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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
VOL. 1---NO. 10. JACKSONVILLE, FLA., WEDNESDAY, MARCH 9, 1887.
PRICE $2 A YEAR.
THE NEW FORAGE PLANT. pounds is greater than of corn, nearly ORANGE CULTURE ABROAD! of the portion of the parent plant where
Sexual to clover, while from twice to it is to be ingrafted."
Seie ein Floda *ith the three times as much can be obtained VT a(I. n ment+ of See e 3d--'"At time of vivifying;" at the
Experience in Florida with the from an acre as from the same area of anaement of Seed-Bedscommenceme of the second growth
Kaffir Corn. clover.' Stock of all kinds relish it in and Nurseries in Spain. from the end of May till the end of June,
Editororida Farmer and uit-rowr-the green state or cured, and it is espe- Of the consular reports which furnish using "twigs of the same year."
Editor oria Farm a -ow: cially valuable for milch cows. For a the ate for this series ofarticles, 4th-"When sleeping," from the end
Allow me through the columns of soiling crop it is one of the best, and for that rdein, su of August till the middle of October.
your paper to say a few words to your siloing it is unexcelled.a This corresponds to our "dormant bud,"
readers on the subject of Kaffir Corn. Some assert that it is impracticalto at- being at Graot, quite a thormos s treatise the bud taking but not putting out till
From the letters and inquiries I receive tempt to cure sorghum because of the th dts it culture inthe following spring.
from all parts of the State I am con- excessive amount of juice it contains. e etais o citrus culture Buds may be spoiled by handling with
vinced that the majority of the people of But we know from personal experience lencia. perspiring hands or by being held be-
the State know but very little about the that a heavy crop can be cured and that PROPAGATION FROM THE SEED. tween the teeth. They are inserted on
plant, its nature, habits, etc. it makes a most excellent fodder which For budding the best stocks are de- salient parts of the stem, the north side
To begin with, it is both a grain and is greatly relished by all classes of stock, rived from seedlings of the bitter sweet being the best, one to four according to
forageplant, and belongs to the sorghum by the pigs as much as by any. It is, of orange, the trees so produced being size of stem, and bound with esparto
family. In appearance, when growing, course, slow drying such a crop that is "more vigorous, more luxuriant, of grass. The bandage is cut at the end of
it is similar to Indian corn, with this full of juice and is so heavy and thick taller growth, hardier and longer twenty-one days, or sooner if the bud
difference, its growth at the best is not on the ground, but with good weather it lived." starts sooner. If the bud has taken, the
over five or six feet in height, its leaves can be done. The seeds should be taken from well main stem is cut off four inches above
are of a very dark green color and are It should be sowed quite thick, so as to matured fruit; taken as early as Novem- the insertion, the stump serving to sup-
broader than those of Indian corn, it reduce the size of the stalks and make ber, it does not germinate well, or pro- port the tender shoot during the first
throws out leaves from the ground up to them softer. A good way to handle this duce vigorous plants. The seed should year, after which it is removed. All
the seed or grain head, which forms on or any similar crop is to cut with a self- be picked out by hand and dried in the sprouts are suppressed except those
the end of the stalk where the tassel rake reaper,which will deliver the fodder shade, then kept in "paper packets or nearest the bud or graft; these are
forms on Indian corn, and it does not in gavels. Left to wilt the first day, the earthenware pots in a dry place," if to nipped when about four inches long and
sucker from the root as does Millo maize. gavels can be turned over toward night, be kept some time they should be packed afterwards removed.
Kaffir corn is of African origin and and thus expose the green unwilted sur- in sand. The writer dwells on the importance
was first introduced into the United face to the dews. The second day, with In.preparing land for seed-beds hor- of honest and skillful selection of buds,
States in 1878. The original seed fell perhaps a second turning and loosening migueros are made, old stable manure is as they "inherit the good -and bad
- into the hands of Dr. Watkins, of Geor- up of the gavels about noon, will, in a applied and then the land is spaded or qualities of the tree which produced
gia, who propagated the seed in that good sun, complete the drying sufficient plowed and divided into "long and nar- them." Remembering that "like begets
State. to house' or stack, row plats, with small irrigating canals like" the grove owner cannot be too
The grain, which is about the size of The ground should be well prepared between." Irrigation and fertilizing by cautious, and should never entrust the
wheat, in shape round, color white, and moist when the seed is sown. Fiom hormigueros are important features of selection of buds to a person not known
with small red spots, is both food for one to one and a half bushels of seed Spanish horticulture. The hormigueros to be thoroughly competent and reliable.
man, beast and fowl. Ground and "are heaps of dry vegetable refuse, cov- A. H. C.
bolted it will make good' bread, cakes, ered over with earth, having- a small (To be continued.)
etc. The flour is not as white as wheat opening near the ground in which is in- 0
flour, neither is the texture of -the grain produced a wisp of straw. On setting
as fine as wheat. The stalk and leaves fire to the stra the whole mass gradu- GRAPE CULTURE IN FLORIDA.
make good forage either green or cured. ally consumes itself, forming a small ---
It will yield two crops of grain and heap of vegetable ashes and earth, which QSeletion nf Varieties. Plant
one of forage or two crops of forage and are equally distributed over the surface lotion f Varieties. Plant-
one of grain, as the gro wer may desire of the soil." It.is stated in anotherplace ing, Pruning, Training, etc.
ith fertilizing it will yield 50 bushels t I hat hornigueros give ve-ry good results E is .
of grain per acre, and will yield from I in s trong and damp s oils, bt i iy .Trh'a-Q Eustis l ay e Boe-o
25 to 30 bushels on pine. lands. If will t little use i those that are sady nar e'eabedro lay before our
stand droughtand will also grow on,-low A sufficient quantity. of combustible aersa, read before in
land. t.eektingi.paper read bheorer the
I had some last season which ripened should be employed so that the earth aE.itis rut and Vegetable Grow-
may.be burned neither too much'nor too ation b...F,
its grain while growing in water one / / elite but soas to o r c o boa ere 'Asso-iation by Mr. B. F.
foot deep. I consider it one of the beste,;bnus s blackish MarshKtogether with such of the adccom-
ifnot the best, grain and forage plants The seeds are wanted from the middle paying illustrations as were engraved
ever introduced into Florida. of Februaryto the middle of April. Be by that enterprising journal.
MODE OFPCULTIVATION. fore planting they are soaked in wat "
for two days. Then they are sowed
In this latitude plant from March 1st thickly and covered with a mixture of
until the middle of May or first of June. wood's earth and old manure one and a
.although I thinkthe earlier it is planted half or two inches deep. The plants
after March 1st the better-the results come up in from four to six weeks. The
will be. ". -m ^ beds should be watered with a watering -
In planting for 'grain prepare your "pot every two or three days, after sun-
land as for corn, mark off in rows three set or, still better, before sunrise. When
feet apart one way,,with the plow. Then the plants are two inches high, weed
drop the seed four or five grains in a and thin out, and then regular irriga-
hill,from one to one and a half feet tion may be commb ten flo inrga
apart according to the strength of the wtr through thenced by flowing
land. Cover one or one and a halfro thedites. The soil
ians deep. herne t-o p t to be pr ar a should contain enough fertilizer to last
inches deep. When ito s up thin to till the plants are ten or t welve i nches
two or three talks in' hill if oni poorland, high; if more'is needed, Peruvian guano
or let all that come up stand if on good maybe applied either by the watering
land. Cultivate through the season the potor by placing it in the ditches at
If forage only is desired plant or sow EARLY AMBER CANE. The plants are transferred to the Vine at
in drills three feet apart and cut as often nursery ws art the en dd of first year and vine secured at
as desired. should be sown per acre, and covered- nea rows at the end of one or two end r second year.y
The first crop of grain will ripen in lightly. Chinch bugs are great enemies hand thlenhMrmicdhdle, iFebruars Later we shall publish Mr. Marsh's
Should the grower wish to save twoA re plentiful it would be best not to sow They are planted from sixteen to tenty grape vine. But for theli
Then go through the field and lipoff Early Amber Cane. Irrigation is performed soncein three or profit wemust grow varieties that
theheads. Then new beads willn foeirmfi in ordin
Svnga second crop of grain and a crop This variety of sorghum receiveseits weeksiordinry weather, oftener if rien theirfrit Ie.ibelieve the
If two crops of forage and one of grain and the bright color of the syrup pro- planting a small quantity of guano or without eoeption:
are r desired, cu hot t1 4hlaoffe ducd from it As i has chrteritis rotten manure is applied. Agawam-,A table grape, brownish
Uv t, p uuu planru on ciose to e t
ground when it is in early bloom. New
stalks will spring from the root,
giving a crop of grain and of forage in
Should the grower desire to fertilize
(and allow me to say that it is a plant
that will well repay fertilizing), run a
furrow, with a common turning plow,
alongside of the row and strew your fer-
tilizer in that, after which turn a furrow
back against the row. I would advise
fertilizing during the rainy season. Use
cotton seed meal or any good fertilizer.
Well rotted stable manure is the best.
Now, in closing I would say 'to the
farmers of Florida: Gentlemen, as long
as we send our money to the North to
buy poorer grain and forage than we can
.raise ourselves we shall never prosper.
JOHN A. GERMOND.
KEEUKA, Fla., Feb. 22d, 1887.
Sorghum as a Forage Crop.
The following is from Colman's Rural
World, one of the leading agricultural
journals of the West, established forty
years ago by our present commissioner
of agriculture : .
The use of 'sorghum or northern sugar
cane for other purposes than for making
syrup and sugar are too nimch 'over-
looked by our stock raisers. Al a&forage
crop many who have tried it pronounce
it more valuable for this than for its sac-
charine products. The sugar in it is nu-
tritious, easily digested and makes it a
fattening food. It has alsp a good pro-
portion of albuminoids or flesh-forming
elements, a larger amount than has fod-
der corn, and its feeding value per 100
both of the Chinese and African sor-
ghums, it may be a hybrid between them.
Numerous hybrids have been produced
and this whole group of plants may prop-
erly be considered as varieties, sub-vari-
eties and forms of one species, their dif-
ferences arising from cultivation and
geographical range. The glumes or chaff
of the seeds fall off, leaving them bare,
while those of the broom corn are per-
sistent, so that the broom corn may be
considered a distinct species. In the
sugar cane there are still greater differ-
ences, sufficient to constitute a distinct
The Department of Agricul'ure has been
conducting an elaborate series of exper-
ments with some forty varieties of sor-
ghum, the result showing no great dif-
ference in per cent. of saccharine mat-
ter, but a 'great variation ,in season of
maturity and product per acre.
As regards sugar production cane takes
the lead south of latitude 82. In Florida
sorghum would only be planted for
coarse forage, and it is probable that
more satisfactory returns will be ob-
tained from less saccharine varieties,
such as Kaffir Corn, Millo Maize, White
Dhoura, and African Millet. The seed
of these and other varieties are offered
by.,J.-H. .Alexander, of Augusta, Ga.
Seed of' Kaffir c6rn grown on Florida
soil may be obtained of Jno. A. Ger-
mond, Kdukra, Fla. A. H. C.'
In forcing strawberries, they should
note alloUed to overbear or the fruit
will be small. A moderate crop of
large berries are much more profitableI
than any number of small ones.
said 2,000 years ago, "nor let thy vine-
yard incline toward the setting sun."
I believe any slope, or no slope at all,
will do here. If I have any preference
it is for an eastern slope. My reason is,
that on an eastern exposure the heavy
dews are dissipated in the early part of
the .day before the sun acquires a heat
sufficient to scald the vines during our
The vineyard should not be large:
Virgil says: "Praise large fields; cultivate
small ones." C'ear the ground thorough-
ly of all stumps and rubbish and give it
a good ploughing. Then level it with a
harrowland mark it off in straight lines.
It will pay you to. have them straight.
Vine at end of third year.
The poet, above quoted, says that straight
rows "feed the hungry minds," dr afford,
us pleasure in looking .at them; besides
they give the vines a better chance,
since each one appropriates its own share
of sunlight, air, and dew, while the roots
are more uniformly distributed. i::.
If we plant a slow growing grape, like
the Delaware, the rows may be five feet
apart, and the vines six feet from eauch
other. Vines that are rapid growers,
ought to be set eight feet apart, 'in rows
six.feet between them. 'Vines may be
planted any time from the 1st of Decem-
her until the buds begin to start. I
think December the best-time to set
them, as the roots aregetting established
and the vine is ready to make a rigorous
growth when the sap begifistodflew. -"If
the roots-of the vine you are planting out
have been injured, prune them; indeed,
it is better to prune them in any da5;-
as.roots that have been trimmed -chrow
out fibrous roots, "which gre..the feeders
of the vine,
The hole in which the vine is set need
not be, ordinarily, over a foot deep.
After digging the hole, put in from two
to four quarts of fine ground bone,. and
mix it thoroughly with the soil. Then
make a mound in the centre of the hole,
the shape of a wash basin inverted.
Place the vine you are setting on ,the
mound, the top of .which ought to be
about four inches from the surface of the
ground. Spread the roots out over the
sides of the mound and throw on dirt to
keep them in place as you arrange and
distribute them evenly. Now fill the hole
up and put about one pound of some
At the base of this leaf a bud will be
found, which will probably start to grow
after a time. Pinch this off, leaving as
before one leaf and a bud on it. Follow
up this treatment through the growing
season, and in the fall you will have a
single cane from six to ten feet long as
shown in the drawing. In December,
when the leaves fall, cut this cane back,
leaving a stock with only four or five
buds on it. .
The next spring these buds will all
start. Select two of the most vigorous
shoots that come out from the stock, tie
them to the stakes and pinch off the
other sprouts. Pinch off .the laterals
from-these two canes as in the case of
the single cane the previous year, and at
the end of the season you will have two
canes ten feet-or more in length growing
from your stock. They will appear as
shown in the figure. In December -cut
these canes back, leaving about four feet
of new growth on each one. These canes
are now to be bent over to the ground
away from each other and in the direc-
tion of the row in which they are plant-
ed. Fasten their ends to the ground
with forked sticks stuck in the earth.
(See figure.) In the spring when the
buds start, select six of" the most vigor-
ous shoots on each of the canes. Let
them be 'sprouts that are about eight
inches apart, and when they have grown
a few inches tie them to the wire of your
To make a trellis suitable for support-
ing these shoots set posts in your rowd-of
vines eight feet apart and four feet from
the vines. The posts should be six and
one-half feet long and set in the ground
two and :one-half feet. Nail, to these
posts two horizontal strips of one by
three boards. One of' these strips may,
be placed at the top of the posts and the
other one foot from. the -ground. Now
stretch, twelve wires-vertically from one
!horizontal strip to the other, covering a
space of eight inches between them, as
shown in the figure. AstbeyQurg shoots
grow. tie them to these'wiVes and pinch.
off laterals in preriQtos,yer, ,.*,
TrelliS wlth Vine,
It IAprobW. tihat.the- vina riti -rilt
o YW. bwBheaisagtape -will
appear on the lower budsof the vertical
snoots. Allow only three bunches to
each cane and you will have your vine
bearing tbirty-six bunches the third year.
At the end of the year the vine will have
two horizontal arms one foot from the
ground, and from each of these horizon.
tal arms six vertical canes will have
go o UL coLmmLerclO tUL I izeron th i e sur- S -.'. .. -- u
face, carefully working it into the soil, sprung, which must not be allowed t
for the depth of an inch or two, but do grow more than three or four feet high.
not get it nearer to the stock than six or effyan be kept back by pinching them
eight inches. Water well and finish up off Ifsome are inclined to grow fast
by putting on half a bushel of well com- than others, they must be -ohieoked by
posted stable manure, which can be pinching off .the end. .By.-judcious
placed close up to the vine without in- Pincmhing the six 'aAes can be made tc
jury. This will serve as a mulch and grow of a umform-size ..
will help to keep^down t.e weeds. Te ,.The ,figure shows'how thle vine should
figure shows h ,w the vine should a tei look at the end of theithird year, alsothe
in theviee ground. s g ,osition of the fruit on the vine. In
If a dry el es see that yo ember the canes which bore the fruit
If a dry ]peimes on see thtIor are to be cut back to two buds. The next
red ,early, vis have p ofip r wat,, and thy will -'-
PRINCIPLES OF BUDDING. astonish and light you with their season these two buds will produce canes
When the young tree have made one os-Wie grape, rampant grw- thr growth and graceful appearance which may be trained as previously
year's growth in the nursery they should Cyvntiiana-Wie grape, The.soil should. be frequently stirred to -des cribed Allow each cane to bear
be ready for budding, if trees of ",short Noro l-Wine grape. three ounces of fruit. A tlhe ent o
trunk", are desired. If "long trunks" Moore's Early- Blac, very early, the season your vine will hav twenty-
are desired (they are less in demand) the, good- .i- l., r ., four upright canes, each one of which
lower branches, thorns and lees ae t Pntiss-Early and white, good. a he
be cutoffs ed ach April and the lateral Accal bo-Purple grape. w. Th figur shows the Ap earance of
,buds nipped off in June, until the stems Delai' -Table grape, ripe in June. .the vine sit-theend of he ourth year.
abe bfive or sithree hiirw tne may ~ves. -rOk,i table or wine grape, ripe A | Now these canes are to be outback in
be buddedat the desired height. Cr ok i wJt h a 'e December, leaving only one cane with
ed trees are cut off in April of the sec nd M o Reisling-White, wine grape. the two lowest buds, which are to devel
year, four inches fromnthe ground, and, .Eir.-White, wine grape, -heavy ope into fruit canes for the ensuing
Sthe most vigorous of the new shoots is earer i e year, when the vine is to be trained as
trained up for the trunk. Goethe-Pale red, resembles Malaga, on the previous season. I have heard
Buerds soud be selected from trees table grae. the complaint made by those who have
perfectly sound well-formed an posses- Champion- Bluish black, earliest cultivated grapes here that the bunches
sing a clean bark; not froni too young grape.-, would not ripen evenly. When a vine
trees lest it bd too long in bearing fruit;, Diana-Red good. '.0led to mo.t ....does not ripen its bunches evenly, the
nor too old lest it be of little duration. Early Vicntor-Very early, fine black. fend t r ault is in the blossom, and the vine
Buds should be taken from central bear- I hae not ncludd the Concord in Vin at end o fourth year. should be grafted with a variety that is
ing branches. If taken from lower this list, as I understand from Mr Du- keep down the weeds and to admit the perfect as to its blossoms. There are
branches the tree will have a drooping bois that it does not;do well with him. light and air and dew; but care should plenty of varieties that have perfect
habit. Young twigs produce large but Of course no Florida home would be betaken not to disturb the roots. Now owners, and we should grow only those
unfruitful trees. Avoid trees with complete without the Scuppernong. I as your vines begin to grow you will vines that fertilize their blossoms
mostly vertical branches, as they bear have not placed it in the list of varieties have to trim them and direct their forces, sufficiently to enables a perfect bunch to
fewer fruit and later than those with that should be planted, as it is a late or you will have all top and no fruit, or form.
nearly horizontal branches. Buds should grape and would not pay to grow except fruit that is inferior.
betaken from the "June shootings of for wine making or for local markets. There are many methods and systems What is called strawberry rust and
nthe previous year." The operation of Doubtless there are many varieties not of pruning and training vines, but I bliht will be found, in many instaes,
budding is performed at four periods: inclu~d." in the .above list. which will, think the method to which I shall call to be the work of a minute worm. The
Ist- At the impulse," when the sap thrive here. Experiment will bring your attention is one of the simplest and b st remedy is. when the fruiting sea
is startingand the buds swelling, them out. We have enough already to most natural. It possesses many features son is over, to cover wi th a light coati ng
from the middle of February to the fir s success our vineyards. which commend it, and the bet of all n over, o cover wt a g n oatg
of April, from "twigs of previo y g decided what kinds to plant, its recommendations is the fact that i of stra and burn.
2td-"At the timeeoftshooin, when we xt wish to know where to plant works admirably in practice. Select a -
thesap ios inte greatest activity, d rihe Any well drained piece of land bud low down on the stock and after it The richest soil does not always pro.
nthewhoots haveobtainedi t 1h rwgood grapes in Florida. A has made a good start tie it to a stake duce the healthiest vines or finest grapes.
-fourts of their g t, from -te pi ana with a southern slope is and pinch off the other, shoots. When Frequently the land may not be worth
first ofApril till the endof May, using a genelyselectd for avineyad. A laterals make their appearance pinch $5 an acre, while the climate may be
tender shoot of the "same vigor as that western slope is to be avoided. Virgil them off, leaving only one leaf on them, worth $100 an acre for grpe-growing.
PRICE $2 A YEAR.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, MARCH 9, 1887.
oatmeal porridge should be made, and a MANAGEMENT OF BEES. numbers is deprived of its queen, (oats and corn ground), and bran or mid- -57 T-'
S, pailful, in which from 3 to 5 lbs. of they will secrete honey much more rap- dlings, always adding a small handful
treacle has been mixed, should be given idly. of salt, a little soda and a handful of
Inquiries concerning diseases of domestic to the cow milk-warm, as soon as she A Rational System Advocated Strong colonies at the commence- ground oyster shells and charcoal
animals may be addressed to Dr. D. O, Lyon, has calved. The cow should not be By a Practical Apiarist. ment of the honey flow are the de- mixed. I
Jacksonville, Florida, who will answer them milked clean for the first two days, but light of the apiarist. On the other For my morning feed I use wheat or
through this column, after that every drop should be taken. BY JOHN Y. DETWILER. hand strong colonies, or those hav- the No. 1 screenings, oats and buck-
The cow should be in good store condi- The treatment of bees, to insure suc- ing an over-abundant supply of bees at wheat. Sometimes I mix them, some-
Ailments of Horses. tion when she calves, but for ten daysbe- cess. must be modified to suit the temrn- the close of the honey season, are a det- times I feed each by itself. I use but
The following cases are described and fore calving she should be sparingly fed perature and the peculiarities of the cli- riment to anyone, as they rapidly con- little corn, and whai I do feed is mostly I
prescribed ror in the veterinary column -a little sweet hay, scalded bran, treacle mate of Florida. I find bees are much consume the stores and leave the hive to my fattening hens. I make it a point i 1f l N f l
of Home and Farm: and water in winter, and she should' affected by slight changes in tempera- destitute when it can least afford it in to feed something green at noon, if I It -y 3 ||| I
have exercise daily. In summer the ture here, especially during the winter the'coming spring. can get it, and for this purpose I raise I I Ill I
GLANDERS. cow should, when dried for calving, be and spring months, and should not be I see but the one remedy-the adop- millo maize, Scoteh and German kala. U 111 U 1
A correspondent in Texas asks: 1. Is put in a bare, well sheltered, and well opened for examination at such times tion by our SouthernR piarists of a deep In feeding whole grains in 1he morn-
there any cure for glanders? 2. What shaded pasture, where she will have to more than is absolutely necessary. The hive not to exceed one foot square at the ing, I scatter it all over the yard and
are the symptoms? 3. Is there any way work hard to supply her wants, and she careful apiarist should never allow him- top and bottom, and any depth to suit brush it in with my feet, which keeps -. AND-
of preventing the disease? Answers.-1. should be put in a covered yard or self to be persuaded to take more surplus themselves. 'In this size of hive a less the fowls active all day, and this isone of
No; none yet known. 2. Swelling under large airy box a few hours before calv- honey ftom the colonies than they can number of bees can protect the'r stores the secrets of profitable poultry raising.
the throat, more or less cough, and a ing. spare, for should it become necessary to than in a wider and shallower hive, and A lazy hen will not lay and. a fowl that
discharge from one or both nostrils; but After calving, and until after the ninth feed back, there is no end to the trouble also retain the heat of the cluster under lays well is not apt to, get too fat.
an expert discriminates between gland- day, when the second cleansing usually that may arise by reason of other colo- all ordinary circumstances without the If a stimulant is wanted a handful of | | | I
ers and nasal gleet by a certain color comes away, the food in winter should nies robbing, not to say anything of the aid of a division-board dummy, as used ginger is better than pepper,. and is re-
and character of the eruptions; inside consist of sweet hay and bran mashes, diluted honey absorbing moisture and by many apiarists to confine the bees to ished by the fowls. We seldom have a I
the nostrils, far up. 3. If, as some good given in_ great moderation. The bran becoming sour, and thereby unfit for I he number of combs they can cover, sick hen. If we do, it is at once sepa- "
scientists teach, glanders are developed should be scalded, and the water warm- consumption by the colony. When the queen requires more room rated from the flioek.. During dry -
in consequence of a long season of hard ed. In summer the cow should, till Bee-keepers are ambitions; they de- to deposit eggs, by reason of being weather I add a handful of0 sulphur to -
work, poor and insufficient food, and ex- after the ninth day, be housed at night, sire to make a good showing for the sea- crowded down from above, there is no the soft food.. This enters. largely into'
posure, then, by avoiding these, you will but after the third day she may be son, and in order to do so, the colonies difficulty. Let us follow the condition the composition. of the egg and must be-
have a preventive of the glanders. turned out for a few hours morning and are likely to suffer. Moderate sized col- of a colony in such a hive through the furnished in some way to obtain the best i R
BOTTS, COLIC AND GRAVEL. evening, but she should not be allowed onies of bees, with a hive well supplied season and observe their operation when results. I also add ground bone oca- lllll
Another party in Texas writes: Tell access to cold water until after the third with honey, are sure to come through left to their own instinct. The honey is sionally. h g JE RI
me what is the best remedy for btts day. She should have-brand tea, and a all right in the spring if free from the stored above, is ripened by the heat of Recently I have been getting lard
colic, and gravel in horses? Answer.-- little sweet bay and grass for the first ravages of the Nor h in the fall. In the the cluster beneath, is sealed and the scraps from.a Jacksonville soap and fer-
Through there are botts in the stomachs three days after calving, and if she had large hives of the present day, it requires queen deposits eggs lower, until the bot- tilizer factory.. I know of no better or DEVOTED TO THE
Through there arely botts in the stomachs. For a hard time in calving, oatmeal gruel an unusual number of bees to protect tomr of the hive is reached. For lack of cheaper food. It comes in cakes just as
of horses, thalfey raounely cause dsease. Forne and cod liver oil will help to get up her the stores from the wax wasp, moth and room to store honey, the bees confine the it is. taken from the ke'tles, I should- -
colic, one-half ounce of nchlorofrm, one strength. Malt improves the appetite robber bees, as, in order to keep large queen to a limited space, which restricts judge by the shape, and consists of meat I
of x vomioa, shaken up in a pint of and helps the digestion. Cows should hives with full colonies, it requires an the production of brood, for which there mostly, such as hotel leavings, I should
of nux tomlca, shaken updin a pint of always have access to rock salt and to extra amount of honey to carry them is but little use at the close of Ihe sea- say, and perhaps. one-eighth of the
new milk and administer as a drench, field soil, through the period during which no son, whole is bone. The wh.,le is probably
case ofgrave lon course of in almproper foods every For medicinal purposes always have honey is secreted. Consequently, on the The daily loss of bees by accident and cooked lby superheated steam and the. ard en
a complete change of diet, with veryat hand a good supply of linseed and approach of spring, the stores are con- age reduces the number, and the hive bone is easily chopped with ,a hatchet..
moderate doses of sweetspirits of nitre, cod liver oil, Epsom salts, ground gin- sumed, the colony left destitute, and when governed by the instinctof the bees It would be better if ground, but the
smoderate doses o sweet spirits of itreger, whisky, and sound ale. For sore each requires feeding to insure an ample enters winter quarters with an ample factory claims it pastes the mill and will.
say fourth of an ounce three times a udders, laundanum and cream. For supply of brood and young bees in them supply of sealed honey of the best.qual- not grind. I pay a ets per pound there.
day is, sweet and Irish pots andtoes, tfruits,at straining after calving, apply carbolic to gather the next honey flow. ity, and only the necessary amount of and consider it the cheapest food I buy..
and mangoes, and sweet apples, each oil with a sponge tied to the end of a This expense can in a great measure bees to protect them from insect enemies I am raising cassava to feed poultry
one of these give to the measure of a stick. be avoided by making use of a different and changes of temperature. As the as an experiment.. I tried it last year in AND
peck daily, and a runon afresh -green hive wherein the bees can protect their winter advances, the honey and pollen is a small way and they relished it. I also.
pe daily, and a run on a fresh green Should a cow show signs of milk fever own combs and stores, and retain the consumed from below up, the combs are fed sweet potatoes quite largely last fall,. A
pasture, will cure almost any case of (unsteadiness of gait,ha fld expressionkand heat of the cluster, whioh prevents mois- left entirely clean, and with but little but if fed at all they should be fed spar-
gravelthe chief sign) administer promptly .a pint ture collecting upon the scaled honey chance for the moth to work upon, as ingly. Fbwlaseem to. fatten so easily on I UG SEi LD E OU JIJF
NAVICULAR DISEASE of whisky and a pound of Epsom salts and above. In my own apiary I have in use the cluster nears the top of the hive. them
An inquirer residing at Rose Hill, get her to walk about, if possible, encourage both the Langstroth and Gallup frames, In the spring, when nature provides I wish to arrange .a small silo to furtn-
Fhthe circulation of the blood in every way.
Florida, receives this answer: Your mule Shouldshe refuse to walk, though still on their respective sizes being 9xl7J and honey in a diluted state, which serves to ish green food at all times. When we
has navicular disease, so called, or acute her feet, take from three to four quarts of 11 xlli outside measure, stimulate the queen to deposit, eggs she can grow our own food for fowls- in A T TT -
inflammation of important organs of the blood from the jugular vein. If she goes The deep frame is my choice here, as takes advantage, and in due time the Florida and keep.all the money at home | o I e
foot. Apply a Spanish fl] blister at the down and is unable to rise, keep her bodyA HUI S
foot. Apply a Spanish fl blister at the covered with sacks of hot bran day and it has been during the years I have kep,' hive is crowded with young bees, the any one who, will give them the attention J
heels just under the fetlocks. Repeat the night, and put cloths dipped in cold water bees in the North. While 1 do not assert swarming impulse is generated, and the any ordinary business needs will suc-- -
blister every three or four days until the on her head, draw the milk every hour and that it will suit all apiarists, I believe parent colony casts a swarm at the time ceed, for the average per head is greater
lameness disappears. Meantime, when keep the cow propped up on each side with greater success can be obtained, one year when the chances of the loss by mos- in this State than at the North. Twenty- EDITOR.
the blisters are not on, keep the parts s. .. with another, in this climate with it, quito hawks of the young queens to two pullets (cross) laid 1,200 eggs in
soft with fresh lard. n ff ows than with a shallow frame of any des- emerge from the parent colony, are less three months, and the eggs s6ld for 2
WART ON HIND LEG. Drying Off COWS. cription. than at any time afterward. The old cts. Eighty hens produced 5,162 eggs in This ournal will have for its leading object
A Mississippi correspondent writes Ninety per cent. of the spoiled udders For the production of comb honey in hive having lost the majority of its bees six months, from January 1, to July 1, the promotion of rural industriesin Florida, and
I have a nice young with a art on are destroyed by bad management in the Northern States a shallow frame cer- soon regains its former strength, the re- 1886. My met profits were $2.17 per will advocate especially a more diversified and
hind leg at the ankle joint, which has 'drying off cows at the close of the milk- tainly has some advantages where hu- mining stores serving to carry them hen, counting interest on investment, intensive svstems of agrientiire and great
come togrowas large as a man's fist. ing season. When they are giving so midity is a secondary consideration, and over until the young bees are old enough but not the time for caring for them, economy of home resources. -
What ca I do-to remove it and stop its little milk that it is not deemed advis- the colonies are removed to cellars to to leave in quest of honey. which is compensated for by their drop- Assuming that the agrienitiraladaptationso
growth? Answer.-A wart of that kind able to milk regularly to save it, they winter, and where the ravages of the Soon after a second swarm .makes its pings. I think I am keeping a very ac- large portion of Florida are as yet but imper-
must be cut off and the wound there- are pretty apt to be neglected and to go moth worm are confined to 'but a small appearance, which further serves to re- curate record this year and will report. fectly understood, a special aim of this journa
after treated-by a surgeon who under- so long between milking as to induce portion of the year. In such conditions duce the colony; 'tis here where the ser- ORMOND-ON THE-HAIAIFA, will be to describe the bmt re-sults which have
stands his business, and for this you will inflammation in one or more quarters of colonies consume but a small amount of vices of the apiarist come in by supply- Feb. 24, 1887. been accomplished, with the exact metbodi em-
have to employ a veterinarian. the udder, and when inflammation is honey compared to what is required in ing a virgin queen, or a mature queen played, and all influence- airec-ng uch results;
WOe e once established, there, it is a pretty this climate and one pound of bees and cell, which should have been done after also tosugge -pc-men. decribeneworhttle
difficult matter to counteract- it. The a prolific queenl will, where an apiary the first swarm departed by introducing known crops, truits, etc.. and record the progress
An Arkansas correspondent writes: milk thicken in the reservoirs of the has opened up' pefmanently;4build up allaying queen at such times as from 10 -/lIrAI1tAND URSERIES. of agriculture in neighbiring Stat,-.
My horses and mules have been troubled udder, and as the curd cannot pass out quickly to a prosperous colony. days to 2 weeks. Time can be saved in J!. Comme-ncing with thbe fli--t numhbr and con.
with worms for the last two years. I through the small tubes leading into When the swarming season begins, one brood rearing in this manner. tinuing through the season for
have' tried tobacco,, alum, and other the teats, it remains there to irritate frame of brood and adhering bees carl be I have endeavored to give a plain idea .
remedies, and- with 'no satisfactory re- and keep up inflammation until the placed in a small hive or nucleus, and, to your readers of the economy of the Iee .. lantig
suits. What do-you recommend? 'An- pantof the udder involved isispoiled being assisted with an occasional frame hive.in state of nature, and .I fati to L ARirlES OF.
swer.-Give the horses and mules each beyond remedy. Milk should, there. of brood, will oon build up Ini this lo- see how we can improve upon it, except ; .-. Therc willbe a series of articles oinfruits-other-
in a bran mash, oe quarter. of an ounce fore, be drawn often enough to keep the cality, save under special conditions, the to assist by our knowledge of the in- ORANGE AND LEMON TREES. than tho e o iho citrus grouip-whichb have-
of aloes every other day for a week and bag iimniand cool. The time between chances would be bad for increase in stinct of the bee at such time :as the ne- proved most socce-ful in thui State. Eachiva--
then omit a week and resume. If this milking may be more and more exItend- this manner. On the other hand, I find& cessities of the case, require it. In this riec- will b.e described and
dose physics too much, reduce the ed but the watchfulness should be cori- it best to make only full colonies, by di- age of scientific apiarists we possess the-
amount of aloes Ihe second week After- stant, and at the first indications of any vision or otherwise, to insure success.. ory upon theory, but few individuals e Illultratedl
ward keep in the mangers of both horses extra warmth or thickening of any part Queen rearing is also uncertain, and agreeing upon the best method of manip- Buds not placed on small stocks, but onextra ,
and mules salt of some kind. Avery!s. of the bag, the milking had better, be should be commenced previous to the ulating colonies in' improved hives j large and dne olnes.'. And there will be note from persons who bav
rock or mineral salt is best, where the- done daily, or twice or tbrico daily, un- advent of the mosquito hawk, or the from the commencement to the ending had experience in its cultiraioh. This willibe
animals can lick it at their pleasure. If til all danger fro a accumulation .is time of the natural swarming season of of the season. We make a specially of he followed by a tinlar serieon
stock of all kinds, including hogs, had past Attention to no detail in the the colonies. One.would think from the great num- A -EY P:
rock salt to get at whenever the stomach management of a herd is more essential Colonies at this' time should possess a ber of requisites necessary to successful --EARLY FPANIPH RANGE -- FOPane Pla tS
craved it, there would be fewer worms than this item of care in drying off cows sufficient number of combs of 'sealed bee-keeping as advertised by our modern (the earliest ariel known),
to complain of among them and a greot at the close of the milking season. In- honey, for after a prime swarm has been supply dealers, that the bees, of our fore- And other subjects wil be illustrated to anltmiedA
deal, less hog cholera. flammation to any extent ought to be hived a few days, and has,los all incli- fathers. were sadly behind the age co- TOHITI LIMES and extent.
"* prevented, if possible, for if it is not se- nation to swarm out, as is sometimes pared with those of the present day. .-VILLA FRANCA LEMONS, Mulchattention wil be devoted to,
Management in Calving. vere enough to ruin tny part of the ud- done, a frame of sealed honey will serve From authentic works on the subject I o, L S o k
-The following advice on .a. subject of derentirely it always impairs the a- Lo encounrae ihem greatly and prevent fail to see that the instinct .of the:bee an. can show reesot the latter that stoodthe Lv t
The i allowing amportan vce on a subjec ows tivityof the inflamed part for the follow- any chance of becoming destitute if the has been changed by the introduction of
critical Scimportance to owners of cows is g season. A lack proper care in weather should prove unfavorable for a modern appliances, or that anything is cold lst winer as well as the Orange, and And to the hoime.pdudtio6iofforagendfertil
frohe Scow-hottsh Agriculturd bal Gazeofty and this matter is often the mysterious cause few days. gained by the removal of the stores at NOW HAVE FRUIT UPON THEM. zers, two economies which are eeaial to su
The cow-house should be lofty and which makes cows vary in their messes These and numberless other things the expense of the colony. On the-other cessful farming.
wel ventilated in the roof, and should in different seasons, wen food and other serve toindicatethatanew comershoud hand, I feel I am safe insaying that questions reatie to ailment domestic
have a southern aspect, and should e se equally favorable go slow, especially if he -follows his there have been more colonies damaged anmswi be ans were by an alte n eterina
aorn a i f Bettor by far to keep up milking until Northern methods of apiacultnre. Did by the injudicious use of the extractor edepare
Th l f ay pair of 1,250lb. cows the next calf is dropped than to allow we possess the pennyroyal as one of our by inexperiencedbeekeepersthanhave Send for Catalogue surgeon who foerly edited a lie department
should beaully 8 feet :wmde, otherwise, feverishness o wellin the ud honey resources, we might be able to been benefitted by its use in giving the KEDNEY & CAREY, o
Then filoheyo malh o no derto occur from an accumulation of manage differently; but with our local queen room to deposit eggs during the P. WinterParkFla. Td
grated wooden platforms, i-raised in' wa in early spring is near to band colonies through the winter successfully colonies of the greatest importance, and PEACH TREES ADAPTED FLORIDA, e n m and to ports O f th
front about threeinches -and beh rmer Advocate.i and secureincrease and surplus. the amount of increase and. surplus se- a.ra Spec ialty.
atut four inches from the ground. By Our Northern apiarists, after hav- cured as secondary matters. In apiacul- Ten well-tested varieties ripening from May Truck-Gardenig'
this arrangement the cows stand and lie j' g harvested the crop of Cdo- ture, as in other occupations, there are 'till last of October, with the exceiton of the
on a level surface, and less straw is re- Dehornig' Cattle. ver honey (their colonies : hav- seasons of failure and disaster which Hone and Peen-To varieties. The eachee I FloriCultu'e
honey (their'. -.offernave been obtained by CARUULaILnr0TN X
quired. for bedding. Cows should be ing been stimulated-to broad rearing nothing but the possession of ready cash o a e be its pted to
groomed-daily when housed, and should Dehorning cattle is growing in favor. by the fruit bloom a few weeks previous) will enable the apiarist to pass over with- South witrwhich I have been exerentintor P lty
be turned out for water and: exercise in The best time for the operation is at one are then ready for the basswood or linn out loss.. To those whose resources are manyyears. I alsoofferourvarietyoApicot, -
winter twice daily. .. month old, when, according to Prof. which can in many instances be entirely limited, or that, require every available the bet six which, haveoativaa a a V terinar
In-half cows should be liberally bed- Wallace, the lim pet-like embryo f, the removed without detriment to the colo. dollar to supportthemselves and family, to beof trueFloridastock. ,
ded...C.ovs calving in the winteriseason born- can,-beicto 0ri -Ppend'kite, nies. A period of honey drouth then-oc- the matter becomes one of a serious na- For descriptive catalogue and pnce-list ad, P. -f.' raotc t
should be put m a well-ventilated, .weUiejoCe. otsbe .i, in curs, during which t'me'tis seldom that ture. For the benefit of this class of our ress .IPf..HOR E, ., "
bedded loose box, as soon after being .w"hl. ~dau0in~gbu tI erini r they do not secure enough nectar to sup- Florida apiarists this article is prepared, Glen St. Mary, Florida. wllbe contiibu otosbypersomwhohav made
dried as possible, and the nearer the rictz'iDauUr ~aay : lT.he e o port the colonv Later, the fall flowers as the meansof showing how and where DOYAL APAINM tNURSEfIES p tihe lte~ e i d
calving box is to the dressing-room win- a lull grown.ainiahimiustLe confined so bloom profusely, which will, allow the losses may be prevented. a.ot.of seth ate i ireti e
dow.of. the farmer the better. If thecow that. the horns cah .be got 'at. Then a bees to fill up for winter, whi the ac- NEW SMYRNA, Fla. r a-mount of a on, anheirinterestswill be
is likely to'calve in the night the owner sharp butcher's saw. makes quick work. live labors ot the apiaristd are Over until MANATEE, FLORIDA. repiesentebyrable corwespoindents.
er thehead cattleman shouldstt up. If A little blood flows, tut it. soon stops. th o-in sin far as te POULTRY RAISING FOR PROFIT. Rr ropicals ornamental andfruit plantasfrcs thiJouralbe-
ance should not be given till-the feet-are beast in the herd, with a saving in every criedd era greenhouse. Also, a full line of semi-tropi-1it willatart out iuntrammelled and will repre-
in sight. A hempen rope, with a noose way-less danger to man and beast, less Contrast the difference, both in the III. A System of Feeding. Re-. lest'eoesplns andograssandgeneraltnur- sent asaeetiona and Interestswithaboluteha-.
at oe aend, should then be attached to feed consumed more enes a quie t from what care required bythe colonies and the in- turs Found Satisfactory. Eoticls rom India, Australia and the' West
each foot above the fetlock, and then the is eaten, fewer abortions and greater creased consumption of honey by the Indies, many of them never before introduced I
ropes, should e twisted together. ,The comfort to the previously bullied and bees, which are active during the entire BY E. W. ASDEN. i the most t descriptive catalogue of shed at Jacksonville on Wednesda
bead herdsman should keep the feetof bruised animals. Let tho god work go winter months, 'save in isolated cases After selecting the kind of fowl best tropical and semi-tropical plants published in Of each week.
.the calf in the right position and anoint on.-Texas F.arm and Ranche. where thetemperature is too low for a adapted to our wants, we think feeding i er.a"15 cataloge mailed, post-paid, on re- .....
.the passage with lard, and when the. few days to allow them to leave the is the most important subject, both at to i cent RE ASONER EBROS,. PRICE OP SVUBS3 IPTION:
cow pains herself his assistants should, A Handy Way of Feeding Pig.s hive. A colony in its normal condition, kinds and quality. I am feeding 120 Manatee, Florida. O Ya .'
when he gives the word, pull quietly and a do io p the when provided with a hive in which fowls all to d, mostly of the cross I -ne OvK Y... p..
firmly together downwards, and in the Cuta door in the side of the pen three they can control the temperature, is spoke of in my last letter, and from ex- ILEY, OROVER & CO., Six Month" 1 0o
direction of a lihue drawn midway be- or four feet high and as wide as the never without brood in some of its stages perience I find that 14 quarts of soft STATE AGENTS FOR Three Months 0
tween the hips and the hock. They trough is long. Hang with hinges at and all apiarists of experience knowthat food and 8 quarts of grain per day is I .en .w .... coPIxs KBa.
should take plenty of time, and never the top, so that the bottom will swing brood rearing requires honey to be car-' about enough and not in excess of their ASIN FERTILIZER CO'S
pull except when the cow is paining her- back over the top of the trough, which tried on regularly. a requiremem ts for eg producing. Address subscriptions and other business com-
self. As soon as the cow has calved the should be set just inside of the pen. Fix To sum up, I find that in order to be a reverse the usua order of feeding SOLUABLE SEA ISLAND GUANO munications to
calf .should be taken round to the head a wooden slide at the bottom of the door successful apiarist, it is nesissory to and feed the soft food at night, which __ __
of thne cow for ten minutes. Licking the so as to drop and catch, either side of the have all colonies strong previous to the consists of oats (white and the best qual- DISSOLVED BONE AND ALKALI C.H lJONES & BRO.
calf will do both cow and calf good, and trough. When you feed swing the door honey flow. Where many frames of ity I can buy), wheat bran and cotton -- W -
if the calf be removed in ten minutes or back, drop the elide, and the trough is brood are possessed by a col0y,, more seed. Equal parts of the first two and PHOSPHATE, PUBLISHERS.
so tn cow will not be unsettled. If wholly outside and can be easily cleaned bees are required to remain-m in or- a quart of the cotton seed meal. This I Communications for the editorial departme-
milk fev'TiJeared it is a good plan to out and swill turned in without the pigs der to retain the heat in the hve than scald in the morning, not stirring it AID WHOLESALE DEALERS IN should be addressed to ''
leave the calf wit the cow for three or getting at it; when swung into place when but little brood is.posse l. This thick, but give it a chance to swell, and FBUITS AND PRODUC E. A. H CURTISo E i^to
tour days. again-they can all commence eating at is why a new swarm gather nev so at noon I thicken it with bran if too A. CURTISS, Edtor,
As soon as the cow is in labor some the same time.-Ex. abundantly, or when a'colony Song in thin. In our coolest weather I use chops Get our Prices before buying. Jacksonville. Flua;
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, MARCH 9, 1887. 79
have ample facilities for growing corn. rice. When Sir-Jolhn Mandeville visited shop sihe went, and came home .in pLORID k SOUT BERN R'Y,
m if To this class The Poultry World suggests IiChina in the Fourteenth century the em- triumph with her jug of treacle.-Boston
arm 4a g the growing of corn with naturally very eror issued leather money-"whlich his Post. t THE ORANGE BELT ROUTE.
... --- small kernels., 'here are varieties of pop majesty spent most outrageously"-and Laws Against Bachelors.
A BARREL HEADER WORTHY OF corn which meet the case, and furnish a A QUAINT SPANISH CUSTOM. some years later the currency was trans- Some years since a novel feature was Daly Time Table l Eect February 7,1887,
CONSIDERATION.fair yield. The Dwarf Pearl corn has the ferred to a joint stock bank of Chinese introduced in municipal taxation in Bel- SOUTH BOVND-CAANNON BALL.
CONSIDERATION. smallest kernels of any variety, and at The Old Time Amusement of Cascarone merchants, who ultimately failed, and gium by allowing a rebate to all married Leavelt.Augustne 8 00 am,
thea goodly tinumber on thrds large sizetalk, so that Breaking-Exciting Sport. paid only two shillings on the pound.- men, with an allowance also for each child Palatka 10 0 am
An Acquisition to the Silver Leaved yields well. Those who are acquainted with the cus- New Orleans Times-Democrat. of the family, the chief burden thus fall- gHawthorn U 55 a
Class of Plants-In the Poultry Yard toms of old Spanish towns in California ing on the bachelors. In France it is now Gainesville 11 30 am
A New "inking Sun." proposed to tax bachelors as werehelle 1233 pm,
and Among the Bees-How to Skin a A Wire Tightener. know what cascarones are, and are prob- A New "Winking Sun." proposed to tax bachelors as they were Arab 02 p -
Calf. At present trellises and fences are so ably familiar with the ways of using Dr. Gould has recently discovered a taxedthere isnodoubt butthfirst thepublic, Sou Lke Weir 16
new winking sun, resembling in the a ePetbeant e...a...........n....................... 155pmu
largelymade of wire that a homemade them and theadditional enjoyment they pdi f anges the famous Algol ure would be carried by an overwhelming Brooksvie 65pm
Farmers are often called upon to skin a contrivance for tightening the wire is lend to all dances where they are used. which the Arabs regarded as a sort of majority if the women had a voice in the- H....adeld70H p m
calf, sheep or beef animal, and when this often of great service. which the Arabs regarded as a sort oft1ht Lokelan 7'so0pm
jobisdontmatter. It is a fact, by the way, that re- Kissimmee, So. Fla. R.R.....................5p
job is done in a bungling manner, as not To such of our readers who are not well demon in the sky. The theory most in publics, for some reason or another, have Tam, So. Fin. B 8.50 pm
infrequently occurs, the hide is greatly 1111 posted in the matter we will attempt to vogue to account for the variations of been very severe in their laws against Leave artow0 p m
d epreiated in value. An injudicious se give a few words of explanation. the light of these unsteady stars is that bachelors. Plato the Wise, condemned ArriveFort Meade............................. ....... 0
of the knife renders an otherwise valuable W Arcadia 10 45 pm
hide almost worthless. The southern The origin of the custom of cascarone an enormous planet, tr rather an extinct them to a fine, and in Sparta they were ,, Fort Ogden 1117 pm
Cultivator shows, by means of a diagram [' ft breaking is probably surrounded with as sun, is whirling at close quarters around driven at stated times to the Temple of Tabue1 uoopa
similar to the one here given, the shape of """ i.ii.,,,, li impenetrable mystery as the identity of then, and partially eclipsing them when Hercules by the women, who, having un- n -
a hide that has been properly taken off; WIRE TIGHTENER. the "Man in the Iron Mask." It was it comes between them and us.-New dressed the poor fellows, would drill and; NORTH BOUND CANNON-BA-.L
also one where the work was carelessly A useful article for tightening trellis brought to California by the early Span- York Sun. The oldRomans too, were severe with Taberd 330 am
one. wires is made as follows: Put two screws ish families from Mexico, and upto with Scheme of a Chicago M.an. their bachelors, who were made to pay Aradia 442 am
about three inches apart into a small piece in a few years past it was an attractive The peculiar varieties of insane people heavy fines, and worse than that, for after or Meade 7 1 a i
of wood a few inches long, and near one feature of every dance given during a are as interesting sometimes as they are the siege of Veil it is told how Camillus Tampa, So. Fla. R. a 8 0 p .
end a single screw, leaving the heads pro-ecc
acting about half an inch. By placing certain portion of the year. Cascarone pitiable. In a car the other night I talked compelled them to marry the widows of Kissammee, So. Fla. R. ................ 6 15 a a
he wire between the two screws and turn- season begins, according to custom, at 12 with a man who proposes to -make loco- the soldiers who had fallen in the war. D ade it 9 oo a m
ing the wood around, the wire is drawn o'clock Christmas night and lasts till Ash motion in Chicago as easy as standing In the time of Augustus, also, all other Peberton'ksvle45am
tight; and by engaging the head of the Wednesday, and any one of our old citi- erill, which is easier to some people than things being equal, the married were pre- La e Park 5930 am
single screw upon it, the tension is main- zens can tell of the grand times at casca- even "rolling off a log." He is going to feared to single men for public offices. t a .
tainted. Fig. 1 shows the operation of the rone balls in the "flush days" when the have two sidewalks in each street, each Then the oman who ha tree hildre ort ason... .......10 am
contrivance, and Ftg. 2 the arrangement custom was at its height. Dances were sidewalk to fill the street to the center- the bachelors not only had to pay for them, south Lake eir11 am
of the screws or pins. A-strong piece of of almost nightly occurrence then, and platforms covering the entire street. but were prevented from inheriting the .rveocheala pm
wood two feet long and iron bolts fastened hundreds of dozens of cascarones were These two platforms are to be on rollers, property of any one not a Roman citizen. Gainesville 25 pm
with nuts at the back furnish a form of broken in an evening, and many a poor and are to be-set in motion, one running So that the present revival of laws against Hawthorn 3205 p
this device that may be used to tighten family derived a handsome income from one way, the other the other. For exam- bachelors in France is no novelty after all. ", Paatka hen0
Swire fences. _____ the manufacture and sale of cascarones. ple, the sidewalk on the north side of -San Francisco Chronicle. S g" uksnvlle 40 pm
acts Farmers Want to Know They sold at $1 a dozen in the early part Madison street is to ruin west and that on
it is reported, has oted $300,- of the evening, and in the "wee sma' the south-side is to run east. If a person Women of the Stage. oUnrH BOUND-FAST MAIL
< 00Canaa, i er o 0 hours," when the commodity became wishes to go west onthat street he has A womanwhile traveling must either .................--
00 l to buye lai nt stao i a n ai scarce, an ounce of golddust has been only to step upon the sidewalk and stand be sufficient company to herself or find ,. P'1ia ...;... ........ ............... C pm
known to be given for a sigle dozen, still. It will take him there; and as the such enjoyment as she can in the company rachten...........................1.. ,
Great loss to Montana cattlemen is re- Many interesting stories could be told sidewalk goes to the middle of the street of others,homayoraynotbecongen- ,. rn....... .. ... ...... ......... -r
ported in stock dying from exposure and of the ccrone bls of t...e past, but.. teams as ell...... as persons w be caied a ...............................
lackof food. only one wilA be mentioned as an in- rightalong. Thepoormanwas soserious At mil tr.ting u ArI...Lve ba ....................6.2h...
The U .nitedStateswool ..... .. ...... .............. 7- pm p
.' The United States wool clip for 1886, ac- stance of the popularity of this peculiar about it all and was so confident that hea ah e h a.nt d and eapi, a e s Le Lest.-- -.............-......................... --7 pm
cording to The AnualWoolCircular, was feature of the balls. On one occasion, at was going to carry out his scheme that I frui..i inpi Then It is that the world ae8, ...........................s2.. Dm
short of 188 by7,000,000 pounds, not- a ball given at the residence of Don Jose had not the heart to ask him how he was appear, no larger than a cheese box, and A 4, L P'Jark""...... ..........:......::: Si p m
withstates andin an increase in the Pacific Abrego, Pete Serrano, then a muchacho, going to manage it at street intersections, the th,:,u,ht, and opinions of the members NoR-H, BoNS-FAOr MAIL
tionin Texas being nearly 20 per cent. ws on hand selling cascarones. A gen- but probably if I had he would have of the company iem like the final judg- Le..,Leebur ............ ......... ...... ,am
with more or less shortage in -most of the tleman approached and asked what he flashed a scheme on me fully as practica- nient. Then is it that jealou -y eats into ,. ,oath Lakee weir................................. 6 14 am
states east of the Mississippi. The esti- would take for his cascarones. "One ble as the one he had already detailed. I the soul, and life is narrower than a : ainsvilie .a "" .s
mated clip for 1886 is set down at 822,305,- dollar a dozen," was the answer. "How wonder if the man who first thought of thread. Jealousy and backbiting will be ohoeele 93 am
000 pounds against 829,600,000 pounds in many have you?" was the next inquiry. the telegraph-long, long before the prac- conceded to belong not alone to the'stage; nterahoren 10 i
"Forty de" rht, ting but as the stage does share in them to Arrve J..T. & K. W. R'y. Junction.......... 10 am
DIAGAM OF A HIDE. 185. Forty dozen." "All right, I'll .take tical ting which we now call the tele- bu a the t does share them to Pa con....atka11.. 20...... am
The left hand side, No. 1, caa be worked statistics compiled by the New York them." Taking the basket, he started graph was thought of-was insane, too. s them among eei ight beweto clude Jacksonville sop
p into boots, harness, belts, or for other Produce Exchange give 82,909packags of down the hall, but had not taken a dozen -Chicago News. thi s t e is u o ..the r ACCOMMODATION TRAIN-BETWEEN BROOKS-
purposes with very little waste, while the butter on hand in New York city Jan. steps when- he was surrounded by a poymene oie leisure time; eight sem- VILLE ANDPEMBETON. 0
right hand ide is badly damaged bythe 1887, as compared with 63,875 packages umber o young ladies, d in a moment Bokaran Slavery Abolished. re e-
deep cuts toward the dl following Jan. 1, 1886. Fifty per cent. of this is all hands were diving nto thme basket A recent number of The Pravitelstv- thingto be seen and learned during ave Brksve 0 pm
instructions for taking offend preserving westernreameryand about25 per cent. omingout with doublehandsful and enny Vyestnik, published in St. Peteps- ramble, if the tired traveler can be in-- "
the hides: In taking off a hide or calf- state dairy. crushing them on his head, while he burg, announces the issue of a decree set- duced to take one.-Georgia Cayvan ln I TRRAINS BETWEEN PALATKA AND .GAINS-
skin never cut the throat crosswise in the ------ manfully strove to return a few of the ting free the whole of the slaves in the Bi'ooklyn Magazine. Leave Palatka VILLE. 10 am s pm
least. Slit the skin from the brisket to Growing Strawberries. compliments he received. In fivo minutes khanate of Bokhara. The movement Arrive Gainesville 100 p m 4 45p m
the tail, and from the brisket to the jaw; Mr. J. H.-Hale, of Connecticut, in New not onoe of the forty dozen cascarones re- which has thus happily culminated in an To Avoid Seasickness. leaveG Arsvaillea _80am 50-0pm
then cut around each leg to the hoof. England Farmer, estimates the cost of mailed whole. The modus operandi of important stroke for civilization in cen- "A man who rides much on an eleva- ... .
Slit the hind leg from the hoof .up directly growing strawberries at $150 an acre, cascarone making is very simple, and trial Asiabegan in 1873, in which ar tor rendes himself impervious to seasick- .T NS & LAKE EUSTIS DfO20am .
over the gambr eand the forward legs in itemized as follows, viz.: Land rent$6.00; about as follows: Into an empty eggshell the late Emir Seid Musafar made a a ness," saidan elevator an as he carried a vie 70am
front, directly over the knee, to the top of ploughing and harrowing, $4.00; manure, -whole, except for an opening in one for the abolitionofslavery within a loa of passengers to the fourth floor of a
the brisket bone. This leaves the bide, or $50; plants, $20; summer cultivation, end just large enough to remove the d fixed avery m bigo- mercantile establishment "Many ars
skin, then, in the proper shape for fnish- $50mulching material or winter, $20. oigal contents-is placed about a tea- sm win ff ter of ten yea mn and women prefer climbing four"or tu.m i8
gn of f inly copped paper of ere s -issin e ....e e*. five flights of stairs to ridingthat distance Altoona. 8 0a.
avoid cutting them; then, commencing at for one ten of pure ground bone and $15 ious bright colors and gold e gest s an ey, theemlrs o e ee or. You, see, t, eaie 9am
the head, draw off the skin without for muriateof potash,which' are considered va colors anel; te steps against thedealers slaves etor You see the motions and a 9 am
any further use of the knife, theaebyy the cheapest and most effective manures. then the opening is neatly closed by- an succeeded in breaking .p several no- nsations produced by the gliding of the Arave ussn
avoiding the holes and cuts that spael pasting a piece of colored paper over it, torious markets. elevator from one floor to another makes Le, ve Hom i o am
many calfskins. Some farmers use a TFacts IMarmers Want to Know. and then the cascarone is all ready for But while the sources of supply re- many quite sick. If a man intends going I. Tavares 0* nam
windlass to draw off the dairy skins and The aid of sheep in keeping up fertility us gained untouched hisefforts,though n an ocean voyage and don't antto
others use a horse; but one or two men is especially important to the eastern and In Mexico, in the good old times, cuando they made the slave trade difficult, failed get sick, just let him ride up and down LeaveLane Park 2 10
can do it a great deal more quickly and older states. habia much oro,. gold dust mixed with to secure its abolition. The slaves brought on an elevator for awhile. "-Philadelphia, Aive Tavare. s s
but easily. rWhen taken saff laythe hidake J. WExperimstobacco culture south diamond dust, was often used tofill the, ite B a were l mst aex csie r-c. m ge r 0 0p
skin flat an the floor in a cool place whewee Floridaesays The Savannal ews, heeg uinFSuit s 45pm
xthepsatinreu on endco t eriemednsygh c hells swea fiandangoesrfgi en Persians, who had been handed over to- F noa n- u ...evaa i
sann not sie un ita n r been made With encouraging results on a ts ole.deg s Ad i-th i deone the dealers, by the Tureomans of the V etera nn to th w -lan.d e".Umatillalalen 421p
with salt, rather fines nt g better limited scale occasionaly nowadays by some if the Achat-Tkke and M oases So lion teoo ,while y' Thou the at hone and a r A..a .4p m
than too coarse sal Do not roll-it up,'m e o c thesth m s s on a laonG p rsay Atoonap4 p
A a rule it requires two persons tao gen wealthy old Dons who wish to, do the, as at the mouth, the smaller end being pugot NNECTIONS
but let itrelmain L h theer~tfyuae J. W. Comssdntock, of Greenfield, Ind.ething up in style. Otherways of filling ..very, bordersby e .oPei e r en summit r & pm
offThere anotre baer; then place thatowneveupo, by the considers eat. Tis fuemilk the mosteffe in each shell. Spiced candy was often tatve congress, was crossing the Milli onaireRigt you are, old man. Lake30pm
coi the shells of all t t se finally use anmed t caught m the straw matting on the floor ows are growg white, Czas en. ar v uasr 0pm
ntil you get enugh to mae quite a pie; Some of the Connectiut river valley perfumes wereay until cac rone sesoften comes an a tal wi ch violence ofthe beom acclowell
Siame farmers are giving up i tob est a nd acco Iculturea arone breaking it is not neces onveyed to his residence, however, ter on the sparrows. at W oda aiway and Navigation o.
manner. Do-not be afrae to use salt a e breeding of fine horses. s .. cated nwas restored to its socket, Js riveea fr n-
freely; whatthe skins do not equi ill re- sometimes hand painted. In Motrone"terey,Totle as off g uoan othee ou ETn Leave Cit ...an. k Ein00 a m
Stion, the bnefts will be still asn,. through. The act of breaking a as- c consider a very sufficient reason for re- iivonotme t Florida southern alway, aao0
hake off and an be used aga o of Wiscahontas, a noted c e on anothersof the custom, the con- shells of t e man stealer s gone, andthreresen- t AGerman paper says that with a fu- rv icanoy on
vent__ed__a____,asthechbiinartrogt heoften oloreda Iofthe housealeresend the last Leave Micanopy 615peam
vented a neWfel which bids fair to take were ofen colored anciful designs like stone of the fabric of Bokharan slavery nel of thick manila paper about sixteen Connection at Rchelle with a r ai m
A Conveent Barrel Header the place of coal in the prairie countries Easter eggs, and over the rson's tastefull y f ell into the dust.- i Boston Transcripudget. inches long and six t Howard for inntes wide
As a rule it requires two persons to He grinds corn stalks and coarse prairie decorated withadifferent colors oftpaperf. aththe mouth, theSsmaller ending put CONNECTIONS.
Grass togeund that and mistade-10 monsthem; This a aowingits contents tof on the had. edneton in Tee cton in gate! 0. W. o ,
ead barrel sohat the or otherpulpas is professed into blocks about twelve u Chopped paper and tinsel were usually intoed heatethe opening of the receiver, on may t Palatk, with 29 tras Jacksonville Tapa & Key West
Sho v the sheis more frequently In answer to e question ly. and St Au e and Palaka Railway, and fast
onen wienlycompresse inches long and four inches thick bro pu in the shellsad, butrega on more than one ed is attained by the fastest -talk in whispers through the telephone. _iver sters oodS. Austin Green Coe Snrgs,
inchesbrngeandesfoue rotinches and un ooceued dofteeaimemeruseioepStthe.-oThe eEastk andwest.
eep rom ro g a t urin ansit dried. One block willgivean hour's occasion gold dollar pieces wer e use- As John Quiny goodams, torpedo a repre- e Eastan
The ret presented lhows an inexpenstve asksThe National Sockman. It would part ofthebestower3 UM'henothenice is in foreign navies make RsOut c trsng th ive paiata..,.........-9 0B am 1 55 pm 4 5pm JACKSONVILLE AND ATLANTO o R.
ontri ane barthsd-re n.rs, howevsheader opsteady heat. This fuel can e produced one in each shell Spiced candy was maiden twosn ve congress, was crossing te s ....wn Ym COMPANY.
aid of which a barrel may be headop, w ite a or have ton and theinventor claims that used, md sometimes powder and nperfum hall of the house of representatives on mthe top rNew YorkBostand Phladelhia, &c a
the other are two diverging hooks, which was property utilized Farmers, think of chasing'ar d'the room, breaking cas- twent-ve miles an ur. The fastest vea s .
ease byone person. .... it-will Inst twice as long as the best soft ery. Housewives religiously save the afternoon of May 18,1840, one of his feet It is reported from Maine that the ug-. W'. at Jacksonville with Atlantic Coast Line.
I.e o a.oohs ame.of the this. The e gowg whites a re- st time yo have a ew mn carones indiscriminately, and receiving boat in the world is the Frenc flo.pedo S la'irtine sa eoas arengrwne wita r 0 p-m tt0np
adoa l .,cauetinhm h et ra wcith wsih eabouo rcc a1Wh1p.
shells ofcomodthe eggs theyeusevend puts.ecausedchim torfall withssuchsviolencelluoccof teeir becomingY-racceimatedemAtiGanA nesvillthtwith throughrouPhllmanmasleepersrsover
ots h d tater n 1 beable do ^a Sth fe o I n 1t Chicago E average "-Chicao Times. o. HiS lLWAY-Arros c ROU^ -poinsWe
e tIn cascarone breakingm it is not necen- being conveyed to his residence, how ever, t la with Florida Railway and Navigation Co.
Rotation ,of crops i nsthe surest and safet- o.ke r A ih Juodhrasr e llo ndrto lemo,a r. I frNcguksson.....I u h m R -
in t h es o t plan n farming, and when one or two sary that ones should be. acquainted; in the shoulder was restored hto its so .. N pS & ts t Johnsrivera. m t,
ene aTh lte nel profaead wtheou r down a t ey ch os. r eeta. ient i slor n lt of. an Nte dicks adbee a vai n sec fr lo o e tooa woht hn m ot o e ford and waLand
lY tearsaof! Pasture an re included wu in the rota f cte, i te asng" pte ine oase It ca e rerrd o w aort men woul aETWEEN At Leesburg with eaSt.ens and. Lake Eustin
Seon, the besar ef tshl be still T'~ .w al rough. 'Theact of breaking a cwaa consider a nvery suffice ientt reason for re- utvion of t heFlori das southern Ra lway, and ats on
ens, however, that many cannot rocure make good sold caronen another head is to be con- mining a home, thisaithful represen- Augus e is aienJkHarisminute walk o thela s Eustis and Gl ri a ointson
. cracked mM a. often as desirable, yetaChicago Herald. inltted that two centuries later, a 30 that she tWha paint shop. To thi AW
. Ilanda note woulred a complimently purcby- the recipient VIS Gtie,with hs bandaged shoulder andTHE TIMEUNION JOB OOMSnd t
cookedfod. beiee in breedingfro ho is honor bound to ret it at bled t arm, was again at his stn
".matured pretoins, 'as 'they bring strong: the efist opportunity. Thetpropera wayu e U in the houseed,,of-he reprsdent,,Boatie at th It Augustiuo .,Tampa .ichin0d, Kssimmee,Bartow.or-
'Until- 18 months.old for making. prk, but oin' e the hand over the person's, .head, Ben: Perley. Poore in BostonBudget. -STANDAR SHORT LIE.. FoN t
B-Sta.ls. brokn on the head, regardless of locality speedis attained by the tastest rteamer DEA.
A AH -AERngorses find,.e anything but amiable feeling on, the plies: '.Tlie ordinary good torpedo boIts -f"i"o,, .14
etr. van.e in this di on. This header cost but Mttle to build them; and-there are broken,-by some adventurous-maiden two; milds, anI houri 'over.,;the measured, rrive St. Augutinei..10 Na n i,200p m 6 40 p im "COMPANY.
consists of iabar of halfInch iron rod, -tt few-barnosorstables in the country which or'-. plucky: man' ,'lthe contagion ,'-soon mile. There ame aifew including the SUNDAY TR.'"s. T.a-i- _e eba "
one endofwhich isa]largeop, while t have not moom enough fsr them if space spreads, and in a short time- everybody-is American boat Stilet#o that can make .. m.110pm -oNo. No.
TOTETMSUIO O Oe.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, MARCH 9, 1887.
The Florida Farmer ad Fruit ror,.
A. H. CURTISS, Editor.
C. H. JONES & BROTHER, PUBLISHERS.
Office Cor. Bay and Laura Sts.
THE FLORIDA FARMER' AND FRUIT
GROWER is an eight page 48 column illustra-
ted week newspaper, devoted to the Farm,
Garden, Orchard and Household Economy,
and to the promotion of the agricultural and
industrial in terests ofFlorida. It is published
Terms of Subscription.
For one year........................................ ... 8 2.00
For six months 1.00
Clubs of five to one address.................. 7.50
With daily TIMES-UNION one year...... 11.00
With daily TIMES-UNION. six months 6.00
With WEEKLY TIMES, one year...... .. 2.75
&A-Subscriptions in all cases cash in ad-
vance, and no paper continued after the
expiration of the time paid for. The date on
the printed label'with which the papers are
addressed is the date to which the subscrip-
tion is paid and is equivalent to a receipt for
payment to that date; if the date a is not
changed immediately after a new payment,
the subscriber will please notify us at once.
CORRESPONDENCE solicited on all sub-
jects pertaining to the topics dealt with in
this paper. Writers may affix such signatures.
to their articles as they may choose, but must
furnish the editor with their full name and
address, not for publication but as a guarantee
of good faith. Rejected communications can-
not be returned.
ADVERTISEMENTS inserted to o. limited
extent.. Rates furnished on application.
REMITTANCES should be made by Check,
Postal Note, Money Order, or Registered
Letter, to order of
C. H. JONES & BRO.,
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
FIrST PAGE-The New Forage Plant; .Sorghum
as a Forage Crop; Early Amber Cane (Illus-
trated) ; Orange Culture Abroad; Grape
Culture in Florida illustrated) ; How to grow
SBcoND PAGE-Truck Gardening; Refrigerators
vs. Ventilated Crates: The Vegetable Garden;
The Tomato Crop; Propagating Soft-Wood
Plants; How Manure is Wasted; Planting
TmiD PAGE-The Sources of Plant Food; Study
the Effects of Climate; Managing a Rice
Plantation; Cultivation of Cotton; Tobacco in
FOURTH PAGE-(Editorzal); Comments on Sun-
'dray Subjects; Practical Philanthropy; APower
in the South; Points about Cotton Seed Meal;
A New Plan for Orchards; The Interstate
FIFTHr PAGE-(Edited by Helen Harcourt); Our
Home Circle; Cosy Corner; The Family Friend;
Our Young Folk's Corner.
SIXTH PAGE-Ailments of Horses; Glanders;
Botts; Colic; Gravel; Navicular Disease;
Warts; Worms; Management in Calving;
Drying off Cows; Dehorning Cattle; A Handy
Way of Feeding Pigs; Management of Bees;
Poultry Raising for Profit.
SAVENTH PAGE-Preserving Hides; Barrel
Header; Cracked Corn for Poultry; A Wire
Tightener; Box Stalls; A Quaint Spanish
*Custom; Scheme of a Chicago Man; Bokharan
Slavery; Speed of the Fastest Boat, etc. -
EIGHTH PAGE-*State News in Brief; A Rail-
road Commission; Farming in' Baker Co.;
Progress in South Florida; Weather for
March; Reports of the Cotton, Tobacco
and Orange Markets and of the Jacksonville
Wholesale and Retail Markets: .
COMMENTS ON SUNDRY SUBJECTS.
We recently received a letter.from the
President of the St. Cloud Agricultural
and Improvement Company,which oper-
Sates on the reclaimed-lands near Kissim-
mnee, and were so much pleased with the
sentiments expressed in it that we asked
and have received permission to publish
Our winter visitors and prospectors
would do well to visit Capt. Rose's im-
provements. We think they would see
something that would raise "fair Flor-
ida" a notch or two in their estimation.
Tourists need to be diverted from the old
grooves, of travel, if Florida is to be
known abroad as she should be. And a
great many Floridians need to get their
ideas out of the old grooves of thought
before they will know their own State.
We have just received a letter from.one
of our veteran farmers whose land may
be considered of fair average quality,
taking the State as a whole. Referring
to some reports of his success in farming
"I could gi-ve you one more than four
times as big, but will not now, as it
might appear that I was just bragging.
But some time when you come to see me
I will show you my book with the pro-.
ceeds from less than one -acrd of land
last year. .
"Why, my. friend, there is nota one
man in a thousand in Florida that
knows what can be made from an acre
of land properly fixed up and cultivated
-in some of 'our crops. Let me say that
your paper is all O. K., and is already
the best agricultural paper in Florida."
We shall not attempt now to combat
and disprove our friend's last assertion,
because we would at the same time have
to overthrow the similar opinions which
have been advanced by a score of other
individuals. There is a general belief
that most persons can be "spoiled by
flattery,", and it looks very much as
though a combination had been formed
against the FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER,
a concerted effort to undermine its vi-
If there be such a combinat'an on foot
we will say with all serenity, Gentle.
men, proceed We can stand up under
any amount" of praise, though it be as;
Pelion piled on Ossa. We are invulner-
able, pachydermitous-that, we think
is saying enough. But we are straying
from the subject in hand, that letter
from Captain Rose. A man so emi-
nently practical ought to be above vain
praise, surely. He says:
KISSIMMEE, Fla., Feb. 21,1887.
DEAR SIR-I am much pleased with
the paper and believe it will be the
agricultural authority of Florida in a
very short time. I note in No. 7 your
editorial, "Who Takes the Lion's Share."
This strikes a key-note, and will be read
with pleasure by all shippers. A rail-
road commission is much needed, and it
is to be hoped one will be created soon to
regulate the exhorbitant charges now
made by our local roads.
I am much pleased with Helen Har-
court's plan of bringing youths to Flor-
ida to relieve cities of an annoyance and
care, and give Florida young blood to
make into practical farmers and fruit-
growers. This I think a better plan than
getting foreign labor. We have enough
worthy poor in our cities to supply us
with reliable labor who would be more
than glad to come to our genial clime.
I would-like to know more of..this move-
ment, and would be pleased to take ten
boys and several girls, say fifteen years
of age, comfortably lodge, feed and
clothe them, and pay them a reasonable
wage for their services (would here re-
mark that my two most worthy em-
ployees began some years ago with means
boys, and are still with me, doing well
as men, and earning full wages. They.
are sober, industrious and reliable).
The wheat .you sent me is growing
nicely. Our crops are fine and promise
handsome returns ; cane (110 acres)
well up and a perfect stand ; 125 acres
corn doing well; oats (50 acres) exceed-
ingly heavy ; part will be ready for har-
vest in March.
I would be pleased to have yoi visit
St. Cloud at your earliest convenience,
and see for yourself what our agricultu-
ral prospects are. You know I don't
take great stock in so much fruit, but
believe sugar, rice and tobacco should
be our staples, and oranges, grapes, etc,,
simply adjuncts to the farm.
,: R.E. ROSE.
We endorse Capt.Rose's views of the
enterprise which has been set on foot by
the editor of Our Home Circle. We have
always had ten times as much faith in
home missions as in missions to
Senegambia, and if this work of
transferring homeless boys from 'the
alleys of crowded cities to the
groves and farms of Florida is not a
model mission, then our idea of mission
work needs revision. If religious im-
provement be considered essential to
mission work we maintain that the im-
proved surroundings which will be given
these boys will ameliorate their natures
more and render them more susceptible
to religious influences, than would the
building and endowment of a. chapel for
them at the North.
We inspected the first installment of
boys which came to Jacksonville a
month ago and were very agreebly dis-
appointed in their appearance. They
were stout, honest-looking boys, rang-
ing in age from 14 to 18 years, and all
applicants were pleased to secure one or
more of them. Of course they could not
be kept long without receiving wages,
and we think it would be good policy to
pay them a dollar a week and leave
them to clothe themselves. 'This would
render them more willing and efficient
without doubt, and would tend to de-
velop the ambition and manliness which
their previous condition has tended to
keep in check.
We hope that all who think it will be
to their interest to aid this enterprise,
will make their wants known to the edi-
tor of Our Home Circle, FLORIDA FAR-
MER AND FRUIT-GROWER, Montclair, Fla.,.
who will see that their applications have
A POWER IN THE SOUTH.
Georgia's great agricultural journal,
the Southern Cultivator and Dixie Far-
mer, has extended to the FLORIDA FAR-
MER AND FRUIT-GROWER, a very cordial
welcome to the ranks of journalism. In
its last issue we find the following para-
"We are glad to note that bur talented
and energetic young farmer, Wm. B.
Schrader, of Tallahassee, Fla., is an-
nounced as one of the regular live stodk
writers on the new FLORIDA FARMER
AND FRUIT-GRoweR. He is a thorough
farmer and quite an enthusiastic live
stock breeder. We congratulate this new
journal on securing the products of his
Yes? Mr. Schrader has a world of vim,
and if such a man could be located in
every precinct in Florida the "car of
progress" would be jerked out of its old
ruts quicker than some of our old-timers
can wink. Some people think that an
"enthusiastic" man is visionary and im-
practical. So he is if he have not quali-
ties that serve as balance wheel and reg-
ulator, but with these qualities he is a
mental giant. Take enthusiasm out of,
the world and our "car of progress"
would grow to the earth as did Lot's
'poor wife when instead of looking 'for-
ward.she looked backward.
The Southern Cultivator is a leviasthau
journal which has absorbed, we believe,
half a dozen others from time to time.
Whether it has room for one more or not
we do not know, but presume it is'con-
tent with its present proportions, as At-
lanta, Georgia, and the whole South
ought to be. With each annexation no
doubt this paper has been enabled to
amplify its contents; so we cannot ob-
ject to such a policy, for surely one good
paper is worth more than a dozen poor
ones. Dr. W. L. Jones, of the Cultiva-
tor's editorial corps, is reputed to be a
walking encyclopedia, but we doubt
very much if he understands Florida
POINTS ABOUT COTTON SEED.
We have a long communication from
Mr. D. C. Underbill, of Manatee, on the
subject of the manurial value of the, oil
in cotton seed. By quotations from
Dana's Muck Manual the writer seeks to
disprove the opinion repeatedly express-
ed in our columns that the use of the
whole seed for fertilizer amounts to a
sheer waste of the oil contained in it,
and that the oil by retarding decompo-
sition does harm rather than good.
We think our correspondent is argu-
ing from wrong premises. In the first
place, oil contains only those elements
which are obtained in unlimited quan-
tity from water and air, and in such a
condition of combination that they are
less easily assimilated, having to un-
dergo a chemical decomposition before
they can become plant food. The car-
bon in oil is in good condition for com-
bustion, but not for presentation to the
spongioles of plants.
In the second place, while Dana's
views may be correct as abstract s6ien-
tific principles and capable of demon-
stration in the laboratory, they are not
of much use in practical agriculture., It
may be stated as a scientific fact that
water may be burned and made to pro-
duce intense heat, but first it must be
decomposed, its oxygen and hydrogen
separated. Then its elements when
brought in contact, produce fire, and
yet the latter would be quenched by the
same elements in the stateof union called
As the oil of cotton seed exists in a
state of mechanical union, we think this
question could be solved satisfactorily by
pouring a barrel of the extracted oil over
a compost heap or by sprinkling the oil
over an acre of land. If either experi-
mentprove profitable we will do pen-
ance by committing to memory 'the
whole of Dana's Muck Manual.
We believe that all good agricultural
authorities agree that the oil in cotton
seed .detracts from its manurial value.
Mr. Furman and Dr. Oemler, both high
authorities, have expressed that opinion,
and in the proceedings of the Interstate
Agricultural Convention, presented on
this page, the same opinion is main-
In response to"an inquiry from a cor-
respondent at Ormond-on-the-Halifax,
with reference to the comparative values
of whole cotton seed and cotton seed
meal, we would say that the whole seed
will be found dearer at Ormond and
cheaper at Madison. One cannot afford
to pay much freight on cotton-seed, but
where it is produced it is found more
economical to use the seed directly from
the heap after it has laid long enough at
least to lose all vitality. The whole seed
is best for a slow crop like cotton, but
the meal, being of quick action, is best
for garden crops.
We wish to ask those who have learned
by experience the need of caution in us-
ing cotton seed meal, either as food for
animals or plants to give us the results of
their experience, pro bono public.
In an account which we published of
market gardening operations near New
Orleans, reference was made twice to
damage arising from a grub worm which
was thought to come from, the meal.
Have any cases of this sort occurred in
Florida? What precautions are needed
in applying this popular fertilizer to ten-
der crops? How is it best used in feed-
ing domestic animals, and what precau-
tionis should be observed? These are
questions of no small importance, and
we shall be glad of answers based on ac-
THE NEW PLAN FOR ORCHARDS.
As many of our readers have expressed
an interest in the- new method of laying
off .orchards which was described and
illustrated recently in the FARMER AND
FRUIT-GROWER, and as they wish na-
turally to know the name of the inventor,
we are at liberty to say that the initials
H.. E. L. stand for H. E Lagergren, a
citizen of Starke, Bradford county, by_
profession, we 'think,' a civil engineer.
Thinking that the writer of so valuable
an article ought to be better known, we
had.asked permission to print his name
in full, but owing to some delay of the
mail the reply did not arrive in time to'
allow of the desired change.
It is not improbable that this.method
may have been known a thousand years
ago, but it is quite new to us, and so far
as we or Mr. Lagergren are aware it is
an original invention. With regard to
the diagrams accompanying the article
we would say that the drawings got
into the engraver's hands without our
knowledge. We intended to present
them in better form, yet for practical use
they are correct. The plan for laying
off an orchard on timbered ground is
simply an application of a principle of
mensuration in common practice among
THE INTERSTATE CONVENTION.
With a view to the proper representa-
tion of Florida in the Interstate Agri-
cultural Convention, which assembled
at Lake Charles, La., on the 28d ult.,
Governor Perry appointed delegates to
represent each county, whose names ap-
peared in our issue of February 2d.
In the reports of the proceedings
which have appeared in the Times-
Democrat we see no mention of Florida
and infer that there was no attendance
from this State. This is to be regretted,
for the Convention afforded a grand op-.
portunity for improvement by inter-
course with the leaders of the new
school of Southern Agriculture.
In order to illustrate the spirit or tone
of this Convention, we reproduce the
following from the Times-Democrat's re-
port of the second day's proceedings:
After an impressive prayer from Prof.
Knapp, President Coffin introduced
Prof. Wm. C. Stubbs, director of the
State experiment station, Baton Rouge.
The professor read his paper on "How
1Shall We Restore Fertility to Our Soil ?"
This paper has been looked to with great
expectation. The professor is well
known as an expert on the subject and
his masterly treatment of the matter of
fertilizing was greatly appreciated by
the agriculturists'present. On its con-
clusion Prof. Stubbs answered various
questions put to him by delegates among
THE VALUE OF COTTON SEED.
He stated that where cotton-seed meal
is worth $20 per ton the farmer should
get $9 per ton for his seed or keep it to
use as manure. In other words, the
seed is worth $9 at home. After stating
the per cent. of phosphoric acid, nitro-
gen and potash in meal and in wheat
bran, the professor said that where fed
to a fattening animal 90 per cent. of it
will be:returned in manure. He quoted
Prof. Bennett Lowes as declaring that
the value of manure received from a ton
of cotton seed meal is $27.50. ,
A delegate announced that he had re-
cently experimented with cotton seed as
a fertilizer in thin uplands'in' the north-
western portion of the State, where the
price of seed is $5 per ton and where
*average crops of corn were now eight to
twelve bushels per acre. Last season be-
ing very favorable, the production was
twelve bushels, but where he had fertil-
ized with, cotton seed the result w'as
thirty-six bushels per acie. The addi-
tional twenty-four bushels per acre had
cost him just $8. [Applause.]
In answer to several questions, Prof.
Stubbs declared the oil itself useless as a
fertilizer. It is a preventive of that de-
composition absolutely necessary. The
chief value of cotton seed is its ammonia.
At this point a delegate began to explain
some- experiment he had made, in the
midst of which i Prof. Stubbs congratu-
lated the gentleman On having been able
to mix oil with water, a feat which had
never been done in a laboratory.
The president of the convention then
introduced Hon. John Dymond, of Pla-
quemines, who read a valuable-paper on
THE FUTURE OF SUGAR.
Mr. Dymond commenced with an apt
reference to the advantages of Louisiana.
A country in which the climatic year
admits of the production of two staple
crops upon the.same land will certainly
afford more 'of the good things of this
life than a country where the correspond-
ing lands -will allow of the production of
but one crop. Here a crop of oats and
a crop rice may raised ppon the same
land within twelve months, and may be
planted and harvested with the same
machines. A-crop of oats may be fol-
lowed by a crop of corn, a crop of Irish
potatoes by a crop of sweet potatoes. In
other words, our climatic advantages
give us two agricultural years in one,
and only the heretofore absence of'neces-
sity has prevented us from generally
availing ourselves of this 'advantage.
.On the other hand, this, advantage has
led our section into exclusive annual
cultures peculiar thereto, such as cotton,
sugsrcane and rice, and to the neglect
of the double culture possible upon all
of our lands.
The speaker then gave an able insight
into the sugar industry, accompanied by
figures and illustrations. Briefly he out-
lined the conditions under which the
tropical sugar cane industry in the Gulf
lands of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi,
Alabama and Florida can develop the
enormous proportions and afford the
richest harvests to those who shall
sooner avail themselves of the opportu-
nity. Mr. Dymond's paper was exceed-
ingly well received, though the audience
was somewhat disturbed by the playing
of a band at a firemen's parade on the
The afternoon session began at 2 p. m.
The delegates and their lady friends,
about 500 strong, grouped themselves on
the sidewalk outside the opera house.
Goy. MoEnery and the president of the
convention stood in the certre, and the
gathering was.--successfully .-, photo-
graphed." It was a bright sunny after-
noon, and everybody was in a genial
humor. The convention was called to
order at 2:25 p. min., at which time every
seat was occupied; the costumes of the
ladies giving a very pleasant effect.
THE DAIRY INTERESTS.
Gov. Coffin introduced Mr, Hoard, of
Fort Atkins, Wis. Mr: Hoard is a great
authority on dairy matters, and is editor
of Hoard's Dairyman, a weekly paper
devoted to dairying and. dairy stock in-
terests. He made a clever address, and,
having a clear voice and good delivery,
soon captured the good will of his
hearers. Mr. Hoard's views were inter-
larded with humorous anecdotes. His
illustrations of the dairying interests of
the Northwest were drawn from his own
State of Wisconsin.
He pointed out the qualities of the
Jersey, Guernsey and Holstien cattle,
which, while differing in other respects,
are alike in their dairy forms. It was,
however, necessary to understand each.
Thousands of farmers are to day trying
to do a dairy business with a meat-
making machine. He quoted the aver-
age yield of butter per year to American
and Danish cows, which is very largely
in favor of the latter. At the Wisconsin
Experimental Station' Prof. Henry has
made valuable tests, showing that with
similar feeding a full bred Jersey cow
gave infinitely better dairy results than
a half-bred Jersey or other races. Mr.
Hoard quoted freely statistics on this
point. Where would the record be if
general purpose horses were used for
As regards treatment of dairy cows,
he instanced the case of a famous breeder
who,. when asked the cause of his suc-
cess, replied: "'I always speak to a cow
as I would to a lady." '
"I," said Mr. Hoard, "have known
many a man who would speak to a lady
as to a cow, and never saw a man use
either, gently who had'inot good heart."
Mr. Hoard gave some notable figures as
to the value of different productions of
this country. The total milk production
is $900,000,000 annually; the annual sil-
ver product, $40,000,000; iron, $80,000,-
000; wool, $45,000,000; wheat, $450,000,-
000, and the entire banking capital is
$150,000,000. Silver brings to its aid
and defense in Congress the best brains
in the nation, yet it amounts to $840,-
000 000 less each year than the milk pro-
The bankers, with their $150,000,000 of,
capital, hardly -recognize the cow, ex-
cept at meal time, with her $900,000,000
of yearly product. To give this grand
sum total the place and influence it de-
serves is another reason for an increase
in dairy education.
Mr. Hoard defined dairy farming as
farming toward an enrichment of the
soil. He alluded to the success that.had
attended such work in Wisconsin as:a
result of the increased use of brains as
compared with hands. Dairying as a
specific farm business is yet in its in-
fancy in the United States. Wisconsin
has to-day $100,000,000 invested in dairy
farming, and the annual value of the
industrN is $20,000,000. Surely a grand
result of dair-y education.
Mr. Hoard went thoroughly into the
details of this subject, and fully justified
the reputation he has, acquired in this
connection. He was applauded on re-
suming his seat. .
During a short discussion which fol-
lowed Mr. Hoard stated that in his opin-
ion it would be undesirable for South-
ern farmers, wishing to raise fine stock,
to purchase Northern unacclimated cat-
tle. Various points were mentioned
where good Jersey and Holsteinr stock
were being raised in the South. Louisi-
ana could produce both beef and butter-
that would' eclipse the pro uct of the
Emmigration Commissioner Harris
then, in the presence of a lady in the au-
dience, .presented a bouquet to Mr.
Hoard, heartily thanking him, in a
short, witty address, for the valuable
advice he had given the convention.
Mr. Harris warned'-Mr. Hoard-that, not-
withstanding all the dairy science of
Wisconsin, the South would ere long be-
come the great winter dairy farm of this
country, as a proof of which he showed
a sample of splendid butter produced on
the open Attakapas prairie. Mr. Hoard-
gracefully acknowledged the bouquet
and the butter, winding up with an ex-
ceedingly funny anecdote.
PROF. GULLEY ON CREAMERIES.
Prof. Gulley, of the Agricultural Col-
lege of Mississippi, spoke for about fif-
teen minutes, extemporaneously, on the
question of creameries. He explained
the good work that is being done in his
Sta'e, and how, with graded cattle, they
are producing in the Mississippi cream-
eries a butter that competes favorably
with that of the North. The professor
gave details of the outfit of a creamery
with a capacity of 800 pounds a day,
showing a total cost of about $670, ex-
clusive of power and labor.,.
He considered the one special thing
about creameries was the cheap produc-
tion of food in Mississippi. Not one of
the grasses deemed- necessary in the
North was grown. The feed is almost
entirely native Southern plants, such as
lespideza, or Japan clover, Bermuda
grass and Johnson grass, which furnish.
summer and winter feed. All the work
in Mississippi is being done on poor,
used-up land, which, however, is by this
process being gradually redeemed.
Prof. Gulley eulogized cotton seed,
which he considered for stock purposes
the most valuable grain in the country.
The butter so made is undoubtedly not
so good as the other, but the difference is
very slight and is more than made up
for by the increased quantity. It re-
quires slight coloring and is on the whole
one of the most important food pro-
ducts in the country.
The committee reported
which were carried by acclamation.
They are as follows:
1. Resooed, That in the opinion of this
convention, the general welfare of our
country can in few other-ways be so,
largely promoted as by a systematic and
*TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN:
Sixty days after the first publication of this
notice application will be made to the -Legis-
lature of Florida, for the passage of a charter
of the "Florida Fruit Exchange" whereby
the capital stock may be increased to a sum
greater than Fifty Thousand Dollars; the par
value ofshares to be reduced from One Hun-
dred Dollars to Ten Dollars per share; to al-
low the corporation to purchase and convey
such. real- and personal property as, may be
deemed necessary to its usefulness Includ-
ing vehicles of 'transportation; to lease or
erect buildings for storage of produce, and
advance on produce; to manufacture and sell
such materials a& may be useful to fruit grow-
ers and gardeners, and generally to transact
such business as may for the interest of mem-
bers and others connected with fruit growing
and kindred pursuits, and for such other
powers and privileges as may be deemed
SO. R FAIRBANKS,
;", '"" GEO H. NORRIS. -'.
T. W. MOOE, .
J. D. MITCHELL
WM. E. STANTON,
ROB'T BULLOCK, :
B. M. BAER -
Board of Directors,
Florida Fruit Exchange.
Jacksonville, Fla.., February 16,1887.: .
TAMPA, HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY.
General Business and Real Estate Agelincy of
If you wish a town lot, an orange grove, or
wild lands in this rapidly Impiovngseopp
or If you have taxes to be paid, or prlprtytp.
be Improved, or money to be Itnveste,;write
to this agency..
Money can be placed on Real Estate with a
Margin on two-thirds of values at 10
and 12per cent.
FREE OF CHANGE TO LENDBR.
Ninety days to foreclose mortgage where
there Is no contest. All costs .and attorney's
fees provided for in mortgage. Writq fgr
further Information and send for list of prop-
erty for Sale. "" .
W. N. CONOLEY, M'-
REHERWcOEs-Ex-Governor Drew, Jackson-
ville ; First Nautona Bank, Tampa, andHoa.
John T. Lesley, Tampal .
comprehensive plan of opening the navi-
gable streams of the United States and
keeping them open at all seasons, thus
rendering impracticable combinations
among common carriers which ih the
past have proven so disastrous to legiti.
mate commerceand that these natural
highways being subject to, the exclusive
control and by our Constitution confided
to the peculiar care of the general gov-
ernment; it is the duty of Congress to
make whatever appropriations may be
necessary for the objects of such vital
importance to the general welfare.
2. That it is the duty of the general
government to foster and to protect by
all means within its power the agricul-
tural interests of the whole country. -
8. That our.Senatqrs. and Representa-
tives in Congress be requested to use
their influence in securing the passage
of the Hatch bill, now pending, to create
and endow experiment stations in each
State. ... ,
4. That the convention respectfully
urges Congress to enact at its present
session some efficient law, to be backed.
by ample appropriations, by which every
vestige of contagious cattle disease Vnd
pleuro-pneumonia, wherever found,
shall be stamped out, regardless of ex-
pense ... -
5. That State systems' of education
should include elementary instruction in
natural and physical science, underlying
the agricultural and mechanical arts.
6. That the convention recognizes
with pleasure the disposition of the col-
ored men of the South to engage in ag-
riculture for their own account, and to
organize into State fair and agricul-
Nos. 7 to 13 consist of the tender of
the thanks of the convention to the
speakers from other States, the press, the
Southern Pacific Company, the residents
of Lake Charles, the residentfand visit-
ing ladies, the St. Martinsville Brass
Band, and to his Excellency Gov. Mc-
Great satisfaction is expressed with ,
the resolutiodis adopteJ, which are con-
sidered vigorous and appropriate. Gov.
McEnery will himself see that the one
referring to pleuro-pneumonia is trans-
mitted to Congress.
The last two days have witnessed an:
amount of animation rarely, if ever, ex-
perienced in this ci'y before, .but the
Lake Charles people have won the hearts
,of their visitors, who will carry home
with them.the kindliest recollections of
a growing city, and of a convention to
which'circumstances have been in every:,
Every age might perhaps produce one
or two geniuses, if they were not sunk
under the censure and obloquy of -plod-
ding, servile, imitating pedants.-Swift.
KAFFIR CORN, ,
A GRAIN AND FORAGE. PLANT.
Will yield roib i too 0 buslhels grain lper
Plant from March let toMay 15lh; quantity
seed per acre, 2 to 3 pounds
Price- 0 cts. per pound; 5 pounds, $2.00; 15
pounds or one peck, &5 00, 16 ets. per pound
extra if ordered by mall. All orders prompt-
ly fil.ed. Strictly pure seed grown by my-
self at this place last season.
Address, JOHN A. GERMOND,
Keuka, Florida .
- FLORIDA FERTILIZING GO.
E. T. PAINE, PRESIDENT.
Florida Orange Food per ton............$28.00
Florida Vegetable Food per ton......... 2.00
Analysis: Bone Phosphate of Lime, 30 per
cent;; Sulphate of Potash, 12 per cent.; Mag-
nesia, 6 per cent. Lime Soda and other val-
uable Ingredients. -
CO W PEA.-S,
RED ROVER, WEIPPOORWILI. AND CLAY
-FOB SEEnD /
Send for treatise on Culture of Orange
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER.- MARCH 9. 1887.
|r Jom fffvfie.
HELEN HARCOURT. Editor.
With a helping hand and a Welcome for all
Who wish to be friendly and make us a call;
With words of good counsel for old friends and
Who come to us seeking the best way to do.
All questions of general interest will
be answered through these columns.
Personal inquiries will be answered by
mail when accompanied by stamp for
Subscribers are cordially invited to
take a seat in our Cosy Corner, and ex-
change views, experiences and recipes
of mutual benefit. "Help ye one an-
Communications intended for publi-
cation must be brief, clearly written,
and only on one side of the paper.
All matter relating to this department
should be addressed to
EDITOR OUR HOME-CIRCLE,
Fla. Farmer and Fruit-Grower,
Florida's Wild Flowers.
There are many of our Northern wild
flowers that are unknown to Florida,
but so are there many of Florida's
-flowers that are strangers to the North-
.ern fields and woodlands.
But some, too, that are familiar to
both. We shall never forget the first
wild violet we found in the early spring-
time, that is, in local parlance. Febru-
ary; sometimes, even, in extra mild win-
We did not know that Florida, our
new home, raised her wild violets, and
just as beautiful ones, too, as did our old
home in the far away North, and the
unexpected sight of a lovely little clus-
ter of dainty violets, nestling in the
grass and nodding a gentle welcome to
the stranger, touched a chord away
down in a heart that was weary and
sore with many trials.
We have pluckedr many a violet since,
just as beautiful, but none, no, not one,
that was as dear as that firstlittle cluster
of our familiar friends of old.
And then, as the days rolled on, and
the warmer sunshine coaxed its flower
comrades to come out and play, others
followed fast in the footsteps of the vio-
lets-sweet harbingers of spring here as
elsewhere-until the woods seemed to be
carpeted with brilliant colors, woven into
.the woof of dark green tufts of wire-
Contemporary with the violets are sev-
eral other sister flowers--one with slen-
der stem, delicate white or lavender pe-
tals and yellow centre, closely resembles
a dwarf China-aster or daisy; another
has a tuft of fine white petals, like.a
paint-brush, while still another, and the
most beautiful of all, except the violet,
nestles prone upon the ground, ils small,
many white flowers, star-shaped, resting
upon the, bright green leaves that lie
spread out beneath, as though their sole
purpose was to exhibit their flowers 'to
the best advantage, and to pillow their
Its name? We do not know it, and no
one else seems to, at least we lhve never,
been able to find any one who does.
Florida wild flowers are in sore need of
a botanist friend to' tell them their
And close upon the heels of the violets
-with them, in fact-comes our
delicately beautiful Florida Fairy lilies
Before us lies a letter from the bleak.
land of snow and 'ice, chronicling the
sending 'o Florida of certain bulbs.
"The frost is in the' ground to the
- depth of five or six inches, although, for
a wonder, the ground is bare to-day.
We will not think of doing any garden-
ing till May. I got H. to take pick and
bar and pry up chunks of frozen dirt, and
have thawed them out by the stove, and
send you the result." '
What a picture beside the outlook
from our sunny, open window,"with the
mocking birds singing is never sang
bird in a cage; with the air sweet-laden
with the perfume of orange blossoms (of
which latter, by the way, our corres-
pondent remarks, "I have never seen an
'orange blossom"), and yonder, nodding
at us in a gay, friendly mood, are the
very lilies we were speaking of a mo-
ment ago. The "Fairy" or "Easter"
lilies of Florida, a few bulbs of which we
transplanted several years ago from the
moist hammock where they were born,
-and now they are quite at home on the
pine lands, the few bulbs having become
"What are the Fairy lilies ?" asks our
correspondent. Their shape is the pro-
verbial, graceful shape of the ordinary
large lily, almost identical with the
1 "Tiger" lily that grows wild in the
North, the spotted orange and black col-
ors of which are so distinctive., In size,
too, the Fairy lily is about the same, hut
in color, how different I Their petals are
of the purest, waxy white-a fairy
flower in very truth.
We.have sent bulbs of this lily to the
North, and there, nestling gently above
the sleeping place of one who has gone
before, they lift their pure heads heaven-
ward, seemingly quite content to hide
away beneath the winter snows, and to
dwell.- in loveliness in the far-away
church-yard in the springtime.
And this is the fairy lilt of Florida.
It bas a companion,' too,'only second to
r-itself in loveliness, a!delicate pink lily,
Which blooms a little later'than its Fairy
Here and thdre amidst,, the piney
.woods we saw trailing vines, with white
and lavender and pink ba'ls set on slen-
der stems, studded with delicate leaves
defended by tiny thorns, leaves that
shut themselves up and'hid. way if one
so much as touched them. so modest and
unaccustomed to notice were they in
those days of scant settlements.
They were delicately beautiful, and
deserved a name, but no one knew what
they wer.Id as we could not identify
them as ramihar friends of old, these
fluffy balls seemed fain to go to their
graves as nameless as they had lived.
But at last we have discovered a name
of our odd little flower-balls. The "Sen-
sitive Rose," they call them out in Kan-
sas, and as that is as good a name as
any other, we adopt it. 4
There is much more to be told of our
Florida wild flowers, and their adapta-
bility to home decoration, but it is time
to close the doors of Our Cosy Corner,
and the rest will be "for the next time."
The Children's Aid Society of
Is so much pleased with the result of
-its first attempt at finding homes for its
boys in Florida, that Our Home Circle is
authorized to state that another com-
pany-of boys will be brought to Pala'ka,
where applicants must be prepared to
receive them on arrival, about the first
of May, that date being suggested by its
editor as giving ample time for applica-
tions to be sent in from all parts of the
This will be the last opportunity un-
til fall. Applications sent to the editor
of Our Home Circle will be acknowl-
edged and duly forwarded.
The Family Friend.
There can be no doubt that under cer-
tain conditions, the sting of a wasp may
prove very injurious or even dangerous
to life. We are unable to endorse the
opinion that there is no danger unless
there be fear. It is quite possible that
the sting of any insect capable of gener-
ating a poison may be fatal without the
intervention of panic. The nervous sys-
tem is in some of its states exceedingly
susceptible of sudden impressions,
which, as it were, "stagger" the nerve
centres by shock. The bites of small
snakes probably act in this way, and the
sting of a wasp may prove fatal in the
same fashion. As to remedies, ammo-
nia is of course the obvious resource; but
almost anything "strong" in i;apopular
sense will generally suffice to decompose
and destroy' an organic poison. if in-
stantly applied. This is why the juice of
an onion answers the purpose. Any-
thing equally pungent would do as
KEEPING MEATS IN WARM WEATHER.
The time is close at hand-nay, has
already come-when many of our Flor-
ida housekeepers, to whom ice is denied,
will be troubled to keep meats fresh
from one day to another.
There are several ways of overcoming
An excellent one is to sprinkle pow-
dered borax lightly over the surface of
the meat (or fish); this will keep it sweet
for some days, if need be. Wash thor-
Meat may be kept several days in the
height of summer, sweet and good, by
lightly covering it with bran and 4hang-
ing it in some~high or windy room, or in
a passage where there is a current of
Another way is to cover 'the meat'or
fish with vinegar.
And still another is to sprinkle pow-
dered charcoal on a cloth and wrap the
meat in it. Charcoal heaped around
meat that has become tainted will re-
store its sweetness.
Take one ounce of spermaceti and one
ounce of white wax, melt and run into
a thin cake on a plate. A piece the size
of a quarter dollar added to a quart of
prepared starch gives a beautiful lustre
to the clothes and prevents the iron
When baking cake in a long tin, line
the sides and ends as. well as the bottom
with stiff white paper; you can then lift
the cake out without breaking it, and
can also be perfectly sure to bake it
thoroughly in the middle without burn-
ing it anywhere else.
A NICE STEAK FOR PEOPLE WITH BAD
in a kettle, and boil gently until the ber-
ries are clear.
Drain the fruit and spread on dishes in
the sun to dry (in the sun, that is if you
have no evaporator).
Then roll the fruit in sugar and pack
LEMON RICE PUDDING.
One quarter of a pound of ground rice
boiled in a pint of new milk; when nearly
cold, add the rind of two lemons, cut
very small, with four eggs well beaten
and sugar to your taste, Then bake it
in an oven.
Take the carcass and bones of any
poultry, trukey particularly, and put in
a kettle with plenty of water, and boil all
the forenoon, filling up wi'h hot water
if necessary, and at dinner time you will
find to your surprise a most savory soup!
season with salt and pepper.
Take four oranges, peel them, and re-
move the white skin and pips. Cut them
into slices, a,'d dip them in.a thick lat-
ter made, with eggs, milk, flour and su-
gar. Put some butter into a frying-pan,
and when it boils fry the slices of orange
after they have been thoroughly dipped
in the batter. Serve them with pow-
dered sugar sprinkled over them.
Chocolate jelly will sometimes be rel-
ished by one who has a delicate and un-
certain appetite. Boil three gills of
sweet milk and two bars of chocolate to-
gether until the chocolate is entirely dis-
solved, then add sugar and vanilla until
the flavor you like is imparted. After
dissolving half a box of gelatine in cold
water, stir this in with the chocolate and
milk; let this simmer gently for a few
minutes, then pour into moulds or bowls
and set in a cool room.
The Story of Picarro.
Brownie came to the table once in
awhile, but not so often, for she had too
much work to do at home. She was a
faithful setter, and whenever we went
near her cosy little house, built in among
the orange leaves, we saw her bright
eyes watching us; but she was not
afraid, no matter how close we were, for
she knew her friends.
How sad it is to think that a poor little
bird should ever have cause to fear a hu-
man being I .
No boy who'has any pride or manli-
ness in him, will attack another smaller
or weaker than himself, nor will he strike
a foe when he is down, and yet he sel
dom stops to think when he picks up a
stone or stick, thas he is doing just .the
same thing to the poor little bird.
Our Father gave that helpless bird its
life just as much as He gave you yours,
and what do you suppose He thinks
when He sees one of His children lifting
up its hand against another that cannot
even defend itself ?
Bdt to go back to Brownie..
One day, after Peek had been coming
almost entirely alone to his little table
for some time, Brownie came flying
down with him, both of them seemingly
in a great state of excitement.
They danced over the table, put their
heads together, tapped at the window,
then chattered to each other and to us,
and finally, each seizing a piece of cake,
And then we knew that the patiently-
waited for babies had come; if there had
been any doubts about it at all they soon
flew a*ay, like the birds.
For such a going back and forth as
there was between Brownie's house and
Peek's table If the road had been on
the ground instead of. through the air, I
am sure every blade of grass would
have been worn off of it.
After the first trip or two, Brownie
stayed at home to nurse the babies and
keep them covered up nice and warm,
and Peek did all the marketing for the
family. We kept the market, of course
and I really believe Peek was so set up
with his children that he felt too proud
to hunt or work for his or their living.
now.and then to snatch a mouthful for
When I took a peep at their hungry
family, I did not wonder at them' any
more, for the sight of those four wide-
open mouths (there seemed to be nothing
else but mouths) must have touched
harder hearts than those of Peek and
Before very many days we heard a
queer talking and twittering and flutter-
ing around the house, and when we
looked to see what it meant, behold,
there were four little birds with short,-
stumpy wings and tails, tumbling, roll-
ing and hopping about, and doing their
very best to follow the example of their
anxious parents, who were trying to
show them how to fly.
It was very interesting to watch them
and it was not long before we noticed
that the proud parents had a particular
object in view. it was not without rea-
son that there was so much talk and
scolding and coaxing and fluttering
'aroundnmy study window and door..
"Peek's window" was close by, in the
adjoining apartment, and he and
Brownie were doing their best to induce
their children to go to the table and feed
themselves. There might have been
some selfishness at the bottom of it, per-
haps, who knows?
If the babies learned the road to the
table they would not require so much
waiting on, and if their parents were
getting weary of doing so much market-
ing they were not to be blamed, now
that the infants were able to tumble
about after a fashion of their own.
Ana one day Peek and Brownie were
triumphant. We were sitting near the
window, when all at once there arose
such a twitter and chatter of little voices
close at our ears, that we turned to see
what it meant, and what do you suppose
it was ?
Attention, boys I Here is something
you can make, and make nicely, too,
and how the little brothers and sisters
will enjoy swinging in it I It is called
.A CHEAP HAMMOCK.
Take a piece of manilla matting or
any other strong cloth, from two to
three yards long and a yard and a half
wide, binhi or hem the ends firmly, then
fasten each end to a piece of timber.
These pieces should be five feet long, two
inches thick and should have holes bored
about three inches apart the whole
length. The matting is fastened by
passing heavy twine from matting to
hole, back and forth, really sewing the
matting to the wood. For each end 'of
the pieces of wood larger holes are bored,
through which pass ropes to hang the
hammock-,between two. trees.. This
makes a cheap, comfortable and safe
hammock. Being hung from four cor-
ners, there is no danger of rolling out,
and half a dozen children can swing in
it at pleasure.
And for our girl cousins:
To miakeIhem, take a sheet of strong
white -paper, and with an atomizer pass
over it with a spray of diluted mucilage,
so as to obtain a thin and slightly sticky
film, that will mak the ferns adhere'of
which -it is desired to make the picture.
The ferns and leaves must first have
been pressed in a book, and after arrang-
ing them to suit your taste,: cause them
to lie as closely to the paper as possible;
fl'l an atomizer with very dilute India
ink and blow a spray oveer the ferns,
more or less in proportion, as you want a
darker or lighter shade. It is well to
do this with intermissions, letting it dry
a little, so as to avoid an excess of mois-
ture and possibility of running into liquid
drops. When nearly dry, but still a lit-
tle moist, remove the ferns, which may
be used overagain several times.
One cup, grated chocolate, one cup
molasses, one cup milk, butter size of an
.egg, one cup of sugar.
. Boil till it-hardens when dropped in
cold water, Then pour into buttered
pans, and before it hardens too much
mark into squares.I
Take half pound of good steak and He just came to his table and expected A LBERT FRIES,
mince it fine, add a 'dust of salt and to find all the delicacies of the season AST. NICHOLAS, FLODIDA,
pepper, beat up an egg and add to the awaiting him there, free gratis, for noth- 'Agent for GEORGE W. BAKER'S
steak, beat all together with a fork, add ing, and so he did. Rotted Bone Manure, The
a large spoonful of flour, knead all up. At first we failed to be as thoughtful DECOMPOSED WITH POTASH. stocked
Have a clean pan on the fire with a piece as we ought to have been in providing Price $25 per ton free on board in Jacksonville Church.
of butter in it, roll out your steak with a food that could be easily carried away, BoneFBone Manure, 1stit 0 bearing
rolling-pin into two pieces about half an and Picarro notified us by tapping in- ". '2d 82.00 tractive
inch thick,' and fry till cooked,"and you dignantly at the glass, and then diving Ammontated Phosphate, 82.00 most fe:
will have a steak that anyone without his beak into hI' little dish, and coming Budded Orsae Trees and Texas Urn. Oaks,
teeth could eat, and that will cost little again to the window to twitter and talk. br." om cents 1" each. offers so
more than the price of the beef. We knew him so well by- this time Canada 'Hard-Wood Unleached Oats, Ct
PRESERVED STRAWBERRIES. that we soon saw what he meant, so the A -' Ear
find ths rec ea o one as dish was filled with bits of egg, soft, ASHES!l and gre
I find this recipe a good one, as t it mixed with bread, and then with sugar- CheapeEt fertilizer i n use, and free from nox- Special
keeps the fruit whole; it is the way corn or beans; then he was satisfied and ioins weed uppued in car lots of 12 or more .
strawberries arepreserved in England: back and forth he flew, going loaded, re- ,ons. Guarantee, lree o rubbish Pit up in .
Forevery poundof bie u on pnd arrels. Price arid anh'sll "ree on appUication. -
For every pound of berries use one pound turning with empty beak. Adares3,CHAE STEVENS,
of white sugar and half a pint of water; After a day or two Brownie came to Box 117 Naranee, dntario. Canado. ,.2
pick carefully over the berries; boil su-' help him, and we really used to feel HE E. MOUIE FLORIDA FLORAL PER- Th
gar andwater until it thickensand then sorryor those faithful little parents, fr T Nmevi mpmany will oa 't2 cents per of theb
pour on the strawberries very 'gently, the babies had terrible appetites and ',oun"ia _" Ie- J1. Jminr, B osbms, delivered the mos
and lt them boil slowly for fifteen main- gave-ibem no-rest in the game of "fetch 5 6 East Bay'ti'-eet. Partnies who ..an p,k for on
tesa more: put it all awaynO and carry;" they only.stopped a moment relpoud w t t hemieae cor- N. Co's
in the preserving pan and let it get from wi
cool; when cold, strain off syrup, avoid- 'm
ing handling the berries; let the syrup .
now boil alone, skimming it perfectly; .. .. .. ". acresin
when in a good boil put in thba strawber- NEW YORK & FLORIDA S EAA-HI. ~E yea n
ries, and let the fruit remain in not all be in
more than 'five minutes; then remove TRI-WEEKLY SERVICE BETWEEN treesBar
and put in pots or -jars when perfectly f r N-
cold; do not paste covers on the jars be- NEW YORK, EERNANDINA AND JACKSONVILLE 'ro20m
fore week has elapsed-says my recipe ro
-and why, I don't know, but I have to
followed it exactly for the last three Steamers are ap ointed'to sail from Pier 29, E.R ., N.T ., very Tuesday, Thursday from tw
wbith good i tccess.-Mary T.D., an S turday, O I r nnorth', e
years, with good success.-Mary T.D., ROM JAOSOlVILLE-CR OEE (new), and SMIOLE new),.every FRIDAY The
Hoboken. FROMFERNANDINA-DJ LA WARE andYEMASISEE every MNDAY, p. x., CITY onthousti
S TRAWBE 0 .OFATLANTA ,randT OOF -COLUMBIA, every WEDNESDAY p.-m. u --,u.---
SSTRAWBERRY JAM. The. Freight and Passe'oger Accommodations by. this ,Line are unsurpassed by any ships in built. T
Same weights. of strawberries and the coastwise service. Forfurther,information, apply to neighbor
wounded white loaf sugar; mash up'the Fernandna, Fla., acksovie, W. cor.ogan er h
CLA. NCEJA. L Agt.nter .. Fernandna, .,. Jacksonvile, Fla., S. W.corBa ann Hogan. be sold a
berries well in a preserving- pan first, TIBO. G. EGER, Traffic Manager, .. M. P CLYD & CO., be olda
and add sugar afterward; boil for twenty a 8Broadway,N. Gener Agents, 86 Broadway, 1. Y. we will
minutes, stirring well and skimming.-
H. L. B. -"- ... ..
STRAWBERRY CONSERVE. Tne-half
Prepare the fruit as for preserving, al- Is n the Line of Ihe Florida Southern. orange g
lowing half a pound of, granulated su- -" -. property
gar to one pound of fruit. Unisurpassed by any other section for the produdtibn'of Fruits and Vegetables. If you are com- groe fo
Sprinkle the sugar -over the fruit at ins' to orida,aever may be your means or condition, you will most qssuredly be pleased with it. The
night; inthemo putit on the this Centre of the Lake Region. F or further particulars address, "M "" Lm
Bight; in the morning put it on the fire ... S. L. REED, Pittm'ani Fla.
THE HERNANDO -
3AL ESTATE AGENCY,
---OFFER FOR SALE-'.
ved and Unimnproved Town Lots,, Orange Groves, young or in
aring, Truck or General Farming Lands, High or Low
Hammock Lands, and every grade of Pine.
'axes for Non-Residents, Manage Property and Collect Rents, and
do a large business in Loans.
Here being no Usury Law in the State of Florida, io to
r cent. on unquestionable security can be obtained both.
own and Farm Property.
d on hill, altitude 828 ft., only sixteen miles from the Gulf of Mexfcov
is properly called
"THE HILL CITY OF SOUTH FLORIIA."
s County seat, with a stirring population of about 1,000. Fourteen well
Stores, Two Newspapers, Railroad and Telegraphic communication,
es and Schools, and numerous residences, surrounded by beautiful old
Orange Groves, presents to the Tourist, Settler or Investor, the most at-
e Town in Florida. Among these hills are to be found the largest and
rtile bodies of Hammock Land in the State, heavily timbered with giant
[ickory, Bay, Magnolia and other hard woods. No County in the State
0 many advantages in general farming, or yields such heavy crops of Rye,
orn, Cotton, Potatoes, Sugar Cane, Rice, etc.
ly Vegetables for the Northern Markets are grown with more certainty
after perfection, without fertilizers, than in any section of the State.
attention is called to the '
A Great Bargain for a Capitalist or a Stock Coiflpany.
s property is situated on the Withlacoochee River, and contains 82, acres
eat orange fand, about one-third of it being hammock. The'river, oue of
t'beautiful in the state, abounding with fish, forms its.western boundary
mile, and connects it by steamers with the Gulf, and with the F. R. &
road at Panasoffkee, and with thie F. S. Railway at Pemberton's Ferry,.
which it is distant only about five miles. River and railroad transportation.
ng lines. ..
re are 120 acres cleared, under fence and in cultivation. There are 100'
solid grove. 600 old bearing trees, some of them being from 20 to 80
d' 5000 trees from 6 to 8 years, which have been well cared for, and will
n bearing very'soon, many of them bore'this year. Three-fourths of these
e budded from the finest varieties, and the rest are sweet seedlings grown
refully selected seed.' Valuable nurseries on the place containing about
,ees from two to four years old. There is also a natural or wild grove on "
perty, containing hundreds of thousands of budded trees and seedlings,
o to six years old, situated in a cove where they are protected on the
ast and west by woods and by the waters of the river and a beautiful lake.
other improvements consist Of a,'plain dwelling of six rooms, cistern,
es, stables, etc. There is a splendid boat landing and wharf already
The bluff above the landing commands a beautiful view of the river, the
ring lakes and the hundreds cres in orange treed. No prettier sites for
homes on the Peninsula. The property being susceptible of division, will
s a whole or in smaller parts. For the whole, if sold the present season,
cash, the balance on time to, suit purchaser; What do experienced
rowers, and they are the proper judges, think of such a price for such a
? The 600 old trees are worth the money. The 5,000 young trees in.
rm are worth it. The seedlings in the wild grove and nursery are worth
land itself, located as it is, is worth.at least one-third of it.
Y. JENNESS. J. 0. PRESTON.
ORMOND ON lTE HALIFAL
FOB REST OF HAMMOCK LAND OR BEARING ORANGE GROVES
--CALL ON OR ADDRESS-
JAMES CARNELL, .
Ormond Land Agency, Ormond.
East Coast of Volusia C county
THE BEST HEALTH REPORT
IS ON THE LINE OF THE FLORIDA SOUTHERN.
Unsurpassed, by any other section for the production of Fruit, and Vegetables.
If yu are coming to Florida whatever may be your means or condition, you will-
most assuredly be pleased with this Centre of the Lake Region.
For further particulars address .- T". I 3EIEiD, '
TH size 4Ox10o TLA 0W o1n Lake Kingsley, Clay Co., only 8S. A
781) feet n JsAN]--- VI choice 5-acre tract for an ORANGE
GROVE costs but '8,0.
High rolling Pine Lands, Salubrious Climate, a good invest-
ment. Send 2-cent stamp for Maps, etc., or remit P. O. Order or l K 1|A
Bank Draft to JOHN T. TALBOTT, and get Warranty Deed, Title I
perfect, from theA TD O
rKr QnOA-ni ZjOL'N-31 OO AW, 0aA.
P. 0. Box 158, Jacksonville, Florida, 39 W. Bay St.
SWhat Mr. Beyer says l
best thanks for the splendid seeds received from your firm.
It would bea rather lengthy list if I shouldname all, but
willBaythatamongst38first, and second premium
,^' V 4 k^ -^ awarded me at our fairs in Northemr Indiana and
-SouthernMichigan. 28 first premiums were for vege-
tables raised from your seeds. What firm can beat
J AFAt Iis? 9f AOrUSrT BEYX, So. Bend, Ind.
S.. S Seed of thief qniyin Tsm snow ready to sell io every one
fiwho tills a farmn pliriS a garden, senaing them PFREE my
Vegetable andFl:.iier Std Catoiogu, ior 1657. Old cusomera
iied not write for it. I cal-.,guc [hi seaon the narnre wild
potato. JA. J. I. GREGORY, ed Grower, Marbisehad, Mans
GLEN ST. MARY NURSERIES!
A general line of Fruit Trees adapted to Florida, including the
LAR -EST STOCK OF PEACH TREE-S
To be found in the State.
PEEN-TO AND HONEY PEACHES. A SPECIALTY.-
Also, several other choice varieties of Peaches. My stock of Kelsey's-Japan Plum Trees con-
sists of 5,000 or upward-all home grown, and buds taken from bearing trees on myplace.
1,600 PICHOLINE OLIVE TREES (2 to 6 feet highb; ".n :Iv ORANINGE R EE$,3 to t years
old). A fillsupply ofLeConte, Kieffer and other Pear Tres. Japan Pereimons, Figs. Quinees,
A tricots, Nectarines, Japan Medlars, Mulberries, English Walnte, Pcrans, Almoind., Japan
Cest tuts Gapes, Raspberries, Blackberries, etc., etc. An exanina:n 'f l.t.oc .olited.
G. L. TABER,
GLEN ST. MARY, FLA.'
g@~uDon'/ Fail to visit Brooks-ille, HrnFando Co., before you settle or
S -"THE BANNER COUNTYY"
Awarded First Prize, 850. for Best General Exhibit at South Florida
Exposition February. IS%7.
'u' r rvfl 1'1-'t /
A :--- -- ....kind of refrigerators they describe were
[ifh th da1dd!nd t inuse. No, Messrs. P. and G., our ber-
ries at Hammock Ridge are not carried
in an "ice box." We have a room furn-
TRUCK GARDENING. ished with cold dry air that is constant-
ly circulating among the berries, and as
II. Plowing. fast as it warms a little, being lighter, it
rises to the top of the room and is forced
SBY F. by the cooler air through an aperture
Of greatest importance to the truck into a space used as a cooler and con-
.r .. .. ,= .? r" *
can only be done by cultivating or plow- berriessso dry that a wet cloth hung u
ing at certain periods. Situated as most there will soon be dry and by natur
of us are, we are compelled to lei our laws a current of air, such as is neces-
land run to crab grass after the vegeta. sary to preserve all perishables in the
ble crops are off. room, iscontinually kept up.
As soon as these are off, at the begin- Post yourIselves, gentlemen, fhorsuch
ning of the rainy season, plow all your assertions i n this age of thcuse wortheld
land. .Then smooth off that on which will have a tendency to cauistrust yo honesty.he
you wish to grow crab-grass, with some public to distrust your honesty.
kind of a harrow. Then smooth it fur- Again, P. & G. say, T he old ne-
ther with a smoother made like a sled, fi gerator aims to destroy the heat and
with boards nailed weatherboard sweat with a low temperature, which
fashion on the bottom of the runners, does not always do it, but alw ays in-
.beginning at the front end. T. his makes Jes the fruit, causing it to turn gray a
the bottom uneven. It ought to meas- soon as exposed for sale, and decay
urthe bottom uneyr feet. .TI ru a. q- quickly follows." Another evidence
ure nre o ourlee. Ti! runners are. "*
made Of 1x8 boards Handles similar to of an imperfect educationl The refrig.
a plow or haxrow can be put on and the erator that took our berries to New York
plsmoother darrow can bye puone horse. Itis also last season delivered them in a condi-
sma nice tool hefor smoothing the ground be- tion to endurse aso nearly or quite as much
a nice too! for smoothing the ground oe- i_ ip.. .. .. .., ine
fore planting various things. IU. is also as when they left the vines.
just the thing to run over the ground *
after planting any seed that needs the THE VEGETABLE GARDEN.
ground firm ed' on them -; i _.__ ".
As soon as the grass is harvested the J
ground must be turned over. This The Peculiar Difficulties me1
should be done in August.' After a fewwith n Florida.
daysrunthe harrow over it.. All the with in Florida. ,
land not in grass should be turned over '. BY S. POWERS.
in August, as it, is thebest time to. kill .It is difficult for the new comer, es
out most of the weeds. It should be peciallI the immigrant from the West
done if possible before the weeds go, to ern States, to comprehend the absolute
seed. If it is not turned over until the poverty of the Florida soil. It is thi
weeds and ground are dry, better let it part of unwisdom to attempt to concea
stand until it can be burned off.: Dry this fact from ourselvesior from the nev
grass and weeds turned under not only arrival,.' Aside from the limited area b
make the ground hard' to. cultivate, but hammock lands (which are more ori les
actually injures the growing crop, as it unfitted for .summer residence any
absorbs so much of the moisture. how), there is practically no soil in Flor-
I do not'advisedeep plowing in brieak- ida. Nearly all the diseases and'misfor
ingup theland or in turning under sod, tunes that overtake garden vege
grass or peavines. But after .the land is tables in this State are incidental to an
in condition to plant I run a furrow with smia and'-poverty. The medicines in
a scooter deep. This breaks it deep with- 'dicated for the patient are almost wholly
out turning the subsoil on' top. In cul tonics and stimulants .
tivating firnt and second time, I prefer Corn will come up, peas will come up,
the-scooler and run it deep, after which so will beans, beets, cucumbers, melons
shallow-plowing may be done with the they will make thetr little. bows. to th
sweep or turning.plow. audience and then quickly pass off th
I advocate keeping 'land clean, except stage. They may put out their -thir
during the rainy-season. Then it is a leaf, br a fourth, even 'a fifth,: perhaps
benefit to let the gla.s grow, 'as it prfe they may have a good dark color whe
vents the land from washing.; I doubt, they first appear above ground-gene;
its injuring land for crab grass o; spur ally they do--hut very soon it will. bi
grass to grow on, it. ,,It is certainly a come painfully evident that' they ax
benefit if turned under while green, and growing ansomic, sapless: they turn ye
when the ground is moist. For fall low and spindle up, they wilt in the-h<
gardening it is necessary to keep the sunshine by day, and by, night, in tl
fand as clean as possible 'and I would cool grateful shades'of darkness, tli
turn it over before the end of the rainy 'cutwormni diligently plies his nefariom
season or as soon as the ground was, dry work, If 'any are left they present
enough to plow..- .: ', topple over in the hot sand, which, if ti
-' finger is thrust down into it, is found t
Re.rior s V e t...ile. be heated to the depth of two inches i
Refrigerators vs. Ventilated more; their stems are shrunken an
Crates..: priceless, and death closes the painfi
B -. scene."
-^,- BY'"P. ," ^);- Y Eternal vigilance is the price of "ga
Truly we live in a fast age, too fast for den sass" in Florida. One must watch
old slow blood Only last year it was the seed, see that it is strictly fresh, f<
learned by actual trial that a ventilated the climate seems to be especially d
crate of berries would not stand up in a 'structive to the vitality of seeds. O0
well ventilated packing house over must apply plenty of fertilizer, and a
night, but this year commission mer- 'ply it some time beforehand, else it wi
chants that everybody know -to be per- "fire" the ,seed,, bum it, or burn ti
fectly honest and reliable, are' sending roots as soon as1they reach it, unless
their circular letters -all ovetr -the State is, thoroughly rotted,-' One must wat(
assuring growers' that ihe ventilated for the treacherous cutworm, for tl
crate has demonstrated by actal" exper- miole cricket, the 'cabbage louse; the ca
iment the astonishing fact that heat and bage worm, the red spider, and plan
damp, wet and cold, or 'any way you -plenty of them too,'or they will', swel
chance to get it, an express car is much, everything clean, your portion ai
Better for the preservation of the straw- theirs too.
berry than the best constructed refriger- I find very high fertility of soil is
ator ever macd. 'T Imeasurable protection against the ca
The; writer being. somewhat advanced bage, louse,' but it is of no avail again.
in years and his blood not quite up to a the cutworm. Constant stirring of- tl
boiling point, instead of jumping at con- soil is a Iery good general measure
clusions, prefers to investigate a little defense against the mole cricket ai
further and begs the honorable, high- the cutworm. I have a friend, a ve
toned, intelligent, progressive commis- successful gardener of many years exp
sion men to wait a moment until he can rience, who uses practically no oth
collect 'his thoughts' and review his' ex- tool but a light rake in' the cultivatih
perience a little before he is asked to 'of his 'garden. He rakes it all over tw
adopt their entirely ,disinterested pro: or three times a week, so often that e
gramme. .eiry spear of crab grass is upset before
Says Pancoast and Griffith, "Our sys- cain root, and the vermin .ai' disturb
tern of keepinigberries'from spoiling in and disconcerted. Constant handpic
long shipments consists in'removing the ing is necessary as against thue in
injurious fruit :heat, ''sweat and mois- cricket and the cutworm. Cow slil
ture'." How dyou remlove that injuri- should be avoided in the garden: tdi
ous'fruit heat and 'iaoisture?' By such breed vermin. 'If applied at all, th
air as chances to"be mOving.where the should be thoroughly soaked and chui
berries are'located, or do you manufac-' ed in water, and everything rising to t
ture to order such air as your fruit re- surface skimmed off, and only the wal
quire? If you'take the former, it strikes used. ,, .
the writer thatinstead of renrioving the Every .eeerienced gardener kno-
dampness, you will often furnish an that, not 'only' will plants, grow better
extra amount of heat and moisture from rich soil, but also .the seeds .themseh
the air in circulation. --:' will germinate better in it, because t
Let us examine a little further, ,"We moisture-they absorb is more stimuli
S have demonstrated that such dry. air, ipg. A ,titl, commercial,, fertilim
ventilation, rcut!'atibli of natural air spripkled, on tLe ground,an#d worked
(Hwistrangeitsounds), dry natural air willshow its effects isproutinig ,I
is fa itter, 'delivering the berries here, ptatotes,'for thre9 years afterward. ,, I
sounider, dyer and brighter than the ar- It 1i also true thatr wit the frethest se
tificially low temperature of the con- and;the ichesoto 'many small sl
fined anid damp air of the refrigerator 6r are hard to make germinate, in,,i
ice box system." treachrous Florida, sand in the haot,
The gentlemen may be good salesmen, .weather o' spring., It will; .e fpun<
but it is very evident they are far be4lind, great.help,, in thdcpcase, to water, thern
the times in hleir knowledge of rpfnger- first having packed it we1l with ihe,1
atlrs. In fact they must have been or with the rttler of the see4-drill), ,a
small boys when the kind of efrigeri then cover with two ,or three inches
.tor they describe was ip use. No, Messrs., fine grass, peywoods,. wire-gass,:
P. & 0., we don't c.rry berries in a.icex example. O,,course,:this willshaye
box. "We have a room fu.rished ,with be iemoye 'as soon.s the plants, cp
cold dry' air that is constantly circulat" up and before they begin ,to grow.
ing among tlhe berries, andeas fast as .it through.it. ,, (, ,, .. ....
wirms a little, by one ofthe laws.of na-. :It is customary to tell, new corn
tuie rises t6 ,he top of the 1rqoom and, ,tatit tngotworth while lo0bother w
forced by the cooler air through an aper. garden 1lmuck, except sweet-, potatc
ture into a space nsed as a, cooler and ,during the rainy season of mid-sumtm
condenser, away from the berries, caus- ,I find that tomatoes, heaps, :etc.,,
ing and keeping the air in the room for "scald" and turn yellow soonsfter,.
berries so dry that a wet cloth hung up rainy season sets in; but that success
there wi 1 soon be dry, and 'by' natural plantings will 'yield :later very well.
laws a currentlof just such air as is neces- have planted tomatoes a second time
sary to preosrve intact all perishables int April and May, aid 'sweet corn three
the room is constantly kept up.' 1 four times-the latest planting in Julr
Those commission merchants 'nay ba and gathered fairly 'g6od' crop.s fr
godd'bu~sinessr merl, 'hut' it is -evinent thenm;- Most people'labor under t he ,
they are far behind the times in-their fusion that it is'injuriotu to' 'the "so
-know-ledgee-ef ..efrgera tors;, in .4act, work it. when wet; so when the rains
=" they must'hav.e leen small boyslwhentbe .Hjxhey.'give.all up and-let the crab-gx
i FARMER ANT) FRUIT GROWER' MARCH ,J1887.
take complete possession. Of course, THE FLOWER .GARDEN. aei
the trampling of a horse will pack and -- gr
injure the soil, even sand, when very Prolpagating Soft Wood Plants. -r
wet; but raised beds, kept well drained on
by ditches between, may be stirred with BY THOS. SUMTER. we
a light rake in ten hours after the hard- Most herbaceous perennials are great'y sli
est rain without detriment. The fiat benefitted by yearly propagation by cut- a
hoe used in the North is wholly inappro- tings, layers or division of roots. The cu
private in the Florida-sand. The prong- chrysanthemum, for example, if left in sa
hoe is the right tool; it cuts no roots, it the old clumps yeai after year will de- an
stirs the soil up fine and corrects its ten- generate and bear very insignificant gr
dencv to "run together." flowers. The chrysanthemum should fo
I say again the greatest watchfulness be started anew from cuttings every gr
and skill are requisite to successful gar- spring. Now is the time to start plants m
dening in Florida. In the generous soil for blooming next fall. From the young tu
of Georgia or Kentucky the seed may be shoots that are springing up from the in
cast into the ground und it will come up, old roots take cuttings about two and a an
and if the weeds are only kept down, half inches long. With a sharp knife tri
Sno matter in what barbarous fashion, cut the stem at the base of a leaf, and
there will be vegetables in due time. But cut off the lower leaves. The cuttings
in Florida gardening is a fine and high should be put in pure white sand, which
art. The neat, light-fingered rake, the should first be well watered.
handy sack of fertilizer, free from weed- If only a few are required they can
Seeds and vermin eggs, the fresh seed- be put into a flower pot and this plunged pr
These are the conditions of success. But into a larger pot or box. Then cover fro
i if gardening is far more difficult here with glass and shade from the sun. If fr-
r than in the North, it has its amply suf- a large number of cuttings are to be tin
Sficient compensations, for the gardener started make a small hot-bed with stable Al
- who unites his skill, industry and judg- manure or leaves. Put the cuttings in fa
Sent may pick something fresh out of boxes or pots and plunge in the bed up tu
- his garden absolutely every- day of the to their tops. Keep the bed closed,
S865. shaded and watered. Most other hardy tin
LAWTEY, Bradford Co., Fla, perennials can be treated the same se
The Tomato Crop. ANNUALS THAT SUCCEED WELL IN ti
That eminent authority on truck FLORIDA. 1c
gardening at the South, in his report on Sweet alyssum, mignonette, balsam, ex
t that subject to the Department of Agri- marvel of Peru, zinnia, dianthus, ama- A
culture, treats of tomato growing as fol- ranths, cockscomb, larkspur, scabius,
lows: Tom Thumb, nasturtium. thunbergia.
Until tomatoes became so extensively These all succeed well in the open border, en
- grown in Florida, coming-into market so but should be sown in boxes or pots.- -
- early in the season, this was perhaps the WORK IN THE GREEN HOUSE. h
i most profitable crop grown. When All plants that require shifting into o
e properly produced, carefully and judi- larger pots at this time of the year d
i ciously handled, it is sure to carry safely should be attended to :at once. Camel- i
v during a fair season. The farm garden- lias and aza'eas growing in pots as soon n
f ers on Long Island rarely get more than as they have done flowering should be e
is from 2i cents to $1 per bushel basket. turned out of their pots and examined, p
- Formerly Savannah-grown frequently Those which have.filled their pots full v
s- old for $8 and $10 in Baltimore and of roots should be put into larger ones. p
- Boston. Of recent years $4 is the high- Do not use pots more 1han ,two sizes
3- est prico obi ained. The yield is from larger than the ones from which the v
- 100 to 200 crates per acre. The season of plants were taken." When repotted they n
- picking being of longer dura'ioni at the should be kept in a warm and moist ii
y North andi the stand closer,, the 'yield is atmosphere until they have completed a
400 bushels. :e ae their growth, and then placed out of
A good market variety should be of doors in a shady place, c
s; bright red color, round and smooth, with Clerodendrons, alamandas and all v
e few seeds;,'must be firm, and ripen even- spring and summer flowering plants ri
e Iv. The Acme and; the Mayflower are should be kept growing. They require
d at present the favorite varieties. A very, abundance of heat and water. Gerani-
s; large-variety,'like the Trophy, is not ums, heliotropes and all soft wood plants g
n wanted." -. should have plenty of air and light. On r
r- .With the'exception of the egg-plant windy days the house should be opened r
- this vegetable resists, drought better "on a side which thewind does not strike.
re than'any other. .A light' sandy soil. The glass should either be whitewashed t
1- produces finer.;ifirmer,- better carrying or shaded-with light canvass. I II
ot fruit than a heavy one. Ifi the soil be Keep a sharp, look out for insects, "
ie, wet:or :badly drained, the plants are apt which will increase very rapidly, such t
ie tot die before maturing fruit. -Indeed, as the greenflyy, thrip and spider; The I
is when manured on high ground with two first can be kept down by fumiga-
ly fresh muck the fruit is liable to rot.), It tionwith tobacco stems, the last by
ie is a plant whichdoes, not require heavy moisture and dusting over with sul-
to manuring. If well decayed, a shovelful phur- '
)r of manure to the hill on fair soil will Poinsettias having now done. flower- 1
id suffice,w s b p ing, should be put to rest by laying the i
ul Slow glowtI "'being desirable in order pot on its side and keeping dry for two
that stocky' plants maybe produced, the months. They should be then be cut c
r- seed should be sown under glass on un- back to within two or three inches of i
nh mantred soil a early as' Christmas 'If the old wood.
r later: the soil may be enriched a little so All tuberous rooted plants and sum-
e- that plants of good size may he obtained, menr flowering bulbs, such as gloxinias, '
ge No crowding should be permitted.' gesneriasj achimenes, tuberous rooted i
p- Plants thinned out may be "picked out" begonias, eto,, should now be started i
ill or spottedd' into cold frames, tr'sIght-, with a moderate bottom heat.- 'o n
he ly-warmed hot-beds, 4 or 5 inchesapart, JACKSONVI.LE, Fla., March 5,-1887u v
it where they will" have room for stocky' s a t the d .ro t '
:h growth. If every other row'of seedlings, He s arot tn e g asitledfth
he the rows bufving been 3 'or 4inches aart, HO aure is W te.
b- are pulled, there will be space letft for The following table, which wefind inv
nt the remaining' to fill out nd for hilling CEmnler'swork on- Truck Gardening atS
?P them up to encourage tbe growth of the South, demonstrates the folly of :al-
id roots from the covered sltemn, facilitating lowing heaps',of manure to remain un-
growth when ultimately put out. sheltered for a period of months. Itcisap
a Having grown plant's of proper sizes common practice to throw the cleaning'
b- and endurance tor hardiness;, they should of'the stableJust-outside the door, often
st be; transferred itto the open-ground 'as' so-neai'as.to catch the drip from, the
he soon as the season may permit. A strong eaves and-rot the siding and sills of the
1 stocky plant willh-better endure cold and building. -;I! : : '' -
ad be invulnerable to in jury by cut-worms. ,,Manure thus exposed is being robbed
ry i On light sandy land the distance apartr continually of its fertilizing elements by
e- maybe 8S by 4|- or 5 feet,' -while on a ,thesun, wind and rain to a greater ex-,
er rich sandy loam, well manured,' 8 by 7 tent in Florida, probably, than is indica-v
n or even more may be necessary. In ted by Dr. Emler's table, which is prob-S
vo cultivating this.crop it is well to earth ably. based on experiments made in' a
3v- up, to the stem to encourage the issuing much more:northern latitude:.-. -
.it of new root.'-.. t
ed The distance from market or tne delay G, '
k- of transpolrtation will determine the de-, C i '
il9 gre6 of ripeness at which Lhe fruit should e' ;'
pa be picked in 'drder that it may be fully I', ,
,y ripe and of proper color upomn arrival-in- ;r' : t'
ey market. -.At Savannah it should just -be "' "' ".. s'.":i "-" **
ia- commen'cingto'show aYellow casta-d ';, ': i '- ; 'i p ''
he further South asS oon as it has attainped- '"', '"I :''-'- '
ter full growth andhas about nearly reach- -
ed that stage of"ripeness. Frequently cg-- -- ts "
ws thepicking is done in'Floridawtoo early, i.',.'- ,-t. -
in the shipments arriving at the North still 'i th b'anc fo of'-. 't
res petrfeclygreer and bard. e e .i. ..'';ik p;.l, Is. '- "'i" -" -
he T6matoes require more careful assort- p -
at- ing 'than -any 'other vegetable-all in- o a '' '
zer ferior, bruised,, leaky, -or worm-eaten ''?I !;,' 1
in ones should be strictly excluded.r The *:- '*' :': i-::...
ish tradetdemands of -late yearm that toma- "' 'i i
i4 toes be each 'wrapped in" paper. It pro- j-, -' I' :I'l :. a---'-
ed tects the remainder of the fruit from *i I 1ji,: iI4 i. -
.ds leaky or. decaying ones. --The paper 0 ago
tbe should be soft and strong. Pieces about. : ls
Iry 1 inches square will answer .for medium-.. S
id:; sized fruit. The papering involves more 5 ,
pw. careful -packing, and, if properly done, 8u ',^? l
19e there will be no shifting of the contents S ga eSl
nd of the crates. "';: ,. '' ';*. ; : -.'.. s|~_gaf
oif For seed the earliest, well-matured, -' *'8SaSO. o'a'
For anid best-formed fruit should be selected. -' 'p,, "5 Ss &
'-t; "When thoroughly ripe they are cut in -*.''ggggSS
me two ,and the seed and inner pulp scraped. ... '- ~,SS
TOp into 'a' pail r 'barrel and allowed to ^w v^
ferment 'for several days 'with 'frequent ', -
einS stirring;' The seed may then be washed Patn ln
ith from, the pulp, dried -in sun and. air, and Plantiig Slips.' ,
SoS, preserved in bags. 'An Eestern amateur cultivator, in re-
W-. In some seasons the large green, worm lation to growing plants, says: "When
t'ill of $p~iiniiwe CarolincsandSpMrna quinque- I was a boy nearly everything was -in
l-h? *macodcota do.considerable injury, when creased from slips, and I am not sure
ive they must be hunted and killed, but the that the more modern and now general
1 most injurious insect is -the ,Cotton-boll practice of taking .cuttings is .more suc-
>,in Worm or'the-Corn-seed Worm, Helfofhis cessful- than the old plan' of WlIpping off
or' armigera. They rarely touch the leaves, short auxiliary roots with a heel instead
f- but penetra te the young fruit, orie speci- 'of cutting them 'with a^ knife. If ever
on?! several.e bon int an destroying I feel the least doubtful as to which
0e11 menvoften boin intoand method is' best, I ,try bpl~h. 'ways; and,,
I to '' after' some little experience in this linei
set '.Stains on wood can be removed with I find the balance in favor of the slips.
-ass strong vinegar or .salts. ofj, leon. ''* ':-".-I'Milky plants,'such as-eumphorbla jac<|um-'
flora, often fail as cuttings, but short be
owths stripped off grow well. Pinks ern
carnations, cloves and mule pinks- ly
osima tauricum, small veronicas, etc., ini
e propogated quite successfully from inj
ps under cap-glasses or hand-lights on .gel
sandy border. Hollow-stalked pansy
things generally fail to grow, but -the
me growths slipped off at the crown Gr
nd inserted deeply in the sandy soil ofi
ow quite freely. Of course, facilities ofi
r the rooting of cuttings are now eiE
eatly improved; yet, for hardy plants ern
ore especially, I believe we might re- an
rn to the old-fashioned habit of plant- anr
g slips of many things with advantage gri
id especially when cuttings have been wl
led and failed. T
___,_ +.__._*-- Gi
How Our Paper is Regarded. ,gr
Judging from the expressions of ap-
roval which are coming to us daily
om correspondents and the press, and
om the rapid increase of our subscrip-
on list, it is evident that the FARMER On
ND FRUIT-GROWER has met with a more
favorable reception than we had ven-
ured to expect.
In a few instances we can give the sen- +
ment of a letter by quoting one or two .i
sentences, as in the following example : *9
Prof. S. N. Whitner, of the Agricul-
ural College of Florida, writes as fol-
ows; "ILcan say in all sincerity, it has i
exceeded my most sanguine expectations. Are
Ready it is without a peer in all the Ar
Mr. J. V. Dansby, of Pensacola, whose
eminent success in truck gardening, as Le
well as his able writings on farm topics, tA
title his opinion to respect, expresses A,
Amself as follows: "The first number
f the FARMER AND FRUrIT-GROwER was
uly received and is the best thing in its
ray I have seen. ,It is just the paper
eeded, andif you keep it up to tibe-pres- R.
nt standard of excellence must become ,
popular with the people. I can't see
where you have left any room for im-
SMr. Chauncey W. Wells, of Tampa, A
writes: "I have looked it over and find R
nuch valued information, and consider
t worthy to be placed side by side with
ny other like paper published" -
Mr. Charles W. Stevens of Orange .
county, writes: "Your able paper fills a '
rant long felt in this part for a-good ag- -
ricultural paper.. Success'to you." ,s
Rev. T.. W. Moore, of Marion, county, I
writes: "I believe your paper will do a i'
;ood work in disseminating new ideas in P
regard to fruit raising, farming, stock
raising, etc." -_ '
A veteran nurseryman, who objects to
the publication of his name, expresses
himself thus: "Hike your paper first-
rate, and believe it will be lthe agricul-
tural paper of Florida. I hope after a
little while to give you an article every .
,Mr. H. G. Daniels, of Amelia Island:
'"Judging from what I have seen of the
FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER, it is the -
best agricultural paper published in the ..
South. I predict immense success for it."
Mr. Arthur Brown, of Santa Rosa
county, writes: "Judgine by the copy
sent me the paper is 'A No. 1,'and I do
not wish to miss a single number."
Mr. W. S. Moore, of Alachua county,
writes: "I have read with much inter-
est your FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER
and am much pleased with it. It is
much needed and can be made of much
ralue to Florida." ,
,Mr. A. F. Brown, of Putnam.,county,
writes: "Iam very much .pleased in-,
deed with the new paper., It s just
what we have needed for ,a' long time,
Success to it." ,' .-
Mr. S., L. Cmuller, of ,Seffner, Florida,
writes: "If you continue to make the
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER
equal tb the first number,, you. will cerr
tainly.furnish the agriculturists of Flor-,
id, with a paper that will please them.
I am traveling, through the country.
among the farmers, and in every way
that I can assist you it will be cheerfully
Mr. H. W. Greetham, of Orlando,
writes: "I am greatly pleased with the
sample.copy of your paper, and feel
sure it will prove, a valuable addition to
agricultural literature devoted especially
to, Florida." ,1 .!
Mr. W. N. Justice, commission me-
chant of Philadelphia, writes: '"Having
received the first issue of your agricul-
tural paper,: and being delighted with its
tone, we, wishyou to insert, our..card for,
six months : ..
S [From the Citra New Era.]
We have' received the first nuibber'of
the FLORIDA FARMER AAD FRUIT-GROW-
ER, published at Jacksonville. Itwis an
elegant publication and deserves-to suc-
ceed, and we trust it will. -" ;
-,; -'. [From the Texas Farmer.] ',
SFlorida is notbehind her sister South-
ern States 'in' material progress. .It'
ought '6b be alliedd the land of fruits and
flowers, for each'of these grand d'ivi's-
ions' bf horticulture are equally at home
thei'e. The FLORIDA FAWM AND '1RUIT
GROWER is' an'ably conducted and ele-
garitly printed- paper' devoted 'to these'
very topics, to which we refer the reader
for further information. .,
[From. the Southern Live Stock Journal.']'
We" regret that the first number Jof
the FARMER kAND FRUIT-GROWER] failed
to reach us; but the second shows a very
handsome sheet as to 'paper, typography
and general make up, while the' addi-
tional department is all we expected '6f
the distinguished editor.? Many of 'our
readers are interested directly and ,sec-
ondanily in everything connected with
Florida, and we cordially commend this
new and excellent periodical as worthy
of their patronage. With best. wishes
for its. success, we welcome this new as-
pirant for public favor and. patronage,
feeling assured for the good work it will
accomplish in and out of Florida.
[From the ,Mariana Courler.] )
-The- FLORIDA FARMER AND; FitUrU
GROWER, published by C.,H. Jones;;;
Bro., proprietors of the Time.- Union,- at
Jaoksonville, is now on our table. The
initial number of this publicati6sproves
.plainly Itsaim 'a ffnfi & i- pose; "ItflV will
of'vast importance to the fruitgrow-'
sand farmers of the State. It is:neat..--
printed and contain some valuable..
iormatio.n in regard to the fruit grow-
; interests. Send your address and
t a copy of it free and then subscribe.
[From the Baker County Sentiuel.]
The FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
ROWRR, just Out from the TriME UNIOT N
ice, has just been received at this
ice. It is a handsome six-column,
ght..page paper, and is perfect in' gen-
al make-up and typographical appear-
ce. Among its corps of.contributorsa
e numbered the most learned and pro-
essive men of our State in matters of
which the paper will bean -exponent.
hat the FLORIDA FARMER 'AND FRiTTr .
ROWER will meet with favor and re-.
ive a hearty support from Fl6rida
owers there is -no 'question.r
i UTH FLORIDI RAILROAD.
CENTRAL STANDARD TIME.
and antr Qun',iv, F-bruary .71h. 1087. iralns will
arr.e. aid Ier.,i aS loiloa-O, 'dally. Jdally
emnI dundaj'. Iially xcept Monday.
LIMiTETi WE4T UNDIA FAST MAIL. :
eave sni-ir for, Taii,I.j ,a ,a aaytations ..* 4 40pm
HIV, l 1,11.1-a .... ... ... .. .. .-. S 8 50pm
nlUilnit [n nilrir aEL.......... .................... 8 00p mo
rive atSanford a
ave Sanford for Tampa and ny sialtlona. ..*10 30 a m
rlve at Tampa at 840 p m.
=liing leave Tampa at 9 20 a m
rive at Sanford at 2'.30pm ;
a,'e Bartow .Junction.........11 15 a m 2 10 7 1 p min
arrive Bartow .... ..................12 05 a m 3 10 8156pm
ave Bartow......................... 9 40am 1250 5 30 p m
SriveBartowJunction.........10.40am 140 630pm
PEMBERTON FERRY BRANCH .
(')(iru]wd L-v irni>S *nwn Fluwrid RallroraJ. ,*. ,.
, arw, ,.- I'.'. P iT.r,,rt.) r. rry ;
"r..l iiad, i '.. -ri .. t 7r 1-i f. In m n 0p
rrtir, l SP iL. o' i 'rr< 'a'. 9 a m .u m -:-
**d'iin rlit, lrd& ri'mb.:rv.in Fierr)] WOn in p I n P
k lr e a i B a toi 1 . L: f I n m 5 p m .p_-
4.%XFORF ANT iNDIA.N RrNVEfi RAILROA..D.- *'
r6te Sanford ICMI -.ik l 0lml ::'.-'[
1 .1 ond r i .I-.].' ..I l n' 1 m 30 1 r 6 1 p lpm
rr.v .- .Ik, I.ii',i .. 1 4'. i m n and 6 1. p "n
le].irii.ir;].!" -,a Latkr.Cfiarin.t n.i a m aonl 71. pm .
rri ,$ a l.,r.l ... 7 06 B a m 10 p t n-m
CONNECTIONS. : -
"-'Tlug', u. ll .,roi','r.J al. i. Oar, f..il and Indian Rtiver
I. '..1 .i w iiii i n ,:, PIII i. l .' 1i r.f a i ,J D r B a Pa By tva
. b.. .A,,. L..,- 4 .. 1 1.-...l J.. T. and K.W Iull-
a% I, ij.'k...rirI.l j,1'l rll l, i niIaIE pOi1L;: alnd
iit, .,in'lrr '.-.' In.lii. RJi.,I andi uFper 'l. johns.
i Klihiiin'-r -. hit h ua ri. '' F rt tu Mi3.ri andi
rs,.,,r..Tnrn i-.i -il i t.i. aikuirmc.n riv r Al iOmpa
i fi ari. r M 1rrn rrt" 'r PIai Slta, Braldenioan'
ii.i.i' I l ai. M isi. WA,. 1iri I n, i.. t on H0-lh bOl)giigu al,
**Ts[' tt ,'o ,,l 1111 in-t r,-'w ,1nd eir-1d l f igtEaLuer
ic>.ji]." ,.S K' %'-t and Htl,.van Cuneli a t,
N ,M(l. ri.n' FIerr, a ii F'l. idn .-).,rbhern RAilway ior all ,
jIiu. N."-.iLh. E-it anid W%%-SL rio iiph Lckeia )lid at
II Tgaular .tullagos. I.) Ie-InI NorUi Esst and West.
BAGGAGE CHECKED TB rROUGH. ::
PEMAT. CON*EcTIONS. .
Trlnmi Ieavm iArfor-ir at lW',)a. m. onnecdt P ASn-
,rd wlbh ibe 'iasti mfil d.emeri If ihe Peoplee' and De
BIrv.Bava Mrcnan.r.s' Lir.e i'rom Jnackouville and
]*ii.- Nonh Train ..ariug Sa3,3ford at 4.40 p. m cmn-
Fi.,lally S ,afi'r.i.I t Ih fasti through mall iralna on
I.e J r and K ', R nnd ai Tampa on Tuesday.
'h-ird'i, andtSaiirrnall, nn %Lamers of PlanulSiam-
Il|' coni yIn' r lKev Vt and VUabna. I
Train- I.'..l/u Tainpa at 8.-i p. m. cnnnet' at Tampa
n SundaB "- '.' unol Fridlay itbh astamers from
Ke We and Fivaa ndFara.d at arfori wIb the r
ruIl ltrainforr .i.,.iiivlk.c and ninLn North.
'TraIn leavin 'Tarnmra M! ,20an m .1nrprt at SD-
nord with Poi.le and I4Barv LiCe Ileamers and J3., T. ;
an.l'E W. Ry fir Jaceionlile .iand LIalu bor TItus-
'LLe WILBUR McCOY, .
General Freight and ticket Agent.
IlKOREDA RaILWAY A"D'
-, NAVIGATION"COMPANY. .
TIME CBD 'IN EKFF FEB. 7, 1887. 1 01a. n .
'*'''' -'**'* No. 2k ~ '
All Trains Run by 90th Mertidlat Time (Cmstail)."
: I WESTERN DIVISION. '": .
Shortest and Quickest Route to New Orleans and 'th
Soutbhweet. DirecL conneoOlus to Pointsa Wedt
0 ''"a"6meansA M time. 'p" mea P..M. timn.
Read up. Read down
No. 10. No.2;.' ,:' N No.l1. No,9
U 45 a 7 30 p A Jackltle...........Lv 8 00 a8 00 p
1o'0a 6 50opAtBaldwiln..............Lv 841a s50p- .
8 18a. 519p ArLakeCity;....... ....Ar'10 10a &r ,5-
112 a 4 27 p ArLiveOak...............Ar 10 58 a. P7 05P
6 01 a S3 26 p ArMadlson............_..;Ar 12 01p 837 r
5 16 a 2 O p Ar Monticello........I......Ar :1 35 p 10 35p
3 10 a 1 06 p Ar Tallaliasee...,-.......Ar 2 27 p'l 225 p
140 a 1i2 08 p Ar Quincy ..................Ar 3 22 p 1 40I a
12 01a 11 2a ArRiverJunctloa.......:Ar 405p 8 30
t11 00p 10 20o aArMarlanna............Ai 6p07p 42Sa
8 Orp 8 15a LyDeminlak'Srina..Ar 7 0 p- 8 00a
3 00 p 5 15 a Lv Peiinsacola.............Ar 10 10 p 11 50
L215 p 3 00 a LvFlomaton........Ar 11 59 p 818p
- 100 a Lv Mobile...................Ar 2 2.5a -
- 8 OOp LvN.ewOrleansi..........Ar,7 22a -
7 20 a 7 lo0 p Lvi Montgomery.........Ar.715a 708p
7 65p 7 27a LvNashville.......A.......;-A '640p 7 20a
12 46 p 12 45 a ,Lv Evansville...............Ar 1 10 a 2 35 p
2 S5 p 12 0 a Ly Louisville...............Ar 2 2 a 2 20 p
81 5 a 8 20 p Lv Ciincbinnat ................Ar 6 a 635p
7 10ai 720p LvSt. Louis..................Ar 7 40 a f800p
8. o) p 8 40 p Ly vChicago..................-Ar l) 30 a,: 8 0 0p
Sleeping Cars on No. 1 and 2 between Jackionville and
New Oflean. F: Land N. Sleeping fCarn JacksonvTlls
toDeFunlakon Np.9and 19,i o.1, 2,9and10 dairy.
SOUTHERN DIVISION.. ,
Shortest, and. Quickest Route toGainesville, Ocala,
Leesburk, and aU point in South Flortda.
Read ur.' Read dow*.'
No^4. ,.. O- 8 No.?. No.5.
4 00 p.11 25 a Ar Fernandlna............Ly I 10 a 4 45 p
2 47p 7-45a-ArCallahaDn;.......-..Ar 12 22a 6 45p .
1!47p 600aLo Baldwin................Ar 120pl0l0. .lp
240p 0630a ArJack.onville...-.....Lv1235a 8.30p
1'56p '5 0a SS Baldwii'.'.....;.....Lv i 35.p 10 Oop
SlOOp 403aLVlAwtey2..........Ar 215p 11,0p:
1245 a 3S5p LvSta=rjle...............Ar .2 30 p l 27 p
10 Boa _10,00 p Lv anesvUl.le........Ar 4 00'p 0 45
710a 8,10 a Lv Cedar Key...,.....-.Ar571p 146p .
11ip 14 a LvHawthorn..............Ar: 4 p,12 68 a .
It 04iai 1 avCltraOrangeLake..Ar' S2Op 143a
10 22 a --. LvLlver Spin.....-Ar 4 3Up -.
o10 0lop 11 8a LyOnI.............-Ar 4 60p 245 a.
vlOop 08 a LvWidwoodi ...........Ar i'ap 4ISa
,00 p -- Lv anasoukee.......Ar -- 9 40
SS is p Lv St. Catherine......A -- 11 00 A,
S p 4 40 a Lv Leeborg ....... Ar'. 6 17 p 4 S'
8 30p 8 .HE I.TBvariW,........ -.r; ;6.4 R. 6 ,a
787p 725aLTppopke-......--..'r. 87.p 7 21
;1py6 a LYrtndo..........Ar *7 8p 7 6 il -
Though_ Pulsman sleepin .ClaTr, NTo S3and 4 beten '
Jaokoncihne and Orlando without change. No. 7 and.
S daly. No. S and 4 daly expt Sunday.
iF hNANDINA 'AND JACESONVU.LL BRANCH
.. i t (Daily.) '.. .. ; .
o..Adlo. B' ead, down.
Su fo.S.' -o1*
445pl '458Ar A aokeB.il>.l.......L lOV p 8 05.
+00 p 7 Sa LTFeiandlna.......A 0.r p 10 45.
** CONNBCTIONS. ;, .' ,,
At Callahan with ifavannab. Florida and Western
Railroad fbr avnnah, Macon.n AtUanta, ^Charlesto,
Washinton, Baltiore ,New .,ork, Clnclnati, B.
Louis, C -a.- all point. North. Wiat anid North-
5roosvil~Bow'and'T ^Raliod tr pn&'
ILakeland IwTMupL.'. -
At CdadKey,'iWitl t oh -emer GoenorSaffot Mou"s-e
gall. from Pzna1andlma Sunday .ad Wednedy' lmn
jakionvlte Frtiay. (or Cnarleeton and New iork.
BSA iSLAND BOUTE.
Screamer Expreie leaving Jac]Onvtle 8^5 A. IL.
Wednesday and Satirday, connect with the cewiii
Steamer%. NichQ.l inldp Route for Bnoi Lk.
Daien, SavaBnahconnuctin wilth uteameva tor Boia-
more. Phalae~phIa, New Yor and Boroon.
CltTof Ba'nhmrek eonneets wli le mr~lt,Bnnj -
thIlroaab trains of Ur E. T. and G.alnd Bpyiav
'wAirza. A. ^ KSDOS
General Pauemnuer and Tloket 4tntL
-~ n FuD .E y .? 11-
... F. IPAZ .'
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MARCH 9. 1887.
THE SOURCES OF PLANT FOOD
The Elements Essential to the
Growth of Vegetation.
(From the proceedings of the Dunedi
Editor Florida Farmer and Fruit-Grower:
At the last mee'ing of our horticultui
al society here the committee on genera
farming gave a report taking for their
subject the composition of the soil an
the manner in which plants grow. Ii
order to avoid occupying too much space
we have condensed the report as, much
The food of plants is obtained front
the earth and the air, and is divided into
two classes-the organic and the inor
ganic. The latter is derived entirely
from the soil and the former from boti
the earth and the air.
The organic compounds, when a plant
is burned, are dissipated; the inorgani(
remain in the ashes. In the former
there are carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and
nitrogen. These are obtained mostly
from the air, and on the plant being
burned or naturally decaying, which ii
simply a slow combustion-are returned
to the atmosphere to form new plants.
In nature nothing is lost, although new
combinations are constantly being
formed from the same materials. The
plant grows and feeds the animal; the
animal dies, decays and feeds the plant.
ORGANIC ELEMENTS OF FERTILITY.
In considering the organic elements
the first we shall discuss is carbon. This
substance, different forms of which may
be seen in charcoal, coke, and the dia-
mond, combines with oxygen to form
carbonic acid gas. Animals inhale oxy-
gen and exhale corbonic acid, a gas of
the most deadly nature, as exemplified in
the destruction of human life of such
frequent occurrence in coal pits. Plants,
on the other hand, breathe in carbonic
acid, and through the agency of sun-
light, assimilate the carbon, setting free
the oxygen again, for the use of animal
Carbonic acid is present in abundance
in humus. By slowly decaying the latter
furnishes a constant supply of this sub-
stance to the roots of plants. -In addi-
tion to supplying this material, humus
is also -valuable as an absorbent of am-
monia from the atmosphere. It is there-
fore a matter of. much importance that
it should be abundantly present in our
soil, and where deficient it should be the
aim of the agriculturist to supply it
either byhauling it on or plowing in
Passing from carbonic acid, the next
gas to be noticed is' nitrogen, and for
our present purpose it is only necessary
to consider it in the combinations in
which it is of use to plant life, viz ni-
tric acid, and ammonia. Although fer-
tilizers rich in nitrogen are productive
of rapid growth, it should be noticed
that this is'produced at the- expense of
the inorganic' compounds in the soil,
and unless a full supply of the latter is
present, the result will be unsatisfactory.
During thunder storms the electricity
in the-' air- produces, by the 'chemical
-union of its constituents, sinall quanti-
ties of nitric acid. This, combining with
the aamonia present, forms the salt, ni-
trate of ammonia, in which 'form it is
conveyed by the rain to the leaves and
', roots of plants. The bright and vigor
ous appearance of vegetation after a
heavy thunder shower is therefore due,
not merely to the refreshing rain, but
also to its having received a minute ap-
P)ication of this stimulating fertilizer.
From the above we lean that we-
*,lould keep our land stirred and open,
that our cropA may receive the full ben-
efit of the free gifts of nature. In esti-
inatin the 'value' of a fertilizer, that
- which ranks lightest is the ammonia, as
being its most expensive constituent. It
Sometimes happens, however, that a -fer-
Jlizer may show by analysis a large per
cenetage of ammonia, while it may exist
in such a form as to be practically
locked up. Leather, clippings of hides,
shoddy, etc., are-rich, in this element,
but as manures, would not not give the
result, which the nitrogen they contain
. by analysis would warrant one to ex-
- pect. It is necessary, therefore, before a,
correct estimate can be formed of the
value of a fertilizer, that the sources
From which the various constituents are
obtained should be known.
INORGANIC ELEMENTS OF FERTILITY.
Passing fromin the consideration, of the
organic, we shalflnow consider the inor-
ganic elements in plants, for though
oxygen and hydrogen belong to the for-
er, and play important parts in the
economy of the vegetable kingdom, it is
unnecessary for our present purpose to
Describe them. .
The names of the inorganic substances
. in the soil are silica, alumina, iron; mag-
nesia, soda, fluorine, lime, potash and
phosphorus. As with the exception of
the three last there is generally a suffi-
ciency of the others in our soils, we shall
omit here all description of them and
brieflyy notice the latter.
SLime is a combination of the metal cal-
eium with .oxygen, and is indispensable
to the growth of plants, while the me-
ehanical and chemical effect it has on
soils, adds still further to its value. The
ash of all plants contains lime, but in
some it forms the prevailing mineral
constituents. Of these peas, beans,
vetches and clover are good examples.
Of the ash of the fruit, leaves and wood
of the orange tree, it forms large per
S. Lime is beneficial indirectly, by ren-
dering available much of the locked up
fertilizing material of soils. It should be
Noted, however, that its action in this
respects similar to that of ammonia,
viz.: to produce .growth at the expense
of the soil, and therefore, if applied
alone the latter will' become impover-
ished. As lime liberates ammonia it
should not be mixed with any manure
Srich in that ingredient,.
Potash enters largely into plants and
As many mules are necessary as on a
cotton plantation of the same size; for
although at times they have nothing to
do and enjoy altogether an easy life,
nevertheless, when they are wanted
they are wanted badly and in consider-
able numbers, as is the case during "rol-
ling time,'" in sugar planting, in order
to hurry through a certain process by a
trees and is found in great abundance ii
their ash. It can be obtained from sev
eral sources, such as sulphate and- mu
rate of potash, kainit and wood ashes
. The potato is a plant requiring for its
healthy growth a large quantity of pot-
The last element we shall notice is
phosphorus. It is found in all plants,
n but is frequently deficient in the soil.
The principal source of phosporus is bone,
but it may also be obtained from certain
rocks, which being ground and treated
- with sulphuric acid yield a certain
l amount of soluble phosphate of a nature
d identical with that obtained from bones.
The insoluble phosphates in the min-
h eral are, however, of little value, while
h those in bones will in time become solu-
h ble in the soil, and as bones contain h
percentage of ammonia, the difference
in price should be well considered before
o selecting. Our grain crops all require a
- considerable amount of phosphorus, and
y it is seldom naturally present in the soil
in sufficient quantity.
1 WM. Y. DOUGLAS, Secretary.
C DUNEDIN, Fla., Feb. 15, 1887.
c ---__ *'* --
i Study the Effects of Climate.
BY J. G. K.
s Old residents and new comers should
I not neglect to consider the effects of cli-
mate in Florida upon tie crops and
plants they may desire to grow. Sea
island cotton may be grown successfully
in the valley of the Suwanee and South
of it over the entire peninsula, but not
West of that valley, where the cotton
grown is upland or short staple. The
soil is as .good or better in the upland
3 region, as in that of the sea island.
3 The same thing exists in Georgia and
South Carolina, the long cotton grows
along the coast an i on the islands,
whence it has taken its name, "Sea
Island," and cannot be grown on the up
country lands. Why is this thus? Can
any other answer be given except that
the two regions differ in some climatic
Inii a similar manner other plants
might be investigated, and the same con-
clusions arrived at. The new-comer
might desire to grow the apples, peaches,
flowers and other fruits, to 'which he was
accustomed in his old home, and which
he there so greatly enjoyed, but disap-
pointment is as sure to be his, as is the
attempt to grow them in his new home.
If they survive a few short .years, they
will not yield their fruit, if they do not
die the first year. So too one will meet
with disappointment who attempts to
grow the meadow and pasture grasses,
or the field crop of the Northern States
or Europe in peninsula Florida. They
will not thrive. Where is the yard or
lawn tfiick set with blue grass and white
clover? Where the meadow waving with
Timothy,, or red with the blossoms of clo-
ver, lucerne or alfalfa ? Let each farmer
ask the question of the cause, and he can
conceive in his own mind but the one
answer, the climate is not congenial to
Reverse the table, and the peculiar
growths of Florida will not survive in the
climate of the regions from whence he
has immigrated. Climate has changed
and plants and animals have changed,
Man by a change of clothing and abodes,
with'a few of his domestic animals, may
he cosmopolitan, but it is reason and
forethought that makes him what he is,
a being of all of earth where life can
What then is the conclusion cf the
wholematter? The, vegetable products
of Florida, the crops of the State, must
conform to the climate of the State and
to the different portions-of the same.
The laws of nature are-immutable, be-
catise they are the laws of the Creator.
Struggle against them as man may, he
cannot alter the inevitable. Then what
is our duty? Raise those crops and
plants that have been proved, and im-
prove on. them. Leave those that have
not succeeded alone. Experiment cau-
tiously with new things. Study well the
climate of the region in which the ex-
periments are to be tested. And when,
new plants are to be added to the list,
seek for them in those regions possessing
climate as nearly homogenous as pos-
Florida has a fairly abundant rainfall,
then do not seek the new plaits, how-
ever desirable, from regions of drought;
where artificial watering i ndespen-
sible to plant growth, but seek for them.
where seasonable rains fall. Florida lies
between the tropical heats and the frosts
of the warm temperate regions, and
though the temperatures of each vibrate
over it., and many plants- belonging to
each can here find a genial location, yet
plants in either extreme will perish here.
No other of the States has so wide a
field for choice; no other can have such
varied products, if the choice be care-
fully and judiciously mqde. To iaid in
making these selections is a work in
which we need all the information pos-
Managing a Rice Plantation.
The Bivouac gives the following in
regard to a South Carolina rice planta-
The equipment of a rice plantation
varies with its size and location.. From
three hundred to five hundred acres is
about' the average size. It scarcely pays
to cultivate less than one hundred acres.
On a place of average size, sufficiently
near a city or town, a rice mill is now a
rare adjuhct. Previous to the war nearly
every large planter milled his own rice,
doing toll work as well for his neigh-
bors. Now it is found more convenient
to carry the rough rice or paddy by boat
to the big steam mills in the nearest
city. A thresher, however, is necessary
on every plantation of any size. In
addition to the commonlaborers who are
employed by the day, and engaged and
discharged as convenience requires, a
well-appointed plantation generally has'
an overseer, a trunk minder, who is al-
ways a carpenter, and a foreman or
"leader" for the negroes, besides a few
regular hands to care for the stock,
allof whom are engaged by the month
METHOD OF CULTURE.
The planter's busy season commences
with the new year. The squares are
cleared of stubble, plowed and harrow-
ed. The stubble is in some cases plowed
in, but is commonly burned-on the land.
The ditches are cleaned out annually, as
they foul quite rapidly from abrasion;
silt and water vegetation; and the stuffs
so thrown out of the main ditches is laid
on the bank. One would think that in
course of time the latter would become
considerably enlarged by the accumu-
lation of vegetable matter and dicth mud
thus piled on them year after year; but
in many instances, so light and porous
is the original soil of which they are
composed, and so spongy and liable to
rapid decay is the added trash, that the
banks are annually shrinking and grow-
ing smaller under a process of gradual
consolidation, so much so, indeed, that
in even a well-kept plantation it is fre..
quently the case that two or more
squares temporarily join their waters by
portions of the bank giving way.
Single-horse plows are generally used
in breaking up, but successful attempts
have been made to introduce sulky and
gang plows and screw pulverizers. The
fields, however, are so cut up by the
quarter drains that commonly light,
portable bridges have to be employed in
crossing the ditches, and heavy ma-
chinery, in consequence, is not always
convenient. Besides, the soil, contrary
to the necessity in sugar planting, does
not require deep breaking.
As a rule the land is not fertilized, al-
though it will not be long before the
contrary will become the common prac-
tice. Many plantations that have been
under constant culture since colonial
times still yield good harvests; but the
land is gradually, though fortunately
very slowly, losing its native power.
Usually the older fields produce rice of
superior quality though less in quantity
than the fresher lands.
Where a field has recently been "taken
in," and is consequently composed of
light, porous soil, it is not productive on
account of the absence of mineral mat-
ter. On such a field phosphate and pot-
ash salts are used to advantage; on some
of the older fields nitrogenous fertilizers
are occasionally applied, but not with
as satisfactory results as in other crops.
The paddy is sown from the second
week in March to the middle or end of
May. March sown rice will mature in
about five months and fifteen days.
Later plantings sometimes mature in ad-
vance of the earlier. .
GUARDING AGAINST BIRDS.
The principal motive of the planter,:
aside from important cultural objects
in selecting the period of sowing, is to
avoid harm upon the visitation of that
vicious pest, yet succulent dainty, the
rice-bird. .He comes in swarms twice ja
year-in the late spring and early fall-
and the rice must be planted at such
intervals as to be protected from his
ravages. And here another factor, comes
in, available spring tides.
Both the early sowed rice and that
planted later are protected by the
"sprout" and "stretch" waters when ti'e
birds come in the spring. The former is
harvested and safe from their visitation.
in September and the latter is not fully,
ripened u til after they have taken their
flight further southward.
Should a mistake be made in regard to
either of these conditions, the rice-bird
to the unprotected crop' is as disastrous
and annihilating as the torch or tornado.
Therefore, if the planter misses one
spring tide, he must wait and carefully
takb his calculations so as to be able to
utilize another for flowing.
Cultivation of Cotton.
BY A JEFFERSON COUNTY FARMER.
The land should be thoroughly broken
for the successful cultivation of cotton,
and when commercial fertilizers are
used, I would break the land broadcast,
then lay off my .ows three and a half
feet to four apart according to quality
of land, let the rows lay open four or
five inches, deposit the fertilizer with
hand or cotton planter at the rate: of
150 to 200 pounds per acre with two-
thirds of good vegetable mold mixed
If any manure such as that from sheep
folds, horse-stalls or cow-pens, is used,.
open a furrow without breaking the
land and deposit at the rate of five to
eight thousand pounds per acre: Have
it distributed as it is hauled and cover
immediately with two twister or small,
turnplow furrows so as to confine the
I find that a seven inch twister, is the
best to cover with, running from five to
eight inches deep, breaking the ground.
well and leaving a small ridge. I use
wrought plows on account of stumps,
etc., but the cast would be the cheapest
and do as good work where there Is no
roots or stumps to break them. ,
I put out my fertilizer the latter part
of March or the first of, April. As soon
as I get ready to plant I finish the bed
with the same size of plow as I used in
making the list, running as deep as the
horse can .conveniently pull it. If" the
land ts very stiff, or compact, run a long
scooter in each twister furrow. It will
.When ready to plant open with a
small scooter, not more than three or
four inches deep. Roll the seed in some
good fertilizer and sow with hand or
cotton seed sower. If the cotton seed
sower is used it will finish the work at
once, which Ts a great saving of time and
secures more uniform sowing of seed; in
fact it is preferable, too, because it leaves
the seed covered at a, more uniform
depth and in a straight drill.
The earlier cotton is planted the
also is an important question in con-
nection with tobacco culture in Florida,
for I have demonstrated that it is nec(es-
sary to sow the seed in the beds in mid-
winter,' protect the plants and
transplant at .the end'. of winter, so
as to mature the plant before the severe
heat of later summer can affect it. In
Florida we must plant.it so far north as
to grow it in the spring and early sum-
mer months, or so far south as to mature
it in the winter months, as' they do in
Cuba, where they transplant in October
and cut in December to March.
.IGH GRADE JERSEY CATTLE.
To purchase Grade Jersey From one,
half to seven-eights, sired by registered bull
soma with calves and some to calf shortly,
prices $80 to $40. : Apply to
W ESSELS & CO.,-
218 and 220 Washington Street,
NEW YORK CITY.
Prompt Returns Rendered. Stencels on ap
PRICES THE LOWEST.
C. 5, L'ErNGLE & CO.,
I. N. ELLIS, C. E. A. E. MCOLURE, Architect.
ELLIS & McCLURE,
Architects & -Civil En ineers,p
Plans for' : *
HOTELS. PUBLIC & PRf'ATE BUILD-
INtL., -SANITARY ENGINEERING, &c.
P.. o7l. x7.Rooms7 and S Palmetto Iok,
CHICKENS, FRUIT, AND
SOLICITED' B .
WHOLESALE PRODUCE .
FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PACKING,
FORWARDING AND COMMISSION HOUSE.
Usu lly have orders to work our consignments into, enabling us to make PROMPT RETURNS
Extensive Facilities for Repacking
for outside parties, to which prompt attention is given. Packages suitable for
SHIPPING ORANGES, STRAWBERRIES AND VEGETABLES,
both made upland in the flat, always on hand, and for sale. Also, Hoops, Wrapping Paper, etc
Best of location, viz:
S., F. & W. R. R. WHARF,
Circulars and Stencils on application. JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
TOBACCO IN FLORIDA.
Considerations Bearing on the
Success of the Industry.
Professor F. B. Moodie, who recently
contributed to our columns an interest-
ing article on the preparation of tobacco
seed-beds, offers the following through
the Floridian. Considering how much
the "weed" is .affected by climate, soil
and quality of seed, its culture in Flor-
ida ought to be carried on experiment-
ally under the' direction of an expert,
such as we suppose Professor Moodie.to
be. The following from his pen is highly
SELECTION OF SEED.
It is a much mooted question as to
whether we should plant imported seed
every year, or whether the second and
third years' products are better. Some
seem convinced that the third year's
product in Florida from imported seed
is better, especially for wrappers; and I
have no doubt that this is true, as the
matter of flavor is of little moment in
the wr- pper, but all important in the
filler-and it is contended that the flavor
is best ib the first year's crop from im-
ported'seed. 'This, too, I have no doubt
is true in some soils and localities, -but
not'necessarily in all, for elements of
flavor surely eminate measurably from
inherent properties in',the particular soil
from which the plant is grown, which
may be demonstrated -by' adding ele-
ments contained in certain fertilizers
that will entirely destroy the flavor
sought for in the plant.
The tobacco belt in' Florida, therefore,
is very narrow, so narrow that it will
not pay anywhere to transplant after
the summer moliths have .come, as the
worms will destroy it; or if you succeed
in keeping off the worms by daily con-
flict, even then the plant will, neither
mature nor cure. The wise man said
truly, "There is a time and season for
all things under the' sun; a time to sow
and a time to reap," and this is essen-
tially true of the "Royal Weed;" and it
is also true that he who would raise it
must also Lrise himself, i. e., rise early,
sow seed early, transplant early, cut and
house early, and never forget the old
provefb, "The early bird catches the
Get ready your compost heaps of
barnyard scrapings, leaf-mold and cot-
ton seed, spread hard-wood ashes on top,
dilute nitrate of potash (saltpeter) ten
pounds per acre, and pour on the com-
post heap just before moving it into the
hills, which should.be Made by checking
the ground three to three and a half feet
each wfay., Put a quart or two of the
compost (according to land) at each in-
tersection thus made, and on which a
small.hill is madeby a couple of strokes
-of, the boe ,immediately before trans-
planting; which should be done, as in
the case of cabbage, in damp weather,
and protect from the sun, if need be, for
a daynt two. .
It may be necessary to water; if so",
do it late in the afternoon. Replant as
you lok out the;cut-worm., If a season
(rainyfdoes not,come when your plants
are large and need transplanting, don't
wait;" but put them out after five o'clock,
inthe evening and water. Next morn-
ing protect from the sun with palmetto
leaves or a little moss, which leave on
on for two or three days.
Now don't touch or stir the plants un-
til the grass begins to grow somewhat;
then shave it away with a sharp hoe;
and when they begin to grow cultivate
with plow and hoe as you would cab-
bage, never allowing a crust to form on
the' ground, but keeping it loose and
. Last of all, to lay by, after say four
plowings, prime off the ground leaves
and-draw up a slight hill to support the
plant -Look out for worms constantly,
and the eggs of the tobacco fly, which
are about as large as a pin head. The
bud'w-orm may be destroyed by strong
ashes--a spoonful inthe bud.
INFLUENCE OF LOCALITY AND SOIL.
It is well known that only in a very
few counties in Virginia 'and North
Wholesale Commission Merchant,
NO. 818 NORTH WATER STREET, PHILAD]APHIA.
Specialties: SOUTHERN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. Consigdments Solicited. Return
made on day of sale.
Tropical and Subtropical.
Oranges, Pomegranates, Figs Peaches Grapes, Pears, Pecans, Oriental Plums and Persim-
mons, Limes, Lemons Guavas, Aananas, pineapples, Avocado Pears, Anona, Acacia, Nerium,
Caladium, Poinciana, Palms, etc.
Catalogue FREE. Sefifer, Hillsborough Co., Fla.
T. O'C.' BLOT.TTT,
, BARTOW, FIORDA.
Orange Groves, Town Lots in Bartow, Winter Haven, Haskell, Punta Gorda and Charlotte
Harbor, for Sale. Unimproved Lands in small and large tracts, at $2.50 per acre,up. Choice ten
and forty acre tracts of good, high., rolling Pine Lands, near S. F. R. R. depot, at $20 to $85 per
acre. All property guaranteed to be as represented or money y refunded.
I Money Loans, well secured, negotiated at 15 per cent, net, to the lender. .
F. P. ORAMBERLAIN.
SO U 'J-L'.-L FLOI:IDA.
A. W. OUSCAoD
Real Estate Agency,
T&r&PA, FLORIDA. Ofmiee: Twiggs St., two blocks east of: Passenger depot.
ORIOLE, HERNANDO COUNTY.
Beautiful location, facing on Lake Oriole and on the South Florida Railroad.
Lands all high and dry. New settlement; between twenty-five and thirty new .housMe.
A Church, Scho. ..-..y malls, stores, bakery, saw mill and hoteL Large area already~lanted
in orange groves. Choice building lots for winter homes for sale cheap. Ten, twenty and
for acre orange grove lots. Ahealthysettlement in a healthy State. .
Call on or Address,
J. W. GROVES, or CLARKSON & ROBERTSON,
Oriole, Florida. Jacksonville, Florida.
.1 I !-
W. N. JUSTICE
lighter it must be covered. Cotton may Carolina, and in. only one, or a small BEARING GROVE,
be planted from the 15th of March to portion of one, in Kentucky and Penn-
the 15th of M.y. From the first of April sylvania, each, viz., Lancaster in the IN PUTNAM COUNTY
to the first of May I consider the best latter and Mason in the former-can be
time to plant. In the first working of produced those finely textured and Three quarters of a mile from St. Johns River
cotton, where there is not much grass or highly flavored tobaccos so popular and 7 feet above the rer
weeds, I side with an 18-inch sweep with expensive. And so it will prove to e feet above the rer
the wings tolerably flat, going very close in Florida; only certain portions of par- ALSO.
tothe plants, not exceeding an inch deep ticular sections, and plantations even, ONE LOT IN KEKA
in the plowing, will prove adapted to the production of ONE LOT IN KEUKA.
If there is a Leavy coat of grass and finely textured and highly flavored to- 20,000 Nursery Trees, of all varieties and sizes.
weeds, bar off with a turnplow, very baccos, and such localities will also pro- All at bargains. Write or call at
shallow. It can be cut out after it is duce, in a less degree perhaps, very F. C. COCHRANE'S Book Store,
prepared in either of the above ways finely flavored fruits, melons, vegeta- Palatka, Fla.
after the lapse of five or six days, leav- bles and cereals.
ing several stalks in a hill. That is to These facts I have obtained by actual AYPORT
insure a good stand. It will always be experience and observation in Mecken- '
safe, if you can, to return to the cotton burg and Charlotte counties, Virginia; Hlernando County, Elorida,
in 15 or 20 days. Side shallow and close Granville, Person and Caswell .counties,
the second time, and occasionally to North Carolina; at Clarksville, Tennes .'Sixteen miles west of Hernando Hotel, Brooks-
keep the surface loose. You can run a see, Hopkinsville, Kentucky; in Lancas- ville, on the shore of the Gulf at the mouth of a
large shovel in the middle. ter county, Pennsylvania, and, last, but beautiful Spring River. Finest fishing, boating
This must be discontinued after the not least, in Florida-at Lake City, Co- and sailing. Good accommodations. Try-weekly
middle of June and a furrow with the lumbia county, recently, and previously Hack Line.
sweep substituted. Cotton can be made in other portions of Middle and West
with three or four plowings, if they are Florida. U.,S ... ..... dhuvea"
properly applied. I have made a good Some knowledge of geology, botany copy of oTur Sua
crop' with three plowings, and two hoe. and chemistry will aid in directing to S dntaiinformation.pages
ings. It is essential that each plowing those particular soils and districts-the 'SOUTHERN ree on ap location.
should be done .very shallow, never stop- botany (indigenous trees, grasses and ALMANAC AdIra, r.OBE RT
ping for dry weather. If the ground plants) points to the peculiar elements For 1887. ae ad at:
gets too wet to plow stop a day or so and (chemistry) of soil required to perpetuateandWateror
put S our plow hands to the hoe. Pre- flavor, which is the paramount quality- PRAIRIE LEE Pfl TRY YARD
pared, manured, planted and cultivated to be sought in the' production of the to- IIULII I
as directed there is nothing to prevent bacco plant, especially of smoking to- Seffner,Hillsborough Co., Fla.
you from making a good average crop. baccos, with always a due regard to tex- L. B. CULLEN, Propr.
Picking should commence as early as the ture, of course. As a simple and general single comb White Leghorn's a specialty.
cotton begins to open an. the cotton rule for the tobacco. farmer, I would Only one variety kept (J.Boardman Smith's
should always be sunned before it is suggest the avoidance of lime-stone re- ,Be J stgg t e halt yu in
thrown in large heaps. This enables gious-of some lime-s'ones more than closing stamp for reply. No circulars.
the seed to mature and harden. If the others-the seeking out of high, rolling
crop appears'to be large, hurry up the lands, free soils, silicious more than cal- S. L'EN ULE & CO.,
hands, admit a little trash to increase careous. In the absence of calcareous
the quantity picked. The falling off in rocks, the softness of the water, altitude STOVES
price by picking a little trash is not so and-the-absence of lime-sinks, will serve ES,
disastrous as to let it waste and turn -i6 pointers. Always avoid low, stiff and
black for the sake of picking it clean, wet lands, as these thicken and "french" CROCKERY.
,_ the plant.
References given If desired;
8 OCEAN STREET,
w' --: PIL-LOV
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MARCH 9, 1887.
chances are that the crop of these peaches
l' ridin will be quite full the coming season, as
the trees are well laden with young fruit
now as large as small marbles."
State News in Brief. There is to be constructed at Fernan-
S Adina a wharf for the accommodation of
A new National bank is to be started lumber shipments by the firm of L.
at Orlando. Bucki & Son, the largest lumber manu-
The pineapple crop on the island keys facturers in the State. The site of the
near Key West promises to be a large wharf will be between points opposite
one this year. the terminus of Franklin and Gadsden
Shipments of strawberries from Starke streets, about 1,000 feet south of the site
are just twenty-nine days in advance of of the creosote works.
the first of last season. The Blue Springs, Orange City and At-
Grading on the Pierson, Kenwood and lantic Railway will be completed to New
Palmetto Railroad is nearly finished, and Smyrna by Friday next, and the opening
the iron will be laid at once, of the road will be celebrated by an ex-
The LeConte pear trees, in full bloom, cursion over it on that day. It is said
are among the prettiest sights to be seen to possess as fine a road-bed as there is in
in the Tallassee country now. the State. It is expected that New
Vegetable farmers in Alachua county Smyrna will have two trains daily to
complain that many tomato plants have and from the St. Johns, Lake Helen
been killed by the dry weather. three and Orange City four,
Garden truck is quite plentiful in the The Orlando, Oakland and Atlantic
Tallahassee country. Peas are blooming, Railroad held its directors' meeting at
Irish potatoes are up and growing finely. Orlando Thursday afternoon, and Sur-
It is believed that Penasoffkee will veyor Fries made a full report of his
ship more strawberries this season than survey of the road, with full estimates
any other point on the F. R & N: Rail- of the cost of construction, etc. Action
road. was taken to place solicitors along the
The talk of the St. Johns, Lake Weir line of the road, and if sufficient sub-
The talk of the St. Johns, Lake Weir scriptions are made the work will be
:and Gulf Railroad still engrosses ,the at- commenced at once.
mention o mthe citizens along the pro-
Peach, plum and pear trees are in full
bloom about Fairbanks and from pres-
ent appearances there will be an im-
-mense crop this season.
Orange and lemon groves on the Hali-
fax are putting on the handsomest
growth seen for years at this season of
the'year, and are blossoming heavily.
The vegetable crop at Lake Worth is
fair now and its prospect is improving
with every rain. All that seems to be
lacking is sufficient rapid and reliable
Sugar cane seed in Hamilton county,
which was supposed to be very much in-
jured last fall by the frost, is found to
be in splendid condition and growing
The land department of the South
Florida Railroad has obtained a large
quantity of pure, fresli Havana tobacco
seed, which it will distribute free to per-
sons desiring to plant.
'Work has been resumed under the su-
perintendence of Captain W. G. Haw-
kins on the improvements to Volusia
bar. When Ihe jetties are completed the
free passage of vessels will be se-
C. H. Whitney has a natural wonder
in the shape of a magnetic well. The
water is so strongly magnetised that it
will cause a 30 penny spike to adhere to
the iron well-tubing.-Fairbanks News.
The full crop of last year has made
*most of our farmers too anxious to plant
cotton, and as an immense amount of
-kainit has been purchased by them, we
.fear a heavy long-cotton crop.-Jasper
Several Connecticut capitalists located
at Rockledge and at St. Lucie, will build
a steamer the coming summer to run on
the Indian ,river between Titusville and
Eden and Jupiter as soon as the river is
,: deepened in Jupiter Narrows.
Mr. Lewis, the pioneer strawberry
grower of Panasoff kee, has shipped in
the neighborhood of a thousand quarts
of strawberries this season. Prices re-
ceived for same range from $4 a quart
at the opening down to $1 at the present
Within a week's time regular passen-
ger trains will be running between Blue
spring, J., T. & K. W. Junction, Orange
City and New Smyrna, Mosquito Inlet
and the Halifax country over the Blue
Spring, Orange City and Atlantic Rail-
The fishermen of Sanford have been
having the best of luck of late, and ev-
.ery night -bring in large quantities of
-fish. The fish are sold to dealers here
and shipped North, and the industry is
,of more importance than most people
;are aware of. About. forty men are en-
*gaged in the business..
A meeting of the full board of direc-
tors of the SouthO orida Fair Associa-
tion wa* held at Orlando Thursday, and
it was resolved that the President of the
All the cigar factories at Ybor City are
working their full complement of opera-
tives. Y bor & Co. have brought men
over from Havana and Key West to re-
place the ones who were discharged dur-
ing the recent strike. They think that
there will be no further trouble, but say
they expect to manage their business in
future without reference to the demands
of the Labor Union.
Following are the shipments for the
past week from Fernandina by the
various steamship lines: Per Clyde line,
steamship City of Columbia, February
19-55 bags cotton, 40,000 feet lumber, 98
cases cedar, 211 sundries, 3,500 boxes
oranges. Per steamship City of Atlanta,
February A8-60 bags cotton, 40,000 feet
lumber, 1,800 boxes oranges, 88 cases
cedar, 150 tons cotton seed, 38 sundries.
Per steamship Seminole, February 22-
80 cases cedar, 650 boxes oranges, 51
sundries. Per steamship City of San An-
tonia, February 26-100,000 feet lumber,
11 logs cedar, 208 cases cedar, 82 bales
sea island cotton, 143 barrels cotton-seed
oil, 88 barrels paint, 80 sacks cedar saw-
dust, 50 barrels vegetables, 25 packages
merchandise, 1 horse.
The Atlantic Coast Canal Company
has succeeded in cutting through from
the Matanzas River into the Halifax
River and out through to' Mosquito In-
let. A channel has also been cut through
the rocks at the mouth of Mosquito In-
let into the Indian River. At the Haul-
over, a distance of fifteen hundred feet
through, the rock was blown out, re-
quiring one hundred kegs of powder for
the work, and a canal six feet deep and
eighty feet wide was made. They have
gone through the Haulover, cutting a
distance of 3,000'feet to reach deep water
in Indian River, and 2,100 to deep water
on this side. The dredges will soon be
carried to the Indian River Narrows
and afterwards to the Jupiter Narrows,
when a canal will be cut through the
peculiar shell rock which obstructs nav-
igation at these points.
The contract for opening up the With-
lacoochee river to navigation from Pem-
berton to Hays Ferry was awarded a
few days ago to Capt. S. 0. Barker, of
Ocala. The amount of the bid was
$1,850. Work is to begin as soon as the
necessary bonds and other papers are
made, accepted and filed, which will be
accomplished in thirty days or less time.
Capt. Lay, of the steamer Sam Pyles,
says that there is not much work to do
to put the river in navigable condition
between the points named; that it can
be done in a little while, and when it is
he will make regular trips with his
steamer from Panasoff kee, on the Flor
ida Railway and Navigation Railroad, to
Pemberton, on the Florida Southern.
The next move will be to open up the
Withlacoochee river, and connect this
section of country with Cedar Key,
Tampa and other points on the Gulf.-
FARMING IN BAKER COUNTY.
The Experience of a Man Who
Never Says Can't.
Editor Florida Farmer and Fruit-Grower:
I have heard some people say that the
land was too poor in Florida to make
anything by farming. Well, it may be
for some people who know nothing
about farming, tut have learned that
miserable little word can't, and are al-
ways using it, instead of going to work
right and doing things as they should be
I will tell your readers what I have
done, on one acre of poor old orn-out
land, that was cleared and cultivated
twenty years before the war, and haid
grown up in pine saplings and briars
when I bought it nine years ago. The
people who knew the land said When I
bought it that I would starve to death
cultivating that old worn out field. In
fact, I overheard some old crackers'say,
while sitting in the back room of Mr.
McClenny's store. "Why, that Yankee
will starve on that poor old place I"
I could not he'p but smile at their re-
marks, as I knew they had made one bad
mistake, and I thought then that I.could
make two blades of grass grow where
only one was growing. So I hired some
hands and had all the pine saplings and
briars, weeds and everything cleared off
so that I could start my plow, to have it
broke up deep.
A few days afterwards an old cracker
rode by, and as he got opposite where
the boy was plowing, he stopped and
seemed to be perfectly astonished at
something. He looked awhile, and as I
walked up he said, "My friend, what in
the world are you plowing that sand so
deep far ? You will kill it so dead that it
won't sprout cow-peas."
My reply was, that it was already as
dead as Hector, and I intended -to bring
it to life again, if there was any life
left-in it. So I kept on plowing just as
deep as a large mule could pull the plow.
The first of November I had on acre of
it rebroken to plant in garden peas. I
hauled in a lot of rich soil from the
creek, bought some cotton seed, and
made a large compost heap in the field.
When the seed had gone through a
heat, so that they would not come up,
I had the pea rows marked off three feet
apart and scattered the compost 'in the
rows at the rate of thirty cart loads per
acre, and planted my peas. They came
up beautifully, and when they had got
up some four inches high I run a small
bull-tongue plow close around them and
sprinkled two hundred pounds;of good
phosphate on each side of the rows.
The peas grew and made the best patch
of peas I ever saw in the State. Well,
to make the matter short, I gathered and
shipped over two hundred and fifty dol-
lars worth of peas, and then let- all the
neighbors come and gather "at least
twenty five bushels, as the price had
gone down so that it would not pay to
Some one may say this was doing well,
making two hundred and fifty, dollars
on one acre by the first of April. But I
am not done yet. I had the vines cut
up, run off a deep furrow in the middle
of every other row, raked the vines into
these furrows and bedded them in with
a large turn plow; then opened the beds
and planted corn about the 10th of April.
The corn grew off finely and made
twenty-five bushels of large fine corn.
Done yet? No, sir. Only just half
done. Well, about the middle of July
I planted two rows of cow peas between
the corn rows and made a large crop of
peas. August and September being very
wet months, the crab-grass came up and
made all the hay I wanted to use to feed
my mule. '
Now, Mr. Editor, here I had made four
good crops from this old poor land in
one year, right where my neighbors said
I was going to starve. There is- a little
more to ths acre of land that I have not
told you. About the time that I had got
in all the proceeds of my pea crop, a Mr.
Price, living near Lake City, offered his
stock of,cattle for sale. So I went up
there and bought fifty head of fine stock
cattle, with the money I had made on
one acre of peas. I mean, just the pea
money alone. Still, some people will
say we can't make anything in Florida
(I do hate that word can't.)
T will Ra thnu T hs t v Mno n1citi.n V a
association be requested to call a meeting A Railroad Commission. this same piece of land eight years, ma-
of the association some date within the
next tw weeks to take aom tion as This is what Florida wants, and in our during it some every year and now it will
to the holding of the next exhibition. opinion the resources of the State will grow cotton a4 high as your head when
Te dredgebo he t never be fully developed until we have you are on a horse. It is getting better
The dredge-boat Chester, at the Indian one. There is but one opinion in regard every year and instead of this old field
River Haulover, broke down again last to the freight and passenger rates being called poor, it is the richest piece
week, and some of the machinery was charged by the railroads in Florida and of land in this neighborhood.
taken to Sanford for repairs. The it is that they are too high, There is but Now, whenever you hear another man
dredge has finished one of the cuts one way to remedy the matter, and that say, that we can't make anything in
through to the channel of. Indian River, is for the Legislature to create a railroad Florida, just put him on'the train-and
so that small steamers drawing as much commission and elect three or four send him up to re, and I will give him
as three and four feet of water, can pass good, honest men who are. not afraid to can't until he is ashamed of himself, and
through. do their duty, with full power to not only give him some of the finest peaches "to
The Silver, Springs, Ocala and Gulf regulate the rates of transportation on boot." After a while we will tell some-
Railroad received twenty-five car-loads all roads in the State, but to reduce them thing about the peach business.
of rails last week Friday, the amount of where they are too high. Most of the W. P. HORN E.
the first cargo. Work of laying the iron States have railroad commissions, and GLEN ST. MARYFLA,. March -., 1887.
was commenced' Tuesday, and will be they have in every instance that we *.
continued as fast as the rails arrive. The know of, accomplished' good results. Pror'ress in South Florida.
.present lot of iron will extend the road High rates of transportation on our rail-
within the vicinity of Blue Springs. roads is ruinous to the best interests of Editr Florida Farmer and r-uit G.rower:
A wine factory has been built at Arre- the State, and until people can get to Only a few years- ago South Florida,
donda, Alachua county, by several Florida and go about in the State cheaper was but a wilderness. The 'old geogra-
Englishmen of capital, it being the in- than they can now, Florida will never phies spoke of it as being swampy and
tention of this concern to manufacture gethersh are of the tourists and immi- unfit lor cultivation. The red man
orange wine and bring it to a high state grants that are leaving the North and roamed through the length and breadth
-of perfection. This will be exported to West in search of homes in a more con- of it unmolested. They found it a rich
England exclusively, as the firm finds genial clime. Five cents a mile is en- hunting ground. The swift-footed deer
that it will pay better than selling it in tirely too much to charge for. passenger was easily sighted; there were wild tur-
the United States. transportation, and it is a little surpris- keys and other fowls, and the, numerous
Sing that the railroad companies do not or lakes afforded fish in abundance. No
There are two vessels now discharging cannot see that they are standing in their wonder they contested the right of the
railroad iroh at the railroad wharf in own light as long as they continue, to pale face to push them into the Ever-
Pensacola. The rain's are for the- con- charge these exorbitant rates. It is a glades; but it was done, and the white
struction of the Kansas City, Fort Scott, very plain proposition that-if the rail- man has worked Wonders.
Memphis and Birmingham Railroad, roads would reduce their charges there The tall pines, fall and the fruit tree
now in course of building. The pro- would be at least three times the amount springs up, and the land brings forth
jectors of that line contemplate an ex- of travel over their lines of road. In fifty and a hundred fold. The scene is
tension, of the road from Selma to Pensa- short, the railroads in Florida have yet to changed from the home of the bear and
cola. : learn one very important fact, and that panther to that of human liabitation,
The Spring, of Green Cove, referring is that people are not obliged tocome to with all the surroundings that make life
-to. the Peen-To peach crop, pays: "Al- Florida, however much they may wish lovely and desirable. ,
though we have often spoken Tdispar- to, and the sooner they learn this fact As a resort for the affected this State
S.agingly of the Peen-To peach, -owing to and thoroughly appreciate it, the better is not excelled. Much has been written
its fickleness in blooming at intervals it will be for-them and for the State.-- on the subject, but not half enough.
from early fall to early spring, the Bartow Informant. Could the long list of sufferers who have
TEMP. WEATHER. *
1972 82 42 59 18 8 10 7.S2 NE
S18738 82 5 59 14 11 6 6529 SW
1875 85 40 64 8 15 8 1.80 SW
1878 82 31 60 14 18 4 5.41 NE
1877 81 86 61 18 12 1 2.58 SW
1875 86 39 65 7 14 10 2.87 NE
1879 86 44 64 14 13 A 1.35 NE
1880 86 43 68 12 17 3 I..69SW
1881 80 31 60 16 9 6 2.89 W
1882 88 47 66 14 18 4 .89 SW
188 79 40 60 18 14 4 8.84 SW
1834 81 42 66 14 11 6 2.63 SW
1885 79 88 58 10 18 8 5.66 NE
1886 84 37 60 8 16 12 6.74 NE
SJ.r W. SMITH, .
*Sergt. Signal Corps, U. S. A.
"We Know by Experience."..
For three years we have used Brad-
ley's Vegetable" Fertilizer. After test-
ing along with !other high grade fertil-
izers, we pronounce it better than any
sold in Florida. We shall use it again,
We do not hesitate to say to the vege-
table growers of Florida that they can-
not use anything so good as-Bradley's
Florida Vegetable Fertilizer. We know
by experience what we say regarding
WOFFORD & WILDER.
Ft. Mason, Fla.
Groves where Williams, Clark & Co's
Orange Tree Fertilizer has been used are
WILLIAMS, CLARK & Co.
Ladies'. Purchasing Agency.
A New York lady of experience and
taste, enjoying the best facilities for
shopping under advantageous condi-
tions, offers her services to ladies desir-
ing to secure any kind of wearing ap-
parel, toilet articles or household goods,
at New York prices. Send for circular.
Address MRS. S. 8. Jones,
* 179 Gates Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.
Seed Irish Potatoes.
The best potatoes for planting in this
State are those brought from extreme
Eastern points. Acting on this belief,
we imported last year from
large quantities of Early Rose, Chili
Red, Beauty of Hebron and other varie-
ties, and the potatoes raised from this
seed, were the finest we have ever seen
We will receive, in a few days another
cargo of the same potatoes, which we
will sell at the following prices:
Chili Red........ perbarrel $8.50.
Beauty of Hebron....... ..$8.00.
Every barrel guaranteed as represented.
Remit with order, and we will ship the
potatoes promptly. :-, -
CHUTROH ANDERSON & CO.
Jacksonville, Fla., Jan. 5th, 1887.
been benefited, and in many cases
cured by a protracted stay in this State
be known, thousands of like afflicted
ones would start immediately for this
God-given sanitarium. As a winter re-
sort, nearly all portions of the State will
answer; but for a permanent home, we
want the high, rolling lands, away from
the rivers and rich hammocks. To be
sure, such lands must be fed and wa-
tered, and some object to this, but we
think it better to feed the land than the
There are some doctors in this section
of Southern Florida, but you will find
them out in the field at work; there is
no other source from which they could
derive a livelihood here. So we feel safe
in recommending this as a good section
to live in. Altoona is a young town, and
has nine or ten stores. Most of the mer-
chants own orange groves.
Mr. Hopson has t1,e oldest, which is a
very valuable one; a few mi'es west of
Our line of railroad (the Florida South
ern) reaches to Lane Park, on Lake Har-
ris, which is a beautiful place. Eustis is
the largest city, and has some very fine
Mr. Keys' furnishing house is the lar-
gest this side of Palatka, and where a
few years ago it was necessary to be
your own cabinetmaker, and bottom
your chairs with 'gator or cow skins,
now you can find furniture fit for palace
Some of the best gardens we have ever
seen are along this line; and now that
Eustis has so good a photographer, pic-
tures of these gardens should be taken
for the benefit of the skeptics, who think
"nothing will grow in Florida." Mr.
Paxton has had great demand for his
stereoscopic views of Florida, and a pic-
ture of our vegetables in February would
astonish many a Northerner, and rouse a
longing to behold the reality.
These would do more good than any-
thing that could be written, for seeing
is far more convincing than hearing.
We have seen turnips raised here that
weighed eight pounds. Those who wish
to know what can be done in Florida
should come here and learn the method
of our truckers, for we have some ex-
perts in that line.
"Everybody" and his neighbor are set-
ting out peach trees along with the or-
ange. That there is a good prospect for
Florida in the future there is no doubt,
as so many are interested in our agricul-
tural papers. That speaks well for the
workers of the soil, who are the hope of
this.as of any other State.
S. L. REED.
"Here is a little thing I just dashed
off," said a buxom maiden as she en-
tered the sanctum. The editor was just
about to state that he didn't use poetry,
when the young lady produced a beauti-
ful golden roll of butter. It was accept-
ed with thanks..
The following table, compiled from the records
of the Jack onville Signa Station by Sergt. J.
W. Smith, represents the temperature, condition
of weather, rainfall and direction of wind for
the month of March, as observed at the Jack-
sonville station during the past 15 years:
The following quotations are carefully re-
vised for Wednesday's and Saturday's paper
from quotations furnished by dealers in the
Carrots wholesale at $2 50 per barrel, and
retail at 50 cents per peck.
Green Onions wholesale at 60 cents to 7b
eents per hundred, and retail 5 cents per
Florida Cabbage wholesale $125 per barrel
and retail at 5 to 10 cents.
Quail wholesale at 10 cents each and retail
t 15 cents, or two for a quarter. %
Oranges wholesale at 82 50 to $400 per box,
and retail at two and three for 5 cents.
Spinage wholesales at $1 00 per bushel and
retails at four quarts for 25 cents.
Sweet Potatoes wholesale at 50 cents per
bushel, and retail at 5 cents per quart.
Lettuce wholesales at 123 cents per dozen
heads, and retail at 5 cent per head.
Parsnips wholesale at $2 50 to 8275 per bar-
rel and retail at four and five for 10 cents.
Robins.wholesale at 6 cents each and retail
at 10 cents.
Celery wholesales at 50 to 60 cents per dozen
and retails at three to four stalks for 25 cents,
according to size. t
Eggs are in poor demand. Duval county
eggs -are quoted at wholesale at 18 cents
par dozen, and retallat 20 cents.
Northern cabbage scarce. Wholesale at 8
to 9 cents per head. They retail at from 15 to
Boston marrowfat squashes wholesale at
$250 per barrel, retail at 5, 10 and 15 cents
New York Irish potatoes wholesale at
$2 50 per barrel and retail at 10 cents per quart
or two quarts for 15 cents.
Northern beets are worth wholesale $225
te 82 50 per barrel, and retail at 10 cents per
quart, or two quarts tfr 15 cents.
Radishes bring at wholesale 20 to 25 cents
per dozen bunches of seven radishes each.
They retail at 5 cents per bunch, or three
bunches for 10 cents.
Live poultry-chickens, wholesale, from 20
to 33 cents each; retail 40 to 50 cents each.
Dressed poultry, per pound-chickens retail,
18 to 20 cents. Turkeys, wholesale, 81.00 to
$1.75 each, and retail at20 cents per pound.
Northern meats retail as follows: Chicago
beef from 18 to 25 cents per pound; Florida
beef 6 to 15 cents per pound; veal 20 to 25 cents;
pork 12 to 15 cents; mutton 10 to 20 cents-
venison 25 cents; sausage 15 cents; corned
beef 10 cents.
Nassau tomatoes wholesale at 60 to 75 cents
per box and retail at 15 to 20 cents per quart
OUR SPECIAL MARKETS.
Latest Quotations 'of Florida Fraits
The following special despatches, by special
arrangements with the Florida Fruit Ex
change, are sent to the TIMES-UNION "by. the
agents of the Fruit Exchange in the various
cities. They can be relied upon as accurate:
Special to the TIMES-UNION:]
BALTIMORE, March 7.-We cannot report'
any improvement In the demand or prices-of
.ACKSONVILLE, March 7,1887.
The provision market exhibits strong ad-
vances at all packing points; the shortage of
cured meats in Chicago for the winter pack-
ing foots up 35,000,000 pounds, and as the win-
packing closed on the 1st of March, this short-
age will exert a strong influence during the
coming spring and summer.
MEATs-D. S. short ribs boxed, $8 75; D. S.
long clear sides 88 7'); D. S. bellies $8 87y%;
smoked short 'ribs 9 60; smoked bellies 9 0i;
S C. hams, uncassed fancy, 13%; S. C. break
fast bacon, uncanvassed, 101,c; S. C. shoul-
ders, uncanvassed, 8 c; Calffornia or pic-
nic hams, 9yc. Lard--riflned tierces 74c;
-Mess beef-barre1050, half barrels$10 halfrr $575; mess
pork $15 75. These quotations are for round
lots from first hands; whole cattle 7@734;
dressed hogs 8%c; sheep'9c;, pork sausage 8c;
loins 9%c; longbologna 7c; head cheese 6yoc;
Frankfort sausage 10 c; rounds 8c.
BUTTER-Best table 23@28c per pound,
cooking 15@20c per pound.
BUTTERINE-Creamery 20c; Extra Dairy
16c- Dairy 15.
dHEESE-Half skim 10c, cream 13c per
Grain, Flour, Hay, Feed, Etc..
GRAIN-Corn-The market is higher, rates
having been restored from the West.
The following figures represent to-day's
values: We quote white corn, job lots,
56c@... per bushel; car load lots 56c per
bushel, mixed corn, job lots, 57c per bushel;
car load lots 55c per bushel. Oats are bet-
tor demand firmer at the following figures:
mixed, in job lots, 41c, car load lots 40c; white
oats are c higher all round, Bran steady
and lower, $19.00@20 per ton, job lots..
HAY-The market is firm and better de-
mand for good grades. Western choice
small boles, 618@...per ton; car load lots $16 75
to 817 50 per ton; Eastern hay 820 per ton.
PEARL GRITS AND MEAL--2'90 to 3 00 per
FLouR-Dull and lower, best patents $5 60;
good family $5 10; common $4 25.
MIGROUND FEED-Per ton $24.
HInEs-Dry flint, cow, per sound, first
class, 12@13cy,; and country dry salted 11@
113c; butchers dry salted 9@9%c. Skins-Deer
flint, 17c; salted 10@12c. Furs-Otter, winter,
each 25c@84; raccoon 10@20c; wild cat 10@20c;
fox 10@20c, Beeswax, per pound, 18c; .wool
free from burs 22@2c5; burry, 10@15c; goat
skins 10@25c apiece.
COFFEE-Green Rio 16@20c per pound.
Java, roasted, 60@83c; Mocas, roasted, 80@38c;
Red, roasted, 23@25c.
COTTON SEED MEAL-Scarce and higher.
Sea island ordark meal $20 per ton, bright
or short cotton meal $2150@22 60)per ton.
TOBACCO STEMs-Market quiet but firm @
$13 00 per ton.
LIxE-Eastern, job lots, 8100 per barrel, Ala-
bama lime 81 15. Cement--American $2 00,
English $4 75 per barrel.
RICE-The quotations vary, according to
quantity from 3%@6%c per pound.
SAL--Liverpool, per sack, 81 00; per car
Country Produce, Hides, Skins, Etc.
NOTE-Cabbage and Cauliflower have be-
come a drug upon the market, the latter
hardly bringing enough to pay freight
CHEEsE-Fine Creamery 16c per pound.
LIVE POULTRY-Limited supply and good
demand as follows: hens 35c; mixed 30c; half-
EGAs--Duval County 13 to 14 per dozen with
a limited demand and good supply.
IR5iH POTATOEs-Northern potatoes 82 50
per barrel; Early Rose $2 60; Chill Reds $2 75.
ONIONS-New York, $825; Yellow Denver
683 50 per barrel; White Onions, 3 75 per bar-
Florida cabbage, market glutted at $125
per barrel.; Imported from Germany 10c.
NEW YORK BEETS-Good supply at $2 50 per
NEW BEETs--Florida, per crate, $225.
CAUrFLOWEERS-Per barrel, $3 00, and 8125
-CELERY-Florida, per dozen, 609.
LBTT rE--Per dozen, 25c.
TOMATObs-Florida, per crate, 84 25.
NORTHERN TURTNIPS-Good supply at $225
GREEB PEAs-Per -box $125.
Foreign and Domestic Fruits.
PINE APLES-Per barrel 86.
LEMONs-Messinas, $4 25rper box.
APPLES-New York 4 00 to $4 50 per barrel.
FIGS-In layers 13c; In linen bags 9c.
DATEs-Persian-Boxes 9c; Fralls 7c.
GRAPRS--Malagas, 85 560 per keg.
ORANGES-Florida-Per barrel $4 00; per
box',$2 75 to $425.
BANANAS-Good supply; from 75c to $2 00
NuTs-Almonds 18c; Brazils 12c; Filberts
(Sicily) 12c; English walnuts Grenobles, 16c;
Marbots, 15c; Pecans 12c; Peanuts ic@6cW;,
RAISINs-LLondon layers, $275per box.
CRANBRRIR-E-2 7a per crate; 10 00 per
ranges from our last. Weather still very
Dix & WILKXINS.
Special to the TiMES-UNION:]
CINCINNATI, March 7.-Bright oranges
$firstname.lastname@example.org; russets email@example.com.
LOWHEAD, DALE & Co.
Special to the TIMxS-UNION:]
NEW YORK, March 7.-About 700 boxes of
oranges were auctioned to-dayamong which
there was some very beautiful fruit and the
prices it sold for, 1. e., firstname.lastname@example.org, shows that
our buyers are quite willing to pay well if they
can only get what their co summers demand.
The trouble is that nineteen twentieths of
what comes now is ordinary quality, and
principally russets, which customers do not
take to no matter how sweet and fine they
are. We auction 1,500 boxes on Wednesday.
No arrivals of foreign fruit Very few
Valencia on the way, but heavy lots from
Sicily will come in April.
SGOBBsL & DAY.
Commission Merchants' Quotations.
Special to the TIMEs-UNION:]
NEW YORK March 7 -The Savannah
steamer, being delayed by fog, did not arrive
until about noon, and brought 5,200 boxes of
oranges and vegetables. Fancy oranges
sold at from $3.50@4; russets $email@example.com. Peas
and beans $4@6 per crate; beets $2; cabbage
82@38; strawberries in large supply, selling at
G. S. PAlEE.
LEAF TOBACCO MARKET.
.NEW YORK, March 7.--The Western
leaf market is dull, owing to the light de-
mand. The New York leaf is quiet, while the
Havana leaf is in active demand. New
York, Pennsylvania and Western sell at from
$4 to 815 per 100 pounds. Havana, 60 cents to
1.05 per pound. Sumatra, $1.20 to 8L60 per-
ST. LOUIS, March 5.-The demand for
leaf is light, but improving, and the outlook
is rather encouraging.
LOUISVILLE, March 5.-There is a
good demand, especially for the better grades
of which there is a scarcity.
RICHMOND, March 5.-The market is
improving with favorable weather for ship-
ping. The -better grades of stemming leaf
sell rapidly at from to 13 cents per pound.
Bright wrappers for plugs command from 18
to 20 cents.
DANVILLE Marcl. 5.-Business is Im-
proving rapidly and prices have an upward
tendency. There is a better feeling among
planters, manufacturers and business men
BALTIMORE, March F.-The market sla
dull, very little desirable stock being on sale.
Maryland leaf is quoted at from 85 to $15 per
FREE, ONE SAMPLE GOPY.
Before you decide where to go in SOUTH
FLORIDA, send for a sample copy of
THE ORANGE GROVE.
- You will find better and cheaper bargains in
MANATIE County in groves, farms, ranches of
any size. Building lots on railroad, river or sea-
side. The proprietor of "The Orange Grove," is
an "old timer," but neither moss backed or hide
bound; he is here to stay and '"There is millions
in it." Three Millions of Acres on his Books.
Address, THE GROVE, LIVERPOOL. FLA.
(Published every day in the year,)
and enlarged toan
EIGHT PAGE PAPER,
As a newspaper the TIMES-UNION now stands
without a rival in Florida, and the peer of any
the South. Having the exclusive right to the
Associated .Prss Despatches, its own correspon-
dent in Washington, and special correspondents
throughout the State, its State and general news
is complete, comprehensive, accurate, andi trust-
in-ht. XN lii-1 -h -I
worty. .o Floridi -Uan who wishes to Keep
breast of what is going on in his own(State and
in the world at large can afford to be without it. .
Terms [in advance) $10 per year; $5 for six
months; $2.50 for three months; $1 per month.
THE DAILY TIMES-UNION (without the
Sunday issue), by mail, six months, $4; one year,
$8. The Sunday TIMEB-UNION by mail, one
year, $2. '
*Tn@ W@Okly TiB!68,*
The FLORDA WEEKLY TItKES, the weekly edi- .
tion of the TIMES-UNION) 1f admitted to be the "
best dollar newspaper in the South and oe of.
the best family Journala mn the oun ry. It Is a .Is
great 50-column paper, eight 'pageA,fllled.e'tothe .
brim with State and General News, Market and '
Weather reports, etc. I'ts AA tu rlpepar- .
ment, edited by Jpdg KNAP1 .,agent of the *Na- # .- i
tional -Bureau of Agrilulture;i.written with'
special reference to. Florddl's climate, sofi ana'.t .
productions, and. alonp'worth- teh times its *
subscrlitlon'brice Also a large oolored map
Florida -to il yearly subscriber -fre. Terms
(n advance), ;. a year; S0 centaifol st mnonths.,--
Remittances 'should be made by -frtmoneym'e V
order,:or postal note, or rested letrdlter. '.
S C.H. JONE &BO.,Publshrb .
JAOKBONVLhI.E, A .
M arho e
,ifa. e H re
ROYAC. Irst 1
This powder never varies. A marvel of
purity, strength and Wholesomeness. More
economics.1 than the ordinary kinds, and
cannot be sold in competition with the
multitude of low test, short weight alum or
-hosphate powders. 'Sold only in cans.
OYAL BAKING POWDER CO., 10 Wall St.,