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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
VOL. 1---NO. 11.
JACKSONVILLE, FLA., WEDNESDAY, MARCH 16, 1887. PRICE $2 A YEAR.
The Loquat in Japan.
N. Y. EXPERIMENT STATION,
GENEVA, N. Y., March 2, 1887.
-Jditor Florida Farmer and fruit-Grower:
In reply to your inquiries relative to
the loquat or Japan Plum (eriobotria) I
will say that our common name for this
fruit tree in Japan is biwa. There are
many varieties of it, and they are of
three different types, namely, large
-oval, large round and small white. The
first two are yellow,commonly; the third
is yellowish white and round. The
-small white is the sweetest of the three.
It grows only half as high as the other
two, which attain a height of-85 and 40
feet and a diameter sometimes of two
-and one-half feet.
Although the loquat delights in a hot
-climate, it bears quite a low tempera-
ture. It grows beyond north Tokio
-where:there are heavy snows. The tree
..grows best in shady situations on the
maorthern side of woods or hills and
where the soil is moist, -but not wet.
There is no special method of culture.
In the southern part of Japan, where
I was, born, the fruit ripens in the
month of June. We also receive the
fruit in the Taiddle of May, but such
,-early fruit is said to have been forced by
packing in air-tight boxes or casks, and
it is not of good quality. The fruit is
-used fresh in Japan, ind in no other
SAbout persimmons I have something
'to tell you, especially the method of re-
moving the astringency of the fruit,
which I think will interest your readers,
-and I hope they will try it next fall. Of
-this I will write at another time.
Kizo TAAoIT -
abundance, but of inferior quality for
Any one who wishes to know all
about grapes should send 25 cents for the
Bushberg catalogue, which is an epi-
tome of almost everything known on
This coarse forage plant is similar to
the official comfrey, which grows
spontaneously near dwellings in Virginia
and northward, but is of ranker growth.
In cool, moist regions and on rich land
it has been known to yield,,by repeated
cuttings, over a hundred tons of foliage
to the acre. In a hot climate it will not
thrive, except in shaded locations. It is
propagated mostly from root cuttings,
of which 4,000 are required for an acre.
Some time ago, in response to an in-
quiry, we expressed the opinion that
prickly comfrey would not succeed in
Florida. Our attention was afterwards
called to an'article in the Southern Cul-
tivator, in which reference was made to
successful culture of this plant at Mait-
land by Mr. Ben. J. Taliaferro. We at
once wrote to Mr. Taliaferro, and receiv-
ed the following reply:
EdiiorFlorida Farmer and iruit- Grower:
My'experiments with the prickly com-
frey were not successful. I gave it a
thorough, test in laud well prepared and
highly fertilized for it. The plants put
on a strong and vigorous growth and did
wonderfully well until May, when the dry
weather and hot sun began to scorch and
wilt the leaves, and before the summer
was'over it was almost completely kill-
ed out. .
If the ground had been mulched or
shaded, I think it would have done bet-
Many grape vines, persimmons and
-other fruit trees are injured by being al-
lowde to mature all the -fruit that sets.
In a cultivated state some trees incline -
to fruit precociously and far beyond
their strength, and they need to be
checked. The Michigan Horticulturist
-treats of this subject as follows: .
When pRanted in .good soil,' good,
thrifty fruits will nearly always over-
load themselves, and- in order to secure
the best, smoothest and largest fruit,
considerable thinning must be done; /
this is especially the case with grapes
Choice apples, peaches, pears, quinces /
-in fact, the best of all kinds of fruit
command the best prices and always
.sell. Ofttimes the market becomes glut-
ted with poor fruits, and the prices re-
alized are really below what it costs to -PRICKLY COMFREY.
produce them and sometimes they can-
not be sold at any price, whi!e at the ter, but I am convinced that I am too
same time the choicest and best are sel-- far South to grow it successfully. Per-
ling at q profitable price. haps it would succeed better in
,Too many fall into the error of think- northern Florida.
ing that by thinning they lessen the B. J. TALIAFERRO.
,quantity so much that they prefer to let
the fruit all remain This is a mistake,
as well as to think that by thinning they Strawberry Rust.
lessen the profit on the fruit. When a Editor Farmer and Fruit-Grower:
tree is -heavily loaded, the fruit must A recent note in your paper states that
.necessarily be small, and this will lessen strawberry rust is often caused by a
the quantity; then the fruit being small, minute worm; and that the best' remedy
will sell for a less price and really cost for it is, after the fruiting season is over,
more to sell, and you really lose rather to apply a light covering of straw and
than make by not thinning Then in burn it. It occurs to me that would be
addition, when a tree or vine is allowed about like the cure for stuttering men-
to overload'and mature the fruit, it is a tioned by Dickens-a man -cut his little
strain upon the vitality of the tree, so boy's head off, and it cured him of stut-
much that a rest must be had, and the tering so completely that he never heard
next year the tree will fail to bear. him again I
Whenever tried judiciously, thinning Our growers here have learned that
fruit always pays; but it requires con- some varieties are more subject to rust
.iderable courage when the trees are than others, the Newnan Improved
laden with young fruit to go over and being the most exempt of all. Plants
,pull off and throw away a considerable dressed with cotton-seed meal are.not so
portion of the fruit. To one who has liable to rust as those treated with corn-
never tried it, at first is would seem mercial fertilizers. Rust has never done
like a waste, yet it- has been tested suf- any considerable amount of hurt here.
ficiently to prove its value. S. POWERS.
The work of course should be done LAWTEY, Brad ford Co., Fla.
*early, as soon after the fruit has set as .
possible. The longer the fruit grows Wild Mushrooms.
after setting, the more waste of vitalityarmer an ru o
-of the tree,.that should 'go to the other EdiorFlorida Farmer and Frui-Grower:
-fruit that is left upon the tree to mature. In your issue of February 16th, a cor-
It should be done as evenly as possible respondent speaks of mushroom culture.
all over the tree; thin so as to give each We find them growing wild in great
specimen left as much room as possible. abundance on the dry margins of our
Close crowding is what often makes ill- "saw-grass" lands here. They commence
;shaped fruit. If you have never been to sprout up about March 1st, and con-
in the habit of thinning, try a few trees tinue until June 15th, or until the heavy
first to see the effect, and in a majority rains set in. We know of one team of
of cases you will conclude that it is ben- oxen that will hunt for the mnshrooms
1eficial. and eat them with great relish.
The soil on which they are growing is
Wine Value. of rp similar to the heavier grades of ham-
Wine Values of Grapes, mock, a subsoil of clay and marl, with a
From Bush & Son & Meissner, of surface soil of sand moderately rich in
" Bushberg, Mo., we have a price list of humus, and which produces annually an
Shines as sold from their vineyards, which immense growth of weeds known as
may te interesting to some of *the ama- "Gum Weed," "Rosin Weed," or "Wild
Stelir vintners of Florida. The prices per Sunflower." D. R. GREEN.
gallon are'ad follows : Cynthiana, $1.50; RECLAIMED LANDS EXPERIMENT FARM,
Norton's Va. Seedling, $1.40; Elvira, 85 SARASOTA, Fla.
oents; Martha and Ives, 75 cents; Con- *
T ordi 65 ents. As to manures for grapes, the upshot
The high priced wines come from of the matter is that stable dung incites
aestivalis varieties,which yield less juice a free growth of canes and leaves, but
but that of superior quality. The low not much fruit, while potash and phos-
priced wines are obtained from Labrusca phate manures tend otherwise and to a
varieties which bear fruit in greater superior article of fruit.
ORANGE CULTURE ABROAD.
How Orange Groves are Man-
aged in Spain.
Continuing our synopsis of 'Mr. Loe
weustein's report on orange culture in
Valencia, we come to the subject of
If the ground be naturally moist the
ho'es for receiving the young trees
should be about a yard in diameter, and
in depth. If naturally dry and hot the
excavation should be twice as wide and
one-third deeper. In planting in newv
ground the soil should be thrown out in
early winter to aerate.
When ready to set out the trees some
well rotted manure should be mixed
with the soil that has been thrown out,
or for each tree 6 lbs. of guano may be
used, or 4 lbs. of dried blood. Half of
the soil. so prepared should be placed at
the bo tom o-f the hole in a low cone
upon which the tree is to be set, being
careful to have it high enough, so that
when the tree settles no portion of the
trunk will come below the surface.
While filling in add from 2 to 4 pailfulls
of water and leave the earth in the form
of an elevated basin.
In removing the trees from the nur-
sery, which is done in February and
March, as much earth as possible is left
on the roots and kept on by wrapping,
and if there is much loss of roots the
tops are pruned correspondingly, If the
soil is already in good condition no ma-
nure may be needed, though it is best
to put a small quantity just beyond the
capillary roots to stimulate their growth.
The newly.planted trees should be kept
well watered through April and May.
Orchards ads are laid out on two plans,
according as they are to be submitted to
-extensive or intensive cultivation. The
latter, which gLvees mot Isatisfactury re-
sults, consists in planting low-b,.aded or
short-stemmed trees from ten to seven-
teen feet apart, and. giving them clean
and careful culture. On the extensive
system long-stemmed trees are planted
eighteen to twenty feet apart and; crops
are cultivated between.
CULTURE AND IRRIGATION. -
After the planting of- orchards the best
cultivators proceed as follows: Ridges
of earth are thrown up two and one-half
feet from the rows of trees' in order to
keep the water used in irrigation from
flowing too near the trunks,which would
injure the trees. Around each tree at a
distance of one and one-half feet a trench
is dug in which one or two pounds of
guano or some other fertilizer is placed
and the earth returned. At frequent
intervals of time the grove is weeded
and then irrigated.
In February- of the second year a
trench is dug around each tree just in-
side the ridge, in which a half more fer-
tilizer is placed than the'year before. In
April one or two "baskets" of manure
are spread around each tree. Weeding
and irrigation proceed as before. Any
fruit should be plucked when it appears
and it is best to do so the following year.
The third year the ridges are leveled,
the whole grove irrigated and hormigu-
eros made. A yard from each tree holes
are dug in each of which two or three
pounds of guano arc deposited. Then
the hormigueros are spread over the sur-
face and the orchard c,,'rrigated. After
this the ground is plowed between the
rows and loosened near the trees. The
cultivation and watering are repeated
during the season.
The fourth year the orchard is again
fertilized and cultivated two, three or
four times. Between February and
May, the earlier the better, the trees are
pruned, the dead and most delicate
branches are removed, besides many cen-
tral and crooked ones. In pruning
branches it should be considered what
their position is when weighted with
fruit. It is well to remove twigs that
are not likely to bear. If spreading
trees are desired the tops are to be
After the orchards are in bearing they
are treated as follows : If of small size
it is manured once in two years and hor-
miguerous made the alternate years; if
large, it is cultivated in halves, one of
which is manured and the other treated
with hormigueros each year. The soil is
worked first in February or March, or
later if the fruit has not been picked,
after which it is worked at frequent in-
tervals until October. The plow should
not go nearer the tree. than to barely
touch the branches. The roots should
not be disturbed, especially in the fall'
if mutilated then it will cause much
fruit to drop. The ground under the
branches is slightly stirred by hand, and
also between the trees if their branches
In flowing the ground with water?
care must be observed that it does not
wash the surface soil nor form pools!
near the trees. Compact soil needs less
water than loose soil. Too much wateoi
causes the leaves to turn yellow. As"aj
ule, to irrigate once in twenty days
efficient, except in autumn and winter,.
RECLAIMED SAW GRASS LANDS.
III. Appliances for Unrolling
and Stretching Fence Wire.
BY D. R. GREEN.
Any one who has had occasion to un-
roll barbed wire fencing by passing a
hoe-handle through the spool and carry-
ing the 100 pounds weight between him-
self and another person, knows well what
freaks the wire will take. First, it will
jump high over his head and make a
good attempt to saw his ear off, then
coming down it will probably leave him
minus a.shirt sleeve, or it may only at-
tempt to utterly demoralize his panta-
loons and take all the bark off his shins.
These uncertain freaks, the weight of
the wire to be carried over rough
ground, and lack of the assistant, caused
us to devise a plan by which one man
can unroll as much wire as any two per-
sons with other plans, and at the same
time avoid all danger of being lacerated
by the wire. o
We take two pieces of 2x4 scantling,
five feet long, and with a 2-inch augur
bore three holes in each piece as follows-:
1st hole three inches from one end; 2i,
two feet from first; 3d, three inches from
the other end. Then take two pieces
two and a half feet long and. trim their
ends to fit in the 2-inch augur holes, and
,when it may be suspended, though it is
best then to irrigate once in two months
. In spring and. summer not more that
one month should p ss without irrigat
The effect of drought may be over-
a come in a measure by deep tillage, anc
as the latter 'promotes absorption of th<
fertilizing elements of water and air it is
doubly important that -a superficia
s growth of roots be prevented. Hence
s the danger of the mulching system
which cannot be intermitted without
danger to the trees.
The principal fertilizers used, besides
the hormigueros, are Peruvian guanc
E and stable manure.: Guano is applied
Sin trenches as described above, -and
broadcast before irrigation. As guanc
is deficient in potash and magnesia, it
f soon exhausts soils not rich in those ele-
ments, especially when citrus fruits are
grown (also rice and sugar cane.) It
yields best results in combination with
Stable manure, it having been proved by
Experiments that a ton of the latter by
admixture of one and one-half per cent.
of its weight of guano is trebled in
During the early period of its life the
orange tree needs fertilizers that are
Quick in their action, such as guano,
well prepared manure, dried blood and
cotton seed meal. At a later period it
is better to use substances which require
many years for decomposition, such as
crushed bone, woolen rags, hair and the
Waste of tanneries. Such substances
are, buried around theqtrees, ten or
twelve inches deep late in October. For
sickly trees fertilizers are sometimes ap-
applied in shallow trenches during peri-
ods of active growth.
A. H. C.
S T.e Pecan in Florida.
Pl~|ilow'iifg intereaing skRetch, dvi-
dently written by an old resident of the
State, is from the Orlando Record:
Just one-half century ago the pecan
nut found its way to St. Mary's, Ga.,
under the following interesting circum-
stances. Capt. Samuel Flood, of Phila-
delphia, removed to St.. Mary's and
commanded the schooner Helen and
made voyages between Philadelphia,
Savannah, Charleston and St. Mary's.
On one of his trips inland from Charles-
ton, just after crossing St. Andrew's
sound, between Cumberland and Javkle
Islands, Ga., he discovered a barrel on
Racoon Key, and sent his boat and
took it on his vessel. It proved to be a
barrel-of pecans supposed to have been
thrown overboard by some passing ves-
sel, at sea while laboring in a severe
storm and drifted in over the bar and
It Jged on the key inside.
Capt. Flood, Mr. Joseph S. Arnow and
a few others planted the nuts, which
grew to be bearing trees in about seven
years. Mr. Arnow then made nurseries
and shipped trees, in great numbers, to
many parts of Georgia and Florida, and
also sold nuts in large quantities for
planting purposes, and I presume that
many of the older trees in Florida came
from his place at St. Mary's, Ga.
Col. L. A. Hardee, whose efforts did so
much for Florida, purchased large
quantities of the nuts after the war and
made nurseries and sold trees.
The experience at St. Mary's has been
that trees bear on an average about
seven years from the seed. One bore in
Mr. Arnow's garden as early as four
;years. It was on very rich land. It is
supposed that you can get a bearing
grove two years sooner from the seed
than by transplanting. In ten years
from planting the seed you have profit-
able trees if they are on strong land.
The tree thrives in Georgia on all quali-
ties of land, but the richer the better.
There are quite a number of trees at
Bolingbroke, eight miles from St. Mary's,
that were gotten from Mr. Arnow's nur-
sery and planted by Col. Hallowes, who
was the owner of the place and took
much pleasure both in horticulture and
agriculture. Col. Hallowds was an
officer ,of great note in the English army
and fought with distinguished honors
under Gen. Bolivar in South America.
His -family, who still own his famous
Bolingbroke plantation, are residents of
The trees should be planted at least
fifty feet apart, and it is a good idea to
plant the orange and other fruit trees in
the squares between them, as they read-
ily thrive under such conditions.
Florida should put thousands of acres
in these trees, and should they ever be-
come a drug on the market the nuts
could be ided for fattening stock.-
The. -seeds in a nursery should be
planted in well packed soil two inches
deep, and about four inches apart in the
rows which should be two feet apart.
Mulching the nursery is a good plan.
In planting a field stake off at least
fifty feet apart and plant three or four
to the bill and keep the field under. cul-
tivatioh with ordinary crops.
Turpentine .applied to a cut is a. pre-
vetive of look-jaw.
APPARATUS FOR STRETCHING WIRE FEN-
A-Corner post with brace.
B-One of a pair of temporary posts, 1 foot apart
and 10 feet from A.-
C-Brace between A and B (reduced in length).
E-Pin for attaching winding chain.
F-Sweep or lever.
H-Chain passing around windlass, to be hooked
the middle space equally divided. The
inside faces of one end are'trimmed to ad-
mit the hook of a log chain between them
when the other end is bolted tight to-
gether. The wire is placed between the
pieces and bent back and forth between
the bolts which are then screwed down
and hold the wire as securely as in a
vise and without cramping or cutting
For stretching the wire we take 'two
saplings four or five inches thick and
seven feet long. Twenty-eight inches
from the bottom end bore a 2-inch hole,
four inches farther up bore a second,
four inches farther a third, five inches
farther a fourth, six inches farther a
fifth, and seventeen inches farther a
sixth, and at the top bore a seventh.
The holes from first to sixth are bored
slanting downward at an angle of about
45 degrees. Bore both saplings alike
and set them two feet in the ground, ten
feet from the corner- post or straining
post and about one foot apart.
Now cut two light poles ten feet long
'and trim the ends to fit in the seventh
hole, and bore two holes in a block and
- lash it to the top of the corner post, then
place the ends of the polesin the seventh
holes and in the block, making a firm
brace for'the tops of the windlass posts.
For a winding drum get a true round
piece of sapling about six inches in di--
ameter and two and a halt feet long.
Nine inches from one end bore three 2-2
inch holes clear through the drum. Two
of them are used to insert sweeps three'
and a half feet long and the thirds for
a pin to fasten the end of the winding
chain. The winding drum.is -placed "at-
any height desired by having, two loose
pins to slip in the holes from- first to
With this arrangement 830 feet of
wire can be drawn up until it will tue -e
like.a piano string, as one man can put
a strainof 1,000 pounds on each wire.
Good wire willnot break except where
it is spliced unless it gets kinked. After
straining a stretch as taut as possible
we use pieces of wire .to tie the stretch'
up to its final position and:: then take
another turn at the windlass to- get. the-
wire as tight- as possible, the uwindlass i
cainbe held at each one-fourth turn-by a
bar across the uprights to prevent the
sweeps turning back. m er : b .
RECLAIMED LANDI EXPERIMENT FARM,
The Cork Tree. -
The cork oak (Qiereus-sber', a native -
of Southern Europe and northern Af-
rica. appears to be quite hardy- in Flor-
ida, and it is probable that itscultiatvation
would prove profitable, though of course.
one would have to wait half a life time
",ef6re" getting any.returns.,- At Talla-
hassee and Lake Citvy t here are specimens
about a foot in diameter, but in door
yards they have not a fair chance for
Ti-alhful development. The tree- re-
sembles the California live oak and has
curiously ridged bark. In an exchange
we find the following interesting notes'
on-this remarkable tree: .. b .
Some enterprising Americans have re-
cently conceived the idea-to g row cork
trees in this in this country. They believe they
can be successfully grown in the climate
of California, and steps have been taken
toward making the experiment. The
average annual importation of cork
wood into this country, entirely at the
port of New York, is 70,000 bales a year.
A bale weighs 160 pounds, and is worth
on this side of the water $20, making a
total value of the yearly importation of
$1,400,000. It comes in duty free. It is
nearly all brought over by one firm,
which has a branch office in New York,
the main offices being in London and
Lisbon. The firm own vast forests of
corkwood in Portugal and Spain, and
may be said to control the business.
With the exception- of- an inferior kind
of corkwood grown in Algiers to a limit-
ed extent, all the corkwood of commerce
comes from the Spanish Peninsula,
where the trees abound not only in cul-
tivated forests, but also grow wild on the
mountaifa.* The tree is like an Ameri-
can oak, with leaves similar to the oak
and acorns. It takes ten years for the
bark to become of proper thickness to be
manufactured into bottle-stoppers, life-
preservers and. seine corks. When
stripped from the tree it is boiled for
two hours, cured in the sun for a week
and pressed into flat pieces for balling
and shipping. The denuded trunk, like
a hen robbed of her eggs, does not sulk
and quit the business, but throws out a .
fresh covering for a fresh spoliation.
One tree has been known to yield a half ,.
ton of corkwood. One pound of cork''
can be mandfactured into 144 champagne
corks. The .baled cork is sold to cork
manufactories in the cities.. The most
extensive manufactory in America is at
Pittsburg. Besides the ordinary de-
mtands for corkwood a good supply of
the buoyant material, after being burned
to make it still lighter than the original
bark, is shipped to Canada and New
England, where it is made- into seine
The Keiffer Pear.
The Keiffer is comparatively a new
variety of pear. There has been and still
is a great diversity of opinion as to its
merits and demerits. Where one writer
extols its virtues, another condemns its
faults. The fact is, in some sections the-
pear gives satisfaction, while it is the
reverse in other sections. We see it
stated now that the quality of the fruit
is much better in the South than in the
The Keiffer is a heavy bearer, and the
fruit is large and showy, but its quality
is the point in dispute. We know
nothing personally, as to the merits of-
this pear, and if any of our readers in the
cotton States have ever given it a fair
trial we would like to have their views
and experience through this paper.-S
Live Stock Journal.
- a --
CLAMP FOR WIRE FENCING.
thus make a frame about two feet wide,
placing the cross pieces in 1st and 2d
holes and pin them fast." Then place
the open end of chis frame astride a
spool of wire anudiasa a suitabile-pieep
through the ed& holes and the center of
the spool at the same time, making the
axle to Ot tight and immovable in
the spool while it is free to turn in holes
in end of frame. Then by stepping into
the front part of the frame one can roll
the spool along the ground as fast as he
can walk and leave the wire nicely laid
There is one all-important precaution
necessary to ease of working. It is to
take a hatchet and cut off the projecting
arms of the spool as short as possible.
Otherwise, as the spool decreases in size
it will travel on the circumference of the
arms faster than the wire pays out, and
one would soon find that he was operat-
ing a revolving harrow of a new style.
The hardware trade offers several
styles of wire stretchers and clamps, but
the stretchers are not powerful enough
and the clamps cut the wire when put
to the heavy strain which we use. Our
clamps are two pieces of wood fifteen
inches long, one and a half inches thick
and three inches wide. The pieces are
fastened together with four one-half
inch bolts, each four inches long, placed
two and a half inches from the ends and
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, MARCH 16, 1887.
METHODS WITH GROVES.
I--An Orange Grove Kept
Crops and not Pruned.
BY S. POWERS.
To prove that orange growing in North
Florida may and ought to be profitable,
it is not requisite to prove that it is or
ever can be equally as money-making as
in South Florida. All parts of our great
State are profitable for residence, for
civilization, for comfortable human life
(who knows what may be done with the
Everglades some time?), and they ought
all to be colonized. If North Florida has
frost, South Florida has vermin and
sand. If the South can grow an orange
better than the North, well and good.
:But if the North can grow an orange and
an apple, and the South only the orange,
well and good again. Perhaps we shall
discover that the South is well and the
North is good, and both, are all right,
and should never indulge in sectional
belittlement and recrimination.
About eight years ago Dr. A. B. Bryan
planted out an orange grove, 24 or 3
miles south of Lawtey, Bradford county,
lying on both sides of the F. R. & N.
Railroad. He has at the present time
not far from twenty acres in orange
trees, but this original planting did not
cover half of this amount. He procured
and planted, at the outset, trees three or
four years of age, and at the same time
planted seeds, which have since grown
into trees, which now constitute -the
larger half of his grove.
His collection is in the piney "flat-
woods," a light dry sand, with a yellow
subsoil, and clay still lower down, some
three or four feet below the surface.
The healthfulness of this soil for the or-
ange is shown by the fact that he has
never had a case of die-back, gum
disease or foot-rot. He has never, from
first to last, scoured the trunk of a tree,
and the bark is consequently of a gray-
ish color, streaked and splashed with very
fine mosses and lichens, and with still
other patches of a grayish-white tint,
apparently composed of a gritty,
powdery dead bark. It is only very
rarely that one has any green mold on
it, or any of that fungoid debris which,
induces or constitutes the condition
called bark-bound, the native local rein-
edy for which consists in slashing with
The trees are nearly all single trunks,
and are trimmed up from two to four
feet high, so that the plow can be driven
close to them and the-hoe applied readily
clear to the trunks. The heads are not
open, as in South Florida trees, but thick
and bushy to a degree. lb fact, in ac-
cordance with the North Florida theory
and practice, the Doctor has never laid
the knife to a tree above the height just
indicated. The tree shapes and fills its
own head absolutely, which is considered
a protection against the cold winds of
this section. One of .them has a head
like a cabbAge, round and dense, and it
did not lose its leaves in the great freeze
of January, 1886. It stands in the
middle of the grove, and had no special
protection more than the others.
Dr. Bryan's management has been
peculiar. He has never expended a
dollar for commercial fertilizers for his
trees, but has given them an occasional
light dressing of swamp muck, which
had been previously corded up and rotted
for some months. His principal depend-
ence has been green crops to be plowed
under-rye or oats for the spring plow-
ing, cow peas for autumn. He wants
something always growing in the ground.
If nothing else, he wants at least a crop
of crab grass to turn under to furnish
fertilizer. -But he does not, as so many
other growers here erroneously do, allow
thd grass or peas to choke the trees be-
fore they are plowed under.
No sod is allowed to form to smother
the orange roots. Plowing is not done
directly after the hardest rains of mid-
summer, but, if the crab grass is making
sod, the earliest possible opportunity is
seized upon to turn it over. The idea
of allowing it to advance so far as to form
seed is never entertained. 'No attention is
paid to the theory that late cultivation
must be avoided, lest the tree should be
forced into untimely growth in autumn
and so be caught with soft wood by. the
frosts. The aim is to keep the trees
growing constantly and growing all
summer; thus they are ready to stop
arid take a rest when the proper time ar-
In the course of a very careful inspec-
tion I did not see in the twenty acres,
-more than five or six times that specta-
cle so repugnant to the tidy orange
grower-an ugly .gash of bark frozen
out of the cheek of a tree. The trees are
whole and sound. Not a dead tip was
ever plucked out of the grove in the
eight years, and very few are visible
now. True, the trees have made wood
slowly; in fact, they have in this respect
fallen quite below the ideal which trees
fed on the rank and hot fertilizers from
the sack have created for many growers
in this settlement. The foliage is not so
rank and black as much that I have
. seen,,but it is very glossy. The trees
have what the French call rusticite.
They are sound as a pitch pine. tough as
agrubbyknuckled boy. After thetremen-
dous ordeal of last year they are all
there, not a tree missing (they bore
about 1,500 oranges as their "first fruits"
last fall); and there, so long as the pres-
ent system continues, they will stand;
while the trees managed by the fatuous
and fantasy ic systems which the brain-
crack of a Florida health resort is capa-
ble of originating, are liable to be fatally
frozen in a winter even less severe than
that of 1885-6.
As a second instance, I had intended
to describe the grove of Col. V. J. Ship-'
man, of this place, but space fails.
and this grove is deserving of a separate
LAWTEY, Bradford Co., Fla.
The New York Market.
Mr. G. S. Palmer reports that of the
first shipment of strawberries of any ac-
count received here from Florida, a few
quarts sold as high as $3 per quart, but
later in the week they were sold in the
wholesale way at $2.25 per quart.
We may now consider the strawberry
season of 1887 as fairly inaugurated and
this delicious fruit will soon grow more
abundant and cheaper, as the acreage
planted to strawberries in Florida con-
siderably exceeds that of last year. Of
course at present prices thelemand is
limited, as they are a luxury which can
only be afforded by wealthy people. But
when they get down to fifty cents or a
dollar a quart, they will be eagerly
sought after by hotels, restaurants and
families, to make the toothsome and al-
ways welcome "strawberry short cake,"
etc. The "festival" season comes still
later when the "best berry that God ever
made" is most plentiful.
FINE GRADE FLORIDA ORANGES. "
Considerable shipments of very supe-
rior oranges are now being received
from the Indian River and Halifax
River regions, which have been held
back for the good prices which are sure
to rule for such fruit at this time of year.
These localities are so far South that they
are not forced to gather the fruit to pro-
tect it from the danger of frost- This
fruit now readily brings from $3.50 to
$4.00 per box, providing it arrives in
good condition. There is, however, a
good deal of inferior fruit in market
which, like russets, though sweet and
finely flavored is not popular with the
trade and selling at $1.25 to $2.00 per
box according to quality.
Are just beginning to make their ap-
pearance and are much sought after with
the advance of the season by the better
cla s of trade, as the warmer days
prompt a desire for something fresh and
green. Early peas and string beans are
arriving in small quantities and sell
readily at from $4.50 to $5.00 per crate.
Scarcely cucumbers enough are coming
forward to establish quotations, but
good quality from hot-house bring about
$3.00 per dozen. Choice new beets bring
$2.00 per crate; cabbage $3.50 to $3.75
per bbl. crate; tomatoes bring $3.50 to
$5.00 per crate.
The above are wholesale prices, and
they may be expected to prevail for
some time yet. In other words, the price
of these vegetables will not be lower un-
til the supply can gain somewhat on the
demand. Some radishes and crisp let-
tuce may also be had, but they are some-
What costly at present as they are raised
in hot houses at near by points.-New
York Market Journal.
Saving Girdled Trees.
Do not give up nor grub out the young
tree that the mice have gnawed; a little
careful surgery will almost surely save
it unless the inner bark and sap-wood
are entirely gone, which is not often the
case. The ragged edges of the wound
left by the little pests may be smoothed
up, and a collar of bark taken from a
thrifty branch of the same size fitted to
it. Tie the bark on with soft gum, and
close the, crevices with grafting wax.
Another simple method is to cut twigs
from the same tree, with the ends whit-
tled to a wedge-like point, and snugly in-
sert in slits made in the bark to receive
them. The sap continues its upward
journey through them, the wound heals
over, and in later years is entirely hid-
We know of an injured pear tree that
was saved by applying melted tallow,
and wrapping in a strip of cloth, wide
enough to extend both above and below
the wound, which had been dipped in
the melted tallow. We have several
times saved larger trees which-had been
peeled by sheep and horses, by covering
with large poultices of mixed clay and
cow dung, holding it in place by wrap-
ping with old grain bags split down for
the purpose, or strips of old carpet.-
Fruit Tree Agents.
Fruit tree agents, no doubt, will soon
be around and call on us, with some
new fruit tree for us to purchase; with
some mulberry, plum, or something that
will fruit ten months in a year.
"0, yes; you cannot get it in Texas
or any other nursery than the one I
represent. It is a grand thing; our
nurseries are the only ones that propa-
Well, do you know what "Pear" would
do in such a case; he would procure the
name of this fruit, and say to the agent,
"Just hold on: I will not order it now,
but I will write to my nearest nursery-
man, or other experienced fruit grower,
and hear what he has to say about; and
if it proves to be a good thing from his
recommendation, and I cannot procure
it nearer home, I then may send you an
erder for it."
The writer hereof well knows that
there is a nurseryman's directory forthe
United States, and any energetic
nurseryman that has something new to
send out, will at once get a copy of this
directory, and if he will obtain the name
and address of all the principal nursery-
men in the United States, and at once
mail each of them a circular, generally
giving a history, description and place
of origin of the same, an intelligent
nurseryman receiving such a circular
will then take into consideration the
place of origin, together with description,
etc., and if he conclude it will suit his
soil and climate, he will at once, or at
the proper season, come in possession of
it, and most-likely plant it in his orchard
for testing some time before offering it
for sale in any great quantity.
Any nurseryman of any prominence
whatever has just the same opportunity
of learning anything new that the others
have; Besides, we know that nursery-
men exchange catalogues extensively,
and also gain extensive. information
through horticultural journals. Through'
the publishing of this directory, nursery-
men of the United States receive cata-
logues from England,Scotland,Germany,
France, Japan, etc.
A few years past an agent whose ini-
tials are "L. G. T.," came around with
the Alexander peach, representing that
it could not be had in Texas only
through his nursery, while at the same
time most, if not all the nurserymen in
Texas had it, and this agent was war-
ranting it to ripen at a certain date, and
was selling it at from seventy-five cents
to one dollar a tree, when it could have
been purchased from a nursery nearer
home for thirty-five cents, and could
show the fruit of it also.-Lampasas
Melons and Squashes.
BY H. C. D.
The truck growers of the icy North, by
the use of the, "beat-'em-in-Florida"
style of box are following us of the sa-
lubrious South rather too closely in the
ripening of their produce to be altogeth-
er agreeable. The "beat-'em-all" boxes
have sloping sides, wh ch combine the
advantage of heating the largest ground
space by the least outlay for glass, with
that of nesting and packing away
almost like a mass of solid wood when
not in use. The glass used is 8x10-
costing about three cents each-which
slips into grooves of the box prepared
These boxes are used for forwaring
cucumbers, melons, squashes, tomatoes
and in some cases fields of potatoes, and
by their use it is claimed that certain
crops can be forwarded from three to six
weeks. Factories are manufacturing
and shipping them all over the country
by the car load. A. I. Root & Co.,
Medina, Ohio, are reliable dealers. I be-
lieve their prices are $8 per 100.
As for me I buy up packing boxes in
town and "spare evenings and rainy
days," knock apart, ,mark out by a pat-
tern, saw bevelingas required and with
the nails taken out I nail together the
material thus obtained, costing only
about two and a half cents each. A
man can make from thirty to fifty per
After making the hill and planting the
seed, set the box on, banking the earth
well around, and slip in the glass. Of
course after attention must be given,
the same as to a hot bed, on warm days
slipping the glass partly out, etc. Some
use oiled paper in place of glass, an ad-
vantage claimed for the latter being
that under no circumstance does it ever
allow of overheating or scalding.
Should the plants need more moisture
give it to them, remembering that a
thorough watering once a week is much
to be prefe-red to slight watering of -
In my experience the best fertilizer to
use for a required quick growing crop of
melons and squashes, is a compost of
cotton seed meal, potash, ground bone
and, muck thoroughly mixed atid well
Make the hills ten feet apart'eich way,
with a liberal quantity of fertilizer in
the hills and broadcast, cultivate often
and thoroughly. Thin to two plants in
the hill, and in all probability this will
make a very satisfactory crop.
I have seen growth of acres and acres
of both melons and squashes that were
not worth harvesting, and mostly for
the reason that the fertilizer and labor
that should have been bestowed on one
acre would be thinly spread and scratch-
ed over four or five.
I have raised a barrel of marrow
squashes from one hill that were worth
in the field two dollars, whereas had the
cost of that one hill been spread over a
half dozen it would have been a loss to
A mistake often made by the inexpe-
rienced is that of planting too closely
and not thinning, enough. Then, even
though the land be rich and well tended
it is a waste of seed and the result not
what "it might have been."
Value of Artichokes.
Jerusalem artichokes are similar but
slightly inferior to potatoes in nutritive
value, says the Rural World, but, owing
to their immense yield and cheapness of
raising, are much more valuable to stock
and particularly as hog food. Yields of
1,000 and 2,000 bushels per acre are ob-
tained, while the culture is not as costly
as that of potatoes.
The planting is done in about the
same way, but the growth of stock is so
strong that the ground is soon covered,
and all weeds are effectually choked out.
Although the leaves and stalks are/
rough and coarse, stock are very fond of
them, and will greedily eat the tops to
the ground if allowed to get them.
Usually the hogs are turned into the
patch after the tubers have matured,
which will not be until late in the sea-
son, and allowed to do their own digging.
Fed in this way with the tops left on the
ground and the droppings of the hogs
also, the crop cannot fail to improve the
A freezing does not injure the tubers
in the least, either for food or seed. They
can be left in the ground until spring,.
and then fed to the hogs. Usually the
hogs will leave enough of the tubers in
the ground to re-seed it, if not kept there
too long. Some prefer, however, to let,
the hogs clean out the patch thoroughly
and replant in hills and drills, rather
than let a volunteer crop come up.
Many are afraid to plant them for fear
that once get them into the land they
cannot be eradicated. The fear is un-
founded, and it is strange they are not
more widely grown. The red Brazilian
is considered the heat.
The Wine and Fruit Grower ac-
knowledges the receipt of a case of
orange wine from a firm in New York,
with the following remarks : It is put
up as a sparkling Wine, and is a delicious
an'd tonicbeverage ;This shows what pro-
gress is being madein the development of
our natural resources. We have had some
The first essential ingredient is good
ripe, sound, clean grapes. Second, a
good hand crushing mill, closed tight
enough not to mash the seeds of the
grape. Third, a hand screw press, to
press out the mashed pulp as fast as it is
ready. This pressed juice may then be
put up in bottles or jugs, then sealed up
tight and put away until it is needed for
use; It will keep sweet and well for
years, or as long as you keep the air out.
This is called preserved grape juice.
For wine, the grapes are prepared in
the same way. Take the juice, put it up
in barrels or casks, then into a cool cel-
lar with a temperature of between 35
and 40 degrees above zero. Leave the
bung open and always keep the barrels
full of wine, so that it may work itself
clear of its own impurities. A higher
degree of temperature tends to form al-
cohol, acetic acid and vinegar. The
harsher or more sour will be the wine
made in a high -temperature, while at
a low, non-freezing temperature, we get
a sweetish, pleasant tasting wine. Give
it age and it takes off some of its harsh
taste. It must purify itself, and time 4-
required to accomplish it. Always take
wine of the same age and kind to fill
with. In the early spring draw off your
wine casks and filter your wine. Then
bottle up tight, or put into tight casks
Chemistry tells us that "heat chars
and destroys wood, starch and gum,
forming black substances totally unlike
the original matter. By distillation
wood yields tar and vinegar, and by fer-
mentation sugar is converted first into
alcohol and then into vinegar." By the
last process we have an important use to
make of our pressed grape pomace. Take
it when its natural juice is all pressed
out of it, spread it out on a plank
floor, soak it with water to its saturating
point; then let it lie two or three days in
a high temperature until it sours. Then
press out its juice, strain it through
light straw and barrel it up, leaving the
bung open. In time one will have good
strong vinegar. Vinegar can be made
outof apples, pears and peaches in the
same way; scalso can cider be first made
from apples, pears and peaches and vin-
egar afterwards by the same process as
The more sugar that may be in-or
put in-the new pressed grapes, the
more alcohol will there be formed in
the wine when properly made. Scrip-
ture tells us not to look upon the wine
when it is red. My experience is that
the white wine is stronger in its alco-
holic qualities and red wine the weaker.
In vinegar made from grapes, the white
was also the strongest of the two kinds.
If intoxication is what the people are
afraid of, perhaps they would better let
them all alone, and go on as they have
begun, using all the narcotics, opium,
opiates and other nerve dying drugs of
our day and time, instead of the life
sustaining liquids made from our vine-
yards and orchard fields. For there is,
to my mind, nothing more healthy and
invigorating to a fatigued person than a
good cup of wine well made.
A Dainty Dish.
Here is a recipe for "orange hash:"
Oranges, bananas, lemons, apples,
raisins and pineapples are cut up into
little bits, worked just enough to thicken
their juices, and then served with a
little grated nutmeg. But the serving is
the pretty part. Cut a hole just large
enough to admit a spoon in the stem end
of an orange, and through this hole take
out all the inside of the orange, which
you then fill with the heavenly hash
and serve on a pretty little glass fruit
dish with lemon or orange leaves.-Se-
How to Grow Alirronds.
The almond requires a mild climate, a
plenty of air and a plenty of sunshine.
It thrives in low ground, if it gets the
sun; on hillsides, if not exposed to the
winds, and in either light, sandy or
rocky soil, provided it is well drained; a
calcareous soil suits it best. Stiff clay or
rich lands are unadapted to the almond.
The almond is propagated by seed and by
bud. Cuttings and layers are difficult to
root. The nut in the shell, when planted
in the fall, germinates in the course of a very topics, to which we refer the reader
--month, owing to the autumnal rains. foi' further information
When wanted inthe s rin the shell From the So l
experience with orange wine in F lMda
and have found it in use there as a cool=
ing, anti-malaria beverage.
To Keep Preserves Sweet.
BY MRS F. B. CHAPMAN.
Editor Florida Ilarmer and FPuit-Grower:
Several articles have appeared in vari
ous journals upon the best methods for
the prevention of mould and fermen-
tation in preserved and canned fruits.
A writer in a scientific work on "Mi-
crobes" says cotton batting placed over
the tops of jars containing preserved
fruits, will prevent the accumulation of
mould, which is due to deposits of at-
mospheric microbes. Some lady. writers,
who have tried it, say the cotton super-
cedes the necessity for rubber bands and
screw tops for canning purposes.
In my early days, I used brandy for
jelly glasses and preserve jars, but later
on, I found buttered papers better. A
lady of Crescent City, Fla., told me she
had no trouble since adopting the plan of
wrapping her jars in blue paper, and
hanging a dark curtain before the shelves
where they are kept.
Now if we "put- this and that to-
gether," first the buttered papers, then
the cotton batting, wrapping in paper
and excluding the light as much as pos-
sible, may it not be that one of the woes
of our housekeepers is past? I shall try
the plans next season and report. Will
not some one else do likewise?
Grape Wine and Vinegar.
Some one having asked for directions
for wine making, Mr. Natt Stevens offers
the following through the Texas Farm
and Banch: "
p '-- pl"-" "1 bg,.........*nSoJ.JLveo oci j journal.
must be taken -, or the kernel will re- We regret that the first numwber-i.rr--.-
main inert allt:eummer. It is best to the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER] failed,
plant the seed of the bitter almond and to reach us; but the second shows a very
then bud in the sweet almond. The seed handsome sheetaS to paper, tvpography- '
is planted point down. In cultivating, and general makeup, whi'e the addi-
care must be taken not to cut the roots. tional department is all we, expected of
In Sicily the almond tree lives from fifty the distinguished editor. Many of our-
to sixty years.-Rural Californian. readers are interested directly and see-
ondarily-in everything connected with
HOW OUR PAPER is REGARDED. Florida, and we cordially commend this.
new and excellent periodical as worthy
of their patronage. With best wishes-
A Few of Many Comments by for its success, we welcome this new as-
Correspondents and Press. pirant for public favor and patronage,.
feeling assured for the good work it wilL
Judging from tle expressions of ap- accomplish in and out of Florida.
proval which are coming to us daily [From the Mariana Courier.]
from correspondents and the presp, and The FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT-
from the rapid increase of our subscrip- GROWER, published by H Joes
. tion list, it is evident that the FARMER Bro., proprietors of the Times- Union, at
AND FRUIT-GROWERhas met with a more Jacksonville, is now on our table. The
favorable reception than we had ven- initial number of this publication proves.
tured to expect. plainly its aim and purpose, and it will
In a few instances we can give the sen- ee of vast importance to the 'fruit grow-
timent of a letter by quoting one or two brs and farmers of the State. It is neat-
sentences, as in the following examples: ly printed and contains some valuable&
Prof. S. N. Whitner, of the Agricul- information in regard to the fruit grow-
tural College of Florida, writes as fol- ing interests. Send your address and
lows; "I can say in all sincerity, it has get a copy of it free and then subscribe.
exceeded my most sanguine expectations.
Already it is without a peer in all the FLORID L SOUTBH Ii1 R'Y'
Prof. D, L. Phares, the eminent pro- THE ORANGE ,BELT ROUT.
fessor of biology in the Agricultural Col-
lege of Mississippi, says in the Southern Daily Time Table in Effect February 7,1887.
Live Stock Journal: "His [the editor's] SOUTH BoD-rANWON BALL .
valuable paper already appearing in the LeaveSt. Augustine 8 00 am
first numbers are fulfilling our expecta- .. Jacksonville 9 00 a ,.
tion and prediction. They may be fully ,, iatehen 10 4 am
relied upon for conscientious correc- Hawthorn 11 s55am
ness of statement and scientific accur- Gainesve11e S 1130a
acy of detail." ArriwOcaia -2 e02pm.
Hon. J. Win. Ewan, writing from Weir 155 pm.
Miami, Dadecounty, says : "Certainly ,, Pembertn's.. ............ ............. 15 pm.
you are doing a good work in establish- Dadeci ISs
Ing an enlightened and scientific system Lakeinm 7 0pm-,
of agriculture, which heretofore has Kisimmee,go.FlaR.R................. 8 35 p a L
of agriculture, which heretofore has Tampa, so.ra.R s 50 p
been seriously neglected. Your paper is 'r"ave artow 10 pm.
inviting in appearance, pure in senti- Arrive Fort Meade '9 3s pm,
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SFort Ogden 1117 p
surely must succeed." Trabue 12 00pm.
Mr. S. A. Stevens, of Sumter county, Punt a Gorda- _
writes: "I am in love with your paper, ORTH O xo-- A
but am taking so many now that until Uenruntk Gorda
some subscription runs out I can't take Trabue 330 am.
more, but calculate to be a subscriber to orgden 410am.
your paper soon." Fort Meade............. ......... 625 amU.
Mr. E. W. Amsden, of Ormond-on-the- artow 7 1 ao0 .
STSampa, o. Fla. R. R 8 00 pw-
Halifax, wi sites as follows : "I am tak- K simnees. F. ..................... 6 1. a n ,
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and if asked to surrender the FARMER Berookaviie 845.am,
AND FRUIT GROWER, I would tell them LaPemberton's 9 50 am.
.Lane Park 1930 a m.
to take the other nine, but leave me ,, Tavares 940 am.
that. May peace and plenty and years Eort ason 10 5 as
of grace be given you to continue the rrtveLeeeburg U 05am.
good work." AVe Leesburg U 15 am'
sgood work."outh iake Weir 53 a n
Mr. J. V. Dansby, of Pensacola, whose c, a Ola.ll.e 12p a.
eminent success in truck gardening, as ,, Ganevile 40p
well as his able writings on farm topics, Hawthorn 325 pm"
nterlachen 4 03 p rn
entitle his opinion to respect, expresses Palatka 5 00 pin.
himself as follows: "The first number Jackonville. 740 pm
of the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER was Saspuin 6 .
duly received and is the best thing in its SOUTH BOVND-FAST MAIL. I
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A veteran nurseryman, who objects to Interlachen 1028 am,
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much needed and can be made of much Umatilla 9 16 a M
SFort Mason 9 45 a m
value to Florida." ArriveEustis 8 95aam
Leave Eustis 10 05 a M
Mr. A. F. Brown, of Putnam county, Mt. Homer 10 20 a m.
writes: "I am very much pleased in- Tavaris 10oo a
deed with the new paper. It is ju.tt A ve Lane Park 0 a m.
what wrehave needed for a long time. Leave Lane Park 2 10 p am
Success to it." Arrive Tavares 220 p m.
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Mr. S. L. Culler, of Seffner, Florida. Mt. H ,'r 10pm
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FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER Uiaia 4 15 p m,
equal to the first number, you will cer- Altoona' 4 45 pm
tainly furnish the agriculturists of Flor- Pitman 5 00 pm.
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ida with a paper that will please them. Summit.................................... 5 15 p in
I am traveling through the country ,. Selre Lai. 5 0 P inm.
Cummings ...................... ............... 5 40 p m.
among the farmers, and in every way ,, Bryanville 50 P .
that I can assist you it will be cheerfully A-riveAstor 6 10 p ,n.
done." MCANOonP & CITRA.
Mr. H. W. Greetbam, of Orlando, Leave Citra 700 am
writes: "I am greatly pleased with the Arrive Micanopy 15 pin -
sample copy of your paper, and feel L*ve* Micanopy 8 a t,
sure it will prove a valuable addition to Connection atRechee with all trains.
agricultural literature devoted especially CONNECTIONS.
to Florida." At Paltka, with Jacksonville Tamp & Key Wesjt
Mr. W. N. Justice, commission mei- y. and St.Auustine and Palatka Railway, and flba
chant of Philadelphia, writes: "Having Jacknme and all npo n lGorth East and Vt1
received the first issue of your agricul- a t theew Tw ~n-Srew. Iron Sm o
tural paper, and being delighted with its ln. New York, Boston Philadelphia, &o.
tone, we wish you to insert our card for Mall trinS make cl onnection bth wa via .T
six months." Fast Manl.
r At Gainesville with through Pullman sleepers over
[From the Citra New Era.] Bavannah, FlorIda & Western 'y. for New Orlesn.
We have received the first number Pensacola, Savannah, Alban, Montgomery, Louisville.
the FLORIDA FARMER AAD FRUIT-GROW- I At Oals with Florida Railway and Navigation 0i,
ER, published at Jacksonville. It is an At AstorwithS. Johns river steamers or Jackson-
elegant publication and deserves to suc- yljle, Sanifrd and Way Landins s.
ceed and we trust it will. "tLeesburg with St. Johns and lake" Eostin
[From the Texas Farmer] Lakes Harris, Eut ad Grin r'a point ou.
Florida is not behind her sister South- even Tuday, Th apd Sa1turday for Key W&
en States in material progress. It At Pemberton's with sonth' Florida Ralircd .
ought to he called the land of fruits and keiend, Tai.pan Richiand, KtndmmeeBartow, Or-
flowers, for each of these grand divi&-i At rahb,;e.ith Alce Hewr.nftor& Pun.
ions of horticulture are -equally at home^y- sn Myra- o. ,iv."o ..ir ......-
there. The FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT A Nener ana', OW O L.G.?. .'
GROWER is an ably conducted and ele- A. C.COWAN, een'iL Tray. Ageut.
gantly printed paper devoted to these :
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, MARCH 16, 1887.
Various Methods of Preventing
BY J. G. K.
Every man in Florida who has a crib
*of corn, whether in the ear or in the bag,
whether raised in this State or imported
from abroad, has found his grain eaten
-by a small, brown, long-snouted bug,
known by entomologists as the calandra
*oryzce (rice or corn weevil). Though this
pest is found in grain in the other
:Southern States, and been carried in seed
,wheat as far north as Michigan, where it
.-afterwards perished from the cold, yet in
Florida it does more damage than in any
other portion of the United States.
In Texas and Arkansas, in New Mex-
ico and Louisiana, it enters the corn and
wheat, ruining both for food for man
.and beast, causing immense losses. Still,
"in most'of those States, the cold causes
-some cessation of their destruction; in
SFlorida, and especially in South Florida,
the depredation, commencing in the
-field, goes on unceasingly, until often it
becomes very difficult to find any corn
left in the crib or bag that will grow.
All other grains suffer in the same man-
ner. The contests of our farmers with
the thin soil, and small yield of corn,
-the fight with depredations of birds upon
rice and millo maize, is enough to dis-
-courage the most energetic; but when
the grain has been placed in the crib,
bin or bags and wanted for future use,
to find the ears of corn filled, the bins.
blackened and the bag penetrated .by
these little Arabs, ruining the crop, is
-enough to make the stoutest quail as if it
was a scourge of God.
Is Florida, therefore, 'doomed to a de-
endence upon other regions for the
read of its people, for the 'feed for its
animals? Is there no escape, no means
-of destruction of this pest, walking and
-destroying by night and by day? These
are momentous questions. We hear
men say Florida cannot prosper until
her farmers shall grow the grain re-
,quired for the use of the State. Those
men have not looked into our corn cribs,
-our grain bins, our bags crowded with
this hard-shelled, sharp-nosed pest, as
ready to bite a man as a grain of corn,
poisoningthe grain for both man and
beast. We know the enemy all too
well, and knowing him, and the power
-of multiplying of his detested race; we
must prepare to fight him to the death.
There are two insects to which the
name of weevil has been applied, the
-one. above named, and the ango ois
moth. The moth only injures the grain
while in its larva or worm stare, but our
weevil is most destructive in the perfect
or bug state. The moth is found but
-seldom here, but prevails farther north.
SIn New Mexico both were common in
-corn and wheat, and were kept down in
'the wheat bins by sifting air slacked
-lime over the grain, which was blown
out by the fanning mill when-the grain
was wanted for grinding. The smutting
machinery also cleaned the grain from
S'the lime. This lime does not injure the
Zr gain, either for food or for seed.
Cow peas and shelled corn may also
be protected from the' bug weevil by
covering the grain in the bins with two
inches of dry dust from hle road sifted
over it. The sieve will remove the dust,
and with winnowing it will be cleaned.
This is a cheap method, and if, success-
ful, easily practiced and no danger can
result to the germinating power of the
In the coast counties of South Carolina
the bug-enters the corn in the field, as it
'does here, an-d-the corn is gathered,with
the shucks, and spi'fad on the ground in
the yard until it receives a soaking rain,
:: and immediately housed. This is said
S 'to destroy the weevil. Oats and other
-cereals are .protected by spreading and
q ,qunning-the. grain oil platforms of wood,
-- ,nd bagging while hot, and giving the
bags frequent sunnings.
In south west Georgia the farmers, after
threshing the wheat, thoroughly sunthe
grain, and placing in- homespun bags
S holding a bushel each, expose these to
'the sun every two or three months. "This
method," wri'es H. J. Redding, the
statistical agent of Georgia, **I have
found effectual to prevent the weevil."
SHe recommends running the grain
through a good fanning mill to blow out
the castings and dust of the weevil. He-
has no faith in preventive by the use of
leaves. Sometimes recommended.
S In Florida one man says he gathers
his corn by letting it lie on the ground"
several days, unless very wet weather
ensues, and putting it in the crib when
wet. Lime and salt have been sprinkled
over the corn while.,housing it, in Her-
-nando county,- with success; and a man
'in Madison county has kept corn from
weevil by sprinkling the shucks with
b, rine while housing it.
In 1884-Mr. Joseph Voyle, of Gaines-
ville, communicated to the Agricultural
Department, that he had' found that
'those ears of corn having long shucks,
that closed the ends, would be found
clear of weevil, while those with short
-shucks and open ends were weevil eaten;
and he recommended doubling over the
'shucks, and packing them in the crib.
This would require too great an amount
-f work, and some cheaper means must
be resorted to.
S- All kinds of grain may be saved from
the attacks of the weevil by fumigating
-with sulphur. As that would require a
crib closely built, room inside would be
a great consideration, and the corn must
be freed from shucks,- or shelled before
being placed in the crib, and the fumi-
gation renewed as often as a weevil ap-
peared. Whether suchfumigation would
injure the grain for seed, has not yet
been determined. This last remark may
be applicable to the remedy recommend-
ed by Prof. Riley for the destruction of
S, the weevil,
His remedy, given in the Report of
the Department for 1884, consists in
rendering the corn crib or bin'as tight
as possible by plating over it a varnished
-or painted cloth covering,.and then plat-
ing upon the corn an open vessel con-
taining bisulphide of carbon. This sub-
stance is extremely volatile, and being
heavier than air, will sink through the
mass of corn or grain and kill the weevil.
Great care must be taken in using it, as
it is extremel&inflammable and axphyx-
iating if breamed; no living animal can
live and breathe it, and it destroys all
fungoid growths, but is harmless taken
into the stomachs of animals, and all
scent from it is soon dissipated. The
covering need not be very expensive,
will last many years, and may be used by
a number of neighbors.
Some of these methods must secure to
the grain of Florida, immunity from this
weevil pest, and then Florida may grow
the needed grain.
In response to inquiries relative to
composts Dr W. L. Jones, who is an
authority, offers the following advice
through the columns of the Southern
BONE MEAL-ACID PHOSPHATE.
A pure bone meal would be rated at
about thirty-five dollars a ten if the
usual method of calculating the value
of fertilizers is adopted. But analyses
made at the various experiment stations
of the country indicate that the bone
meal on the market is quite variable in
composition. In a table before us of
thirteen specimens from different
sources, the valuation varies from $25.93
to $45.85 a ton. You could probably
afford to pay thirty dollars a ton for a
pure well-ground article. The finer it is
ground the more valuable it is, because
it acts more promptly.
The difference between bone meal and
acid phosphate is that bone meal is sim-
ply bones ground up; it contains three to
four per cent. of nitrogen and 'from
twenty to thirty per cent. of phosphoric
acid. Acid phosphate is either bone or
South Carolina phosphate rock, to which
oil of vitriol has been added, and con-.
tains either no nitrogen (from Carolina
rock) or about two per cent. of it, and
some twelve to fourteen per cent. of
phosphoric acid. In the bone meal the
phosphoric acid is not soluble in water,
but becomes more or less-soluble in the
soil; it is available, therefore, but acts
slowly. The phosphoric "acid of acid
phosphate is more soluble and acts
promptly, but there is only about half as
much of it as in bone meal. You could
not afford to pay more than twenty dol-
lars a ton for acid phosphate.
MARL AND LIME.
Marl is a carbonate of lime, and a lit-
tle more than half of it, by .weight, is
lime. In the sample where there is ten
per cent. of marl, there is about six per
cent. of lime, or six pounds in the hun-
dred. In a good article of lime, the per
cent of that substance would be at least
90, or 90 pounds in the hundred, or fif-
teen times as. much lime in the burnt
lime as in the marl. To equalize cost,
therefore, when the marl costs two cents
a bushel, the barrel lime should cost
thirty-cents per bushel. It would hard-:
ly [pay to use either of them at those
prices, for agricultural purposes. The
barrel or quick lime, acts more energet-
ically than the marl; in other respects
there is no special difference.
COMPOSTING MUCK WITHOUT MANURE.
If possible, compost the muck first
with ashes or lime, or a mixture of the
two-say ten bushels to a cord of muck.
Do this as soon' as possible.- -In a month
it will do to compost over again, but two
.months would have, been better. The
second composting may be done by add-
ing fouraundred pounds each of cotton
seed meal and acid phosphate, and 200-
pounds of -kainit to every sixty bushels
of muck. Of this the usual quantities
may be applied to an acre-say to begih
with-1,000 pounds per acre.
DOES, HEATING INJURE COMPOST ?
Whenever fermentation develops, heat
will develop also. If the latter is not
excessive-does not reach a point too hot
t6 be borne by the hahd-no harm re-
sults; if .beyond that, some of the nitr.o-'
gen, willbe driven off and lost. This is
true of heaps of stable manure alone, as
well as of compost. But if the manure
or compost is thoroughly wetted and
firmly trod~down, the heat is not,: likely
to be excessive. It is often necessary to
opefi holes down through the mass from
time to time and poor in more water.
P~t up in moderate-sized pens, not' more
than four feet high, manure is less. apt
.to overheat than when put-in, large,,
high pens. Moderate heat is desirable,
as it favors the desired chemical changes
which'are sought by composting or mass-
" '. '
Rice in Georgia.
Upland rice should be sown, in South-
ern Georgia, in 'April. Farmers who
have a bit of fresh pine land not yet
stocked with crab grass may plant up-
land rice with profit, because in the ab-
sence of crab grass it will be easy to cul-'
tivate. Fertilizers may be used or not,
but, of-course, are always best. If used,
be sure they contain no grass seeds, and
scatter the, manure for the drills.
Level, damp land is the best, and the
rows should be about 18 inches apart. It
is better and cheaper to take pains in
planting the rice thin than to undertake
the job of chopping out a stand too thick.
This can be easily done by a careful
sower, who tnay use a tube for sowing if
the day is windy. Thick sowing will not
secure a large crop of grain though it
may produce more straw.
If the ground is new and still filled
with green roots to send up crops of
shoots, these must be hoed out as often
as they inaketheir appearance, but after
the first good breaking the soil may be
cultivated with a sweep. The better the
soil is broken, harrowed, pulverized and
smoothed,'the better crop it will produce;
but do not look for any of those fabulous
rice yields they have out on the poor pine
land of Mississippi. Georgia .has about
as fertile pine lands as any State in the
South, but they do not yield mpre than
from 20 to 30 bushels of rice to the acre
from ordinary cultivation, and that fully
repays the cultivator. Rice is so easily
grown, so healthful and necessary that
every farm in this c imate should have
its rice patch.-Ex. (.
Rice in Florida.
In the Times- Union of Wednesday is
published a communication asking for
information on the subject of rice cul-
ture in this State, as the writer wishes to
put up a rice mill at some point which
may offer the best advantages for the
This plant may be grown in almost
any locality in the Southern Atlantic
States, but unless the stalk is well sup-
plied with moisture during the season
when it is maturing, the grains will not
fill properly Hence, a good crop can
only be produced in a very wet season,
or on land which holds nuch moisture.
If planted on low land grass will grow
as rapidly as the rice, and the expense
of weeding will be excessive. Hence
the culture is i ot profitable, except on
land whLh may be irrigated, the water
serving to kill the grass and also to stfin-
ulate the rice.
On the coast of South Carolina and
Georgia, the system of irrigation is by
the tides of rivers above the points
reached by the salt water, and this sys-
tem is more perfect than that practiced
in any other country. For several years
past, the price of rice has been so low,
owing to the importation of East India
rice, that it is probable thit the greater
portion of these rice lands will be thrown
out of cultivation.
It is very improbable that the culture
of the plant can be undertaken success-
fudy, as a principal market crop, by any
farmer on lands which, cannot be irri-
gated. But a large proportion of the
farmers in this State own small pieces of
land on which rice could be grown for
the consumption of their own families,
and if many of these can be induced to
cultivate the plant in this way, small
cleaning mills might be established in
many localities. One such mill has
been in 'successful operation in this vi-
cinity for several years, and has been
found to be fairly profitable.-Green
[Eight or ten years ago a large rice
mill was built at Jacksonville and a
strong effort made to stimulate home
production. After a two-years' trial
the undertaking was abandoned. Nearly
all the rice that was cleaned had to be
brought from Georgia. It was said that
the machinery did not polish the- grain
properly-at any rate the enterprise
proved a failure. A. H. C.]
Your Light is None the Less for
Lighting Your Neighbor's.
Editor .Florida Farmer and tFuit Grower:
Will --you allow me -to call the atten-
tion of the. patrons of and contributors
to your truly excellent paper, to a sub-
ject which seems to me to be of para-
.mount interest to our State, and espe-
cially 't,' every one engaged in any
branch of agriculture, whether as far-
mer, gardener, fruit-grower, or simply
with a small patch for- garden on a city
or village lot. I refer to fertilizers, fer-
This is the. ever-present topic in car,
boat, hotel, or wherever two or more
meet.to talk over current topics. And
yet, how very meagre is our- really reli-
able knowledge upon the subject. True,.
our papers are burdened with advertise-
ments, paid notices, lauding to the skies
every conceivable compound as the.best,
and many times claiming it to be the
only genuine, reliable, dtc., etc. But let
a novice start out and ask, frankly, for
information's sake, ten, twenty, fifty,
so-called practical and- intelligent men
what is the best and most economical
fertilizer to use on any given crop, and
then'ask him how ,mu6h -wiser he is for
the knowledge gained. .
The fact is, we need plain statements
of actual- experiments and results ob-.
tained by comparative trials, regardless
of names, or claims of .advertisers. My
leading object in this communication is
to ask y6ur co-operation in an effort to
give the whole subject a general shak-
ing up ahd over-hauling: by a free dis-
cussion through our agricultural papers,
giving special pre-eminence to experi-
mental tets ol different kinds, with'the
results fully set forth. There aie plenty
of such cases if once the Dall is. started
and persons can be induced to report
their experience. "
The managers of the various commer-
cial fertilizers get plenty of strong testi-
monials, but 'let us have them direct,
first hand and in the interest of the pub-
lic, and see if we cannot arrive at some
few facts and a little science and philos-
ophy upon th s much mooted question, so
that there will be more unanimity in
thought and more harmony of action
and less blind groping in the dark.
Now then,- will you open the columns
of your paper-fresh and vigorous in the
flush of youth-and give this subject
a thorough ventilation, so that "he who
runs may read" and act more under-:
standingly? I will suggest a few ap-
propriate questions to be answered by
those who have tested and experimented
and hence can, if they will, speak to the
point : -
1. Is cotton seed a good fertilizer for
orange trees; and does it tend to breed
insect life and produce scale, as some
claim? One man of experience and in-
telligence, writes me, "Do caution them
not to use cotton seed. Half of the
graves of the State are being ruined by
While admnliring a model grove at
Oviedo, commenting upon its fine.ap-
pearance and very rapid growth, I
asked the merchant whose store is op-
posite, across the street, what fertilizer
was used on it. "Cotton-seed meal; that
is used mostly about here." Col. Whit-
ney and Mrs. King tell me they use
most cotton seedmeal and hull ash. Are
they fooled and ruining their groves ?
Speak out, friends.
2. Is ammonia a valuable or even desir-
able ingredient in a fertilizer for orange
trees? We all know and admit its great feed out till you can knock in the 2d, PRAIRIE LEE POULTRY YARD
value in a manure for vegetables, but it and so on till you reach the bottom of LEE POULTRY YARDI
is boldly claimed by some, and set forth silo. The silo is never closed after open- Seffner, Hillsborough Co., Fla.
in the circulars of at least one manufac- ing. L. B. CULLEN, Propr.
during company, to be entirely useless, We weighted our last silo, such as we Single comb White Leghorns a specialty.
and of no value whatever, as a food for mentioned, with four cords of wood, and Only one variety kept (J.Boardman-Smith's
citrus fruits. Islit, or is it not? I do would have utin more if we could have pure stock). Eggs for sale at all times; Chicks
not see it contradicted, but do see fre- done so. You lose nothing by heavy afterlJungstmpWrite forr what yo want, en-
quent allusions to the lately discovered weighting; if you fail to put on enough
fact that plants in some not well under- weight, you may lose considerable. We AY'PORT,
stood way do derive nitrogen from the carried our wood up by hay-carrier, from
atmosphere, and persons claiming to be the ground outside, by mule power. No Hernando County, Elorida,
well informed upon this subject cite trouble to get it up. Sixteen miles west of Hernando Hotel, Brooks-
good authorities to show that evergreen There is no objection to building your ville, on the shore of the Gulf at the mouth ofa
trees do not need nitrogen or ammonia silo partially below ground; rather an beautiful'Spring River: Finest fishing, boating
in manure, advantage, if you are sure water will and sailing. Good accommodations. Try-weekly
Is this true as a statement in agricul- 'not sipe through.- Hack Line.
.tural science? and are we paying our .
tens of thousands yearly for a useless Points About Ensilage. pEACH HILL NURSERY.
article simply to swell the coffers of The expense of constructing a silo is PEACH TREES ADAPTED TO FLORIDA,
wealthy manufacturers? We ought to not necessarily great.
ab d spdetediyn tifs itbe uet Building it of stone, cutting or chaffing ,Ten well-tested varieties ripening from May
nitely and speedily, and if it be true, as the material, putting it in as hastily as till last of October, with the exception of the
claimed, let us serve notice on Messrs. possible and heavily weighting it-all Hone and Peen-To varieties. The peaches I
Forester, Bradley, and their congeners, hvebn ndntt offer have been obtained by CAREFULSELEOTION
whFoarelegon,to just le avethe ammonersa these have been found not to be absolute- from a large number of varieties adapted to the
who aelegionto just leave the ammonia ly necessary. South with which I have been experimenting for
out hereafter, and furnish an equally A silo can be built of lumber, the- many years. I also offer our variety of Aprict,
good fertilizer for oranges for about half material put in slowly, each layer 2 or 3 the best of six which I'have cultivated-
the money we have been paying. feet deep being allowed to heat, and the to be of true Florida tock. a
There are those who have been testing whole can be covered so as to keep For descriptive catalogue and price-list, ad-
this latter question for some years by out the air The results will be satis= dress W. P. BORNE,
carefully conducted competitive tests, factory, Giln Sr. Mary, Florida.
and can if they will, give some If you want to make an experiment L'E1SIiLE & CO.,
light. What I desire is a free field take a hogshead, pack it with green for-
and a fair tight and the d--1 take take and heavily w pack ight it The chief or-
the hindermost. I have also full confi- points to be observed are exclusion of air STOVES,
dence in the law of the "survival of the and solidity of foundation .
fittest," and think this question should Inasmucli as silagepartakes o thCROCKERY
be pushed to the front by our numerous character of the crop fr om which it is
agricultural papers, without fear or fa- prepared, the latter must be good in A WA
vor, and a call be made for the minute o armed tn e latter must be good suin ltGLASSWARE
account and fullresult of all such corn- Corn that is ensiloed should be cut LAMPS,
parative trials as I have alluded to, to when it is In the roasting ear stale to
be given over the real signatures of the the hardening of the grain and before OIL STOVES,
writers, and let their co workers know glazing.
what they ma have learn well attested Ensilage should be fed in connection BAR GOODS,
For myself f Ib have no well attesiedwith meal, shorts, bran, etc. When fed
facts to offer, but am conducting some alone, 60 lbs. per day per head is enough,
this season, and hope to learn some- or rather at the rate of 6 lbs. per tfe WOODENWARE.
thing. Three years of reading all I can hundred lbs. live weight of the animal.
find upon the subject and plying every- -Dairy World .-
body with questions, fails to 'elicit any R E S .. .E '
well defined and harmonious under- PRICES' THE LOWEST.
standing upon this all-important and How to Split Rails.
primary subject that underlies all suo. Almost any-farm hand can split rails, s. -'ENGLE& CO.,
cess in agriculture in Florida. but there is considerable science to be
Now, Mr. Editor, will you lead off in observed in the work.. One man will JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
this matter and open the ball at once rive them with ease, while another A .RE .E .
and'for the season. Facts enough are equally as stout will tug away and -soon JAI AB N IS .
all about us, if only we can get at them. exhaust his strength, with comparative
I could give names of prominent orange small results. The, reason of this great
growers who can "speak in meeting," if disparity is in knowing how to apply the -
they so desire. Let us hear from them. tools. But considerable advantage may ALL VARIETIES OF
Yours, for science and truth, be derived. by an expert hand in having
S. BIGELOW. suitable tools. The best maul to be used ORANGE AND LEMON TREES.
SANFORD, Fla., March 5, 1887. is made of .a knot, and should be of
medium weight, not so heavy but that a -
How to Build a Silo; man can swing it with ease. One iron
,h -- L- i. S 7Journal wedge, quite slim, should be kept and
The Southern Lve Stock u has used for starting the split; it is not apt Buds not placed on small stock, but onektra
done much to popularize nsilage in to rebound, and if it should, it may be 6
Mississippi a s well as in other States. I easily prevented by making a few checks large and fine ones.
response to a request for instructions for with an axe near together and starting .
building a .woodi'- silo the editor the wedge between them, or by rubbing We make a apec-alry of the
of that journal gives his advice: the wedge in dhirt.-Pianter's Journal. e"o
Say your silo is square; to find. its ca- ---EARLY SPANISH RANGE----*
pacity in tons you will have to multiply E.'N. ELLIS, C. E. A. R.. cOLURE,. Architect. -
the width of the two sides by the width ELLIS & cC LU RE (the earliest variety known),
of the other two sid.'s, and" then by the "
depth. This brings you the number of Architects I lVlI n ilPPo TOHITI LIME:and : ,
ctbic feet. Then multiply by 40 or 50, P a .. l U In VILLA FRANCA LEMONS,
the number of pounds of ensilagee gen. o UBI1A & I anea ow treo the er that sd the
rally credited to the cubic foot, and you ,S,A-BSANITARYC' ENINEERINTI &CL -andca n Ehow trees the latter that1rst)od the
have the result in pounds. Then divide P.O. ox 761. Rooms 7 and 8 PaLmetto'Block, coldlastwinter as well asthe Orange, and
by 2,000 (a ton) an you have the .num- Bay Street.
berof tons capacity. Now deduct ode- JACoSONVTrLLE,FLA. NOW HAVE FRUI.T UPON THEM.-
fourth for shrinkage in depth ofthfe en- ONSOIGNMENTS OF OOS. ..
silage after being, weighted and you CCHCKEN RY PRO IE AND
have it. SOLICITED BY -. .
We will say the silo is 12x15, 16 feet H. SUTHERfLAND, end .or .. ;
deep-13sIl'5xl6 equal to 2,980 cubic feet; WHOLESALE PRDUCE ANT end for .taluge. .
,2 80x50 equal to 144,000 pounds of en- 2 ooEANSTREE r, M KEDNEY & CAREY,.
silage; 144,000 divided by .2,000 gives' 72 JAcsoNySILLE_ winter'Park "a
tons of ensilage; 72 less 18 which is one- LA "' .WterParka /
foiiurth, is 54 tons ensilage. -.
If the ensilage is not -run through a . 'TT
cutter. it will take less than 50 pounds to v -
the eqbic foot. F U V G T B
We would advise havingthe silo wider FR UIT AND VEGETAB LE PACKING,
on each wall at the top than at the bot-
tom. The slant ought to be very uniform F '
from bottom to-top, each wall as exactly FORWARDING AND COMMISSION HOUSE.
the same incline as possible. Our own o-
silo, about the size of the one figured on usually have orders to work our consignments into,.enabling us to make PROMPT RETURNS
above, is 6 inches wider at the top on .
each wall than at-the bottom. There is Extensive Facilities for Repacking
not one-tenth the loss of spouiled ensilaeh for outside parties, to which prompt attention is given. Packages suitable for
perpendicular walls It is the only sen- SHIPPING ORANGES, STRAWBERRIES AND VEGETABLES,
sible way to build a silo to keep ensilage both made u and in the flat, always on hand, and for sale. Also, Hoops, Wrapping Paper, eto'
perfectly sound. Our silo is entirely Best of lo F. & W. R. R. WHARF
above ground, and the green stuff was' S, F' & W" R. R. WHrlK -
put in by a horse fork conveying it from. Circulars and Stencils on application. JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
the wagon to the silo, where wanted,
dumpingit in. -It was then merely scat- .' N. JUSTICE '
tered evenly over .the surface, not
tramped. In other silos it is necessary W 1. 1 01-,0,
to tramp thoroughly arouniT the Sides. Wholesale Commission Merchant,
Inthis case the natural force of th pres- NO. 313 NOR WATER STREET, PHILADELPHIA.
sure of ensilage performed this for usNO. 318 NORT WATER STREET, PHILADELPHIA. .
more perfectly than any man or men Specialties: SOUTHERN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. Consignments Solicited. Return
could possibly do it. made on day of sale.
In the silo that has perpendicular -,
walls the ensilage becomes hot and J. 0'0. BLO i TTT'T, .
shrinks away from the walls, and a
vacuum is created for the air to come *T U 4 T. Ca T E 3 C>XO 30Xr ,
in. In our case no vacuum could BARTOW, FLORIDA.
possibly occur, for the natural weight
of the ensiage dressing outward al- Orange Groves, Town Lots in Bartow, Winter Haven, Haskeli, Punta Gorda and Charlotte
ofthe ensilage pressing outward al- Harbor, for Sale. Unimproved Lands in small and large tracts at $2.50 per acre, up. Choice ten
ways toward the walls, would prevent and forty acre tracts of good, high, roiling Pine Lands, near S. P. R. R. depot, at $20 to $85 per
this. acre. A property guaranteed to be as represented or money refunded.
Ours is the only silo that we ever Money Loans, well secured, negoiatedat percent, net. to the lender.
heard of being built in the manner de- F. F. HAMBERLAIN. A.W.OUSCADB
scribed, but we are very certain that as m w. OscAoA
soon as the merits of this kind of silo is SOD U '-L'*--J_ FLORJIID _.A.
fully understood, that the silo with per- A -. .n
pendicular walls must go. L" .- "L ...-...
'Have your frame work very strongly A-y -
put together; a good workman should be
engaged to do this job. Then put on a TAMIPA, FLORIDA. Office: Twiggs St., two blocks east of Passenger depot.
layer of plank, 1x12, to the inside wall,
then tarred paper over all, and then an- W Hm
other layer of same plank, breaking 0 Wte os
joints of first layer. The floor may be
of same plank, one or two layers as you
prefer. The floor ought to be on the
ground. In putting on the plank to the ORIOLE, HERNANDO COUNTY.
sides of 'frame, leave space two plank
wide at least, from bottom to top, for
doors to be fitted in from inside. Beautiful location, facing on Lake Oriole and on the South Florida Railroad. ,
Let the doors where they fit in on the Lands all high and dry. New settlement; between twenty-five and thirty new houses.
projecting plank of the first layer of the A Church, Scho, .....y mails, stores, bakery, saw mill and hotel Large area alreadyplanted
wall, be lined with tarred paper to in- in orange groves. Choice building, lots for winter homes for sale cheap. Ten, twenty and
sure a close fit. The doors are made in for acre orange grove lots. A healthy settlement in a healthy State.
same manner as the plank walls-two call on or Address,
layers of plank, with tarred paper be-KSON & OBETON
tween. There may be several of these J. W. GROVES, or CLARKSON & ROBERTSON,a.
doors. .You knock in. the top door and Oriole, Florida. Jacksonvile, Florida5
-', a -
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MARCH 16, 1887.
The Florida Farmer ana Fruit Grow
A. II. CURTISS, Editor.
C. H. JONES & BROTHER, PUBLISHERS.
Office Cor. Bay and Laura St
THE FLORIDA FARMER AND FRt
GROWER isan eight page48columnillust
ted weekly newspaper, devoted to the Far
Garden, Orchard and Household Econom
and to the promotion of the agricultural a
Industrial Interestsof Florida. It ispublish
Terms of Subscription.
For one year........................ ..................S 2
For six months 1
Clubs of five to one address .................. 7
With daily TIMES-UNION. one year...... 11
With daily TIMES-UNION, six months 6
With WEEKLY TIMES, one year...... 2
jgSubscrlptions in all cases cash In
vance, and no paper continued after I
expiration of the time paid for. The date
the printed label with which the papers x
addressed is the date to which the subscr
tion is paid and is equivalent to a receipt
payment to that date; if the date is n
changed immediately after a new payme
the subscriber will please notify us at once
CORRESPONDENCE solicited on all sI
Jects pertaining to the topics (ealt with
this paper. Writers may affix such signature:
to their articles as they may choose, butmi
furnish the editor with their full name a
address, not for publication but as a guaran
ofgood faith. Rejected communications ci
not be returned.
ADVERTISEMENTS inserted to a limit
extent.. Rates furnished on application.
REMITTANCES should be made by Chec
Postal Note Money Order, or Register
Letter, to order of
C. H. JONES & BRO.,
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
FIRST PAGE-The Loquast in Japan; Th:
ning Fruit; The Keiffer Pear; Prick
Comfrey, (Illustrated); Wild Mushroom
Wine Value of Grapes; Orange Cultu
Abroad; The Pecan in Florida; Reclaim
Saw Grass Lands, Illustrated; The Co
Tree; Strawberry Rust.
SECOND PAGE-Methods with Orange Grov
The New York Market; Saving Girdl
Trees; Fruit Tree Agents; Melons an
Squashes; Value of Artichokes; To Ke
Preserves Sweet; Grape Wine and Vinegi
Orange Wine, etc.
THIRD PAGE-The Corn Weevil; Concernin
Composts; Rice in Georgia; Rice in Florid
Wanted. Experiences; How to Build a SlI
Points about Ensilage; How to Split Rails
FOuRTH PAGE-Back Numbers; Florida Ente
7prise; Associations and Conventions; Nu
serymen's Association; Legislative Matter
Governor's Proclamation; Premium Lis
FIFTH PAGE-Our Home Circle (edited b
Helen -Harcourt); .Cosy Corner; Fami
Friend; Young Folks' Corner.
SIXTH PAGF-Brahmin or Zebu Cattle;
Leon Co. Barn; Proper Care of Swine; Han'
ling Colts; Poultry Notes; Silk Culture. et
SEVENTHr PAGE-Farm Miscellany, (Illustra
ed); Family Reading.
EIGHTH PAGE-State News in Brief; Thing
on the rithlacoochee; Noted Indian Lead
S ers of the Florida War; Our Neighbor
'Dolnes; March W-eather: Rerori, of [he Co
ton. Tobacco and Orange Marketz-, and ofth
Jacksonville Wholesale and Retail Market
.-. BACK NUMBERS.
Editw Forida Farmer and Prud-Groea'i-:
Sir-I have received Nos. l,- and 6, b1i
Nos. 2, 3 and 5 have not reached me. A
I value the paper much I shall be oblige
Sif you will forward the mission
n. Yours faithfully,
42 HOLLAND PAK, London,
22d Feb., 1887.
The above is one of scores of letter
which we have received asking for bac
numbers of the FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER. We regret to say that th
supply of most of -the back numbers i
nearly or quite exhausted. Of Nos. 1,
and 8 there is quite a surplus, but the
small surplus of bther numbers may bi
exhausted before this is in print..
,In the March number of the Garden-
ers' Monthly appears our cut of "Graft
ing on Small Roots," with an accom-
panying notice by the editor, Thomas
*Meehan, a horticulturist whose repu-
taftion extends across the Atlantic. He
says: 'We are continually receiving new
agricultural ventures, but useful as they
are in their own special fields, we rarely
find in them anything of special interest
to-the intelligent class of. horticulturists
for which the Gardeners' Monthly has to
cater. We "were therefore agreeably
suirprised on reading, among the batch
of monthlies on our table, No. 2 of this,
to find it of a very high order of intelli-
gence, and one which must have an ex-
cellent effect in fostering Florida's inter-
As there is no better authority on
horticultural matters than the editor of
the Gardener's Monthly and proprietor
of the Germantown nurseries, this may
be considered a high tribute to the
FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER'S corps of
horticultural writers. The paper has re-
ceived similar commendations from the
Agricultural Department and from many
leading journals of the South, and we
feel that it has shown to the world that
Florida possesses a superior class of
workers in this noble field of effort.
In a letter dated March 5th Mr. Meehan
writes: "I am very much pleased with
-the- FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, and
shall read it regularly, which you know
is a high compliment for an editor to
say of an exchange"-especially of one
not yet in its numerical) teens. ..
S"--After our paper cancall itself a year
or, or two old, if contributors and subscrib- discussions, which were most interesting to the following sectionsof the New Cor- ments, fertilizers.methods and appliances
ers continue to build it up at the present and!instructive, we heard nothing which stitution, which have a special bearing for production and development, and
rate, we hope to show 16 "profusely to them could have been of any practi- on the agricultural interests. the great efficacy of such a contest in
illustrated" pages, and to have become cal benefit. The next day we heard COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE. of Florida abroad, calls for a liberal ande
the acknowledged horticultural-if not considerable dissatisfaction expressed Section 20, of Article IV, provides for energetic response from our people.
S. agricultural-authority of the South. because subjects which urgently needed the election of a Commissioner of Agri- In testimony whereof, I have hereunto
It may be that we are unduly "tres- discussion had to be set aside, and so it culture at the general fall election of set my hand and he caused the
passing on privacy," still we think Mr. would result if a permanent union were culture at the general fall election of great seal of the State of Florida to
JIT passing on privacy," still we think Mr. would result if a permanent union were 1888, and elsewhere it is provided that be hereunto affixed. Done at Talla-
ra- Meehan will forgive us if we quote effected. Dissatisfaction would ripen his salary shall be $1500 provided withat hassee, the capital, this the fifteenth
y, further from his letter above referred to. into discontent and apathy, and the .use- oter emoluments. Two other sections L day one thousand ein the year four
yd He writes, "My wife, daughter and little fulness of the organization would be par- ear on this subject, namother sections Lorand eighty-s one ven, and eight hundred
Led boy, who have been some months alyzed. bear on this subject, namely and eighty-seven, and of the inde-
ed boy, who have been some months aiyzed. Article IV, Section 26. The Commis- pendenceoftheUnitedStatestheone
traveling along the Mississippi and in It may be that these observations are sooner of Agriculture shall perform such hunIred and eleventh yar. -
.00 the Gulf States, have just returned quite superfluous, but we know that duties in relation to agriculture as may E. A. PERRY.
7.60 home, and I have a nice account of Jack- whenever an organization is formed be prescribed by law; shall have super- By the Governor.
.00 sonville from them. My wife is a great which promises to become influential vision of all matters pertaining to the A'test:
2ad traveller and has been with me pretty there are those in waiting who will seek scribed by law, and shall keep the Bu- Secretary of State.
the much all over the world and especially to divert its energies in some direction reau of Immigration. He shall also a
Oilon in America from the Arctics down. It calculated to serve private or corporate have supervision of the State Prison, A California Scheme.
ip- may interest you to know that in her (moneyed) interests. Whenever an as- and beall perform such other duties Careful observers predict an awaken-
for may be prescribed by law. ing of the spirit of enterprise in Central
not opinion the best appointed hotel in the sociation allows itself to be manipulated Article XVIIISection 8. Upon the and Nofthe spirit of enterprise in Central
nt, world is the -- at Jacksonville, and or to be influenced by promises of favor ratification of this Constitution the similar to those reached in Southern
ub- when she wants to settle down for a or patronage, it must, like an individual, Commissioner of Lands and Immigra- California. Many plans are under d s-
ire quiet rest Jacksonville is the selected lose self-respect, its vitality and useful- tion shall assume the office of Cominis- cussion in various sections. A part of
ust pot." ness are impaired and the best thing itl Agriclue athe general movement is a scheme on
und pd such shall be prescribed by the 'first Leg- foot among some of the leading business
tee We omit the name of the hotel for ob- can do is throw off the incubus and Ye- islature assembled under this Constitu- men of San Jose, to charter trains over
an- vious reasons. Without doubt Jackson- organize under a different name. tion. the mental Pacific Railroad, which once
ted ville will ever be the grand winter re- These remarks are intended for gener- TRANSPORTATION. a month shall transport passengers from
ck, sort for the United States and the point al and not special application. We have Article XVI, Section 30. The Legisla- the East to San Jose free of charge. The
ed of distribution of Florida travel. Within urged the organization of our farmers ture is invested with full power to, pass object is to bring people of means to see
of distribution of Florida travel. Within urged the organization of our farmers laws for the correction of abuses and to the city, and take note of its advantages
two years the city has improved wonder- and fruit growers for their mutual pro- prevent unjust discrimination and ex- andattractionsa s a place of residence
fully in attractiveness. Certain projects tection and we wish at the same time to cessive charges by persons and corpora- and profitable investment of money. It
are on foot for providing additional point out the dangers which lie in their tons engaged as common carriers in is proposed to pay the expense attendant
attractions next winter, which, if way.. The farmers and fruit growers transporting persons and property or upon such scheme bytaxing each busi-
in a performing other services of a public na- ness man in the county one dollar.-San
ly carried out, will greatly increase travel should bear in mind that the middlemen ture; and shall provide for enforcing, Francisco Bulletin.
ns; to Florida.. study only their own interests and that such laws hy adequate penalties or for- .
ire Whatever adds to Jacksonville'sattrac- fair promises are a part of their features. PREMIUM LIST.
ed tions is a direct benefit to the whole stock in trade. Smiles and flattery, oily portation Company or common carrie r Cotton States Agricultural Field
S"State, for, with the present facilities for words and fair promises are things not in this State shall grant a free pass, or
es; travel, very.few tourists come to Florida worth paying for, yet they are paid for discount the fare paid by the public gen- Contest. 1888.
ed without penetrating farther into the in round sums. Free rides, free passes, rally, to any member of the Legisla- The premium list, so far as determined,
dSt Tro h ture or to any salaried officer of this is as follows, subject to revisioneand
nd State. Therefore the proposed Sub- briberies of all sorts, are influences that State, an the Legislatre shall prohibits as dditillows, subject to revisionand
ar; tropical Exposition should be liberally act like dry rot in the sills of a building, the granting or receiving such freepass, Models of Farm Residences, with
supported. by the whole State, not less weakening the foundations of prosperi- or fare at a discount, by suitable penal- plans and specifications, adapted
ng by Daide and Monroe counties than by ty. Therefore, we urge that the great ties. tohe Cotton Stats, to cost $500,
1a; Duval. It strikes us that Jacksonville class of honest and industrious produc- PRIVATE RIGHTS. $1,000, $2,000, $3,000, $4 000 and
10 ought not to be called upo for more ers cannot be too circumspect, for rob- Article XVI, Section 28. The Legisla- $5,000. Premium on each plan, $2,000
i;. oughtnot to be called upon for more ers cannot be too circumspect, fo, rob- tifre may provide for the drainage of the Model, with plans and specifi-
er- than a third of the funds needed. Other bers lie in wait in every road and by- land of one person over or through that nations, of Gin House for steam
ir- portions of the State would derive two- path of industry seeking to plunder of another, upon just compensation or horse power, to cost $500, 1,000
rs; thirds or three-fourths'of the benefit aris- those who endeavor to earn an honest therefore to the owner of the land over Same to cost $1,000, 2,000
st, ing from the increased travel, and ought living by honest labor. which such drainage is had. Same to cost $2,500, 8,000
y to bear that proportion of the necessaryection 29. No -private property, nor- Models, with, plans and specifi-
y to bear that proportion of the necessary right of way shall be appropriated to the cations, of Combination Barn or
Ily outlay, from which may be deducted the THE NURSERYMEN'S ASSOCIATION. use of any corporation or individual Stable for mules and horses with
value of exhibits furnished, though the u until full compensation therefore shall be arrangement for storing hay and "
A- premiums to hbe offered would offset In furtherance of Mr. VanDeman's first made to the owner, or first secured grain, with conveniences for
these in great measure. We desire to esire, as expressed in the las numb to desire, as expressed in the last number, to him by deposit of money; which com- feeding, and for the protection of
these fn oret easure. We d r t e as hexproesse of t sths n be pe nation, irrespective of any benefit wagons, farm implements, etc.,
- hear from our readers on this subject that the fruit-growers of this State from any improvementproposed by such for five, twenty, and one funded
for the Subtropical Exposition is a pro- might be brought into communication corporation or individual, shall be ascer- horses, Premium on each, 2,000
gs ject to which, the FARMER AND FRUIT- with the pomological division of the tained by a jury of twelve men in a Models, including plans and speci-
SGOWER offers itsmost cordial support. Department of Agriculture, weapplied court of competent jurisdiction, as shall fications, of Cottages for Labor-
Sto the Secretary of the Florida Nursery- be prescribed by law. ers, costing from $100 to $500,' r
he ASSOCIATIONS AND CONVENTIONS. men's Association for a list of its mem- -. FREE HOMESTEADS. obtaining two, three and four
article XVI, Section 5. The Legis rems, cWith galery and con-
s. hers. Our intention was to transmit thme. ture may provide for the donatohioftetihea- 'teniences.t-PremiUmeonpeach, 1,000
The Florida Nurserymen's Association list to Mr. VanDeman, but since .its rd- public lands to actual settlers, o Fo he best generalcrop, embrac-
is an organization in which we feel a ceipt we have decided to present t to donation shall not exceed eighty o ing otton, Grain and Grasses,
wih e elittdonation shall n e ieedenghtyacresto insuc roortin as will make
great deal of interest. .By adopting a him in print as below, s6a that our wide any one person. the ttn a surus money crop, 5,000
dt systematic method of work, .such, as is circle of readers may likewiseknow who For the greatest yield of Lint Cot-
-s pursued lay the Georgia Association, and represent one of Florida's most impor- The Governor's Proclamation, ton from one acre, 2,000
d by adhering to a straightforward, inde- tant interests: STATE OF FLORIDA, EXECUTIVE DEPART- For the greatest, yield of Shelled
g pendent poly we believe it will prove A. I. Bidwe, President Orlando. MENT. Corn from one are, .. 2,000 t
p t I v "t wlpv A. 1. Bidwell, President, Orlando. Forthe greatest yield of Threshed c
an.important.agency in advancing Flor- G. L. Taber, Secretary, Glen St. Mary. I hereby respectfully submit to the -Oats from one acre, .. 2,000 a
ida's industrial'development. J. B. Anderson, Treasurer, San Mateo.. people of Florida, the following, adopted For the greatest yield of Threshed t
We heard at Orlando, where it re- James Mott, Orlando. at a recent session of the Legislature of Wheat,Rye. Cow-peas or Barley, :
centlymetin convention, that effortsW. W. Hawkins, Lake George. the State of Mississippi, by a unanimous from one acre of each, 2,000
cently met in convention, that efforts Aaron Warr, Georgetown, vote:. For the greatest yield of Hay from -t
s had been made to incorporate this asso- A. J. Beach, Palatka. "An act. to Encourage the Cotton States one acre of each of the follow-
k ciation with the Florida Fruit Growers' W. F. Reed, Drayton Island. Agricultural Field-Contest, to be held in ing Grasses, viz: Timothy; Ger- p
- Association. In conversing with promi- E. H. Tison, Lakeland. the Autumn of 1888. man Millet,. Red Clover, Ber- ,
e nent nurserymen we found thestrong- P. W. Reasoner, Manatee. WHEREAS, The National Cotton Plant- muda, Orchard Grass, Herd a
i nent nurserymen we found them Strong- L. Wheatley, Altamonte. era' Association of America is"an insti- Grass,. Lucernfie, Alfalfa, Blue S
s ly opposed to. any such coalition. The Edmund H. Hart, Federal Point. tuition incorporated under the laws of Grass, Lespedeza. Premium on r
4 strength.of such an association consists F. S. Cone, Crescent City. the State of Mississippi for the public. each, .2,000 s(
e in its unity of purpose. Its members are W. C. Steele, Switzerland. weal- and, For the largest and best yield from c
G menho are working individually for a Campbell Lake Weir. eWhereas, The said association has al- one-acre of Sweet Potatoes, Irish
menwho are working individually for a Chas. B. Pelton, Lake Helen. ready done much good work and receiv- Potatoes, Turnips, Rutabagas;
common .purpose. Their subjects of A. H. Manville, Jacksonville. ed the substantial recognition of the Premium on each, 1,000 d
daily study are almost identical, yet W. H. Mann, Mannville. Government of the United States in the Each article contesting for a h
their daily experiences differ, and it is W. K. Cessna, Gainesville. matter of the W8rld's Exposition at premium to be accompanied by a
by comW.G. Tousey, Seffner. New Orleans, which was inaugurated by written ,description of time and
by communicating to each other the re- 0. R. Thatcher, San Mateo. -. its means and influence; and, mode of planting and cultivating,'
sults of their several experiences that N. Woodworth. Welaka. Whereas, the said association has now amount and character of fertilizers tl
- they can greatly benefit themselves indi- R. W. Pierce, Indian Ridge. inaugurated a Cotton States Agricultural used, character of land, etc. l
- vidually andcollectively. Jas. P. DePass, Archer. Field Contest, to be held in the autumn For the best acre of Tobacco, 1,000 t0
iWecannotsee how aR D. Hoyt, Bay View. of 1888, which designs through a series For the largest yield of Sorghum I
We cannotsee how a coalition with B. B. Else, Orlando. of large premiums for models of farm from one acre, 1,000
- another association could in the slightest A. L. Duncan, Dnedin. residences, gin houses and stables: also, For the largest yield of Ramie e0
degree benefit the nurserymen, though L.B. Skinner,'Dunedin on crops and agricultural implements, from one acre, .. 1,000 d
it is manifest that a union with such an E. B. Carter, Tampa. to promote the welfare of the people of For the largest yield of Jute from U'
Association as the Florida Fruit Gro.wers' A. W' Duncan, Clearwater. the Cotton States, and those having one acre, 1,000
Association as the Florida Fruit Growers kindred interests; For the best, cheapest and most ly
Associatfen would greatly strengthen LEGISLATIVE MATTERS Resolved, That the Legislature of the -durable Farm Fence, .- 1,000 ci
the latter. Such a union would weaken ', State of Mississippi recognize that'the For the best Farm Gate, 500 '6i
the usefulness of the Nurserymen's As- The Legislature which convenes at Cotton States Agricultural Field Contest For the best bale of short Staple of
tesfs The Legislature' h convenes at has "the highest aim for the good of the Cotton -weighing not less than. "si
sociation in various ways, one being Tallahassee on the 5th of-next April-has people, and is a movement in that direc- 450 pounds, e 5,000 st
this: it would introduce into their Con- a more important work to perform than tion,. and should receive the cordial en- For the second best bale of Short co
ventions discordant elements, and topics any preceding Legislature. At 'other dorsement of the people of the Cotton Staple Cotton, weighing not less sil
of discussion foreign to the purposes of periods of Florida's history there have developme and all those interested in their than 450 pounds, -Long 2,00taple de
the association. The time which can be been new constitutionis'to be put in op- resolved Thathis Legislature do in- or th e bet an le of Long Staple d
given to conventions is necessarily brief, ration by legislative enactments, but vite the people of the State of Mississippi weighing not less tian- 450
too brief to allow of a thorough review now the population and the interests af- to co-operate with the management of pounds, 5,000
of the subjects needing discussion, and fected are many times greater, and great the great enterprise in order that they For the second-best bale of Long s
it will be found in practice that the in public evils hav sprung up like weeds also invite the co-operation of the other land, weighing not less than450
production of topics not of special inter- to choke out enterprise and honest effort. Cotton states, and all agricultural and pounds, .. 2,000 n
est to the nurserymen will result in .dis- Hence there is need, as there never,was other public associations, to the end that For the best Cotton Gin, 5,000 na
satisfaction, loss of interest and indiffer- before, of backbone in the Legislature. united efforts may lead to the most For the second best Cotton Gin, 2,500 ot
ence about attending the conventions. The representatives of the people are Now, therefore, in view of the import- For the best Hay Press, 1,000 g
We take it for granted that these as- expected to act in conformity with the ance. of the contemplated contest, and of For the best Horse Power, 1,000 dri
semblages of the nurserymen are not for sentiment which prevails among their the great agricultural interests of our For the best Engine for Steam Gin, loi
mere recreation, but for the purpose of respective constituencies and most of section of country which it is intended from ten to thirty horse power, 2,500
mere .,ereain but forthe purpos o respective consitueniesand most of to subserve, and in accordance with the For the best Cotton Chopper, 2,000 in
gaining new ideas pertaining to the them will so act if made to know the sen- liberal invitation of the National Cot- For the best Riding and Walking ere
nursery business and of reducing the timent of their constituents. Hence, the ton Planters' Association, as well as that Corn and Cotton Cultivator, 1,000 ad'
pomology of Florida to a science. This people should give free and full expres- of the Legislature of the State of Missis- For the best Seed Planter and Fer- r
-being the case, persons who have not sion of their views. They should Speak sippi, I call the attention of the people tilizer Distributor 1,000 suc
beingthecase, p person who have not sion of their views. They should spe of Florida to, and recommend, that they For the best Sorghum Mill and her
such objects specially in view should not with a loud voice, the -voice which is take part in this deserving enterprise, Evaporator, 1,000 Sn
be eligible for membership, given to them by the press. A strictly and make timely and full preparation For a Cotton Picker or Harvester nec
The practical working of a mixed con- agricultural paper like this should con- for the same. I would also ask the.co- of such practical value as to be
mention was exemplified at Orlando, sider all questions bearing on the agricl- operation of all agricultural associations a salable article on the market, 10,000
mention was, exemplified at Orlando, ider all questions bearing on the agrictul- and other organized bodies interested in For Planters' Manual or Hand
when the nurserymen, by invitation, tural interests of our population, and we developing the resources of our State. Book of UsefulInformation, em-
met the fruit growers in joint conven- trust that there will be a free discussion The many and liberal prizes offered, bodying greatest amount of in-
tion. Time was divided about equally of such topics in our columns during the including liberal premiums for long formation in least space, book
between the two organizations and with next two months. staple cotton culture, the generous in- to become the property of the
the exceptionof.the -nurserymens own We would call attention in ,,particular portance of new and mproved imple- Forthe b Seed Cotton Clea r, J ,000 Ja
For the best Cotton Seed and Grain
For the best Cotton Gin Feeder, 1,000-
For Plantation Cotton Seed Oil
For the best Tile Machine, 1,0010
For Home-made Fertilizer, giving
the best results, with method of
making and applying. 2,0001.
For the best Commercial Fertilizer, 2,000t
The persons contesting for acreage and
crop premiums will be required to make-
affidavit after certain forms to be fur-
Plans of buildings will be considered;
with reference to their economy, dura-
bility, convenience in saving labor-
drainage, ventilation, protection fronmi
fire, heat and cold.
The Premium List as above printed,
will be materially changed and improv-
ed before finally adopted.
Premiums will be given for five acre-
crops in addition to one acre, and in.
many instances, 2d, 3d, 4th and 5th,
premiums will be added.
F. C. MOREHEAD,
President National Cotton Planters' As'n-
Hints to Correspondents.
The readers of the FLORIDA FARMER_
AND FRUIT-GROWER are respectfully in-
vited to contribute to its columns articles.
and notes- on all subjects pertaining to-
the farm, garden, orchard and house-
hold affairs. The range of topics whi6b
will be discussed in'this journal may be-
gathered from the subjoined table, which
may serve to suggest what might other-
wise escape attention: -
Clearing land, draining land, crops for-
new land, succession of crops, intensive-
farming, treatment of different -soils, :
resting land, soiling vs. pasturing, cow-
penning, green manuring.
Horses,' mules, cattle, hogs, sheep,.
poultry-Breeds, feed, diseases, treat-
Cotton seed, cotton seed meal, barn-
yard manure, guano, ground bone, su-
per-phosphate, gypsum, lime, kainit,
ashes, marl, muck, leaf mould, com-
Bermuda grass;, crab grass Pa gra grs
Guinea grass, Terrell gra, orchard
grass, red-top grass, Johnson grass, Texas.
blue grass, pearl millet, German millet,.
millo maize, kaffir corn, teosinte, sorg-
hum, fodder corn, cow peas, desmodi-
um, Mexican clover, lespedeza, 'alfalfa,.
Corn, oats, : rye, wheat-Varieties,.
yield per acre, soil and season, difficul-
ties encountered, general treatment.
Cotton-Long and ahort Staple- Plant-
ing and culture, marketing crop, man-
agement of sped, products from the-
Sngar Cane and Sorghum-Varieties,.
culture, making syrup and sugar, condi-
Lion of market.
Tobacco-Varieties, history in Florida,.
recent experiences, seed, culture manu-
Citrus Fruits-Comparison of varied
ies, hardiness and productiveness, meth-
>ds of propagation, methods of planting-
and culture, comparative effects of fer-
ilizers, marketing of fruit, preservation
,f fruit wine and other products.
Peach, pear, fig, persimmon, Japan
>lum, Kelsey plum. native plum, mul--
lerry, quince, apricot, guava, banana,.
pineapple sapodilla, mango, avocada,
pear, cocoanut, pecan, English walnut,
almond, pomegranate, olive, grape,
strawberry, blackberry, raspberry-Va- .
ieties, their characteristics, effects of
oil,. weather, etc., best methods of
Plants adapted to this climate, out-
oor culture, management of green-
NATIVE, TREES AND EERBS.
Planting trees for ornament or utility,
he burning over of forest .lands, the
timber and turpentine industries, the-
Inning industry, phenomena of plant
fe, weeds and noxious plants.
N. B.-Specimens may be sent to the
editor for identification. Information is.
desired respecting popular names and
We do not desire letters written niere-
yin praise of special localities unless-.
aims to favor are based on the products.
r productiveness of the soil. Articles.
& an animated or vivacious style are de-
rable by way of variety, but practical
atements and descriptions should be-
oncise and as much o-the point as pos- "
ble. u te poin as pos-
All communications for the editorial
apartmentt should be addressed to
EDITOR FARMER AND FRUIT-GEOWER.
TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN:
lixty days after the first publication of this i
tice application will be made to the .egls-
are of FlorIda, for the passage of a charter
the "Florida Fruit Exchange," whereby
e capital stock may be Increased to a sum
eater than Fifty Thousand Dollars: the par
ue of shares to be reduced from One Hun-
ed Dollars to Ten Dollars per share; to al-
w the corporation to purchase and convey
ih real and personal property as may be
imed necessary to Its usefulness.lnclud-
Svehicles of transportation; to lease or
sct buildings for storage .of produce, and
vance on produce; to manufacture and sell
nh materials as may be useful to fruit grow-
and gardeners, and generally to transact
h business as may for the interest of mem-
rs andothers connected with fruit growing
1 kindred pursuits, and for such other
wers and privileges as may be deemed
essary and proper.
GEO. R. FAIRBANKS,
GEO. H. NORRIS,
M. J. DOYLE,
T. W. MOORE,
J. D. MITCHELl
WM. E. STANTON,
Board of Directors,
Florida Fruit Exchange. "
bok sonvllle, Fla., Febrnsa i6^,lh87. -, -.. -a'
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, MARCH, 16, 1887,
HEE HARORT Editor.
HELEN HARCOU RT. Editor.
With a helping hand and a Welcome for all
Who-wish to be friendly and make us a call;
With words of good counsel for old friends and
Who come to us seeking the best way to do.
All questions of general interest will
be answered through these columns.
Personal inquiries will be answered by
mail when accompanied by stamp for
Subscribers are cordially invited to
take a seat in our Cosy Corner, and ex-
change views, experiences and recipes
of mutual benefit. "Help ye one an-
Communications intended for publi-
cation must be brief, clearly written,
and only on one side of the paper.
All matter relating to this department
should be addressed to
EDITOR OUR HOME-CIRCLE,
Fla. Farmer and Fruit-Grower,
Our Cosy Corner.
WILD FLOWERS OF FLORIDA.
We by no means propose to treat fully
or exhaustively of the title deeds of the
"Land of Flowers." Did we attempt so
formidable a task, we should ourselves
become exhausted before our subject
was even weary; moreover, our Florida
botanist is abroad, has ever been there,
instead of at home, and therefore the
time is not yet when all 6f her plant
children shall be known and recognized.
We propose to touch only here and
there amidst the profusion of luxuriant
growth that revels in our woodlands and
hammocks during the warmer months.
In her native climbing vines alone
Florida possesses a world of beauty, and,
judging by appearances, there would
seem to be a strange indifference or ig-
norance among the majority of our
householders, concerning the floral treas-
ures that lie almost at their very doors.
There is no need to send away to
Northern nurseries for climbers 'where-
with to adorn and beautify the Florida
Go into the hammocks in the spring
or summer, and there you will find
them, as many am d as beautiful vines as
any one could wish, waiting, "without
money and without price" to be trans-
ferred to a new sphere of usefulness, to
twine lovingly around pillars and lat-
tices, to play hide and seek over roofs
and corners and eaves, to cover up with
a beautiful cloak, all rough, unsightly
objects, to screen, to shade, to adorn; and
sometimes, too, to fill the air with fra-
Let those who have not tried it plant
vines freely around their dwellings, and
ere long they will marvel how so little a
thing can transform into a picturesque
and beautiful home the plain, square
frame house, with-its stiff, angular piaz-
zas and uncompromising-corners.
And the rough board fences; let a few
clinging vines clamber over them here
and there; leave a few stumps in the
clearing, from two to six feet high, and
plant running vines -at their base, the
transformation that will be wrought in
the whole appearance of the home sur-
rounding in a few short months, will be
astonishing to those who have not yet
experienced how rapidly our Florida
plants can grow when given proper' at-
As we have intimated, there is no need
to look beyond one's own neighborhood
for an ample variety of vines to accom-
plish these results.
Our space will admit the mention of
only a few of the more common ones,
though there are many others equally
The coral honeysuckle is one of the
most beautiful and graceful climbers to
be found anywhere; it does not cling, but
requires some support around which it
can twine; give it this and thereafter it
will take care of itself, and become
"a thing of beauty and a joy forever,"
for it isnot one of those vines that~drops
it leaves during the winter season; its
delicate green leaves mass together, and
early in the spring the brilliant coral red
clusters of flowers come peeping out
from their midst, forming as pretty a
picture as one need wish to see; later on,
these flowers are followed by clusters of
glossy black or red berries, which are
'well-nigh as beautiful in effect as, the
No Florida home should be without
the native coral honeysuckle twining
lovingly about it.
Then there is the Virginia creeper, so
familiar to every pne; it grows in lavish
profusion in the hammocks, and needs
only to be planted against a wall or fence
to straightway start out on its mission
of adornment; it needs no more care, no
trimming or guiding, it is an expert
climber, and attaches itself to any wall;
its delicate leaves growing'in clusters of
from four to six, but usually five, are too
well known to require description, and
the same is true of the black berries,
which follow the modest flowers; but
perhaps not every one has noticed how
fond the birds and poultry are of these
There is another point in connection
with. this familiar Virginia creeper, that
very few are aware of, though any one
may verify it by examination. It af-
fords one of the most remarkable in-
stances of adaptation to circumstances
known to botanists-when the tendrils
find a support around which they can-
not twine, they vary their form and ex-
-pand into disks, with which they can
cling to the surface with surprising ten-
acity. Look and see for yourself,-and
you will acknowledge that the Supreme
Power is everywhere watchful, and full
of resources even f9r the welfare of an
- humble plant.
The evening glory is still another of
Florida's 'beautiful wild flowers. The
vine. is a rampant grower, springing
from a tuber. Its leaves are somewhat of
.. the shape of thbse of the scuppernong
grape, only much more crinkled, and a
more brilliant green, but its chief beauty
is in the large, delicate pink flowers that
stud the vine all over as the sun goes
down, and remain open until his nightly
course is run,\and he peeps up again,
and then they modestly fold themselves
up and go to sleep until he retires once
On moonlight nights in the late spring
or early summer these flowers are seen
in their perfection, gleaming amidst the
dark shadows of the leaves.
The wonderful Bona Nox is another
-of Florida's plant children that should
be more widely known than it is. Some
call it the railroad ivy because of its
rapid growth and the resemblance of
its leaf to tIat of the English ivy.
It does not cling, but twines, though
often its growth is so rapid that the
long down-hanging shoots need to be as-
sisted to find a support.
One oddity of this vine is the dark
purple color of the stems; another, the
scanty way in which its leaves are dis-
tributed, long vacant spaces frequently
occurring; but the great wonder of all is
in its flowers.
They are large, almost star-shaped and
pure waxy white, beautiful in them-
selves, but curious in their ways.
Just as the sun is about to sink .be-
neath the horizon, take your station by
one of these vines, where the long white
blossoms are closely folded together, so
close that they look almost as if cement-
ed. Lower and lower sinks the sun, the
horizon is reached, but the blossoms)
give no sign, the horizon is passed, the
sun gone, and suddenly, presto! change!
the blossom flies wide open as though
touched by a wand, and cries aloud to
the departing sun, in that plant lan-
guage that we can see but not hear,
"Bona Nox!" Good night!
And all through the night the glorious
waxen flowers talk to the moon and the
stars, but beneath the first fiery glance
of the Day King they shrink and shut
The Family Friend.
Strawberries are the fashion about
these times, so here are some first rate
recipes for utilizing that delicious berry,
of which it has been well said': "Doubt-
less God might have made a better berry,
but He never did."
Squeeze the juice from freshly gather-
ed berries, for the slightest tendency to
fermentation will spoil the whole process.
Then let the juice drip, without squeez-
ing, through a flannel bag. To each
pint of this clear juice allow three-
quarters of a pound of sugar, which
must be unadulterated, if such can
possibly be procured. Put this syrup
over a briskly burning fire, and let it
boil hard just twenty minutes. Stir as
little as possible, and only at first, till
the sugar is dissolved, and then always
with a silver spoon. Do not attempt.to
make more than three or four pounds of
jelly at once, and attention to every
little particular direction given is neces-
sary to insure success. Jellying requires
more pains than almost any othtr pro-
cess of cookery. Strawberry jelly, when
well zhade, more nearly resembles guava
jelly than any other -that can be pre-
pared from the fruits of the temperate
Cap and pick over the berries; arrange
in layers, sprinkled with a good coating
of sugar between each layer, in a shell
of pastry. Fill it very full, as straw-
berries shrink much in cooking. Cover
with crust and bake.
STRAWBERRY CREAM TART.
Line a dish with pastry, and fill with
strawberries, made very sweet with
powdered sugar. Cover with pastry,
but do not pinch it down at the edges.
When done,- lift the top crust, which
should be thicker than usual, and pour
upon the fruit the following mixture:
One small cup of milk, half cream, if
you can get it, heated to boiling (con-
densed milk will do), whites of two eggs,
beaten light and stirred into the boiling
milk. One tablespoonful white sugar;
one half teaspoonful corn-starch wet in
Boil these ingredients three minutes;
let them get perfectly cold before you
put them' into the tart.
Replace the top-crust, and set the last
aside to cool; sprinkle sugar over the top
One quart strawberries, three pints of
water, one lemon (juice only), one table-
spoonful orange-flower water, three-
quarters of a pound of white sugar.
Marion Harland, from whose invalu-
able cook book, Common-Sense, we take
the above recipes, especially commends
the latter two as being "delicious." We
can also guarantee the following as
worthy of the same description.
CRUSHED STRAWBERRY ICE-CREAM.
One quart of rich cream, one pint of
milk, twelve ounces pulverized white
suear, two eggs; mix all in a porcelain
lined basin; set on the fire, stir constant-
ly to boiling point. Remove; and strain
through a fine sieve. Place in a freezer
and freeze. Hull one quart nice, ripe
strawberries, put in a china bowl and
add six ounces pulverized white sugar;
crush all down to a pulp; add this pulp
to the frozen cream, with two table-
spoonfuls of vanilla extract; beat it. in
well, and give the freezer a few addi-
tional turns to harden.
Take a cup of pulverized sugar, a half
cup of butter and beat together to a
cream; add the beaten yolks of five eggs,
then one pineapple grated; to this add
one cup of sweet cream, and lastly the
beaten whites whipped in lightly. Bake
with under crust only.
TO FRY EGG-PLANT.
Remove the purple skin, slice (across)
very thin; sprinkle salt on .both sides,
lay the slices one on another on a rather
deep plate, and place a heavy weight on
top-an inverted plate and flat-iron are
handy; let them remain over night or
several hours; this will draw out the bit-
Then dip each slice in a beaten egg,
then into bread or cracker crumbs, and
fry in boiling lard.
The slices can be broiled, if preferred,
and the egg and bread crumbs also
Bake good sized potatoes in the oven
for thirty minutes; take them out, and
with a fork carefully remove the insides,
preserving the shells whole; season the
potatoes with salt, pepper and butter;
fill the shells with it, put them in the
oven a few moments, and serve steaming
Have ready in a bowl a tablespoonful
of butter, made soft by warming a little
and stirring with a spoon. Add to one,
quart of unsifted flour, two heaping
teaspoonfuls of baking powder, mix and
sift thoroughly together, and place in
the bowl with the butter. With sweet
milk added, form a dough of usual stiff-
ness, stirling into the milk first a half
teaspoonful of salt. Knead the dough
and roll it half an inch thick, and cut
with a large round cutter; fold each one
over'to form a half round, wetting, a
little between the folds to make them
stick; place them on buttered pans, so
as not to touch each other; wash over
on top with milk to give them a gloss,
and bake immediately in a hot oven
about 20 minutes. It will do them no
harm to stand half an hour before bak-
ing, if it is desired.-Ohio.
A pair 'of boiled chickens, seven or
eight pounds in weight (not old fowls),
cut in small dice, about a quarter of an
inch square; two bunches (seven or eight
heads of celery), the white part only;
slit each head in half, wash well, leave
it in ice water some time to make it
crisp, drain well, cut the size of chicken;
add chicken and celery together in a
large bowl, season with white pepper
and salt to taste, use about half this
dressing; mix well, add two or three
tablespoonfuls of vinegar; dish up in a
pyramid shape, on a platter large enough
to put a border of lettuce, cut in shreds
or picked in small pieces, around it,
spread the balance of the dressing on the
top. put the lettuce and three hard boil-
ed eggs, cut in four pieces, lengthwise
around the dish, take the heart of a head
of lettuce and put in the centre; a few
capers sprinkled over the dressing is
Take a large, fresh cabbage and out out
the heart; fill the space with a stuffing
made of cooked turkey, chicken or any
meat except mutton or lamb; chop very
fine and highly season; mix with one
mashed potato, and the yolk of one egg
and two spoonfuls of the gravy stock,
roll in balls, and roll the balls in flour;
stuff the cabbage and place the loose
leaves which you have removed over the
hole at top and bottom with them, and
tie the cabbage firmly together and boil
in a covered kettle for two hours. The
water should be salted. It makes a very
delicious dish, and is useful in using up
small pieces of cold meat.-San Francisco
Our Young Folks Corner.
ITS STANDING OFFER.
A nice picture book each month to the
boy or girl wvho sends us the largest list
of subscribers for "THE FLORIDA FARMER
AND FRUIT-GROWER" during that month.
A beautifully bound copy of the fa-
mous children's magazine,St.Nicholas,to
the boy or girl who sends us the largest
number of subscribers during six-
Write us letters, descriptive of places,
things or doings; write us on one side
the page; give your age.
The best letter received, will be pub
lished each week.
.Now go to work and see who wins.
The Story of Picaro.
Six twittering, chattering birds, set-
ting all in a row, and staring right in at
me through the window I
That is what I saw when I looked up
to see what all the sudden fuss at Peek's
Now, I am very bashful, I always was
and the sight of those. six little heads,
and twelve twinkling eyes making a tar-
get of me, was quite embarrassing.
But I bore it with heroic bravery.
Peek and Brownie, Mrs. Peek, left the
children balancing themselves on the
edge of their shelf, while they jumped
down, and coming to the glass, tapped
solemnly at it, as much as to say.
"Here we are, babies and all, come for
And so they had! there was not any
doubt of that at all. Just as soon as the
little ones saw their parents pick up a
morsel, they all squatted down, flapped
their comical apologies for wings,
opened wide their mouths, and squacked
at the top of their voices.
And they kept Peek and Brownie
busy, running from one to the o'her,
snatching up a crumb, or a piece of egg,
or corn, and thrusting it into one of the
yawning mouths, which was no sooner
filled than emptied, until at last the old
folks grew weary of their never ending
task, and flew away, with the disconso-
late children tumbling, and pitching
andl fluttering behind them.
After that first time, the whole family
made a practice of coming several times
a day, and there were frequent famines
on their table-land.
It was really quite a tax to keep those
hungry little mouths filled, but we soon
found that these children, just like hu-
man ones, were not nearly as particular
as to what they ate, as the grown up
At first the young ones were timid
and easily startled (we often used to
wonder what they thought of the great
giants looking at them through the
glass), but they soon became used to us,
and evidently regarded us as very harm-
For several days they did not venture
to the window without Peek or Brownie
accompanied them, but little by little S
they grew bolder, and finally they came
together, the four young ones, andFLORIDA STEA SHIP LINE.
helped there selves from the small dishesNEW YORK & FLORIDA STEAMSHIP LIN
with perfect assurance. TRI-WEEKLY SERVICE BETWEEN
And now we saw a phase of bird-na-
ture which was so very human that we NEW YORK, FERNANDINA AND JACKSONVILLE,
had many a hearty laugh over it.
The little birds were just as able to Steamers are appointed to sail from Pier 29, E. R., N. Y., every Tuesday, Thursday.
feed themselves, after the first ten days, and Saturday, at3p..ew every .RIA
FROM JACKSONVILLE-C-EROIt'E (new), and SEMINOLE (new), every FRIDAY.
as ever they would be, and they proved FROM FERNANDINA-DELA WARE and YEMASSEE every MONDAY, p. m., CITY
it by eating as fast and as eagerly as OF ATLANTA and CITY OF COLUMBIA, every WEDNESDAY p. m.
Peek himself. The Freight and Passenger Accommodations by this Line are unsurpassed by any shipsin
When neither Picaro nor Brownie the coastwise service. For further information. apply to
When neither Picaro nor rownie CLARENCE WAGNER, Agt., J. A. LESLIE, Agt.,
were there to watch them, but the mo- Fernandina, Fla., Jacksonville, Fla., S. W. cor. Bay and Hogan.
ment that either of their parents alight- THEO. G. EGER, Traflic Manager, WM. P CLYDE & CO.,
ed by them on the shelf, they one and all 3, Broadway,N. T. General Agents, 35 Broadway, N. .
became perfectly helpless, and squatting dt e t e L e1 Xcrt
down, opened their mouths and l E eS" J 1Jl J: $o r
screamed for crumbs to be thrust into Is on the Line of the Florida Southern.
Any one who had not seen them feed- Unsurpassed by any other section for the production of Fruits and Vegetables. If you are cornm-
ing themselves, would have thought ing to Florida, whatever may be your means or condition, you will most assuredly be pleased witl
them a helpless, neglected quartette of f the Lake Region. For th paticulas address, S. L. REED, Pittman, la.
They only cheated poor Brownie thigh n T TT TT
way once or twice, because she soon \ A
went to setting on another:nest of eggs, I
but Picaro was a veritable victim. u L \ T E i. L
Whether the young ones came to the
table in his company, 'or whether he
found them there, it was all the same,
they must be fed. FOB REST OF HAMMOCK LAND OR BEARING ORANGE GROVES
Poor little Peekl we really pitied him
sometimes, he looked so desperate, with
those four open mouths all crying to
him for food at once; it was easy to see --CALL oN oR ADDREss--
how bothered he was.
Sometimes he had evidently made up
his mind to pay no attention to them,
and would come tapping at the glass, TA A T T
unheeding the screams at his ears. JA A I J
Then he would suddenly turn, snatch
up whatever came first, and thrust in
into the mouth of the one nearest him.
By the time he could snatch up another Ormnond a d dTen]yr r
morsel, the same bird was screaming Or ond Land Agency Or on .
for more. Generally the poor, distracted -
father would answer the call, but some- East Coast of TDlusia CD county,
times he would keep the tid-bit in his
own beak and run frantically up and l size.40xloo A, V, on Lake Kingsley, Clay Co., only $8. A
down, doubtful on which of the four | feetin choice 5-acre tract for an ORANGE
open mouths to bestow it. GROVE costs but $50.
open mouths to bestow it. High rolling Pine Lands, Salubrious Climate, a good invest-
But after about three weeks he re- ment. Send 2-cent stamp for Maps, etc., or remit P. 0. Order or
fused to feed them any more, and in- Bank Draft to JOHN T. TALBOTT, and get Warranty Deed, Title FLORIDA
stead carried the food away to Brownie, perfect, from the
the faithful little mother, and then a lit- TIR=OPICAT, "L.A.BTD O1V &PAA'-Y,
tie later, he seemed to keep watch over ..W..-
the table, for whenever the young birds P. 0. Box 158, Jacksonville, Florida, 39 w. Bay St.
came there, he pounced on them and
drove them away. h B Ver says, le
It was quite time, you see, that they estthansforthe r. dideed r, d fr
shoaild be earning their own living, and Itwouldbearather lengthy list if I should name all, but-
after a while they took the hint, and GO will say that amongst38 first, and 3 second prenMinm.
came no more. ^ e- awarded me at our fairs Northern Indiana and
But others came, a new set, and all -SotablehraMied raim ayouran:ia. What irm can bweat.
the old fun was gone over again. tabls' thrs?" Ai UesT BEYE, So. BD.-J, n .
Not once or three, but four times, and Seed of this qualityI lam now rsdy to sell to e.erry o
even for the fifth time, Brownie set out egetaleanFlowr e. Cataloure, for 187. Old emFomeM
to raise another family. saw Peek care-eednotrite for t. caloe ason the ve wild
But alas, one day we saw Peek care- P Sotato. JAS.J.H. BREGORVeedGrower, Marblehbad,Uam
fully guarding one little:bird, not fully.
fledged; it was. on the ground and he S WDon't Fail to visit Brooksville, Hernando Co., before you settle or
w as feeding it." ee.,.
For the happy little pair, Peek and invest elsewhere.
Brownie, were separated forever; their "THE BANNER COUNTY."
home broken up, their children all lost Awarded First Prize, $250, for Best General Exhibit at Sonlh Florida
save one, and the gentle little mother Exposition February, is7.
Some cruel hand of boy or'man had
done it all, and we wondered then, as T H E RA N
we :do now. what pleasure a human
being could find in destroying an inno- AL ESTATE A GEN Y
cent little bird on its nest, and killing or
leaving its young ones motherless and SE C ._ .
homeless. BROOKSVILLE, FLO RIDA,
Work for Our Cousins, --OFFER FOR SAL, E-
thatwillinterestthemandhelpbeautify Improved and Unimproved Town Lots, Orange Groves, young or mn
their homesBASKETS. bearing ck or Lands, Hig or Lo
The stands for these baskets are of Hammock Lands, and every grade of Pine.
black wicker work, small round tables
with two shelves. A hole is cut in each Pay Taxes for Non-Residents, Manage Property andr Collect Rents, anS
shelf and a large bathing hat is fitted in d
each, the crown downward. The braid do a large business in Loans.
around the edges of the shelves must be
gilded, also the rings. The brim of the There being no Usury Law in the State of Florida, Io to
upper hat has a full facing of blue satin.
A bag of the same is fitted into the 15 per cent. on unquestionable security can be obtained both
crown and, drawn together with a satin on Town and Farm Property.
ribbon. A bunch of artificial roses and
leaves is fastened on one side of the brim.
The under hat has a full facing of satin, B R 0 0 i V I Li
which is cut large enough to serve as a B IE
lining for the crown. A large ring is Situated on a hill, altitude 828 ft., only sixteen miles from the Gulf of Mexico,
fastened to the edge of the shelves be- is properly called
tween each one of the supports, and a HE HILL CITY OF OUTH FLORIDA.
broad band of satin ribbon, hand paint- "THE HILL CITY OF OUTH FLORIDA."
ed, is run through each ring, then crossed The County seat, with a stirring population of about 1,000. Fourteen well
to the lower shelf, where it is fastened to stocked Stores, Two Newspapers, Railroad and Telegraphic communication,
the leg with a double bow and ends. Churches and Schools, and numerous residences, surrounded by beautiful old
The outside of the straw hats may be bearing Orange Groves, presents to the Tourist, Settler or Investor, the most at-
gilded if preferred, tractive Town in Florida. Among these hills are to be found the largest and
A LIBRARY TABLE. most fertile bodies of Hammock Land in the State, heavily timbered with giant
An A LIBRARY TABLE. can wih Oaks, Hickory, Bay, Magnolia and other hard woods. No County in the State
An ordinary kitchen table can, with offers so many advantages in general farming, or yields such heavy crops of Rye,
an elittlegan trouble, be transformed into qte Oats, Corn, Cotton, Potatoes, Sugar Cane, Rice, etc.
an elegant piee top and legs ature smfor other Early Vegetables for the Northern Markets are grown with more certainy-
covered with green cloth; the seams of and greater perfection, without fertilizers, than in any section of the State.
the legs to be neatly sewed and the join- Special attention is called to the
ing made on the inside of the legthat it e ,% 0 >--I -* U -lC C -4 O V E
may not show. It is then -tacked at the
top to hold it in place. The cloth is A Great Bargain for a Capitalist or a Stock Company.
drawn smoothly o 1er the top and tacked This property is situated on the Withlacoochee River, and contains 820 acres
all around the sides. The head piece of the best orange land, about one-third of it being hammock. The river, oue of
extending rouud the sides of the table the most beautiful in the state, abounding with fish, forms its western boundary
must also be covered. An under shelf for one mile, and connects it by steamers with the Gulf, ihd with the F. R.-&-
is made of pine wood covered with N. Co's road at Panasoffkee, and with the F. S. Railway at Pembertoii's Ferry,
cloth and. fitted securely to the legs from which it is distant only about five miles. River and railroad transportation
about eight inches' below the top. A competing lines.
heavy cord fringe of green Worsted must There are 120 acres cleared, under fence and in cultivation. There are 1100
be fastened round the edge of the top, acres in solid grove. 600 old bearing trees, some of them being from 20 to O30
also round the shelf, with brass-headed years old. 5000 trees from 6 to 8 years, which have been well cared for, and will
nails about an inch and a half apart. A all be in bearing very soon, many of them bore this year. Three-fourths of'these
castor fitted into each leg will finish a trees are budded from the finest varieties, and the rest are sweet seedlings grown
very handsome table, from carefully selected seed. Valuable nurseries on the place containing about
VANILLA CARAMELS, 20,000 trees from two to four years old. There is also a na'ural or wild grove-on
Boil clarified sugar flavored with the this property, containing hundreds of thousands of budded trees and seedlings,
essence of vanilla until it is very brittle, from two to six years old, situated in a cove where they are protected on the
and then pour it out dn a very carefully north, east and west by woods and by the waters of the river and a beautiful lake.
oiled sheet of tin. When sufficiently The other improvements consist of a plain dwelling of six rooms, cistern,
cool to receive the impression of the outhouses, stables, etc. There is a splendid boat landing and wharf already
finger, mark out in squares an inch in built. The bluff above the landing commands a beautiful view of the river, the
size, after which glaze them with an- neighboring lakes and the hundred acres in orange trees. No- prettier sites for
other coat of sugar, then place them out winter homes on the Peninsula. TLe property being susceptible of division, will
in a dry place to harden, and put in an be sold as a whole or in smaller parts. For the whole, if sold the present season,
air-tight can for preservation, we will take
Canada Hard-Wood Unleached
S A G H S TOne-half cash, the balance on time to suit purchaser. What do experienced
ASHES Iorange growers, and they are the proper judges, think of such a price for suoh.a
Cheapest fertilizer in use, and free f'om nox- property? The 600 old trees are worth the money. The 5,000 young trees in
ions weeds. Supplied in car lots of 12 or more grove form are worth it. The seedlings in the wild grove and nursery are worth
tones. Guaranteed free of rubbish. Pit uin it. The land itself, located as it is, is worth at least one-third of'it.
Address CHASE. STEVENS, IC L, Y. TENNESS. J.C. PRESTO "
Box 437 Napanee, Ontario, Canado. LJ, Y. JENNESS. 3. C. PRESTON.
iLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, MARCH 16, 1887.
fi7v 1104, trate ti
Inquiries concerning diseases of domestic cipal gr
animals may be addressed to Dr. D. 0. Lyon, sedge' g
Jacksonville, Florida, who will answer them and dist
through this column. Mesqi
BRAHMIN OR ZEBU CATTLE. breed o
A Race of Cattle Specially moreevi,
Adapted to Warm Climates. ply of ch
We believe nothing has been said Sedgeo
heretofore in our columns of this inter- growth,
eating race of cattle. By way of intro- seas the1
duction we present in abridged form one quite, a
of two interesting articles by Albert pa *per
Montgomery, which appeared originally while t
in the Times-Democrat. Later we may developed
give the second article, which contains degenepr
the experience of various persons at the Brahmin
South who have owned these cattle: character
Feeling that whatever tends to stimu- not onle
late the growth of the South will meet magnifi(
with encouragement at your hands, I But th
ask in your columns, along with the fined to
Jerseys, Durhams and other breeds, a limited
place for Brahmin or Zebu cattle, an an- the hard
imal destined, I believe, to prove an im-
portant factor in building up the latent
resources of the country. While
Men formulate theories, and by con- gans, act
suiting the laws of breeding, assisted by era of en
climate and food conditions, build up an er of enr
ideal standard, and give their artificial singular
creation a name. This product we call seaua
a breed,.while we claim for the Zebu disease,
that he is a pure race and the parent of not trou'
all breeds. of the co
OF ANCIENT ORIGIN. all other
He is a native of India, known to pre- swamp l
historic ages, and through successive tick, and
times up to the present day has pre- fat and
served in the home of his nativity his murrain.
original identity and characteristics, As to t
whi'e other breeds in other lands, sub- customer
Ject to governing forces, are undergoing urged as
constant modifications, improved by in his bo(
cultivation, and degenerating under neg- Lowe sa
lect, which facts conduct us to the con- greasy s
clusion that he is of the Adam and Eve of the Br
creation, and the basis of all cattle, this bree(
In support of this assumption the as provide
caves of Egypt show drawings, made mal to
6,000 years ago, identical with the Zebus climates.
of the present day. in the sai
Some poet has said: "We. partake of mulation
the tints that color and the food that the wond
.nurtures." Climate, food and uses, com- this inhale
bined with the "survival of the fittest," absence (
has, after a lapse of centuries, left in hump of
each of the countries where we now find can be loo
distinct breeds, the type best suited for the clim
the climate; food and uses to which thev nature ha
have been habituated. "There:
Says -Dr. D. W. Watrous, of New ,istics of
Jersey, who in his prize essay on the their great
Jersey, traces her origin to the Zebu: they have
"The most distinctive differences be- also,. their
tween the Zebu and the Jersey are the and herbal
pendulous ears and the hump on the Again,
shoulders. Both of these differences hot clims
have in the lapse of ages been bred out the cold v
of the Jersey. In one noted herd the and near
writer noted one inbred family, the health a
members of which could be readily se- developed
elected by this feature." This in
We believe this to be the true origin which is 1
of the Zebu, but his birth is of small ported in
moment to this utilitarian and eminently gathered
practical age; it is enough to know that tended ex
he is a noble animal, and serves a useful
purpose. To look upon a Brahmin bull, A ]
in color like a fawn, fine hair, transpa- B
rent skin, erect head, long pendulous
'ears and magnificent eye, is at once to Editow .Flori
pronounce him an aristocrat. One of t
BEST ADAPTED TO THE SOUTH. that it sh
Coming from India, whose climate, work to be
soil and products partake largely of our properly a
own country, he is, in my opinion, the The first
only beef animal that, under our food convinced
and climate conditions, will develop to -was as n
his fullest native capacity. West.
But the highest value of the Brahmin To build
is not in the purity of his blood, but in millionaire
the wonderful power of this blood as a meet the r
cross in stimulating the growth and de- the object
velopment of the low order of the cow were inte
family, and as a means (by cross), and ants" wer
the only means, of acclimating and consulted.
bringing out in this climate the good These la
qualities of those domestic breeds, Dur- rations of
hams, Devbns, Herefords, etc., on which outlay-as
so much money has been spent, and to good sized
so little purpose. The. ups
The last Brahmin importation to this the follow
country (excepting my own) dates back feet by 20
thirty or forty years, and though not floor, and
bred with the object of preserving their Thel gend
purity, but widely scattered, and used rows 8 inc
only for their immediate value as a cross These are
upon the common scrub, there are to- which the
day in the swamps of Mississippi and The cow
Louisiana, and on the prairies of Texas, with shor
many strongly marked representatives pass the w
of the breed. taking up
And wherever these animals are found leaves for
they are appreciated and held at a high each side
monied value. each side h
Monied value. on; in co'd
Brahmin calves are by common con- boarded' u
sent acknowledged to be the largest of In order
any breed, and on this market will com- from miled
mand from $2 to $4 more than other, be delegate
calves, and when in mature form are the structu
large enough forothe export trade, and as air tight
as such will command from one to one improvemi
and one-half cents per pound more than mathemati
ordinary butcher beef, and this the ed quanti
staple the South produces. Every pound ed quneralim
you add to a bullock increases the value the shelter
of flesh you build upon, and we will
neV'er grow an animal of creditable WAVERL
size, until we learn to pay less attention Fla., J.
to blood and more to climate, or rather'
to adopt blood t') climate. PROP
SA merchant at New Orleans as he notes
the arrival of cattle can tell at a glance Careful
the degrees of latitude from which they
come. If from the North or Northwest, be
they are, as a rule, large, well developed In a rece
animals, and continue to grow smaller Consul at
as they descend the scale (southward) of on the qu
latitude, given. In
SMany have attributed the diminutive the feeding
size of Southern cattle to their inferior that these
character, and sought to improve them with great
by a cross with the Durham, Hereford, only do the
Holstein, etc., believing the remedy the side tee
lay in the infusion of new and superior mation, bei
There is some improvement, but it is mrovet bui therefore,
only temporary, as the animal, yielding required at
to climatic influences, soon degenerates be derived
in size and stamina., be given in
WILL FEED ON COARSE GRASSES. It has b
To give a clearer idea and better illus- given to .s
he superior value of Brahr
aside from the question
let me explain: The two pri
asses of Texas is mesquite a
*rass, and they grow in separ
quite has no superior, and a
of cattle, even that hot-hou
he Durham, and other popu
whose constitution demands
gorous climate and liberal sa
choice food, under favorable co
will do fairly well there.
grass, while of a luxuries
has a hard fibre, does not p
nutritive properties of the m
nd no animal with a delicate
ed constitution will thrive on
he Durham, which must
ed to his fullest capacity
ate into a scrub, would die. T
n, with his digestive organs
er like that of the ostrich, w
y live there but develop ini
ie Brahmin should not be co
sterile lands and his usefulni
to the conversion into flesh
est and weakest of grasses.
SA HARDY ANIMAL.
their wonderful digestive o
tive disposition and great po
durance fit them to the poor
range, the fact that they a
ly free from the destructi
red water or murrain and al
bled by that pronounced enemy
ow, the tick, adapts them abo
breeds to the low, rich, w
hands where dampness breeds t
d rich pasturage and excess
resultant, high blood,produ
he hump, which to the una
eye is thought to disfigure, ai
an objection to the Brahmi
)k entitled "DIomestic Animals
,ys: "The accumulation of
substance above the shoulder
ahma bull and other cattle
d, may reasonably beo consider
ded by nature to enable the an
live and thrive in very warn
The camel's hump seems to 1
me way provided for the acci
of nutritious substances, giving
lerful power of endurance t
bitant of the desert, even in th
of food and water. Thus th
the Brahma in warm climate
oked upon as adapting him t
ate and condition in whe
as placed him.
fore the principal character
the Brahma cattle consist i
it'speed and strength, itb which
e no rivals in other breeds, and
r fitness to Southern climate
Buffon says: "The Zebu is
ite animal, and cannot stan
weather of high latitudes. I
the torrid zone, his strength
nd finest qualities are bes
production to the Brahmin
largely theoretical, will be sup
my next by established facts
from a varied and widely ex
Leon County Barn.
IY WM. B. SCHRADER.
ida Farmer and l.Muit-Grower:
;he chief requisities of a barn i
iould be so built that all the
e done in it can be performed
t winter spent here in Florida
I us that good shelter for stock
necessary as in the North o:
d one that would not require a
e to advance the funds and to
requirements above stated, was
of many discussions. Planters
reviewed, the "oldest inhabit
e questioned, and books were
tier generally contained illus
structures requiring a large
much as would purchase a
shot was, however, a barn of
ding description : It is 100
feet; 7 feet to joists on second
will hold about 50 cows.
eral plan is: there are three
h pitch pine posts 10 feet apart.
capped by 7 inch plates, on
jois's and studdings rest
s are simply tied in their stalls
t ropes. A large wagon can
hole length of the barn for
manure and delivering oak
bedding. The lower part of
has 6 inch fence boards nailed
weather these spaces can be
to obtain satisfactory results
h cows, open air penning must
ed to the past; and, although
re we at present possess is not
t as it should be, it.is a big
ent. It would not take a
cian to figure that the increas-
y of lacteal fluid obtained and
provement in stock would pay
in one year.
Y STOCK FARM, Leon Co.,
an. 5th, 1887.
ER CARE OF SWINE.
Management Found to
nt report of the American
Copenhagen, some particulars
estion of pig breeding are
the first pace, with regard to
g of pigs, it is 'pointed out
animals devour their food
Srapidity. The front teeth
Sduty of picking up the food,
sth, from their particular for-
ing unable to "masticate, it
or to mix it with saliva, it is,
important, in order that the
mount of nourishment should
from the food that it should
an easily digested form.
een' found that corn, when
swine in its entire state, is
min passed away in an undigested condition SILK CULTURE. moved, especially during the as few
of to the extent of 50 per cent In prepar- sta especially during theast few
-in- ing the food, it is important it should be At regula. p d ./ i e
and first boiled or seamed, and if this is not The History of the Industry the silk worm molts, or ch.ges its skin;
rate possible, thecorn, etc., should either be and Requisites to Success. these molts take place at intervals of
ground or bruised, or allowed to soak be- ive, f our, six and eight days, and the
any fore use; if roots, they should always be BY C. M B. intervals between the molts are called
lar DIFFERENT KINDS O FEED. In the pages of Gibbon-"luminous" ages. At the end of ,the fifth age the
s a To what extent is it necessary to re- "voluminous," as a Sheridan may de- worms are ready to- spin, which readi-
ip- sort to extraneous kinds of fodder must ide-few capers are more interesting ness may be discerned by the fact that
upon- of course depend upon the farmdder'sustwn than that which treats of the introduc- they cease to eat, diminish in size and
on- of course depend upon the farmer's on tion of silk rearing into Europe. become transparent; then branched
us thpplies It may be noted, however, on Long before the Europeans knew even twigs, bundles of straw, or paper cornu-
os- the authority of the report, that maize the nature of silk, the Chinese were Icopias should be provided for them to
es- or rice meal, mized with the potatoes or possessed of "the insect which is taught cling to. From eight to ten days should
es- roots, and especially when a small quan by nature, and of the workmen who are be allowed for the worm to finish the
or tity of animal kng matter is added, has instructed by art, to prepare this elegant co andass into the chrysalis state,
t shown strikingly favorable results. Lin- luxury." then, if the cocoons are intended for
be seed cake is very useful for pregnant or Many allusions to the brilliance and themarketthey should be stifled so as whi
or sucking sows, as well as for young pigs, lustre of the Chinese fabrics may be to destroy the life of teboith fomwthc
he as it assists in the production of milk. found in the works of early Greek writ- would otherwise, by issuing from the
in Animal food, owing to its richness in found n the works of early Greek writ- would otherwisrans of siss and ren-
'ill albuminous matter, thereby promoting ers, one of whom, supposing silk to be ocd on testrands of silk and ren-
to rapid growth, is also thereby prcommended for of vegetable production, writes that derlt unfi for reeling..
te id growth, is also recommended for f will be seen that silk culture maybe
ioig breeding; but this food should be from flowers of every varying hue, the red into-at least for experimental
n- given with sufficient quantity of othe glossy down is gathered and prepared ed into-at least for experimental
on- given with a sufficient quantity of other for the loom. After many years the purposes-by all who can devote
ess feeding stuffs, free from nitrogenous Persians learned the art of silk manu- SIX WEEKS OF THE YEAR
easy of digestion. facture, and in the sixth century two to the work, and who are possessed of
As regards farm produce, the report monks carried in a hollow cane a nium- ordinary skill and patience; and we hope
As regards farm produce, the report her of the eggs of the silk worm, with that at no distant day it will prove a
p- affording a wholesome diet, are of great directions for raising the worms and resource to many who find the struggle
w- importance as food for swine whilst oatsreeling the silk, from Persia to C6nstan- for maintenance a hard one. Few may
ist especially, will be found to have a verwhilst oats tinople. Until the time of the Crusades, be able, or willing, to establish large
re favorable influence on sow's milk Pveas the, culture of silk was confined to cocooneries, but fewer still are unable-
ve are also highly estimated, but it is ad- Greece; in the twelfth century it was in- to establish and manage small ones which
so visible that they should be first allowed produced into Sicily; in the thirteenth, will prove remunerative. Let us not
Iy. to sprout, then dried and afterward llowedinto Italy; in the fourteenth, intd Spain despise the day of small beginnings.
ve bruised., and -France, and in the fifteenth, into So interesting is sericulture, that I
et Great care must be taken when feed- England think all who have engaged in it will
he ing with husk cereals to watch the ani- We have accounts of silk raising in agree with Miss Rossitur, who says:
e mals closely, as such food is difficult of North America from early Colonial "Those not wishing to enter into silk
ce digestion, especially by the young pigs. times. King James endeavored to es- raising as a business, but who take an
The sows should never be fed with it as tablish the industry by law. In 1565 "a interest in nature's wonderful works,
,c- it operates injurious on the milk organs; royal robe" woven from silk raised in should raise silk worms insmallnumbers
id sucking pigs are also liable to obstruc- Virginia was sent to King Charles the for the sake of watching their habits.
n tIon from this food. ae Second; Oglethorpe introduced silk cul- Day by day as they grow, it is a most
, In respect to the various kinds of roo ture into Georgia, and Law carried it interesting and beautiful study. So
Ina thereporet points outthat pkiotatnds of rooted s into Mississippi; by the Huguenots it short is the life of this industrious
Most to e recommended, but they was introduced into South Caro'ina. creature, that no lover of nature and her
of should never be givrecommen when sproutithey Connecticut was the first Northern State mysteries can possibly tire of watching
of as the srouts contain narcoticpro mattering, to undertake the new industry, but with its rapid growth, its constant feeding,
SInjurious o digestion, and whnarcoti matter what success we are not informed. day and night, its preparation for its
Sinjurious to digesquantities are found to be pois- Yet, although experiments proved that final work for the benefit of mankind,
Sin large quantities are found to be poous. silkof excellent quality could be raised and then, covering itself with its silken
b The results of several experiments in the Southern Colonies, our ancestors shroud, disappearing from our sight for-
Sshow that it is more advaentageous to seemed with one accord to have consid- ever."
o feed with boiled than with raw podvantageousto ered more satisfactory the staple crops TALLAHASSEE, Fla.
e Last year ten young pigs from the same of-tob cco, corn, and finally cotton, ande
e litter were divided into two groups whe the culture of silk was virtually aban- Thin Woth
ie litter were divided into two groups when doned for a long period. Things Worth Knowing.
e they were 2 1-2 months old, of which ned for a long period. S r Knowing.
o one lot was fed withboiledand theother At the present day, the raising of silk A bag of hot sand relieves neuralgia.
n with raw potatoes Each group rceiv other is one of the important industries of the Warm borax water will remove dan-
an addition 2 1-2 lbs. of ba-ley, which to United States, and in some sections, bids druff.
r- the first was given in a boiled, and to fair soon to rank as a leading industry. Salt should be eaten with nut' to aid
n the other in a bruised shape. Three This is particularly the case in California, sion e eaten with nuts to aid
h months later, the increase in the weight Mississippi ad Louisana dgetion.
, of the pigs which had been fed upon CONSIDERED AS A HOME INDUSTRY. terMilk whbutterich stands too long makes bit- i
S boiled food was 173 lbs., whilst that of The subject of silk culture in' Florida ter butter.e
. the other group was only 115 lbs. merits earnest attention, and it is neces- usith flat-irons should be rubbed over
a CLEALINESS. sary that it should be discussed in a spirit with bees wax and lard.
d Apart from the question of feeding, uninfluenced by prejudice against, or It rests you in sewing to change your
n great attention should also be devoted over-enthusiasm for the industry. So position frequently.
to the care of pigs; the main point is a far, little has been done, save by way of A hot, strong lemonadetaken at bed-P
t careful regard to the skins, as a sound experiment, but these experiments do time will break up a bad cold.
e of the skin tends to maintain the most assuredly lend the weight of their up a cold a
activity of all the internal organs. That testimony to the assertion that silk. few Tough meat is made tender by lying a .
-. pigs are greatly improved by cleanliness equal to any in the world, may be raised few tes in vegar water. o
Swill soon be shown in their general ap- in Florida. The climat- is favorable, A"little soda water will relieve sick
.' pearance and fineness of their bristles. the soil is adapted to the growth of the headache caused by indigestion, ti
Experience has long shown that food is mulberry, and labor is cheap. "There- A cup of strong coffee will remove the
more profitably consumed by swine fore," writes Mrs. E. C. Long, "fear odor of onions fromthe breath.
kept clean than those uncared for. nothing.' Plant mulberries, and plenty
The report cites the following exam- of them, and Osage orange, if you pre- Handling Colts. T
pie. Six pigs of equal weight were fed fer it, and the rest will follow as cer-Handling Colts. t
for seven weeks on a uniform diet, three thinly as the rains fall and the sun The proper time to begin handling a Pi
of them being daily kept clean with a shines." colt is before it is a month old, and it ri
s command brush, and the other three Those who make sericulture a busi- should be handled from that time,
e being kept in an unclean state. The re- ness will not, we believe, be disap- enough to make it thoroughly gentle at
d sult showed that each of the clean pigs pointed, but it is ratliher as an auxiliary all times. Before it is three months old
had increased by 30 lbs. more in weight industry that it seems desirable. It it should be made to know what it is to A
Than the others. On one farm in Den- calculated to add materially to the in- be altered, and to lead by the halter, hi
k mark, where pigs were daily washed come of families, and furnishes occupa- The next best thing is to handle the colts fo
r there was not a single case of hog dis- tion to all who, from any reason, are patiently as soon as it can be done, if not
ease during three years, although it was without particular employment. Aged yet begun. A two-year-old, three-year-
t very prevalent in the neighborhood, persons, invalids and children may en- old (or older), should first be handled
* The report points out that the styes gage in the work, which requires little singly, having a successive experience A
s should be so constructed that the pigs physical strength, but intelligent direc- with the halter, bridle, harness, and fol- ex
s can feel perfectly comfortable in them, tion and unfailing patience. e lowing these, a smooth log of wood for
Sfor then onlywill they thrive. The stye Let the industry be encouraged, it to drag. It can first be led, then fol-
e should not e exposed too much to the When we have more silk-raisers, -we lowed with a line until it gradually
cold winds, nor to the heat of the sun. shall have more silk-mils in operation learns to be guided by the line. It
- Thetemperatureofthe stye should e and much money will be kept in the shouldbecome fully familiar with the A
e kept as near as possible between 50 de- cou try, which is Dow sent out of it. rattling of vehicles, the sight of umbrel- ze
agrees to 59degrees, Fahrenheit; too great The demand in our home markets for las, robes, etc., before venturing out in ce
heat is liable to bring on blood disturb- the raw material is on the increase, and double team.-NationalLiveStock Jour-
f ance, and when the stye is too cold the the silk-raiser will have no trouble in nal.an
Spigsrequire too much food to keep up disposing satisfactorily of his cocoons. a
Rathe necessary warmth in the body. SERICULTURE IN PRACTICE. Rubbing warts with lemon juice three of
are a great source of trouble, and are Any room or house which is well or four times a day, it is said, cause them
stated to have been one of the causes of lighted and ventilated, and which can to disappear within a month. T
the outbreak of the trichina disease; all be kept at a uniform temperature, may "Oh, dear !" sighed widow Jones, "if
possible means should therefore he be used as a cocoonery; a northern ex- John had only made a will, there would ho
adopted to get rid of these pests, and posure is best, as excessive heat should not be all this trouble'about the proper- ke
one of the best is by constructing the be avoided, and by white muslin cur- ty." "Do the lawyers bother you ?" k
floor in a solid manner with bricks and tains, or some other means, direct sun- "Bother me They almost worry me to T
Cement, and on no account with wooden light should be excluded; it must be re- death. I declare, I sometimes wish John
materials, which rapidly decay-Farm membered thit drafts upon the worms hadn't died."
and Home. are injurious, therefore, ventilation
should be secured from above. Close, ,ROYAL PAL, NURSERIES
Poultry Notes. hot air is as injurious on the one hand
lt y a Nd t es. as a sudden cooling of temperature is on
properly cared for, will lay her weight Whe the mulberry eaves begin to IRare tropicalsNATEEntaland fruit lants for
in eggs in two months, pe preparations for hatching the eggs open air culture in Florida, and for the North-
Raw onions chopped fine and mixed may be made. They should be kept at, ern greenhouse. Also, a fullline of semi-tropi-wi
with food twice a week, is better than a a very low temperature until needed ical trees, plants and grasses, and general nur- sp
dozen cures for chicken cholera. and the temperature increased 10 or 20 a exotics from India, Australia and the West
Powdered charcoal mixed with soft day.until 780 or 800 is reached. The Indies, many of them never beforeintroduced am
feed assists digestion and prevents dis- worms usually hatch out in the morning, into the Unitd States. re
ease. It is also an excellent purifier. and not all on the same day. The tropical and i-tropical plants publishednf
To increase egg production, put a few worms of each day's hatch should be America. atalogue postpaid onre
ears of corn in an oven and reduce to kept separate. ceipt of 1i cents. Free to all customers, it
charcoal and feed to fowls two or three As soon as they are hatched and re- REMnte l orida pe
times a week. moved they should be fed with tender Manatee, Florida pa
Ducks should never he kept in the leaves, and the feeding should be re-' RILEY, 4ROVER & CO., P
am k shous wth ch en n in the peated every two or three hours during STATE AGENTS FOR
garden, except young ducks, which are fore each feeding mosquito netting RASIN FERTILIZER CO'S
The continual use of sulphate of iron fresh leaves laid upon it; the worms will
to the drinking water is almost a sure come up through the meshes, and the SOLUABLE SEA ISLAND GUANO on
preventative again gapes. Take one- refuse can be removed. When the worms Six
quarter pound sulphate of iron and become larger it ise only necessary to DISSOLVED BONE AND ALKALI Th
pound it up fine in any old vessel strong sprinkle the leaves over them. Crowd-
enough to stand the pounding; pour ing must be avoided, and the PHOSPHATE,
upon it one gallon of boiling water. Al- space allowed must be increased
low the contents to stand two or three as the worms grow. The leaves AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN mu
dais, and then use in quantities suffi- fed to them must be both fresh FRUITS AND PRODUCE.
cient to give all drinking water the char- and dry. For young worms only small P CE. C
acteristic taste of iron. and tender leaves should be gathered. Get our Prices before buying.
Asthma is sometimes almost inst After the second age small twigs may be
Asthma is sometimes almost instantly cut with the leaves, as the twigs secure END YOUR o
Whole cloves are considered a more ciworms. b >o fio ed sh
effectual moth-destroying agent than to- As cleanliness is of the first impor- JOb prii
bacco or camphor, tance, all litter should be carefully re- TO THE TIMES-UNION JOB ROOMS.
This journal wil have for its leading object
;he promotion of rural industries in Florida, and
will advocate especially a more diversified and
intensive system of agriculture and greater
economy of home resources.
Assuming that the agricultural adaptations o
a large portion of Florida are as yet but imper-
fectly understood, a special aim of this iourna
will be to describe the best results which have
been accomplished, with the exact methods em- :
ployed, and all influences affecting such results';,
a)so to suggest experiment, describe new or little
known crops, fruits, etc., and record the progress
f agriculture in neighboring States. .
Commencing with the first number and con-
inuing through the season for
Therc will be a series of articles on fruits-other
ian tho e or tho citrus group-which have
roved most successful in this State. Each va-
ety will be described and
nd there will be notes from persons who have
id experience in its cultivation. This will be
allowed by a similar series on
nd other subjects will be illustrated to a limited
Much attention will be devoted to
nd to the home production of forage and fertile
ers, two economies which are essential to sue
Questions relative to ailments of domestic
limalswill be answered by an able veterinary
rgeon who formerly edited a like department
Curf, Field and Farm.
A due amount of space will be devoted
usehold economy and to reports of the mac
ts. and the departments of
11 be contributed to by persons who have made
ecialties of those branches.
All portions of the State will receive a due
mount of attention, and their interests will be
presented by able correspondents.
Under no circumstances will this journal be-
nme the "organ" of any association or locality
will start out untrammelled and will repre-
it all sections .and interests with absolute im-
iblished at Jacksonville on Wednesda
of each week.
PRICE OF SUBSCRIPTION:
e Year 2 20
x Months 1 00
tree Months 50
SPECIMEN COPIES PREE.
Address subscriptions and other business com-
. H. JONES & BRO.,
Communications for the editorial department
ruld be addressed to
A. H. CURTISS, Editor,
PRIC O'* UB \ORIPTIO :;, ;
A CHEAP AND PRACTICAL POULTRY
HOUSE FOR THIRTY FOWLS.
Prizes Offered for Exhibits Hi, Horticult-
ural Products-Agricultural News from
Many Sections of the Country-How
and WIh n to Prune Blackberries.
Amateurs are always at a loss as to the
---best time and best methods of pruning.
the experienced grower knows that good
fruits 'alone yield him ,profit, while the
production of inferior ones is inevitably
connected, with a loss. He knows, too,
that it is the neglected, unpruned bushes
That yield 'the small, dry and flavorless
raspberries arid blackberries.
For the benefit of amateurs we let
an experienced grower give a chapter
from every day life. Following are Mr. E.
P. Roe's opinions, as expressed in Orchard
and Garden: The most judicious method
consists in "heading or pinching back" the
main canes during the growing season.
The energy of 'the plant is thus thrown
into that part which is to be retained for
fruiting. Stout, well matured canes and
strong laterals arhe result of such
In order'to make the matter quite plain
to beginners, is published a cut showing
-two blackberry plants as they appear on
or about the 1st of February, when prop-
erly pinched back last season; also one
plant as it will appear after its first prun-
Blackberry and black -raspberry plants
when thus pruned ought not to stand over
three feet high. For the red raspberries,
Mr. Roe prefers the "pinching back"
method in the fall, without any further
pruning.. In strong clay soils, the latter
are liable to sucker much too freely, and
need a general overhauling, thinning and
cleaning up in the spring. This spring
pruning may now be done at any time
when the weather will permit.
Now is a good time to feed your crops.
Well composted barn yard. manure, free
from weed seed, is all right for straw-
berries and raspberries. Wood ashes are
one of the best fertilizers, and may be ap-
plied at the rate of- from fifty to 100
Sbushels to the acre and. perhaps upward.
Carbonate of potash, one of the chief con-
stituents of wood ashes, tends to retain
moisture-just what i, ned-eed in the
strawberry patch. Ashes, therefore, are
doubly valuable, as they supply both food
If ashes are not' at hand, or too expen-
, sive, muriate of potash and pure bone dust
may be applied. 'Mr.-T. H. Hale, recom-
mends a mixture of 500 pounds of the
former and 1,000 pounds of the latter per
acre, and this, we believe, is about correct
in most cases; but less potash will gen-
erally do on clay soils, while more of it
may be beneficial for very sandy soils.
A Convenient House for Fowls.
There is no kind of use to feed fowls
-well and then fail to keep them warm and
and dry. They will not, indeed -they can-
mot, give egg profit when not comfort-
ably housed during inclement weather.
Warmth and comfort through the winter
season is the great secret of success.
A PRACTICAL POULTRY HOUSE.
The sketch for a poultry house-here
given is designed for twenty-five to thirty
fowls, and makes a practical and comfort-
able-house. The ground plan may be
about 10x20 feet and 5 or 6 feet high at
the corners or eaves. There is a division
in the middle, with a good sized window
in each division facing the south, and a
pair of shutters to each window for clos-
ing up at pleasure; outside door on the
west end. roosting racks in each division
and nest boxes in the west.
L D w
GROUND PLAN OF POULTRY HOUSE.
Line the whole inside with black build-
ing paper for warmth.. The tar in dark
paper is not inviting to lice and other ver-
min. A poultry yard may extend either
way from the building, with a door or pas-
sageway for convenience.
A World correspondent, who has test-
ed this poultry house, says with regard to
breeds: "I prefer the Plymouth Rocks
and Brabmas for the whole year round' to
an- yther. They are good for eggs and
vey' quiet. The Rock chicks are hardy
and get their growth early.' The flesh of
either kind is excellent.
"The tidy little Lezhorn is considered a
non-setter and an everlasting layer. It is
constitutionally shy, nervous and peppery,
and cannot keep still long enough to hatch
out a family of chickens. Its weight is
light, and the flesh not as good as most
"The only objection I ever heard against
the Rocks is that they like to set pretty
often. I think myself they do, but they
are easily broken up and soofi return to
their former usefulness."
How and When to Run the Plow.
As *the time and manner of plowing
varies to meet the requirements of differ-
Pnt soils and localities, no definite rules
may be laid down by which to govern the
operation, but each piece of land must be
considered by itself and broken up at a
season and in a style best suited to its own
necessities. There are, however, some
general principles underlying the whole
matter which will assist each farmer in
deciding whether he shall practice fall or
spring plowing, and at what depth to
to set the plow.
Light, sandy land, generally speaking,
should be plowed in the spring and ex-
perience has proven, in most cases, that
land near the sea, which is rarely covered
with snow, produces better when broken
in the spring, than if this be done in the
autumn. On the other hand, heavy clay
soil appears to require the alternate freez-
ings and thawings of winter to pulverize it.
Fields foul with weeds are greatly bene-
fited by fall plowing, Which turns un-
der the noxious growths with the stalks
of the crop, before their seed matures, and
not only destroys them, but forces them
beneath the land. The exposure of pesti-
lent insects to the weather is another ar-
gument in favor of fall plowing. '
The depth of the soil and the character
of the subsoil, must determine the ques-
tion of deep and shallow plowing; the sub-
soil, as a rule, ought not to be brought
out of its bed except in small quantities,
to be exposed to the atmosphere during
the winter and spring, or in a summer
fallow, nor even then except when such
fertilizers are applied as are necessary to
put it at once into a productive condition.
The indifferent soils of opposite character,
as a stiff clay and sliding sand, sometimes
occupy the relation of surface and subsoil
to each other. When thoroughly incor-
porated and subjected to deep cultivation,
these will produce a soil of greatly in-
creased value. River soils, having good
natural drainage, take kindly to deep
plowing, as do the black, porous and fertile
limestone soils. Land that is dry, with
but a few inches of good soil, willinot, of
course, produce as good crops by deep, as
by shallow plowing. Deep plowing is ill
advised when a basin is formed below a
certain line in which water will settle and
remain until it can escape by evaporation.
Such soils require drainage, after which
the plow can be set deep.
To sum up the whole subject briefly:
thin soils with worthless subsoils must be
plowed shallow until the farmer can af-
ford the expense of subsoiling and heavy
manuring for a number of years. Deep
clay loams and alluvial soils bear deep
plowing. Wet lands should be drained
previous to deep plowing. The meditmn
course, i. e., plowing from five to six'
inches deep, is exempt.rom the injurious
results of the two extremes.
Horticultural Exhibitions and Rrizes./
A schedule of prizes offered by the
Massachusetts Horticultural society for
the year 1887 has been issued. As com-
petition is open to all persons' the at-
tention of exhibitors-is particularly called
to the rules and regulations found in this
schedule, which can be obtained, until the
stock is exhausted, on written- application
to the secretary, Robert Manning, Boston,
,Mass. The amount appropriated for
prizes and gratuities is as follows: For
plants and flowers, $3,454; fruits, $2,200;
vegetables, $1,000; gardens, greenhouses,
etc., $300; making a total of $6,954.,
Inoculation of Cattle.
Dr. McEachran, live stock inspector for
Canada, is opposed to inoculation of cattle
for the prevention of pleuro-pneumonia.
He is reported as saying: "In every
country in the world where it has been
impartially tried and .reported on the re-
port has been unfavorable." He regards
it as a dangerous operation and not war-
ranted by any known benefits. "Many
die from the operation itself, and wherever
it is practiced it has to be kept up. Thus
in Scotland, where inoculation is practiced,
there is a constant supply of the virus,
and the cities of Glasgow and Edinburgh
are active centers of the disease,"
The Russian minister of agriculture re-
ports the deficiency in the winter wheat
crop of 1886 to have been 27 per cent. as
compared with the last four years. There
was, however, an increase of 4 per cent.,
'in the spring-wheat crop.
California nurserymen are importing
large stocks of cherry, plum, apple and
near seedlings from France. -
Reports from the principal wheat grow-
ing states continue to be generally favor-
able, with the exception of those from
Illinois and Kansas.
A western inventor claims that prairie
grass, ground into a pulp with corn stalks
and pressed into blocks, makes an ex-
cellent substitute for wood and coal.
Farmers are reported to consume 85,000
tons of twine per year on reef binding
SStephen Beale, well known English au-
thority on poultry, claims that large poul-
try farms have proven dismal failures.
The kitchen window is the best place
for plants; the steam from the boilers and
kettles keeps the air moist.
Flour spoils very easily. During the
months from October to April but little
change takes place in good flour; but from
spring to Augnust a fermentation is car-
ried on, which gives rise to an offensive
odor and which, once. started, progresses
throughout the winter following.
The highest apple orchard in the United
States is reported to be at Hot Springs,
Lake Tahoe,. Cal 'The trees bear well.
This is said to be the greatest altitude at
which this fruit is grown in this country,
being over 6,200 feet above the level of
the sea. .
In the .diagram Fig. 1 is shown the
front view. It also shows the division into
an upper and lower story. The forage is all
kept in the upper story, which can be divid-
ed into as many compartments as desired.
It is entered in the front as in Fig. 1; also
from within by stairway (see Fig, 2). The
lower story is 8 feet high, and is divided,
as per Fig. 2, as follows: 1, 2, 8, 4, 5 are
stables for horses-size 8 by 10; 'a a a
represents a hall 8 feet wide; b is a harness
room 5' by 10; c c is a floored porch or
footway 3 feet wide, and elevated 3 feet,
from which the cattle can be fed without
going down among them; e e is a cow
shed 9 by 28; f is a room 6 by 8 for hold-
ing grain, cotton seed, etc., for the cattle;
g is a cow stable 8 by 11; h h is a wagon
shelter 8 by 20; o o is the stairway 3 feet
wide; the doors are all indicated by letter
d, the feed troughs by x; the two dotted
lines running across the stables on the left
and across the hall indicate a continuation
of the sills, as shown on the right.
$ . -. .. .
It will be seen that the horses are fed
from the hall and that they enter from
the same and no locks are needed on the
doors. The front door up stairs and the
back hall door at the steps, also the doors
to the cowshed, can be secured from the
inside. The only lock needed is on the
front door. t
It is suggested that the lower story of
this barn be planked and stripped up and
down, and the upper -story weather-
Bees and Honey.
The "safety line" for the temperature
of the cellar or other receptacle in which
bees are wintered is between 35 and 40
degs. If the bees are noisy the ther-
mometer will show that the temperature
is too high. Bringing in cold air by the
-ventilators will usually have a quieting
effect. Bees wintered outside need occa-
sional looking to, especially just after a
fall of snow, to see that the entrances to
the hives are not closed. Whether bee-
-keeping is profitable or not will depend,
other things being equal, upon marketing
the honey. It will be well to visit the
markets and consult with the dealers. The
size of the packages of comb honey affects
its sale, some markets preferring the half
pound section to a larger size. He is wise
who conforms to the preferences, or even
whims, of those who buy his products.
Make section boxes and have a sufficient i
number on hand to meet the demands of I
a busy season. Neatness of workmanship
and scrupulous cleanliness are to be ob-
servel. With other farm products the
home market is of no little importance,
and it may be worth while to build up
one for honey.-American Agriculturist.
Farmers generally agree that sandy or
dry soils require flat plowing, which tends
to consolidate the land, while on low or
strong soils they prefer to leave the furrow
Much is written and said every year
against the breaking up of ground that is
too wet. The other extreme is seldom
mentioned; and yet it has been demon-1
strated, especially on heavy dry land, that
running the plow through ground too dry
is almost as pernicious in its .effects as is
plowing it when too wet. Sufficient moist-
ure is required to cause the furrows to
fall loosely from the plow, with no appear-
ance of packing and no lumps.
The points of merit in plowing are: 1.
A straight furrow of uniform width and
depth. 2.. A clean cut slice 3. A well
laid furrow slice, having regard to com-
pactness'and form. 4. Complete burial
of the grass or stubble turned in. 5.' A
uniformly plowed ridge. 6. A finish show-
ing an openf furrow with a clean, narrow
bottom, the last furrow being equal in
width and height with the others.
Fig. 2. This will prevent the structure
from spreading, as there are no joists on
the plates to hold it together. The neces-
sary frame work in the lower story can be
made of very light material after using
the heavy timbers spoken of above.
A STRONG, SAFE LADDER EASILY .
HANDLED BY ONE PERSON.
A SONNET TO THE SEA. '
Treatment of Bees in the Spring-Prac-
tical Suggestions About Plowing-A I love this ocean picture's pale reserve;
No tinits unnatural of purpling g-ain,
Convenient and Economical Barn, Suit- Azure, or opal, mar the rough gray.main,
able for Both Horses and Cattle. The sweep, the swing, the long froth churning
The plan shown in the accompanying The shoreward working and confused swerve
illustrations is vouched for by a Georgia Of yellow water-white bloomswearsuch stain,
correspondent in Southern Cultivator as All dashed and muddled with the April rain.
providing a convenient and economical No poor ambition did the painter nerve I
barn for both horses and cattle. It is Well that no labored ship or sunburst broke
built on the old cotton gin house' plan, The strong monotony of that sky and surge.
teLeave, only leave, the line of stormy smoke,
twenty-eight feet wide, thirty-eight long The sea birds dashed upon the nearer verge;
and fourteen feet high to the plates. For Brave in its truth this ocean piece shall be
the benefit of northern readers we will The type for us of Homer's harvestless sea.
explain what is meant by the old gin -The Bishou of Derry.
house plan: The sills separating the two
stories are heavy timbers framed intoOLD "D. D."
heavy nosts fmourteen feet long at letter S. OLDI D. 1."
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MARCH 16, 1887.
I'm tired now, and sleepy too,
Come put me in my little bed.
So she softly sang, and then she gaped
and rubbed her eyes.
"Oh, Willie Moore, if I -had you here
I'd comb your little head for you with a
a three-legged stool, I would, you rascal.
Two o'clock in the morning, packing not
half done and your precious wife with hel
Thus groaned sleepy, tired little Henri-
etta Moore (nee Henrietta Miles), profes-
sionally known, as Mlle. Henriette Mille-
sturoli, late ballet girl of Tony Pastor's
A little over 17 years of age, slight but
perfect in form, with-a pure, fresh com-
plexion, blooming cheeks, clear lue eyes
and movements of free, undulating grace
and flowing ease, with irregular features
and changeful expression, which would
have delight d an artist and driven a pho-
tographer to despair, she was a sprightly
little beauty to gladden the eyes of those
who loved a'good, pretty face.
The room in which she waited for her
husband was by no means tidy. Two half
packed trunks stood open; upon the bed
and floor dresses and coats, shirts and
skirts lay scattered in confusion.
William Moore, just of age, inclined to
be fast, good looking, soft of heart and
head, until lately a bookkeeper In i
Washington street commission house,
had, a Week before, married this child of
the theatre for love, thereby pleasing him-
self, gaining his idol and losing the friend-
ship of his highly respectable relations
and his situation, for which he cared lit-
tle. The young 'couple were to start on
the morrow in the noonday train for
Chicago, where William was to invest the
'$2,500 just paid into the bank subject to
his order, his portion of his father's estate,
with an established firm in whose house
he was also to fill the position of book-
He had gone out early in the evening
to have a farewell supper with some
friends. It was now 2 o'clock a. m., and
he had not yet returned.
Henny (she was always called Henny)
gaped again, and then, seizing a pretty
little gray traveling bonnet (just new)
from the bed, she went through, for the
twentieth time, with the "trying on" pro-
She heard the front door shut anid list-
ened. The step upon the stairs was slow
'Tai4't Willie," she sighed, and turned
again to the.mirror.
The door of the room was thrown open.
It was her husband. He entered the
room in silence, his dress disordered, his
face pale and his hands trembling. He'
sank into a chair and looked at her in
despairing sadness. He had been drink-
ing, but was nearly sober now. The wife
"Will, you're real mean to go and leave
me all night by myself and go get tight,
and all the packing to do yet. It's shabby
of you, so it is."
"All right, Henny Pitch into me! Go
ahead But you needn't pack any more.
We can't gol"
"Needn't pack any morel Can't go!''
she echoed, with surprise. "Why not?"
"'Cause I'm dead broke; lost every
rap. There now it's out!" he said, dash-
ing his hat on the floor. She turned on
, "William Moore, do you mean to tell
me, after all you promised me, that
you've been and been.'-and a look fin-
ished the question.
S"Pitch into me--pitch in Henny," he
groaned; "I started for only one game,
after supper, and kept on and on, and-'
fow it's all gone, every rap l" and, poor,
weak sinner! the tears began to fill h1I
"Will Moore, you're' a-" commence
the wife; but looking at him, the big,
good looking boy of a husband that sh6
loved so well, the harsh worls died upon
her lips, and she went and sat upon his,
knee and cuddled him, saying:
"Oh, Willie, I'm so sorry. I had hoped
so much-so much-and now it's all
over;" and she gave'a deep, sobbing-sigh.
-"Is it all gone, Willie? Who was it?" she
asked, after a time.
"Cleaned out every cent," he. an-
swered. "After supper I'd been drinking
some,- and Chick Lawton proposed a game
-and I didn't think of what I'd promised
you -and I didn't lose much; I'd have
won every cent back, sure, only old D. D.
came in, and he roped in and took a hand,
and he's got my check for every cent we
have in the world. Oh, Henpy, I don't
care for myself; it's you I'm thinking of,
and that makes me nearly crazy."
"You ought to have thought of me be-
fore it was too late, Willie."I
"I know, Henny, but it was only a little
game n e wn uomnK. .e wouian'S nave
taken it all from me like old D. D., when
he saw I was tight. Chick's a good fel-
low-everybody says so-but old D. D.
has no more heart than a turnip."
"Hearts and good. fellows! Don't talk
to mel" said the little wife, sharply,
"Chick Lawton has'no more heart than-
I don't know what. I know more about
Chick Lawton than you do, Will. He's a
scoundrel, that's what he is. But I didn't
think Mr. Dodge would have done it; I
thought better of him."
"He's. got no hear, Henny, D. D.
hasn't; 'you ask Chick if he has," groaned'
"Oh, bther Chickl I wouldn't speak
to the rascal. Mr. Dodge can treat one
like a lady even if she is, or has been, a
poor ballet girl, and that's more than
your Chick-chicken-hearted Lawton can
do," answered the wife.
And then for a long time they were si-
lent; finally the brave, self-reliant, child
wife said to her boy husband:
"Willie, will you promise me, once
more, never to drink or play another
"Henny, dear," he answered, like a re-
pentant school boy, "if you'll only for-
give me this time I'll never drink or play
a card again, so help me God."
"Good boyl then kiss the book," and
she held up her bright red lips.
"And now, Willie, let's get some sleep,
and to-morrow we'll attend to everything.
All this finery we've bought to cut a dash
with in Chicago we'll either pawn or sell,
and we'll go to Cincinnati or somewhere,
and you can get something to do, or I can
get an engagement and go back te the old
Soon all was dark and silent in the
room. The man slept, but the little wife
prayed, as well as she could, to Hnim "to
give us this day our daily bread," and
that the husband whom she loved and for
whom she was willing to work and saye,
might have strength to keep his renewed
In the morning, Henny, sharp little busi-
ness woman that she was, with a loving
kiss-hurried Will off to find some one who
would buy her now useless finery, which,
with a sigh, she proceeded to arrange.
She was a woman; it was a sore task to
part with the pretty dresses just bought.
As she was kneeling at her trunk there
came a tap upon the door.
"Come in," she cried.
A man entered; it was Delos Dodge,
' professional gambler.
Henny started to her feet and faced
him, looking like a little fury.
Delos Dodge-had nothing of the rever-
end character which the title D. D., that
his associates bestowed upon him, would
have indicated, unless it might be. his ap-
pearance. Faultlessly dressed, with no
display of jewelry, a smooth, pale face,-
and quiet deportment that nothing was
ever known to disturb, a white necktie
would have transformed him, so far as
looks went, into a model minister of the:
Gospel. But the spare chin and firm
mouth, and the cold, fixed glare of his
eye, showed old "D. D." to be a man that
it would not do to affront; a few men had
risked his anger, and most of them had-
lived to regret it.
He entered the room and closed the
door, and then said, most politely:
"I beg your pardon for disturbing yoi,7,
Mrs. Moore, but the servant informed me
that your husband was 'here. I wish to.
see him. Busy packing to start, I see." .
Then Henny-poor Henny-poured out
upon him, the man who robbed her hus-
band, her heaped up wrath:
"Packing to go 'way, you impudent
villain!. You know that we can't go 'way
when you robbed-yes, robbed !-my poor
Willis, after making him drunk, of every
cent he had in the wide world. Oh, how
I hate you! And you have this insolence
to come here, after all, and look me in the
face and ask me about going 'way. You'd
like to see the poor boy starve, all of you
-that's what you .want. But I'll spite
you! I'll work for him-work for him-
yes, till I drop dead!" *
Henny stopped to take breath, and
then Delos Dodge spoke calmly and
"Mrs. Moore, please listen to me for a
'few moments. Your husband is young,
and rather foolish and weak, but I like
him, and I like and respect you; you are
an honest, good girl! I went to our rooms
last night, and found your husband, de-
cidedly the worse for liquor, playing with
Mr. Lawton. Mr. Moore had lost all his
ready money, an-applied to me to cash his
check for a considerable amount. I knew-
what would happen and forced myself
into the game much to 'the disgust of all
others. In three hours I had your hus-
band's checks for $2,500 in my possession.
Here they are," continued D. .D., produc-
ing them from his vest pocket. "I came
here this morning trusting to find Mr.
Moore alone. You will do as well. What
I now do with these checks you will please
tell no one;, it would hurt my enviable
reputation;" and Delos Dodge, the gams
bler, gave a low laugh as he tore the
checks into small bits and scattered the
pieces at the foot of the staring, aston-
ished little wife. ,
"Oh, D. D., Mr. Dodge, I mean, how
can I thank you?" she cried.
"By saying nothing of this to any one
but your husband. Pack up now and get
him away from here, and tell him from me
to drop the drink and the play; he hasn't
the head for either. And now, good-by,
Wrs. Moore, and a pleasant journey and
good fortune to you," and he held out his
'"Please forgive me for what I said,
won't you?" she begged.
l"Oh, certainly; 'twas but natural, and
.d you good. Good-by," and again he
4lId out his hand.
She .looked up at him. If her friends
had heard of what she next did they would
h'ye said: "That's just Benny all over."
She reached up, put her arms about his
n drew-his head down and kissed him.
T she sank upon .the 4loor, sobbing,
wdman like, for joy.
,r. Dodge walked down the stairs very
slowly. His face was paler than usual,
and there was a slight moisture in the
cold, gray eyes that softened their stony
glare. As he passed through to the street,
upon the steps of the house, he found Mr.
"Why, hall, D. D.I" exclaimed Chick,
"what are you doing here? I saw Billy
Moore rushing down street, and I thought
I'd just drop round and cheer Henny up a
little; but you are ahead of me, you old
'possum. Billy's down on his luck, this
morning, I guess, and I'm so tender
hearted that I thought I'd come and offer
them aV or an X. I'll just run up and
keep Henny company till Bill comes back."
Dodge laid his hand on Chick's arm.
"Mrs. Moore is very busy, Mr. Lawton,"
said he, with an ugly look in his eyes,.
"Take my advice and don't go up. You
had much better walk down street with
me this fine, cool morning-indeed you
had, Mr. Lawton. Come."
Mr. L. did not care to disoblige Mr. D;
It might make Mr. D. angry. It was
au-rons to anger the quiet Mr. D., atid
so Mr. L., who was particularly careful
of his "big hearted" self, trotted down
street beside old Mr. D., who seemed in-
clined to silence. But Chick hated si-
lence, and soon broke out:
"You wouldn't have acted toward
Moore as I was about to do-now, you
know you wouldn't, you' heartless old
'I certainly would not," was the moan-
"I knew itI" crowed Chick. "That!s
because, you've got no heart, you see. It
gives a fellow a cold in the head merely
to look at you. Come- in here and take
something to warm up that cold blood of
"I thank you; I seldom drink."
"I know it; that's because you've gdt
no heart. I actually believe your. veiis
are filled with ice water., Come in and
take something warming," persisted
"Go and get your -drink. Excuse me.
.1 have something on my lips that I don't .-
wish to wash off," was the quiet re-
joinder, and Dodge passed on down the
But there was a warm feeling on the
left side under old D. D.'s spotless shirt
bosom. Had he a heart?-A. D. Baille in
New York News..
Helplessness of City Dogs.
.A Boston woman- who loves animals,
and is a special defender of dogs, writes
that she was never more thoroughly sad-
dened by the feeling of helplessness than
in her feeble attempts, while on a visit 'to
New York last October, to complain( of
"that disgrace to your city, the dog
snatcher." On account of their .great
numbers and comparative uselessness in
the eyes of the majority of the people,
dogs are.most in need of protection, she
says.- -Harper's Bazar.
The Monkeys' Festival.
At the present time it is no longer pos-
sible to doubt that monkeys hold verita-
ble and numerously attended festival*
that resemble those that the negroes of
Africa, the Hottentots and the' Papuas of
New Guinea celebrate to the. sound' of the
tom-tom on moonlight nights, most fe-
quently, however, at the time the newr
moon makes its. appearance. The ihbn-,
keys (cebicus) of South America assemble
in the same manner when, having- ex-.
hausted-the resourch- of one place --t--
get ready to emigrate to another. They,
jump, gambol and shout with all-their
might, the males running on the trees
and the mothers carrying, their children
on their backs or in their arms.'.
Duvincel witnessed near Desbund, in
India, a grand reunion of sacred monkeys
(semnopithecus entellus), which is re-
peated .regularly, the inhabitants say,
after a certain number of years.. There
were several thousand of them, which
had come in large bands from different
-directions. Each marched with a stick
in its hand; but when they arrived at the
place of the festival they threw all the
sticks on the same spot, ahd- made of
.them an immense heap.
The festive gatherings of the black
chimpanzees of Africa are still more
closely related to those of the negroes.
Sometimes fifty or so of them come, to-
gether, and jump, yell, and using dry
chunks of wood as tom-toms, beat o -
them with drum sticks, which they hold
in their hands and feet. I
This orchestra of quadrumanes is 'the
first attempt at music, and what is re-
markable, the music is of the rudiment-.
ary form of the drum, which everywhere
among the most savage and inferior races
of the human family, is the first musical
instrument also, and the only one. that
many of them possess.-Henry Howard
Heading Straight for India.
The monotony of-life on the Afghan.
frontier was the other day pleasantly in-
terrupted by the arrival of two strangers
at the camp of the frontier commission.
One of them was a native horseman,. be-
side whom, in somewhat shabby European
apparel, walked a stalwart pedestrian. -A
few questions brought out te story of the
latter, which deserves to be preserved as
an example of the endeavors of one of the
great, unemployed to find some work to.
do. The man, a German by birth, had
walkeil from central Germany through
Russia and Bokhara, heading straight for
India, where he hoped to find permanent
employment. Without money, without
a passport, without speaking but his own
tongue, he arrived at the Afghan frontier,
having been compelled to abandon his
straight line of march by the deep snow
on the Hindoo Koosh. The commission.
ers, after providing the man with food
and clothes, sent him on his way rejoicing,
confident that, after going round Afghan-.
istan, which is a closed door to travelers,
he will reach his destination.-Boston
To Make Papier Mache.
To make paper mache for fine, 'smdl
work, bon clippings of brown or white
paper in water, beat them into a paste,
add glue or gum and size, and press into
From six to ten Americans are .said to
visit Pasteur every day for treatment,
many of whom have been bitten by their
Der poorhouse vhas full of peoples who
belief dot to-morrow, vhill bring 'em.
uck."-Carl Dunder in Detroit Free
Many dairy authorities agree that -thi
salting of butter is bad dairying. The
idea that it keeps the butter is an error.
When butter is salted with brine the salt
Is most thoroughly incorporated With it,
and the batter keeps best, as the brine
stays there, but dry silt will disintegrate
and stay only in minute granular form.
L i "
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, MARCH 16, 1887.
Lf idi pecking at the other eye, until the snake,
rwr 'wz n unable to make any further progress,
was left to fret and sqtiirm in the middle
of the road until some passer-by killed
State News in Brief. him with a stick.-Orlando Record.
There entered Pensacola during the
Arredondo is manufacturing wine suc- month of February 45 vessels, with an
eessfully from oranges, aggregate tonnageof 26,608; cleared dur-
G. T. Stith, of Maitland, has a rose ing the same period were 64 vessels, with
lbush measuring forty-five feet in circum- a combined tonnage of 40,038. The im-
ference. portations consisted of two cargoes
The orange trees in the vicinity of (1,390 tons) of guano, one cargo (921 tons)
Gainesville are loaded down with of ice, one cargo (890 tons) of steel rails,
Looms. and three and one-half tons of lignum
Ten fishing vessels brought into Pen- vitae. The exportations were 107,402
sacola last Monday 13,900 snappers and cubic feet of hewn timber, 11,560,000
groupers, superficial feet of sawn timber, 14,822,000
superficial feet of lumber, and 67,915
The Withlacoochee, Wekiwa and Flor- cubic feet of cedar, the whole valued at
ida Land Company has filed articles of $300,085. Of fresh fish there were ship-
incorporation at Ocala. ped inland 725,000 pounds.
The laying of iron on the Silver The Peabody school is at once a pride
Springs, Ocala and Gulf Railroad goes and a credit to Lake City and Columbia
on. About a mile a day is being laid. county, and receives a widely distributed
It is estimated that there are over one patronage. In addition to its allotment
hundred acres in strawberries in the vi- from the regular school fund, it shares
cinity of Arredondo, Alachua county. in the Peabody fund, which secures its
A spur from Ocklawaha station to the operation during ten months of the year.
Lake Weir Chautauqua grounds is now It is now under the efficient manage-
being talked of. If built, the Florida ment of Professor H. Merz, president,
Southern will do the work. who is assisted by a full corps of
Manatee and Monroe counties are both thoroughly competent teachers, render-
to hold conventions soon for the purpose ing it an excellent preparatory school for
Sof considering the question of dividing those who design entering the university
the counties into two each. department of the Agricultural College.
good vegeal. a It now has a list of 155 pupils with an
A good vegetable crop at Micanopy is average daily attendance of 136.-Lake
now assured. Cucumbers were the only City Tobacco Plant.
vegetable which was injured by the -
frost, and they only slightly. -
Among the products of the Lake CitY TJings on the Withlacoochee.
section is a quantity of most excellent Thinking that a "few dots" from this
honey, Bees do well and find plenty to locality would not prove uninteresting
feed upon most of the year. to your readers I ask space for a few
E1ast week a tract of thirty acres of un- random remarks.
improved land, one and one-half miles Rutland is a country village, situated
from the court house at Tampa, was upon the east bank, of the X' ithla
sold for $6,500, or a fraction over -$216 coochee, whose waters like all the other
per acre,. streams of Florida I have seen flowing
While excavating through a hill in northerly, axe dark and sluggish, and
Hlernando. county workmen on the F. abound in trout and other varieties of
S& N. road found a number of pine the piscatorial tribe.
& ps ptroed ind ah n c pine The country up and down the river
stumps petrified in the solid clay fifteen consists of low and fiat piney woods,
feet below the surface of the earth, well interspersed with rich hammocks,
Prospects are flattering in Plant City which are better adapted for garden pur-
for a good crop of peaches again this poses, as well as for -the production of
--- -erar.. Between-wguavas and peaches they the whole citrus-family, than any local-
are reasonably certain of fruit. The ity I have seen.
S failure of one makes the other. The raising of orange groves and other
The two tanks of the Sanford water- horticulturalpursuits make the people
works, holding together 40,000 gallons, generally of this locality thrifty and
are- pumped full twice every day, which well to do. But I admit there are a few
indicates a use of 80,000 gallons daily by .who failing these enterprises even under
the city. s puch advantageous circumstances.
ere is every promise of a heavy The country for the most part is set-
There is -every promise of a heavytiduwth eogasCrlnasad
fruit crop for the present year in Colum- tied up with Georgians, Carolinians and
Ma county, including peaches, LeConte Tennesseeans whose attention formerly
Ears, quinces and oranges. The crop of has been given to raising cotton, corn,
quics a nd orags. wheat, etc. They come here fascinated
ossoms is enormous, with the beauty of the orange groves
There is a magnolia tree thirteen feet and the broad acres planted with all va-
in circumference four feet above -the rieties of. vegetables. They come be-
ground on D. W. King's place at Fort living that they can soon have all these
Mason, near the Lake View House. This things and then be able, if they choose,
magnolia tree is said to b3 the largest to spend the remainder of their lives in
one min the State. luxury and ease. They come here from
The water-works in Palatka will soon their divers pursuits and enter upon this
be ready. The pipes are already laid new enterprise without any previously
and the tank' on the Heights and acquired knowledge of the business or
down at the lower, end of White Water of the best methods of accomplishing
branch will be ready to supply the city these ends.p
by the end of the week. Therefore some signally fail, become
The orange groves in the vicinity of disgusted and dissatisfied and are ready
Sanford, it is said, were never in a more to berate the country, when the fault
Healthful condition, and are, full of and cause of the failure is in themselves.
blooms, and every indication is favora- As well might they expect to go to the
b le for a heavy crop in 1887. New lake and catch the wily trout without
groves are coming into bearing also. proper tackle or without knowing when
A surveyor's corps will be at work lo- and where to fish. They can only suc-
eating the line of the Gainesville, Talla- ceed by studying the nature of the soil
hassee and Western Railway before the and by using the land best adapted for
expiration of the '-present "month. It is the purpose intended.
proposed to rush the work of locating This together with all the knowledge
proposed toructing as speedily as possible they can acquire and all they can learn
n s a of the best methods, is the road all the'
A good portion of the lower floor of successful ones have traveled. Of
the Ponce de Leon Hotel, at St. Augus- course they can only succeed by using
tine, has been plastered, and carpenters to profit the experience of those who
are now busily engaged in putting in the have succeeded. Hence arises the ne
finishing wood work, and a large force cessity for periodicals treating upon
of painters engaged. The hotel is vis- these various subjects, and what is bet-
ited daily by throngs of tourists, ter for the purpose than the FLORIDA
The outlook for Manatee county is FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER? The suc-
Brighter this year than it has been for cessful ones will take it, all ought to.
years past. Every orange grove is look- SUMTER.
ing beautiful, the trees full of blooms,
promising a large crop of fruit; the The Most Noted Indian Leaders
seasons have been splendid for farming, of the Florida War.
and there are thousands of acres culti-
vated this year that were not last. Cat- v. CONCLUDING EVENTS.
tie on the ranges are looking well. : BY C. M. BREVARD.
Erom the 14th of January to the 14th On the fourth of October, 1841, the
eo February, a Lake City firm shipped chief Halpatter Tustenuggee (Alligator),
1,200 dozen eggs, and sold about 100 who had emigrated to Arkansas,returned
* dozen in the local market. They have to Florida to persuade his friends to lay
mow three or four hundred dozen ready down the rifle and -go peacefully to the
for shipment from. their Lake Butler home provided for them. Soon after his
store, and a hundred or two dozen at arrival he had a talk with Thocklo Tus-
their Mt. Tabor house, besides 404 dozen tenuggee (Tiger tail) and Nethocklemath-
an hand at their store-in Lake City. lar, to whom he represented the wisdom
Referring to the fruits growing about of surrender on account of the strength
Lake City the Tobacco Plant says: "The of the whites, and the suffering of the
banana is one of the fruits of our section women and children under the existing
we have so far neglected to mention. It state of affairs. The truth of his argu-
S grows here luxuriantly and produces ment was impressed upon the chiefs
S abundantly ; and it is the most maguifi- Indians from the swamp to surrender for
cent of all our foliage plants. Nectarines, who, by their influence,persuaded several
apricots, prunes, occasionally guavas, emigration, dnd sent a "talk" to the n-
and an abundance of poecn, hickory and dians, remaining in the swamp. This
ether nuts had also escaped us." "talk" may be of some interest to the
A destructive fire occurred at Millview, "Alligator has come a great distance
near Pensacola, Tuesday morning, by to see his red brethren. He followed'
"which the extensive lumber and saw their old chief Holartoochee, but could
mill, known as the Perdido Mills, was t- not overtake him until now. He has
elly destroyed by fire, and in the confla- come at last. When Alligator was in
gration some fifty or sixty thousand feet Arkansas, he .heard that his brethren
-t 'if lumber was lost. The fire broke out here wanted to see him, and he has
at 1 o'clock in the morning, in one cor- taken great pains to .come to them, to
ner of the mill,from sparks from the slab give them the good word, and he now
kiln, and had made such headway be- wants them all to go back with him. His
fore discovery that nothing could be namesake, old Alligator, has gone down
Ived from the general wreck. The loss to see Waxey-Hadjo and Bowlegs, and
a $21,000; insurance $18,000. he hopes they will open their ears to his
A butcher bird created considerable talks, and receive his words, and come
manusement on Main street yesterday at- in, Alligator is with- Tiger Tail, and
tersioonbyitspersistentfightwithasnake Neathleckemathler, who have come in
which was trying to make its way across with all their brothers and sisters.
: fthat thoroughfare. The snake had started "Alligator has come a long way; he
at a leisurely gait, or rather slide, heard that his red brethren wanted to
through the sand when the bird swooped see him, and he listened to their voice.
Down upon him and plucked one of his He now tells them they must not be
eyes out.. Not satisfied with compelling afraid to come in to their white brethren,
- the snake to go one eye on it, he hovered who have their hands open to receive
around at a slight elevation above the rep- them as friends. If they cannot all
tie, every now and then making a dip and come at once, let them that are ready
come, and the rest follow. Their white We saw several thousand fruit trees
brethren will receive them as friends, put off the cars at Jennings, principally
give them plenty to eat and drink, and peaches, apples, plums, pears and apri-'
clothe and treat them well. Alligator cots. Everyone has an orchard, and the
has come for his children like a hen thatI peach trees are in full bloom.
is looking for her chickens He wantsI Tree planting is going on briskly, not
to gather them all together 'and'take only fruit trees, but forest trees. Many
them with him to his new home, where I settlers have taken up 160 acres of gov-
he will take good care of them and; make eminent land under the timber culture
them happy and comfortable. He act, and they are complying with its re-
therefore sends them word to come in at quirements by planting out forest trees.
once before the time arrives when- they The seeds of pecans, oak, ash, chestnut,
will not be able to find him. catalpa, China and English and black
"Alligator sends a present to Waxey walnut are generally planted in rows
Hadjo and Billy Bowlegs, which they and cultivated, but many young trees
must receive the same as if he were here are dug up in the woods and planted
to give it to them. He cannot come around the homesteads in the open prai-
himself because he has some business rie. We noticed a large number of
here which he must attend to. He now young pines, live oaks, ho'lies, red bud,
sends you his last words. The Prophet dogwood and other flowering shrubs
has passed for a great man and you have which had been transplanted from the
listened to his talk, but you must also woods.
hear what Alligator has to say. Are At nearly every house we saw a straw-
you willing that all your women and berry bed, and some expect to be able to
children should be killed fer the sake of commence shipping berries in the near
the Prophet? Do you love him more future. Quantities of peaches will be
than you do your women and children? shipped this season from Jennings from
Alligator calls for his children, and will orchards two and three years old.
they not hear his voice? You say you This section is evidently determined to
don't want to leave this country be- farm on a different system from that
cause you want your bones to lie in this which has heretofore been pursued in
land; but this is not right. You must go the South.
with Alligator to a better land where They are largely interested in horti-
your friends are waiting to receive you, culture, hay and stock. They believe in
and % here you will be happy. You must diversity, and their implements and
not listen to the voice of the, Prophet, methods are essentially different from
because he will certainly bring you -to those in use by Southern planters.
trouble. Come, therefore, and come They have a horticultural society,
quickly." which has held two annual fairs at Jen-
This talk seems to have had little ef- nings, and although they make some
fect upon the Indians to whom it was mistakes in their efforts to adapt the
addressed, for they did not "come in," Northern system of culture to this see-
but continued to give much annoyance tion there is much to be learned from
to the troops? In the latter part of De- them. We learn that there is not a sin-
cember, however, Waxey-Hadjo ant his gle cotton field in the colony. There
band were captured near Lake Okeecho- are some few fields of sugar cane and
bee, but he could not, or vould not, give sorghum, the product of which is ground.
any information in regard to the hiding on a horse-mill and consumed in the
places of his associates. In the spring neighborhood.
of the year 1842, the Indians assembled The sweet po'ato is a staple crop in this
at Fort Brooke and departed for Arkan- section. Thousands of bushels of them
sas. are still in the "bunks" in the field, where
After seven months seeking, Halleck they were dug. They are a standing
Tustenuggee and his band were cap- dish on the table, besides being fed to
tured, and sent from Fort Brooke to Ar- cattle, horses and hogs.
kansas. "I have -been hunted" like a This is a safe crop, to plant, and a
wolf, and am now to be sent away like a much larger area in the Soulh could be
dog," Tustenuggee cried when 'told of profitably devoted to it.
his fate. He was of the Mickasuckee Oats may yet be sown, if put in well
tribe, shrew i and intelligent, a danger- and stimulated with a good fertilizer.
ous enemy, passionate, revengeful, and Prof. Stubbs' formula is the best. -
unscrupulous. Great relief was felt by Planters should not delay putting in
the citizens of Florida when it was corn.. By all means finish planting corn
known that he had left the country, by the 1st of March. Corn, planted at
The war was practically over. this time, fertilized, thinned and cul-
In November, Tiger-Tail, who had tivated, will be certain to make a good
been captured and" had escaped four crop. .
times, was again captured, and with Planters should not delay opening
more than two hundred Indians of vari- their ditches. There are thousands of
ous tribes, was sent to New Orleans, en acres in the West, which yield fine crops
route for Arkansas. But he never since they have been tile-drained, which
reached that destination, He' died at would yield nothing if no better ditched
New Orleans. He was of the tribe of than the average cotton plantation. '
the Tallahassees,'and his father's% -village
lhad occupied the site of :the present town MARCH W'EATHER.
of: Tallahassee. ::
The number of Indians now remaining The following table, compiledfrom the records
in Florida was,including women and chil- of the Jack onville Signal Station by Sergt. J.
dren, about three hundred; with, these, W. Smith, represents the temperature, condition
terms of peace were made, and land in of weather, rainfall and direction of wind for
S h Forpa was agien t o lnive the mouth of March, as observed at the Jack-
South Florida was given to them to live sonville statlonuring the past 15 years:
upon until they were willing -to emi- TEM. wATER. WE ATE
grate. .. _
So ended the Florida war, which had S "
lasted seven y. ars, and which had yBARs. 3 .
AS. -, 9N, ",a, It, A
caused distress" and desolation, much ( ( S
bloodshed, and the breaking of many -
brave spirits. "9.... on. ,. ,o -0 P,
OUR NEIGHBORS' DOINGS.
How the New Farmers of Louis-.
iana are Commencing Work.
It is profitable to observe the, doings of
our neighbors, for we may derive ad-
vantage both from their successes and
failures. Considered from an agricul-
tural point of view all of the Gulf States
maybe considered near. neighbors of
Florida, and speaking in this sense we
lhve to look over their garden fences and
in at their open windows at every handy
From Louisiana's great representa-
tive paper, the Times-Democrat, we can
keep the run of affairs in the old creole
State, at least in matters of progress.
Through the efforts of the immigration
Commissioners and other agencies there
has-been a considerable influx of farmers
from other States and the agriculture of
the State has received a wholesome
stimulus from the introduction of new
ideas. The following from the Times-
Democrat of February 26, shows whatt lie
new comers are about at this season of
This is a busy season for the ljlanters
all over the .South. Every available
team is engaged in plowing, and prepa-
ration for the new crop is active every-
- In. Louisiana sugar planters have fin-
ished cane planting and are- ready to
commence "barring off" and "digging
stubble" as soon as the season is far
enough advanced to do so with safety.
The condition of vegetation indicates
that the spring is opening a month ear-
lier than last year. Cane stubble is gen-
erally sprouted enough to mark the row
A trip through Southwest Louisiana
shows a marked difference between the
methods and crops cultivated in that
section and other parts of the South.
Here are seen green fields of oats,
whlIch were sown last 'fall. Other
patches are just up, and some' farmers
still sowing. The Iowa colony believe
oats to be better for work stock than
corn, and claim that the crop is easier
made and yields more to the acre. It is
sown, reaped and threshed by machinery,
and it is destined to become a staple crop
in the South when cotton planters learn
its value and cbst.
There are no sluggards in the colony.
Every man has his coat off, and all are
determined to be in time with the new
crop. Nearly every one is planting Irish
potatoes and corn. We notice a few
who have already planted rice in order
to save the crop before the fall rains,
and to secure a second crop before frost.
It is well to be In time, but we fear it
is yet too early to plant rice.
14 11- 6
9 17 5
8 15 8
14 18 4
15 12 1
7 14 10
14 13 4
12 17 3
16 9 6
14 13 4
18 14 4
14 11 6
10 i3 8
3 16 i2
J. W. SMITH,
SSergt. Signal Corps, U. S. A.
Groves where Williams, Clark & Co's
Orange Tree Fertilizer has been used are
WILLIAMS, CLARK &' Co.
"We Know by Experience."
For three years we have used Brad-
ley's Vegetable" Fertilizer. After test-
ing along with 'other high grade fertil-
izers, we pronounce it better than any
sold in Florida. We shall use it again
. We do not hesitate to say to the vege-
table growers of Florida that they can-
not use anything so good as Bradley's
Florida Vegetable Fertilizer. We know
by experience what we say regarding
this fertilizer. -
WOFFORD & WILDER.
Ft. Mason, Fla.
Ladies' Purchasing Agency.
A New York lady of experience and
taste, enjoying the best facilities for
shopping under advantageous -condi-
tions, offers her services to ladles desir-
ing to secure any kind, of wearing ap-
parel, toilet articles or household goods,
at New York prices. Send for circular.
Address MRS. S. S. Jones, ,
* 179 Gates Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.
Seed Irish Potatoes.
The best potatoes for planting in this
State are those brought from extreme
Eastern points. Acting on this belief,
we imported last year from
large quantities of Early Rose, Chili
Red, Beauty of Hebron and other varie-
ties, and the potatoes raised from his
seed, were the finest we have ever seen
We will receive, ina few days another
cargo of the same potatoes, which we
wil sell at the following prides:
Chili Red........per barrel $8.50. -
Early Rose................. .$8.00.
Beauty of Hebron......... $8.00.
Every barrel guaranteed as represented.
Remit with order, and we will ship the
CHURCH ANDERSON & CO.
Jacksonville, Fla., Jan. 5th, 1887.
A AtASONVTILLE IMARK]Th
JACKSONVrILLE, March 11, 1887.
MnATs-D. S. short ribs boxed, $9'12; D. S.
long clear sides $9 00; D. S. bellies $9 10;
smoked short ribs 9 75; smoked bellies 9 75;
S C. hams, uncassed fancy, 13y; S. C. break
fast bacon, uncanvassed, lO5c; S. C. shoul-
ders, uncanvaiased, 8Bc; California or pic-
nic hams, 9yc. Lard-riflned tierces 74c;
Mess beef-barrels $1050 halfbarrels $575; mess
pork $15 75. These quotations are for round
Iota from first hands; whole cattle 7/1@74;
dressed hogs 8yc; sheep'9c; pork sausage 8c;
Sloins 9%c; Iong bologna 7c; head cheese 6yc;
Frankfort sausage 10'.c; rounds 8c.,'
BUTTzR--Beat table 23@28c per pound,
cooking 15@20c per pound.
BuTTrRiN--Creamery 20c; Extra Dairy
16c; Dairy 15.
diExs,--Half skim 10c, cream 13c per
Grain, Flour, Hay, Feed, Etc.
GRsArn--Corn-The market is higher, rates
having been restored from the West.
The following figures represent to-day's
values: We quote white corn, Job lots,
.. per bushel; car load lots W6c per
bushel, mixed corn, job lots, 567cper bushel;
car load lots S5c per bushel. Oats are bet-
tor demand, -firmer at the -following figures:
mixed, in Job lots, 41c, car load lots 40c; white
oats are ,c higher all round, Bran steady
axd lower, $19 00@20 per ton, job lots.
HAT-The market is firm and better de-
mand for good grades. Western choice
small boles, $180...per ton; car load lots 816 75
to 817 60 per ton; Eastern hay $20 per ton.
PEARL GrrsI AND MEAIL-- 90 to $3 00 per
FLouR-Dull and lower, best patents 85 60;
good family $5 10; common $4 25.
SGRouND FEED-Per ton $24.
HiDEs-Dry flint, cow, per sound, first
class, 12@13c%; and country dry salted 11@
l.l/c; butchers dry salted9@93/c. Skins-Deer
flint, 17c; salted 10@12c. Furs-Otter, winter,
each 25c@$4; raccoon 10@20c; wild cat 10@20c;
fox 10@20c, Beeswax, per pound 18c; wool
free from burs 22@2oc; burry, I10@15c; goat
skins 10@25c apiece. -
CoxEBs-Green Rio 16@20c per pound.
Java, roasted, 30@033c; Mocas, roasted, 80.-33c;
Red, roasted, 28@25c.
COTTON SEED MRAL--Scarce and higher.
Sea island or dark meal $20 per ton, bnght
or short cotton meal 21 50@22 50 per ton.
TOBACCO STBMs-Market quiet but firm @
$13 00 per ton.
LItE--Eastern,Job lots, 810 per barrel, Ala-
bama lime $115. Cement--American $200,
English $4 75 per barrel.
RicE-The quotations vary, according to
quantity, from 88@65c per pound.
SALT-Liverpoo, per sack, $100; per car
load, 85@90c. "
Country Produce, Hides, Skins, Etc.
NoTE-Cabbage and Cauliflower have be-
come a drug upon the market, the latter
hardly bringing enough to pay freight
CHA SF--Flne Creamery 16c per pound.
LIVE POULTRY-Limited supply and good
demand as follows: hens 3ic; mined 30c; half-
Eoes-]uval County 18 to 18 per dozen with
limited demand and good supply.
IR3sH POtATOBS-Northern potatoes 62 50
per barrel; Early Rose $2 560 Chili Reds $275.
ONIONwS-New York, 8825; Yellow Denver
88 50 per barrel; White Onions, 8375 per bar-
Florida cabbage, market glutted at $125
per barrel. Imported from Germany 10c.
NEW YORK BEETS-Good supply at $2 50 per
NEW BBEETS-Florida,'per crate, 82 25.
OAuLrriLownRS--Per barrel, $3 00, and S1 2-5
per crate. ..
OELERY-Florida, per dozen, 60c. ..
LETTUrEo-Per dozen,. 25c.
Ton-Azror..--Flornda, per crate, 50. :
NORTHaaERN T0RNiFS-Good supply at ,25
GREEN PEAs-Per box $1 25. -
Foreign anid Domeslie Fruiit.
PRUiEs-French, 10c. -
PuNE APPLES-Per barrel $6.. ,
LmTos-Messinas, $4 25 per box. -
APPiLEs-New York-6400to $450 per barrel.
FiGS-In layers 13c; in linen bas' 9c.
DATES--ersian-Boxes 9c, Frals 7c.
GRAPFS Malagas, $5650 per keg.
ORANgEs-Florida-Per barrel 84-00; per
BAANANAS--GOOd supply; from 75e to 20
per bunch. ,
NuTs-Almonds 18c; Brazils 12c; Filberts
( Sicily) 124- English walnuts, Greanobles, 16c;
arbots, 15c; Pecans 12c;' Peanuts 8c@OW4;
RAIsiNs-London layers, $275 per box.
CRANBERRIES--2 76 per crate;- $1000 per
The following quotations are carefully re-
vised for Wednesday's and Saturday's paper
from quotations furnished by dealers in the
Carrots wholesale at $250 per barrel, and
retail at 50 cents per peck.
Green Onions wholesale at 60 cents to 7b
cents per hundred, and retail 5 cents per
Florida Cabbage wholesale $1 25 per barrel
and retail at 5 to 10 cents..
Quail wholesale at 10 cents each and retail
at 15 cents, or two for a quarter.
Oranges wholesale at $2 50 to $400 per box,
and retail at two and three for 5 cents.
Spinage wholesales at $1 00 pet bushel and
retails at four quarts for 25 cents.
Sweet Potatoes wholesale at '50 cents per
bushel, and retail at 5 cents per quart. .
Lettuce wholesales at 12Y cents per dozen
heads, and retail at 5 cents per head.'
Parsnips wholesale at $2 50 to $2 75 per bar-
rel and retail at four and five for 10 cents.
Robins wholesale at 6 cents each and retail
at 10 ients.
Celery wholesales at 50 to 60 cents per dozen
and retails at three to four stalks for 25 cents,
according to size. -
Eggs are in fair demand, Duval county
eggs are quoted at wholesale at 18 cents
per dozen, and retail at 25 cents.
Northern cabbage scarce. Wholesale at 8
to 9 cents per head. They retail at fron 15 to
Boston marrowfat squashes wholesale at
$2 50 per barrel, retail at 5, 10 and 15 cents
New York Irish potatoes wholesale at
$2 50 per barrel and retail at 10 cents per quart
or two quarts for 15 cents.
Northern beets are worth wholesale 8225
te 62 50 per barrel, and retail at 10 cents per
quart, or two quarts lor 15 cents.
Radishes bring at wholesale 20 to 25 cents
per dozen bunches of seven -radishes each.
They retail at 5 cents per bunch, or three
bunches for 10 cents.
Live poultry-chickens, wholesale, from 85
to 40 cents each; retail 40 to 60 cents each.
Dressed poultry per pound-chickens retail,
18 to 20 cents. Turkeys, wholesale, Kl.00 to
1.75 each, and retail at20 cents per pound.
Northern meats retail as follows: Chicago
beef from 18 to 25 cents per pound; Florida
beef 8 to 15 cents per pound; veal 20 to 25 cents;
pork 12 to 15 cents; mutton 10 to 20 cents;
venison 35 cents; sausage 15 cents; corned
beef 10 cents.
Nassau tomatoes wholesale at 60 to 75 cents
-per box and retail at 15 to 20 cents per quart
OUR SPECIAL MARKETS.
Latest Quotations of Florida Fruits
The following special despatches, by special
arrangements with the Florida Fruit Ex
change, are sent to the TIMES-UIzoN by the
agents of the Fruit Exchange in the various
cities. They can be relied upon as accurate:
Special to the 2'xiarUNION:]
NEW YORK, March 14.-A small parcel
of choice sound fruit was auctioned to-day
at 6488.75on best sizes; 62.7562.25 on very
large or very small fruit. This class of frit
'always commands top of the market value,
and we wish we could have a larger parcelof
It. The. weather Is charming and the market
is in good shape on good fruit. We auction.
800 boxes to-morrow which have Just arrived
from the Savannah boat. -.
i aOYALHij *
mut .do flow test~ j abor wegtalmo
ebso iutely P.u.re.
Tbfi~owder never varies. A marvel or
purity, strength and wboklsomenoess. More
ecanomiil [an ehe ordinary kinds, and
-cannot be sold II competi.lon with the
multitud.I ofT low is,a snort weight alum or
hosphale powder. Sold only iP cans.
BOYALBAKING POWDE ICo., 1.j Wall t.,
New York. A
Special to the TiMES-UNION:]
CINCINNATI, March 14-Bright orange&
$38@50; russets -@t'.5.
LOWHEAD, DALSe& Co. '
Specialto th-e TitLs-DNItuN:j .
BOSTON, March 14.-The steamer arrived
iai- ites aIaternoon and has l,4u^ boxes of
oranges. We shall have an auction sale -:
Wed-IIsday. Tbh marKrt is 6n good condi-
[ [O .= ,' -'
o.BLAEz & RIPLE. 'L:
Spclal to the T4E-UNION:] '
NEW YORK, March 1.--savannah steamer -
bTought i *3I packages of vegetables. Choice -
peas sold at 4:; oeans 5-19k: cucumbers 864ih;
tomatoe,-s 1J5,; beets ,i26,2.5fj: abbages 28'13.
Choice orasise &r- I liebe receipt and sell .
ing at .i.50,,l': (boice russetsL2@2.l60). Straw-
berries Ii.' i ,?. ,
0. S. PAlSMER.
Special to the TIMlS-UNION:] ..
SPHILADELPHIA, March I1 -Ru.sets 91.25 ''-'
(&2; fair brlihxs S2,2.50; ,email@example.comO. Straw- :
berries o-5,'i.-,; tom atoes S4 .
A. B. D)irwrTEa & SoN.
LEAF TOBACCO MARKET.-; .- ..
NEW YORK, March' 14.-The Weseidrn
leaf mIarket is dull, owing-to the liehi de- "
mand. The New York leaf is quiet, wile the "-
Havana leaf is In active demand. New
York, Pennsylvanra and Western sell at from
-I l15 per h) pounds. Havana, n0 cents to
51.00 per pound. Sumatra, SI. 1 to $L60 per
pou oa. -
ST. LOUIS, March 14.-The demand for
leaf is light, but improving, and the outlook
Is rather encouraging. -
LOUJ.S\VLLE. March 11.-There Is a
good demand, especially ('or the better grades
of whicn there is a scarcity.
RICHMOND. March 14:.-The market Is
improving with favorable weather for ship-
ping. The better grades of stemming leaf
sell rapidly at from 9 to 13 cents.per pound.
Bright wrappers for plugs command from 18
DANVLLLE March 14-Business Is tm-
proving.rapidly and prices have an upward
tendency. There is a better feeling among
planters, nmanujacturers and business men
BALlIlMORE, March 14.-The market Is
dull, very little desirable stock being on sai.
Maryland leaf is quoted at from $5 to 915 per
liii pounds. d
Bees and Queens,
Orders will be booked now for delivery dur- :
ing April, May or June, of my superior race
of pure -
-Italian Bees ant i-niQenjsias. ^-
Queens by mail a specialty. ..
Give me a trial order. :
For prices or other Information, address .
H. C-HART, -
Eustis, Oraige Co., Fla.. .
FREE, ONE SAMPLE GOPY
Before yon decide where to go in SOUTH'
FLORIDA, send for a sample copyof
THE ORANGE GROVE.
You will find better and cheaper bargains In '
MANATEE County in groves, farms, ranches of -
any size. Building lots on railroad, river'or sea-
side. The proprietor of "The Orange Grove "is,
an "old timer but neither moss backed or hide
bound; he is here to stay and 'There is millions.
in it." Three Millions of Acres on his Books.
Address, THE GROVE, LIVERPOOL, FLA.
.FLORIDA FERTILIZING -O.
E.T. PAINE, .PRESIDENT.-
Florida Orange Food per ton...........28.00 .0
Florida Vegetable Food per ton.... 28.00
Analysis: Bone Phosphate of Lime, 80 per
cent.; Sulphate of Potash 12 per cent.; Ma-
nesia. 6 per cent. Lime Soda and other val-
uable ingredients. .
00 V :P ELAJ3,
RED ROVER, WHIPPOORWILL AID CLAY
FOR SE 3 .
Send for treatise on Culture of Orange
TAMPA, HIL"BOROTUGH COUNTY,
General Business and Real Estate Agenoy of
W. N. CONOLEY.
If you wish a toNIslot, an orange grove, or -
wild lands in this rapidly improving section,
or if you have taxes o be paid, or property to
be improved, or money to be invested, wrlt4
to thisagency "
Money can be placed on Real Estate wlth a
Margin on two-thirds of values at 10.
S and 12 per cent.
O. O .oCH"A3 .TO iBDE,. i
Ninety days to foreclose mortgage where"
there Is no contest. All costs and attorney's
fees provided for in mortgage. Write for
further Information aid send for list of prop-
erty for Sale.
W. N. CONOLEY,
Tampa, florld. "
RBEraB-icBS-Ex-Governor Drew, Jackson
ville; First National Bank, Tampa, andHOB "
John T. Lealey, T"mpa_ -
, ,-ii., .,
**. = *.. -c