
busy ..onch for.%,thdearnier, gardener,
mrseryman ad ruirower, andfui; must:
be especi ally o thick year, in-'.ider to
ounteraot the ravages of the Mairlc
49tq, and give cropi a good start.
e3otton and0or0.souli bw ba worked
out and brought to a clean "stand."
Where sugar-cane and cassava are sufli-
,eiently advanced-.they niust hayse a care-
ful dressing with sweep- and' hoe. Irish
potatoes, if matured, should be dug and
shipped during this month, andafter the
crop is all taken .off plant the land in
forage,- sweet'potatoes or any other good
and profitable 'crop. '
SPlaiit an nearly and large crop of sweet
potatdes- soon --from.- draws, and make
-provision for an abundant crop of out
vines. It is a waste of labor to build up
tall and broad ridges for sweet potatoes.
Three or four furrows thrown together,,
and' rapidly brought into shape with a
take dr.light hoe, generally produces -:a'
good crop of medium-sized tubers, -with:
a moderate expenditure oflabor, and no
crop that we cultivate isso indispensable
and profitable. Forage crops of all kinds.
should also receive full attention without
delay. Of these the kaffir corn now
"has the call," but millo : maize,
Dourrha corn, drilled' -corn, pearl mil'et
and cow-peas'are 'al tluable;'and should
be largely planted this month. To pro-
duce satisfactory results in raising for-
'age plow deep, pulverize finely, manifure
heavily and cultivate cleanly.. ....
Upland rice may be planted now and.
a later crop during the early part of
June, and'-if properly managed few crops
raised in Florida are more satisfactory.
Watermelons destroyed by the March
frosts should bo replanted without delay,
and okra putinto the ground during the
early part of the month. Set out toma-
to, cabbage, egg, pepper and other plants
at all favorable seasons during the
month, and plant plenty of snap, pole
and lima beans for -a succession.'
SStrawberry. beds past bearing should
.be mulched and shaded' to enable them
to resist the blighting summer's heat. -
In the nursery keep down all grass
and weeds between the rows and-pro-
mote the growth of your young;plants
and trees by constant and careful cul-
ture. Top-dress your bearing orange..
gloves, working the fertilizer in lightly
and covering exposed surfaces with a
thick mulch, or a crop of cow peas. sown
thickly. Nip all- weeds in the bud by
.the constant use of the Acme or. other
SbarftoW, so that hoeing may not'be nriecds-
JAOKSONVILLE, Fla., April 1,'1887;
Varieties of the Sweet Potato.
Having in mind the book'of'Mi-. Fittz,
we observe that there is much obscurity
and' confusion in the nomenclature- of
,.the awet potato. One anid the same
potato app-ars to have, in some cases,
three or four aliases in as many localites.'
This is the more remarkable, because-
..the distinct varieties are !ii" fact yery
few. 'Mr. -ittz'inenfions the: following
kinds and it is well'known' that several
of these have more thon one name ;
,R The p_.jaih,, Southern Queen, Nan-
.se ind4, aMnovqr" or Nanseondui Im-
.prqved, the Roydl, Y0l'owC Pimenio.
,White Brazilian, Red Bermuda, White
NBermuda, Red'Spinish, Red Natisdon'ond,
Early Yor;. early Jersey, Port6 ,Viejo.
.Bota Sagar 'tQ, Bahama Yam, Nina Mex-,
ican,. Red Yamr, Yellow Bermhuda',!Wite
.California, White Yam, Yellow Saiinsh.
It is evident that several of' tHidse 'are
different names for the saih'e'Vatiety"
Others are, no doubt, cros-es of ditffrent
kinds planted together. It is well known-
that sweet potatoes mix iceadil.0thougl?
how they do is somewhat a m stery.
The Meliow, Nansemobd, "Hanbaer' Im-
proved and R6yal, ai-re doubtless o6n afid'
the sam e* '
It is vry desirable that this confusiaH
in namfig'ThO6Wd belcletLBdlapLand that
the names be reduced oneJor ea.qh actual
variety,and .jhat the name. be decfI.ptire
of the character and quality of' the po-
.tato.. ,.his .can .-be done onl. by. get-.
ting btogather,. all the so. calld kinds
,into one individual, hand. and testing
them.-hy aotualk.tnil. VWhli will un'der-
take.this ?-Rural Messenger.
... ., .. .... .' .,. .. ... : +'.., '*
Some. experimentscarried on -at'the
N. Y, station during the past three sea-
sons,- as described by the IForld, afford
striking proof of the need of judiblious
selection of seed : '. -
In the fall Of 1888, a single: platit was
noticed in a row of. the Little Gem to-
mato that. apLpeared more feeble in
growth and had moir Of its, frufits de-
cayed than any other. In order to find
on wether or not this peculiarity would
be inherited, a few of the sound fruits
from this plaiit, with a few others from
a neighboring one that appeared very'
.vigorous and healthy, were selected for
seed, and plants from 'two selections
were grown the following season; 'The
progeny of each plant resembled its pa-
rent .except that that of the:'feeble
one was still more feeble. '
The same selections were con-
tinued through 1885 and 1886, with simi-
lar results. The progeny of tile feeble
plant continued to become more feeble.
The past season the enfeebled plants
were scarcely more than One-fourth the
size of the vigorous ones. The branches
lay prostrate upon the ground, with dis-
colored and shrivelled foliage and fully
one-half of the fruits decayed, leaving
nothing but the dry skins. This decay
is: a soft'rotaquit different from the black
rot. that often effects tomatoes. The three gallons of water i'well pounded in
fruit becomes.spltt, dl cdllapses'withi- a mroortari and sprinkle the plants. As
out ehangngicolorNtPhe slklinfinally col- this is perfectly harmless it can be used
lapses, permitting the contents to flow at any stage of growth and will kill the
out when it dries without detaching it- cabbage worm.
self from thlie stein. -" -.---
Another line of experiments was be- Fewof Many Comments by Cor-
gun in 183 on the use of seeds from im- -_" n, -odcu .
mature fruits, tle vaiety-v..being Cooks resondents.,and the.Press.
favorite, a tomato rese-mi,ling the Little lJudging from the"expresiotins .0ap-'
Gem. It is a matter of interest that fhe proval which are coming to ua'!dailyv
results upon-the' health of the6 plant ap-. from correspondentskab:d the. pres, and'
pear to hlin. b'en tilhe same-as in the e':x' from the rapid increase of ,ou- subbcrip-
perimentsnoted:aboie. The progeny of tion list-,it is eviden,.'that ,the -FARMER,
thbgreen'fruitbhas becomeso feeble that. AND FRtiT-ORO'WER has mejwiib-a more'
tile plants" ae but quarter the size of favorable reception vban w. Jhad ver."-
those grown from ripe seed. They hac e tured-ito expe'-,... -
the shrivelled-land discolored foliage In a few inotancesvwecan gi.-ehe sen-
.notedd ab6ve and a %Pry laige proporion'1 timent of a letter by quoting.one or two
oftnle fruit doiived as soon as, or even sentences, as in the foll.6ing examples:
before, they matured. ,'-" ,- .'-Prof. S. N. Whitnerpof- the Agricul-
Prof.-Arthur, wldohas examined the tuial Col'ege of Florida, writes as fol-
decayea fruits in both of these experi- .lows; "I can say in ajl sincerity, it has
ments, presumes the rot due- to the 'en- exceeded my m,,stsangiineexpectations.
feeble condition of the plant and not to Already it is without, a peer in all ,the
any hereditary or contagious fungous+ South.'
disease. These results show clearly that 'i VMr..:ho$asMeehan, the distinguished
the selection of seed in the tomato is a horticulturist and proprietor of the Ger-
subject of importance, and that the vigor mantown nurseries, in a letter dated
and breadth of varieties aie endangered -March.-th, writes: ,"I <-aam., .very much
by the use of immature seed or seed pleased with the. FtARMER AiND. .FRUIT-
from the enfeebled plants. ... GROWERi, and shall read it regularly,
44 .... ... .. which you know is a-.high ompliHment
Method of Starting Vegetables, for an editor topay-to an exchange."
........... Prof. D, L. Phares, the eminent pro-
A correspondentof the Pacific Bural fessor of biology in. the. Agricultural Go-
Pressthus describes a method which in lege of Mississippi,. says in. the Southien
gardening on a. small scale may he em- e ive Stock Journal: :"His. [the editor's]
played with advantage with any plant : -valuable paper already appearing in the
SI pick up a lot of.empty quart tomato first numbers are fulfilling our expecta-
or fruit cans,.(it is,.most convenient to tion and prediction. They may be fully
;have them all of a.size), throw them on a relied upon -for conscientious : correc-.
burning brush pile or in the fireplace ness of statement and scientific accur-
for a-few-minnutes, when the, tops and acy of detail .
bottoms will drop out, and the seams on on. J., W .'Ewin frwoing from
all sides will. open, leaving a smooth tin Miami Dadl couty, says : Certainly
shell. -Tie. string around each to keep you are doing a good work in establish-
it from spreading.. Set. them in a box Ing ah enlighten ed and'scientifi6 sy.tefn
or frame made. of. four boards,- fill the of : agriculturee. which heretofot'e has
cans withintan inchof the top full of good been seriously neglected. "Yourii paper is
soil, water. thoroughly, then. lay six to inviting -in appearance, pure, in senti-
eight squash, melon.or cucumber seed in ment, and progre-ssiie iu principle, and
each can. Fill. up the cans and the surely must succeed."
spaces between them with soil; sprinkle Mr,'S*'A. Stevens, of; Sumter county,
well and keep moist until the plants ap- writes : "I am in love with your paper,
pear:. A sack.may be laidoverthem un- but am taking so many now that until
till the plants break through the soil. some subscription runs out I can't; take
When the rough leaves .are formed more, but calculate to be a subscriber to
they may be transplanted in the garden your paper-soon." ; .
Take the cans. carefully -. out of the Mr: E. W. Amsden; of Ormond-on-the- .
frames ; in, handling grasp the -cans Halifax, wiites as follows : "I.am tak-
firmly toprevent-the plants and soil slip- ing ten papers on agricultural, subjects,
ping out set, them in a box or wheel- and if asked to surrender the FARMER
barrow, move them where wanted. Pre- -AND FR.UT-GRowER, I would tell, them
pare the hills by working, in a shovel full to take the other nine, but leave. -me
of well rotted manure (a'hill is not a that. May peace and plenty and .years
mound but simply designates where the of grace be given you to. continue the
plant is to stand). Dig a-hole deep enough good' work '
to set the upper.rim of the can ona level Mr. J. V. Dansbyof Pensacola, whose
with the ground, cut the's'rlng, and fill eminent success in truck gardening, as
up-and press the soil firmly around the well as-his able writings on farm topics,
can ; then by spreading the top of the can entitle his opinion to respect, expresses
a trifle, it can -be drawn out over, the himself as follows: "The first-number
-plants without disturbing the roots If of the FARMER AND FRir-GROWER was
the weather is dry and-warm- the holes duly received-and is the best thing.in its
may be watered before setting out the way I have seen. It is just the -paper
plants. If they-show any signs of .wilt- needed, and if you keep it up t6 the pres-
ing, spread a piece of paper over them ; ent standard of excellence must become
a few clods' around it will keep it in popular with the people; I- can't, see
place. .... where-you have left any room for-dim-
Tbree or fourinchAewie. poteauswer provement." ..- e: -.," -
the purpose of cafis, 'but are' iore ex- -Mr. CharlesWs -' Stevens, of Orange-
pensive. I have put out hundreds of county,writes: "Your able papern-fills a.
plants in the above manner;with scarcely want long felt-in this part for a good ag-
atylqss..=,After they airewell established ricultural paper. Success- to you." -
I thin out to three plats'to the hill. Rev. T. W. Moore, of Marion- county,
SAt some future time I may give my writes: "I believe your paper will do a
way or growing onions. Two points I good work in disseminating new ideas in
have found essential in summer garden- regard to fruit raising, farming, stock,
ing without irrigation, is to keep the raising, etc."' .
-ground well stirred, either by hand or A veteran nurseryman, who objects to
horse cultivation, giving the 'plants the publication of his name, expresses, :
plenty of room. Instead of putting himself thus: "I like your paper first- :
tomato plants, for instance, four feet rate, and believe it will be the -agricul-
apart each way, as the directions often tural paper of Florida. I hope after a.
read, I give them .double that distance, little while to give you an article every
and get more and. finer fruits without week." -.
sun scald. Mr. H. G. Daniels, of Amelia Island: e
.. "Judging from what I have seen of the
Value of Wood Ashes. FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER, it is. the
Dry, clean wood ashes are worth more best agricultural paper published in -the
than twenty-five cents a bushel to any South. Ipredict Immense success for it."
farmer who wants manure. You can Mr. Arthur Brown, of Santa Rosa
scarcely use. them on any crop without county, writes: "Judgin, by the copy
very sensible results. A handful thrown sent me the paper is'A No. 1,' and I do
around the corn plants at the first hoe- not wish.tomiss a single number.".,
ing will: greatly increase their growth Mr. S.L. Culler, of Seffner, Florida,.
and give thdm a highly dark greei'color, writes: "If you continue to make the a
s catteredin thtill before the FLp6tatiiORIDA FARMER. AND FRUIT-GRowER
covered or about the hill just before equal to the first number you will cer-
hoeing, will .have-similar results'; sown tainly furnish the agriculturists of Flor-
'broadcast'on the mowing fields at therate ida with a paper at wtill please them.
w"Iam travel m roug eonr
of as small amount as five bush-els to -the I am taveng hrogh the country
-acre, will -greatly increase the growth among the f1rmers, and In ry ay
and color of the crop, Bebides this that I can assist you itwilbe cheerfullay
their benefical results-will continue for done." .. ..
several years in succession, Mr. W. N. Justice, commission met-
Strewed over ^oung: cabbage plants, chant of Philadelphia, writes: "Having
sashes. melodic, ornyof the garden received the first-issue of your agricul-
vdgetables, such as tomatoes; beets tural paper, and being delighted with its
onions, turnips -or carrots, wood ashes tone, we wish yoato insert our card for
not only tend to disturb the insects that six months."
infest the plants, but have a decided in- [From the Texa Farmer.]
fluence on; their growth and quality. Florida is not behind her sister South-
All the ashes made on the farm should be ern States in material progress.- It
collected with care, kept dry and applied ought to be called the land of fruits and
to the crops. flowers, for each of these grand divis-
Nothing could be better for the young ions of horticulture are equally at home
orchard. Spreading ashes broadcast there. The FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT :
over the surface would be more useful GROWER is an ably conducted and ele-
than any other kind of manure. The roots gantly printed paper devoted to these ,
will find it if spread. It is better to use very topics, to which we refer the reader I
a moderate quantity annaully than to for further information. Ia
apply a large amount at one time. Ashes tFom the So. Live Stock Journal.1
may be safely used in composts of loam, e regret that the first number [of -
muck, straw or dry fibrous materials ; the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER] failed
they would tend to reduce them. The to reach us; but the second shows a very
easiest and best way, however is to apply handsome sheet as to paper, typography
ashet in a dry state and unmixed. o and general make up, while the addi-
D. .N. KER. tional department is all we expected of
in Practical Farmer, the distinguished editor. Many of our
readers are interested directly and see-
The Cabbage. ondarily in everything connected with
We find the following recipe, "how to Florida, and we cordially commend this ;
make cabbage head" in the Home and new and excellent periodical as worthy
Farm, and give it for what it is worth : of ther patronage. With best -wishes
When the plants are about eight inches fr its success, we welcome this new as-
high and have formed woody stalks pirant for public favor and patronage,
make incisions in the stalks with the feeling assured of the good work it will
small blade of a penknife, insert small accomplish in and out of Florida.
pieces of wood of the size of a match, [From the Gardeners' Monthly]
,and break them off. This checks the "We are continually receiving new
growth, and hard heads will be formed, agricultural ventures, but useful as they
Let our readers try it. are in their own special fields, we rarely "
Peter Henderson recommends the fol- find in them anything of special interest
lowing simple remedy for the cabbage to the intelligent class of horticulturists
worm : Dissolve one pound of alum in for which the Gardeners' Monthly has to
catpr. We were, therefore, agreeably
surprised on reading among the batch
of exchanges on our table, No. 2 of this, .
to find it of a very high order of intelli-
gence,,and one'which must have an ex-
celfent effect fosteringTIorida's inter-
ests., '-.' . ^"*^-.
- IT ". -_ --- ^'='. 2
F rgilEii~im IvUOr,
?,A .iTtf-._P U R ^ iH&S ,f''
DEVOTED TO THE
F a-y4 ANmD-. ...
1 EDITOR.u L
T his journal U ae for iew lead tatgobject
'the promotionof rural indaitriesin Florida, and
.will advocate especially a more dirh-iflerd and
intensive, Syitem or agriculture and greater
A.;umingthat the agricultureladaptationaof
a large portion or Florida are as yet but imper-
fecticv understood, a special aim of this journal
will be to describe the best results whicb hare
been accomplished, with the exact method. em-
ployed. and aU influence affilectiung sach results; -
also to sugset experiment. describe new or Little
known crops, fruits, etc., and record the progress
of agriculture in neighboring States,.
Commencing nitb the Lr.t numbS' and con-
tinu;ihg thr :,ugh the -eaooi for .
There s-i l be a series of articles on fruits-other -
than iho "- o tlio"citrus group-which have
plore-1 most soc-.eftuil iin this'State. Each va-
r.iety will be de .crIcd and '
And, therewill be notes Ifrom persons who have
had experience in its cultivation. This will be
followed by a similar series on
And other subjects will bie illustrated to a limited
Much attention will be devoted to
And to the home prbodctionof forage and fertili
zers, two economies 'which are essential to sue
cessful farming. '
Questions, relative -to-ailmeiits of domestic
animals will be answered -by an able ve erinary
surgeon who formerly edited a like department
of the .' .
Turf, Field and Farm.
A due amount of space *111 be aeroted
householdecnoimry and tio reports of the mar
kets, and the department of
will be contributed to by persons who have made
specialties of those branches. ;- I
All portions of the State Will. receive.a due
amount of attention, ard their interests will be
represented by able correspondents.
Under no circumstances will thisjournal be-
come the organ ,of any association or locality.
It will start out untra'dmmelled and will repre-
sent all sections and interests with absolute Im- -
Published at Jacksonville on Wednesday
of each week.
PRICE Of SUBSCRIPTION:
OneYe Te" 00
Six Monthsa 1 00
Three Months r S
SPRIOe]IN OOPIBS JPE ..
Address subscrlptions~and other business com-
C. H. JONES & BRO.,
Communications for the editorial department
"should be addressed to
A. H. CURTISS, Editor,
FLORIDA FARMER ANID FRUlT GROWER. -APIL 6 687,
failure to thoroughly convince us that
rm This was the only plan by which these
T valuable lands could be worked with
success, and anyone can try the two
RECLAIMED SAW-GRASS LANDS. methods of planting, side by side, and
note the results, only taking care to
General Directions for Tilling cover roots with same depth of soil in
Marsh Lands. each case.
JMarsh Lands. We do not expect that everyone will
BY D. R. GREEN. want to give up his pine land for a
drained marsh, but no sane man can
To all who may wish to a-ail them- deny the intrinsic value of a bed of
selves of our experience in the cultiva- vegetable matter two feet -deep, and
tion of marsh lands we would say that. which is at the same time so saturated
while the general formation of these with the soluble salts of marl that they
lands is similar, yet local causes may appear on ths surface in the form of an
have entirely altered their actual condi- efflorescence.
tions, hence it becomes necessary,-in To determine the amount of humus or
order to perfectly understand our method organic matter in any soil, take a quan-
of treatment, that we should give the tity of it and dry as thoroughly as possi-
exact condition of the soil on which our ble, then place one pound of the dried
Experiment Farm is located. soil on an iron plate and set it
First, the growth is a coarse grass in a hot fire in such a manner
with wide, serrated blade, growing some- that no ashes from the fire can fall on
what in clumps. Second, the soil to the the plate, while it is fully exposed to the
depth of four or five inches is partially hottest flames; the ashes that are left
deconiposed; below that down to a depth after an hour's hard firing will consist
of two feet-it is merely a brown pete that only of mineral matter present in the
burns like any rotten wood when dry; soil, and by weighing them the amount of
below two feet is a layer of sand averag- vegetable matter can be accurately de-
ing four inches thick, and under this termined.
sand is found the deposit of marl ex- RECLAIMED LANDS EXPERIMENT FARM,
tending down to four feet from the sur- SARASOTA, Fla.
Now, we have to deal only with the o
surface soil down tothe depth cultivated. Root Crops for Stock.
This surface soil contains less than five BY WM. B. SCHRADER.
per cent. of sand, and is composed of The importance of the root crop can-
partially decayed vegetable matter that not be too strongly urged upon the
has been kept from complete decay or Southern farmer. England's juicy beef
oxidization by the presence of water. and marbled mutton would be a thing of
While abundant moisture hastens decay, the imagination were it not for the large
immersion in water prevents it, as we acreage and great care exercised in the
have proved by taking up green pine cultivation of roots. Some farmers
logs that were perfectly sound, even, to there plant as high as 200 acres of them
the bark, after laying seven years in the and realize all the way to 80 tons per
foundation of a bridge. The surface soil acrel
is then every way similar to dead vege- "The introduction of turnips as a field
table matter that must be composted to crop constitutes' one of the most marked
make it available as plant.food,. epochs in British agriculture" says the
The conditions necessary to rapid and Encyclopedia Brittanica.
perfect composting are plenty of moist- The turnipand rutabaga may be drilled
ure and frequent stirring and thorough together, and, as the latter is of slower
pulverizing of all particles. This pul- growth, the former will come off and
verizing and loosening up of the compost be-out of the way in time. Where large
heap admits air to all its particles, and acreage is planted of the rutabaga alone
the oxygen of the air is the principal it is best to thin it out, as you would
chemical agent in converting organic cotton, with a hoe; if only a small plat,
matter into available plant food. The and you have time, thin out by hand
addition of air-slacked lime hastens and give stock the surplus plants.
decomposition and wi 1 neutralize any It is a good time now to lay off a piece
acids that may exist or be generate of ground for August planting.
In the case Qf underlying beds of Plow it broadcast. Then lay off deep
marl- the surface soil does not require furrows, three feet apart, with a turn
the addition of lime to make a perfect plow dnd fill up with the best kind of
soil, though, as an experiment, we manure you can get, and cover up.
turned up a small piece to the depth of a Plow it shallow every time you run
-foot, thus bringing up'the raw peat, and around your corn, to keep down the
applied lime to one-half of the piece at weeds. Plow it deep, the deeper the
the rate of 150 bushels per acre. We -better, again in the first week in August,
then sowed both halvesof thepiece with broadcast. 'Harrow it well. Plow it
turnips, beets, cabbage and peas. The again deep, broadcast and harrow'it
turnips, beets and cabbage on the un- well. Then lay off your rows with a
limed half all scalded or "frenched" out, scooter, three feet apart. Run a turn
while on the limed portion they grew to plow in same furrow twice, then run a
perfection. There was no perceptible subsoil plow ditto. Putin what manure
difference in the peas. An equal amount you can cover up,,and on top of bed
of lime applied did not, in the case of drill your seed. Thin out at first to six
Irish potatoes, produceany bettergrowth inches and then to a foot. Try it.
than unlimed portions. Mohawk beans ,Horses, cows, sheep and swine all
also grew to perfection without the use grow fat on them, and it will save your
of lime. corn. Planted in August they will
In accord with these facts and obser- have ceased growing before frost. Pull
vation, we formulate our plan of pre- them up, cut off tops, put in a pit,
paring drained marsh lands for success- cover with straw or hay and earth and
ful cultivation as follows: First, plow they wi'l keep all winter..
as shallow as possible in tearing loose all WAVERLY STOCK FARM,
grass roots, then follow- the plow closely Leon Co., Fla., March 11, 1887.
*with a good harrow to work out the '
trash, and as-soon as plowing is finished
cross harrow, then rake trash into wind- Virtues of Cotton Seed Meal.
rows to be burnt. We have to watch Editoo, oridauFarmer and -rui-Grower:
closely the burning, as our marsh when comments on my communi-
dry will burn down to the depth of two in your comments on my commun-
feet. Let the land lie three or four weeks cation you suggest that a barrel of cot-
between each harrowing, and after the ton seed oil be spread over an acre of
trash is cleared away use the Kalamazoo land or poured on a compost heap. Used
or Acme harrow, setting them to work in this way it would b like floats, slow
to the depth. of four or five inches. In and unsatisfactory. Floats when treated
-usngharrowseureo lp them. o with acid become active and efficient.
-using ause the land is not harrowed So cotton seed oil treated with potash or
fhal beaue ith l un t ben hrfrote soda becomes plant food, Its combina-
land. Heavy rains bme of it, but to benefit the tion in the seed, like that in raw ground
land. Heavy rai bones, renders it plant food.
rowing will be of great service in hasten- Thisquestion seems in a fair way of
ing decomposition. solution by the large number of oil mills
Our season for breaking up is February solution by the large number of oil mills
or March, and then give five good heavy projected to be built in the near future,
harrowing between that time and the to make a more profitable use of the oil
1st of August; these five do not include Yuan as fertilizere.p t
the harrowing and raking done atbreak- You ask for the experience of those
ing up. who have used cotton seed meal as a fer-
Unlessanana of the soil indicates tilizer or for feed. Its use as a feed.
a Unless ananofalysimeof the soil indication of it is seems to be almost overlooked even by
useless, except to asten decomposition, to mix it with bran, half of each, nd
and his and heaccomplishedacom-rwet with boiling water. Thus prepared
pletely and far cheaper by the prop I feed it to all animals I feed at all, even
use of th arrow, except, possibly, on fowls. I have no hogs or horses, so
A light three-cornered harrow with have not tried it for them. Thus used,
long oak teeth,isbet to use n breaking if the quantity be gradually increased,
up, as it can be lifted up to clear away no harm will ensue if they get all the.
trash. For further use, if one has not I consider it a cheaper food. than corn
an Acme or Kalamazoo he can make a I conserit a tcheaperu n feath ian corn
heavy, three-cornered harrow of logs,O oats, and the resulting fertilizer farn
with two-inch oak teeth. riher Ipenmy stock at night and
The weightof the logs will force the they runin a pasture in the daytime,
straight teeth into the soil and they will thus saving the fertilizer from woods
do comparatively good work. fires. I supplement this feed with
A "turn plow" is not a fit tool to culti- every other I grow at home, and throw
vate anything but a sand heap with. into the cowpen every sort of refuse that
Any soil that is tenacious must be finely will rot, and about once in six months
divided by small harrow teeth, while change the site of the pen and cart out the
the frame of the harrow crushes any contents of the old one, the amount of
t lum e which will surprise a new hand at the
In planting on marsh lands the only business, and where appliphed to crops
plan that can be followed is to plant all will again surprise. him by the extraor-
crops (except sugar-cane) on ridges at dinary growth it induces. This mcreas-
least four inches high or on beds as high ing in. geometrical ratio his ability to
as they can conveniently be worked, further increase his pile of cowpen ma-
Ourfarm has nothad a shower on it nure, min which a liberal mixture of
since January 24th; the main drain is muck is of great advantage.
three and a half feet deep and dry; the When I fertilze with meal direct I
laterals are three feet deep and also dry. sow it broadcast after the crop has come
The soil is thrown up in ridges six inches up ant w nrk it awau with goo re
above Ihe general level, yet on March sues, bu.t I consider it much the most
19th, by removing the top of ridges to economical to use it first as feed.
the depth of two inches, we can take up -A C. UNDERHILL.
a handful of the soil and squeeze the MANATEE, Fla., March 20, 1887.
moisture out in drops. Hence, in a wet *
season, with land cultivated flat, it Sheep manure contains from 90 to 95
would not dry or air out enough to make per cent. of the plant food contained in
the crops a success, and with newly the rations consumed by the sheep. It
broken marsh, even in the dryest season, is, therefore, a very rich fertilizer, as ex-
the decomposing matter generates gases perience has shown. It Is especially.
that tend to injure crops unless they are rich in nitrogen in an available form,
aided in their escape by the soil lying up and for that reason is excellent for use
in ridges, as a starter in the hill for corn and po-
It required three seasons of partial tatoes.
How the Crop is Managed in
It is probable that lowland rice will
become a staple crop in those portions
of Florida which are subject to tempo-
rary overflow or to partial drainage or
"reclamation." It is therefore of interest
to note the development of this industry
in the State in which the natural con-
ditions are most similar. We herewith
present the greater portion of an instruc-
tive and suggestive paper, which was,
read by Mr. J. Y. Gilmore before the
Louisiana State Agricultural Soc'ety at
Baton Rouge, Jan. 27, 1887:
THE HISTORY OF RICE CULTURE
in- Louisiana can be briefly told. Al-
though for many years grown on a limi-
ted scale, principally by the smaller
planters for home consumption, it is
only since the war that, owing to the
decline in the price of sugar, any engag-
ed in the business to an extent to justify
the establishment of rice mills for hul-
Prior to that, the most primitive meth-
ods of threshing out with horses or
flails were employed, 'and hulling was
done by pounding in wooden mortars
and separating the grain and chaff by
tossing the same in the air in wide-bot-
From such an insignificant beginning,
less than twenty years ago, the industry
has grown to that extent that now our
rice crop exceeds that of South Carolina.
Rice milling has become one of the most
important industries of New Orleans,
and so successful for a time were those
who engaged in it that numerous rice
mills have been established in various
portions of the State.
Prejudices against rice culture have
fast disappeared, and, unlike the South
Carolina \rice planter (who could not
reside on the low lands near his rice
fields), our superior climate enables any
planter to engage in the business with-
out fear of malaria. Doubtless, the great
difference is attributable to the fact that
in our sister State the planting is all
done where the fresh and salt tide waters
meet, while here most lands now culti-
vatec in rice are high and were once
cane fields. -
requiring every rice planter to properly
drain his lands, would completely guard
against sickness from flooding the
ground, and at the same time confer
lasting benefits upon the planter, whose
lands would be greatly improved there-
by. Neglect in keeping the ditches
properly open is more noticeable upon
places which have been leased 'than
where the owner of the land cultivates
it and has at stake the future welfare
of his land as well as the health of his
family. Neglect of rice flumes, more
especially upon abandoned plantatations,
being. the most frequent cause of cre-
vasses, great opposition to the extension
of rice culture has developed in all sec-
tions.-subject to overflow. "
Of late years this objection is in many
places being obviated by -the mtroduc-
tion of the syphon by .means of which
a good water supply can nearly always be
had. In fact, the primitive modeof cutting
levees to procure. water should be aban-
doned .altogether, and when the syphon
cannot supply it, pumping should be re-
sorted to. No rice plantation is proper-
ly equipped until a good pumping outfit
has been erected, for none can afford to
risk the contingency of the river rising
in time to enable irrigation by natural
PREPARATION OF LAND. -
As with all, other crops, the proper
-preparation of the soil is absolutely es-
sential 'to success. Too many neglect
this first requisite, and sow their seed on
rough ground, and often in mud and
water, when it would be far better for
both man and beast, as well as the crop,
to first have the ground thoroughly
drained and as dry as for another crop.
As a rule the ground should be plowed
twice, first in the fall or winter, then
again in the spring, just before planting
time. For new land fall plowing will
not be necessary. The furrows should
be thrown as flat as possible, and well
pulverized with the harrow.
Bad grasses are the bane of the rice
planter, the worst of which is the red
root and alligator weed. These cannot
be killed by water, and hence have to be
pulled up by hand or cut with scythes.
Wild indigo, the wild coffee plant,
guinea corn and a wild parsley are also
greatly dreaded, as they shade and in-
jure the crop. To get rid of these weeds,
the best method is, flood the ground
early, cause the seed to germinate, draw
off the water and plow the grass under.
In this way they give much less trouble
than when permitted to first come up
with the crop. Rice should then be
sown as soon after as possible, to" en-
able it to get the start of the remaining
Rice can safely be sown from the 1st
to the 10th of March, and yet it will do
well if planted as late as June. Many.
planters drill the seed with improved
seeders, but in order to do this success-
fully the land must be in the best order.
Otherwise it has to be sown by hand. A
good man should sow ten acres per day,
ut onlygood men should be assigned
that work, else gaps may be left in the
crop. In this respect the seeder has the
advantage, as the stand is more uni-
When planting early a larger quanti-
ty of seed should be used, to make al-
lowance for loss from cold and from
ravages of birds-say one barrel per acre.
Later, three-fourths of a barrel will do,
and later still one-half barrel will suf-
fice. In a cold season the seed will lie a
month in the ground before it germi-
nates. If the ground is too wet in such
a time it will rot the seed in ten Sr
twelve days. Sometimes April planting
will come up as soon as that sowed a
month earlier. However, in an ordinary
season it comes out-in fifteen or twenty
If the ground is sufficiently damp it is
not necessary to flood it immediately
after seeding. Instead of doing good it
may injure the crop by water standing
too long in low places and rot the rice,
If the land be dry, irrigate only enough
to cover the surface, and then draw off
the water immediately. If the land be
clean no further irrigation will be neces-
sary until the crop is six to eight inches
high, when it should be flooded again,
when the grass will be killed, after the
water has stood on it for a few days.
When the crop is ten or twelve inches
high it should again be irrigated for ten
days, but in irrigating the water should
never be permitted to cover the top of
the rice, as that would kill it. Then,
too, when the water is very cold it re-
quires less time to kill the grass, and if
allowed to remain on the land too long
it may seriously injure the crop. The
water should not be allowed to stand,
but by permiting a small stream to
flow all the time it keeps the body of
the water in motion, and prevents stag-
nation. Thus, at intervals, the crop
must be watered until it commences to
bead. When in the milky or dough
state the water should be permitted to
run off: gradually. When the lower
grains of the heads commence to ripen
the ground should be drained as dry as
- This is the most disagreable operation
incident to-rice.culture, and much labor
in that line can be obviated by a proper
preparation of the land, and careful at-
tention to the destruction of the seed
germs of grass and weeds. If the land
can be well .drained much labor in that
line can be saved by the use of a mqwing
machine, putting everything down,
when the rice will soon come up again.
The annoying blight in rice, popularly
known as riz fouxa, is caused by ex-
cessive irrigation, and yet many do not
know this fact.
THE DRAINAGE SYSTEM.
To insure success in rice culture every-
thing depends upon a proper laying off
of the ground with all needed facilities
for both irrigating and rapidly draining
the ground. It must be laid off in plots
of not over ten acres front, with ditches
running from the river direct to the
swamp and withsmaller cross ditches at
intervals. On a large plantation several
larger ditches or canals are requisite to
enable rapid drainage. The old sugar
-plantation as ditched can easily be'
adapted to rice culture.
Flood gates (not dams) should be
placed in the leading .canals every few
cuts to enable perfect control of the
water. For every eight inches fall in
the land a small cross levee is necessary
to enable tneleplanter to get the requisite
*depth of water. Being let in at one cor-
ner of a cut, it is passed through-the
cross levee to the next section at the
other end, and by thus giving it a zig-,
zag course keeps it longer exposed to-
the sun than if given a more direct
course. It is conveyed across the head-
land ditches through square wooden:
troughs, and in the ends of these boxes
are small gates to regulate the, flow of
the water. A fall of 2i to 83 feet is desir-
able, and at least two feet fall, is neces-
sary to enable the drainage Qf the land
so hat machinery may be used to harvest
By such a system the land can bo
thoroughly drained, and when the water
is finally drawn off, as it has to be by
draining wheels where the natural fall is
not- sufficient, the ground is left perfect-
ly dry, and if the ditches are left open,
as: they should be, the ground is the
next-year ready for any crop which it
may b le to plant. Too many,
however, neglect this most important
work and leave water standing here and
there on their land to sour and-impover-
GROWTH OF THE CROP.
It takes about five months to grow
and mature a crop of rice-from fifteen
to twenty days to get a stand, four
months to reach the milky state of the
grain, and a month more to mature.
Where the first crop was planted early,
a good half second crop is ofteB made.
This should always be cut, even though
not sufficiently matured for the mill, for,
it makes a most superior hay.
The ancient system of hand-cutting
the crop is still employed on most places.
This is partly the case because the land
is often too wet and soft to admit of the
passage of reaping machines (although
that difficulty can be overcome, as
shown, except in very wet seasons),.but
the greatest drawback to the use of the
harvester is in the numerous levees and
ditches necessary to be crossed. This
objection is also being overcome by
having several furrows thrown up a foot
above'the general level, so that the reap-
ing machine can easily pass over when
they could not over the small levees
made by spade. These hold the water as
well as levees, and it is not necessary
to ever have over -a foot of water.
There can be but little doubt about the
complete success of the harvester at no
COMPARED WITH WHEAT,
rice culture, on anv improved, scale, is
much the most profitable. Fully as
much grain per acre can be grown, and
although the labor of cultivation is
greater, the difference in market value,
even at the present depressed state of
this industry, will always give a larger
profit than obtained by the wheat
The mistake of our rice planters is de-
pending wholly on that one crop.
There is no good reason why, by proper
drainage facilities, other crops cannot be
grown on the same plantation. Too
much valuable time is lost, when it takes
but six months to make a rice crop.
Long since every rice planter should
have devoted himself to stock raising,
and thus utilize that wonderful growth
which always follows the harvesting of
the crop. Even in places where the ani-
mals could not be well cared for at other
seasons of the year,herds of impoverished
animals might be bought elsewhere and
fattened and wintered on the rice plan-
tations and give another certain source
o OATS TO SUCCEED RICE.
-Experiments have been made in rota-
tion by following rice by an oat crop as
soon as the first crop ia removed. It
ripens in time to sew a rice crop on the
same land the next spring-say in March
or April-and it has been found that fer-
tilizers put on'the oat crop greatly aids
the yield of rice. Another great advan-
tage is that the same machinery em-
ployed with rice-the seeders.and har-
vesters-can be used for both crops
This is a highly important discovery,
for it enables the planter to have winter
grazing for his stock and make two crops
annually, where he now makes but one.
Hence, the day is near at hand when
Louisiana will grow all her own oats,
instead of sending hundreds of thous-
ands of dollars abroad each year for that
While this is eminently a country of
grass, and it has to be vigilantly fought
by every cultivator of the soil, yet many,
especially on the more sandy lands, have
for years past been quite successfully
cultivating rice on the uplands. A va-
riety suited to the purpose must be ob-
tained; it has to be planted in drills far
enough apart to permit cultivation, and
in that way many farmers have long
supplied their families and 'neighbors.
However, the cereal is now too cheap to
render the culture of highland rice
PROFITS OF RICE CULTURE.
Rice culture was for a number of
years a very profitable business, but at
the present price of that staple the mar-
ginis-small- However, those who are
wise enough to take advantage of every.
improvement in method of culture and
harvesting of the crop have made money
during the pastf season.
In order to ascertain 'the expense of
making a rice crop we called upon our
talented and energetic friend, Mr. Lucien
Soniat, of Jefferson parish, who kindly
gave us his experience for last season.
COST OF CULTURE .PER ACRE.
Plowing, harrowing and covering........... $2 00
Seed ...................... 3 00
Leveeing and flooding 1 50
Pumping 2 00
Cutt fg and harvesting (by hand)........ 5 50
Hauling and threshing 2 00
Sacks, freight and commission.............., 4 50
Mule feed, overseer and blacksmlthing... 5 00
Intereston capital at 8 per cent............... 3 60
:Rent of land (estimated) 3 00
Making a total of $32 70.
To meet this expense at the present
price of ,rice it requires an average yield
of thirteen barrels, weighing in the
rough 160,pounds. Sacks weigh tenuper
cent. more. With proper care an aver-
age yield of fifteen to seventeen barrels
should be obtained, and by the employ-
ment of self-binding harvesters $2 to $3
yer -4cre could be saved in harvesting
To make this paper complete we
should dwell atlength upon the varieties
of seed, the best implements for rice cul-
VT -Th PTI~I~OW.
FRUIT AND VEGETABLE. PACKING,
FORWARDING AND COMMISSION HOUSE..
Usunily have orders to work our consignments into, enabling us to mlte PROMPT RETURNS
.Extensive Facilities for Repacking
for outside parties, to which prompt attention is given. Packages suitable for
SHIPPING ORANGES, STRAWBERRIES AND VEGETABLES,
both made up and in the flat, always on hand, and for sale. Also, Hoops, Wrapping Paper, eto
Best of location, viz: ,
S., F. & W. R. R. WHARF,
Circulars and Stencils on application. JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
i fWhat Mr. Beyer says cesp
best thanks for the splendid seeds received from your firm.
SItwould be a rather lengthy list if I should name all, but
6II "vGO r~v l willsaythatamongAStS first, and8 second preminm
-&- awarded me at our fairs in Northern Indiana and
Southern Michigan, 28 first premiums were'for vege.
SU .tables raised from your seeds. lW t firm can beat
Iths?" AUiGUST BEYER, So. Bend, Ind.
AI'iIOG Seed of this quality I am now ready to sell to ever one
-- BW H who tills a farm or plants a garden, sendin g them FRBEI my
vegetable and Flower Seed Catalogue, for 1887. Old customers
need. not write for it. I catalogue this season the native wild
p Potato. JAS. J. H. GREGORY, Seed Grower, Marblehead, Mass
P-. OHAMBERLAIN,. A. W. cUSoADn
SO U 'i.' BFLOIROIDA.
Real Estate Agency,
T&MPA, FLORIDA. Office: Twiggs St., two blocks east of Passenger depot.
Florida Winter Homes
ORIOLE, HERNANDO COUNTY.
Beautiful location, facing on Lake Oriole and onsthe South Florida RaiIroad~..
Lands all high and dry. New settlement; between twenty-five and thirty new house&.
A Church, Scho-...,.._y mails, stores, bakery, saw mill and hotel. Large area already'planted
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[for acre orange grove lots. A healthy settlement In a healthy State.
Call on or Address,
J. W. GROVES, or CLARKSON & ROBERTSON,-
Oriole, Florida. Jacksonville, Florida.
W. N. JUSTICE
Wholesale Commission Merchant,
NO. 818 NORTH WATER STREET, PHILADELPHIA.
Specialties: SOUTHERN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. Consignments Solicited. Return
made on day of sale.
T0. O'O. BIT-OTCT1TT, *
I A T. E- T1A.TES IBFLOXILEI:
Orange Groves, Town Lots in Bartow, Winter Haven, Haskell, Punta Gorda and Charlotte-
Harbor, for Sale. Unimproved Lands, n small and arguee tracts at $2.60 per acre, up. Choice te
and forty acre tracts of good, high, rolling Pine Lands, near S. F. R. depot, at $20 to 86 p-r
acre. All property guaranteed to be as represented or money refunded. .
gar Money Loans, well secured, negotiated at 15 per cent, net, to the lender. :
ture, the various uses to which rice and
rice straw could be put, but the, limits of
this paper do not permit. '.
To Remove Stumps.
A correspondent of the Country Gen-
tleman tells how he manages to remove
stumps entirely, 'caving no roots. The
parts of a stump below the surface of the
ground are full of moisture, but if the
earth is dug away in the summer, say in
June, all around the stump to the depth
of a foot and along the roots for a distance
of at least two feet, by the middle of
August the parts exposed will have lost,
nearly all moisture, as the weather is
usually dry then. Then tore four or five
holes into the stump, starting the auger
about on a level with the surface of the "
ground, and inclibfing it downward only
enough to keep the oil in the holes when
they are filled.
* Fill the holes with coal oil and allow
the stump to remain undisturbed for
two weeks.- The oil will he permeating
the wood after it has all disappeared
from the holes, and the oil in.the holes
will keep so much moisture should there
be rain. After the oil-has disappeared
and there have been. several dry days, -
set the stump on fire on the windward
side and it will burn out. The pieces of
roots remainingin the soil will be'pulled
up by the plow, as they have lost their
support. .- -
Boring holes in a stump from around
which the earth has- not been dug and -
filling them with-oil is sheer folly. The
part of the stump above the ground
-could be burned without the oil, while
the part below the surface will not burn
because it is too wet to burn, and the
pore of the wood being filled by moisture
the oil is excluded.
ONSIGNMENTS O' EGGS
c CHICKENS, FRUPT, AXTD
SOLICITED BY '
J. H. SUTHERLAND,
WHOLESALE PRODUCE '
28 OCEAN STREET, .
Hernando County, _Elorida, ,
Sixteen miles west of Hernando Hotel, Brooks-
ville, on the shore of the Gulf at the mouth of a
beautiful Spring River. Fifiest fishing, boating
andsailing. Good accommodations Try-weekly
Hack Line. -
R. N. ELLIS, 0C. E. A. E. MCCLURE, Architect-
ELLIS & McCLURE,
Architects-.& Civil En ineers,
Plans for -
HOTELS, PUBLIC A PRIVATE BUILD-
IN S, SANITARY ENGINEERINGd&c.
P. .O ox 781. Rooms 7 and 8 PalmettoBlock,
ZTO b T o riONti R
TO THE TIMES-UNION JOB ROOMS.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. APRIL 6, 1887.
The Florila Farmer and Fruit Grower,
A. H. CIURTISS, Editor.
C. H. JONES & BROTHER. PUBLISHERS.
Office Cor. Bay and Laura Sts.
THE FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER is an eight page 48 column illustra-
ted weekly newspaper, devoted to the Farm,
Garden, Orchard and Household Economy,
and to the promotion of the agricultural and
industrial Interests of Florida. Itis published
Terms of Subscription.
For one year ........... $ 2.00
For six months 1.00
0lubs of five to one address..................... 7.50
With daily TIMES-UNION one year...... 11.00
With daily TIMES-UNION, six months 6.00
With WEEKLY TIMES, one year......... 2.75
A-Subscrlptlons in all cases cash in ad-
vance, and no paper continued after the
expiration of the time paid for. The date on
the printed label with which the papers are
addressed is the date to which the subscrip-
tion is paid and is equivalent to a receipt for
payment to that date; if the date is not
changed immediately after a new payment,
the subscriber will please notify us at once.
CORRESPONDENCE solicited on all sub-
--jects pertaining to the topics dealt with in
S this paper. Writersmay affix such signatures
to their articles as they may choose, but must
furnish the editor with their full name and
address, not for publication but as a guarantee
of good faith. Rejected communications can-
not be returned.
ADVERTISEMIENTS inserted to a limited
extent.. Rates furnished on application.
REMITTANCES should be made by Check,
Postal Note, Money Order, or Registered
Letter, to order of
C. H. JONES & BRO.,
STABLE OF CONTENTS.
FiRST PAoz-Forage Plants Tested; Indian
SClover (Illustrated); Interesting Experiments;
Diseases of Fruit-Trees; Training the Grape;
Preserve Your Papers (Illustrated); Imported
Insect Pests; A Warning 'from California;
SEco0D PAGz-Chlture of Orange Groves;
Propagation from the Root; Olive Culture;
Suggestions for April;- Varieties of the Sweet
Potato; Experiments with Tomato Seed;
Method bf Starting Vegetables; Value of Wood
Ashes; The Cabbage.
TIRb PIAOE-Reclaiming Saw-grass Lands;
Root Crops for Stock; Virtues of Cotton Seed
SMeal; Management otRice in- Louisiana.
:Fou-' PAOGE-<(Editoral); Let the Truth be
S.Known; Information Wanted; A Tribute of
Esteem; Experimental Work: Much Needed
SLegislation; Commercial Fertilizer; Florida
: and Califoriia; Agricultural Papers;
FirTH PAGE--(Edited by Helen Harcourt); Our
Home CurcJe; Co-y Coner; TheFamilyFrienLd;
Our Young Folk's Corner. -
S SIXTm PAoE--Veterinary Advice; Acclimation
.Fever; Hogs with Cough; To Tell Whena
.: Cow is withCalf: Texa.or 6plemni. Fever; Th.
Hen House; Incubaitors and Brooders; t'hck'en
Cholera; Hilnts to Bee reepers
S:. E- NTH PAoE-To Subdue an ObstinateEwe
S, Ii~ ~~'tlutrated); Profll in Mule6; A Convenient
SP;ggery (Illustrateud; Saiddle Horses and
their Gaits; American Dishes ia London;
S .:-Decorariou of Window Fronts, etc.
EIGeTH Poe--State News in, Brief; Studies
of Flo.ridas Wild Plants; The Myakka Salt
S Spring; 'Facts about California; April-
Weather; Reports' of the Cotton, Tobacco
and Orange Markeli. and of the Jacksonville
Wholesale and Re-tal Marilet, :
LET THE TRUTH BE KNOWN.
We invite especial attention to the two
articles on California which appear in
this number. The writers of both have
resided in California, and one is enabled
by residence in Florida to draw a com-
parison between the two States, which
he -does with evident intention not to
exaggerate the merits or faults of either.
The existing rivalry between Cali-
fornia and Florida has set afloat much
evil report regarding the latter State, and
has turned westward many who would
otherwise have come southward. The
truth will win in the end, however, and
S Florida may profit from present detrac-
tion, for those who have been overcon-
fident of her prestige will be led thereby
to join in organized effort to publish to
Sthe world Florida's true merits and the
comparative merits of the two States.
Since the publication of an article on
the cultivation of artichokes, several
persons have written us asking where
the-tubers may be obtained.. Until we
can obtain definite information on this
subject we refer inquirers to the So. Seed
Co., of Macon, Ga. According to their
advertisement they have "everything to
plant," and we presume they handle the
artichoke, as that is, in the region of
Macon, a plant "to the manor born."
The artichoke is indigenous to the
region between Canada and middle
SGeorgia, being, in fact, one of the wild
sun-flowers which abound in that section
of the United States. It grows natural-
ly in low rich grounds, and if anyone
attempts its cultivation he should plant
it in such locations.
S A TRIBUTE OF ESTEEM.
One 'of Leon county's- literati, hav-
ing read the FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER
and analyzed itsmnerits, feels constrain-
ed to offer'to the editor some words of
commendation and encouragement.
,Knowing that the writer is accustomed
to speak to, large audiences, and that he
, does not believe in hiding talents where
they can benefit no one but the possessor,
we think we shall not incur his displeas-
ure by presenting to our readers his very
readable letter, or a portion of it, as
I congratulate you on the success of
As the Times-Union is the newspaper
of Florida, so is the FARMER AND FRUIT-
GROWER the agricultural paper of the
Its advent marks a new era in thepro-
ductive interests of the peninsula, and
with so able a pilot we expect to sail
through seas of semi-tropical prosperity!
May the tap-root of your enterprise
ever.fiud perennial springs to nourish its
growth; may you never be pruned by
adversity, 'grafted by monopoly, or
nipped by dishonesty.
May your buds of promise ripen into
fruits of fame and financial success; and
may the autumnal gathering prove the
wisdom of the spring-time toil.
May. your harvest be assured, and ours
doubled! The pen is mightier than the
sword, but just now, the potency of
both depends upon the plow.
E. WARREN CLARK.
We thank Professor Clark for favors
received to date and beg for a continu-
ance of the same. We would respect-
fully call the Professor's attention to the
fact that the "tap root" to which he
refers, already reaches down to Japan,
and that its main side branch extends to
Shidzuoka, both being in search' of
"perennial Springs" of information con-
cerning the horticulture and agriculture
of the antipodes.
Whenever Prof. Clark can pause for
half an hour from the contemplation of
the charms of his Lake Jackson estates,
we think he cannot better improve the
time than by dashing off a few-columns
for the FLORIDA .FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER concerning the Land of the
From the Department of Agriculture,'
at Washington, we have received twenty
packets of teosinte seed which we shall
be pleased to distribute to the first
twenty' applicants. This- luxuriant for-
age plant was described in a previous
number and recommended for cultiva-
tion. In the present number a corre-
spondent: discourages its cultivation,
but as we have heard 4o such objections
urged by others we presume that his ex-
perience is exceptional.
We wish to see all of these newly
introduced plants given a fair trial in
every section of the State, and-then we
wish to receive reports of success or
failure, with all attendant circumstances.
By such means we can arrive at more
correct estimates of their respective
merits than it is possible to do now.
Thereis a native grass (Trypsacum or
Gama grass) closely related and quite
similar to teosinte, which ought to be
brought into cultivation. These rank
growing tropical or sub-tropical grasses
furnish the key to successful farming in
Florida-that is our confident opinion,
but at present it is based on theory and
a few desultory experiments. *
What'is needed in this matter is scien-
tific experimentation. By that we
mean that experiments should be 'con-
ducted in a systematic manner and all
circumstances affecting development,
as well as results, accurately recorded.
Of these seeds of teosinte, for example,
let some be sown on low ground and
some on high ground; some on pine land
and some on hammock -land. In each
situation treat some hills with home-
made and commercial fertilizer, and
leave some hills unfertilized. Mark
each hill wath a bit of- shingle with a
number on it.- Note in a memorandum
book what is done for each hill, just how
much and what kind of fertilizer is
given it, and what the product of it
weighs. Record the conditions of the
weather from. week to week. and all
other circumstances that may bear on
the development of the plants.
With such notes in hand at-the end of
the season, the' cultivator may deter-
mine what conditions and treatment are
best suited to any crop, ana he may
judge of the probable profit or loss
which Would result from the cultiva-
tion of such crop on a large scale. A
few years hence Florida will have, in all
probability, an experimental garden, but
there must be a period of waiting, and
then of organization, and then perhaps
the charge of it will be given to im-
practical men or to charlatans or poli-
ticians. Therefore, let no man who has
the good of the State at heart wait for
things to "turn up," but put his own
strength to the lever, and things will be
turned up that will surprise Florida's
In talking so much of experiment and
development, we do not mean to imply
that Florida has not already great re-
sources well developed, especially in
certain sections. It has been too much
the fashion, we think, with the journals
of this State, to content themselves with
boasting of the things that are. At any
rate there are enough already who are
doing this sort of "work" for Florida, -
and it was our original design to take a
new departure in journalism. We de-
signed to let others do the hurrahing for
Florida, and to apply our journalistic
hands to the plow handles. Our aim
was to turn up fresh soil, to bring new
ideas to light, to direct public attention
to new or improved methods and pro-
In saying that we have succeeded be-
yond our most sanguine expectations we
speak in a comprehensive sense, meaning
to divide the .credit among the able corps
of writers who have built up the FARMER
AND FRUIT-GROWER'S already enviable
reputation. We doubt if any other agri-
cultural journal ever had at the out-
start so many first-class contributors
as this has had. The cause of this is
manifest to .us. People of practical,
common sense ideas, who believed that
a new departure was needed, were
pleased with the prospectus of the paper
and with the idea of co-operative work
which was advanced, and we had their
encouragement and support from the
first. We feel assured of their contin-
ued assistance, and we hope to have con-
tinued accessions to our corps of writers
from among men and women of practi-
cal experience and progressive ideas.
MUCH NEEDED LEGISLATION.
We take it to be a foregone conclusion
that the Legislature will very soon pro-
vide this State with means of protection
against the infamous practices of the
fertilizer swindlers. Whether it does so
at once or later, the fact remains the
same that Florida is the last of this stIs-
terhood of States to provide this urgently'
needed means of self protection./ Geor-
gia, Alabama, Mississippi, South and
North Carolina, East and West Virginia,
Kentucky and Tennessee, all have strin-
gent laws regulating this matter.
"$elf protection is the first law of
nature," and it would seem that our
State Government ought to have taken
measures long ago for the protection of
Florida against the 'human leeches that
have been sapping her life-blood. Flor-
ida alone has left her gates open to these
miscreants, and well have they improved
their opportunity. All they have needed
to.do was to buy or rent a muck bed and
buy-Some old flour barrels or sacks and
some perfumery. Their "manufacture"
consisted of adding to pulverized; dirt
something to make it smell bad., Then,
if carefully weighed and labelled.it was
all ready for sale at $20 or $30 per ton.
The buyers were'expected to be satisfied
if the stuff looked dark and powdery and
had a bad smell. -
But Florida's farms, orchards 'and
gardens have not been deceived if their
owners have been. Mother Earth is not
to be deceived a particle as to the value
of man's gift to her. Plausible stories
and fair appearances may lead a
person to pay $40 for what is worth but
$5, but if he asks Mother Earth to credit
him by $40 for the same he will. find,
when harvest time arrives, that he had
but $5 credit. The latter sum, we pre-
sume, is a fair valuation of our- average
home-made commercial fertilizers,and of
much that is not made at home. Certainly
impostors have-had a golden opportu-
nity in this State, and they will have to
travel far before they will find another
State where they can sell the natural
earth by the pound.
'Several of these licensed robbers have
had their headquarters near Jacksonville.
One of their dens was closed some years
ago by legal procedure. The man-
agers of this did a flourishing business
for several years, but they were a little
too bold in their operations and finally
they were prosecuted for-swindling, and
their, sham factory was closed. We
wish that some one acquainted with the
prosecution of this case would write us
the details. Thisfraud was well venti-
lated by the newspapers, and the ex-
posure doubtless lad a wholesome effect
in opening people's eyesa little.
We trust that the bogus fertilizer busi-
ness is nearly at an end. It has been a
source of incalculable loss, direct and
indirect. Heretofore much of the fertil-
izer used has been of uncertain value,
and those who have used it have not
been able to calculate as they should
with regard to the results to be expected.
The results have ,been pecuniary loss,
discouragement, erroneous opinions and
false reports, all detrimental to the
The laws which regulate the man-
ufacture and sale of commercial or
chemical fertilizers in the different
States are similar in all, and it is proba-
ble that the Legislature of Florida will
enact similar measures. In looking
over the laws of different States we find
that those of the Empire State are ex-
ceptionally brief and concise. Partly as
a model in this respect, and partly be-
cause of our limited space, we have
selected the New York statutes for pub-.
lication, thinking they may be suggestive
to some who are especially interested
in this subject.
COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS. onions, beets, cabbage and other vege-
___ tables which can be conveniently trans-
ported; while as for roasting-ears, peas,
Laws of New YOrk Governing .beans, lettuce, cucumbers, etc., the
their Manufacture and Sale. average California farmer heroically
SSECTION 1. Every person in this State, The average arable land of California
who shall dispose of any commercial is inherently worth ten times as much as
fertilizer, by sale or otherwise, shall af- the average arable land of Florida. The
fix to every barrel, sack, box or package lack of water reduces it nearly, if not
thereof, in a conspiciuous place on -the quite, to the same actual value; but that
outside thereof, a plainly written or prin- universal inflation and fictitious valu-
ted certificate bearing a name or trade- ation which prevails on the Pacific coast
mark by which such fertilizer may be fixes the price about four or five times as
known and designated, and specifying high as in Florida.
the name and residence of the manufac- California wheat is probably the finest
turer or vendor, and the date of the man- in the world, and California wool is ex-
ufacture of such fertilizer. The said cellent. These two products are rated
certificate shall also specify the percent- in the markets at about their real value;
ages which such fertilizer contains-of but California fruits, more especially
phosphoric acid soluble in water, of total apples, pears, peaches and oranges, are
phosphoric acid, of potash, of nitrogen greatly overrated. The flashing bril-
soluble in water and of total nitrogen or liance of their color and their size carry
the equivalent ammonia, the popular vote, and, it is necessary to
2. For failing to affix to every such admit it, catch the popular dollar. But
barrel, sack, box or package of fertilizers in the Golden State itself, where people
the certificate hereinbefore required, the know a good thing when they eat it,
party disposing of such barrel, sack, box "Oregon apples" are as much sought
or package, shall forfeit to the purchaser after as "Oregon hams," and the home
thereof the sum of one hundred dollars ; product is neglected.
and for affixing a false certificate to any The point of greatest importance to
barrel, sack, box or package of fertilizer, the intending emigrant is this: The ex-
th9 party disposing of such barrel, sack, treme aridity of. California renders
box or package, shall forfeit to the pur- wheat, woul and tree or vine fruits the
chaser thereof the sum of two hundred principal money crops. The growing of
dollars. wheat is becoming unprofitable, because
3. Whenever a correct, chemical an- the long annual drought renders it dif-
alysis of any commercial fertilizer, ficult to beep stock or grow clover to
disposed of in this State, shall show a manure the land and maintain its fer-
deficiency 'of not more than one-fourth utility.
of one per cent. of any one of the chem- The average yield per acre is steadily
ical substances whose percentages are falling off. Wool growing is profitable
specified in the certificate hereinbefore only where one has the capital to pur-
required, such, certificate -shall no be chase a large ranchof cheap land,-for a
deemed false, within the meaning of this sheep requires more than -five times, as
Act.. t r o many acres of range as in the Eastern
4. For the recovery of the forfeitures States. The shipment ol fresh fruit :to
provided in the second section of this Act, the distaiit marketsof the East is at best
the purchaser of any commercial fer- a precarious business., profitable only to
tilizer may bring an action which shall the shrewdest operators. There re-
be triedin the county where said pur- mains, therefore, principally the sale of
cha-ei'resides. "_ dried fruits, nuls, rains and wine as a
5. The term "Commercial Fertilizer, safe and sufficient source of income to
used in this Act, shall be taken to mean the general farmer. Poultry pays well
any and every substance imported, when properly managed, but.dairy
manufactured, prepared or disposed of products are only available as a means
for fertilizing or manuring purposes; of revenue in a few restricted moist dis-
provided, however, that the provisions tricts.
of this Act shall not apply to marl, or to Turning to Florida, we find the chief
fertilizers disposed of at one-half cent or obstacle to be overcome by the farmer
less per pound, nor to guano, the chem- isthe poverty o0 the soil. He must
ical composition of which has not been farm with a fertilizer -sack, while his Pa-'
changed -by the vendor, or any other cific Coast compeer must farm with. a
person since its importation. windmill to raise water. The' annual
6, This Act shall take effect onri the- supply-of fertilizer costs no more than
first day of August, eighteen hundred the windmill and its appliances or the
.and seventy-eight, water-right purchased of some irrigation
company. Land here costs only one-
FLORIDA AND CALIFORNIA. : half to one-fifth of what it does in Cali-
--: : .2 .-. fornia. I have seen a farmer pay $7.00
Thi m native Advantags a cord for firewood in winter in Cali-
Their Comparative Advantages fornia and haul it miles through an
and Disadvantages, almost bottomless mud. rn Florida
BY S. POWETRS. wood is "cheap as dirt." Fencing there
costs two or three times as much as
Florida cannot afford to make war on here; so does lumber. The everlasting
California. Florida is too great and "fertilizing"-out of a sack, out of a
strong to live on the thin meat of do- barrel, out of a carload; this constant
traction. But a careful and candid pouring of nitrogen, phosphorus and pot-
statement of comparative facts can harm ash into sand-is what sucks dry the
nobody. longest purse in" Florida. But. fortu-
I lived in California six years; and to nately, this is not necessary forever.
this day I have, and expect to have One of the thriftiest farmers of my ac-
while I live, a sneaking fondness for the quaintance has' not, in seven years,
gorgeous scenery;: the tropical Spanish bought a pound of commercial fertilizer;
coloring, of that wonderful and many- he manufactures all the manure he
sided country. But when we come to needsin his stables. (I shall sometime
the prosaic matter of bread and butter give a full account of his methods.) The
and the ways of making them, there is farmers can grow everything in Florida
the respect that may give us pause. except wheat and winter apples. (I
It is customary to assert that the cli- speak advisedly, and include even red
mate of California is bracing and stim- clover and timothy, for this section at
ulating likd good champagne (if -there is least.) Upland rice will yield more
any really good champagne); and that bushels per acre here than wheat in Call-
that of Florida is sluggish and soporific, fornia, and will be a better paying crop,
What the ultimate effect of each may be when mills shall have been established.
on the Anglo-Saxon race remains yet to I entertain high hopes of the capacities
be proven. As between the aborigines and the future of this staple. True, the
of the two States, the Diggers and the -Northern markets for vegetables and
Seminoles, certainly the former will bear fruits are distant and precarious for
no comparison With the latter in respect Florida too, but this State has the same
of material prowess, daring and skill in resource as California-dried fruits,
the chase, dignity of bearing, and free- canned fruits, nuts, etc. True, the com-
dom from degrading vices. California mercial fertilizers are falling into the
received from the Republic a baptismal hands of monopolies, but it is easier to
gift of splendid and adventurous man- combat these than water monopolies, for
hood-a hundred thousand of the most the farmer can manufacture fertilizer
enterprising (if often wild and reckless) easier than he can dig an artesian well,
young mefi of the Nation, while the and not infrequently it is the case, in Cal-
settlement of Florida dragged on a hun- ifornia, that when he has sunk the deep
dred years, with invalids, refugees from shaft and' reached the costly liquid at
the older States, and that idle class who last, it is alkaline and useless.
infest all, the frontiers, dwelling in ox- This paper is already too long, though
wagons and "living on the country." 1 my pen could run all day on the topic
do not say a word against the pioneer and not nearly reach the end. To sum
planters and orange growers of Florida, all inaword: Forvaried, rich and trans-
but no well-informed man will deny that cendently sublime scenery California is
Florida, like Texas, was for years a unmatched in the United States, though,
refuge for reckless and worthless charac- on the other hand, there is nothing-in
ters, from the North as well as the South;the dreariest "flatwoods" of Florida to
nor does that fact disparage the new era equal in desolation the San Joaquin
of prosperity in the Orange State any- plains in midsummer. For health Call-
more than it does the magnificent tide Iornia is admirable in places; execrable
of progress now setting in in Texas. in other places. There is as much mala-
There is a great deal of tho very richest ria on the Sacramento and the San
land in California. I have often seen the Joaquin as on the St. Johns, if not more.
fertile, black "adobe" soil a foot deep, Mosquitos, roaches and sand flies not so
even e four feet deep, directly on the sum- bad in California; ants and fleas worse.
mit-of the foot hills, and even on the tops The Florida farmer has no pest half so
of mountains 2,000 feet high, in the Coast inThe Florida farmer has no pest half so
intolerable as the millions of ground
Range (never in the Sierra Nevada). squirrels' and gophers which honey-
have seen Irish potatoes weighing two 'o the earth in South California.
pounds ePach grown on the summit of comb-
pounds each grown on the summit of Drinking water in Florida generally bet-
the range between the Napa and the ter than in California. Ways and means
Sonoma valleys; and I have eaten them for farmers to make a living more nu-
nearlyaslargeandincomparablyfineand merous here than there.
mealy, grown in the volcanic soil at the LAWTEY, Bradford Co., Fla.
foot of Mount Shasta. But what did it e
signify? In each case it was an Irish-P
man, enthusiastic for his favorite tuber. Agricultural Papers.
In the one case he had, with great labor, The noted Southern agriculturist, Jeff
conducted a small mountain spring Welborn, in writing to .the Southern
down into his "patch;" in the other, the Cultivator, says, "I take ten agricultural
wife, had carried water by the bucketful papers and read all of them. I do not
for weeks simply to raise a few bushels read any other kind. For the last fifteen
of the indispensable root. Millions of years I have not allowed myself to study
acres of excellent grain and vegetable anything but Southern farming, and my
land, but only water enough for half of success during the last five years shows
one acre, and that, too, dispensed with for itself 'the good results of my course.
the bucket and dipper or with the Even the past hard year we have made
ditching-spade 1 twenty per cent. on capital invested-all
It is as common for the California out of corn and cotton. With this I
farmer to buy his vegetables as it is for send you my mode of improving seed,
the Florida farmer to buy his salt and as I have practiced it for eleven years.
wheat flour. With the exception of a Every seed for this length of time was
few foggy tracts along the coast and a picked by my own hands, and every
few moist bottoms, every cross-roads furrow run close to crop has been run by
store has its pile of sacks of potatoes, me."
Hints to Correspondents.
The readers of the FLORIDA FA .MER.
AND FRUIT-GROWER are respectfully in-
vited to contribute to its columns articles
and notes on all subjects pertaining to
the farm, garden, .orchard and. house-
hold affairs. The range of topics which
will be discussed in this journal may be-
gathered from the subjoined table, which
may serve to suggest what might other-
wise escape attention:- : '
Clearing iand, draining land, cr6ps for
new land, succession of crops, intensive.
farming, treatment of, different' soils, -
restinfg land, soiling vs. pasturing, cow
penning, green manuring.
DOMESTIC ANIMALS. : ..
Horses, mules, cattle, -hogs, sheep,.
poultry-Breeds, feed," diseaseef,- treat-
Cotton seed, cotton seed meal. barn-
yard manure, guano, ground bone, su-
per-phosphate, gypsum, lime, kainit,
ashes, marl, muck, leaf mould, com-
Bermuda grass.,crab grass.-Para gras.
Guinea grass. Terrell grass, orchard
grass, red-top grass. Johns-on grass, Te.xas
blue grass, pearl millet, German millet,
millo maize, kaffir corn, teosinte, .sorg-
hum, fodder corn, cow peas, desmodi-
um, Mexican clover, lespedeza, alfalfas,
melilotus. -: .
STAPLE CROPS. -
Corn. oats, rye, wheat-Varieties,
yield per acre, soil and season,.difficul-
ties encountered, general treatment.
Cotton-Long and .shorl Staple- Plant-
ing and culthe, marketing crop, man-
agement -of sped, products from the
Sugar Can:. and Sorghiuini-Varieties,
culture, making syrup and sugar, condi-
tion of market. .
Tobacco-Varieties, history iii Florida,
recent experiences, seed, culture manu-
C'tiras M-Fruils-Comparison of varie
ties, hardiness and productiveness, meth-
ods of propagation, methods of planting
and culture, comparative effects of fer-
tilizers, marketing of fruit, preservation
of fruit wine and other products.
Peach, pear, fig, persimmon, Japan
plum. Kelsey plum, native plum, mul-
berry, quince, apricot, guava', ;banana,
pineapple sapodilla, mango, avocada,
pear, cocoanut, pecan, English walnut,
almond, pomegranate, olive, grape,
strawberry, blackberry, raspberry-Va
rieties, their characteristics, effects of
soil, weather, etc., best methods of
Plants adapted to this climate, out-
door culture, management of green-
-NATIvE TREES AND Hr BS,.I.. :'
Planting trees for ornament or-utility,
the burning over of forest lands, the
lumber and turpentine industries, the
tanning industry, phenomena of plant
life, weeds and noxious plants.
N. B.-Specimens may be sent to the
editor for identification. Information is
desired respecting popular names and
INSECT ENEMIES AND FUNGOID DISEASES..
Nature of damage done and remedies.
Bees and bee plants, silk culture and
the mulberry, hunting and fishing, dogs
and dog laws, fences and roads, legisla-
tion for farmers, homestead laws, trans-
portation, marketing produce, experi-
mental farms, agricultural education,
home manufactures, natural history
of Florida, historic points, sanitary ad-
vice; farm buildings, house furnishing,
farm machinery, farm implements,
water supply, cooling appliances, re-
cipes for cooking, home decorations,"
household economy, mineral and earths,
climatology, hints on the care of chil-
dren, on dress, habits, reading, amuse-
In treating of the above and related
subjects, practical experience is much to
be preferred to theoretical know,
edge; yet there are topics needing dis-.
cussion which have to be treated of
from a somewhat theoretical stand-
.In describing any method of experi-
ment it is desirable that all external in-
fluences be explained; for example, in
the case of a crop, the character of the
seasons of the soil, of the sub-soil and
the method of planting and cultivating,
all have an important bearing on the re-
sult. Bare statements of results are of
little 'value, though they may be worthy.
We do not desire letters written mere-
ly in praise of special localities unless
claims to favor arebased on the products
or productiveness of the soil. Articles
of an animated or vivacious style are de-
sirable by way of variety, but practical
statements and descriptions should be
concise and as much' to the point as pos-
All communications for the editorial
department should be addressed to
EDITOR FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER.
Canada Hard-Wood Unleaehe4
Cheapest fertilizer in use, and free from nox-
ious weeds. Supplied in car lots of 12 or mQre
tons. Guaranteed free of rubbish. Put up in
barrels. Price and analysis free on application.
Address CHAS. STEVENS
Box 487 Napanee, Ontario, Canado.
FREE, ONE SAMPLE GOPY.
Before yon decide where to go -in SOUTH
FLORIDA, send for a sample copy of
THE ORANGE GROVE.W
You will find better and cheaper bargains in,
MANATEE County in groves, farms, ranches of
any size. Building lots on railroad, river or sea-
side. The proprietor of "The Orange Grove" is
an "old timer," but neither moss backed or ,ide
bound; he is here to stay and '"There is millions.
in it." Three Millions of Acres on his Books.,
Address, THE GROVE, LIVERPOOL, FLA. .
PI nWPP nAwmnr
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. APRIL 6, 1887.
0ur ZIomf fimlk.
HELEN HARCOURT. Editor.
With a helping hand and a Welcome for all
Who wish to be friendly and make us a call;
With words of good counsel for old friends and
Who come to us seeking the best way to do.
All questions of general interest will be
answered through these columns.
Personal Inquiries will be answered by mail
when accomp inied by stamp for reply.
Subscribers are cordially Invited to take a
seat in our Cosy Corner, and exchange views,
experiences and recipes of mutual benefit.
"Help ye one another."
Communications Intended for publication
must be brief, clearly written, andonly on
one side of the paper.
All matter relating to this department
should be addressed to
EDITOR OUR HOME-CIRCLE,
Fla. Farmer and Fruit-Grower.
Our Cosy Corner.
EQUALITY IN THE HOME.
Financial troubles and business re
'verses or the failure of crops-frequently
render retrenchment in current expendi-
tures necessary, even by families that
are reputed to'be in good circumstances,
and it is a noteworthy fact that, in
looking about for ,little leaks that may
be stopped, the husband's gaze is usually
directed towards his wife's departments.
He notes numerous little adjuncts to her
toilet that may, in his judgment, be
dispersed with, and his suggestions to
that effect generally meet with quiet
Not that she at all concedes their jus-
.tice, but for the sake of peace, for the
man who is so selfish as to indulge him-
self (because he holds the purse-strings)
at his wife's expense, will never give up
his own way without a conflict.
He sees that sundry utensils in com-
mon use in the kitchen and other parts
of the house are getting considerably the
worse for wear, but suavely intimates
that they can be made to last for another
year, and the hint is usually taken. He
finds that the reading matter for the
household may be somewhat reduced,
and he promptly sends the publisher a
postal card ordering his wife's one paper
discontinued, but allows the half-dozen
publications that he admires to come on
uninterrupted. In short, with pure
human nature, he first starts an investi-
gation to learn what his wife and family
can do without, and generally makes his
researches so successsul that it is 'unnec-
essary for him to examine his own com-
forts and habits with a view to "lopping
off" little twigs of expenditure that draw
their sustenance from his purse.
Again, when' husband and wife are
counting upon the purchase of various
articles or the indulgence of pleasures,
and circumstances become such that the
wishes of both cannot be gratified, how
natural it is for him to think the matters
on which she has set her heart are of no
great consequence. He may want some
new invention to lighten his labors or
increase the amount of work he can do,
and she, for a similar reason, may desire
a sewing-machine; but he will think the
article he wishes isof much more impor-
tance than the o -ne she wants, even
though he may see, if he chooses, that
while he has many-hours of leisure, she
has none; while he can sit and read all
the evening, or go outand enjoy himself-,
she must continue working and stitching-
to keep his clothing and the children's in
Frequently the long evening hours,
which should be a time of rest for the
wife as well as the husband, is the only
time that faithful worker can find to sit
down and take up the weary, unin-
teresting task of "mending and mak-
If she had a machine to aid the tired
fingers and make short work of heavy
tasks, she, too, could read and rest.
We know of men here in Florida who
hire help for themselves unnecessarily,
but leave their wives to perform, un-
aided, all the household labor, in addition
to the entire care of several young chil-
And by and by those men will find,
as did the old German, that a "vomans
costs more dan a vife."
But the wife is to blame, too; she
should see that it is her duty to herself
and her children to combat such selfish-
ness-sometimes it is more thoughtless-
ness (which.is a milder species of selfish-
ness) than any real lack of feeling.
This readiness of a husband to curtail
his wife's expenses is happily illustrated
by a little story of a chat between an old
farmer and a passing traveler. A recital
of'it will show that it was not a particu-
larly "bad year for crops," but an
exceedingly rough one on the wife.
"How's hay in this section ?" asked the
Only medium, sir. I did intend to
get the old lady a fine dress this fall; but
the weather turned out so poorly that I
can't do it." -
"Wheat pretty good ?"
"Nothing extra. I was going to get
the old woman a new &loak this fall, but
I guess she'll have to wear the old one
"Oats tol'ably fair ?"
-"Well, they won't begin to hold out.
My crop will fall short over a hundred
bushels. I was going to get the old
woman a new set of teeth, but the way
things look now rather goes to show
that she'll- have to gum along until
Now, it is a fact plain to all observant
people that one person can complacently
Sacrifice the comforts of another, and we
are not- prepared to say that, if the old
farmer's wife were the purse-holder, she
Would do any better by him than he now
- does by her; but we do say that, if the
wife's rights in the marriage partnership
were recognized, she would have her
share of the community funds to expend
according to her judgment, and if she
wanted a new cloak or a set of teeth, she
could make the purchase, just as her
husband could if he wanted a new plow
or a box of tobacco.
Equality should reign in the home at
all times, but never is there so much
occasion for it as during seasons of nec-
essary retrenchment in family expenses.
A husband may be generous to a fault
with his family during prosperity, but
in times of financial stringency, even
though he be kind-hearted and have-a
abundance of the good intentions with
which the lower regions are said to be
paved, he is pretty sure to innocently do
his wife and children injustice when he
attempts to view their needs and wants
from his man's standpoint. Every hus-
band ought to know that his wife is
equally interested with himself in living
as inexpensively as possible during pe-
riods of financial embarrassment, and
that she will display more wisdom and
economy than himself in managing the
departnmenits under her control, because
more familiar with their requirements.
He makes a sad mistake when he ignores
this fact, a mistake greatly to his dis-
Answers to Correspondents.
N. M.W., Pinellas, writes: ''In one
of your late numbers a recipe was given
for killing roaches 'with powdered
sugar and borax in equal parts.' I
should be glad to know if they are to be
used dry or wetted with water.
"I should .also be much obliged for a
good recipe for guava jelly."
Use the powdered sugar and borax dry
as long as they will stay so; in your lo-
cality the sea air will be apt to merge
them in a half liquid state, but will not
impair the effectiveness of the dose.
The sugar attracts the roaches to the
spot, and they cannot,eat it without also
eating the borax, whether dry or wet.
The borax kills.
Recipe for, guava jelly will be found
in next column.
Just as the present -Home Circle is
about to' pass out of its editor's hands
(March 28th); we are enabled to grate-
fully acknowledge the first contribution
to the James Davis Fund, for whose ben-
efit we appealed to the kindly hearts
among our readers only a few days ago.
This offering, in such prompt response
to our call for aid for an unfortunate
brother and his family, we receive, and
doubtless it is recorded above as a most
fitting "Easter offering," and,"most ac-
ceptable unto the Lord," who "loveth a
We therefore gladly place to the credit
of the Davis Fund, from Miss E. H. Sen-
egas, Daytona, Volusia Co., Fla., $5
(acknowledged also by mail March 28,
This amount has already been handed
-to the sufferer, who- gratefully thanks
the donor. Until its receipt, he was in
ignorance that an appeal had been made
for his relief. Judging from this first
generous gift, which we trust- is but an
augur of the good to come, substantial
relief may yet be obtained for the stricken
F. B. C., Morrisburg, Ontario, Canada:
Inquiries answered at length by mail
March 29, 1887.
At the very last moment possible for
acknowledgment in this issue, we have
received% most welcome addition to the
Davis Fund, envelope postmarked Or-
lando, and containing' the following
words and enclosure: '
"For James Davis, $5,' which amount
is accordingly added to the-fund.
The generous, kindly heart of the
donor has evidently determined to 'fol-
low the precept, "Let not -thy right hand
know what thy left -hand doeth," but
that we are personally known to the
sender is evident, as the address goes be-
hind our nomr de plume, We -therefore
especially thank our unknown friend. '-
In this connection we will state that,
while we prefer publishing the names of
all contributors to this charitable object
as an example and encouragement to
others, we will not do so if requested
The Family Friend.
The "melancholy days" are still to the
fore, and so we call upon our Friend for
yet more help apropos of their busy
Warm weather, too, is upon us, and
the nice, cosy blankets, so treasured dur-
ing the colder season, are not half the
value tBey were. They are regarded
now in much the same light as was the
thin summer clothing stowed away in
"Sich is life, my sistern"
The careful housekeeper always puts
her blankets away nice and clean, but it
is not everyone, we find, who knows
how to wash them in the best way.
TO WASH BLANKETS,
shawls, clouds or any white flannels, use
three waters. The first water should be
very strong with borax-about two
ounces to a tub of water-barely warm;
if very soiled, use soap sparingly on the
worst spots. The second water should
be a weak suds; rub in no soap at all
this time, and only half as much borax.
Then rinse thoroughly in clear, warm
water, wring very dry, shake well and
hang up where they will dry quickly.
Blankets or other heavy woolens washed
in this manner will be as soft as new.
For washing alpaca, camel's hair and
other woolen goods, and for removing
marks made on furniture; carpet, rugs,
etc.: Four ounces ammonia, four ounces
white Castile soap, two ounces alcohol,
two ounces glycerine, two ounces ether.
Cut the soap fine, dissolve in one quart
of water over the fire, add four quarts
water; when nearly cold.add the other
ingredients. This will make nearly eight
quarts, and will cost about 75 rents. It
must be kept in a bottle stoppered tight.
It will keep good any length of time.
To wash dress goods take a pail of luke-
warm water and put in a teacupful of
the fluid, shake around well in this, and
then rinse in plenty of clean water and
iron on wrong side while damp. For
washing grease from coat? collars, etc.,
take a little of the fluid in a cup of
water, apply with a clean rag, and wipe
well with a second rag. It will make
everything wooden look bright and
A. C., Brooklyn, N. Y., writes: "Some
time ago my bedstead became infested.
Taking it apart, I first used putty
wherever I found a crack or crevice,
stopping each one firmly; then I applied
thoroughly the following preparation:
One pint of turpentine, one pint of alco-
hol and one ounce of gum camphor; dis-
solve camphor in alcohol, and add tur-
pentine, shaking well before using.
With this I brushed my bedstead all
over (unless it be a very valuable bed-
stead it will do no damage), using a small
brush, and the result was that I have
never seen even a trace of a bug since
that time. To be effective the -whole
bedstead should be brushed with the mix-
ture. All other remedies were in vain."
SMALL .HOLES IN WHITE WALLS
can be easily repaired without sending
for the mason. Equal parts of plaster of
Paris and white sand-such as is used in
most families for scouring purposes-
mixed with water to a paste, applied
immediately and smoothed with a knife
or a flat piece of wood, will make the
broken place "as good as new." The
mixture hardens very quickly, so it is
best to prepare but a small quantity at a
Mothers will be wise to make a note of
CURE FOR CROUt'.
Croup can be cured in one minute, and
the remedy is simply alum and sugar;
Take a knife or grater and shave off in
small particles about a teaspoonful of
alum, mix it with twice its quantity of-
sugar to make it palatable, and admin-
ister it as quickly as possible. Almost
instantaneous relief will follow.
Not everyone is aware that canned
clams are very superior to canned oys-
ters, and that exceedingly toothsome
dishes can be made of them. We give
herewith a couple of recipes, in great
favor in our own household.
Pour the juice from the can into a
saucepan and add the same quantity, or
evAn a little more of water, salt and
pepper to taste. Into a "lump of butter
the size of a walnut rub as much flour as
it will admit, then make this liqufd with
warm (not hot) water, stir it into the
juice in the saucepan and set the latter
on the stove. After it has boiled a few
moments add the clams, set back on the
stove for two or three moments, then
serve. Of course, if some milk can be
added in place of the water it will be
richer, but even without it the stew is
CLAM FRITTERS. -
Put the diams in a bowl without the
juice, and cut them with a knife, but
don't mince them. Beat an egg light
and add to the clams; add also. about
half the juice and two tablespoonfuls of
melted butter; salt and pepper, the latter
plentifully. Then stir in a little flour,
6iftcd with a half teaspoonful of baking
powder. Drop from a spoon into hot'
lard, and no one can desire more tender,
toothsome clam fritters. -
The juice left over'(if added, the neces-
sary addition of flour will make the
fritters tough) can be utilized as above
to make a plate of nice clam soup for
some .special" member of the family:
Macaroons are d.-lightfully served' as
follows: Boil one pint of thick cream,
with a little lemon: peel for flavoring,
and pour it into a bowl containing some
crushed lump sugar. When quite cool
add the juice of two lemons. Put a
quarter of a pound of macaroons into a
glass dish with a little sherry and pour
the.cream over them.
as made by the following recipe, is as
clear and beautiful as crab-apple or
quince jelly, and varies in color from a
pale amber to a light claret, according
to the varieties of the fruit.
Either the parings or the whole fruit
(ripe, but not too ripe) may be used. It
is good plan when preparing guavas
for the table (like peaches, eaten with
sugar and cream) to put the skins into a
small kettle with the centres of the fruit,;
containing a majority of the seeds, and
make jelly of them, a few glasses at a
time, as the guava jellies best in small
Put just enough water in the kettle to
keep the fruit from burning before the
juices are extracted. Let' it boil for an
hour or more until well cooked, then
strain through a rather coarse bag; do
not squeeze it at all, -or if you do, strain
it again through a fine cloth; measure
the juice, let it boil a few moments, then
add granulated sugar, one and a half
measure, to each one of the juice; also
the juice of one or two lemons; skim care-
fully, watch closely, and the moment it,
ropes or farls in large, heavy drops, re-
move and placein glasses.
Our Young Folks' Corner.
ITS STANDING OFFER.
A nice picture book each month to the boy
or girl who sends us the largest list of subscrib-
ers for "THE FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT-
A beautifully bound copy of the famous
children's magazine, St. Nicholas, to the boy
or girl whe sends us the largest number of
subscribers during six months.
Write us letters descriptive of places, things
or doings; write us on one sidethe page; give
The best letter received will be published
Now go to work and see who wins.
ABOUT EASTER EGGS."
I do not need to tell my little cousins
what the great and joyous festival of
Easter commemorates, for, although if
our dear Florida there are as yet but few
Episcopal or Catholic churches, and,
therefore, the festival of rejoicing over
the resurrection of our Savior is not gen-
erally observed as it is in the older States,
still, I cannot believe that there are any
of my young readers who do not know
all about it.
Outside and beyond the solemn relig-
ious celebration of Easter day, there
are other observances and customs which not their commander .chanced to under- 1. 8, L'ESIELE & CO.,
are clearly of pagan origin, stand just how that prophecy got there .
The very name of "Easter," for in- on the shell, and turned his knowledge
stance, comes from Ostara, or Eastre, to good account. STOVES,
who was the German goddess of the What do you think he did ? It was of TOES, -
morning, or east, and also of spring, no use to order or talk to the soldiers,
The ancient Saxons, as well as all of and he knew that. CROCKERY
North Germany, kept their festival in So he quietly went to work and had
the spring by the kindling of bonfires thousands of egg shells engraved with a GLASSWARE -
and other rites, among them the giving contradiction of the prophecy, and then
of presents, the favorite gift being eggs, scattered them all through the city. LAMPS,
nicely colored or ornamented. Of course, that ended the trouble, for
When Germany became Christianized if the soldiers believed one they must OIL STOVES,
the new church found it impossible to the other, and if they believed neither,
trample out all the old customs, and so then there was nothing to be afraid of. BAR'GOODS,
it wisely concluded to make the best of That was a wise general, was it noti
them, and turn them into Christian rites And now e have have had such long talk
instead of heathen ones. about Easter eggs that we have only WOODENWARE.
The rejoicing over Ostarn, the goddess room left for one recipe for candy-for
of the rising sun, was converted into a everyone wants candy for Easter, of .
festival to rejoice over the rising of the course. PRICES THE -LOWEST. -
Son of Righteousness, and the bonfires MOCK NOUGAT (VERY NICE). "PIES--. ..HE.. .
were replaced by the burning of the.
achal tap ers," some ofwhich burned To one quart of good molasses add C. S, L'ENGLE & -CO.,
in the great churches on Easter Eve one pound of brown sugar and one ounce
e he atpohundches i ft t e of butter. Put it on the fire, and stir JACKSON
weighed 00hpoundsg Just think of that now and then to prevent scorching. JACKSONVILLE, FLA
-a candle it was the same with the eggs. After it has boiled one hour stir in a'tea-
The people kept on colaame i the m, and cupful of walnut kernels, all particles of eFFIR CORN FOR SEED PPOSES
Thell peopleng kept on coloring themea
using them as tokens of kindly feeling shell adhering having been carefully re- AMBER CANE SEED
towards each other, and now there is no moved. Let it boil a short while ascnger, GERMANATTA O PUE MILL ET,
custom in connection with Easter more or until candied, which may be ascer- CATTAI, ORSH PURE MILLET,
custom in CoDnnec annwith Easternmore tainted by dropping a little in cold water; SPANISH PEA-NUTS,
widely diffused than this coloring of tamed by dropping a little in cold water; JOHNSON GRASS, ETC.
eggs, although they are not in all coun- if it does not discolor the wa*er and has a Everything-to Plant. Address .
tries given as presents. stringy appearance, it is done; continue SO. SEED CO., Macon, Ga.
In the United States, for instance, it is to boil until this is the case. Grease a J. B. Ellis, President.
usual to have a dish of bright-hued eggs large dish, pour out .the candy, and let W P,.: .
for breakfast, and for boys to play games it stand until cold,*when -it may be -cut
with them by striking the ends together, into squares or strips; or, if preferred, RED ROVER, 1tiP PPOORWILL .AND C.lAY -
when the strongest one wins. the candy may be pulled as soon as cool Fr,.R EED -
And in Scotland, the young people go enough tobear handling. Send for treatise on Culture of Orange
out early on "Pasch Sunday" and hunt Tree.- --. tr i-oCtuIfO n
for wild fowl's eggs for breakfast, it be- TiAITLAND NURSERIES. .
ing considered lucky to find them. J-11
Why were eggs used at this Easter sea-
son more than any other thing, do you 1 8 8 7.
Because they were considered typical ALL VARIETIES OF
of the new life that came forth with the "
spring time, needing only warmth to ORANGE AND LEMON TREES. Dai)ly Tiw u l?10 i P '
become a living, moving creature. l
And now that Easter has so nearly (Published every day in theieycar,.
dawned upon us once more, let us see
how best we can color or ornament our and enlarged to an
go bs Buds8not placed on small stocks, but on extra and enlarged to an
lirst of all, there is one way that argeandneones. EIGHT PAGE PAPER;
makes a very pretty gift fora friend; try large and fine ones. EIGH A E APE
it and see: .6 COLUMNS
it and s We make a specialty of the S6 COLUMNS.
,.. AN EGG SHELL SACHET.. We make aAs a newspaper the TIMES-UioN nowstaid
Break open the small end of an egg -EARLY SPANISH RANGE- -- without a rival in Florida, and the peer or any.
sufficiently to remove the contents. Then the South. Harisng the rexclitu.st right to the
prepare the shell for painting upon it-by (the earliest variety known), Associated Presj De.ipatcheg, its own correcpon-
washing in a little soda and water. Take a TOHITI LIMES and dentin Washihgton, rnd special correspondentss
strip of satin-light blue, pink or gold is t' throughout the Srtre-, its "'tate anid general news
pretty; let it be about two inches wide VILLA FRANCA LEMONS, is complete, comprehensive, accurate, and ainst-
and long enough to reach around the. worthy No Florrian who wishes to keep .-
shell and lap together; fringe out the and can show trees of the latter that stood tli breast ,f at i-i gouig on in Ws on a State and
edges a'little and gum .one edge upou 'old last winter as well as the Orange, and inthe world at large can afford to be without it.
.the shellat the broken end, leaving about Terms. (in advanced $0o per year; 15 for six
two-thirds of the shell visible. Over this NOW- HAVE FRUIT UPON THEM. m,,.nthi; :? r for tIhre rmonths; $l per month.
edge of the satin fasten a narrow strip of THE DAILY TMES-NON withoutt the :
gilt paper border, such as comes on fancy :u-iday isue), by niaLl, ix mnionth, 4; one year, -
boxes. Put a little sachet powder inside -. The Annlar Tii"n-Ur[o by mail, one
on a bit of cotton, gather up the satin sendfo cat1n' year,".
and tie with narrow, ribbon to match. endfor Catalogue. year, 2.
Then' ornament the-shell in water colors, -_ '
India-ink etching, or with a pretty KEDNE. &YCAREY., Tf.T TTT
transfer picture. All the work should P. o. Winter Park Fla Y'l S -
When I was a little girl my mother ,
used to Lie up the eggs in a bright piece B" RO 11' l lSu i.Q Tho FLORI.A WEERLir TiTME, the weekly edi-
of silk or ribbon and boil them in water Bees C 1d- ueelns. tion of the TiMes-UNION) iS admitted to be the
that bad a little sal-soda in it; when the best dollar newspaper in the South and one of
eggs were taken out, behold they were Orders will be booked now for delivery dur- the bet family jounrai in the country. It is a
just the color of the silk that had. been Ing April, May or June,6of my superior race great 56-column paper, eight pages, filed to the
around them. of pure brim with State and General Nerw.s, Marker and -
Then my father would take his pen- Weather reports, etc. Its Agriculturrl Depar-t-
knife and gently scratch the die away, I met, edited by Judge KAPP, agent of theNa-
leaving white Jines that sometimes I lUi' U o osuu Ua OellUU. tional Bureau of Agriculture, is written-with
formed a name or initials, sometimes a ueens by mail a specialty. special reference to Florida's climate, soil and
horse or dog, or cat or ship. productions, and alone worth ten times its
The date was put on them, too, and Give me a trial order. subscriptiZn price. Also, a large colored map of
they were carefully.put away after Eas- For prices or other information, address Florida to all yearly subscribers free. Terms
ter was over. They were kept for several (in advance), $1 a year; 50 cents foi six months.
years, until even the hard, rattling yolk H. C. HART, Remittances should be made by draft, money
had disappeared and the shell itself be- order, or postal note, or registered letter.
came too brittle to hold together, or got Eustis, Orange Co., Fla.. H. JLNE & BRO" lhea
broken by some accident.
This boiling the eggs with ribbons is
almost done away with now-a-days, for
the analine- 'Diamond" dyes are much
better and so cheap and simple that any-
-one can use them. Very few druggists
are without their case of these dyes.
. And another way of writing a name or
making pictures on eggs is this: FOB REST OF HAMMOCK LAND OR BEARING ORANGE GROVES
Put the egg in warm water for a min-
ute or two, then take it out and wipe it
dry; have some melted grease ready, dip
a small, camel's-hair paint-brush or a --cALL oN OR ADDRESS--
sharpened stick into it, and trace with it
the lines you wish to make; then drop
the egg into the dye (try the Diamo: d )r
other analine dyes), and when you take A M
white and a beautiful contrast to the rest C -
of the shell.
There is a way to make your Easter
eggs keep without breaking for years ond Land
and years, and this is how to do it: Or ond Land Agency, Orm ond.
AN EGG THAT;WILL KEEP.
Make a hole in each end and blow out East Coast Uf Volusia C Dounty,
the contents. Then paste gilt or colored
paper over the hole in one end, and pour. -
into the shell from the other end plaster '0-' -5 : L -
of Paris made liquid with water, which
will quickly become solid; then concealNEW YORK & FLORIDA STEAMSHIP LINE.
this hole with paper of any shape or TRI-WE'EKLY SERVICE BETWEEN
color desired. An egg thus prepared
will not spoil nor break easily. NEW YORK, FERNANDINA AND JACKSONVILLE
ENGRAVING ON EGG SHELLS
is another very pretty method of decora- Steamera are appointed to sail from Pier 29, E. R., N. Y., every Tuesday, Thursday
tion, and not so commonly known as the FROM JACKSONVLLE-CHEROEE (new), and 8EMIBNOLE (now), every FRIDAY.
coloring. FROM FERNANDINA-DELA WARE and YMASSEE every MONDAY, p. m., CITY -
Take one that has been blown and OF ATLANTA and CITY OF COLUMBIA, every WEDNESDAY p. m.
opu he end i h a Then wre The Freight and Passenger Accommodations by this Line are unsurpassed by any ships in
stop up the ends with wax. Then write the coastwise service. For Ifrther information, apply to
or draw w whatever you wish on the shell CLARENCE WAGNER, Agt., J. A. LESLIE, Agt.
with varnish or tallow, and drop the egg FT E ernandiMna, Fla., Jacksonville, Fla. S W. cor. Bay and Hogan.
into a weak acid like vinegar. na little 85 BroadwayN. Y. General Agents, 85 Broadway, N. Y
while the acid will decompose the lime -
in the shell, except where the lines are e es Ieal R eso rt
marked by the varnish or tallow, so that
the latter stand out in relief. Is on the Line of the Florida Southern.
the wars of Napoleon the First, in which Unsurpassed by any other section for the production of Fruits and Vegetables. If you are corn-
the wars of JNapoleon the First, in which in5 to Florida, whatever may be your means or condition, you will most assuredly be pleased with
shells thus prepared created great con- tins Centre of the Lake Region. For further particulars address,
sternation among the French soldiers. S. L. REED, Pittman, Fla.
They had invaded Spain, and were in size 40xl o on Lake Kingsley, Clay Co., onI 68. A
the city of Lisbon, when one day an egg T siB feetin L A V W, choice 5-acre tract flor an OIA NGE
was found in one of the churches, on the GROVE costs but $50. F O
shell of which was engraved a prophecy ntigh rolling Pine Lands, Salubrious Climate, a good invest-
that the French army would be des- Bank Draft to JOHN T. TALBOTT, and get Warranty Deed, Title g f
troyed. perfect, from the
The soldiers were superstitious, and
they became panic-stricken, and what R'.>OPICA..Lr LA.T 1 OIVIPALT.J",- '
would have happened no one knows had P. o. Box 158, Jacksonville, Florida, 89 W. Bay St.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. APRIL 6, 1887.
Inquiries concerning diseases of domestic
Tnlmals may be addressed to Dr. D. 0. Lyon,
Jacksonville, Florida, who will answer them
through this column.
The following advice by Dr. D. L.
Phares, to inquirers in Louisiana, is
given through the Fouthern Live Stock
Journal, and is reproduced here, believ-
ing that the subjects treated of are of
special interest to the farmers of Flor-
Question.-I have just ordered from
Kentucky a Holstein Friesian bull about
ten months old. Please do metjie kind-
ness to give some suggestions as to man-
agement during acclimation, with reme-
dies for acclimation fever.
Answer.-The only advice we can give
is to keep in the shade as much as possi-
ble-out of the hot sun in summer.
Also, to feed laxative food-keeping the
towels open. Even then, wi'h these
precautions, you are liable to lose half
your cattle. If the cattle escape the
disease the first year, they are still liable
to have it the second year. It is gener-
ally preferable to buy acclimated stock,
even though you may have to pay twice
as much for them.
HOGS WITH COUGH.
Question.-My hogs are troubled with
a cough that seems to be spreading among
them and that has carried off several
already. They eat well and lo9k all
right, for some time after the cough ap-
pears, but gradually lose appetite, mope
about and die off. They have been un-
der shelter all winter, have been fed on
corn, sweet potatoes, and have had the
run of the pasture and manure pile
where there has always been more or
less raw cotton 'seed. The winter has
been very dry and dust in the pens and
lot has been plentiful, and may have
caused the cough, although I took pains
to have everything kept clean. Can you
.suggest a preventative- and cure for this
Answer.-Among hogs, dust is
the most fertile and frequent cause of
sniffles, catarrh of head and bowels,
laryngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, in-
fluenza, rheumatism and other ills. It
was no doubt the prime cause of your
losses, which were probably increased by
feeding corn after the weather became
warm. Very many hogs die from in-
haling dust under sheds even in winter
and during rainy weather. In dry times
when not sleeping under shelter, they
are killed by dust inha'edby feeding on
the ground, or by rooting in dry com-
post heaps, where they inhale dust,
noxious gases and pernicious fungouss
sporules. Occupying one bed too long
has the same deleterious effect, often
causing epizootic, rheumatism, pneu-
monia, pinkeye, cholera, etc. All shelters
for hogs should have wood floors and
these cleaned daily. Wheh not on floors
under roof, or when bedding on the
ground they should be forced to change
beds once or twice a week; and-durming
droughts thebeds wherever made should
be sprinkled with water sufficient to
prevent dust accumulating.
Large and small hogs should not be
allowed to bed together nor too many of
any size in one bed. We cannot at this
writing give time and space for anything
like a full discussion of these matters
or for even a meagre statement of rea-
In warm weather, even before sum-
mer, I have found feeding corn freely
to pigs exceedingly fatal, especially to
the fattest nd most thrifty, and worse
Hogs should be fed in troughs that
must be cleaned daily, their corn, oats,
peas, meal, cotton-seed and other dry
food cooked or at least soaked, and a
little tar, salt and wood ashes added
daily. They need succulent food at all
times-potatoes, artichokes, beets, tur-
nips and other roots, and good grazing,
tender grasses, clovers, etc, and plenty
of clean water for drinking and bathing.
Cucumbers, melons and fruits are ex-
cellent for them. For summer feed
nothing is more valuable than squashes
in rendering other food more digestible,
assimilable and appetizing.
Treated as above, your hogs will not
die prematurely, nor suffer from diseases
and parasites; but will pay you well in
extra. quantity and quality of flesh and
lard for all your extra care and labor for,
and kindness towards them.
For your present trouble, give each
isck. hog from 4 to 10 grains tartar
emetic; after its action give from 1 to 8
grains calomel-all doses determined by
age and size of animal. Give also l to 1
ounce pine tar daily for a few days.
This may be put on back end of the
tongue with a wooden paddle. The
calomel and tartar can be given in a bit
of bread or potato. The less the sick hog
is handled the better, if not accustomed
to it. Drenching should not be attempt-
ed. It often kills the hog instantly--
many times the worry of being caught,
or struggles to escape kills while he is in
If the lungs are involved, indicated by
thumping flanks, difficult breathing or
otherwise, give saltpetre and sulphite of
soda, each 2 drachms, twice a .day in
gruel, milk or broth and apply hot stupes
or hot poultices on chest.
To Tell when a Cow is with Calf.
There is a very simple method in
general use among cattlemen in -this
section, and by which I have judged of
the time to expire before calving; and
on that judgment bought many hundred
springers in the past few years, and rare-
ly failed to "guess" within two or three
weeks of the time.
Stand on the right hand side of the
cow. Clqse your hand firmly with the
thumb raised. Place the ball of the
thumb between the flank and the ribs.
Make a few quick, sharp dabs or punches.
If you strike what appears a round hard
lump, you have found what you want.
If nqt more than seven months along, it
will below down, deep in, and small.
As her time approaches, it will be found
larger, higher up, and nearer the sur-
face. The more empty the intestines
are, the more satisfactory the test. If
a beginner will try a farrow cow, and
then one known to be quite forward, he
will quickly learn the difference. If not
very forward, you may fail on first trial,
as at times it is plainer and more readily
found than at others.-Cor. Country
TEXAS OR SPLENIC FEVER.
A Cattle Disease Peculiar to the
In the number for April 1st of the
Texas Farm and Ranch will be found a
valuable article on the above subject by
John Edgar, besides many others by able
writers. This is a leading journal of the
Southwest, published weekly at Dallas,
Texas. It enters upon its sixth year
with additional features of interest and
should be in the hands at least of every
one who is interested in the Lone Star
State. Below we give the most interest-
ing portions of Mr. Edgar's paper:
"Texas Fever" is a term unfairly ap-
pl'ed to a disease, said to be indigenous
to the tide water and adjacent sections
of the Southern States. Why Texas
should have the wl~ple discredit, is a
question beyond the knowledge of the
writer. Splenic, or Southern Fever,
would be more appropriate, as the
disease is equally native to the whole
coast region, from Virginia to Mexico.
All southern, or coast-bred, cattle have
this disease in amild form, at some early
stage of their existence, but so mild as
not to be noticeable. This is said to
render them proof against the fever for
the rest of their lives, just as inoculation
protects the human subject against small-
pox. Many theories have been advanced
as to the cause of the disease, but the
most reasonable and. now generally ac-
cepted one is that it is caused by the ani-
mal's eating grass, or other vegetation
on which a parasitic fungus grows.
This is both reasonable and probable,
although investigators have never been
able to find any of the disease germs on
grass supposed to be infected. They may,
however, exist in such a minute form as
to be undistinguishable.
These germs enter the digestive organs
with the grass, and after a prolonged
stay, pass out with the excrement, and
lodge on convenient vegetation, to again
infect other cattle grazing on the same
It is said that the germs may remain
in the system for sixty days; but no case
is known of an animal imparting
the disease after being ninety days
removed from a permanently infected
Why the coast region of the Southern
States should be the favorite, and, at
present, only breeding ground for the
disease is a mystery, for it embraces
every conceivable variety of geological
formation-from the high, rolling and
sandy lands of Virginia, the Carolinas
and Georgia, to the swampy pastures of
Florida, and the low-lying coast prairies
of Texas. The native vegetation on
which the parasite lives, varies as wide-
ly as the climate or the soil on which it
Probably the saline atmosphere of the
coast is conducive to the development of
the germ, and also enables the animal to
pass through the disease without fatal
result. This is given color to by the fact
that native cattle in the high lands be-
yond the infected district when attacked
by the imported disease, on their own
pastures, have it in violent and fatal
form; but if the same cattle are brought
into the infected district, they do not die
from the disease.
Some cattle are more susceptible to the
disease than others, and this observation
also applies to breeds. It is said that
Brahmas are altogether incapable of the
disease, and that next to them Jerseys
seem to be the least affected. Yet we
have had very recent evidencesthat Jer-
seys are subject to climatic fever.
Cattle imported to Texas almost in-
variably suffer from Acclimation Fever,
which is quite 'a distinct malady, al-
though some of its symptoms closely re-
semble those of Splenic Fever. The two
fevers are often confounded, probably
owing to their both being named
Southern, or Splenic Fever, is not cli-
matic, and is highly infectious, beyond
its natural boundary; while Acclimation
Fever is mainly climatic, and is not in-
fectious. It is a mi stery as yet, how
healthy imported cattle can be fed on
permanently infected pastures without
fatal results, while cattle taken from the
same pastures to non-infected ranges
will leave death on their track, while
they not only remain healthy themselves,
but improve in condition.
Mere contact with an infected animal
will not produce the fever. An infected
Texas steer may be yoked to a healthy
Kansas native, and the two may be
worked together; but so long as the lat-
ter does not eat where, or near where,
the former has dunged, it will not con-
tract the disease.
Again, the disease germ may be de-
posited on the grass early in the spring,
but it will not develop into the infectious
stage till some time in June, and this de-
velopment may take place before the
germ enters the system of the animal.
Hot and dry weather seemsbest adapted
to the development of the germs, and
the disease is always most destructive in
July and August. Frost kills the germs
in non-infected districts, but merely puts
a check on their development in perma-
nently infected regions.
It cannot, however, be the action of
frost alone that kills the germs, else
would they be killed out in some infect-
ed parts of Texas, where we often have
the thermometer at 10 0 Fuh., with no
snow to protect vegetation. The line of
infection seems to be gradually extend-
ing northward and westward, and it
is probable that the germs will become
acclimatized to higher latitudes-and alti-
tudes, so that regions now free from in-
fection may become the breeding ground
for the disease; and what is now peculiar
to the coast will eventually be found in
every part of the country. Nor would
this be an unmixed evil, for if the dis-
ease were spread all over the whole con-
tinent, there would no longer be danger
of infection. But it is too much to ex-
pect the cattlemen in healthy districts
to take this philosophical view of the
matter. They very naturally prefer to
have their herds free from infection than
so loaded with germs as to be disease
THE HEN HOUSE.
Nests and Drinking Vessels.
BY E. S. RICHARDSON.
Chicken roots should be made so that
the fowls will have at least three inches
of flat surface to roost on. A narrow
roost weakens the back and almost in
variably makes the chicks have a crook-
ed breastbone. Where there are more
than one roost they should all be of the
same hight, then there is no crowding
for the highest perch, and consequently
no tumbling down. The latter general-
ly results in eggs being broken inside
the fowl, which very often causes death,
especially if the roosts are high. -
Nest boxes should be twelve inches
square for all breeds except Brahmas and
Cochins, which should be at least four-
teen inches square. We use six in a row
made of half inch lumber, over which
is a drop-board placed under the roosts
to catch the dropping. At the back and
two ends of the nest boxes there is a
sma'l space through which the hens
pass and enter the nest from the rear,
where it is always daik.
The nest boxes are placed along the
north side of the house, which is board-
ed tightly to protect the fowls from the
cold north winds in winter. So then
the hens are in the dark and are follow
ing nature's plan, which is to "steal"
their nests. The boxes are entered by
the keeper through a long, swinging
door on hinges, made of a single board,
from the outside or inside cf the house.
We use the inside and then we have no
passage-way to reach across in gathering
the eggs, and only have to use one lock
to the house, on the main door, whereas
if the nests were entered from the out-
side, it would be necessary to have it
locked or lose a few eggs and chickens
Vessels containing water, which
should be changed once or twice a day,
should be kept in each house, also plenty
of ground bone and shell. We use for
water vessels a common wooden pail
with the staves cut down on one side
about four inches, leaving the vessel
quite high; thus no dust, dirt, etc., can
get into the water to make it unhealthy,
and they are very easily cleaned. Of
course, such a vessel would not do for
little chicks; the best vessel for them is
some fountain can, made in such a way
that they cannot get into it and get
In the above we have written about
houses, roosts, nests, etc. Such a house
complete, would not cost over $6 here,
and is fully large enough to hold twenty-
five fowls, which is all any one ought to
keep together if he expects to have good
success and keep his flock healthy and
in a vigorous condition, and it is more
than we keep.
We se such a hou s e to hold ten hens
and a cock. Dry feed should be thrown
on the ground, among brush, straw, etc.,
so that the fowls will have to "scratch"
for it, their natural method of feeding.
Mush and all cooked food should be fed
on a board and not in a trough, as
particles are liable~to get in the cracks
and corners and sour, which is very
dangerous to chickens, especially young
ones, giving them diarrhea, and often
INCUBATORS AND BROODERS.
I.--Requisites for Success in
BY E. W. AMSDEN.
Are incubators a success, and can the
the average poultry raiser make use of
them profitably ? To the, first question
I would answer yes, in the hands of most
persons with ordinary intelligence, to
make the poultry business a success.
In Florida, from December to July is
our egg harvest. To have early chicks
we should hatch in January and Febru-
ary, and my experience has been that if
we were to depend on hens to do the
hatching in either of these months we
would be short of early pullets or broil-
ers at a time when there would be the
most demand for them.
With an incubator you are not at the
mercy of an old hen. But this is not the,
only advantage. When your chicks are
hatched they are free from vermin, and
if a good brooder is ready to receive them
with proper care and a knowledge of
how to feed you should raise from 90 to
95 per cent. of the batch.
I saw an article in one of our Florida
papers advertising a homemade incuba-
tor. Some Florida poultry association
offered to send directions for making one
if parties would write and enclose
stamps. As cheaply as good, self-regu-
lating incubators can be had now, I
would advise anyone who wants an incu-
bator to get a self-regulating one, some-
thing to be depended on. These home-
made hot water traps are anything but
satisfactory, and I will venture to say
that where one succeeds fifty fail. In
some of the large poultry establishments
at the North, these hot-water incubators
are used successfully where a room is
made on purpose, heated by steam, and
the temperature keeps very even; but in
our open houses, let a Texas norther
'strike us in the night and run the their,
mometer down from 85 to 50, or even
lower, and before morning we would
more than likely find a lot of cold
I am using a Centennial, one of the
first successful ones made, but this is riot
all the inventor claimed for it, in the
PRAIRIE LEE POULTRY YARD,
Seffner, Hillsborough Co., Fla.
qL. B. CULLEN, Propr.
Single comb White Leghorns a specialty.
Only one variety kept (J.Boardman Smith's
pure stock). Eggs for sale at-all times; Chicks
after June 1st. Write for what you want, en-
closing stamp for reply. No circulars.
OYAL PALM NURSERIES
Rare tropical ornamental and fruit plants for
open air culture in Florida, and for the North-
ern greenhouse. Also, a full line of semi-tropi-
ical trees, plants and grasses, and general nur-
sery stock adapted to Florida and the South.
Exotics from India, Australia and the West
Indies, many of them never before introduced
into the United States.
,The most complete descriptive catalogue of
tropical and semi-tropical plants published in
America. Catalo ue mailed, post-paid, on re-
ceipt of 15 cents. Free to all customers.
way of self-regulating. The regulator
consists of four thermostalt bars in the
egg chamber, which is very sensitive to
heat and cold. It is attached to a slide
on the lamp tube by contraction and ex-
pansion of th.,sebars. The slide is moved
up or down, to increase or diminish the
The capacity of my Centennial is 100
eggs. The thiee last hatches I have suc-
ceeded in getting from 85 to 90 per cent.
of fertile eggs. This beats the old hen's
average. I have just taken forty white
leghorn and Wyandotte chicks from the
incubator. They are four days old, and
every one is living and all are spry as kit-
tens. I have twenty-seven duck eggs
with this lot that will be due in eight
I have a homemade brooder on the hot
water principle, that is simple and
cheap. I prefer my own to the one sent
with the -incubator, for it prevents
crowding, a thing to be feared more than
all else in raising- chickens by hand.
More die from this cause and improper
food than everything else combined. In
my next letter I will tell you how we
feed and care for chicks, and describe a
good, homemade brooder.
March 6th, 1887.
Chicken cholera is a term that is often
misapplied. The term is abused pretty
much as the term hog cholera is. If
fowls die and there is an ignorance of
the cause, it is so easy to call it cholera
that the temptation is nrt always re-
sisted. There is one characteristic of
chicken cholera that is never absent.
That is diarrhoea. When this is ob-
served, it is safest to suspect cholera.
The food given should be nourishing
and contain cayenne pepper or iron.
What is called the Douglass Mixture is
an excellent remedy. It is made as fol-
lows: Put eight ounces of copperas into
two gallons of water and add one ounce
of oil of vitriol. Put the mixtures into a
jug; give this in the drinking water,|a tea-
spoonful of the mixture to a pint of
water. Give it to the entire ffock, the
well and sick ones alike, whenever the
disease appears. Always separate the
sick birds from the flock. Fumigate
the poultry house with burning sulphur,
and thoroughly whitewash it inside, and
add considerable crude carbolic acid to
the whitewash. Rub the roosts with
kerosene oil and lard.-N. C. Farmer.
Hints to Bee-Keepers.
Full sheets of foundation are best for
giving a swarm for a starter.
Bee keepers do not consider it profit-
able to feed back partly filled sections to
The best way to keep honey is in a
room where the temperature does not
go down to the freezing point in win-
Some apiarians think. that bees recog-
nize color, and for that reason advise
painting hives alike, so that transfers
may be more successful.
The hives should all, be whitewashed,
bee feed provided and the colonies pro-
tected against mice, which are very de-
structive to bees.
Freezing does not injure comb honey,
but the honey should be extracted before
it begins to thaw, as the freezing cracks
the comb and causes it to drip.
An English horticulturist, who is a
careful observer of insect life, has no-
ticed that honey bees rarely go near
those flowers which bumble-bees seem to
An apiary of 60 colonies, well cared
for, should produce in a season from
5,000 to 6,000 pounds of comb honey and
2,000 to 2,500 pounds of extracted honey,
the first worth 18 to 20 cents and the
last 15 cents per pound, which can be
easily attended to in any family, and
would supply it amply with honey for
table use, leaving some for sale.
To produce fine' comb hcney, a colony
of six or seven frames are best, and the
sections should not be put on too early,
not before white clover is fairly started;,
starters should then be given in sections
only, and the sections placed the same
way as the brood frames, so as to insure
straight comb. To secure the best
honey, the sections should be removed
A good method of controlling or' pre-
venting swarming, is to use single tier
crates and give the bees plenty of
room by tiering up; put a case of sec-
tions on the hive about ten days before
the honey flow starts, and when the
bees are thoroughly at work, and have
filled the sections about half, raise the
case and put under it an empty one, and
soon; giving plenty of room., Another
,plan is to extract from the side combs
in the brood chambers, and place them
in the centre; and when the colony is
very populous, remove the comb,
placing in the centre, an empty frame
with only starters, thereby giving the
queen plenty of room, at the same time
putting on one tier of sections, and then
tier up as fast as the honey flow will
One-half cash, the balance on time to suit purchaser. What do, experienced
orange growers, and they are the proper judges, think of such a price for such a
property? The 600 old trees are worth the money. The 5,000 young trees in
grove form are worth it. The seedlings in the wild grove and nursery are worth
it. The land itself, located as it is, is worth at least one-third of it.
L. Y. JENNESS. J. 0. PRESTON,
MlrDon't Fail to visit Brooksville, Hernando Co., before you settle or invees-k
"THE BANNER COUNTY."
Awarded First Prize, 8250, for Best General Exhibit at South Florida
Exposition February, 18S7.
REAL ESTATE AGENCY,.
--OFFER FOR SALE-
Improved and Unimproved Town Lots, Orange Groves, young or in bearing,.
Truck or General Farming Lands, High or Low Hammock Lands.
and every Grade of Pine.
Pay Taxes for Non Residents, Manage Property and Collect Rents, and do a large -
business in Loans.
There being no Usury Law in the State of Florida, 10 to 15 per cent. on,
unquestionable security can be obtained both .on Town
or Farm Property.
Situated on a hill, altitude 328 ft., only sixteen miles from the Gulf of Mexico,.
is properly called
"THE HILL CITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA."
The County seat, with a stirring population of about 1,000. Fourteen well,
stocked Stores, Two Newspapers, Railroad and Telegraphic communication,.
Churches and Schools, and numerous residences, surrounded by beautiful old
bearing Orange Groves, presents to the Tourist, Settler or Investor, the most at--
tractive Town in Florida. Among these hills are to be found the largest and
most fertile bodies of Hammock Land in the State, heavily timbered with giant
Oaks, Hickory, Bay, Magnolia and other hard woods. No County in the State-
offers so many advantages in general farming, or yields such heavy crops of Rye,,.
Oats, Corn, Cotton, Potatoes, Sugar Cane, Rice, etc.
Early Vegetables for the Northern Markets are grown with more certainty
and greater perfection, without fertilizers, than in .iny section of the State.
Special attention is called to the
A Great Bargain for a Capitalist or a Stock Company.
This property is situated on the Withlacoochee River, and contains 820 acres,
of the best orange land, about one-third of it being hammock. The river, one of'
the most beautiful in the state, abounding with fish, forms its western boundary
for one mile, and connects it by steamers with the Gulf, and with the F. R. &:
N. Co's road at Panasoffkee, and with the F. S. Railway at Pemberton's Ferry,
from which it is distant only about five miles. River and railroad transportation
There are 120 acres cleared, under fence and in cultivation. There are 100,
acres in solid grove. 600 old bearing trees, some of them being from 20 to 30'
years old. 5000 trees from 6 to 8 years, which have been well cared for, and will,
all be in bearing very soon, many of them bore this year. Three-fourths of these
trees are budded from the finest varieties, and the rest are sweet seedlings grown
from carefully selected seed. Valuable nurseries on the place containing about
20,000 trees from two to four years old. There is also a natural or wild grove on
this property, containing hundreds of thousands of budded trees and seedlings,
from two to six years old, situated in a cove where they are .protected on the.
north, east and west by woods and by the waters of the river and a beautiful lake.
The other improvements consist of a plain dwelling of six .rooms, cistern,
outhouses, stables, etc. There is a splendid boat landing and wharf already
built. The bluff above the landing commands a beautiful view of the river, the
neighboring lakes and the hundred acres in orange trees. No prettier sites for
winter homes on the'Peninsula. The property being susceptible of division, will
be sold as a whole or in smaller parts. For the whole, if sold the present season,
we will take
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. APRIL 6, 1887.
' GOOD WORDS FOR THAT, MUCH
ABUSED ANIMAL THE MULE.
SExpFeriences related by Well 4iown
Farmers-Easy Modes of- Lifting and
Setting Posts-One Way of Snubduing an
Farmers often ..experience annoyance
.. and even loss because a ewe will refuse
to own the lamb shabe'is desired to succor.
In such a case the, obstinate ewe may be
Confined between two small hurdles. Our
-cut represents stich an arrangement and
-one appro yHenry Stewart, wh 9 says
--. -=_ .-,
HURDLES FOR OBSTINATE EWES.
Two light stakes are driven in ,the
ground close together, to confine the ewe's
head and keep -her from butting the lanib.
If she is, disposed to. lie dowyn, as some
: stubborn ones ,will do, a' light .poleis
passed through the hurdles resting upon
thel' wer bar beneath ,her belly. Thus
Confined during the- day, she.is helpless,
Sand if the lamb is'lively, it will manage
to get its supply of food. The ewe should
be released at night.
Profit in Mules. ..
There is one branch of stock raising
which is not by any-means overdone,, and
that is the raising of mules. As the scope
-of agricultural country in the United
-States increases, the greater the demand
'for animals suited for draft purposes,
-and Ait is an, acknowledged fact that in
many sections the mule .has as many
friends as the horse for this object. The
.great arguments i' favor of' mules are
their 4hardiness, endurance and the ease
with whichlthey .can be sold. .
A Kentucky'brleeder, who has been en-
.gaged .in. raising mules fqr thirty' years,
-makes :the following suggestions: The
raising of mules in Kentucky or the west
is not profitable unless 'the animals pro-
-duced be of good size-say from fourteen
.and .one-half to fifteen and one-half hands
high. The best jacks for- this class of
mules are not less than fifteen hands. The
dams are.of equal importance and should
be improved blooded mares.. Mules from
iuch crosses, are the best seen in Kentucky
.and always command- good price. The
- most important improvement in jacks in
the state' of Kentucky was through the
introduction of the well known Spanish
jacks Mammoth and Warrior. These were
imported from- -Spain between -the years
1885 and 1840. -These jacks, at date of
arrival, .were valued at, and cost, ,$5,000
,each, and were full sixteen hands high.
As breeders, they were remarkably fine,
and greatly improved the size of the jack
stock by crossing on the common jennet
of Kentucky., Later importations from
the same source made additional iunprove-.
ments, but -none so decided as the two
abofWe gag dr .m -4: .-.A ...-.
According to estimates. made by the
United States agricultural department, the
state in which mules rate highest is Ndw
Jersey, the next highest, being 'in
Maryland. Texas has the greatest aum-
ber of any state, and the animals are val-
ued at, a lower price-less than one-half
the average value in New Jersey, for in-
stance. Kentucky and Missouri show up
.ell in this industry. -
..The ,Tprejudice against' the mule is an
unjust one. For farm work and 'road
hauling it exceeds all other animals; it is.
more economical, is alronger, hardier,
never, gets-' sick,' and, according to old
Traditions, never dies. "
0!~ "''L' 'Feealin'g>Cows fdr'ihltek.
cProfessori.L,, B.,:-Arnold,' who. is con-s
idered high authority In all matters-per-
fhi'fga to the dairyi advises, when milk
is the object, the following as a profitable
food for-milch cows:
400 pounds o-bran.- 4 .-. .... :...t.v.f4.0
200 pounds of eorn msial .......... .A;300
100 pounds of cottoif seed meal;............. 1:45-
-" ,* f*-. -* -- :+,, $8.-
which gives $1.21 as the cost of 100
pounds of the mixture, or it any or all
'he materials 'dan be urcliased' at lower,
figures, the cost of the. compound will
"lie'proportionately, tess.q!- -' ,,
On the subject of how to feed ground,
Stations, Professor Arnold says that there
Is no advantage in simply wetting ground,:.
feed to give to cattle "It, is quite as well.
for them to eat it dry, and it is better'to
feed 1I so i'r,'nter, unless it' qcan be fed
warm. When the weather is suitable
there 'is.;some advantage Ain wetting, the'
hay or straw .to -be fed, and mixing the
gromind Aed with it.' -Fde:inthiSi way the
meal and coarse fodder go into the first
stomach, or rumen, together, and all are
remasticated, -If 'the meal is fed alone, it
is liable to miss the first stomach and go
,directly into the third or fourth stomach,
'when it is- not chewed ,over again, -and
lience it is not digested as soon or as well.
'ODne pound of the mixed food for each 100
pounds of live weight, mixed with straw,
would be a suitable ration for milch cows.
,If fed to store, cattle or dry cows, 25 per
,cent; less meal would suffice."
A Convenient Piggery.
Farmers ought to provide for swine
protection fromi the heat of summer and
he' cold of winter a place where the
young-pigs can be fed by themselves, and
'.Zrhere fattening as well'as breeding stock
may receive proper treatment. A good
Nature in summer and a sunny ard in
L: I L. I IJ LI
I f-i ri H H' Fl H
FIG. 2-INSIDE PLAN OF PIGGERY.
A width of 20 feet admits of a central
alleyway: 4 feet wide, and pens 8 feet
wide on each-side of it, as. seen in Fig:" .
Each sow should have two pens 6- by 8
feet, one to sleep in and the other for use
during daytime. The- long outside walls
are 4 feet high, % ith a ',loo-for. each' pen
leaaing- into an ,oiutide uecl.,uire, 1i by
16 feet. The c enter p.:osts ire t'feet high.
.Over each pen -and under, the center roof
are smalhwindows to ad.it light,anid air.
One or two of the pens may be used for
storing corn and'branv-WFrom a never fail-
ing well, situated on higher ground a
Short distance- away, Water is conveyed.
into the-house in nipes. .
Quality of Cows' Milk.
As a rule, milk is richer in the fall and-
Spoorer in the spring. The qfiality of cows'
milk4s not only affected by the age of the
animal, but by the distance Irom the time
of calving., Climate excites considerable
influence on the quality of milk. In moist
and temperate seasons a larger quantity,
though generally a poorer quality, of milk
is obtained than in dry warm seasons.
The race and breed, and size of animals of
course, exercises a powerful influence on
quality of milk.
Variations in-the.. composition of milk
are dependent also upon age and bodily
health. Professor Willard calls attention
to the fact that, other things being equal,
young cows yield a milk more rich in
solids than do old cows, a view not adopted
by all American dairymen, some of whom
believe that an old cow's milk is as good
if not better than a young one's. English'
dairymen agree with Professor Willard,
and generally observe the rule of turning
off their milch cows at from seven to. eight
years of age. -
Good milk of average quality, according
to Voelcker, contains from 10 1-2 to 11,
per cent. of dry matter and about 21-2 per
cent. of pure fat. It yields from 9 to 10
per cent, of cream. Milk that contains
more than 90 per cent. of water and less
than 2 per. cent. of pure fat is naturally
very poor or has been adulterated.
When milk contains from 12 to 12 1-2
per cent. of solid matter and from 8 to,
3 1-2 per cent. of pure fatty substance it
is rich; and if it contains more than.12 1-2
per cent: of dry fatter and 4 per 'cent. or
more of pure fat it is of extra rich quality.
Such milk throws off from 11- to 12 per
dent:-of;:cream In bulk -on standing, for
twenty-four hours-at 62 degs. Fahr., as
has been" proven by the experiments of
Professor Willard and others. '
Saddle Horses and Their Gaits. :
The increased demand, for saddle horses,
so apparent of late in the east, is felt 4all
over the country, hende the-suibject of sai-
die horses and their gaits, treated by sueh
acknowledged authority-as.. The National
LiveStock Journal, will doubtless prove
of general interest. .' .
The gaits for a saddle horse are 'the
'walk, the fox trot, the single foot and the'
rack. The walk 'is a gait understood y
everybody; 'but everybody does not un-
derstand that a good saddle horse ought
to be able.to go a square walk at the rdte
of five miles an .hour. The fox trot is
faster- than -the square walk, and the
horse will usually take a few.steps at thiis
gait' when changing from a fast walk to
a trot. -1It'..may be easily taught to -nost
horses by urging them slightly beyejid
th1blr"'brdfnary askingg speed, dnfd, when
they strike the fox trot step, holding thdm
to iL They will soon learn to like it, and
"'with a sort .of pitapat, ohe at a tune
motiou, andit is a much faster gait thn'
. The rack',is very nearly allied to the-,
.true pacing gait, the difference being tliat
'in the latter the hind foot keeps exact'
time with the f6re foot of the same side,
making, it what has been called a literal
or one side at a time mI Bh, while in the.
former the'hind foot touches the ground
slightly in'advance of the fore foot on the,
same side. The rack is not as fast a gjait
as the,.true pace; but .is a very desiraPle
gait in a saddle horse. In addition, the
perfect saddle horse should be able to trot,
pace and gallop, and should be quiIk,
nervous and elastic in all his motions,
without a particle of .dullness or sluggish-
ness in his nature. His mouth should be
sensitive, and he should respond instantly
to the slightest motion of the rein in the
hands of the rider.
A poor and clumsy rider, however, will *
soon spoil the best trained saddle horse in
the world, and such a person should never
be permitted to mount a horse that is ex-
ceptionally valuable for that purpose. A
"plug" horse and a '"plug" rider may
well go together; but keep a really good,
well trained saddle horse for one who
knows how to enjoy this most health giv-
ing, exhilarating and delightful of out of
winter are the best places for- pigs the
greater part of the year; but during cer-
tain seasons some kind of a house is quite
necessary for swine where most profitable
results are required.
FIG. L.-OUTSIDE VIEW OF PIGGERY.
This house may be cheap or expensive,
to suit the taste and means of the owner.
A very good piggery is shown in the ac-
companying illustrations, sketches of
which were furnished by an Iowa corre-
spondent, to The American Agricultur-
ist. The building, a prospective view of
which.is' given in fig. 1, is twenty feet
wide and may be made as long as jieces-
sa ry to accommodate the number of swine
to be kept. Yet it is not advisable to keep
too large a number in one house; when
more than seventy or seventy-five are to
be raised it is advisable to build additional
Across the hedges, thick with autumn flowers,
I watch the wild, rough wind's breath come and
Bending the leaves until their pale backs show;
And each small bird that there for safety cowers,
To hide before the storm that darkly lowers,
Is shown to us, who did not even know
They shivered thcre-for they were hidden soIl-
Until the wind put forth its stronger powers.
Is not this like some life of sweetest rest-
Passing its years in a most even course
Through sun and summer's perfect, peaceful
Yet when rough trials search that quiet breast,
It shows beneath the calm that love's vast force
Has lain there, hiding humbly, all the while?
-All the Year Round.
TENNESSEE RELIGIOUS REVIVAL.
How the Mountaineers Carry on the
"Big Meetin's"-Diversities of Gifts. '
In 'August and. September, after' the
"crops are laild by," the frugal moun-
taineer lays aside his worldly cares, 'and
applies himself unreservedly to the task
of carrying on the "big meeting's bothIn
his own 'and in the adjacent neighbor-
hoods, and to the pleasures and duties of
hospitality. During the progress of one
of these meetings every cabin within
walking distance of the meeting house is
thrown open to any and all 'who deign to
share its shelter. Thp'xe is no exclusive-
ness, and all .4re.equally vclcoine.
,.The rude table is lnlade,'l with "pine
breadd" ptatoe., fried chicken, bacon or
beef, while coffee, strong, black and un-
sv.-eet-ue-I, flows like water. There is no
,iiear tin-d in the moulntnains, only a black
sorghum m.,lasses, that would make a.
delicate epicure shiver. In the kitchen a
bevy of lank,' silent women seem ,to be al-
ways cooking. a fresh supply; -for.the ap-
petite of. the mountaineer, like his re-
ligion, is of an- insatiable, carnivorous
These meetings usually last from a week.
to ten lays at each church, or not infre-
quently-as the people express -it-
".'ontwell the hull settlement is bodashusly
cleaned out'nthe'r grub and pashunce."
Then, nothing daunted, the wearied men
and women will close their wood latched
doers and hie to'the meeting's in the
next settlement, sure of a hearty welcome,
and ready to, "eat out" others, as they
themselves have been eaten out.
Whole families will thus spend a month
or more, for there is no commodity in
which these people are so prodigal in the
expenditure of as time. Home interests
may suffer, stock may go unaherded, fod-
der ruin on the stalk, and the more provi-
dent womenfolk complain of threatened
scarcity for the coming winter.' But' ,the
religiously enthused husbands and-fatheis
will contentedly sing, pray and shout as
lohg as good cheer -lasts 'at their neigL-
bors' tables and sinners remain'anxious '
-Local preachers and exhorters are ,sel-
dom 'paid any salary. They .spring up
like mushrooms, with a diversity of. gifts
and lack of gifts as heterogeneous-as their
interpretations, of. Scripture.': often- are.
Yet all are brimful of a weird, morbid en-
thusiasm, and their audiences, are easily
satisfied with any orthodox efforts base
upon unlimited lung. power and an in.
definite fund of emotion.-Brooklyn
Ar'temus .Ward's Chum; ,
Mr. George-Hoyt, of Cleveland, 0.,ywhd
. years ago worked onThe Plain Dealer, of
that city, with Artemus Ward, told a reb-
porter that, while he was a printeron the
paper, and Artemusj who.- was the .sub-
editor, wanted to go to Cincinnati -for a
week or so, he got the former, to. writehis
matter for.him and. left an old tow string
to indicate the quantity required .r,'
Hoyt is now a wealthy mine owner, but
has never forgotten the. great.Americai
humorist, whose friend he was up to his
death. .. '
"Yes, I remember the old soiled string
Artemus gave me," he saidw..,--Artemus
called me. to himand said hbe was going to
be absent a week and wanted me to 'jag
up' his column during his absence. : I
Never will -forget his, queer looking ex-'
pie-sslon when he handed me a string,
about two-:,thirds of a column in length,
and said that much stuff was required
daily. As to the quality of the' matter,
he ignored that altogether. I think that
incident occurred along, In 1857 of
shortly afterward. Artemus taid I'
were good friends, although I was. only
a printer on the paper. He diacov-
ered that I whs somethingof an' artist and
had a high appreciation of the Uumorous'
so he frequwtly read 'his ariiclsA tome.
How he would laugh, both while ahe'was'
writing his funny artliclbs an'd when he
read them to me. I rememberi he re'dl tho
me his letter o. Brigham Young, and
laugheczhefrg:y.ovper.the question he pro-'
pounded to the Mormon as to where his
wives were sealed to him. I Illustrated
his first book for him; at least I drew all
the UllustraLons, and Artemus lost them
'out of his coat pocket while en route to
New York. The last time I saw Artemus'
was in Cincinnati. He was lecturing'
,then, and I went into his dressing root
before he appeared on the stage. He was
having a -terrible tibae with' his hair
Dresser. It ii a actual fact he canned a
hair dresser around with him to get his
hair properly curled and arranged to ap-
pear before an audience." He :appeared
glad to see me, and asked me about the
boys. He made a great deal Qf money,
but what became, of it Is rather a mys-
tery. He bought a farm for his' parents
and helped them,"-New York Mail and
Two Well Coddled Horses.
I was talking the other day with a
gentleman who has recently returned from
Russia. When in St. Petersburg he had
an opportunity to visit the czar's stables,
where may be found nearly 600 of the most
remarkable horses in the world. In the im-
perial stables the gentleman saw the two
horses which were attached to the .late
czar's carriage when the bomb which
caused his death was exploded. The' ani-
mals were not killed, as the bomb ex-
ploded under the rear axle of the carriage.
Some of the shell, however, severely
wounded these once handsome creatures.
They are both badTy scarred, lame and f61
course, utterly useless. Four grooms in
uniform devote their entire time to the
charge of these horses. They have never
been harnessed since the tragic death of
the ruler of all the Russias, but are exer-
cised every morning -y the grooms.' The
cloths that cover them are of silk, and
they are given as much care as men. The
carriage is likewise on exhibition in a huge
glass case. It was an ordinary carriage,
and the back part of it, together with the'
spokes of the hind wheels, was completely
blownout. The front part was not greatly
injured.-Washington Cor. Philadelphia
Girls Defeat a Policeman.
The story of Godiva, the wife of that
grim'earl who ruled in Coventry, has been
-not outdone, for that will never be-but
repeated in a less romantic manner -by the
twenty-five naked maids of Ireland who
baffled 100 armed'policeman.that came to
make their arrest. The story ,of this ap-
peal to and respect of modesty is told by
a Dublin. cable dispatch as follows: "The
climax.was reached yesterday, and at the
same time occurred a veritable reductiono '
ad absurdum" of castle rules when 100
aimed policemen entered the poor house to
arrest these female offenders and were
baffled by the girlssimp]ly taking off -their
clothes and going to bed. Twenty-five
naked women, it may literally, be said,
beat 100 men armed to the teeth," Lady
Godiva. by her perilous ,adventure, "took-
the people's taxes tway and. made herself'
an everlasting name." These twenty-five
Irish maids may not secure such a perma-
nent niche in- the, temple of fame, but'they-
will at least have the. transient- notor'ety
of having defeated a.,100 armed policemen.,
-Chicago Herald. .. ,
AMERICAN DISHES IN .LONDON
A London Paper on the Bean-What -It,
Says of Fried Chickn"-Otlier Edibleib.,
In America, the bean is the uatlon'al.
herb, quite as mucii as the yam is In Fiji
or the' potato in Ireland. A New Eng-.
.lander would scarcely regard Sunday' as
duly observed If he did not dine on beans
baked With acube of pork on the top of
them, and when the satirical boy shouts
to the selectt man"'detected in secular
tiess the first day of the week that he
must have forgotten "to put his 'beans' in,
to bakelast night," this fact is 'popularly
recognized. The bean"'is' the'wholesome
'food obn which the western pioneer sub-
sists. 'Until roads enable daintier dietary
to be indulged in', the gold digger prac-
tically lives dr bacon and 'beans, -and on
pbspecting expeditions no food is more
'pbortable or .aniore sustaining. Without
"his regular beans" the California miner
would regard himself as starvedd` "Hash"'
may be all very Well. ; ,But in a pound of
beans boiled with' an-ouue' of 'pork there
is as much nutrition as In a 'haunch of
lean venison.'".- '!
-Chicken:' friedi-ln cream Is a ,southern
dish. It is a compromise between the
"Happy Dispatch" of an .Indian bunga-
loiw in the Mofussil and the spatch cock
of a "more leisurely land.-, The clam, as
Sthe .chief materials of a "'chowder" soup,
may safely be reckoned on to give a bad
quarter of an. hour to the' unwary en-
-thusiast, but the shad' cooked after-the
eastern fashion is sure to be fully appre-
ciated. -"And above all,, are we to have
"hash?" If beans form the national dish -
of the eastern states and fried chicken of
the south, ha-esh, to give the word its
proper' pronunciation, is assuredly the
staple of the west. In any'new district
beans come first, but ha-esh proclaims
That the iesourceslf:'the boarding house'
keeper are'enlarging.- 'What this dish is
composed of no mian not in the trade has
ever yet been able to say with,. any ap-
preach' to certainty.: At a rough glance
it appears to be a compound of potatoes,
-meat, onions and' pepper all baked to-
gethcer. Biut 'they who -iecruit exhausted
nature on ha-esh without having doubts'
'as to the animal which supplied, the meat
'are.endrowed with (he faith by which
mountain's-are removed. :;
"'Sir,"&'-. id the Colorado mountain hotel
keeper when the '"tenderfoot" ordered
quail -oi 'tbast, '"sir, you mean ha-esh
and you're going to have ha-esh. It shall
never be said that any main wefar babk on'
his victuals in my lhu-e." Like 'the
frijoles of a Mexican pi-ada, hash in-the'
ante railroad days was the one articlee of
diet to be reckoned on at a western way-
side house. But surely we are also to'
have hominy and succotash, those dishes
which' the Indians taught- the -Pilgrim
fathers to concoct, roasting ears and buck-
'wheat cake-,'griddle cakes and pomee"
-from the south, and *evbn tbhosi'biie of
Portable" dyspepsla; the "hot biscuit,"
without'which no' American' brakfastiis
compl)lete. In the matter of cooking the
Americans have rapidly prbgressedfrdm-
-the -time when the pironeer roasted his
buffalo or deer's mneat'on' the end of his
ramrod, and, to make a- distinction with-
out a difference, the "gentlemer!,)of the:
great fur company ate red-salmon and'the
"men" white. In someparts of tte coun-
try-in Texas, for example, whLih Horace'
Greeley declared needed nothingto m-nuch
'as a dozen or two of decent cooks-it still
lacks much In this respect, Yet at the
-table d'hote of a 10-year-old 'western
"city" the traveler is amazed .:to find-
a dinner which for excellence and variety
it would be difficult.to surpass in London.
Antelopes in the Slarket.
.Two .car loads. of antelopes were din
tributed among the commission houses on.
South Water street the other afternoon.
, "Tfls. has been the greatest, yea "for an-,
telopes we have ever know~n,"-said one
merchant. "Men who send the~animals to
us say that the Rocky mountains 'have
been swarming with them all winter.
Two hunters who left Denver ir Novem-
ber have struck two herds of 10,000 each,
and they followed them from range to
range, hntil over 900 of the dainty animals
fell before their rifles. Hunters up in the
woody mountain' district tell great stories
of antelope and buffalo hunts, but the bulk
of the antelopes sold in this market come
from the Rockies."-Chicago Herald.
Gunther, the Chicago candy man, is an
indefatigable collector of autographs.
Not long ago he paid $5,000 for a Shake-
sperean autograph, and now has bought a
ammmy ..... .
.A A n......e cultiVate the bodily interests of
IN A DARK HOUR. pet dogs, at their own homes. His charges
S were almost as moderate as those of the
Those tender mothersI When such little thing' barber for the pet dogs' owners, and he
Such helpless, fragile little things we are- b
How they pray God for usl how they makewa had, he said, a growing trade. He made
For us with death l and spread their mother. a specialty of poodles, and called himself
wings the champion designer of the eccenhtrle
About us full of anxious quivering, embellishments those luckless beasts aie
And spyihg each least peril from afar, subjected to. I am going to buy a poodle
With their own arms, thereto made mighty, to be in style, for my visitor informs me
bar that all our fashionable people are on his,
The way from harms and smile at adder stings visiting list.-Alfred Trumble in New
And brave the tigers merciless and wild Y N s
In their deep love for us, and by and by, York News.
When we are men, to strive and stand alone,
We clasp our desperate, aching heads and moat: An Ancient Roman Face.
Would God my mother had left me to diel
would Ihbad died a sinlessi little child Il Speaking of coins recalls an incident in
-Gertrude Hall in The Century. the life of.J. M. Stone, the Boston artist.
S:He received an order once from .a college
DEOR ATIO, O W.N.W FRON for a medal to be made with the face of a
DECORATION OF. WINDOW FRONTS. certain ancient Roman on it. Now, this
-- -- Roman had left no trace._of his likeness;
Dry Goods Architecture-Masterpieces of no coins or medallions or shields 'had been
Art Whilch Captivate. the Eye. discovered bearing his physiognomy. The
The last fashion of the dry goods pal- college people told Mr. Stone about-the
aces is the decoration of the big windodW character of the' ancient, and left him-to
fronts with artistic designs in silks, linens use his imagination for the likeness;.' He
and: cloths. -Special artists'are engaged in 'did not relish the task at all. If'he .could
some of the stores: for-'the work; and have had no more' than the tip of the.
almost as much skill is required in'the man's nose or chin to suggest the features
execution of some of the. 'designs as is he would have felt better. At last, in de-
needed in the standard lines of art. Some spair,I he bethoughthimself of a cook in a
popular object is- usually, selected-for re- friend's family.. -'This-worthy, lady was'
production in dry goods, and the work. is famed among those who had seen her as. ,
an attractive and novel way.'for.the dis- the furthest removal from physical beauty
play of the dry' goods dealer's. fabrics, that the- century had produced. One of
*The novelty of it captivates the eye at her fiaturrs was a pronounced Roman
;once. nose. Mr. Stone began to paint that nose,
.One of the big. dry goods palaces of but he finished by transferring the cook's
Sixth aven.uehas' pn exhibition two of its whole face to the'medal and the result is
newest styles in silks arranged in artistic that the college has treasured among ,its
form in one of lits show windows. The de- classical archives the likeness of a modern
sign is that ofaa huge. open fan. It is female cook doing duty as a representa-
formed, of.-a combination of -two :colors', tion of an ancient ..Roman general.-New"
black .and' pnrple,- arranged in alternate ;York Sun, ...
.fold,9sto form a c0ntraat -ThtopheVirtues of the Weed.'.V
tfan is, fringed with a new pattern, of, white he s of ... Weed.'
.lace~and the handles' also of white iace. We have a steady sale for .the se forty
Rollsof black lace extend down the center cent cigars, which you always see in first
between the layers of silk. Toe fan at the class cigar stores. They are not kept in
top is twelve feet across. It occupies the stock for fancy display, I assure you.
entire iront oi the plate glass window. There are some men who smoke no other
Brooklyn is way ahead of its sisterr me- kindof cigars-those, who' seldom'smoke,
tropolis in the decoration of the store win- but'keep a box of these about the houseto
dows. One of the,most elaborate designs use when they feel in the mood to smoke.
is.. .that in.a massive window, of a dry Then among thbse who'purchase them
goods'emporium 'ou Fulton street, Brook- regularly are heavy smokers, who usually
lyn's Broadway. -It is a representation of buy two for a quarter brands. They
,the Brooklyn.bidge.i n linenand lacefAb- smoke ten or. twenty cigars a day, arid
rice. The bridge columns, are composed end' upwith ,one of these fancy, cigars.
of thou-ands of white lace 'napkins neatly They comea-principally from Cuba, and--
piled on top of each other, and the large are made of a rare quality of tobacco,
cables that stretch between, them are of which cannot.be grown to a large extent,
twisted lace and the smaller.wires of nar- like'sea island cotton, which will not grow
row ribbons.'. Under. thc electric light at succes-.fully except on the islands near
night the effect is striking.",. hundreds of Charleston. The' merit consists in 'the
dollars'" worthiof- material is used in the delicacy of flavor and the soothing effects.
atrangeinen't.. The dry goods bridge is Only a constant smoker can appreciate
twenty-five feet long and six feet v ide.-- the full virtues of such a weed. The way
In the, window front of another shop-' we distinguish the value of a brand of
ping place is.a most gorgeous and artistic vigars is by opening the filler, setting it
fabrication. It is a'duplicate of the great' on fire and inhaling the -fumes. It re-
ice palace at the Montreal carnival exe- quires about two whiffs for an expert-
c'uted in tablecloths, handkerchiefs, nap- enced man to fix the value of the tobacco.
k ins and laces. -Globe-Democrat.
Another bazar window is fitted up
with a number of Japanese fans in -ging- Liability to Mesmeric Influence.
hamiand poplins of variegated hues. The The hypnoscope, invented by Dr. Ochoro-
edging is of torchon lace. The effect-is- wiez, is claimed to readily disclose aper-
fine. Fans. seem to be the monat acceepted soni's liability to mesmeric influence or
designs for the dry goods arrangement, as hypnotism, or the reverse. It is a slit
their construction'is the least expensive. 'tubular magnet, the edges of the slit being
One of the. most unique of all the dis- north and south poles respectively, its
plays is a star shaped assortment of fancy armature or "keeper" of soft iron closing
silks for ladies' "dress goods. Each prong the poles to preserve the magnetism when
"of the star is of a different shade of silk. the instrument is not In use-. To use 'it
The design appears in the window of a the armature is taken off, and the fore-
store on Fulton street, 'Brooklyn; It is finger thrust through the tube of the mag-
copied from the Bon Marche of Paris. net so that .both poles are united through
The art is new yet, but as it progresses, the finger itself., At the end of two minutes
the window front of dry goods emporiums the magnet is drawn off and the person
are expected to become regular museums, examined. It is asserted that about
with' elephants, camels, lions, horses and 80 per cent of the persons examined by
'Other specimens of the zoological kingdom this method are found to have experienced
pictured in the newest manufactures of ome peculiar objective or subjective sen-
the looms and'the spindles. The won- nations; some 20 per cent. an itching or'
ders of architecture are also to be repro- pricking of the finger as If needle points
duced in dry goods novelties: The artist 'were entering the skin; others a sense of
of the window fronts always works with coldness, or of heat an dryness. -Boston
the window curtain drawn down, so that Herald. "-
the public may' not know what the design --
is to be until-it is completed and ready for '- -
Inspection. ~ "' T : tendency Toward Insanity.
The furniture waeroomnis have gone The tendency of modem civilization is
Into the winddw display fashion, arid: toward insanity. It is increasing through-
'some 'of' the warerorm' windows are how out Chiistendom, and far more where the
fitted up as'boudeirs 'and parlors, so as to boasted influences of, modern education
'show the furniture to the6'best advantage, and the so called progress are most fully
-Newv York Journal. .realized. The whole fabric of education
and society is unsaund, and this is proved
DogAs of a Mexican Household. bythe results.,
I o -t m ..- an- .uc A true civilization advancing in wisdom
The most marked and .unchangeable must develop the ability to correct its
feature .of a, Mexican. household is the own evils, but the civilization that we
band of dogs. ,No matter how poor ,the have Is drifting on, downward and help-
famlly hiay be, it furnishes a home for no IS.-Jounal of Man
less than six of the poorest, most unhappy ~ -,:-of.
looking curs it ever befell one's lot to'
look -upon. *There areeneer .two of.a N.OTICE. "
,kind, npo.faseis, i.m.a. single household.'
There is thegaunt nd.hungry cross be- '
tween wolf and mongrelslhepherd, always TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN:
cross and looking for a chance to bite yon.
froi behind. The others follow his lead Sixty days after the first publication of this
In order of, lize there ar being brouing ir. notice application will be made to the Legis-
inrer f.? ei b rouht U lature of Florida, for the passage of a charter
by that caricature of a dog, the. Chlhla- 'of.the "Florida Fruit Exchange" whereby
hua, br hairless dog. I do not think I ever, the-capital stock may be increased to a sum
saw a Mexican family .without one 4'these greate.rhan Fifty.Thoushnd Dollars; the par
value o shares to be reduced from'One Hun-
laughable looking beings. dred Dollars to Ten Dollars per share; to al-
At first one would,'feel a' pity for 'the low the corporation to purchase and convey
cur, because he looks as if he had been the such-real and personal property as may be
St of "m .il bi-nin O sad- ^ deemed necessary to Its usefulness. Includ-
victim of some terrible burning or scald- ing vehicles of transportation; to lease or
tig catastrophe. But when house after erect buildings for storage of produce and
house is passed, and at each one of these advance on produce; to manufacture and sell
dogs issue forth to welcome, you, the fel- such materials as may be useful to fruit grow-
gs -ssiety gi 1 elace tothaou, I e- t 9- oers and gardeners, and generally to transact
Ing of piety gives 'place to that of irresst- such business as may for the interest of mem-
Ible laughter, for It is plain that the cur Is bers and others connected with fruit growing
;the victim of a freak of nature rather' than and kindred pursuits, and for such other
powers and privileges as may be deemed.
of an accident. A very few hairs on Its necessary and prope r.
breast and hesd and a small tuft on the GEO. B. FAIRBANKS,
tip end of its tall alone remain to Indicate GEe. H. NORRIS,
what it might have been before evolution M.J. DOYLEA ,
came and removed its clothing. Although T. W. MOORE,
no larger than a very small pug dog and 3.D. MITCHELL "
perfectly harmless, yet It is Imbued with ROBMT BUL.OK,
that spirit of' treachery and hate toward B. M. BAER, .
Americans so inseparable from all that is Board of Dlrectors,
Mexican. It valiantly backs up Its larger 3acksonville, Florida Fruit Exchange.
brethren, and if it gets a chance will tug
away at your pants from behind with a
vigor and fury that will give you an idea
of what it might do had nature been more FLORIDA FPRTILIZING TO.
kind to I.-Boston Advertiser.
A ew A Industry. E. T. PAINE, PRESIDENT..
I have an idea that I have a new in- Florida Orange Food per ton............. 28.00
dustry. 'It was introduced to me by aFoiaVgtbeodprtn. .0
bullet headed, small man, with 'watery Florda Vegetable Food perton......... 2.00
eyes and a battered hand sachel, who rang Analysis: Bone Phosphate of Lime, 30 per
my bell the other morning. His business, cent.; Sulphate of Potash 12 per cent.; Mag-
he Informed me, was to bathe, comb an4 nesia. 8 per cent. Lime and other vAI-
112 FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, APRIL 6, 1887.
only drawback is the dry weather now
on ; crops in certain localities are suf-
fering for rain.-Leesburg Commercial.
S rThe Volusia bar, in the St. Johns
State News in Brief. river which has so lone been a hindrance
The peach crop of Levy county will be to navigation is again being improved
the largest raised for many years. by jetty works. Captain W. G. Hawkins
the well known dock and bridge builder
The Lighthouse, nearly completed at of Jacksonville, is driving 160 piles at
Mosquito Inlet, is of the first order, that bar, and 300 yards of stone have
The Silver Springs, Ocala and Gulf is been laid ; many of the piles formerly
now running a double daily service to driven have been broken off by passing
Blue Springs. steamers. The passageway for steamers
The Silver Springs, Ocala and Gulf will be 80 feet wide when completed.
has secured its land grant of 360,000 Notwithstanding this bar is 175 miles
acres from the State. from the Atlantic Ocean the tide rises
An endeavor is to be made 'to divide sixinches there. Captain Hawkins thinks
aron endeavor is tobe madeas the divide that owing to the still water about the
arion county, with seat. baitra as rthe new when the jetties are completed and
county seat. .the present trouble overcome, the sand
The artesian well for the railroad at will collect and form into another bar
New Smyrna is the largest on the coast, either above or below the present bar,
and will flow a thousand gallons per which 'will prove another obstacle to
The Orange County Gas Company pro- Dr. Dall, of the Smithsonian Institute
poses to furnish machines to the citizens who has been in Florida, has made
to manufacture their own gas. some new discoveries up the Caloos-
Mr. Thomas Parkes is in Sanford mak- hatchie river, where he went in search of
ing arrangements to establish a wire fossils for the institute; he found an im-
fence factory, which he proposes doing mense deposit of fossil shells. This de-
at an early date. posit was first discovered about two
C. E. Pontier & Co., of Tampa, have years ago. The first visit was made last
received the past week 2,500 alligator year by Professor Heilprin and Mr. Wil-
skins and have bought 6,000 more that cox, of Philadelphia. On this trip Dr.
will arrive in a few days. Dall found Mr. Wilcox in Southern Flor-
Owing to the partial failure of the ida, and they made the journey together
early vegetable crop a larger area e of They bringback an usually fine collec-
Sea. Island cotton and corn will be tion, someof which werhis immense deun-
planted in theviini archer known. About half of this immense de-
planed in the vicinit of ArcheFlorida posit is of an almost extinct class, and
The Tampa extension of the Florida the remainder is of the kind usually
'Railway and Navigation is now in the found much further south and to some
vicinity of Fort Dade, and the work is extent in the West Indies. Altogether
being vigorously pushed, this deposit Dr.Dall says, is the finest yet
Business at the United States' Land found in the United States. On the
Office at Gainesville is still brisk, and Little Saratoga bay Dr. Dall found an in-
Uncle Sam's domain is rapidly becom- teresting study-a rock in which were
ing the property of private citizens, fragments of Indian .pottery- of rude
Bartow has decided to build a $17,500 workmanship, showing that the occu-
school building The plans of Thompson pation of Florida dates back into the
Bros.,local architects were accepted and earlier ages.
contract for building awarded these gen- *
tlemen. STUDIES OF WILD PLANTS.
The Sanford House has closed for the --
season. Mr. Andrew S. Lee, the proprie- II. Some of Florida's Common
tor,says that the season has been a fairly March Flowers.
good one, and that the house has made March Flowers.
money. BY A. F.
Dr. Hutchingson, of Lake City, says Two more of the heath family have
he and two freinds shipped peas lately'-ome into bloom. We find them in the
to. New York on the same day. They hedge that skirts the boggy lake margin,
were of different qualities. The good which supplies most of these studies.
brought $4 per crate, the better 66c.,and The worth of this tract to us cannot
the best 43c. be converted into lawful currency,
An effort, which will probably be sue- though the story of the princely beggar
cessful, isbeing made in Tampa to raise who gave his daughter in marriage is
$80,000 for stock in a $150,000 hotel to suggestive. For her marriage portion
be erected in that city. Should the $80,000 he gave one side of a London street,
be raised, the remainder will be taken which, "well begged," as he said, "was
by outside capitalists and the hotel worth three pun a week." One acre
erected at once. 'well culled is worth time and the best
A visit to the groves opposite Palatka powersof observation. .
shows that a large crop of the young One of the heaths is a shrub three or
fruit is now on the trees, and if it does four feet high, with urn shaped pink
not fall off in considerable quantities the blossoms from scily buds, clustered on,
trees will be tested to t their utmost to the ends of the mostly bare branches.
bear up the heavy crop of fruit. The Young downy leaves, hardly as advanced
trees-have put on a fine growth, too and as the blossoms, are just appearing,
never looked better than now. edged with pink. The shrub itself is
Dr. Wdo n, o. f Kssimme, sa. t.h. unlovely at this time, being apparently
Dr. Waldron, of Kissimmee, says thaat a haft between an evergreen and a,
by cutting out the budof a palmetto and deciduous shrub, with signs of a strug-
ourinmgintoit about thimble full of gle. And why deciduous? "Seek and
keroseneit will so completely destroy ye shall find" is as true of natural as of
the life of the root that the following spiritual things.
season it may be readily and easily While this question is uppermost in
pulled up by hand. This is a very cheap the mind with no other solution than the
mode of removing palmettos, and is general one of "adaptation,'to environ-
wgrthy of a trial.' ment" a pamphlet containing Grant
Castor oil beans ntt be grow n in great Allan's "Fall of the Leaf" comes to
abundance about Apopka, and the beans hand. He 6alls it a curious phenomenon,
find ready market it is said in St. Louis and says it is doubtful if anybody had
and other places, where the oil is manu- ever asked himself the question until
factured, at from $1.50 to $2.50 per the investigations of Mr. Saporta, which
bushel. Nothing grows more luxuriant thus far teach that the deciduous tree is
in South Florida than the castor bean, a modem noveltyl-things of the last
and there is no reason why it could not two hundred milleniads or so, following
be made a profitable industry. the cooling of the earth's surface, which
Major S. M. Thomson, of Birmingham began in the tertiary.. Only the conifers
Ala., purchased of General Bullock a with their capillary leaves could assimi-
half interest in his lake front, consisting late carbon from the atmosphere during
of an orange grove and personal property a wintry cycle, while the big-leaved ever-
near the Chautauqua grounds at Lake green, tropical trees would be torn and
Weir, the consideration being $22,500. the nutriment in their tissues wasted,
The same gentleman also purchased until in the struggle for survival of the
other property on the lake, and one or- fittest, there would develop provision
ange grove at Hendersonville, this side for the natural fall of the leaf. This
of Candler,the total amounting to $8,000, provision is by special cells at the base
in all $80,500. of the leaf stalk which, at a stage called
o soon as the tents which have been maturity, shrink, warp and disappear,
ordered from St. Louis arrive a survey- allowing the leaf to drop without a
ing party headed by M. Fitch Miller struggle and without harm to the tis-
ill begin to run in for the Gaines sues, leaving only a scar to show where,
ille, T1a hoasse and Western Railwe the leaf had been. This is shown in the
This will be the most important road perfectly beautiful and beautifully per
ever construeceed through lanypo rioa fect illustrations made by Isanc Sprague
ever constructed t houg any portion forGray's botanical text books. The,
of Alachua county, as it will penetrate .for Gray's botamcal text books. The
the most productive and best timbered livg protoplasm, Allan goes on to say
section not only ofthis county butof has withdrawn into the bark. an
Florida. The company is a strong one branches to nourish new buds for future
and there is no doubt but that the road leafage.
will be constructed as soon as possible. But heath No. 2, wait for a name,
-Gaisv. rille Advocate, while we have gathered some knowledge
Afw s a hat os at its suggestion. The calyx coheres
A few weeks ago when orange bMos- with the ovary, becoming a berry, the.
somawere distilling their perfumes on tapering anthers and the several seeds ind
the breezes little Mary Drumgoole, the each cell of the ovary places it with the
eight-year-old daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Vacciiem family, V. tenellum, another
T. A. Drumgoole, of this city, conce ied Southern blueberry. Its hedge compan-
an idea that she would like to send a ion is six or eight feet high, evergreen,
box of orange blossoms to Mrs. Presi- and leafy to the top, from which swing
dent Cleveland. The child's desire was the deep pink bells, racemed in the axils
carried out and a fine box of rich and of the leaves. The calyxes wither and
delicious blossoms were mailed to "the fall from the dry ovaries and this heath
first ladyin the land." Thursday little will give us no pulpy fruit. It is the
Mary received a beautiful cabinet picture Andromeda, name in memory of her
of Mrs. Cleveland, accompanied by a who sought to rival Juno, nitida, from
note of thanks, saying that the blossoms the shiny leaves which are worse for
arrived in fine shape and were highly wear on its long journey from the pole
appreciate.- iamesl e Advocate toward the tropics. This, too, is one of
We learn that many of our farmers the F. F. A. S. It has not yet arrived
and orange growers are planting good at the fashion of autumnal disrobing,
crops, besides a goodly acreage in truck but follow the gopd old ways of its polar
for market. W. L. Hopson has planted ancestor.
a number of acres in tomatoes, cabbage Among these shrubs appear delicate
and other vegetables, and will plant he baceous plants that have invited ac-
thirty acres in corn and a number of quaintance in past seasons, commonly
acres in others field crops. One farmer called butterwort, because of the
on thejsouth side of Lake Harris has fif- greasy(?) shining of the entire revolute
teen acres in tomatoes and will begin leaves, which form a full rosette on the
-shipping at a very early day. The pros- ground from which the swaying flower
pect is that those who have planted for stems spring. Some of the plants gath.
market this year will reap a rich harvest. ered a week ago and kept on a dry plate
owing to the fact that the winter and combine to develop a clammy moisture
spring has been favorable to the grow- not at all oleaginous The flower is
ing of early vegetables for market. The highly wrought. One species is pure
yellow and another is purple veined
with dark red, The flowers of both
when they first appear, are hung topsy-
turvy on the stems, but in maturity
recover dignity and a normal position.
They are bilabiate, saccate, scalloped
with a tufted spine and nectary, and
with ovary and pod as in the cyclamen.
There are two stamens only, packed
away under a canopy.
Pinguicula lutea and elastion we call
them, each a. foil to the other in their
A midsummer flower of the North
comes here at the first opening of spring-
the blue-eyed grass, which is an Irid
Sisigrinchium anceps,and itshowsno sign
unless!closely:examined,that it is grouped
with the Jus, the Owens and Gladiolus.
Its color harmony repeats that of the
Tomorrow the Colopogan pulebellus
will unfold; already its rose, purple and
gold show in the bud. "Grass pinks"
the children call these beautiful orchids.
It stops short of the spirit of exaggera-
tion that rules many of its order. It
will be followed soon by Arethusa and
Pogonias, which resemble it in color and
bearding. All of its order are perennials
and all are self-impotent. The prob-
lem of cross fertilization has been work-
ed out on many of the exotic orchids;
For use, the order gives us the. Vanilla.
of commerce and Salep, a mucilage sim-
ilar to that of flax-seed and Indian
To pass from the regal orchid to that
of the alga, or liverwort, is to span the
vegetable world, and at one's feet,matted
about the stem of the calopogon grows a
liverwort. It is in loose, leaf-like., ex-
pansions the cells that in many of the
algal float free and singly, are in this
plant gathered into foliaceous shapes,
but with no woody veins or midrib, only
a mild nerve simulating the midrib of a
leaf. It has no woody -tissue and falls
below the moss and fern In rank. The
frond (leaf) produces on its surface
small bodies that answer to the flower
of flowering plants. There is miolusere,
penianth and capsule, authenidia and
pistillidia and types of those mysterious
elements by which higher lives repro-
duce themselves. This lowly plant, only
an expansion of cells with reproductive
organs, has been considered and named.
It is the stoetzia. Sullerants Hepatillal
will give the specific name which escapes
my memory just now.
The Clematis crispa now attractsgen-
eral notice. It is of a royal order of
high lineage, made of Dr. Holmes ',lCe-
matis rerticilaris (Atrague),a wierd inci-
dent ifi his Elsie Venner.
It is still sought for among the- clefts
of East Rock at New Haven, where poor
Elsie sought it.
The Myakka Salt Springs.
BY F. C. M. BOGGESS.
Among the remarkable things in
South Florida, there is perhaps none
that equals this salt spring, whichis situ-
ated about a mile east of the Myakka
river. There is a hammock of cabbage
palmetto and live oak of about four
acres on the south side of the spring.
On other sides it is surrounded Py a
prairie scrub of saw palmetto, willow
and live oak bushes, and a few scatter-
ing pines with heavy tops, the liinbs
commencing near the ground and cast-
ing a deep shade, which is unusual' with
The spring is circular, about 100 yards
across and looks like a basin set in the
ground. The water is not as blue as the
ocean, but equally as salt. There is a
long moss in it that is continually sway-
ingbackwards and forwards.
A creek twenty yards wide and about
three feet deep runs from the spring and
empties into the Myakka. The creek
has a beautiful white, bottom and high
banks on both sides. It is producing a
scrubby growth with scattering pines,
whose branches bend down toward the:
The country is not settled, though
there are good'lands for gardening and
fruit growing., As to the health the
writer cannot judge. The waters of the
creeks and branches are clear, but have
a.flat taste. Wells or. cisterns would
afford better water, as the streams all
have a limy taste.
There are pine lands bordering on the
Myakka, which has six feet of water up
to the mouth of salt spring creek. The
climate is 'all that 'could be desired,
though in summer there are some mos-
quitos and sand flies. All of the lands
belong to corporations and are held at
high prices, and there is -no railroad to
build up the country.
There is plenty of game and fish and
the range or cattle and hogs is good.
Thelands, away from the river and-
creeks, are low and poor, with ponds;,
saw palmetto and pitch pine, and- are un-
fit for settlement.
There are some uplands, if riot' lately"
selected by the State, that .would grow
fruits and good farm products, but noth-&
ing short'of the iron horse will ever. de-
velop these lands, and the large land
owners will have to build a road before
they can dispose of the immense amount
of land they own, and nearly all of
them own some good wand some awful
poor lands which are only fit for graz-
OGDEN CITY, Manatee County, Fla.,
March 26, 1887.
FACTS ABOUT CALIFORNIA.
The Plain Unvarnished Truth
Told by a Resident.
A gentleman who has resided in Cali-
fornia for six years writes to the New
England Farmer as follows :
Farm life is very different here from
what it is in New England. Here seed
time commences with the rainy season,
which is usually in November or Decem-
ber, and lasts till into April ; the late
sowing being for hay. Grain sown late,
say after the first of February, does not
come to maturity enough to fill well be-
fore the'dry season, so is cut for hay.
Much of the soil in the valleys of Cali-
fornia is of adobe or black heavy loam
and is not as good to work as I foun
most of the soil of New England. You
must work it at just such a time, if not
it will remain in a bad condition all the
year ; if too wet it will lay heavy and
bake hard; if too dry it w ill plow up in
hard clods or lumps and remain so all
summer. The foot hills (as the low hills'
are called here) have a red soil mixed
more or less with gravel, and are much
better to work, but are apt to wash
badly during the winter rains.
The harvest begins about Jnne in this
valley and lasts till into September. The
hay crop is cut in May and June. The
hay here is all grain sown and cut when
the kernel is just formed. Sometimes
it stands till it is inthe milk before cutting
Only one crop is cut in a season, unless
it be alfalfa ; that if irrigated will cut
three or four crops per year. It is con-
sidered good hay for cows, and good for
hogs in a green state, but is very poor
feed for horses. There is no timothy,
clover, or red-top, or any of the "tame"
grasses that are raised in the eastern
States, except in door-yard lawns which
are irrigated. Such spots look like an
oasis in our dry, hot summers.
After six year's experience and ob-
servation in this State I fail,to see where-
in the crops are any better on an average
or the farmer gets any better pay than
in New England. True, there is once
in a while a farmer who is very favora-
bly situated, and makes money ; and so
there are in the East.* About one fifth
prosper and are advertised in the news-
papers all over the country ; but nothing
is published about the four-fifths who
barely keep even with their expenses,
and many of them not even that.
The average wheat crop in this State
last season was only about 114 bushels
to the acre. I see you beat that in New
England. There were thousands of
acres in some sections of the State that
did not pay for harvesting. Barley
does well here, it is the principle feed
for horses, taking the same place that
corn and oats do in New England. Oats
are mostly cut for hay, the cost of racks
and threshing takes nearly all the profit
off. Oats are shipped from Oregon,
Nebraska and Kansas, cheaper than they
can be raised here. A few counties near'
the coast where the sea fogs are frequent
in summer, raise fair crops of corn, say
thirty-six bushels to the acre. The fod-
der is of no account when the corn is
ripe, the stalks and leaves are like so
Many kinds of fruit are superior to
what you have in the East. Apples,
pears, strawberries, blackberries and
raspberries are better East than here.
Currants and gooseberries are better
here. Plums and cherries are very fine
here. In grapes this State, beats the
world they are the finest I ever saw.
Very cheap, nice table grapes can be
bought in their season for two cents per
found, and wine grapes are sold for
from $8 to $15 per ton.
Citrus fruits are not raised in this part
of the State to any extent, and I know
but very little of the profits of raising
them. Very few orange trees are grown
here. Even in the southern part of the
State young trees are sometimes dam-
aged badly by freezing. Much of the
fruit this winter at River Side was
frozen, though they try to suppres the
fact. The trees require much care, and
have many enemies to fight against, and
have to be irrigated two or three times a
year, according to the dryness of the
season. From what I can learn of or-
ange groves they are like all other farm
crops-sometimes profitable and some-
Apples used to grow large and pure
here till two or three years ago, since
then they have been waning and last
fall were the poorest I ever saw. Apples
have been shipped from Maine, -New
Hampshire and Massachusetts to San
True, the climate is very much milder.
here (except in the mountains) but don't
let any one think that it is all sunshine
here in the winter. I have known three
weeks at a time that the sun did not
shine six hours all put together, with the
mud from six inches to two feet deep,
and weather chilly.
The writer, after most seven years,
experience on this coast fails to see
wherein the farme;is any better off here.
than in New England. You surely get
more of the luxuries of life. which cost
high here. You have finer roads, lower
taxes, and very much cheaper fares on
The following table. compiled from the records
of the JaCckonville Signa Station by Sergt. J.
W. Smith, represents the temperature condition
of weather,'rainfalj: and direction of wind for
the month of April, as- observed at' the Jack-
sonville station during the past 15 years:
88 47 68
88 89 68
88 52 70
86 44 66
-8 16 1
14 10 6
11 12 1
18 7 5
18 18 4
11 9 10
17 8 5
10 14 6
16 9 t
12 12 6
5 20 i
14 11 E
11 17 2
14 10 6
J. W. SMITH,
Sergt. Signal Corps, U. S.A..
Ladies' Purchasing Agency.
A New York lady of experience and
taste, enjoying the best facilities for
shopping under advantageous condi-
tions, offers her services to ladies desir-
ing to secure any kind of wearing ap-
parel, toilet articles or household goods,
at New York prices. Send for circular.
Address MRS. S. S. Jones,
* 179 Gates Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.
Seed Irish Potatoes.
The best potatoes for planting in this
State are those brought from extreme
Eastern points. Acting on this belief,
we imported last year from
large quantities of Early Rose, Chili
Red, Beauty of Hebron and other varie-
ties, and the potatoes raised from this
seed, were the finest we have ever seen
We will receive, in a few days another
cargo of the same potatoes, which we
will sell at the following prices:
Chili Red........per barrel $3.50.
Beauty of Hebron..........$8.00.
Every barrel guaranteed as represented.
Remit with order, and we will ship the
CHURCH ANDERSON & CO.
Jacksonville, Fla., Jan. 5th, 1887.
"We Know by Experience."
Fdr three years we have used Brad-
ley's Vegetable" Fertilizer. After test-
ing along with 'other high grade fertil-
izers, we pronounce it better than any
sold in Florida. We shall use it again
We do not hesitate to say to the vege-
table growers of Florida that they can-
not use anything so good as Bradley's
Florida Vegetable Fertilizer. We know
by experience what we say regarding
WOFFORD & WILDER.
Ft. Mason, Fla.
Groves where Williams, Clark & Co's
Orange Tree Fertilizer has been used are
WILLIAMS, CLARK & Co.
JACXSONV0LLE, April 1,1887.
MzATs-D. S. short ribs boxed, 8 87M ; D. S.
tong clear sides $8 87 ; D. S. bellies 8878 ;
smoked short ribs 9 62P; smoked bellies 9 7
S' C. hams, canvassed fancy, 13N S. C. break
fast bacon, uncanvassed lies; 0. shoul-
ders, canvassed, 9c; California or pic-
nic hams, 9yc. Lard-rifned tierces 7%c;
Mess beef-barrels$1050, halfbarrels 175; mess
pork $1750. These quotations are for round
lots from first hands; whole cattle 7,;
dressed hogs 8%c; sheep 8yc; pork sausage ec;
loins 10c; long bologna 7c; head cheese 6c;
Frankfort sausage 109c; rounds 8c.
BurTTB-Best table 23@23c per pound,
cooking 15@20c per pound.
BliTTINE--Creamery 20c; Extra Dairy
16c; Dairy 15.
UHEiS--Half skim 10c, cream 13c per
Grain, Flour, Hay, Feed, Ete.
GRAId-Corn-The market quiet but firm.
The following figures represent to-day's
values: We quote white corn, job lots,
61c@... per, bushel- car load lots 59c per
bushel, mixed corn, job lots, 600c per bushel'
car load lots 58c per bushel. Oats quiet
and firm at the following figures: mixed,
In job lots, 43c, car load lots 42c; white
oats are So higher all round, Bran steady
and higher, $20 per ton.
HAY-The market is firm and -better de-
mand for good grades. Western' choice
small boles, $180...per ton; car load lots $1700
to $17 50 per ton; Eastern hay $20 per ton.
PJEARL GRITS AND MEAL-2 90S to 100 per
FLouR-Dull and lower, best patents $5 50@1
85 60; good family $8500@85 10, common 1425.
PEAS-Black Eye, $1 0 per bushel. -
GROYND FED-iPer ton 24.
CorrEE-Green Rio 16@20c per pound.
Java, roasted, 30@833; Mocas, roasted, 30@38c;
Red, roasted, 23@25c..
COTTOxo SEED MEAL-,-Searce and higher.
Sea island or dark meal !20 per ton, bright
or short cotton meal V2150@2250 per ton.
TOBACCO STEMS-Market quiet but firm @
118 00 per ton. I
LIxMK-Eastern, job lots, 8100 per barrel, Ala-
bama lime $115. Cement-American 1200,
English 14 75 per barrel.
Ric--The quotations vary, according to
quantity from 5Y@6%c per pound.
SA.T-Liverpool, per sack, $1 0;, per car
Country Produce, Hides, 1kins, Etc.
CHimES-Fine Creamery 16c per pound.
LIvE POULTRY-Limited supply and good
demand as follows: hens 35c; mixed 30c; half-
grown 2bc. -
EeGs-Duval County 18 to 20 per dozen with
a limited demand and good supply.,
. IRaH POTATOES-Northern potatoes S2 50
per barrel; Early Rose $2 5; Chili Reds 82 75.
OxioNs-New York, 83 225; Yellow Denver
18 50 per barrel; White Onions, 83 75 per bar-
Florida cabbage, $2 50 per barrel.
NEW YORK BESTS-Good supply at 82 50 per
NEW Bars-Florida, per crate, 8225.
CAULILowRas-Per barrel, di 00, and $125
CELERY-Florida, per dozen, 25 to 400,
LETTUCE-Per dozen, 25c.
ToxATozs-Florida, per crate, 3 50.
NORTHERN TURNIs-Good. supply at 1225
GRzEE PEAs-Per box $125.
HIDES-Dry flint, cow; per sound, first
class, 12@13c4; and country dry salted 11U@
llU,; butchers dry salted 9@9%e. Skins--Deer
t, 17c salted 10@12c. Furs-Otter, winter,
ach 25oo@4; raccoon 10@20c; wild cat 10@20c;
fox.10@20c, Beeswax per pound 18c; wool
free from burs 22@25c;, burry, 10@15o; goat
skins 10@25c apiece.
'Foreirn 'and Domestic Fruits.
PINE APPLEs-Per barrel 8.
LErONS-Messinas, e4 25 per box.
APpLzs-New York 84 75 to 05 00 per barrel
FIG--In layers 13c; in linen bags 6o.
SDATES---Persian-Boxes 9c; Frals 70.
GRAPs--Malagas, $5 00 per keg.
O. tAN S-Florida-Per barrel $4 00; per
box 82 75 to $4 50.
BANANAs-Good supply; from 75o to $200
NuTTS-Almonds 18c; Brazils 12c; Filberts
(Sicily) 122; English walnuts, Grenobles, 18c;
arbots, 15c, Pecans 12c; Peanuts o;
Cocoanuts 84 50 per hundred. "
RAISINS-London layers, $275 per box.
C.RANBRERIES-- 76 per crate; 81000 per
The following quotations are carefully re
vised for Wednesday's and Saturday's paper
from quotations furnished by dealers in the.
Carrots wholesale at 83 00 per barrel, and
retail at 50 cents per peck.
Green Onions wholesale at 60 cents per
hundred, and retail 5 cents per bunch.
Florida Cabbage. wholesale 82 00 per barrel
and retail at 5 to 10 cents.
Quail wholesale at 10 cents each and retail
at 15 cents, or two for a quarter.
Oranges wholesale at 82 50 per box, and re-
tail at two and three for 5 cents.
SpiJaage wholesales at75c per bushel and
retails at four quarts for 25 cents.
Sweet Potatoes wholesale at 60 cents per
bushel, and retail at 5 cents per quart.
Lettuce wholesales at 15@20 cents per dozen
heads, and retail at 5 cents per head.
Parsnips wholesale at $2 75 per barrel and
retail at four and five for 10 cents.
Robins wholesale at 6 cents each and retail
at 10 cents.
Celery wholesales at 50 to 60 cents per dozen
and retails at three to four stalks for 25 cents,
according to size.
Eggs are-in fair demand. Duval county
This powder never varies. Al marvel of
purity, strength and wholesomeness. More
economical tban the ordinary kinds and
cannot be sold in competition with the
multitude of low test, short weight alum or
phosphate powders. Sold onl n can,
eggs are quoted at wholesale at 18 to 20 cents
per dozen, and retail at 2i cents.
Boston marrowfat squashes wholesale at
1250 per barrel, retail at 6, .10 and 15 cents
New York Irish potatoes wholesale atS2 40 to
$2 50 per barrel and retail at 10 cents per quart
or two quarts for 15 cents.
-Northern beets are worth wholesale 8$250
per barrel, and retail at 10 cents per quart,
or two quarts lor 15 centp.
Radishes bring at wholesale 15 to 20 cents
per dozen bunches of seven radishes each.
They retail at 5 cents per bunch, or three
bunches for 10 cents.
Live poultry-chickens,, wholesale, from 85
to 40 cents each; retail 40 to 50 cents each.
Dressed poultry.per pound-chickens retail,
18 to 20 cents. Turkeys, wholesale, 41.00 to
$1.75 each, and retail at20 cents per pound.
Northern meats retail as follows: Chicago -
beef from 18 to 25 cents per pound; Florida
beef 6 to 15 cents per pound; veal 20 to 25 cents;
pork 12 to 15 cents; mutton 10 to 20 cents;
venison 25 cents; sausage 15 cents; corned
beef 10 cents. o '
Nassau tomatoes wholesale at 50 cents
per box and retail at 15 to 20 cents per quart
OJUR SPECIAL MARKETS
Latest Quotations of Florida Fruito
The following special despatches, by special
arrangements with the Florida Fruit Ex
-change, are sent to the Tnris-UNIoN by the
agents of the Fruit Exchange in the various
cities. They can be relied upon as accurate:
Special to the TImbS-UION:]
NEW YORK, April 4.-It is a lovely
bright spring day and oranges seem to re-
spmond to it, at the sale of a cargo from the
Mediterranean this noon prices Jumped 50
cents per box. Four hundred boxes of Flor-
idas are just in on the Savannah boat, and
we offer them to-morrow.
'SOBEL A DAY.
Special to the TIrxm-UnIox:]
CINCINNATI, April 4.-There are not .
enougW Florida oranges In the market to "
make quotations, and the trade is over for -
LOWHEAD, DALE & CO.
Commission Merchants' Quotations.
Special to the TIMES-UNION:]
NEW YORK, April 4.-To-day's Savannah
steamer brought liberal shipments of vege-
tables. All choice cabbage sold at 14.50 per
crate, rose potatoes $6@9, beans wax 84 and
green 82@3, peas $2@83, tomatoes 8@5, beets
23.50, cucumbers 85@6, strawberries n light
supply and demand good, selling 50@50c;
fancy oranges $4.60@5, russets 2250.
G. S. PALMEE
LEAP TOBACCO MARKET.
NEW YORK, April 4.-The Western
leaf market is dull, owing to the light de-
mand. The New York leaf is quiet while the
Havana leaf is in active demand. New
York Pefusylvania and Western sell at from
14 to $15 per 100 pounds. Havana, 60 cents to
1.05, per pound. Sumatra, 1.20 to 1.50 per
ST. LOUIS, April 4.-The demand for
leaf is light, but improving, and the outlook
is rather encouraging.
BALTIMORE, April 4.-The market is
dull, very little desirable stock being on sale.
Maryland leaf is quoted at from $5 to 115 per
LOUISVILLE, April .-There is a good
demand, especially for the better grades of
which there is a scarcity.
RICHMOND, April 4.-The market is
Improving with favorable weather for ship-
ping. The better grades of-stemming le
sell rapidly at from to 18 cents per pound.
Bright wrappers for plugs command from 18
DANVILLE, April 4.-Business ia Im-
proving rapidly and prices have an upward
ndency. There is a better feeling among
planters, manufacturers and business men
II~ Y, GROVER & CO.,
STATE AGENTS FORB
RASIN FERTILIZER CO'S
SOLUABLE SEA ISLAND GUANO
DISSOLVED BONE AND ALKALI
ANID WHOLESALE DEALERS IN '
FRUITS AND PRODUCE.
Get our Prices before buying.
TAMPA, HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY,
General Business and Real Estate Agency of
W. N. CONOLEY.
If you wish a town lot, an orange grove, or
wild lands in this rapidly improving section,
or if you have taxes to be paid, or property to
be improved, or money to be Invested, write
to this agency.
Money can be placed on Real Estate with a
Margin on iwo-thirds of values at 10
and 12 per cent.
FREE OF CHARGE TO LENDER.
Ninety days to foreclose mortgage where
there Is no contest. All costs and attorney's
fees provided for in mortgage. Write for
further information and send for list of.prop-
erty for Sale.
W. N. CONOLEY,
REFERENCES-Ex-Governor Drew, Jaikson-
ville; First National Bank, Tampa, andHon.
John T. Lesley, Tampal