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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
VOL. 1---NO. 9.
JACKSONVILLE, FLA., WEDNESDAY, MARCH 2, 1887.-
PRICE $2 A YEAR.
KAFFIR CORN. tain about maturing seed, and I do not
__ consider it first-rate feed. The yellow
Its Charat -ristics as a pForage variety I have never seen until this year.
Its nharactriscs as a rage Mr. J. H. Alexander, of Augusta, Ga.,
Plant and Cereal. sent me a small package, and it grows
It is generally admitted, we beli6V, luxuriantly and has the most beautiful
by those who have given any attention grain imaginable. It is a brilliant yellow
to forage plants, that the sorghums, and twice as large grains as the white.
especially the African or Imphee I never attempted to save seed of more
varieties, promise to be of great service than a few heads.
to those portions of the South in which The old cat-tall millet never fails. Let
there. is a deficiency of nutritious the land be well prepared and sufficient-
meadow grasses. When well grown ly pulverize', and it is doubtful in my
they produce an immense quantity of mind whether there is anything which
"-roughness" or coarsefodder. which can will yield more green feed and bear
be cut five or six times during the grow- cutting oftener than this.
ing season, either to feed in a green or For several years I have seen the Kaffir
.dried condition or in the condition of corn advertised, and this season I got
ensilage enough to plant one-fourth of an acre.
Of the numerous varieties of sorghum The yield of seed is immense; the stalk
the Kaffir corn seems to be most in favor, not near so high as millo maize, but
but we think it has not been cultivated every stalk hprs a good head. I suppose
*sufficiently in Florida to warrant any I made a mIhke in cutting off the heads
definite conclusion as to its merits, and then cutting the stalks all off at the
especially as compared with other varie- ground. Somebody says I ought to have
ties. The results, so far as we have left the stalk to produce other heads. It
heard, are quite satisfactory, and we occurs to me that for feed the plant is
hope that hundreds .of our progressive rather tough when matured. For green
--armers wi -test this and other varieties feed to cut repeatedly, it may do well.
during-the coming season. The amount of grain will justify the
The accompanying illustration is one growing of it for stock feed and for
which has appeared in various seed cata- bread. I had a little ground last week
logues. For the electrotype we are in- on a common corn-mill and wer have
debatedd to Mr. J. H. Alexander, of Au- been trying some hot battercakes.
gusta, Ga., whom we have recommended Some one said at the table this morning
-before as an extensive and reliable dealer that they were equal to "buck-wheat-
in Southern seeds. Later we shall cakes." -The color is dark, though I
present illustrations of the Early Amber suppose if ground on a good flour-mill it
ane and other forage plants, and we would be somewhat different. I like
hope that all who have thoroughly the Kaffir, first for the amount of grain
tested any such crops will favor us with it produces; second, its growth is such
the result of their experience for the that it is difficult for the wind to blow it
guidance of other experimenters, down.1
Dr. J. H. Watkins, of Campbell Co., The Spanish peanut, though small, is
k Georgia." ha. givqp special attention to still, I think, the best we can plant, be-
.t. e Kaffir corn. and the res'is.of' bi cauqe you can take hold of the bush with
experiments have be viadsfiilished.'i r.'x jafdn, and on sandy land pdft up
STo a reporter to the Atlanta Constitutio, nearly ever nut without using plow or
he gave the following account of its hoe. .'
distinctive features: '
In the first place It will- grow on thin
land that would- notr-support any other
"useful plant. Dr. Jackson. of Carroll
county, insists that it will grow any-
where that sedge, or old-field pine will
lake hold. I know of my own experience
that it is well adapted to thin land. In
the next place it ripens early, and can be
gathered and put away before there is
any danger of drouth. It is a low plant,
and can be easily handled. It will give
more forage than any other plant grown -
on grounds bf equal richness. Besides ,
the forage, it produces unquestionably f
the best grain of any of the sorghum
plants, surpassing the millo maize, the -
seed being almost twice as large, and as
many to the head. The,seed make ex-
cellent feed for stock, fattens poultry
quickly, and will be eaten by anything
on the farm. If planted' early enough, -
-Kaffir corn will produce one full- crop of
forage, which may be cut-when the plant
is in bloom, and-itwill then produce by
fall another full cr6p of forage and ripe
I have little faith that the grain of any
of this class of plants will be used for
bread so long as Indian corn, and wheat
can be grown, although the chemist to
the department at WashingtWo in his i
report for 1881-82 gives the food value of.
Indian command the sorghum family as -
practically the same. -The flavor, for .. -"- -
man, is lacking. It is cheap stock food _-
we expect, from the class of plants, and, -=---_ __ -_-
in a "tight," cheap and nutritious human KAFFIR CORN
food. I feel confident, however, if any
are to be used-generally, or occasionally, -
for bread purposes, it will be Kaffir corn. The extent of my cornfield is three
The grain is large and white, and the acres or a little over, and this year I
yield is early and great. It is easy to planted it all in the Mosby corn. There
thresh and clean for the mill. It takes a are three things about this corn different
whole season to mature, a crop of millo from the common native varieties. First,
maize, or of -Egyptian wheat, while a the cob is. remarkably small; second, the
crop of grain and forage, and still an- stalk is small (which I think somewhat
other of forage in late fall, can be saved objectionable); third, it will bear plant-
of Kaffir, in the cotton belt. ing thicker than other corn. As I am
"As it does not sucker it must be gathering mine I find from one to five
massed inthiee feet rows, if forage alone ears on a stalk; very few with five and a
is-the object, but if for grain also, one to great many with one, and my decision
three or more stalks, every ten or twelve is that the vield will be something
inches, according to soil, will insure fine heavier than if I had planted the old
heads. sort. This'corn makes beautiful meal
"Being early, is is the plant for the and possibly is soft and will be troubled
north and northwest, for grain and for- with weavils.
age, and for the same reason, and because One old stand-by that I must mention
it is adapted to the generally thin lands is "chicken corn." This I think gets in-
of the cotton belt, it will supersede millo to the seed stores under the name of
maize south. "Egyptian wheat." The only. objection
"Kaffir, sown broadcast in April or to it is its rank growth, which causes it
./May, no doubt would make an immense to get tangled by the winds.
amount of forage, and could be cut with
an ordinary scythe, several times for us -
forageralone, or once for both grain and The Umbrella China Tree.
forage, and afterwards once again for The seeds of the Umbrella China tree
forage. When crowded, the stalk which we were enabled to offer through
is Slender and small, but the head of Mr. Danaby's lihberality, were diatibnted
grain, however i s t by mail on the 25th ult. as Well as an-
Ep. ..t with Forage other lot of the cherry laurel. Any ap-
E.xperiments W orage, plicant who does not receive his seeds by
A correspondent of- Home and Farm, the time this number of the FARMER AND
:writing from Mansfield, La., gives in FRUIT-GROWER arrives, will please no-
his experience with Kaffir cbrn, etc., as tify us at once and we will forward
follows: I either kind desired, provided any' re-
For several years, on my truck patch, main in our hands. Probably the small
I haveexperimented with different varie- quantity left will be called for. within a
lies of seeds. week.
Millo maize grows well, but is uncer- Mr. Dansby has kindly furnished the
following directions for seed planting, that the root louse does not thrive in native grasses, but readily find homes New Methods with Red Scale.
etc. : sandy soil; experience has proven that in the roots of many o our cultivated
The seeds may be planted any time in sufficiently. Therefore Florida could fruit trees, causing an extravagant In a report of the proceedings of a re-
the spring and will germinate as soon as not be a very congenial home for the spongy growth with low vitality, which cent convention of California fruit grow-
the hard enclosing shell softens in the Phylloxera. soon decays and the tree or plant dies. ers we find mention of some novel de-
ground. They should be planted about H. voN LUTTICHAU. One infected tree soon fills the soil vices.for ridding trees of one of the in-
two inches deep, and will grow to a ROSETTA, Alachua Co., Fla., with these worms, and trees planted in- sect pests which it has been found very
height of about a foot the first season, Feb. 10, 1887. the neighborhood of this tree in time also difficult to reach:
after which the growth is rapid. All become diseased. The use of cotton-seed, One of the most interesting discussions
side shoots shou d be kept rubbed off to Budding Peach on Plum. or cotton-seed meal, stable manure or of the day took place on assembling
a height of six feet, when the plant humus favor the development of the after lunch, which was opened by the
should be allowed to form its head after Editor Florida Farmer and Fruit-Grower: anguillula, while sulphate of potash, reading of an essay on the red scale,
its own way, which will be very much In your issue of February 2d, I notice kainit or wood-ashes seem to retard its written by Professor D. W. Coquillette,
like a large umbrella, whence the name. that Mr. Powers objects to using plum spread. the entomologist of the Society. At the
It makes a dense shade at the season of stocks for the Kelsey, for the reason that I believe a dilute solution of sulphide special request of 'Prof. Coquillette it is
the year when it is most grateful and the sprouts springing from the plum of potash will kill the worms, if the withheld from publication at. present,'
satisfying. It will afford a perfect and roots would be troublesome in the or- disease be taken in time, but when the but we hope to secure it for a future
agreeable shelter from an ordinary sum- chard, roots are decaying I have founa nothing issue. A scale discussion followed the
mer shower. The tree attains an eleva- As I have been, and am. still making to have the slightest effect. I would dig reading and was pretty generally in-
tion of about fifteen feet, and the diame- experiments in this way, I will give the, up the tree and burn it, burn all the dulged in by all those in attendance.
ter of the shade is from twenty to thirty result of my labors up to the present, roots possible of the tree, and either W. B. Barber, of Azusa-:-The fruit-
feet; consequently it should not be with the hope that it may have the ef- drench the spot with a strong solution growers of our valley nave:been doing a
planted closer than twenty fest. feet of bringing out the experience of of sulphate or sulphide of potash, or dig little pioneer)work in hunting for some-
The Umbrella China is universally con- others in the same line and thus be mu- in a large quantity of kainit over the in- thing to kill all kinds of scale, and wb
ceded by all who have seen perfect tually beneficial to all interested in fected area andthen refrain from plant- believe wehave&1tfudwhat is wanted.
specimens, to be, without exception, growing olums and peaches. ing there any, of the trees I have men- Inhcgmning our experiment h wd bAt'k0
amongst the most beautiful and.symmet- The great drawback to the successful tioned f or several years. ,. loose from the old methods of killing the
rical of shade trees, growing of Peaches in this country is the scale with a caustic and looked for some-
J. V. DANSBY. Peach- borer which attacks seedlings and thing to tear them from the leaves and
PENSACOLA, Fla., Feb. 15, 1887. all alike. Many remedies are published fruit. -A series of experiments with
in the agricultural press for his suppress- rosin dissolved in -an. alkali, failed, be-
Vinifera Grapes in Florida. ion, but he manages to "get there" all cause it was too sticky. Finally Mr. J.
the same, and it requires much disagree- P. Eckler arid myself began the use of a
BY BARON H. VON LUTTICHAU. able work on the hands and knees to substance so simple that you will laugh
It is generally understood that vitis get himin away from there even for the 'when I name it.. We use only flour and
viniera.- the grape vine of Europe, tim; by the next season he is again on water. By making a stiff dough out of
will not do as well on its own roots as if hand, and the same work is to be done onepoundofflour, and using cold water,
grafted on stron g American to dislodgehim. He is also sometimes carefully breaking all lumps, and thin-
afted on strong growing mer found in theplum, but so far as I now, g thi with ore cold water you get
vines. This applies as well to all Ame- not to any injurious extent a paste that will pod from a vessel
ican kinds of weaker growth, the Dela- If the peach will do well on the plum
ware for instance. But it does not fol-each will do well on the plum easily. Pour this into four or fie gallons
low that Vinifera-as well asDelawa- why not ud on it instead of the seed- of boiling water, and-boil until a very
will not row ie and fruit on lingpeah? Such varieties as the Chick- a hin paste is formed. Spray this on the
will notg row, live and fruit on their asaw, and hog plm make fully as large tree through apunp; just asjoudp'any
ownroots, poviedtheplt agwth asthepeach, while the sloe is, AngululonGrapeRo isecicide. I wi enveop ba
young haue been properlyy at dedlo,It
Ihat tbe s and locality ar ftavoble an ing, still movigorous and alsouSi.a
nd that tb- varieties chosen are suita- g4-oew'ta f fruitwiturs
ble lto m i. Threb e o ears finds the roots of the peach knotty, he this coating will begin to crackand peel
The Ives does very well, the Concord ChinecTinetpeach on a has a solution, I think, of the disease off. tearing the scale with it, and will
will not succeed for any length of time, ago I budded nebed o that troubles his loquat trees. leave the fruit, twigs nd leaves .per
though both belong to the same class of .*o rd plum sprut which ha ome It makes no difference as to Georgia or fectly clean. Twoorthreeappications
Anmerican grapes, the Lebrusca. Noth- p obeinr n ea e fen Florida grown trees; either will do well will clean a very- dirty tree. Itis most
ing b r must beexpectedfrom the The firstear heeach made growth in soil far from the anguillula, either efficaciouson a treethathanot been re-
differe %-kinds of Vinifera; where one o s feeta the wo will become knotty-rooted in infected centlysprayed within oilysubstance, as
a total six fee',the'seon ithioretwosolthe flour paste can not stick to it.
will. succeed, another may prove a~totapeaches, and now in its third year it is soil.
failure. .We cannot grow every one of f of it buds The plu has kept Dr..all, of Santa Anna:-I made a
our grapes in Europe, everywhere, in Upwith the each and now it is hard to recent visit to Los Angeles for the pu-
any locality and on any soil success- te whereone begins and.the other ends. pose of investigating the method of
fully, and it would be absurd to expect Not gle sprout hasb killing scale referred to in Prof. Coquil-
such a thing for Florida. n id the best of all seenosign lette'sessay. I found that it has been
Many kinds of Vinifera are ordered ground, an e used in the old Wolfkill orchard on
every year frbm California for this State, repress ing I procured about apeck of Alameda street. The process is to enve-
which are utterly worthless, not only in sloe seeds, which were drilled in the lop the tree with a tight tent, and then
regard to their probable success, but furrow d cultivated as corn Bysum- pump into this a gas in sufficient quan-
also.as to their, quality, .some -having mer the yun seedlings being suffii- ty to suffocate the scale bug. They had
nothing more .attractive "than a fine- e ,tLeyibud umb r... wy fumigated about fifty trees, and had
sounding foreign tnamte. A gentleman enl large, I budded I hve wi ust th carefully noted the results in each case.
sent me a list.of about 20 varieties of Vi- Genera peacrd When takwhich'I have just The gas had been applied in periods of
nifera-he had ordered several thousand set out' inthera h en e eup from five to fifty minutes on trees which
vines from California-the entire list for transpl aimg the res were iney had red, black and white scale on them.
contained but one that I should have develop, c win near b a I examined a large number of trees to
cared to plant, hadthe borer, and someghad club root which the gas had been applied thirtyor
so In a late number of the lorida s- sixty days ago, and even on those fumi.
patch somebody stated the fact that a I shall g-aft a number of the sloe seed- gated only five minutes I could find no
Black Hamburg, grown from a cutting, ling th the Kelsey, and Marianna living young scale of any kind. The
bore 80 pounds of fruit and the next plum.ngs Ifouthink it of sufficient iM- leaves were uninjured so far as I could
year it died, Conclsion, Hamburgs are plum. If eo r thk t result of these nt im- ascertain. Mr. Alex. Craw, who bas
a failure. -But it need not have been a exportace 1ireprt the reA FA AND charge of the work here, says that the
Hamburg for that, and the parties should epimTs o F Angunula on Peach Root cost for each application will'be about
have been surprised if the vine had J. V. DANsBY the same as spraying the tree with a
li ved. NEW FAM, near Pensacla. The cow-pea and bean have the least whale-oil soap wash.
All grape vineb, an Vinifera especi- degreeof resistance to the ravages of ,: -. ,
ally, are greatly injured if allowed to, [The FAMR -tAND FReIT-GROWEReisadegreeoresista ctthe graves mul- A 'PAR A '
bearmuh fruit beor they arestrng designed ecially to furnish a medium this worm. Thefigch, gra m A POSPEROUS YEAR A D.
enough to do so. And here willbeOngofcommunicationetween the progres-.berry, loquat, quince, plum, resist as
enoughtodo s An here will beP ouncadorkersof Florida a indicated in the order named. ,All indications point to a ye4r of
one reason for so many failures. Planu-sie thinkersandrn With the exception of the wheat abundant crops for Florida. A i-
ters are too eager to get fruit, when adjacent States, both for their mutual Withng thllula, but e exept ion has beeat canopy e takes a view of the
more patience would assure an unusual advantage, and that ofthe public at paid to these wOeand itwould be situation retospective and prospetit,
Produce of fruit for any length of time. largecib Intinsvpes Fansbe worthy of a carefulL-investigation to our and in the folowing language express
Allow the Vinifera to overbear, especi- escrbed On s page vy r a y, fruit growers, fortbeestis wide spread, what we believe to be the prevailing
ally when young, and it will be injured r.el or and will do us Mchdamage, unless sentiment: e di: ,
for life, if it does not die outright. ticulture y in time be reduced to a some remedy is redly foange The past year has certainly bee one
But lant some strong growing kinds science ecomeamuch s AOB, la., Febr. 17th, 1887. of gloom and despondency. With the
of Vinifera, some which are compara- of income than at present. Some time great freeze came the spondency. ss ithof a the
tively free from rot and mildew and ago we advanced the idea that plum *g* r ono the o of the
timely fee from rot iB portion of the orange,-crop of the pre-
which ripen early; give good cultivation, stocks derived from sprouts should never China Berries as Feed. edin ear and lef its e ta swn
but do not force by heavy fertilizing nor eeyare.A correspondent of Home d Farm by a tird of a crop for the past year.
encourage late growth; do not allow spreaoer ound aneewhom we quoted recently in our veteri- Then came the continued .oldmaking
more than a few good bunches the third and that a similar caution should be oh-wrr
es, oe s served in e letting live oaks, cherry nary column, complained of losing hogs the early vegetable crop an.dU|urenid.
season, if a one-year-old vine has been laurel, etc for planting. With us it isb y eating Chinaberies. The fact was, had it not been for the staple, gopa
wanted, renew the canes oftener, andt laurel, etcn faor pan tne pue we e probably, that the hogs gorged them- there would certainly have beenb lej
when pruning retain but one-half, 'or atty prod ed enc selves and died of a sureit. suffering. But out of the gloom, now
the most one-third of the wood you %oo rW raetl Oe \\, e have often madi inquiries of per- comes the brightness, as the sinlvar lngo
would allow to a strong growing Amen- rootof vetables bear to the c plub-root e sons hav n hina tree s to the effects of thte bloud. The early vr co
can vine.- Keep up a correct course of Of trees? They are analogous to the sons having China trees as to the effects of thecloud. The early vegetable crop
canine. Keepupacorrect course of the berries on live stock, of the beies on live stock, and the is very promising, and now comes the
summer pruning and sowe of the best g Ofstem, leaves, etc. A la is general report has. coincided with the beautiful orange bloom. Every bearing
kinds of Vinifera vines will live and do the Latinfor a little eel. A. H. .j following communication to the southern tree is now putting out its new spring
well. At least mine do. -e Live Stock Journal: growth and with it can be seen the
Grafted on strong growing American The Root-Knot Disease. I keep ten mules and five horses and a millions of blooms, which in another
vines, more.luxuriant growth is assured BY T. 0. NEAL, M. V. ." large lot of oxen and cows; in the spring week will be fully open and shed their
and consequently more fruit. The oper- My first acquaintance with the minute when the berries fall I let allof my stock delightful fragrance on every hand.
action is simple enough, but nevertheless worm anguillula and its effects was years out to them twice a week and let them With'a good orange and vegetable crop
not of everybody's undertaking. If a ago, when after repeatedtrials I found it eat as many as they want, and have this year the prospect is assuring,and now
vine grows strong and healthy and does quite impossible to grow the fig, plum, never seen any bad effects from so that all probable danger from cold is
well in a certain locality, cuttings of the peach, loquat, grape or cow-pea upon a doing, but have found that it acts as a over, more confidence will be felt in the
same will be as good a stock as wanted, certain spot. The place was an old barn tonic on them. It makes them shed. business prospects for the coming year.
Our wild kinds do very well-Vulpina yard and had been heavily sheep-penned, My stock are never wormy-I have never '
(Bullace and Scuppernong) excepted, so it was not due to poverty of soil. seen one of them back up to a post E W rne. y ...s ,
but it would be difficult to find enough In each case I found the knotty-roots, rubbing their tails. If I did not have .. ,.a through the New
suitable vines in-the woods to plant a and microscopic examination showed the China trees,, and know what I do York T.Wbune: "From thirty .years' ex-
vineyard of any size. I am using Ripa- the minute worms, even in the smallest about them, I would not let a day pass perience in orchard-growing, I have
ria in preference of all others, and pre- knots on roots barely a day old. The before I would set them out. found that a tree with many side
fer two-year-old vines, which can be knots are analogous to the rose and oak branches, inclining somewhat to droop,
bought at any large establishment at a galls without doubt, and threaten to be and slender, feathery offshoots, with a
small cost. a troublesome hindrance to the growth Every farmer who knows how to write moderate strength of body and but slight
- I should not think the Phylloxera of of the fig, rose and pea families unless should consider it a duty to communi- inclination to upright growth, is the tree
much consequence for Florida. The in- some remedy can be obtained, cate the lessons of his experience to that can be relied upon for profit; it has
sect is probably all over this State lon My belief is that these worms are others who need instructions in the way the stamp of fruitfulness, and will not
ago. Authorities on ths subject t *tic upon the roots of some of our to secure better return for labor.-Ex. disappoint."
66 FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, MARCH 2, 1887.
a great many berries through in fair longevity of the tree is increased several h
t h dand6atdeq condition, let us examine into the nat- years. .
ural and unnatural conditions our ber- CULTIVATION. 1
ries will be thrown into while in the The peach orchard should be culti-
Inquiries concerning diseases of domestic hands of those gentlemen who guard so vated every season. Irish potatoes and
Jacksonville, Florida,ho wiDr.answerD. O. Lyothem faithfully the "goose that lay's the gold- corn, followed by cow peas, may be
through this column, en egg" and in whose hands the hardy grown for two or three seasons until the,
Irish potatoes, in a ventilated crate, of- trees shade too much; after which time
TROPICAL FRUITS IN FLORIDA. ten arrive at destination in a rotten and the orchard should be plowed at least
TKrlAL. K A in l worthless condition, three times annually, and sown each
---- Ventilated crates are of but little use summer to cow peas. Almost any soil fil
Incentives to Further Efforts. in a sweat box of a car, with delays un- of medium fertility contains the re- n
How to Insure Success. avoidable, and otherwise, that are con- quired elements for'a vigorous growth a
stantly occurring. A warm, moist at- of the peach, and little manure is neces-, a
BY P. W. REASONER. mosphere will ruin a berry in a few sary until the tree is well established. v
(Read before the Florida Nurserynnen's Associa. hours, often before it can be got out of From chemical analysis of the peach, M
'ion, at Orlando, 1a.,Feb.18, 887.) the State. A hot, dry atmosphere is apple and pear, but three ingredients go ft
tgin, at rsanouflaed.poi.) much better, but fruit will rapidly de- to make up almost their entire composi- t.
Against the successful and profitable preciate in value by its influence. A tion, viz : potash, lime and phosphate of rE
production of tropical fruits in Florida, dry, cold atmosphere of 36 to 88 degrees, lime. Hence wood ashes, caustic lime, v
more especially in Middle and North will hold fruit for days in the same bone meal, or any substance rich in these
Florida, the great hindrance of course is condition they were in when introduced elements compose the requisite food for n
the frequent occurrence of frosts, and of if decomposition has not already begun. the peach. The cow pea acts on the pot- t
late, even South Florida is timidly hold- The refrigerators used by Mr. C. S. ash salts always present in clay soils, it
ing.back; for has not her pet "frost line Durling, of New York, under the man- hence its indirect manurial value, v
gone frisking away to Cuba, and over- agement of Mr. E. A. Dicker, last sea- INSECT ENEMIES.m
stepped all the bounds of reason and son, vouch for the correctness of the t
proipety above. In two or three cases the berries Butitwonsects injure the peach d
however, from Cape Canaveral and were detained in Savannah three days, ously in our section, viz thepeach
Tampa southward, in protected locations having missed the steamer intended to worm, or borer, a four-winged, wasp- u
along the coast, in the lake region of Polk connect with, and on arrival in New shaped insect of steel blue color, and the t
and Orange counties, even where the York in perfect order appearing, in the curculio. The borer deposit a its eggs s
great freeze of 1886 killed all tender veg- language of a buyer in New York, from early summer till fall, at the base
station to the ground, looking at past "frsher and more tempting than the or collar of the tree. As soon as hatched h
experience, are we to expect such a berries that come to the market from the larva enters the bark at the root, and
freeze again in the near future? And only fif ten miles out in the country." unless caught, often rings the sap wood, d
does it not often pay best to run heavy Mr. Bean, in his instructions to ship- causing death to the tree. Examine sev-
risks? pers, says,. "pick your berries a little eral times during the season, ani espe- m
Our esteemed friend Mr. E. H. Hart, green and they will ripen in transit" cially in the fall,for the larva whichmay t
of Federal Point, has said that when he which no doubt is important, but will be easily captured with a pocket knife i
first came to Florida, directly after the soonbring the Florida err in badd re- and a small bent wire. An ounce of
war, there were guava trees in Palatka pute as such berries will hbesour and in- bard soap rubbed around the base of ti
"with trunks as large as stove-pipes." sipi. each tree, will do much to heal the
We all know that the Avocado pear has C. P. P wounds and prevent the return of this p
attained a height of forty feet in Tampa, insect. A simple remedy is to bank dirt g
with trunk two feet in diameter; the uPEAC PTURE. aboutone foot high about the tree and al- K
guava a height of thirty feet in Manatee, PEACH CULTURE. low it to remain during the summer. w
the mango a height of twenty-five feet --This will prevent the fly from deposit- r
at Pinellas, with a spread of thirty feet General Directions for Planting ing her egg3 at the roots. Lime or wood
and a burden of 12,000 mangoes; that and Managing an Orchard. ashes are better than dirt for this pur- t
the tamarind has attained a stem cir- The Southern Live Stock Journal con- pose. Removing the soil and wrapping
eloue of fouran ie in Muanate a"J e odr ie lioab torat con-
that mangoes, Avocado p ears, g uavas, structions on peach culture which with another remedy.b
melon papaws, granaadias, sugar ap- slight modifications as to seasons of The curculio-a small, dark brown
es t arinds, sour-sops, sapodillas, r; marieqasly api abo to eaonida beetle, with white, yellow and black it
haver thesie e ese Frid places.spots-feigns death when the tree is sud- t
f-or years-even as far up as _ai0; SOIL AND LOCATION. denly bored and will drop to the ground.
that the cocoa-palm, one of the mes -Among the important factors which The weevil begins to puncture the young c
tender of all palms, had survived for six enter into account ito account in securing the best fruit as soon as it sets and to deposit
winters at Lake Harris; that the coffee result following : Aspect and its are the following: Aspect and its eggs, which soon hatch into a grub. c
shrub and Otaheite gooseberry had kind of soil; drainage, natural or arti- The grub grows with the peach until
fruited for five or more years at Manatee, ficial; varietiessuited for the purpose for large enough to destroy its vitality. The c
a where also the allspice tree, the cashew which they are grown; preparation of best known remedy so far for the curcu-
nut and the great hog-plum of the West soil; method of planting, cultivating and lio, is to jar the tree and catch the insects c
Indies had produced blossoms, and the pruning; fertilizers used; insects and on a sheet spread beneath. Fowls an1 e
cherimoya attained a good size; that remedies, hogs are the best insect traps known for ,
at Orlando the cherimoya was in bloom A few warm days in early spring will he orchard. i
at the time of the freeze, and the East sometimes tempt trees on a warm south-
Indian glycosmis had fruited for Mr. Bid- ern exposure to bloom too early. All Effects of Soil on Figs. i
well for several years. things being equal, if preference can be Ed itor rida Fanrmer and Fruit-Grower: i
May we not anticipate another such had, let the orchard be on a high, dry, Now that the season is at hand for set- f
cycle of warm winters? If not, if we northern slope. A strong sandy loam fin tree, it may interest uch of
still do not care to run anyrisks, can we with clay subsoil, is best suiteito the yor readers as contemplate the cultiva-
not produce the more tender and perish- peach. A deep gravelly subsoil is pre- tion of this delicious fruit to know that t
able-tropical fruits in paying quantities ferable to stiff heavy clay, unless it is the soil in which the trees grow*.has
bypeans of slight artificial protection? thoroughly undeK. drained and deeply much to do with the uses t which the
As-every school-boy draws his examples subsoiled- Where the subsoil is loose f i adapted A t
of heroism and science and literature and friable, surface drains will usually fruit i s a!go I noticed in a article
fbmthland of Juius Cesar, of alileo, Some years ago I noticed in an arcle
from theland of Julius Csssar, of Galileo, answer, on the subject in a California paper, that r
of Bonaparte, why not look there too r or PLANTING AN ORCHARD. "figs should never be planted in a wet (
shining examples of Pomona's triumph? If growing for home use, select vari- or moist soil, as that would make the 1
Near Paris, we are told, there are eties ripening at different times during skins thick and tough." I was. much t
hundreds of acres of orange trees pro- the entire season.. Flavor, canning and disturbed by the statement, for my very
tected. through the winter by slight drying qualities, should also be consid- choicest varieties were growing in just
movable sheds, which are entirely re- ered. If for market, size, beauty and that kind of soil, and the skins are
moved in the spring. Do not the Lon- good shipping qualities are to be regard- "thick and tough," and the trees too
don gardeners produce the finest pine- ed. Study the wants of the market, large to transplant. After much consid-
apples in the world under glass, and When practicable, the.land should be ration I arrived at this conclusion, that F
with a thousand difficulties in heating thoroughly plowed, subsoiled and bar- figs grown in moist soil will bear trans-
and forcing, and dispose of them at rowed to a depth of ten or twelve inches portation to northern and western mar-
highly remunerative prices? before planting. This can be done best kets as well as other'fruits, provided the
Near Genoa, Italy, hundreds of lemon after the first good fall rains. Where late bearing varieties are selected.
groves are planted on terraces, protected plowing can't be done in time, holes dug I am not versed in the nomenclature
with a system of movable sheds, their three feet across and eighteen inches of figs, but the large purple, and the
cultivation and care being carried to the deep will answer. Plowing may then be green Ischia, are the best I know any- t
greatest perfection, with a result of most done at leisure. November, February thing about, for shipping fresh, and these
profitable returns. In the markets of and March are the months for planting, are grown in a low, moist spot in my 1
IMarseilles the fruit of the Chinese Lee- Peach trees one year old from the bud garden. I gathered some before being
chee, the peruvian cherimoya, the West are best. If set in November, new roots fully ripe, wrapped them in paper and
India sour-sops, and other tropical' ,nd will form rapidly and much time will put them away from the light. After
perishable fruits may be purchased fresh often be gained on spring plantings. On ten days I took them out, and about ev-
from the trees, which are grown in the good soil, twenty by twenty feet is the ery one of the dozen so treated was
open ground with a light protection proper distance to each tree Upon re- sound and sweet. Celestials treated in
through the winter. Are these not all ceiving trees from the nursery, if the the same way-but grown on a dry spot'
examples of tropical fruit grown profita- roots are dry, immerse them in water -spoiled in two days.
bly far above their native latitudes ? for several hours to revive the small The'early ripening varieties come in
In our own country, .too, have not roots. If not ready to plant, trench out about the time of our rainy season, and
General Sanford and others made a suc- in moist light soil and the trees will it is almost impossible to make them into
cess of the cultivation of choice pine- keep perfectly during the whole winter, preserves that will not ferment. Evap-
apples by the use of light palmetto sheds? When ready to plant trim up all bruised orating and crystalizing may save the
And does not California deem it expedi- roots nicely, and when the tree is in po- early crop, but the best results will be
ent and profitable to wrap her young sition spread them out in their natural obtained from the late bearing trees. I
orange trees with straw in the fall? And position, fill in with pulverized surface have gathered fruit from my green Is-
in the North are there not hundreds of soil and press firmly around them. Plant chias on the 26th of November, and a'so
tender shrubs that are grown far out of 'same depth as tree stood in the nursery. from the brown Smyrna, until frost.
latitude by the use of the same simple PRUNIN. Plant trees in soil to suit the purpose
means. I for which the fruit is intended
S' The magnolia grandiflora thus flour- Before vegetation begins in spring cut for which. F. B. CHAPMANthe fruit is intended,
ishes near Philadelphia; the sweet the trees back to a'single stem or walk- MARIANNA, Fla
scented calycanthus, usually tender ing stick about two feet high. When the '
north of the Ohio river, is thus wintered dormant buds near the top have pushed
even to the northward of Chicago. And into vigorous growth, remove all but Grafting Wax.
so it is all over the globe. Fruits and one, which will form; the future head of For winter use-French: Melt together
vegetables are grown out of latitude and the tree. The orchari should come into two pounds of clear rosin and two ounces
out of season, always -at more or less bearing the-third. o fourth season from of beef or mutton tallow, and when cold
* extra expense and cake,' and prove re- planting. Remember that fruit,is formed add one fluid ounce of spirits of turp-
muierative. Our proximity to the only on the one-year-old wood. Trees, entine and about thirteen to fifteen fluid
great markets of the East, our advan-- left unpruned lose their cone-like form ounces of ninety-five per. cent.' alcohol,
takes of' transportation, by' means of after 'a few years, when the bearing' added slowly over a moderate heat, the
S-which-fruits as delicate as the straw- wood and allnew growth will be found contents being well stirred until about"
Sbery' can be shipped safely over a only at the extremity of a few principal, the consistency of honey, or just so as
-tliousand miles, -our visual mildness of branches. The sap fronrthe roots being to be applied with a stiff feather.. Keep'
"climate and our superior skill in horti- compelled to flow through long, lean -in a widemouthed bottle, and cork when
-culture, should give us great advantage branches to get to the growing parts, is not in use. It is a complete dressing for'
over our near competitors, the Mexicans so0much retarded and obstructed as to all wounds on trees.
and Cubans, render growth less vigorous each sue- For early spring-Major Freas: Four
-*. *' ceeding season.: The fruit, too, becomes pounds of rosin, one .pound of tallow,
'. Ven t if'nil-ated Crates, more inferior, and being at the ends of and one of bees-wax; melt all together
:n ,.,e rates. n long branches causes them to break Uin- over-a slow fire, and when done turn out
di4.so-Porida .armer and Fruit-Grower: der its-weight. A visit to an unpruned into':a ~ib bf cold water, and pull as
-A letter from a commission house says orchard and then to one properly pruned shoemake'r's'wax is made. This may be
the express ventilated, crate system of will be sufficientto prove the advantages softened with hot water if the weather
carrying strawberries from Florida, is of the latter over the former., be too cool, and applied with a paddle.
"cheaper, handier, quicker .and better Proper pruning for the peach consists For summer, and to use upon trees-
than any other method." -Laying aside of cutting off from one-third to one-half Farm Journal: Four pounds of rosin, one
the producer's interest and no doubt the of the last year's growth of wood pound of beeswax, and from half to a
commission man has the argument. It throughout the exterior and the interior pint of raw linseed; melt all together
certainly requires no capital on the part of the entire head of the tree. Time,- gradually, and turn into water and pull
of the commission merchant, and any February and March of each season, as for making shoemaker's wax. This
curb-stone operator can solicit business, Branches forming on the wrong place is a grafting-wax that needs no seeing
sell and make returns, even though they may be removed at any time. If pruned to afterward if well put on, by cooking
arein "bad order." The Florida producer at the proper time, no branch longer the-greasy hands and applying secundum
can receive such returns, more philoso- than the thumb need be cut, and the arium.
phically, probably, than any other mortal wounds heal rapidly and perfectly. The In cherry grafting always, and in
on the face of the earth, young shoots start out from every part other kinds sometimes, strips of old
Unless we are compelled, as the only of the tree; the fruit is nicelydistributed muslin or calico from a quarter to half
Means at our command, to use the yen- from centre to circumference; the head an inch wide should be wound over the
tilated crates, which will no doubt take is kept low and well balanced; and the wax and the ends imbedded into it to
old the grafts steady, and to prevent
he slit from gaping.-Germantown
HINTS ON HERBORIZING.
low to Collect,Prepare and Pre-
serve Botanical Specimens. *
The swelling buds and expanding
owers of early spring awaken in the
minds of many a desire to.- possess that
accurate knowledge of the relationships
nd systematic characters of plants
which constitutes the science of botany.
Many Persons never attempt this delight-
ul study because they do not know how
o commence, and it is with a desire to
move this obstacle in a measure that
we now offer a few words of instruction.
Anyone having a capacity for study
may learn the name and natural rela.-
ionsiip of any flowering plant by an
itelligent use of some good descriptive
york, such as we have already recom-
mended. An elementary work on struc-
ural botany needs to be studied in or-
er to understand technical descriptions.
'his and the learning of the names are
unattractive but necessary features of
he study. One can no more acquire a
atisfactory knowledge of a hundred
plants without their names, than he can
have a satisfactory acquaintance with. a
hundred persons without being able to
distinguish them by name.
Any locality embracing a few square
niles will be found to contain from 500
o 800 kinds of flowering plants, includ-
ng the grasses and sedges. They may
ie identified by such books as we men-
ioned in a recent number. When there
s doubt as to the identity of any plants,
pressed specimens should be sent to some
obod botanist, such as Dr. A. Gray or
Mr. S. Watson, of Cambridge, Mass.,
who will determine them if the speci-
nens are properly prepared. They may
be sent by mail, arranged carefully be-
ween sheets of paper, these being placed
between pasteboard covers. Each speci-
men should have a number attached, or,
by paying twice as much postage, there
nay be written labels. A correspond-
ugly numbered set must be retained,
and when the names are returned they
vill be found opposite the same num-
Having identified the plants within
one's reach, and having learned how to
prepare herbarium specimens, one may
obtain the plants of almost any part of
he world by the system of botanical ex-
change, which is extensively carried on,
especially in the Northern States and Eu-
rope. To those especially who are con-
ined to the house by ill health' or by the
winter of the North, this affords a de-
ightful source of diversion as well as
instruction. Aids to this sy stem are
found in exchange catalogues, natural-
sts' directories, partially printed labels,
etc., concerning which and methods of
transmission we can .-give exact infor-
mation when desired.
No -ongcan be a good botanist without
a good herbarium, which is etm6posed of
dried specimens of species and their va-
Iuis forms arranged in systematic or-
der and accurately labelled. The for-
mation ofta good herbarium is no simple
task, and desultor ,unguidedd,.efforts
will surely be attended with much loss
of time and many discouragements.
Scientific characters are taken from the
fruit and leaves as well as from the
lowers, and often the roots are very im-
portant; therefore, a mere sprig of flow-
ers does not constitute a "botanical
specimen." A plant not over three or
four feet high should generally be pre-
served entire, doubling it upon itself
once or twice if too long for the herba-
rium sheet. Of very large herbs, the
upper portion or a branch and a lower
leaf must, suffice, and of shrubs and
trees a branchlet. Specimens of most
herbs may contain both flowers and
fruit, but of most shrubs and trees the
flowers are to be collected early in the
season and the fruit with mature leaves
later. Sedges should be collected only
in mature fruit.
Specimens are usually brought home
either loose in a tight tin box, or pressed
flat in folded sheets'of thin paper carried
in a stout portfolio. In our climate it is
best, for various reasons, to collect speci-
mens in.a tin. box in which has been
placed some sheets of wet paper. Speci-
mens kept in such a receptacle and
slightly sprinkled may be kept in good
order for pressing for one or two days.
Plants whose flowers are of short du-
ration should be gathered very early in
the day, and night bloomers should be
gathered late and pressed next morning,
as their flowers will expand in the box.
Specimens of the orange and of many
other thick-leaved trees and shrubs
should oe air-dried for a day or so be-
fore putting in press. Plants which feed
mainly on the air should be scalded first,
for some plants will actually bloom and
fruit in the press. Thick roots should be
split, and often it is best to thin out
dense foliage, leaving the base of leaf
stalks to show their natural position.
For drying specimens make a press as
follows: Take two light boards 12xl1
inches in size, and on one side of each
fasten with screws or clinch-nails twc
wooden cleats to prevent splitting and
warping. Between these arrange in al-
ternate layers the driers and'sheets o1
specimens. Around the whole pass tw(
stout straps, to be drawn as tiglitly at
possible. For a lady's use weights may bh
preferred to straps; their weight should
aggregate from 50 to 100 pounds. Thebesi
driers are made of felt paper, but news
papers of uniform size will serve thi
purpose. The driers absorb the moisture
from the sheets of specimens, and thej
do this most rapidly if used warm afteo
The sheets of white paper for holding
the specimens should be cut so as t<
measure 11x16 inches when onci
folded. The specimens will thus be bes
adapted to the standard size of mount
ing paper, which is 11jx16j inches. Ar
range the specimens in this so as to ap
pear as smooth and natural as possible
field down the upper half of the shoe
carefully as you arrange the specimen
then put a drier on top and so proceed
with all the specimens in hand.
ALL VARIETIES OF
ORANGE AND LEMON TREES.
Buds not placed on small stocks, but on extra
large and fine ones.l
We make a specialty of the
-EARLY SPANISH RANGE- --
(the earliest variety known),
TOHITI LIMES and
VILLA FRANCA LEMONS$
and can show trees oX the latter that :stood the
cold last winter as well as the Orange, and
NOW HAVE FRUIT UPON THEM.
Send for Catalogue.
KIDNEY & CAREY,
Winter Pi rk Fla.
Most specimens need to be changed to
fresh driers the second and third days,
and some the fifth a'fd seventh days af-
ter being put in. When dry put then
away in their papers in piles and keep
in a dry place till winter. In changing
press keep a watch for worms, which
are apt to hatch out in leguminous and
composite flowers and devour them.
Ants, though they may swarm in a
press, will disappear when the speci-
mens are dry without doing any harm
As many flowers which abound in pol-
len as well as fleshy fruits are liable to
be destroyed by mites, it is well to apply
to all specimens when dried a weak alco-
holic solution of corrosive sublimate. A
specimen should never fie permanently
mounted without being thus protected
against insects. Whenever desired we
will give further advice on any detail of
botanical work and tell where and how
to procure any materials, instruments,
books, etc. A. H. C.
Service of Hawks and Owls.
We are indebted to the West Chester
Microscopical Society, says the Philadel-
phia Record, for some very interesting
facts relating to the hawk and owl
tribes, which go to show that among
preditory birds the farmer has no better
friends Ornithologist Warren's meth-
ods of investigation leave no room for
controversy. In order to ascertain the
food that hawks and owls live upon he
has for past years examined the contents
of their stomachs. It is shown that both
hawks and owls live mainly upon mice
and insects, meadow mice and grass-
hoppers being the staple articles of con-
sumption. The owls destroy so few
chickens, in comparison with other
small game, that the fact that they ever
get a chicken supper is not worth men-
tioning. Two or three kinds of hawks,
with long tails and short wings, are
chicken eaters-the 1-irge hawks seldom
touch a chicken-but all of the hawk
tribe do ten times more good than harm.
Even of weasels, Mr. Merriam, the orno-
thologist in the Departmeitof Agricul-
ture at Washington, write that "the
smaller kind feeds chiefly on mice and
insects, and is not known t kill poultry.
The larger also. preys mainly upon mice
and rats, but, in addition, sometimes kills
rabbits and poultry. Both species are
friends of the farmer, for the occasional
loss of a few chickens is of trifling con
sequence compared with the good that
these animals are constantly doing in
checking the increase of mice." The
hawks guard the farmer's growing crops
by day, and the owls by night, No doubt
every able-bodied bird saves more every
year for the farmer than the sum of the
bounty placed upon its head.
A correspondent of the Rural Cali-
fornian writes from Riverside, under
date of December 28th:
The most important move ever made
in the interest of fruit-grovers in-Cali-
fornia has just'been begun in Riverside.
The Inter-Ocean Cold Storage Company
are putting up works here to cost $40,-
000, having a capacity, to cool for ship-
ment ten carloads of fruit per day. The
fruit, after being cooled, is shipped in
refrigerator cars, end arrives in the East-
ern market in as good condition as it
was when first picked from the trees or
vines. The company had experimented
at Santa Anna during the past season to
*such an extent as to make sure of their
position, and they come here to establish
the pioneer works. This is the only
plant of the kind in the United States
where shipment of fruits and vegetables
is to be made a business under cold
storage conditions, and our people are
jubilant over the fact that another
season's grapes, apricots, peaches, and
pears can be fully matured and ripened
before being shipped.
The Castor Bean.
A correspondent of the Texas Farm
and Ranch writes thus of 'an industry
which perhaps deserves.attention in this
Castor beans should be planted, as
corn, about the 10th of March, four feet
apart each way. It is sometimes four to
six weeks after planting before plants
appear. Put two seeds in a hill; thin to
one stalk; cultivate as corn. Gather
when seed panicles turn yellow. Put
them in dry, sunny enclosure to pop out.
The Weatherford Oil Company,
Weatherford, Texas, will buy the seed
at $1.50 per bushel. Seeds for planting
may be obtained from reliable seed deal-
DEVOTED TO THE
This journal will have for its leading object
the promotion of rural industriesin Florida, and
will advocate especially a more diversified and
intensive system of agriculture and great
economy of home resources.
Assuming that the agricultural adaptations o
a large portion of Florida are as yet but imper-
fectly understood, a special aim of this iourna
will be to describe the best results which have
been accomplished, with the exact methods em-
ployed, and all influences affecting such results;
also to suggest experiment, describe new or little
:knowncrops, fruits, etc., and record the progress
of r ricultu-e'in neighboring States.
Commencing'with the first number and con-
tinuing through the season for
There will be a series of articles on fruits-other
than those of tho citrus group-which have
proved most successful in this State. Each va-
riety will be described and
And4here will be notes from persons who have
had experience in its cultivation. This will be
followed by a similar series on
And other subjects will be illustrated to a limited
Much attention will be devoted to
And to the hqme production of forage and fertili
zers, two economies which are essential to sue
Questions relative to ailments of domestic
animals will be answered by an able veterinary
surgeon who formerly edited a like department
Turf, Field and Farm.
A due amount of space will be devoted
household economy and to reports of the mar
kets, and the departments of
S Practice, etc.
will be contributed to by persons who have made
specialties of those branches.
All portions of the State will receive a due
amount of attention, and their interests will be
represented by able correspondents. .
Under no' circumstances will this journal be-
come the "organ" of any association or locality
it will start out untrammelled and will repre-
sent all sections and interests with absolute im-
partiality. ", -
Published at Jacksonville on Wednesda
of each week. .
PRICE .OP SUBSCRIPTION: .
One Year 0 0 ,
Six Months 1 00
Three Months ''0
SPECIMEN COPIES PFREB.' *"
Address subscriptions and other business corn-
C. H. JONES & BRO.,
Communications tor tle editorial department
should be addressed to
A. H. CURTISS, Editor,
Jacksonville, F .la,
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MARCH 2. 1887.
h Sform of kainit potash costs 35 per cei
more than in muriate.
But is it better than muriate? T
only objection urged against the use
KAINIT. muriate of potash is the amount
-chlorine it contains.
But does it contain more chlorine t
Its Value as Compared with given amount of potash than kain:
Other Potash Salts. Not more but far -less. In kainit, 1
BY REV. JAS H. WHITE. pound of potash hold in combinati
ouragricultural 230 pounds of chlorine. In muriate 1
I wonder when our agricultural so- pounds of potash hold in combinati
Ions will have done singing the praise but 62 pounds of chlorine.
of kainit. The files of agricultural pa- To get 100 pounds of potash you bt
pers abound in the most arrant stupidity 800 pounds of kainit containing 2
in regard to it. The following examples pounds of chlorine.
are now before me : "Kainit is one of To get 100 pounds of potash you bi
the cheapest available sources of pot- 200 pounds of \muriate which contain
ash." "German potash or kainit has 24 but 62 pounds of chlorine.
to 28 per cent. of potash, the remainder If these calculations are anywhe
valuable fertilizing salts." near the tru'h they should in every ca
But an average sample of Kainit con- did mind settle the question of the rel
tains less than half that amount of pot- tive merits of muriate of notash an
ash, and the remainder would make a kainit, clearly showing that kainit
sorry fertilizer. It is ostensibly used for neither the cheapest nor best source
its potash, but is chlorine, its largest ele- potash for agricultural purposes.
meant, and chlorine is a bane to veget- ISLAND HOME, I idian River, Fla.
able life so much so that its presence in January 27th, 1887.
a fertilizer in any considerable quantity ,
militates greatly against its value, and
for some plants is an absolute bar to its The Sugar Industry in Cuba
use. Chlorine, then, is not only worth- Mr. J. D. Ekiss in writing from Cub
less as a fertilizer but worse than worth- to the Sugar Bowl and Farm Journ
less. shows how agriculturists may ada
True, about two-thirds of the chlorine themselves to changed circumstance
in kainit, is in the form of chloride of and points out ways in which the sug!
sodium or common salt (one-third of the planters of the South may profit by th
weight of an average sample being corn- example of their more southern neigh
mon salt) but it is chlorine all the same, bors:
and as such detrimental to vegetable The distressed condition of Louisian
life, except in small quantities. sugar planters, at present, is asking fi
But let us look a little more closely, aid or new ideas fr m more enlightened
kainit certainly is "well recom- countries i i regard to po nts for amelio
mended," but we ask further: Is it ating their condition and encouraging
"worthy and well qualified?" prospect for the depressed sugar bus
Potash is a necessity to agriculture. It ness. Let us turn our eyes towards Cub
is a constant factor in all plant growth, for' a moment, and examine what she
In uncultivated lands there is a constant doing. Cubans, as most Spanish Amer
round or alternate movement of potash. cans, have a reputation of'being poo
Growth takes it out of the soil and de- business men and slow coaches for-a
composition returns it again to the soil cepting changes and improvements, bu
s' thatthe supply is never exhausted, let us remember for a moment, that
But in agriculture it is different.. Ev- sugar planters they are far ahead o
ery crop removed takes with it not Louisiana.
only potash but other elements of fertil- Cuba, as a sugar producing country
ity from the soil These elements must has also been struggling with low prices
be returned to the soil in some kind of heavy working expenses, and now wit
fertilize, or it soon, becomes exhausted complete abolition of slavery. It should
and barren. Potash must be supplied, be also added, that she has gone through
and the vital question is, where can we a ten year's civil war, and heavy ,taxa
get it "cheapest and best?" tions. In spite of all the drawbacks he
For generations wood ashes were the present crop is expected to turn out t
main dependence, but as agricultural be the largest she has ever known, an
pursuits increased there was a con- it is said that her superb central plant
stantly increasing demand for them, ation sugar factories are making money
while the supply as well as the source though selling her sugars at exactly one
of the supply was constantly decreasing. half the pr'ce that the Louisiana plante
Where forests were felled and the timber gets for his, on account of United State
burn-d upon the ground, the amount of import duties.
potash returned to the soil was very It seems that Cuba has had the goo
abundant, as will be seen when we call to judgment of gradually preparing her
mind the fact that the ash- of plants self to meet all these reverses, and now
rarely contains less- than 20 per cent. that the dark day has arrived she is no
and sometimes more than 60 per cent. of afraid of the situation and is. gallantly
their weight in potash. going ahead- with encouraging prospect
But the supply from this source be- before her.
came entirely inadequate to meet the de- Now let us give some facts ,and show
mands upon it and it was clearly seen how she hassaccomplished such a suc
some other source of supply must be cess:
found or the impoverished soil would 1. For the last ten years, alh he
soon refuse to respond with adequate planters, with means, have gradually
returns to the plowman's hand. been purchasing improved machinery
Fortunately in recent years abundant and to-day, as a natural consequence
supplies of potash have become avail- nearly all the muscovado or open ket
able from the German salt mines. Large tie small -estates are absorbed by thi
quantities of potash salts are now im-: neighboring vacuum pan and centrifuga
ported from that country. We now central factories. -
have muriate of potash (chloride of po- 2. The abolition of slavery has taken
tassium) sulphate of potash (sulphate of place gradually in the course of tei
potassium) and kainit, which is a com- years, consequently, this year, when
pound of sulphate of potash, sulphate of complete abolition has been premul
magnesia, chloride of- magnesia and gated, the country has not felt the con
chloride of sodium. sequences.
The planter must have potash and 3. The central plantations or factory
there are these three sources of supply owners do not buy sugarcane in advance
within reach, muriate of potash,, sul- of the crop season and at a fixed price
phate of potash and kainit. They fix prices weekly or monthly dur.
The muriate when pure contains 68 ing the crop, in conformity or in sym-
per cent. of potash and 37 per cent. of pathy with the sugar marketfluctuations
chlorine. As we find it in the market If the payment is made with sugar, 100
it is of very uniform quality, containing pounds clarified sugar is given for 2,500
80 to 85 per cent. of, chloride of potas- pounds sound cane delivered at the
- sium, and 50 to 54 per cent; of actual pot- crushing mill. If the payment is made
ash. It comes to us as a product of nature in hard cash, the market, value of 125
having the appearance of common salt. lbs. clarified sugar is given for the 2,500
The supply is abundant, as a single mine lbs. good cane. There are, the aver-
is estimated to contain 6,000,000 tons. age conditions. stipulated, which of
The sulphate when pure contains 54 course vary according to circumstances.
per cent. of potash and 46 per cent. of 4 The planter pays $10 per month
sulphuric acid. It is extremely valuable salary for each cane field laboring man
in quality, containing 35 to 70 per cent. in-non-grinding seasons, and $15 in the
of sulphate potash and 20 to 40 per cent. grinding season. Feeding is $4 per
of actual potash. The average of a month extra. I
large number of samples is found to be 5. The sugar planter has a store estab-
29 per cent. of actual potash, or 580 lished on the estate, where, on the
pounds of potash to the ton, while a ton long run, every cent that goes into
of 85 per cent. muriate contains 1,080 the hands of the men on the place is
pounds of potash. spent. Consequently, the planter gets
Kainit is also variable in purity, rang- back all the money paid to the laboring
ing from 15 to 45 per cent, of sulphate of men, and the store makes a profit in the
potash and 8 to 24 of actual potash. I sales of 30 per cent. as an average.
have before me the analyses of eight 6. The sugar planter or central fae-
samples that probably represent a fair tory owner does not pay for w eighirg,
average, as it is found in our markets. gauging, coopering and drayage of-bis
These analyses were made by different sugars and molasses. The buyer of the
persons at different times and each sugar and molasses fn the market makes
sample was derived from a different adiffeand pays those expenses for his own con
source. They vary from 11 to 13 per venience and account.
cent. of potash, while the average of the 7. The commission merchant at the
eight is 11.92 per cent. sea board does not buy during the year,
I think it is safe to say that an average provisions, hardware, agricultural in-
sample of this form of potash salts con- elements, stock, etc., for account of the
tains 13 per cent. of actual potash yield- planter, making a 5 per cent. commis-
ing 240 pounds to the ton. The cost per si. The planter gets the money from
pound for potash in these several the commission merchant, through' a
forms i s as follows : t contract made, and buys himself all
A ton of kainit costing 15 dollars the above items and anything else he
yields 240 pounds of potash at 6 cents needs to keep up his plantation In work-
per pound. ing order.
A ton of ordinary sulphate costing 40 8. The central factory owner or
dollars, yields 580 pounds of potash, at planter, uses his own broker to sell his
6 cents and 9 mills per pound, sugars in the market, and pays him j per
A ton of muriate yielding 1,080 pounds cent. brokerage. Consequently the cor-
of potash, costs 50 dollars, or4 cents and mission merchants have no chance of
6 mills per pound, charging 2 per cent. for selling.
These prices may not be an exact Now, if we stop and examine each of
transcript of present values, but I am these few important items described
confident they do no violence to the above, we will easily see why the Cuban
substantial-facts in the case. In general planter or the factory owner of improved
terms it is very near the mark to say machinery makes money in spite of the
thatin the three forms a man will get low prices ruling, besides selling his
the following number of pounds of pot- sugars at one-half the price that Louis-
ash for one dollar : iana planters get.
Muriate............... .........21 lb9. "
Kainit ........... ..............16 A paste of emery powder and sweet oil,
Sulphate .... ..... ......14* applied with flannel, will clean steel
This very effectually settles the ques- perfectly. Polish with a piece of
tion of cheapness, and shows that in the leather.
nt. IDEAS ON HOUSE BUILDING. Do Woods Fires Hurt Land? Afr-Don't Fail to visit Brooksville, Hernando Co., before you settle or
'he -- Some years ago at a meeting of the invest elsewhere.
of Advantages Arising From High Farmers' Convention of thethe State of
of Evatg A eing e t Georgia it was decided affirmatively that
of Elevation, Plastering, etc. burning the woods did not injure the T H E H E R A N D O
Sa BY S. POWERS. land, but that the action of the fire on T H E H R N A D OliJ .
it? This colony is often accused of being the soil and the ashes really improved it.
100 somewhat stilted. However that may Iexpected for some weeks to see the de-
00 not repeal the soft impeachment in an butdid not A
on architectural sense. Every observing If fire improves the soil in the woods,
traveler who has seen Lawtey at all, will it be any injury to burn off sedge BROOKSVILLE
uy must have noticed how high the houses from the uncultivated fields in our sec- BROO SVILLE,
80 stand above ground. The earliest built tion? (We have a good many thousands OFFER FOR SALE-
houses are not much, if any, higher than of acres in sedge in our middle counties,
ny most others in the State; but nearly all thanks to the want of of a usury law in IAproved and. Unimproved Town Lots, Orange Groves, young or in
ns that have been erected within the last our State.) The Western prairies were bearing, Truck or Gene al Farming Lands, Hig-h or Low
half-dozen years are set up five or six or burned every year in former days, but
are even six and a half feet above the nat- they are perhaps the best uplands in the Hammock Lands, and every.grade of Pine.
mn. ural level of the earth. It is claimed United States. My own impression al-
la- .that Dr. E. Crawshaw, a very learned ways has been that it was injurious to Pay Taxes for Non-Residents, Manage Property and Collect Rents, and
nd and eccentric gentleman, was the orig- burn anything on the land that could be do a large business in Loans.
is inator of this elevated s'yle of building; plowed under.
of and sinevery house has b y hien con-field,thatwasthickly coated withweeds There being no Usury Law in the State of Florida, o to
structed after it. and grass, in January; in-the same field, I per cent. on unquestionable security can be obtained both
The soil about Lawtey is tolerably adjoining, plowed three acres that were
damp, sufficiently so to require surface burned over. The burnt field made the on Town and Farm Property.
drains, and it is believed by the learned best crop that year and I have not no-
Doctor and his imitators that six feet in ticed any change in the unburnt field B R Oy rT '1 7f
ba the air is none too great an altitude to for the better since. B0J IJ ) FILlj
al secure the maximum of ventilation and I will give you my experience in clear-
pt health. And it Is quite possible that the ing land. Girdle all trees above six Situated on a hill, altitude 328 ft., only sixteen miles from the Gulf of Mexico,-
as, remarkable, almost exceptional, health inches in diameter some time in August. is properly called
ar of this colony is largely due to this ele- Let it remain the whole of the next year "THE HILL CITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA "
he vated architecture. untouched, and then shrub down and "THE HILL CITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA, '
h- Besides the sanitary gain, there are clear up in the usual manner. By kill- The County seat, with a stirring population of about 1,000. Fourteen well
several advantages in this style of build- ing all the trees of any size the sun and stocked Stores, Two Newspapers, Railroad and Telegraphic communication,
Ia ing in an economical point of view. rain rot the thick mat of leaves, and the Churches and Schools, and numerous residences, surrounded by beautiful old
or Where the house is large and is sur- twigs and bark also decay and are not bearing Orange Groves, presents to the Tourist, Settler or Investor, the most at-
ad rounded on all sides, as every house burned up, as is.the case if we cut every- tractive Town in Florida. Among these hills are to be found the largest and
r- should be in this climate, with a broad thing down and burn at once. I hope most fertile bodies of Hammock Land in the State, heavily timbered with giant
2g veranda, a well dug directly under the that some of your readers will give us Oaks, Hickory, Bay, Magnolia and other hard woods. No County in the State
4- middle of the house will yield cooler their views on the subject of burning offers so many advantages in general farming, or yields such heavy crops of Rye,
ba water than one anywhere else. Col. over fields and woods. Oats, Corn, Cotton, Potatoes, 'Sugar Cane, Rice, etc.
is Shipman's well is thus situated, and FARMER. Early Vegetables for the Northern Markets are grown with more certainty
ri- in the middle of last summer it yielded GREENVILLE, Madison Co., Fla., and greater perfection, without fertilizers, than in any section of the State.
or a most refreshing draught at about 60, Feb. 11, 1887. Special attention.is called to the
c- while the water in my own well (pro- *
it tected only by a small well house) stood Sorghum ,with Oats and Corn.
as at that temperature only in the spring, A Kansas correspondent of the Farm- A Great Bargain for a Capitalist or a Stock Company.
If but speedily rose to 750 when the setting ers' Review in writing of his experience This property is situated on the Withlacoochee River, and contains 320 acres
in of the rainy season brought the water with sorghum says: of the best orange land, about one-third of it being hammock. The river, onue of
in it to the level of themic isat a surf ace Have also sown it with oats, har row- the most beautiful in the state, abounding with fish, forms its western boundary
h Anso high thier econderomic gain is that a space ing in the two together. When har- for one mile, and connects it by steamers with the Gulf, and with the F. R. &
d enclosed ig this, under a latticeworge hourmse, and vesting 'the oats no one would have N. Cox's road at Panasoffkee, and with the F. S. Railway at Pemberton's Ferry,
h enclosed withcoo and lattice-work, feezstorms aroo noticed the sorghum, it was so fine and from which it is distant only about five miles. River and railroad transportation
e aelightfully cool and breezy store-room small, but as soon as the oats were competing lines.
r e Norkstherop, taking the plahoe both of out of the way the sorghum began to There are 120 acres cleared, under fence and in cultivation. There are 100
o nethe or Mherncellar and tool house. unMy grow, and in the fall I moved a crop of acres in solid grove. 600 old bearing trees, some of them being from 20 to 30
d derhbs house in o as helf sk e ^^- two and a-half tons per acre off from years old. 5000 trees from 6 to 8 years, which have been well cared for, and will
d- means o l ard s lasfh in p that same oat stubble. The fall rains all be in bearing very soon, many of them bore this year. Three-fourths of these
S means of the Hubbard squash in perfect being about over I bunched it in bunches trees are budded from the finest varieties, and the rest are sweet seedlings grown
Preservation carome Juleasy to Novemer, with sulky rake, straightened up the from carefully selected seed. Valuable nurseries on the place containing about
er and in one case at least, a whole year I bunches with a fork and let them stand 20,000 trees from two to four years old. There is also a natural or wild grove on
,s He alsosatores away under his housethe till I wanted to feed them. this property, containing hundreds of thousands of budded trees and seedlings,
foIrish potato following a nd intended I have also sown sorghum in corn at from two to six years old, situated in a cove where they are protected on the
d tableor seed thefollowing autumn. Laid on the last time of cultivation, gathered the north, east and west by woods and by the waters of the river and a beautiful lake.
d a table or shelf in th a single course, they corn early (%s soon as it was good for The other improvements consist of a plain dwelling of six rooms, cistern,
Ssprout the course of three or four feed), and then moved corn stalks and outhouses, stables, etc. There is a splendid boat landing and wharf already
t months an are in fit condition to plant. sorghum all together, bunched it up and build, The bluff above the landing commands a beautiful view of the river, the
S Mr. S Bailey, another neighbor, let it stand until I fed it out. The larger neighboring lakes and the hundred acres.in orange trees. No prettier sites for
s ps uner nm spacone s se apanese. corn stalks were some trouble in raking winter homes on the Peninsuila. The property being susceptible of division, will
Spertsmons, Le on.te pears, oranges apd itching but I did not mind,that; it be sold as a whole or in smaller parts. For the whole, if sold th, present season,
and other delicate fruits forees, even wais as cheap to mow the stalks and we will take
months,4excellent presertion., The lofgh.u. fin the fall as to cut talks -
objection which might be urged against the spring. 4 ,.... ,-O > O>'C> ..
r tions from the fruit rising up and per ma- I sow thffree pecks of seed peracre. It One-half cash, the balance on time to suit :purchaser. What do experienced
y vading the living rooms overheadis ob- akes indifference whetheso r iteov orange growers, and they are the proper judges, think of such a price or such a
Sviated by the strong draft which blows aow; sown alone i w property? The 600 old trees are worth the money. The 5,000 young trees in
through the lattice work, carrying them omake a crop without rain; sown with grove form are worth it. The seedlings in thewild grove and nursery areworth
Sway. teeoats or corn if very dry you will not get it. The land itself, located as it is,- is worth at least one-third of it.
e th h much, but what'you do get is clear profit.
B so well snruces sto bmentindllre With a little rain you will get a good L .Y. JENNESS. J. O. PRESTON.
free from that reat eat of tphe Florid amount of cheap feed which cattle and
ree fromthgrea pest ote rahorses will eat without waste and upon
housekeeper, the red ants. They have which they will thrive. ,1-. PIETTXL-O W
in the course of four years. One of these Feed it to hogs while green and they.
e course ohsa our years. aiedon these wiill devour it greedily. Cut when about, FRT TrI r
houses has a course of mortar laid on the headed out or before any ofthe RUIT AND VEGETABLE PACKING,
-.sill several inches thick, filling the space seed are ripe eno-ht go,, as.catte.C
between the weatherboarding and the do not are ripe enough to growell ands cattle
plastering. All the posts that the house do not dgest the seed very well and FORWARDING AND COMMISSION HOUSE.
Stands on are of heart pine, thoroughly you would have sorghum all over your -
sound, no wo afford hi farm.
Ssoundnorottenwood to ffod ng To procure. the seed plant a piece b Usully have orders to work our consignments into, enabling us to make PROMPT ETUNS
places for ants, roaches, etc. itself he sehediSan
Bythe way, the experience of this threslf, gatheheeads and run through Extensive Facilities for Repackin
coloy a it il thrhing machine, or let the boy pullI&
to.plaster house, even in Floridat It them through a knot hole, either of for outside parties, to which prompt attention is gives. Packages suitable for
0 not only renders it warmer in wFnter which will shell the seed.* SHIPPING ORANGES, STRAWBERRIES AND VEGETABLES,
e and cooler in summer, but also cleaner, o both made up. and in the flat, always on hand, and for sale. Also, Hoops, Wrapping Paper, etc
e less likely to be infested by vermin. It Values of 'Hay Cr.opS. Best of location, viz: .
is folly, if not worse than folly, to hug The following table, compiled by Prof. S., F. & W. R. R. WHARF,
0 the romantic delusion, and write it to D. L. Phares of the Mississippi A. & M. Circulars and Stencils on application. JACKSONVILLE, FLA.'
our friends in theNorth, "that anything College, gives the relative values of the 'r1r N -I-E- ,
f wi'l do for a house in this delightful cli- leading hay crcps of the South: M JUSTICE
Smate." I have wintered in Rbme, Call-
fornia. Texas, Florida, and all of them Perc Talue Tons i l t. P WL_
I rh Nameofplantele e Cmmission MeOrchat
have, under some name or other, with Name of plant nutr'n pr ton pr acre W eU jne tO, JalU
greater or less severity, the northerr," N N-- O.T S P I E
which pierces the invalid to the marrow Average hay 51 $14 12 NO. 18 NORT WATER STREET, PHILADELPHIA.
for a ay or soata time an makes him Red clover to 2 B. R. Specialties: SOUTHERN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. Consignments Solclited. Return
hunt the fire p lace. We might just as Timothy-' 14 8 o_ 1.2y, I P.. made on ay of sale.
well knock all the nonsense and roman-KentuOrcha blu grass 5 11 1. 2 P.
tical trash out of semi-tropical house- outh'n plants 4 VALRICO NURSERIES.
s building, and bring in-instead of it- Johnson'grass 71 14 75 2.5 8 8. 4 .." .JP..
plenty of good plasterers' mortar, with Bermuda grass "8 15 10 2.5 1 .. Tropical and Subtropical.
Spcowshair tees morta, w~Japan clover 72 17 41 2.4 A. R.. Oranges, Pomegranates, Figs Peaches Grapes, Pears, Pecans, Oriental Pluims and Persim-
o It might be urged that a house so ele- Cow peavine 51 1 8 11 A. Calad i umin IciPna, aonetc. N
vated above the ground would be very Broom grass 59 11 80 1.2 2 P.W U
c Rescuegrass 7 1609 2.8 "8 P. W.-G. TOUSEY,
Inconvenient for the housekeeper, com- c atalo r "
spelling her totake many unnecessary B--Blennial. P-Perennial. R-Renews it- Catalogu FRES. Sefner, illaborough Co., Fla.
n hy u ry self indefinitely.
steps up and down stairs. It would be .*J. O'O. E-LOO T.LTT,
Sif the wood and water were left out. E-onomy of Mainure. R T A -
doors. Both ought to be kept as close at oE nomy of Manure.J3L A T.. O gr
hand' as possible; the well under the Don't drain the barnyard.. Rather
house, as above explained, and the wood obstruct the yard with rails and logs and BARTOW, .FLORIDA.
neatly ricked in a shed on a level with embankments to prevent drainage. Orange Groves, Town Lots in Bartow, Whinter Haven, Haskell, Punta Gorda and Charlotte
the kitchen floor. Then the refrigerator Make every effort to retain the water Harbor, or, Sale. Unimproved Lands in na and large tracts, at $2.60 per acre, up. Choiceten
could- be lowered from the kitchen down manure. This is an important matter. P.OHAmRLAI. P w. BWsoAAIN
into the "cellar" in a dumb-waiter. It is a good plan to keep the yard well SO U L'-L EFLO'I1T D.A. A
In another paper I shall have some- supplied with absorbents in the form of
thing to say of wells, cisterns, tanks, leaves and straw and refuse hay, and .. ,.i.-1 ]^.... .-.L. ..
house-drainage, etc., as illustrated in the chips, shucks, etc. Save the manure .E j 1 An
dwellings of this colony. and apply it judiciously to your lands
LAWTEY, Bradford County. and you wil learn in one season the TAPA, FoRIoDA. Ofile: Twiggs St., two blocks east of Passenger. depot.
it in the most perfect form possible. Florida Winter Homes
Out-Door Whitewash. --So Live Stock Journal. 8 1 i
Lime slaked with a solution of salt in ... 1 1 A 0
water, and then properly thinned with In some homes a close closet catches .
skim from which all the cream has been all the soiled clothing until washday. No
taken, makes a permanent whitewash worse plan could exist 'for health. An
for out-door work, and, it is said, ren- airy loft or room is the place for such ORIOLE, HERNANDO COUNTY1
ders the wood incombustible. It is an clothing. O. H. E N ;: .U
expand fellent wash farm purposervings.-The House- I AE JEBSEY CATTE. Beautiful location, facing on Lake Oriole and on the South Florida Railroad. -
ahold. J j SE AT E. Lands all high and dry. New settlement; between twenty-five and thirty new .houses.
,, To purchase Grade Jersey From one A Church, Scho.., .i..y mails, stores, bakery, saw mill and hotel Large are area a dylplanted
Temper the glass and earthen ware half to seven-eights, sired by registered bnll in orange groves. Choice building lots for winter homes for sale cheap. Ten, twenty and
Putt gchin a erfu soW with calves and some to calf shortly, for acreorange grovelots. A healthysettlement in a healthy State. -. ,
ter, and heating to the boiling point, RUDOLPH GETZLAFF o all oor Address,
allo~ving it to cool again, will do it, to TALLAHASSE, FLORID.O A. W. GROVES, or CLARKSON & 14 RTSON,-
the saving of a good deal of breakage. References given if desired. Oriole, Florida. Jacksounvlle, Florida
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, MARCH 2, 1887.
The Floria Farmer adn Fruit Grower,
A. H. CURTISS, Editor.
C. H. JONES & BROTHER, PUBLISHERS.
Office Cor. Bay and Laura Sts.
THE FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER is an eight page 48 column illustra-
ted weekly newspaper, devoted to the Farm,
Garden, Orchard and Household Economy,
and to the promotion of the agricultural and
industrial InterestsofFlorida. It is published
Terms of Subscription.
For one year ........... 12.0
-For six months 1.0
Clubs of five to one address....-............... 7.50
With dally TIMES-UNION, one year ...... 11.00
With daily TIMES-UNION, six months 6.00
With WEEKLY TIMES. one year...... 2.75
a-Subscrlptions in all cases cash in ad-
vance, and no paper continued after the
expiration of the time paid for. The date on
the printed label with which the papers are
addressed is the date to which the subscrlp-
tion is paid and is equivalent to a receipt for
payment to that date; if the date is not
changed immediately after a new payment,
the subscriber will please notify us at once.
CORRESPONDENCE solicited on all sub-
jects pertaining to the topics dealt with in
this paper. Writers may affix such signatures
to their articles as they may choose, but must
furnish the editor with their full name and
address, not for publication but as a guarantee
of good faith. Rejected communications can-
not be returned.
ADVERTISEeMIENTS inserted to a limited
extent.. Rates furnished on application.
REMITTANCES should be made by Check,
Postal Note Money Order, or Registered
Letter, to order of
C. H. JONES & BRO.,
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
FIRsT PAGE-Kaflir Corn (Illustrated); Ex-
periments with Forage; The Umbrella China
Tree; Vinifera Grapes in Florida; Budding
Peach on Plum; The Root-Knot Disease
(lllstrated); China Berries as Feed; New
Methods with Red Scale; A Prosperous Year
SEcoND PAGE-Tropical Fruits in Florida,
Ventilated Crates: Peach Culture; Effects of
Soil on Figs; Grafting Wax; Service of Hawks
andu( Owls; Hints on Herborizing; Cooling
Fruit; The Castor Bean.
TmRD PAGE-Kainit; The Sugar Industry in
Cuba; Ideas on House Building; Do Wood
Fires Hurt Land; Sorghum with Oats and
Corn; Values of Hay Crops; Economy of Man-
FouRTH PAGE-(Editoral); Progressive Ideas;
The South Florida Exposition; A Voice from
Old Tampa; The Farmers are Organizing; A
Letter from California; Hints to Correspon-
FxrnH PAGE-(Edited by Helen Harcourt); Our
Home Circle; The Family Friend; Correspon-
dence; Our Young Folk's Corner.
SzxT PAGE-Horse Breeding in Florida; Man-
agement of a Jersey Cow; A Southern Cattle
Barn; A Study of Red Ants; Georgia Agri-
cultural Report; Feeding Young ChiclIena;
SBzVENTH PAGE-Farm Miscellany (Illustrated);
SA Strange Testimony; Japanese Metal Work,
EIGTH PAGE-Florida News in Brief; Cattle
in South Florida; Okeechobee Drainage;
Weather Report; Reports of the Cotton,
Tobacco and Orange Markets and of the Jack-
sonville Wholesale and Retail Markets.
One of South Florida's advanced
thinkers and progressive workers writes
to us as follows:
"If I had ever made public my ideas
of what was lacking in the way of agri-
cultural knowledge in this State, I should
say that in making up our prospectus
you had stolen or adopted my ideas in
full. This being the case I shall take
pleasure in aiding you to the best of my
We do not lay. claim to any ideas
which have not been entertained by
hundreds of others ip this State, but we
may have been among the first to
publicly advance such.Ljdeas. Twelve
years ago we changed our condition from
that of a Virginia farmer to that of a.
Florida orange grower, our original
idea being the one which has located
hundreds in Florida, namely, speculation
in real estate.
From the first we believed thatbthe
policy so vehemently advocated by the
railroad and real estate men was a policy
of inflation which could end only in
collapse. They were captivating people
with the beauties of- an iridescent soap
bubble, the idea of an unlimited demand
for one of the minor luxuries of life at
prices sufficient to enable hundreds of
*thousands of people to make the pro-.
duction of that luxury their sole depen-
dence for support, and that in the face
of enormous competition.
It was the policy of the transportation
companies to encourage the production
of bulky crops which must necessarily
be shipped over their lines and to dis-
courage the production of food crops,
meat and fertilizers, in order that they
might profit by the shipment of such
freights into Florida.
So great were the moneyed interests
involved in the carrying out of this
policy that no one dared raise a voice
against it; to do so placed one in the
light of an enemy of the State and sub-
jected him to the penalty of excommuni-
cation, Therefore it was that hundreds
who believed this policy would result
Disastrously, and who entertained posi-
tive ideas as to the true policy, preferred
to hold their peace rather than be
held up to public contumely.
of events has rendered the inflationists
considerably more modest in their
manners and.less aggressive in their
methods. The men of plain and prac-
tical, common-sense ideas are coming for-
ward now and their voices are begin-
ning to be heard in the land. And when
they hear each other talk they are sur-
- prised to find their sentiments so much
alike, and one thinks, like our friend in
South Florida, that another has "stolen
or adopted" his ideas.
We would not express sentiments
which we do not sincerely believe in,
and we do not care to combat a prevail-
ing sentiment. Therefore until within
a year past we have been silent "as to
questions of agricultural policy. The
sentiment we announced at the outstart
we believe to be in accord with the
underlying sentiment of the people,
and the expressions of approval which
we have received from every quarter of
the State fully sustain us in our original
In assuming an aggressive attitude to-
wards all who are deceiving and robbing
the people under whatever guise, espe-
cially towards those who have played
the wolf in sheep's clothing, we feel
confident of public support. By open
support we need harlly say that the
people will serve themselves best.
We have been careful from the out-
start to keep out of the old ruts of con-
ventional thought. We gave notice at
the beginning that we were not to be
muzzled, bribed or browbeaten, but that
we were going to pursue a free and in-
dependent course, which we certainly-
shall do. If we chance to give any of
our personal friends an occasional rap
they will please consider it an editorial
rap, indicating .that in our editorial
opinion their attitude toward the public
might be changed with advantage to the
producing classes, whose interests we
have singly in view.
THE SOUTH FLORIDA EXHIBITION.
(CONTINUED FROM LAST NUMBER.)
Resuming our account of the South
Florida Exhibition at the point where
we left off, we find ourselves emerging
from Sumter county's space .into the
quarter-section of the building which
Hernando county undertook to filland
did fill well, as is attested by the fact
that she obtained the award for the best
general county exhibit. Yet we were
told by Senator. Mann that 150 boxes of
Hernando's exhibits went astray. But
for this misfortune, the room could
hardly have been spared for the large
and beautiful rustic pavilion which oc-
cupied the centre of the space. It was
designed by Mr. Cash M. Thomas, the
commissioner for the county, who like-
wise executed the gorgeous oil paintings
of Hernando, the Land of Plenty.
The other representatives of Hernando
county were Mr. L. R. Eichemlaub, Mr.
W. A. Jackson, and Mr. B. D. Benway
and wife. Besides citrus fruits, which
were not properly represented up to the
time of our leaving, owing to the cause
we have mentioned, the exhibits of Her-
nando county included a ge'neralfline of
farm products and home manufactures..
The oats were most conspicuous and
;most creditable. There were stalks of
oats 74 feet high which grew on cow-
penned pine land, others 7 feet high
which "grew on unfertilized hammock
soil, producing from 20 to 50 bushels to
the acre; oats threshed, -in the sheaf, and
used profusely for decoration. There
were some specimens of .wheat of infe-
rior quality said to have come from
South American seed and to have pro-
-duced .15 bushels on j acre of land. There
were also exhibits of Sea Island cotton,
tobacco, rice, conch peas, peanuts, sugar
cane, German and pearl .millets.
Besides such raw products of the soil
we noticed silk cocoons and raw silk,
cigars, arrowroot starch, sugar, syrup,
wines, orange vinegar and pickled
oysters, the latter being from the excel-
lent oyster beds of Crystal river, the
source of the so-called Cedar Keys
oysters. -There were also an exhibit of
amateur art, palmetto work, bread
and cakes; also an assortment of sponges,
of which a very fine quality is found off
the Hernando coast, shells and other
marine curiosities; also a collection of
woods and marls.
The exhibit of this county was more
varied than that of any other. The ex-
hibits of special excellence, which might
safely be placed in competition with the
same lines of. exhibits from other coun-
ties or States were oats, sugar cane and
its products, oysters and sponges, and
probably citrus fruits might be added.
VOLUSIA COUNTY'S EXHIBIT.
As at New Orleans so at Orlando Mr.
John Anderson was among the foremost
of exhibitors.. If Ormond-on-the-Halifax
does not get sufficiently advertised it is
not by fault of Mr. Anderson. He had
a most beautiful exhibit of citrus -fruits
,But times have changed. The logic in the centre of the main building, in- respond with him.
eluding some of the curious species
which are niore ornamental than useful.
The myrtle-leafed orange with very
small leaves and red fruit-the latter
having a bitter sweet flavor; the spice
orange with red and very tart fruit re-
sembling the mandarin in foliage; the
little oblong kumquat; these with the
mandarins and tangerines arranged on
plates, in baskets and festoons produced
a beautiful effect.
Mr. Anderson showed us a hardy lime
which he says was not affected by the
freeze of '86, and Hart's Tardiff orange
which even in the middle of February
was not yet fully ripe. He informed us
that the orange growers of the Halifax
region had decided upon the varieties
best suited for marketing at certain sea-
sons. Thus, the best orange for mar-
keting in October is found to-be the
Pride of Malta (a sweet orange like the
Sweet Seville): in November the Non-
pareil and Washington Navel are the
best for marketing; in December, the
Mandarin and Homosassa; in January
and February, the Jaffa, Starke's Seed-
less and Homosassa; in March such of
the fruit of tle foregoing as has not been
gathered may be put into market; and
.in April and May the Tardiff is in proper
According to this calendar the orange
market may be supplied from the Flor-
ida groves during eight months, pro-
vided the growers do not yield to the
fear of frost. Mr. Anderson is one of
the unterrified, but he claims that hi 3
section is especially favored in this re-
spec The prospective managers of the
prospective Sub-Tropical Exposition
may count on Mr. Anderson's assistance,
and it will be no small assistance, either.
BREVARD COUNTY'S EXHIBIT.
Midway of one side of the building,
opposite the Halifax river exhibit, and
separated from the latter by Sumter's
exquisitely packed oranges, we found a
tempting array of Brevard county's
characteristic products. These were at-
tended by those veteran orange grow-
ers of the Indian River, Mr. A. L. Hatch,
Major C. B. Magruder and Dr. G. W.
Mr. Hatch showed us with justifiable
pride his boxes of typical Indian River
oranges packed with the utmost unifor-
mity. Thenthere was a fine array of
pine. apples, a fruit which ought to have
been sent. in quantity from Monroe
county, as well as cocoanuts, sapodillas,
tamarinds, banaans, anonas, etC.
Of the citrus fruits in the Brevard ex-
hibit, aside from oranges, the most no.
ticeable were the huge bergamots, cit-
rons of paradise, and grape fruit. There
were Sicily and French lemons, and
what was called the "sweet lemon." This
was said to be insipid in flavor; out-
wardly it resembled an abruptly pointed
tangerine orange. Mr. Hatch also show-
ed us a fruit much resembling a com-
mon orange which he called a "sweet
It seems that the citrus species have
such a way of simulating each other,
by [hybridization doubtless, that an ex-
pert could not distinguish some of them
apart if they were mixed together in a
basket. When our personal opinion of
any citrus fruit other than a lemon is
called for, we like to be furnished a sharp
knife; but when called upon again to
sample such lemons as we were twice
treated to, we shall ask for what the
homceopathists term a "thousandth di-
Aside from the county exhibits we
noticed several things of special interest
to orange growers. Mr. Paine, of Jack
sonville, had a patent- process for pre-
serving oranges in a fresh condition for
months after picking. Mr. Thos. Hiatt,
of Leesburg, had an automatic orange
sizer of extremely ingenious construc-
tion which distributes spherical fruit
with the utmost exactness accord-
ing to the sizes required for packing in
We would like to write twice as much
as we have of this grand Exhibition, but
we must terminate our narrative here,
without even entering the two buildings
devoted to the arts and manufactures of
Orange county. We will simply say in
conclusion that we felt trebly repaid for
the time we devoted to this exhibition.
first in the enjoyment it afforded us, sec-
ond in the instruction derived from it,
and third in meeting a large number of
Florida's most progressive farmers and
OF INTEREST TO FRUIT GROWERS.
We are requested by Mr. H. E. Van
Deman, Chief of the Division of Pomol
ogy of the Department of Agriculture
at Washington, to ask "all who are in-
terested in the growing of fruits to send
their addresses upon postal cards" to
to him. Mr. Van Deman wishes to place
himself in communication with all the
fruit-growers of the land and it cannot
fail to be of advantage to them to cor-
THE FARMERS ARE ORGANIZING A Western mmn came here looking for
--- a home, and feeling as though he would
And now a note of progress comes sell his black prarie for just enough
from the populous shores of Manatee to bring him to Florida, and-to pay off
river. Manatee county, by the way, is his mortgage! (So they do have the ugly
beginning to feel herself too big for a things even in od's country" ) Welland
single county, and there is a strong warehouses full of Western corn and
probability of division at no distant day. hay his prairie rose fifty per cent. in his
It is a great burden for the people of the estimation, and he went home to fut in
Manatee river to travel forty miles by a big corn crop.
I think he made a mistake. That
wagon or on horseback to the court mortgage back there in Kansas tells
house, and there are other localities still an ugly tale on corn and wheat. Be-
more remote from the county seat. sides, Florida is not the ugly Southern
State that is not self-supporting. The
The communities on the Manatee river teamboats com down the Mississippi
contain excellent materials for one or loaded with flour and meal. and bacon.
more Farmers' Clubs, and we are glad to The commission housesitn Memphis and
know that one has already been organiz- New Orleans are piled ceiling high with
ed. We hope to hear from it from Western produce, to all be distributed
ed. We hope to hear from it from month through the .cotton, belt.. -But, things are
to month, and to have something of its .changing there, and they will cha.ige
proceedings occasionally for publication, here.
In our next number will be found a Mississippi has her agricultural col-
second er fom the Dunedin Horti lege and her Dr. Phares. She has Ber-
second paper from the Dunedin Horti mudagrass, dairies where ten yAars ego
cultural Society. the scrub stock did not average as good
The idea advanced below of holding as the wire glass stock of Florida. This
meetings in gardens .or groves is an ex- is encouragement for Florida.
Speaking of stock, I believe there are
cellent one. With Mother Earth beneath great "possibilities" in our scrub stock.
one's feet and with crops, implements I believe it will prove easier and cheaper
and live stock around one, there is an to breed them up than to try to import
opportunity for object lessons which very extensively. The razor back has
come in for his share of male.liction. I
cannot be enjoyed otherwise. want to see war made on the little thin
Another advantage of farm meetings boned, pop-eyed runts that you see paw-
is that they will be let alone by the rail- ing the sand around every herd of cows
road agents. These gentlemen can bring in the woods. I believe if the matter in
r all its serious and far reaching couse-
themselves to associate with farm- quence was brought home to their own-
ers for a few hours in gas-lit halls in ers these scrawny lordships would soon
order to carry out their purposes, but be relegated to more peaceful and useful
they are not going where they are likely lives, or I might say deaths.
By the way, I bought a little cow out
to catch the aroma of the barn-yard. of a pen where ten or fifteen were milked
The following from the Manatee River once a day to obtain two quarts of milk.,
Advocate has the ring of the true metal: She now gives nearly five quarts a day
Upon inquiry among our practical on a ration of three quarts of bran and
farmers and gardeners, we hear. of one of cotton seed meal. No great re-
several crop which one and another suits, it is true, but if you could see the
haseveral rop which ied a nd remunerative diminutive udder of the subject of the
Some will give their experience in the experiment you would consider the
raising of one thing and others of an- achievement astonishing. Now if I
other, and taken all together a pretty could substitute some product of my
good practical experience is shown, place or of Florida for the bran and cot-
which if generally understood would ton seed meal, my milk would come
advance our farmers and gardeners, and cheaper. o
give them the necessary knowledge to This b-ings me to the forage question
successfully shape their workings. A lamglad you are going in for progress
prosperous community is composed of and reform on the hay and grain ques-
individuals who are prosperous in their tion, and I look to see much light thrown
several callings; and as our community upon the subject through your columns.
depends largely upon the successful I call for special reports on forage crops,
cultivation of the soil, it stands us in and will in time follow the golden rul
hand to take advantage of all the prac- and give your readers my results with
tical knowledge within our reach. yellow mUlo maize and Kaffir corn
In other parts of our country much Yoursfor forage.
advance has been obtained through, and BAYVIEW, Feb. 21, 18L7.
by the means of a Farmers' Club, one Feb 21
whose whole aim has been the earnest
study of the cultivation of the soil A LETTER FROM CALIFORNIA.
through all of the branches in which it
is divided. An association of practical An Unprejudiced Account of
workers who are willing to meet togetheros AngelesRegion
once a monih, to both teach from their .the Los AngelesRegion.
past experience, and to learn from the Through the courtesy of Mr A. L.
experience of others, with no side issues Through the courtesy of Mr. A. L.
to present and distract from the object Duncan, of Dunedin, Hillsborough
in. view, cannot help but be of the great- county, we are permitted to publish the
est imAportance not only' to the farm- following letter written to him by a lead-
ers themselves, but to the whole comrn- in itizen of Watertown, Wisconsin,
To this end it is proposed to organize who has been spending the winter in
a Farmers' Club, having for its object Southern California : .
social intercourse and the acquisition of MY DEAR SIR-I am in receipt of your
knowledge; meeting once a month to kind favor of January 25, in which you
consult upon work to be done and discuss ask me to give my views in regard to
what is most profitable and practical to the climate and fruit growing interest of
undertake. Southern California.
SIt is proposed to hold monthly meet- Iwill say atthe outstart that my re-
ings at the residences or gardens of port cannot be very favorable, but it is
members of the club, and in pursuance due to this country to say that the claim
of this plan the first meeting will be is made that this winter is the coldest,
held at the hammock garden of Dr. E. driest and most unhealty ever known.
E. Johnson on the Pine Level road, on I first visited Riverside, which is one
Tuesday, the 15th of February, at 10 of the most important fruit growing
o'clock a. m. sections of the State. The tract is two
miles wide by fifteen miles long, and is
A VOICE FROM OLD TAMPA. brought into the highest state of cultiva-
tion by irrigation. This entire tract is
Another Advocate of the New covered with vineyards and groves of
SoFalls into Line. range, lemon, apricot and peach, mostly
Agriculture Falls into Line. in bearing. They are very beautifully
Editor Farmer and .Rit-Grower: and tastefully laid out with streets and
I hail with great pleasure the initial avenues,
numbers Of your-or speaking: for the This region was a desert before irriga-
farmers, I should say our-new journal, tion. It looks like very rich land and
I like its tone-and spirit. I hope it will there is no difference in it at a depth of
become the organ of the earnest and pro- thirty feet from the surface. Land,
gressive Florida farmers, and by them where it can be reached by water, brings
made the medium of exchange of new from $250 to $500 per acre. Then there
ideas and results. For myself, I never is the expense of side flumes and ditches
walk over an enterprising neighbor's to the purchaser.
place without obtaining new methods Then the cost of water is $10 per acre
and results, to say nothing of fresh reso- and upward yearly, according to the
lution and encouragement. amount used. I was surprised when I
It is not always from the big places, saw that they were using fertilizers. Do-
either, where money and men are plenty, mestic manures from sheep ranches
that I learn the most. There is a wide found ready sale at $5 and $6 for a com-
field for experiment in this peculiar State mon wagon-box full.
of ours. We haven't gotten as far along Budded orange trees three to four feet
yet as a State agricultural experiment high bring $1.50 to $2.50 each according
station, and therefore it behooves the to number wanted. I find the oranges
farmers themselves to organize for mu- here of good size and bright color, and
tual help. There are little experiences in the trees well loaded, but no sweet or-
new crops, seeds, trees and farm con- ahges, not even the Navel, are ripe yet
trivances, which would be helpful and they tell me, and yet they have been
saving to your neighbors. Let us have shipping them for the last tour weeks.
them. Let those farmers' clubs be or- The burghers tell me that from 80 to
ganized, and let their secretaries be men 40 per cent. of the oranges here are
handy with the pen. Farmers are the frozen. The first week I was here there
most written at class of men. Let us was a frost every night. I saw ice from
now write to each other through the one-fourth to one-half an inch thick in
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER, the streets here. The real estate men
We are especially pleased down this said the temperature was as low 25 de-
way that you have set out to develop a grees. Making the usual allowance for
more substantial basis for the prosper- the statements of real estate men and it
ity of the State, than the flimsy and must have been quite cool to say the
rather gaudy structure reared by the least. I went to San Diego and stayed
real estate men. There is a Florida of a week, came back to Riverside and
the imagination, and there is a Florida stayed another week, and there was a
of sand and Palmetto. Some of us have light frost every night.
been attracted by the former, but are I interviewed a party who had a 10-
now here to make a living out of the acre grove well protected by tall ever-
latter. green trees around the lot, which was a
We believe it can be done, but how ? great protection, saving his oranges and
The orange is a success. The lemon will lemons from freezing. I noticed he had
soon be extensively cultivated. But a small patch of nursery trees killed to
oranges for a steady thing are the ground. This happened, they said,
rather thin diet, and they do not the 1st of November. (Flowers were in
buy as much as they did during the bloom in the open fields in Wisconsin at
era of high prices. We want to raise that time). I expressed surprise at this
more to eat. Nine-tenths of the horses and the reply was that they feared April
in South Florida "eat their heads off" the most. Six months of frost in a trop
every year. I ical climate
Labor is high ; common laborers $2 per-
day. Carpenters, $3 to $5 Living is
high; not much of a house for less than
$25 per mon h; soft coal from $12 to $18,
according to locality ; wood, equally as
high. Tley cla m that a crop is worth "
$250 per acre, re dy for the pickers, in
any kind of fruits, but these figures are:
probably the very highest.
Now, as to climate, I hardly know
what to say. To feel the warm bright
sunshine day after da3, and to see the
clear skies, we naturally think it must
be very healthy, but such is not the case
(at least not his season). There is plen-
ty of malaria here: We have found ty-.
phoid fever very bad at Riverside, San
Diego and Los Angeles. I had a friend,
in San Diego who boarded at a place.
where they had six cases of typhoid
fever and one death before he found it
out. -(He.got up .and dusted then).
They had one death from it at Riverside
whi'e I was .there. At Pomona they
have an epidemic of scarlet fever and
have closed the schools. They fear the
causes irrigation and going so long
The water is very bad. If we could
only get cistern water it would be a
treat. But there is not much rain water,
as may-be supposed when I state that
yesterday the first rain occurred since
February 7 of last year. My wife and-
self have had terrible colds and coughs
and t e find the same complaint with all
the tourists. The doctors say it is a kind of
epidemic an'd we will soon get acolimat-
ed. We hope so.
I find that any lands in these valleys
that can be reached by water are worth
$250 to $500 per acre As to Los Ange-
les, it is given over to speculators entire-
ly. Fruit culture here is of no wrore ac
count. Groves and vineyards are cut
up into 50x160 town lots. I was told
to-day by a man tha' has lived in Cali.
fornia 82 years, a large part of the time
here, that there is more land platted in
and around Los Angeles than is con-
tained in Lonidon and all its suburbs.
Los ANGELES, Cal., Feb. 7, 1887.
Hints to Correspondents.
The readers of the FLORIDA FARMER
AND FRUIT-GROWER are respectfully in-
vited to contribute to its columns articles
and notes on all subjects pertaining to
the farm, garden, orchard and house-
hold affairs. The range of topics whicbh-
will be discussed in this journal may be
gathered from the subjoined table, which
may serve to suggest what might other-
wise escape attention:
Clearing land, draining land, crops for
new land, succession of crops, inte,-sive
farming, treatment of different soils,.
resting land, soilfig vs. pasturing, cow-
penning, green manuring.
Horses, mules, cattle, hogs, sheep,
poultry--Breeds, feed, diseases, treat-
Cotton seed, 'cotton seed meal, barn-
yard mnuaure, guano, ground bone, su-
per-phosphate, gypsum, .lime, kainit,
ashes, marl, muck, leaf mould, com-
Bermuda grass, crab grass, Para grass
Guinea grass, Terrell -grass, orchard
grass, red-top grass, Johnson grass, Texms
blue grass, pearl millet, German mi let,
'millo maize, kaffir corn, teosinte, sorg-
hum, fodder corn,- cow peas, desmodi-
um, Mexican clover, lespedeza, alfalfa,
Corn, oats, rye, wheat-Varieties,
yield per acre, soil and season, difficul-
ties encountered, general treatment.
Cotton-Long and bhort Staple-Plant-
ing and culture, marketing crop, man-
agement of sped, products from the
Sngar Cane and Sorghum-Varieties,
culture, making syrup and sugar, condi-
tion of market.
Tobacco-Varieties, history ixi Florida,.
recent experiences, seed, culture manu-
Citrus Fruits-Comparison of varie
ties, hardiness and productiveness, meth-
ods of propagation, methods of planting
and culture comparative effects of fer-
tilizers, marketing of fruit, preservation
of fruit wine and other products.
Peach, pear, fig, persimmon, Japan
plum, Kelsey plum, native plum, mul-
berry, quince, apricot, guava, :banana,
pineapple sapodilla, mango, avocada,
pear, cocoanut, pecan, English walnut,
almond, pomegranate, olive, grape,
strawberry, blackberry, raspberry-Va-
rieties, their characteristics, effects of
soil, weather, etc., best methods of
Plants adapted to this climate, out-
door culture, management of green-
NATIVE TREES AND HERBS.
Planting trees for ornament or utility,
the burning over of forest lands, the
lumber and turpentine industries, the
tanning industry, phenomena of plant
life, weeds and noxious plants.
N. B.-Specimens may be sent to the
editor for identification. Information is
desired respecting 'popular names and
We do not desire letters written mere-
ly in praise of special localities unless
claims to favor are based on the products
or productiveness of the soil. Articles
of an animated or vivacious style are de-
sirable by way of variety, but practical
statements and descriptions should be
concise and as much to the point as pos-
All communications for the editorial
department should be addressed to
EDITOR FARMER AND FRUIT-GEOWER.
[From the Citra New Era.]
We have received the first number of
the FLORIDA FAREMR. AAD FuUIT-GROW-
ER, published at Jacksonville., It is an
elegant publication and deserves to suo-
ceed, and we trust it will.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MARCH 2. 1887. 69
t excepting only in the extreme northern two, then pour off the syrup, scald and turn around so as to face her, and she sat *'bUy e 3 st IXIeo 1l'tl3 L es:LCgt
V ur omf vff iSfd sections of the State, and in some very return it to the potatoes. After a day opposite on the arbor tha' ran along in
mild winters even this exception does boil both potatoes and syrup together, front of the window, and then he would Is on the Line of the Florida Southern.
".-.^ ^ not hold good. and you have then a very nice dish. [Is twitter and sing, and sing and twitter,
HELEN HARCOURT. Editor. CORRESPONDENCE. not some kind of flavoring necessary to and she would listen and finally fluff out Unsurpassed by any other section for the production of Fruits and Vegetables. If you are com-
ing to Florida, whatever may be your means or condition, you will most assuredly be pleased with
F. D., Philadlphia. P, wantsad prevent their being insipid? To our taste her feathers and open her mouth, as Centre of the Lake Region. be y urtr pa or cticulars willmost assuredly be pleased with
gingand a Welcome for all vice as to to Floria with a er roots, or lemon extract,. or sliced much as to say: S. L. REED, Pittmian, Fla.
With a helping hand and a Welcome for all viceastocoming toFloridawithonly a lemon would be an improvement.-ED.] "If you have got something nice there
With words of good counsel for old friends and very small capital to start on. Mywife -Prairie Farmer. just bring it here to me. I am not going ST. AAY URSE IE I
new, and Ihave been reading your book ontr GLEN ST. M RY N RS R SI
Who come to us seeking the best way to do. 'Florida Fruits' with the greatest inter- STRAWBERRY SYRUP. there at all!
Who come to us seeking the best way to do est" he writes. Our thoughts have Onegallonofcapped straw rries will And it always ended in his carrying A general line of Fruit Trees adapted to Florida, including the
All questions of general interest will been turned towards Florida as the land weigh six pounds when gathered fresh her all she could eat, and putting it right LAR GE ST ST OCK OF PEACH TREES
be answered through these columns, of promise, but we know absolutely and allowed to lie lightly without being into her mouday the little lady concluded To be fond in the State.
Personal inquiries will be answered by nothing about raising anying. mashed. For this quantity take one But one day the litoo tle much and so PEEN- bTO A D HONEY Pin tEACHES A SPECIALTY.
mail when accompanied by stamp for IfW. F. D. is a strong man, willing pound of granulated sugar. that Peek was eating too much, and so PEEN-TO AND HONEY PEACHES A SPECIALTY.
reply. and able to work out of doors, to earn In a China bowl put a layer of berries se mustered up couage enough to come Also, several other choice varieties of Peaches. My stock of Kelsey's-Japan Plum Trees con-
Subscribers are cordially invited to his living by such work as he can find and a layer of sugar alternately, until all andhelp himid at fisistsof 5,000 or upward-all home grow, and buds taken from bearing trees on my yace.
take a seat in our Cosy Corner, and ex- to do, while waiting for his own c crops, the sugar has been put in Let them re- She was timid at first, but soon became 1,500 PICHOLINE OLIVE TREES (2 to Kieffer and other Peart high); 50000 Japan Persimons, Figs, to 4 years
as confident as Peek himself; so then she old). A full supply of LeConte, Kieffer and other Pear ces Japan Persimons, Figs, Quinces,
change views, experiences and recipes he can carve out a competence in Florida main three or four hours to extract all f Apricots, Netarines Jan Medlars Mulberries, En h walnuts, Pecans, Almond Japan
of mutual benefit. "Help ye one an- soil. But man exists here as elsewhere, the juice; then, with a skimmer, dip up was formally adopted into the family, Chestuts, Grapes, Raspberries, Blackberries, etc., etc. An examination of stock solicited
other." by the "sweat of his brow," by persever- all the berries and lay them on a colander and receivedthe name of Brownie, be- Catalogues free on application to TABE
Communications intended for publi- ing, judicious labor. The rewards are to drain, without washing. cause hergray feathers had a little tint G. L. TABER,
cation must be brief, clearly written, greater and quicker, but must be waited When all the juice is drained from them of brown coloring in them. GLEN ST. MARY, FLA.las su
and only on one side of the paper. for. Answered by mail. strain it through a flannel bag, then to But now t hat Peek had at last suc-
All matter relating to this department Mrs. M. C. C., Monticello, Fla., wants every pint of juice add one pound of old friends, he really seemed a little jeal
s'.ould be addressed to one of our New York Aid Society boys. granulated sugar. old fids, he realyseme a her -
EDITOR OUR HOME-CIRCLE; Application placed on file for next in- Put the juice and sugar into a stone ous, and sometimes when he founder NEW YORK & FLORIDA STEAAUH IP INE.
Fla. Farmer and Fruit-Grower, stallment. Answered by mail. jar, set the jar into an iron pot of cold helping herself at there untiable, she fe scolded T EEK SERVICE BETWEEN
Montclair. Fla. Mrs. T. S., Altamonte Springs, Fla., water. Set the iron pot on the stove, and pecked at her until she flew away,
desires recipee for orange preserves, let itboil, starring it occasionally to dis- when he repented and immediately NEW YORK, FERNANDINA AND JACKSONVILLE
Our Cosy Corner. witnout the peel." The Family Friend solve the sugar; skim off the froth, begged her to come back.
orepies in this issue, we trust, satisfac- When all the sugar is dissolved and the He made up his mind, too, to keep Steamers are appointed to sail from Pier 29, E. R., N. Y., every Tuesday, Thursday
WILD FLOWERS OF FLORIDA. torily. froth ceases to rise, take it off, let it cool, ahead of her, and he found his opportu- and Saturda at a .m. (new, and MINOLE every IAY.
"Ah, good morning, Neighbor Brown; put it into bottles, cork tightly, and set nity very soon, for now that winter was FROM FERNANDILA-DELA WARE and EMA88EE ever MNDAY, p. m.,: CITY
we are glad to see you; sit down. You 'The Family Friend. them in a cool place. over, the windows were kept open, and OF ATLANTA and CITY OF COLUMBI, every WEDNESDAY p.m. n
are heartily welcome in this, our Cosy BE YOUR OWN TINSMITH. This syrup makes a delightfulflavoring he had only to wa'k in at pleasure. The Freight and Passenger Accommodations by this Line are unsurpassed by any ships in
Corner, as are all our friends. You want for ice-cream, and with the addition of a The bureauin my room has a large the oatwise service. For furtherinforat J A LESLIEion, apply to
something, I see thai in your eye. It You can if you choose, and if once litt'e lemon juice or vinegar and water, mirror on it, and on the frame of the Fernandina, Fla, Jacksonville, Flu.. S. W, cLiE"Bay and Hogan.
sa thntIethrinyoure itmirror are two tiny shelves, meat to THEO. G. EGER, Traffic Manager, W M. :' CLYDI & CO.,
is about that letter in your and, is Wit hen we first came to Florida, there will be found a refreshing summer be- hold vases or a candle, and they are made a5 Broadway,. General Agents, 35s Broadway, N. Y.
"Yes its jus tat" snapped good was no "mender of tinware" to be found rag. so as to reflect in the mirror whatever is
Neighbor Brown. Is ust tat snappe d goodent within a radius of twenty miles of our STRAWBERRY PRESERVES. on them. size40x10 on Lake ingsley, Clay Co. only $8. A
thatcher usually placid temper had been home, and whenever there came a hole After all the juice has been strained It was a mystery for some timehow it T feet in choice 5-acre tract for anORANG
sadly ruffled by somebody or something. in our kitchen utensils or milk pans, it from the berries as above, they will happened that every little while, after GROVE costs but $50.
I'm out of all patience w-ith them drat- came to stay. weigh two pounds less to the gallon than. leaving the room unoccupied for a few Hight rolling Pine Lands, Salubrious Climate, it good invest- -
ted foI'mks th all pat come flyin' through thi We knew .nothing of ilow to menid than they did at first. Take then their moments, we would find our vases upset met.end 2-cent stamp for M aetc., or remit P Order orR DA.
State in the writer, up one river them, no more than nine-tenths of our reduced weight in sugar, put a layer of and lying prone upon the marble slab be- perfect, from the
and down another; or scodin' sisters do to-day, but we had heard that berries and a layer of sugar in a stone low the little shelves. Fortunately, they
along over the flats where the there was such a thing es light soldering' jar, place the jar, as before, in an iron were silver, not glass, or we would not T-:O I AL- TIA.A\TD COI 0VP.',T'SY
railroads always pick out their beds irons made especially .for domestic use, pot of cold water, set the pot over a have had to pick them up but once.
(for fear they might rol out, I s'pose), and we manfully resolved to attack those brisk fire and let the fruit boil until per- We thought the window curtain and P. 0. Box 158, Jacksonville, Florida, 39 W. Bay St.
or sitting' on the porchts of the big hotels leaky cisterns, iron lance in hMnd. fectly tender and transparent. Stir the wind had had a falling out with the
in the towns, and then go scamperiu' But the thing was to get the weapons; gently at first, so as to dissolve the sul- avseq, but still it did not seem possible THE BEST HEALTH REPORT
back North, to tell as how they know all it took a long series of inquiries before gar without breaking the berries. The either. IS ON THE LINE OF THE FLORIA SOUTHERN
about Floridy we discovered where a small soldering preserves require more cooking than the But one day, as I was sitting in the Unsurpassed by another section for the production of Frt, and Vegetables
Now, there's that nieceof mine, Mary casket, iron, rosin, scraper and solder syrup. Strawberries preserved by this study adjoining, I heard a queer little Ifyouare mibyan to Florida whatven fr may be your means or condition, Veyou will
Eliza. Brown. She come swoopin' down could be procured at the nominal price recipe keep much longer than when twittering in the other room, and peep- most assuredly be pleased witl this Centre of the Lake Region.
here last month-yes, no longerago than of sixty cents, by mail. prepared in the usual way. ing in, there was Master Peek sitting on For further particulars address 8 L. ~5EED,
that; she scurried up the St. Johns, cut If. it had cost ten times as much, it Be careful to keep all pewter or tin en- the mirror shelf and talking in a very PITTMAN, FLORIDA
across country on the rails, peeped in at would have been a very profitable invest- tirely away from the berries, or they will animated way to the bird he saw there,
me and said: nment, and from the day we secured our turn a dull, uninviting color, caring not a straw for the vase and flow- .s s "Please
"'How dyedo, Auntie? We're doin' "casket" a leaky pan has been a thing of ORANGE MARMALADE. ers lying on the bureau below. -* W ht Beyer say *accept my
Flody ; haven't got time to stay. Good short duration, likewise tin lids or cups Take twelve oranges, peel them and He did not care for me, either, and, -bestthanks fordthe splendid seeds received from yourfirm.
bye!'n itaeouo and es. o extract the juice from half of them. never stirred an inch until he'got tired of I GOwilldeaythatamongthylistfi, and3second premiums
And away she rushed down the Ok And only yesterday our sobering iron Use the pulp and juice both of the doing all the talkmg. awarded me at our fairs in Northern Indiana and
lewahy, went to some hops in Jackson- proved itself a "friend in need" in very other half, being careful to remove all After that, knowing he was found out,. SouthernMichigan,28firstpremiumswereforvege.
le withtruth, more than ever before. the tough white parts. he made a practice of coming .into the tablesraisedfro your seeds. What firm canbeat
onhoppin'all the way back home. A little hole developed itself in the Take equal parts of the pulp and juice room; sometimes he set on the back of TALO Seed of this quality Iam now ready to sell to every one
"And then she told Sarah Jane (that's boiler of our incubator, wheie nearly and their weight in sugar. Boil the juice the chairs we were sitting in, and some who tills a farm or plants a garden, sending them FREE my
my sister and her mother), who's power- three hundred little chickwerere almost first with the sugar, until it commences times he sang to the bird in the glass. egetableandFlower Seed Catalogue,for1887. Old customers
ful fond of flowers, like me, that there re,dy to tumble out into the world; their to thicken like asyrup, then add the pulp Between whiles he carried Brownie's dnot ato.'J rit.J.HGREGORY, Seed Grower, Marbleh eadMae&
weren't no wild flowers in Floridy at all, delicate lives depended on the warm and the juice of five lemons. meals to her, for by this time she was sit- .
and it was all a big humbug to call it water that was spouting out in a little Boil until as thick as desired, and be ting on five pretty little eggs.
the 'Land of Flowers!' sti'ea'n, and" but for the presence and careful that the fruit does not scorch to- *
"Becauise she couldn't see 'em growing' timely aid of- our soldering iron, all wards the last. It is safer to set the Children's Corner. O\O[ Oj "r--v
in the rivers, or on the railroads,or in those lives must ahnost certainly have preserving kettle up on a ring, so as not He,'e is something pretty for our Girl ORO.
the hotel parlors,_she says there be none been sacrificed, while a tinsmith was to touch the stov.e. Cousins to make, ut of their stray, H
here. This letter is from Sarah Jane, summonedfrom nearlythreemilesis-...
that's how I know, and I'm mad, that's taut. The Story of Picarro.. PICTURE CARDS. ...k---
ustthe truth can't abide with in- It is because we realized then, more inuei ) A very pretty way to dispose of the
just no d I std d keenly even than before, what a good(on ed) many beautiful cards that we get as
usinto the Cosy, aCorner this morning' on thing it is to be one's own tinsmith, that There is an old adage that I expect you keep-sakes is to arrange them in the form FOB REST OF HAMMOCK LAND OR BEARING ORANGE GROVES
urose the C osy. Corner this mat Maron we felt that we must urge our sisters of have ail heard, about some grasping peo- of a panel. Take a piece of paste-board
purpose ask -you theolikeher that Mar Florida to "go and do likewise." pe to whom "you may give an inch and (or very stiff paper will do) of the size
heaps 'e) upontheir feet, and tak If you dod not know where to get a they take an ell." desired, lining it with cambric and fast-
SPon reet, an ta casket write us, with stamp, for the ad- Something like this, for instance: when ening it on the right side with mucilage. CALL ox OR ADDRESS-
their tone ha'peg. Put some pepper ondress. your good mother gives, you'one cake. Take the largest and handsomest cards,
used to pt on mine fotelin' fimy otbs her" A HINT FOR IRONING DAYS. and you eat it up and straightway ask place them at the bottom of the panel in
uAsd soo sheeise fwer ustcnfi s- Cuffs thIT are Runder home often for more. That is about what the adage any way but a stiff and formal looking
And so, as the'eis, we must confess, a Cuffs that are laundered at home often means. one. Say, for instance, you have oneJA M E S CA
good deal of truth in Neighbor Brown's fail to please, because they are ironed- Now, li tie Pic rro was a good deal this quite large one, place it in the middle J A lM E S.CA R N E L L ..,
complaint, we will preach a sermon from out flat, and when the buttons are put in way, too, but not seltish'y so. but not straight up and down, but a lit-
her text, which is not a new one,, for the cuffs blister and wrinkle. This can He had been so kindly received and tle tilted, then fit other and smaller ones
there are; as she says, "heeps on 'em" be avoided if the laundress only *feasted in such royal style, that he was in these made. So go on until you
like MaryElfiza Brown. knows how to iron the cuffs until not satisfied untilhe brought someone have filled the whole space, havingthe Orrnond Land Agency, Orm ond.
It is not the first time by many, that they are perfectly dry, and then takes else to be feasted, too. very smallest at the tip. Be sure the
the assertion has been made that the the broad end of the flat-iron, and press- It was just a little saucy and indepen- contrasts are good in color, etc. They
"Land of Flowers" has no flowers; that ing very hard on the edge, places it at dent,wasit not? But we were glad to may come out at the edges and form East Co ast of olusia C county,
the title is nottruth, but irony. one end of the cuff, and slowly goes over see that he was not one of those selfish points around at the panel if desired.
Now, we claim that wewho have lived the length of the cuff. The cuff will 'oll boys Aho want to keep all the nice Tack a satin ribbon with a bow attached.
spring and autumn, right in the piney an operation that one is likely to succeed to share them with others, up by, or you may put a cord to it that
woods, with the trampluxuriant hammocks the firsttime she tries to do it, Well, this is what happened: shall not be seen.in a skillet PRINTING AND P SHIN HO
close byte should know something more TO AKE C ENT LAMP-WICKS, yuch waltzes, such polkas, s solemn breaks when dropped into cold waterpassed
rist or winter "bird of pass e, whose all you have to do is to take one pf the over and o th her mocking bir ds came S in nor girls wll ke, oh no et tb o
entire areaof knowledge i iited men soft felt hats that is it o that be th ay d the other, and their long The grated rind of a lemon, or a tea-
steamboats, railroads, hotels and,'the burned up, and utterly useless even to a on eof these new ai rivals having little EVERTON TAFFY. HOUSE.
winter months on tramp, cutting them into strips thea tls together here an there. wMelt three ounces of butt r in a skillet PINT
Nature to put on her gayest w ors, and the little k holes of your dom estics an And then, pretty soon they had such or small preserving kettle; add one pound
ort her most frosomemoods duri funny danch g part soe es ltothemselves o f M. L. K. of-? gives us the answer to
True, t he Florida wmte is not the ad, lein facthem soak in vinegarfor any couleescription, arbor, but oftener on the groundill te syup
t is, all the same, her coldes t season, all st suchtraw or grass a polkas, such solemn breaks when d opped into cold water.
completely overlooked by those who arren Flora hrocure thenwo ounces of soap-bark; take hia s llfeet. TO WHOM IT MAY CONCE
so readyt cry u that Florida's title of fine-half of it ll havepour boiling water It was one of the funniest sights we y urday after te first publication of th
n oa ers"is a misnomer lamp-wick as the woven ones, and that lu g this way and the other, and their long Tie grated rind of a lemon, 'or a tea
Swint.e onths" bwh l this piece of economy will stop one of iof! stitching as though theyoulddjerk spoon ful of powdered gin er may be
"The winter o monwter hs tailsolo'ouordBj er.so of powderedt gine ma
Nature to ut on her gaybehindstcolors, and the little leak holes of your domestic ar- a smile on their little faces but add greeted, than if desired.Touand Dollar the par
spobeautiful greenr most foliagcsome moods duriparkn g waters ance. Then wash off wih clear, each other, sometimes on the sfatlo L K of-? gives us the answer toHun-
the co!est season of the year? GENTLEMEN S CLOTHES, bcome the Ewole natiron - on Enigma Noo t1BAYARD next
on our very threshold, is a startling one, dry, no trac of the stain widescriptll remaion, arbor,ing but ofteer on the ground, Pd personal property as maeek be
and is ,p, to dera.ge hi, more reasona- PRESERVING EGGS Bu htma it most comioea ne alre t ldee eic'esaryto u le ud-
Northern winter. Heaven forbid! But and also black silk, may be cleaned from would oftenpick up a bit of twig or OTICE.
t is, all the same, her coldest season, all stains and smixots by using soap-bark straw or grass and layit asan offering ereat building for storage of produce and
pand thed appoint etme forQueenr rah' lProcure two ounces of soap-bark; take his lady-love's feet. TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN:.,
tpue row in g dicap an oze llwh onehalfof it nd pour boiling water It wasone of the funniest sightswe Sxty das after the first publication ofthis
Nordo the f ring s upon it When cold, take a soft rush ever saw and wenevertired of watch otce application will be made to the Legs-
iwake up again.itia nature of Florid, for the passage of a charterA roa Steam boat
oue her f tan t her and dip it in the preparation and apply ing those solemn dances, up and down of the "Florida Fruit Exchange," whereby
Sv t her hammocks or piney woods ieen th Select the small ones, wash and scrape d ow.un, now here, now there, with the capital stock may be increased to a sum O
snothe wp g, in the summerft mha, andthe soiled places will present a soapy appear- never a smile on their little faces, but all greater than FftyThousand Dollars thepar,
beautiful green folage, sparking waters dance Then wash off with clwe r, co te t us as earnest a if the fateof ad sinnue ofnnares to be reduced from One Hun- ()
andibaldmyerZ reezs tha meet the turist warter, eand when the article, hasbecome the whlenaton dependd oon heir do- lowDll1arsto Toen Dollarrseer share;ta- 3ai ngB
wmdsofnwmter. ery six pounds of the cooked potatoes, All this time, while the courtship and DECOMPOSED WITH POTASH.
ani e te sott ane is smos rethisn one ady te .ods tai whill.. mai the dances andthe hous, eil^.med necessary to its usefulness, Inc ud-
bh le das aEGGS. But wha P ee i mos co mi dapper Ground Bone Manure, 1st quat I6.00I
aentd r is ap t o der se at waterEwhichthe potatingoi e t co vehicles of transportation; to lease or E 2I T
Sthe o t of man rarely penetrates, beau- and when cooked until rich, ur it over He wayould comthe anced sit often thend ledg erec t buildings for store of produce and2.00
etiful to r f flourish alfthe year round, the potatoes; let them stan a day or and pick daintily at his fo ew more ers and adenr generally to transact
a day or and pik atly at his food, and then brellaTrees,A SPEC A L Y
&-.AL -S.Za JL AL
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, MARCH 2, 1887.
Horse Breeding in Florida.
BY WM. G. SCHRADER.
We saw it stated in a Northern paper
that some wealthy men had found it un-
profitable to raise colts. They would
"eat their heads off" before they were
Syearlings. This may. be the case up
North, when made a specialty, or where
the owner has not the time nor inclina-
tion to attend to the minutia of thebusi-
Our experience is that it will $rove a
valuable adjunct to general farming,
premising that the owner lives on the
place himself. If he does not he had
better not attempt it. If he does, let him
get a large Tennessee or Kentucky mare
instead of a mule. He will get as much
work out of her, and get a colt each
year, thus replacing his own- stock and
have some for sale. As there is "nothing
like figures, we will give our own expe-
Three years ago we commenced with
three mares. Two were in foal, and out
of the two colts we raised one. This is a
filly and has been broken to saddle- and
harness, in fact, has done a good day's
work for nearly a year.
The second year, we raised two more
fillies, one horse colt. dying. These two
are being broken to the saddle now. The
third year two more mares" foaled, one
-filly living, one horse colt died from a
Total, seven mares. Cost of colts
when foaled $15 each. We do not wean
the colts and except sowing some rye in
the fall, they, like Topsey, -"raise them-
The mares are worked up to the very
day they foal, when they are rested ten
days. The colt is allowed to run with
its danifor a month, when it is sepa-
rated in the daytime while the mare is at
Our oldest filly, "Gladys," made
wonderful growth the first year; we at-
tribute it to a plentiful supply of pindars
on the vine. They are not allowed to
have corn until they are being broken,
and then oats would be better feed.
Judging from the large number of
Texas ponies sold here and in neighbor-
ing counties, Middle Florida could find a
demand for all the colts raised. But, it
is not going to be fancy colts at fancy
:prices that will sell, but- an animal of
large bone, solid frame and good bot-
And then the pleasure-and by the
way, we farmers have little enough of
that, anyway-in raising horses is great.
To see them grow, to pet and caress
them, why, it's one of.tte chief attrac-
tions of a country life.
And oh I what a different creature an
American bred colt is from a mustang I
The latter is generally spiteful, vicious,
and without exception, has an inbred
hatred of man; a hatred.that lastsas long
as life itself..-A. mule i an "'angel of
mercy" compared to a Texas pony.
With him it's "now you are up and now
you are down," and you don't know how
you are going to come down either.
WAVERLY STOCK FARM, Leon Co., Fla.,
Management Of a Jersey Cow.
Editor Florida Farmer and .Fruit Grower :
Some time ago I noticed-a short article
in your columns clipped from some of
your exchanges, in regard to a Jersey
cow that I raised. The article was rather
incorrect, and for the benefit of persons
who, like myself, are striving to have
good milk cows, I will give you a correct
history of that one.
"Her dam, a pure Jersey cow, was
brought to this country from Missouri
in 1883. On the 3d of November, 1884,
she dropped a heifer calf, sired of a Jer-
sey bull that was brought from Missouri
with the dam. The calf was not allowed
to suck at all, but was fed at first on
milk. In a short time wheat bran was
added (rice bran would have been better).
At four weeks old it would eat raw sweet
potatoes cut fine, over which wheat bran
slightly dampened with water was
sprinkled, with salt added about twice a
This feed was continued until she was
about five and a half months old, when
I became satisfied that she was making
too rapid growth; that she was destined
to be too gross, too large, at least for my
ideal of a Jersey cow. From this time
on she subsisted on the native grasses
alone until in January and February,
1886, when she had some grain and veg-
etable feed, but not to exceed one hun-
dred pounds each of wheat, bran and
corn-meal, or cotton-seed meal, and not
exceeding five bushels of sweet potatoes'
and turnips cut fine and mixed with the
bran and meal.
She came in season for the fist time
at one hundred and seven days old
(some persons would say that was very
young, but that is not uncommon for
the Jersey if well kept), but I did not
breed her until January 19, 1886. Dur-
ing the.summer of 1886 she subsisted on
the native grasses alone, until about one
month before she was due to be fresh,
when I commenced feeding her on wheat
bran and cotton-seed meal, gradually in-
creasing the feed from a smatl amount
to as much as she would eat up cleen,
which I continued up to within nine
days of the time on which she was due
to be fresh.
From that time on I gradually reduced
her feed until she dropped hpr calf,
which occurred on October 21, 1886. "I
did not let her calf suck at all; kept her
on low feed for the first nine days, when
I began to increase it as before.
On the day that she was two years old
(her calf being thirteen days old) 1 tested
her for milk and butter, which resulted
as follows: Yield of milk, 25 Ibs., equal
to 3 gallons, which made 17 ozs. of Jer-
sey butter-the real stuff, not such as
the native cow produces. I tested her
for one day only, as I was afraid to
crowd her too far with feed, young as
My experiment with her from a calf
on was in every way satisfactory, and I
IN PUTNAM COUNTY
Three quarters of a mile from St. Johns River
75 feet above the river.
ONE LOT IN KEUKA.
20,000 Nursery Trees, of all varieties and sizes.
All at bargains. Write or call at
F. C. COCHRANE'S Book Store,
never have produced a healthier or more
promising cow than she, the Duchess of
Prairie See, was. I kept her but a short
time, when I sold her to Gen. Wm. T.
Hazen. of Homosassa Lake, this county,
for $120, not paid in chips and whet-
stones, but American gold.
General Hazen is from Ohio, where he
owns large estates and is a breeder of
cattle himself; but he showed his appre-
ciation of home raised cows of pure
blood, and had I other cows as good, I
feel confident that I could easily dispose
of them at equally fair prices. But in
advance of all other considerations, I
have demonstrated the fact (at least to
myself) that there can be as good milk
cows produced here as elsewhere, if we
will pursue the right course.
L. B. OULLEN.
Seffner, Hillsborough Co., Fla.
A Southern Cattle Barn.
The following description of a barn
constructed especially with reference to
the saving of. manure is by Henry M.
Dibble, of Aiken, South Carolina:
My farm is badly in need of humus or
decaying vegetab'e matter in the soil,
and to supply this is quite as important
as to furnish the three indispensable ele-
ments, nitrogen, potash and phosphoric
acid. In order to incorporate the largest
amount of decaying matter with the
manure and to have them thoroughly
mixed, I built my barn as follows: Itis
thirty-five by eighty feet, and built with
sliding doors extending across either
end. Ten feet from the wall on either
side, and extending the entire length of
the barn are a line of the Smith & Pow-
ell swing stanchions, forty-eight in all.
These stanchions do away with any ne-
cessity for a partition between the cat-
tle, and the space is left open so that a
cart can be driven through to remove
manure or bring in leaves or pine straw.
The space between the stanchions forms
the feeding floor, which is covered with
loose plank, and beneath these extend-
ing sixty feet through the centre of the
barn are my four silos. The space
where the cattle stand is not floored in
any way, but is kept covered with a
thick layer of oak leaves. Each morn-
ilng these are dusted with land plaster or
kainit to absorb ammonia and moisture,
and then a fresh supply of leaves and
pine straw is scattered beneath the cat-
tle. In this way the cattle are kept
clean; there is no offensive odor from
the manure, and two large cait loads of
the richest are made& each month for
every animal kept, while the entire cost-
of my barn and silos is inconsiderable-
probably not exceeding six hundred dol-
SA STUDY. OF THE RED ANT.
Its Curious Habits and Methods
of Doing Injury.
BY G. W. WEBSTER.
One of the serious trials M"o a Florida
apiarist is the large red ant, wh'chis to
be found inigreat numbers in most parts
of the State. Other species are more or
less troublesome, but the red ant alone
is able to attack and totally destroy a
good colony of bees.
Here in the pine woods where our
small apiary of 25 or 30 colonies is lo-
cated, we have been able to drive them
away so that it is safe to put the hives
near to the ground, which gives return-
ing bees heavily laden with honey a
chance to crawl into the hives if they
happen to fall to the ground, as is often
the case, and as we clip the wings of all
queens, it also allows them to re-enter
the hives if they should swarm when
there is no one to look after them.
In the great New Smyrna honey re-
gion, 18 miles east from here, where the,
mangrove yields honey by the ton, I be-
lieve it is the general custom to place
the hives up from the ground on
benches, the legs of which stand in tin
cans filled with water, so. as to keep the
ants out of the hives.
Friend Detwiler seems to think that
bees have sufficient intelligence to select
for their homes hollow cypress
trees, the roots of which are covered
with water, and thus be protected from
ants, but I fear he has drawn upon his
imagination for his facts in this case.
In this region bees are often found in
hollow cypress trees, but they are also
often found in hollow pine trees when
there are plenty of cypress trees near
by, and I much doubt whether ants ever
climb tall trees to attack them.
On one occasion, while visiting among
the beekeepers south of New Smyrna, I
witnessed a battle going on between ants
and a colony of bees. The bees were evi-
dently getting the worst of it. Outside
of the hive, as well as in it, bees and ants
were writhing and rolling over and
over. When those big headed soldier
ants once take hold with 'their strong
mandibles there is no use in propositions
to settle matters by arbitration. They
are evidently the bulldog of the insect
Being forewarned when we first start-
ed with bees here, we commenced a vig-
orous war on the ants in the neighbor-
hood of our apiary with varying tactics.
We dug open their nests and scalded
them. With an iron rod we made holes
three or four feet deep, near the entrance
to their nests. They would fall in by
hundreds and that would keep them
busy for a few days climbing out, till
they filled up the holes or moved to new
quarters. We found that by spading up
their nests and packing the ground hard
their number became diminished and
they generally moved soon to a new
place. No doubt many eggs, larvae and
.young ants can thus be destroyed. This
treatment will work well on all kinds of
The'large red ant storesup large quan-
tities of seeds. Seeds of the Euphorbia-
ca seem to be their favorites, though I
have seen them storing seeds of aristida
strict, or the common wire-grass of the
pine woods. When moving to new
quarters I have often seen a trail of
them several rods in length, each one
carrying a seed of stillingia or tragia
nearly as large as itself. Spading over
their nests deeply gives them a big job of
hunting up these seeds as well as their
own eggs and larvae.
But often they will locate their nests
by the side of an orange tree or in some
place where the ground cannot be
spaded over. This suggested the best
remedy we have yet found, and that is
to place a small tin can in the ground
just even with the surface, so that when
they come out of the entrance to their
nests they will fall into the can which
they are quite sure to do. An inch of
water in the can will prevent their crawl-
ing out, though some species of small
ants will get out of a can of water.
There are several species of ants that
are a pest to the gardener and fruit cul-
turist. A small brown ant is quite de-
structive to strawberry plants. They
live in small colonies and carry straw-
berr' leaves down to a nest, often two
feet or more below the surface of the
I am inclined to think that ants do
more harm to orange trees than is gen-
erally supposed. Wherever live scale or
aphides are at work on the trees, there
will generally be found plenty of ants.
It is a well established fact that. they
obtain sustenance from aphides, and
also that they tenderly care for the
young and the eggs in their own
nests, carrying them out and placing
them on trees and plants when the right
Nurserymen in the North have suc-
cessfully cleared their app'e trees of ap-
hides by digging up the ant nests and
destroying the ants. If ants will help
to spread aphides, why not scale also?
They seem to be as great friends to the
scale as to aphides. I have noticed that
wherever ants were busy on orange
trees there are sure to be either scale, ap-
hides, or gum oozing out of wounds
made and kept open by the ants them-
After the hard freeze of a year ago I
saw ants working on the tender new
growth of orange trees, often cutting the
branches so nearly off that they would
break; wherever they ate the bark off
gum oozed out and the ants seemed to be
eating it. A little tar would drive them
away, the gum would disappear and the
trees apparently become healthy. Much
steady and very careful observation are
required to learn the habits of such small
insects and their effect on vegetation." I
shall be glad to hear from other ob-
LAKE HELEN, Florida.
Georgia Agricultural. Report.
From the last report of the agricultur-
al department of Georgia for the year
1886; we glean and condense the follow-
ing facts of special interest.
Prices realized by the farmers for pro-
duce; we give the average for the State
at large :
Cotton per lb....................$ 8.1
Corn per bushel.............. .61
'Wheat per bushel.:............... 1.05.
Oats per bushel................ .63
Sugar cane syrup per gallon...... .39
Sorghum cane syrup per gallon... .85
Rough rice per bushel.............. .61
Sweet potatoes per bushel........ .85
Hay per ton..................... 18.49
The average cash price for bacon was
8 cents; on time, 11.4. Average cash
price for corn, 69 cents; on time, 98 cts.
By buying on time the farmer pays 42
per cent. on bacon, and 84.8 cents on
corn for four months time, or 126 per
cent. on bacon per twelve months, and
105 on corn. These figures are enough
to make one put on his thinking cap.
Can we expect to make a decent living,
and pay our debts, and wear good
clothes, chew tobacco, eat biscuit three
times a day, pay the preacher, go to the
circus, and buy toys for our children,
and pay such rates of interest as this?
The report says: In this, taken in
connection with the fact that little more
than two-thirds of a provision supply is
produced in the State, is shown one im-
portant reason for the hard times expe-
rienced by the farmers. These materi-
als may be profitably produced at home,
and the money that is expended for such
supplies outside of the State is an un-
necessary damaging drain upon our re-
Georgia, be it remembered, so far as
its agricultural prosperity is concerned,
is looked upon as the most prosperous of
the cotton States, because more home
supplies are produced there than in any
other of the States that make cotton and
work free negroes. And yet, in even
Georgia nearly one-third of the "pro-
vision supplies" are purchased abroad.
Feeding Young Chickens.
Chickens do not use any food during
the first twenty-four hours after they
are hatched. The contents of the 'yolk
bag, which is absorbed into the stomach
immediately before hatching takes piace,
contains sufficient nourishment for the
first day, and any attempt to compel the
chick to swallow other food is likely to
do more harm than good, by the de-
rangement, of the digestive system.
There will be no difficulty in getting the
chicks to eat, if they are simply, left
alone for th-e first twenty-four hours
after they make their debut into the
world. All such practices as the giving
of a peppercorn to the newly hatched
chick are most objectionable, indeed,and
are founded either on superstition or ig-
Shell as soon as d'y; put in a sack;
have a potful- of boiling water; dip the
sack of peas in the boiling water, and
let them remain until all are thoroughly
scalded; then put out on a blanket to dry
in the sun. Any quantity may be
treated in this way, only do not have too
many in the sack at a time. Dried fruit
may -be treated the same, and you
will have no weevils or worms.-Ex.
To take paint smells away, the English
people tell about soaking a handful of
hay in a pail of water, standing this in
Noted Indian Leaders of the emigrate until the next moon. Colonel
Se nle WWorth reproached him for his want of
Seminole War. faith, and said that he would trust him
no longer. A signal was given, doors
BY C. M. B. were closed and guarded, swords were
v. CAOCOOCHEE. (Continued.) drawn, and the drums beat to arms.
( u ed o w n td Great was the excitement among the
Caocoochee was overjoyed when told prisoners, but resistance was useless
that he was to return to Florida, and They begged leave to go for their fam-
piomised to use all his influence to per- ilies; this was refused, but messengers
suade his men to surrender; but his spir- were sent to bring them.
its fell, and he was shocked and mortified At last the emigration took place. On
when told that he and his men were to the morning of the departure, Colonel
Colonel Wop in irons. Worth paid Caocoochee a farewell visit.
Colonel Worth and his staff were at Caocoochee, in conversing with him,
Tampa to meet the returning ship. and said that in leaving Florida forever he
on the morning of the 4th of July came had done nothing to disgrace it. 'It
on board for an interview. Caocoochee, was my home," he said. "I loved it,
though-worn and haggard in appearance, and o leave it is like bur ing my wife
behaved with his customary calm dig- and o leave it is like during my wife
nitv. His companions were silent and and child. I have I thrown away my rifle,
nity. His companions were -silen have taken the hand of the white man,
melancholy. Colonel Worth, taking and now say to him, 'Take.re of me.'
hand, told him that he was a brave And so the brave warrior passed forever
man *ho had fought long for his coun- from his native land.
try with a strong, true heart, but the from his native land.
whites were too strong for the Indians
and must conquer at last. It was time _
for the war to end, and Caocoochee must RULI
end it. There was no use in shedding ULE
any more blood-the ground was red
with it. He must select a few of his
men t6 carry a "talk" to his friends and
if they did not agree, to surrender, by an
appointed day, Caocoochee and the men
with him should be hung with their
chains upon them, from the yards of the
vessel, at sunset of the appointed day.
So did an officer of the United States
speak to a prisoner of war on the 4th
of July. It is said that Caocoochee heard 0
the firing of cannon, and asked the
reason, but received no reply. Strange,
indeed, would it have been to speak to
him at that time of freedom, independ-
ence, and the rights of man
When Colonel Worth had finished
speaking, Caocoochee rose, his whole
frame quivering with excitement.
"When I was a boy," he said, "I saw tfe
white man afar off, and was told that he
was my enemy. I could not shoot him t
as I would a wolf or bear, yet like those I
he came upon me. Horses, cattle and. 2 g
fields, he took from me. He said he was ,4
my friend. He abused our women and
told us to go from the land. Still he gave"a"
us his hand in friendship; we -took it. "
He'had a snake in the other; his tongue
was forked; he lied, and stung us. I _
asked for but a small piece of these -
lands, enough to plant and live upon
-far south- aspot where I could place S 0
the ashes of my kindred-a place where -
"This was not granted me. I was put d 0
in prison; I escaped. I have been again
taken. You brought me back; I am -'Qa, i '
here. I feel the iron in my heart. I o .
have listened to your talk. You and your
officers have taken us by the hand in. -
friendship; I thank you for bringing me (
back; I can now see my warriors, my
women and children; the Great Spirit
thanks you; the heart of the poor Indian og
thanks you. We know but little; we P
have no books that tell.us things; but we o
have the Great Spirit, and the moon and rP .-2 .
stars; these told me last nightyou would i s 5Qt
be our friend. I give you my word; it
is the word ofa warrior, a chief, and a
brave;-it is the word of Caoboochee. It 3 S
is true that I have fought like a man; so C, A0.
have my warriors, but the whites are 0 & A
.too strong for us. I wish now to end the a
war; you say I. must end t war. ho-
Look at these irons. Can I 'go +,
with them upon me to my warriors?
Caocoochee chained. No; do not ask
it. I never wish to tread upon my ," -
land unless I am free. If I go to my NINIUd 1IVN31YHO 01
people free they will obey me, but they
will not obey m6 if I go to them in irons,
They will say 'Caocoochee's heart is pEACH HILL NRiISERY.
weak; he is afraid.'" pACH HIL E .
Upon being told again that he could PEACH TREES ADAPTED TO FLORIDA,
not go to his warriors, nor have his irons a Specialty.
taken off until the surrender of his band; Ten well-tested varieties ripening from May
he selected-five men to carry his "talk," till last of October, with the exception of the
and gave them his instructions in earnest Honey and Peen-To varieties. The peaches I
and emphatic words. After the message offer have been obtained by CAREFUL SELECTION
from a large number of varieties adapted to the
to his band, he tried to give a message South with which I have been experimenting for
to his wife and child, but could not speak, many years. I also offer our variety of Apricot,
so strong washis emotion, and he turned the best of six which I have cultivated-
I guarantee ever tree to be true to name and
away to hide the tears streaming from to be of true Florida Stock.
his eyes. As the messengers, released For descriptive catalogue and price-list, ad-
from their chains, passed Caocoochee, dress W.P.HORNE,
each one silently took him by the hand; Glen St. Mary, Florida.
to one of them he gave a brooch and ONSIGNXIENrJTS OB EGGS,
handkerchief saying: "Give these to my J CHICKENS FRUPT. AND
wife and child." SOLICITED BY CO TRY PRODUCE
The messengers were successful; day J. H. SUITHERLAND,
by day, the Indians assembled, and by WHOLESALE PRODUCE
the appointed time the whole band had 2 OCEAN STREET,COMMISSION MERCHANT,
surrendered. -Caocoochee's' irons were JACKsoNViwLyz.
taken off, and he was allowed to go be- *A.
fore his band. Standing proudly as ever, -OYAAL PALM NURSERIES
he addressed his people as follows:
"Warriors! Caocoochee speaks to you.
You have listened to my word and taken MANATEE, FLORIDA.
it; I thank you. The Great Spirit speaks Rare tropicals ornamental and fruit lants for
In our councils. The rifle is hidden, and open air culture in Florida, and for the North-
the red man and white man are friends. ern greenhouse. Also, a full line of semi-tropi-
I have given my word for you. I am ical trees, plants and grasses and general nur-
free. Then let my word be true. I am sey stock adapted to Florida and- the South..
free. Then let my word be true. I am eFxotics from India, Australia and the West
done. By our council fire I will say Indies, many of .them never before introduced
more. into the United States.
He then sent messengers to different The most complete descriptive catalogue of
ce then sent messengers to adieerent tropical and semi-tropical plants published in
chieftains, urging them to make peace, America. Catalogue mailed, post-paid, on re-
and he sent an earnest appeal to his ceipt of 15 cents. Free to all customers
brother Otulke, who was in the Big Cy- RE ASONERe ROS,.
press Swamp. "Tell. him," he said,
"that if he feels for his red -brothers he 2 :
must throw away his rifle and take the r
word of the white man. I have been as Ar M
brave a warrior as he; I have fought as M
the wardance as many scalps as
he; why then should he maxe our
hearts sorrowful when Caocoochee .
sends his heart to him? Say to him that The largest grower of these Pears from Cut-
I have turned my back and closed my tinges. Buy no other an avoid Blight. Cata-
eyes upon the graves of the Semminoles. Name this paper. Smithville, da.
Why should our women and children ILEY, GROVER & CO.,
suffer? I can live like a wo0f, a dog, but j,
why make others suffer? I have no STATE AGENTS FOR
more to say. If he comes, he must come RASIN FERTILIZER CO'S'
soon. Caocoochee is sick at heart."
In less than a fortnight the messenger SOL A E
returned with Otulke, and soon after- SOLUABLE SEA ISLAND GUANO
wards Hospetarke, the associate of the
Prophet, arrived with eighteen warriors DISSOLVED BONE AND ALKALI
for an interview. The interview with PHOSPHATE
Hospetarke was held on board the ship. OSHA ,
Colonel Worth demanded immediate WHOLEALE DEALERS
surrender, promising the Indians that AD WHOLESAE DEALERS IN
their wives and children should be FRUITS AND PRODUCE.
brought to them and treated kindly. --
Hospetarke said that his band could not Get our Prices before buying.
SOUTHERN Or.. 1 RE
for 1887. dale -and Waterod.
PRAIRIE LEE POULTRY YARD,
Seffner, Hillsborough Co., Fla.
L. B. CULLEN, Propr.
Single comb White Leghorns a specialty.
Only one variety kept (J.Boardman Smith's
pure stock). Eggs for sale at all times; Chicks
after June 1st. Write for what you want, en-
closing stamp for reply. No circulars.
. S. LX'EX% LE & CO.,
PRICES THE LOWEST.
C. S. L'ENGLEa & C.,
WESSELS & CO.,
218-and 220 Washington Street,
NEW YORK CITY.
Prompt Returns Rendered. Stencels on ap-
Hernando County, Elorida,
Sixteen miles west of Hernendo Hotel, Brooks-
ville, on the shore of the Gulf at the mouth of a
beautiful Spring River. Finest fishing, boating
and sailing. Good accommodations. Try-weekly,
R. N. ELLIS, cE. 'A. E. MccLURE, Architect.
Architects & C ,l Engieers,
HOTELS, PUBLIC & PRIVATE BUILD-
INOS, SANITARY ENGINEERING &o.
P. O. ox 784. Rooms 7 and 8 Palmetto lock,
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MARCH 2.1887.
FARM AREA OF THE UNITED STATES.
ITS INCREASED VALUE.
Convenient Plan for Hanging Meat in a
Smoke House-A Neat and Serviceable
Ash Sifter of Easy Construction-Mar-
The old tinie plan of hanging meat from
hooks on the rafters of a smoke house has
been superseded, in some sections, by the
more convenient revolving rack, a picture
of which is here presented.
REVOLVING RACK FOB SMOKE HOUSE.
This revolving rack is described as fol-
lows in The American Agriculturist: The
stout center piece may be made ot either
round or square timber; a round piece of
pine from the woods will serve the pur-
pose well. It must be made round, re-
duced at both ends and fitted into blocks
on the floor, and one at or near the ceiling.
The spokes on which the meats hung are
Sof some strong wood, such as oak, hickory
or chestnut, and sixteen to twenty inches
long, securely driven into the revolving
center piece. In hanging meat on these
spokes, hang the heavy pieces nearest the
center shaft, and the light pieces further
out; so arrange the spokes as to give the
greatest amount of hanging room. By
building a chimney with two openings in
it, as shown in the engraving, and arrang-
~'---- ing a cut off just above the first opening,
'the smoke can be made to fill the smoke
house before finally passing up the chim-
ney, or it can be conducted directly up the
A Homemade Ash Sifter.
In many households a very considerable
loss. occurs- annually in waste of coal
that is quite unnecessary. A prevention
to this uncalled tfor waste is sifting the
ashes ad saving -the cinders, --most of
'which can be burne s again, while the
ashes, if kept under shelter in boxes or
Barrels, may be untilized as an. absorbent
to add to the compostheap, the vaults:
and the chicken runs. Sifting ashe is,
However, an .excedingly disagreeable job,
unless suitable arrangements are made by
which the work can-be done with neatness
An exceedingly convenient ash sifter,
such as is shown in the cut, may be eaiy
made at home.
ah eig-t Bore holes near
ashsi ptnd one end of a. good,
b esm a tight barrel, place
two strong wires
z across and tightly
to add ot eom -'clinch them on
Snd the c e rnsthe outside; these
hwe- an igl make a strong
Srest for -a sieve.
ASHSrFER. Midway between
these cross wires on one side make a slot in
the barrel large enough for a handle, which
is an inch through and fastened Ito the top
edges of the sieie, notches having been
first made in the handle to fit the sieve.
Provide a cover, and the sifter is ready
for use. After placing the ashes in the
sieve put on the cover, and by means of
the handle shake briskly back and- forth.
There will be little or no dust in the oper-
Animals which have not been liberally
fed while young and-growing will never
yield the same quantity of marbled flesh,
no matter how much -care may be taken
to. fatten them when grown, as those
which have been well fed from the be-
ginning. In short, to produce the best
quality of beet, the cellular tissues of the
.muscle must be developed along withthe
growth of the animal by abundant food.
The bcha&rac(eristics of a high quality of
beef are briefly nafollows: If lean, the
surface of the beef is of uniform redness
when cut across -the grain; but 'fat, de-
posited within the muscle will- he indi-
cated by whitish colored-points which are
layers of tat. aond-sdi 'atd among' the
bundles oft mus cular fibres. These indi-
cartions are more- or less strongly marked
according to the amount of fat deposited,
hand when the amount is considerable the
-lean meat looks as if overlaid with a net-
work of fat. Meat thus streaked with
fat is termed marbled. .h
HoW Much Pork from a Bushel of Corn?
The quesanron, How much pork may be
t nade from a bushel h con? is, an import-
anthioe, bat it has never been answered
.beyond' all csoroversy. tIn most 'cabes
u recorded as tests of the matter the corn
uwas fed a. mixed state, with roots, po-
tatoes, etc., alaoto which make it difficult
to arrive at a definite conclusion. Thomas
rtI. Edge, Cheshire- county, Pa., was
credited some years ago-with having fed
five pigs, of the same litter, five bushels
ofs'a elred corn anilt receiving 47 3-4 pounds
of pork, or 9 8-8 pounds from the bushel.
An experiment at North Chatham, N. Y.,
on record,rgave a fraction of less than 12
pounds of pork from a bushel of corn.
Eleveu records, kept and recorded by F.
a D e Cobmr, of rabn corn fed in the ear,
"*:gave an average of over 10 poundss of
pork from one bushel of comtted in the
ear and upon the ground.
to Budding and Grafting. h
"-. Next 'to planting young trees in the
apriTig, preparations ought to be sade for
grafting the natural app- -..1.. -. ..
bearers of worthless fruit to be found on
almost every farm. The following sched-
ule of the modes of propagation adapted
to different trees and fruit bearing shrubs
will be found of value by novices:
Apple and pear, budding and grafting.
Cherry, mostly by budding, but suc-
ceeds well by grafting, if done very early.
Peach and nectarine, by budding only,
at the north; often succeeds by grafting
at the south.
Plum, by grafting, and also by budding,
if the stocks are thrifty.
Apricot, mostly by budding; sometimes
,Almond, by budding, and sometimes by
Chestnut, by early grafting.
Walnut, by early grafting and by an-
Quince, by cutting and grafting.
Filbert, by suckers and layers. The
finer sorts may be grafted on the more
common, which reduces the size of the
bush and makes them more prolific.
Grape, by layers and cuttings; and, in
rare instances, grafting is advantageously
employed for new or rare sorts on old or
wild stocks, producing rapid growth and
Raspberry and blackberry, by suckers,
cutting of roots and layers.
Gooseberry and currant, by cuttings and
sometimes by layers.
To Insure good work one must have
sharp tools and good wax. Ben: Perley
Poore, in The American Cultivator, who
approves of the above schedule, says to
make the grafting wax by heating and
mixing equal parts of resin, tallow and
yellow beeswax. A coat of this wax,
about one-twentieth of an inch thick,
spread over muslin, calico or flexible pa-
per, makes an excellent covering for out-
door grafting, or, spread half as thick, is
well adapted to root grafting.
Farm Acreage and Farm Values.
Statistician Dodge, in his report on ag-
ricultural statistics, makes it appear
that the farm area of the United States
has nearly doubled in thirty years, in-
creasing from 293,560,614 to 636,081,835
acres. During the firstten years the tak-
ing up of government lands in the west
and south and the state lands of Texas
was active. The most-fertile areas, little
encroached upon in the newer settle-
ments, were taken possession of with a
certainty of appreciation in value that
added intensity to theopursuit of homes
obtainable at insignificant prices. The
absolutely free homestead had not at that
time been guaranteed by law. In the next
decade the disturbing element of the civil
war prevented aggregate increase, the
states within the theatre of actual warfare
declining in area, some farms being aban-
doned and hence not counted as farms.
At the same time many of the western
states showed a considerable increase.
Kansas, for instance, with 1,778,400 acres
in 1860, had 5,656,879 in 1870.
Between- 1870 and 1880 the new lands
taken into the farm area exceeded 128,-
000,000 acres. Of thisino less than 49,-
000,000 were in
Ssix division! be-
/- o to tweenthe lissis-
Ssippi and the
I ATS Rocky'moun-
w1-rA tains. The in-
17A increase was' large
S //Ar i in the south, es-
Specially in Texas,
where it -was
DIAGRAM OF FARM 'The proportion of
PRODUCTS. unimproved land,
notwithstanding the new land taken up,
has been constantly decreasing. It was
61.5 per cent. in 1850, 59.9 in 1860, 53.7
in 1870 and 46.2 in 1880. 11
According to the same authority the in-
crease of twenty years in .the values of
products of American agriculture has
been far greater than the increase in popu-
lation. Quantities have enormously in-
creased and values have changed, some
being lower and some higher than in 1860.
The principal products are shown in the
accompanying diagram in the order of
their prominence. Meat, which represents
ranch grass or pasturage, I's first, followed
by corn, wheat, hay, dairy products, cot-
ton, poultry products, etc. Corn stood
first in 1860 because the grains of the
western half of the continent were un-
utilized, and meat production east of the
Mississippi has assumed greatly enlarged
proportions. A part of the corn, about
half, and a small part of the hay, are du-
plicated in the value of meats. The dairy
products are principally from pasturage,
and therefore do not duplicate extensively
values of other items.
The products represented in the diagram
and the proportion of each in the two
periods are given in millions of dollars, as
Articles. Value df Per 'Value of Per
products, cent. products. cent
Meats.............. 300 17.09 5i) S2 i
Corn............. 361 21.05 6"iD 16
Wheat...........'. 125 "'7.6 4S7 11.7
Hay................ 153 9.1 41) l 0
Dairy products...., 152 9.1- 853 95
Cotton............. 212 12.6 272 7.8
Poultry products.. 75 4.5 180 a.8
'Other products..... 298 17.8 6579 15.6
Total.... .... 1,676 100.0 8,728 -100.0
Experiment with Vows. -
On the Wisconsin Agriculrural college
farm six cows were kept, three by pastur-
ing and three by soiling. Professor Henry
reports the result: There was gained a
product, of 1,779 pounds of milk from one
acre of pasture, producing 83 pounds of
butter, while one acre in soiling crop gave
4,782 pounds of milk, which made 196
pounds of butter. The pasture was one
of the-best blu~e gas~pastures, capable of
carrying a cow per acre the season
-through, .under favorable weather :con-
dition s. *: .
A Thoroughbred Cow.
The presence of any thoroughbred cow
in a herd, says American Dairyman, has
a most remarkable effect upon the owner.
She is the first one he concerns .himself
-about when the herd is looked up. She
gets all the petting and the extra bits of
grass. The wife sets that cow's nilk separ-
ate to use in the family, and when the cow
has a new calf everybody goes out to look
at it. Such a cow has a refining influ-
ence in the family, and every family and
every farmer should have one in his herd
A Cheap and Convenient Shed.
The shed shown in the accompanying
cut is usually made of poles at the west,
but can be just as easily made of sawed
timbers. It can be of any length, but
should not be more than thirty feet,. wide
for a double shed, or half as wide for a
single shed. It consists of three rows of
posts two or more feet in the ground, five
to seven feet apart. The middle row
should be enough higher than the others
to give sufficient pitch. Each row should
have a strong plate 4x4 or 4x6. No cross-
ties are needtled, except at the ends to re-
ceive the sidings. Rafters pass each other
on the ridge pole and are fastened together
by pins, as our grandfathers fastened
theirs. They should also be spiked to
plates. The top can be sheathed and
shingled or covered with hay or straw
and weighted down. Framed barns are
made in this country on the same plan.
All cross ties and beams are done away
with, which makes them much more con-
venient for hay barns.
Congress and Pleuro-Pneumonia.
Chairman Hatch, of the house commit-
tee on agriculture, received from Com-
missioner Colman a reply to the resolu-
tion offered a few days before by Mr.
Swinburne of New York, in which the com-
missioner sets forth comprehensively the
difficulties met in the attempt to extirpate
or control the pleuro-pneumonia scourge
in the present state of the law and with
the machinery at hand, and re-enforces his
recommendations previously made for
more heroic methods. The commissioner
argues that the quarantine of infected
cattle, even if it could be efficiently done,
does not prevent the spread of the con-
tagion, except in isolated cases, and that
the losses from restrictions in trade
are greater than those caused by the dis-
ease itself. He has therefore recommended,
and does now recommend, as the only
measure which will extirpate the plague
and prevent both the direct and indirect
losses, that wherever an infected herd is
discovered all exposed animals be slaugh-
tered, the premises thoroughly disinfected,
and the owner compensated for the loss to
which he is subjected for the protection of
the public. He urges upon the committee
the necessity of legislation giving to the
department power to carry out the
measures required for extirpating pleuro-
pneumonia, untrammeled by state laws or
state authorities, if it is expected to
promptly suppress this disease. At present
he can only co-operate with the state
authorities in accordance with state legis-
lation in the matter. In some states there
are no laws on the subject, 'and in afl tle'"
rest they are wholly inadequate for the
prompt extirpation of the-plague. There
is little doubt, however, that strong con-
stitutional objections will be raised in con-
grass to such legislation aS the commis-
sioner recommends.-Rural New Yorker.
Fence Posts Upside Down.
There are many farmers who .believe
that fence posts set upside down will last
longer than will those set the same way
as the timber grows. This idea probably
originated from the theory that. moisture
would not have the same effect upon the
tissue of the wood when it was inverted
as would be the case when fixed in its
natural position. There may or may not
be something in this, but with ordinary
oak fence posts it would be quite counter-
balanced by the inconvenience of having
the smaller and generally more sappy
part of the post fixed in the soil. An ag-
ricultural writer who has had large exper-
ience with oak posts prefers having these
sawed and fixed in the same position as
the trees grew, especially when the logs
from which they are cut taper consider-
ably, which they are liable to do.'
Facts Farmers Ought to Know.
The Western New York Horticultural
society will hold its thirty-second annual
meeting at Rochester on Wednesday, Jan.
26. Papers are promised "from John J.
Thomas, Dr. E. Lewis Sturtevant, Charles
H. Green,, Dr. J. A. Lintner and others
prominent in horticulture.
The December crop report, states that
the farm value of corn which last Decem-
ber was 33 cents per bushel is now 87
cents, one cent higher than the crop of
1884, and the average December price of
wheat is 69, cents, a reduction of 8 cents
from the average value of the last crop
and 4 1-2 cents above the price in 1884.
-Several gentlemen of Maine have leased
a big barn a Cape Elizabeth, where they
propose wintering several hundred quail,
to be liberated in different sections of the
state in the spring.
The Beauty of Hebron potato is men-,
tioned as one of the leading varieties al
present for general culture in Great
'Cooking 'feed for. stock is .a subject
much discussed at present, and as good
authority as Professor Stewart is reported
as: advocating it for all kinds of domestic
_ Good blood in horses is every year more:
in demand, especially by city buying. The
farmer wif'find readiest sale for his best
bred animals. "
'The agricultural fairs of 18,86 showed
more and better horses than ever before.
There is no branch of our improved stock
breeding as progressive and prosperous as
the draft horse interest, nor any one that
is as profitable. '-
If you have a few dollars to spare, buy
a small flock of sheep and make them a
pen and ayard, and procure a good thor-
oughbred ram two years old to run with
the ewes. Keep an account of the cost,
and if everything goes right the money
will be doubled within a twelvemonth.
So says The Rural New Yorker.
A STRANGE TESTIMONY.
(CONTINUED FROM LAST NUMBER.)
I dressed slowly and went down stairs;
it was nearly dinner time. Miss Carlyon
was sitting on the veranda. She looked
brighter and prettier than I had ever
seen her. Her-improvement was daily
noticeable, and to-night her cheeks
flushed with delicate and becoming color.
She was quite unembarrassed and glad to
talk with me. She said she slept all the
afternoofi and her indisposition of the
morning was simply the result of a sleep-
less night. She had not been present
then, I concluded grimly, at the wife
beating. Presently Mrs. Westhaven
came out and joined us. She seemed
pale and exhausted. For the first time
I noticed a marked resemblance between
"You find the heat oppressive, do you
not?" I asked her, and her reply be-
trayed an agitation and an earnestness of
which I had believed her manner In-
"Oh, yesl" she said, laying her hand
on her heart as if she suffered there.
"Yes, Indeed, it burns me-it burns me
She seemed to be desperately ill.
I saw little o? Westhaven fodr days after
this. It is possible that my manner to
him may not have been cordial. I could
not help a certain restraint, and I am
sure that for awhile he avoided me. This
in time wore away, and we resumed our
former pleasant relations, there being
nothing to excite even further curiosity
in his domestic affairs.
Mrs. Westhaven steadily drooped, los-
ing flesh and color, which Miss Carlyon
as steadily gained. The winter was
nearly over. Westhaven and I had dis-
cussed the change in his wife, but it
came so gradually that he seemed not to
notice it as I did. One night he came to.
"Doctor," he said, "I wish you would
come and see Mrs. Westhaven. She is
not at all well."
I rose hurriedly and went upstairs
with him. He seemed greatly distressed
and quite unnerved, scarcely answering
the questions I put I him concerning the-
nature of the attack.- I found Miss Car-
lyon attending besic& the the bed upon
which Mrs. Westhavcn lay, white, limp,
utterly unlike herself. She smiled
faintly when I addressed her, but I could
not induce her to speak to me. She
looked to me like-a person- who had re-
ceived a sudden' and severe shock. I
asked Miss Carlyon where Mrs. West-
haven had passed the afternoon. She re-
plied that her sister had gone out alone
and returned just before dinner, appar-.
ently very much exhausted; she had been
'in this condition all the" evening. Miss
Carlyon's voice was cold and strained,
and her restless eyes traveled the room
over as she spoks to me. -
Westhaven watc l her every word
anxiously. I had ni, -believed him. capa-
ble of such deep fec.ing for his unloved
wife.' I administered a sleeping draught
and' left the room, followed- by"West-
haven. I turned to speak to him. : He
stood'before me like a desperate, hunted
animal, and there flashed across me a
sudden, horrible suspicion that he was.in
some way connected with his wife's Ill-
ness. An, instant's swift reflection con-
vinced me of my injustice-her symptoms
were not those of a person to whom an
injurious drug has been given, and the
remorse I felt colored my manner to him
with even greater kindness.
So I gave him an opinion which was
the result more of weeks of observation
than of my visit that evening to the pa-
tient., "Frankly, I will tell you," I said,
"that I think Mrs. Westhaven will event-
ually succumb to the same illness which
attacked her sister. Three months ago I
would have refuted this theory as unten-
able in view of her superabundant vital-
ity, but to the eyes of a stranger it is pos-
sibly more apparent than to her family,
to yon, that she is very much changed in
health and appearance." I paused.
Westhaven drew his breath in short, dry
gasps. His hands moved restlessly along
the back of a chair before him.
"Do you think my wife will die?"
I scarcely recognized his voice. I re-
plied gently: -.
S"Not necessarily so.' A change of clir
mate has effected much in the case of
Miss Carlyon; she is certainly a different
person from what she was when I first
saw her. In fact," I added reflectively,
"Miss Carlyon has gained in almost ex-
act proportion to Mrs. Westhaven's loss."
Westhaven Started violently. Hi's face
grew livid. He regarlded me with
a strange expression, one which I could
not fathom. I continued quietly:"
"I should give Mrs. Westhaven no
medicine's. If she does not improve you
must, take her back to the east. Miss
Carlyon need not be considered; I be-
lieve her'to be quite re-stored to health."
I think no one ever impressed me.so
disagreeably as Miss, Carlyon at this
period. She had recovered her health in
a most extraordinary way, but it seemed
,to bring her neither happiness nor good
teniper. It was impossible to converse
with her upon the most trivial topics.
Her capricious temperament was Wearl-'
some In the extreme and her indifference
to her sister' utterly repulsive. West-:
haven was oblivious to it. Whatever was
the fascination she exerted over him, he
was quite subservient to' the spell.' "She
clung persistently to his'side and monopo-"
lized the time and -attention which
should havQ been given for humanity's
sake to his wife.
I avoided Westhaven. He was a great
disappointment to 'me, and I had entirely
lost respect for him, though I firmly be-
lieved his greatest sin to be weakness in
the' hands of an unscrupulous woman.
One day he came to me quite beside him-
self. Miss Carlyon was ill-in the old way
-he had believed her entirely recovered
-he was in despair. His wife, he said,
was much better. I did not know what
to advise. I was not a practicing physi-
cian, and I had come to the firm conclu-
sion that I had best not meddle with, a
complicated and perplexing hereditary
trouble which promised no successful
cure. I preferred fiot tuo auvie a, OItL,
but promised to see them in the evening.
Westhaven left me dejectedly.
I saw nothing of him through the day
and toward 3 o'clock in the afternoon I
reproached myself for what might seem
to him an unpardonable indifference on
my part, and, on an impulse, I went di-
rectl3 to his rooms. The day was insuffer-
ably hot. There were few guests in the
hotel, the season was well over and no
one was visible in the corridors. There
was not a sound save the splashing of a
fountain which played in the court be-
low, cooling the air deliciously. I walked
lazily along the gallery, gazing upward
at the bit of blue sky above the open
court, intensely blue as only tropical sky
I suddenly paused, transfixed, incapa-
ble of further motion. I stood before- a
door leading into an inner sitting room
of Westhaven's, a room which I had en-
tered but once, which I believed he used
for a study. The large glass .ventilator
above the door was swung partially open,
and tipped at such an angle that the In-
terior of the roomi glowing i. nh- fltr.
sunlight which pobiired into it tlirough
the open window, was reflected with the
fatal detailed reproduction of photog-
raphy, upon the surface of the glass.
Every detail of its horrible revelation
was burned upon my brain in an instant!
Upon a long table before the window
through which the sun beat hotly, lay a
long, glass case, with convex sides, and
within this uncovered case, livid, ghastly,
unconscious, lay Mrs. Westhaven. Her
face was drawn by an expression of terri-
ble agony, her limbs were rigid, her
hands clenched convulsively, her beauti-
ful, white breast was bare. The blazing
rays of the sun concentrated by the strong
lens formed by the convex side of the
case threw the spectrum directly over her
heart. She was absolutely motionless;
I could not see even that she breathed.
J ist where the actinic-rays of the spec-
trum fell upon her soft skin, those mys-
terious, rays, whose terrible chemical
power has yet to be fathomed, were
placed two fine glass tubes, connecting
with a magneto electric battery by the
side of the case, manipulated by West-
His face I could not see; it was bent
over the body of his wife; his whole atti-
tude -breathed a desperate and fearful
anxiety. Through thd6se delicate tubes
flowed a something, ultra etheric,- the
faintest aurora, and passing into the bat-
tery was transmitted by means of connept-
ing wires to the hands of Miss Carlyon,
who, seated almost directly beneath the
ventilator, held the handles of the bat-
tery firmly in her grasp. Her head was
thrown back, her face was clearly re-
flected above me, her eyes were shining,
her breath came quickly. The silence of
death was in the room; I felt the painful
excitement of the scientist pending a
I could have shrieked aloud in nervous
horror, but I seemed to have lost the
power of articulation.' I felt sure that
this ultra etheric matter was vital fluid,
the very essence of life. It must .be con-
veyed by odic force engendered by the
immeasurable power of the actinic rays.
Then a foul murder was being committed
in this room-bya process of Inconceivable
torturer As -I stoo there ; powerless,
penetrating to the depths, the secret in-
tende I to be hid from all the wcirld, mem-
ory pictured each scene of the trag-
edy which had been enacted before me,
from the one which theicurtain had long
since rung down on tb this last one so
nearly at a close.
I recalled the beautiful, blooming,
senseless woman who had come in the
early winter to California, and the little,
delicate, dying sister, and the disap-
pointed, tortured,- unloving husband. I
remembered the process of change so
subtly, so delicately treated by which the
condition of these two women had been
reversed. I remembered the feverish
anxiety with which the man had watched
and guarded the change, his mysterious
and baffling nature, his surprising fond-
ness for my society and the greed with
which he had drawn from me and de-
voured my theories upon such very sub-
jects. My GodI Had I, indeed, suggested
to. him the means by which to work his
hellish purpose? Like fire in my blood
this thought burned me at last to action.
I forced open the door. Miss Carlyon
raised her, eyes, wide, staring, horrible,
and saw me. She made no sound in her
terror. 'Westhaven was completely en-
grosser! in.,his g'iastly work; his head
was turned' away. Suddenly he uttered
an awful cry. There was a quick shud-
,der through' the helpless figure 'in the
glass case; the little glass tubes over the
heart glowed with an intensified crimson
light which flickered ,an instant, then
went.out. A- violent shock agitated the
battery beneath .Westhaven's hands,
there was a sudden shattering of glass,; a
swift, blinding flash of brilliant, incan-
descent light., When I unclosed my daz-
zled eyes Miss Carlyon lay, face down-
ward upon -the floor. I knew what had
happened. The last vital spark had been
exhausted and the vampire, who sucked
this life had drawn death with it. West-.
haven stared at me with terrible, vacant
eyes. He seemed stunned. I unlocked
-the door, .spurning the figure of the
woman on the floor with my foot as I
She was quite dead.
r went down to the office.
"Something is wrong in Mr. West-
haven's room," I said to the hotel pro-
prietor, as quietly as I could. "You will
do well to go and s e about it."
The next .time that [ met Mr. West-
)xaven I was called as a witness for the
state in his trial. I repeated substantially
the testimony which I havegiven above,
but did not state my beleif that Mr.
Westhaven had been in love with his
wife's sister. There were hosts of wit-
nesses to testify to the affectionate solici-
tude which he had ever shown for the
health of both ladles since. their arrival
in California. He was acquitted, the
jury probably holding the opinion that
Mr. Westhaven had merely gratified his
love of scientific experiment "with the
best Intentions, though with fatal results.
A Violin Maker's Memory of Ole Bull.
When the name of Ole Bull was men-
tioned, Mr. Colton's face brightened and
it was evident that he was an ardent ad-
mirer of the great virtuoso. He said:
"Ole Bull was Ole Bull, and, while being
a member of no school, he played musio
that was melody. I ,was proud to call
him my friend, and he has often visited
me in this very roomin where, during the
exchange of mutual confidences, he has
played for me some of his favorite selec-
tions. Ole Bull would play an old,
homely melody, say, 'Way Down Upon
the Suwanee River,' or 'Home, Sweet
Home,' in such a manner that the audi-
ence would rise upon its feet .and fairly
howl. One' of the peculiarities of the
great musician was his hand, which was
enormous. It was not pudgy but broad
and long. His fingers covered the entire
neck of the violin, and this, I think
greatly aided him in execution. Tp
to the time of his death he was in fairly
"Ole Bull was the most notable spedi-
men of a man I ever saw. Tall and com-
manding he charmed his audience by his
presence before lie had played "a fiote. _
His arm was "as big around as-my leg,
while he was amply propor.toned. .He
weighed 170 pounds and stood 6 feet 1
inch in his stockings. I think I see him
now facing a great audience, his violin at
his shoulder, the perpetual smile on his
-face and the merry twinkle of his gray
eyes. When last he appeared, at the
Brooklyn Academy of Music, fie held-his
audience spellbound, and during the time
that he was on the stage one could hear
a pin drop, so great was the interest
manifested. Ole Bull was one of the
most simple and good natured men I ever
knew. Often have I discovered hini
under the table in my dining room play-
'ing dog with the children.' He would
bark, and laugh heartily when he saw
that his actions 'pleased the little ones.
He was passionately fond of three things
-hiswife, ihis violin and little children."
-Brooklyn Eagle. -
Japanese Art Metal Work.
The flow of metals is illustrated- very
curiously in one phase of Japanese art
metal worE, of which however, it is quite -
difficult to obtain native. examples. In
its preparation thin layers- of copper,
precious metals and various alloys are sol-
dered in superposition like the leaves of
a. book; through these layers holes are
drilled to various depths in the thickness
of the metal, or trenches are cut in it.
The mass is then hammered flat until the
holes or trenches disappear, and the re-
sult is contorted bands of some complex-
ity, possessing much beauty, especially
when the color of the metal is developed
by suitable chemical treatment and- pol-
ishing. A similar effect may be produced
by beating up the metal from one side
and' filing the other flat.-London En-
gineer. .- .
Weakness of a Word.
How many people ever think of the
weakening effect of the word "very" in
talking or writing? There are but few
cases where it strengthens an idea. For
instance, take this sentence: "Mrs.
Blank is a very fine writer." How mur.n ._
stronger- the sentence is without-the
"very." To say that aman is verywell
known indicates that he is less known
than one of whom we say "He is well.
known." Th-s weakening element is a
characteristic of the word "very." The.
same- might be said of all. superfluous
words, though few, if any, are: so persist-
ently of tlht caa.ter as the word in
question.-Hartford Times. -
S The New Flood Building. "".
The new Flood building in .San Fran-
cisco, Cal., is to be surmounted by flv ,
-emblematic figures of heroic size, the-.
subjects chosen being appropriate to the'
growth and progress of the state. They
will be made of- white metal and will be'
the first of the kind ever cast on that
coast. The plinth upon which they will
rest, will be 85 feet from the'ground so
that the figures will only appear to be of
life size proportions.-Chicago Times.
Accurate Map of Our Country.
An accurate map of the 'United States
is in preparation by Maj. Powell, and
will be finished. in about a year. The
coast line has long been quite perfectly
charted, but the inaccuracy of internal
surveys has caused the placing of;- some
localities fully five miles out of the way
on the best of existing ,maps.-Arkansaw
Best Varieties of Foyls.
"What variety shall I ..breed?" Is an
ever recurring question that receives each
season ever varying answers. A very
sensible reply is that-of The Sopthern Cul-
tivator, which is ln!ibref,-tatarno one can
answer the question better than yourself.
If your yards-.are siaILyQour .common'
sense ought to te you that-large breeds,
such as light or dark'Brahias, buff'or .
partridge Cochins, White Cochins- or
Langshans may suit You.' 'Either stand
confinement well but need clds attention .
to keep them from getting to6'fst. They
are all good writer layers, hatchi and rear
their young, and whef fully matured are.
of enormous size ." -
If, on the bother hand;, your runs are un-
limited, the' Leghorns, Ganred; Houdans,
Spanish and Hamburge ar 'e"all good.
These are decidedly acti'#e,.dphetter when
roaming at largethan whcn confined, and
in fact are hard to keep shut up, as they
fly over fences.ten feet high. They will
knock a garden crazy in ten ,mluutes, stir
up the flower bed in fine style anid assert
rights on all occasions. 'Of the medium
class the Wyandottes and Plymouth Rocks ."
hold undisputed' ground; .They seem to
do as well on small runs as large, will lay
almost the year through with good treat-
ment, and are large enough for all pur- -<
poses. To those who are breeding for "
"fancy points" the Plymouth Rock Is
more popular than its rival, the Wyan -
dotte. Both"'are the product of crosses,
but the Plymouth Rock has been bred so
long that but little trouble is experienced
in securing good "standard specimens,
while in theWyandot.te not more than one
in ten will do to breed from. But above
all in breeding pure tock select the kind *
that suits you best. .
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. MARCH 2,1887.
State News in Brief.
Mango trees are in bloom in Fort My-
The Pensacola Co.mmercial has become
Winter Park people are thinking of
incorporating the town.
Fort Myerasis to be lighted by an Edi-
son electric light plant.
Shipments of tomatoes are being made
from as far north as Marion county.
Pears are being shipped from near
Eustis by a Mr. Wooten, who is getting
$5 per crate.
It is estimated that there are 5,000
acres of oats planted in the neighbor-
hood around Oxford.
There will be an immense pineapple
'crop on the Florida keys and mainland,
the ensuing season.
Peen-To peaches are now as large as
marbles, and very abundant on the trees
in Alachua county.
In Hillsberough county for the week
ending February 17th there were twenty-
two transfers of real estate.
Fishing is good around Enterprise.
Three guests of the Brock Rouse brought
in 417 ppunds,. the result of a single
For the week ending the 17th of Feb-
ruary, thirty-six transfers of real estate
were filed for record or recorded in Her-
Some of Jackson county's farmers will
plant unusual crops of cucumbers for
the purpose of supplying the growing
demand for home made pickle.
It is estimated that when the season
fairly opens there will be shipped daily
from the vicinity of Lake Helen, no less
than 800,000 quarts of strawberries. '-
The dynamos for the Tampa Electric
Light Co. have arrived, and very soon
the streets and buildings of Tampa will
be lighted with that mysterious fluid.
The heaviest car with the greatest
tonnage of cargo that ever passed over
the Florida Southern Railway was in
Eustis last week. It was twenty-five
tons of fertilizer.
The Crescent City Gazette claims that
Jamaica ginger can be grown with great
success in Florida and says that there
are specimens in Crescent City which
will prove the assertion.
The South Florida Railroad has put
in substantial stock yards at Kissim-
mee. The immense herds of cattle
raised south of Kissimmee can now be
shipped from that place instead of being
driven to Orlando as heretofore.
Two Indians from away up in Maine
have arrived in-Palatka, bringing with
them their birch bark canoes, which
they let out to pleasure or hunting par-
ties.. The canoes are beauties, and are
said to be perfectly safe. They can be
propelled at good speed, and are the very
_ thing to hunt in. '
The peach trees have taken the town
with a storm o1' pink blossoms. PMuIms,
Spears, quinces, etc., are also'%'bloomiing
profusely, and orange trees arebudding.
he flower-gardens are simply'wonder-
ful, and it is certainly a voluptuous
spring that has overtaken us at the win-
-ter solstice.-Lake City Tobacco Plant.
S The Hernando Tournament Associa-
tion will hold a grand tournament at
Brooksville on Marlch 2d, wh6n. fifty
knights in costume will contend for the
nine prizes offered. The railroads will
give reduced rates to all who wish to at-
tend. A grand day is expected, and the
festivities will wind up with a ball in
the evening. '
Mr. S. J. Hoggson, of New Haven,
Conn., has been engaged in preserving
Oranges for the Florida Fruit Exchange
under his patent process in order to
more thoroughly test the preservative
under varied conditions, not only in
Florida, but in several cities of the North,
where they-will be held under seal.
Parties interested in the phosphates of
Wakulla county have leased 15,000 and
purchased 4,000 acres of land. The drafts
for the first payment were handled by
Messrs. G. W. Saxon & Co. Judge W.
T. Duval, of Crawfordsville, has discov-
ered another deposit of phosphates, and
lively times are anticipated in Wakulla.
Mr. W. W. Wilson, who is spending
the winter in Gainesville, and who is ed-
itor of a Newark,Dakota, paper, received
a letter this week from his home stating
that the snow in that region is four feet
deep on a level, and'that the mildest
weather experienced in that region this
winter was 20 degrees below zero. At
the same date in Gainesville the ther-
mometer marked 70 degrees in the
The early vegetables at Micanopy are
making a splendid growth. The weather
has beon favorable to the growth of
Irish potatoes, and Mr. John Gamble re-
ports having several acres already in
bloom. The cabbage crop has sustained
no injury and many fine heads are now
in market. Beans are making a good
growth, but the bulk of this crop has
only just been planted. Many growers
have set out tomato plants and many
have plants three to four inches high.
The season has certainly been auspicious
and the prospect for good crops and
prices is indeed flattering.
There are now three different times re-
cognized and observed in Gainesville.
They are sun time, standard time and
city time. *The first is about thirty-four
minutes ahead of the second, and the
second is from e'ght to twelve minutes
ahead of the third. The laboring classes
observe sun time; the railroads observe
standard time, while the city and many
people who desire to take'trains observe
city time. But for the benefit of per-
sons who travel and who contemplate
traveling, say we, that if a person at-
tempts to catch a train by the time dic-
tated by the town clock, he will be left
every time. Let the town clock be
moved forward until it reaches standard
CATTLE IN SOUTH FLORIDA.
The Syndicates Conflict with
Cattle Men's Interests.
OGDEN CITY, Manatee Co., Fla.,
Edtitor Florida Farmer and Iruit-Grower:
C.ittle raising in South Florida has un-
til recent date been paramount to all
other industries.: The pioneers of Flor-
ida started with them from Georgia and
kept them upon the heels of the Semi-
noles until they have reachedithe impen-
etrable Everglades in search of a fresh
range, hearing the war-whoop of the
brave Seminole and often getting scalped
by venturing too far.
That these pioneers should have their
rights protected and that the State Gov-
ernment of Florida should have fostered
the cattle industry, is now plain for all
to see. Four million acres were sold to
a syndicate at the nominal price of 25
cents an acre: but the latter men had no
opportunity of buying these lands at that
price. Several of them had endeavored
to purchase lands at reduced rates for
pastures. Capt. F. A. Hendry and Col.
Summerlin, both endeavored to buy
land for pasture.
Rut for this policy there would be fine,
pastures throughout South Florida, and
the grade of cattle would have been im-
proved by crossing with fine breeds.' As
it is,; but few imported cattle have been
brought in and the same scrub stock
that were driven from Georgia prove it
with but one exception. Capt. F. A.
Hendry has imported some fine Baha-,
mas, and they thrive and do fully as
well as the scrub stock, being fine milk-
ers and growing to a large size.
The Okeechobee Drainage Company
have turned loose into the Caloosahatchie
River Lake Kissimmee, and materially
damaged the cattle range. It reminds
the writer of a small, snake trying to
swallow a huge one, as the Caloosahat-
chee had more water before than it
could swallow without running over.
This syndicate asks for its lands $1.25 an
acre by sections or townships, and thus
it will be seen at a glance that to start a
stock farm an immense amount of capi-
tal would be required, in fact, too much
for the income. This Okeechobee Drain-
age Company has not redrained one acre
of land, except a small area on Cross
Prairie in Brevard county.
When this writer landed in Florida in
1850, cattle then sold-at five dollars for
stoci cattle, and beef cattle sold for
,twelve dollars, and they are to-day
worth those prices. There never has
been any falling off but often greater ad-
vances in prices. Stock could not be
bought for ten dollars per head, and
beef cattle eighteen dollars. -
In 1860 Capt. Jas. McKay opened a
trade in cattle with Cuba, and kept it up
until the war of the Rebellion; and at the
close of the war, ia 1865, the cattle trade
was renewed -with Cuba, and has'con-
tinued at intervals ever since.
Of late years the large prices have not
been maintained, and not more than
twelve dollars hayp been realized by the
,cattle owners. IW,.
There has been a greit falling off in
the range, though not enough to .injure
materially the cattle industry. They
live through winter without being fed
and get fat by first of May.
It is an established fact that this cattle
-trade will never be as good as it has
been, for 50,000 head have been shipped
to Cuba in one season. They are now
raising many cattle in Cuba and only
buy from Florida when there is a dry
season and their cattle are poor and
Florida cattle fat.
The many railroads being built and
the large immigration coming in will
consume what beef is raised. Key West
alone consumes 1,000 head' of" beef
Cattle still pay well, as they double in
five years if they remain healthy. Since
1850 there have been no diseases to
amount to anything until two years ago,
when many died. The disease, how-
ever, has disappeared, and cattle are do-
ing finely. The range is still as in the
good old days; how long it will remain
so is only a question of time.
There are thousands of acres of prairie
lands that are unfit for anything but
grazing, that would make fine stock
farms, if planted to other grasses. The
para grass does exceedingly well and
others would do better. The Bermuda
grass is at home here and grows all the
With a free range and scrub stock, and
nothing but native grasses, cattle pay.
They certainly would pay better with
good grasses and improved stock. Cat-
tie have always been sold by the head or
age; it is time now to sell by the pound.
One hundred head of stock cattle can
be bought for five hundred dollars. The
cost of having the increase of calves
marked and branded is fifty cents each,
and no more attention is required until
the beef is fit for market, at three and
four years of age; then fifty cents to
have the beef gathered and shipped. In
other words, a calf will eat one dollar
and the owner will get twelve in three
years. By this it will readily be. seen
that cattle are still a paying investment.
If lands could be bought at reduced
rates from present prices, many persons
would buy lands and have fine stock
farms1 Several gentlemen from Tennes-
see have been corresponding with the
writer to buy and locate grazing lands
and I could not buy from Col. Forbes,
Mr. Disston's agent, one or more town-
ships for less than $1.25 an acre, and so.
they went to Texas and bought lands
and are now living there on fine stock
In many counties in this State the
County Commissioners assess individual
lands at $1.25 an acre, and the large
land owners 30 cents an acre when they
are engaged in no enterprise to build up
the country; in fact they are engaged in
no enterprise' except to sell off their
lands at large prices, the purchasers
helping" on the enterprise by helping
them to sell the remainder of this land.
F. C. M. BOGGESS.
Report of the Committee Ap-
pointed to Investigate.
The following contains the gist of a
voluminous report recently submitted
by the committee appointed to investi-
gate the drainage operations which have
been in progress in South Florida for.
some years past:
To the Governor of the State of Florida :
SmIR-Having been appointed by you,
under date of Noverhber 17th, A. D.
1885, to perform certain duties indicated
and prescribed by chapter 8689, of the
laws of the State of Florida, entitled an
act "Authorizing the Governor to ap-
point a committee to investigate and as-
certain what quantity of land, and the
number of acres, the Atlantic and Gulf
Canal and Okeechobee Land Company
has reclaimed for the State, and other
purposes," we respectfully report that
we have concluded the investigation
contemplated by said act, and submit
the following statement of facts as the
THE WORK ACCOMPLISHED.
The Atlantic and Gulf Canal and Okee-
chobee Land Company, which for great-
er brevity we will hereafter designate as
the Drainage Company, has dug a canal
from the East Tohopekaliga Lake, which
is now known, and will be designated in
this report as east lake to and into Lake
Tohopekaliga, the length of which is
3 and 2-10 miles, the width from 33 to 36
feet and'the depth from four to seven
'" The least depth of water found was 22
inches, and the average current li miles
per hour. From the South end of Lake
Tohopekaliga, at Southport, the com-
pany has due a canal to and into Cy-
press Lake, the length of which is 3 6-10
miles, the width 70 feet and the depth
from 5 to 8 feet, with an average cur-
rent of 1 miles per hour.
From Cypress Lake to Lake Hatchine-
ha a canal has been dug 2 4-10 miles in
length 70 feet in width, and from 4 to
6j feet in depth.
During the past summer a canal has
been cut from Hatchineha in the direc-
tion of Lake Kissimmee, and to within a
few hundred yards of the latter lake.
-Below Lake Kissimmee there have
been several cuts made across loops or
bends in the river, the entire length of
which approximates two miles.
From a point on the southwest side of
the Okeechobee a canal has been dug 25
feet in width and from 4 to 7 feet in
depth, a distance of 2 and 57-100 miles,
connecting the waters of the Okeecho-
bee with Lake Hickpoochee. From Lake
Hickpoochee to Lake Flirt a canal has
been dug a distance of about four miles,
the.cut b'ing 46 feet in width, and from
4'to 10 feet in depth, with a current of
1+ miles per -hour. -After reaching Lake
Flirt a series of cuts have ,been made
westward along and near this lake and
into the headwaters of the Caloosahat-
chie river, for a distance of about nine
Below Lake Flirt the Drainage Com-
pany has expended a good deal of work
in opening arid clearing the channel of
the Caloosahatchie, through a limestone
ridge above Fort Thompson at a point
known "as the Rapids. From the Rapids
to Fort Myers some clearing out has been
done, relieving the river (f snags and
obstructions. In addition to this work,
we find that the company-have cleared
away the obstructions in Tiger creek, an
important tributary of the Kissimmee,
which enters Lake Kissimmee from the
west, connecting it with Tiger Lake,
Lake Rosalie and Walk-in-Water Lake,
making this stream practicable for the
lighter class of steamers which navigate
the river into Lake Rosalie, and, under
favorable circumstances, to a point
above that lake.
RESULTS OF DRAINAGE.
The best proof of the capacity of these
canals for carrying off the waters which
they are required to discharge is the ac-
tual effect produced by them upon the
waters along their route. The period of
the year selected by the committee for
the examination of this work was very
nearly that of the greatest annual de-
pression of the waters of the rivers and
lakes. Your committee reached Kissim-
mee City on the 20th of February, A. D.
1886, and proceeded from that point
down the river, through the lakes to Fort
Myers, making the examinations, the
results of which verified by the state-
ments of reliable witnesses, as well as by
subsequent observations, are given in
The difference in level between East
Lake and the Tohopekaliga, before the
waters of the two lakes were connected,
was about 8 feet. Your committee found
by examination that the waters of East
Lake, at the time of their visit in the
latter days of February, had been low-
ered about 6( feet. This lowering of the
waters was to be attributed largely, if
not altogether, to the opening of the
While the depth and width of this ca-
nal may be beneficially increased, its ca-
pacity s sufficient-to carry off the waters
which flow into East Lake, fn ordinarily
wet seasons, judging by the relief it has
thus far given, provided it is kept free
from bars and obstructions.
Lake Tohopekaliga, your committee
found to be about five and a half feet be-
low its highest level, before the canal
from Southport to Cypress was cut, as
shown by persons long resident and fa-
miliar with the waters of the lake.
From this point southward to Lake
Okeechobee, your committee are satis-
fied that very little effect has been pro-
duced upon the waters along their route,
by the opening of these canals. In other
words, the facts show that from Cypress
lake to Lake Okeechobee, the canals
have not thus far exhibited sufficient ca-
pacity to carry off the waters along their
route, or materially reduce their normal
That the canal from Lake Okeechobee
to Lake Hickochee had not materially
lowered the waters of the former lake
was evident, though even so small an
that the canals and o'h'r work of the Retail.
Drainage Company had exercised but The following quotations are carefully re-ERTLIZI G
little, if any, influence in bringing this vised for Wednesday's and Saturday's paper 'TAPTIIA
influence from quotations furnished by dealers in the IFVLOUIA F RT ILIZIN WGO
state of things about. City Market.
Below Lake Cypress they did not find Carrots wholesale at 6250 per barrel, and E. T. PAINE, PRESIDENT.
retail at 50 cents per peck. .. =..., ~
the water courses sensibly lowered by Green Onions wholesale at 60 cents to 76
the work of the company, except in Lake cents per hundred, and retail 5 cents per Florida Orange Food per ton............. 23.00
Flirt, anti the Caloosahatchie above Fort bunch.
FlirtThompson, and in the aloosahatchieakes atbovthe headFort lrda Cabbage wholesale for 7 to 10 cents Florida Vegetable Food per ton......... 28.00
Thompson, and in the lakes at the head each, and retail? at 15 cents. s .. .
of Tiger Creek, and there only to the ex- Quail wholesale at 10 cents each and retail Analysis: Bone Phosphate of Lime, 30
tent before stated. at 15 cents, or two fora quarter cent.; Sulphate of Potash 12 per cent.
.woleal.at626.t 640 er..bo., nesla, 6 per cent. Lime Soda and other val-
After mature and careful delbrt On ranges wnolesal ra pt~z o v u n-est'. 6gpr cent. Lme oi
After mature and careful deliberation retail at two and three for 5 cen. able Ingredients.
the committee find that the only lands Spinage wholesales at $1 00 per bushel and c ''vw i-' A
that can be considered reclaimed are retails at four quarts for 25 cents. .. vv -..
those lying on and adjacent to East Lake sweet Potatoes wholesale at 50 cents per D ROVER, WHIPPOORWI.L AND CLAY
bushel, and retail at 5 cents per quart. ... ....." ....
and the Tohopekaliga, and these lands Lettuce wholesales at 25 to 30 cents per FOR SEED2
cannot be treated as permanently drained dozen heads, and retail at 5 cents per head.
until relief is given to the rivers and Parsnips wholesale at 250 to 62 75 per bar- Send for treatise on Culture of Orange
rel and retail at four and five for 10. cents.
lakes below. The number of acres so re- Robins wholesale at 6 cents each and retail Tree.
claimed, they estimate at about eighty at 10 cents.
thousand Celery wholesales at50 to 60 cents per dozen rp HE E. MOULIE FLORIDA FLORAL PER-
tousand. and retails at three to four stalks for 25 cents, T fumerv Company will pay 25 cents per
according to size. -pound for'r yellow Jasmine Blosoms, delivered
MARCH WEATHE. ggs are In poor demand. Duval county Ea tret. Parties who can pick
e eggs are quod at wholesale at 13ceun s Flowers for the above Company will please cor-
The followingtable,,on-piledfrom the records e'perdozenuanderetail at 2 D cen. o
of the Jack onvile Signa Station by Sert. J. Northern cabbage scarce. Wholesale at 8 respond with them.
W. Smith, represents the temperature, condition to 9 cents per head. They retail at from 15 to
of weather, rainfall and dh-ectlon ot wind for 20 cents. Canada Hard-Wood Vialeacbed
the month of February, as observed at the Jack- Boston marrowfat squashes wholesale at a -
sonvllle station during the past 15 years: $2 60 per barrel, retail at 5, 10 and 15 cents AS E -S I
TM.P. w l&THxr. 1 each. He
0 ^New York Irish potatoes wholesale at .Cheapestfertilizer iause, and free from nox-
.... .a 8250 per barrel and retail at 10 cents per quart iousweeds. Supplied in car lots of 12 or more
Sfa i *for .two quarts for 15 cents. tons. Guaranteed free of rubbish. Put up in
Z8A I & '' 1 Northern beets are worth wholesale 1225 barrels. Price and analysis free on application.
0 db 1 to 2 50 per barrel, and retail at 10 centsper AddressCHAS.STEVENS ...
-4 up 84 9O q uart, ortwo uarts for 15 cents. Vox 487 Napanee. Ontario, Canado.
Radishes bring at wholesale 20 to 25 cents
1872 82 4 9 18 8 10 7.82 NE per dozen bunches of seven radishes each.
1878 82 86 59 14 11 6 5.29 8W They retail at 5 cents per bunch, or three END YOUR
1874 87 87 66 9 17 B 2.18 SW bunches for 10 cents. -
1875 856 40 64 8 16 8 1.80 SW Live poultry-chickfens, wholesale, from 20 D 1 ri
1876 82 81 60 14 18 4 5.41 NE to 8: cents each; retail 40 to 50 cents each. ) jo b IT9 V
1877 81 86 61 18 12 1 2.58 SW Dressed poultryper'pound-chickens retail, J b r --
1875 86 89 65 7 14 10 2.87 NE 18 to 20 cents. Turkeys wholesale, .00 to TO THE TIMES-UNION JOB ROOMS
1879 86 44 64 14 13 4 1.85 NE 11.75'each,'and retail at20 cents per pound.
1880 86 43 868 12 17 8 1.89 Sw Northern meats retail as follows: Chicago
1881 80 81 60 16 9 6 2.89 W beef from 18 to 2 cents per pound;Floria AMAHILLSOROUG CONTY,
1882 88 47 66 14 18 4 .89 SW beef6tol5centsperpound;veal20to25cents; FLORIDA.
1888 79 40 60 18 14 4 8.84SW pork12 to 15cents;mutton10 to 20 cents,
1834 81 42 66 14 11 6 268 SW venison 25 cents; sausage 15 cents; corned General Business and Real Estate Agency of
1885 79 88 58 10 18 8 5.66 NE beef10 cents.
1886 84 87 60 8 16 12 6.74 NE Nassau tomatoes wholesale at 60 to 75 cents W. N. CONOLEY.
..... per box and retail at 15 to 20 cents per quart
J. W. SMITH, If you wish a town lot, an orange grove, or
Sergt. Signal Corps, U. S. A. OUR SPECIAL MARKETS wild lands in this rapidly Improving section,
or if you have taxes to be paid, or property to
"We Know by Experience." Latest Quotations of Florida Fruits be improved, or money to be Inveted, write
For three years we have used Brad- And Vegetables, to this agency.
ley's Vegetable" Fertilizer. After test- The following special despatches, by special Money can be placed on Real Estate with a
ing along with other high grade fertil- arrangements with the Florida Fruit E Margin on Iwo-thlrds of values at 10
izers, we pronounce it ette than n ange, are sent to the Tamzs-Uio( by the and 12 per cent.
sold, i F ouid.n e shal it againy agents of the Fruit Exchange in the various
sold in Florida. We shall use it again otties. "They can be relied upon as accurate: FREE OF CHARGE TO LENDnB.
this year. Special to the TIMBS-UNION:] Ninety days to foreclose more where
We do not hesitate to say to the vege- NEW YORK February 28.-Too cold to-day there Is no contest. All costs and attorney's
table growers of Florida that they can- for any sale. 14No change in the market. Best fees provided for In mortgage. Write for
not use anything so good as Bradley's fruit in demand. so DAY further information and send for list of prop-
Florida Vegetable Fertilizer. We know SpecaltotheTxS-U : erty for Sale. W.N. CONOLEY,
by experience what we say regarding BALTIMORE, February 28.-Cold weather Tampa, Florida.
this fertilizer, has Interfered somewhat with the demand, RBFrEnCFx--Ex-Governor Drew. Jackson-
WOFFORD & WILDER. but prices remain the same as last reported. ville; First National Bank, Tampa, and Hon.
Ft. Mason, Fla. Dix & WILKINS. John T. Lesley, Tampa
outlet cannot but have produced some
effect. At the season of the year when
very nearly the least amount of water
was flowing into the Okeechobee your
committee found ihe marshes adjacent
to tl;e Hickpochee canal covered with
water from twelve to eighteen inches
deep, and the entire want of capacity in
the canal for-thle purpose contemplated
was apparent. The canals below Lake
Hicpoochee and through Lake Flirt into
the headwaters of the Caloosahatchie
were evidently producing some results.
From Fort Thompson westward to the
Gulf the waters were at their normal
level. No outlet had been provided by
the Drainage Company, and no change
could be expected.
INFLUENCE ON ADJACENT COUNTRY.
The act requires a report as to the
probablee influence upon the waters
adjacent to or along said line of canals."
That but little influence upon the waters
along or adjacenttothis line can be ex-
pected from these canals, except around
the Tohopekaliga and East Lake, is evi-
dent from the fact, that from Cypress
Lake to the Caloosahatchie. no material.
lowt-ring of'the waters of the lakes and
rivers along the line'of the canals them-
selves has thus'far been produced. .
The permanent lowering of the waters
of Lake Okeechobee, the Kissimmee
river, its lakes and tributaries, was and
is the main feature of the whole plan of
drainage as embodied in the contract
made with the trustees. If these waters
are not permanently lowered and kept
reduced, then the plan of drainage is
not carried out, and there can be no
reclamation under the contract, inas-
much as the company has filed to reduce
the lakes and rivers which were to be
lowered in order to effect the reclama-
tion. The effect of the lowering of the
waters of Lake Tohopekaliga and East
Lake, on the contiguous marshes and
adjacent country, when examined by
the committee in February and March,
1886, was very marked.
At Narcoossee, on the east side of East
Lake, at which point an English colony
have located, and on the west side of
this lake where the canal enters the Cross
Prairie, and at Southport and several
other places on the Tohopekaliga. exten-
sive areas of marsh lands were ditched,
and being prepared for crops. Plows
were upturning the rich mould, rnd,
notably at Southport, large crops of veg-
etables were in process of cultivation.
From Cypress Lake southward, how-
ever, the committee.found the waters of
the lakes hnd rivers very nearly at their
normal level, neither Okeechobee nor
the rivers and lake above had been either
permanently or sensibly lowered by
these canals. It is apparent, therefore,
that the canals thus far cut below Lake
Cypress will probably exert but very lit-
tle influence over the waters along or
adjacent to their line. It is true that in
February and March,of 1886, a very large
proportion of the land within the drain-
age limits, not contiguous to the lakes
and rivers, were free from water, as the
waters then were approximating their
lowest annual level. Of this vast region
it could be safely said, that far the
greater proportion of its area was abun-
dantly dry at'this season for cultivation,
Not only was this true of the m6re ele-
vated lands, ,but the rich low prairie ly-
ing between the marshes along the lakes
and rivers, and the plain country back
and beyond, were out of water and com-
paratively dry. The committee, how-
ever, do not hesitate to report that
the condition of the adjacent coun-
try at this time,, except. around
East Lake and the Tohopekaliga,
was attributable to natural causes, and
was but an average one for the season of
the year at which they visited it, and
S t d SA S1peclal to the TIMEs-UNIo0:]
2 I0NCI NNATI. February 28.-Bright oranges
62.60853.25; russetsa $i. 0852.2-'
ALOWHEAD, DALE & Co.
A<'t?ONVIL~LEMHAKR!f ., ,
Wholesle Commission Merchants' quotations.
Wholesale. Special to the TIMES-UNrON:]
JACKSONVILLE, February 23,1887. NEW YORK, February 28.-A few vegetables
Provisions, came in on to-day's steamer, and 3,500 boxes
MEATS-D. S. short ribs boxed, $8 .0; D. S. of oranges. The market is firmer, and fancys
long clear sides 850; D. S. bellies 68 45; are In demand. We are anticipating an ad-
moked short ribs 8 87%; smoked bellies 9 10; vance in prices soon. Fancy peas and beans
S C. hams, uncassed fancy, 12V; S. C. break would bring $56 a crate strawberries 25c@1
fast bacon, uncanvassed, 9'c; S. C. shoul- aquart. Notselling. Weather toocold.
ders, uncanvassed, 8c; California or pic- G. PALMZR.
nic hams, 83/c. Lard-riflned tierces 7yc; .
Mess beef-barrels$1050, halfbarrels6575; mess LEAF TOBACCO MARKET.
pork $14 75. These quotations are for round
lots from first hands; whole cattle 7%@7; ..W YORKFbruar 2.Th- Wester
dressed hogs 8a c; sheep:9c; pork sausage Nc; YORK Fu a 28.-T he Wetr
lon ...... n7,c;,head chs leaf market is dullj owing to the light de-
rainsk fko onolo na a c;. hoeesecds8e omnd.' The New York leaf Is quiet, while the
loiaEnsl'/2c; t u.c2; round r Sc. oundHavana leaf is in-active demand. New
coiUTTER-Bgest ta c pound, York Pennsylvania and Western j t from^
cooking 158520c p~er pound. to iv 100 ends Havan ..... cent to.
-ren~ey 0; xra Dairy 8 toiperl.0 ounus. Havanatfficents to
Dairy 15. reamery 20c; Extra Dairy 5rp un Sumatra,. to SLO per
iou. -fciry 15o tnrr .. ..
dEESE--Half skim. 10c, cream 13c per LOUIS February 28-The demand for
pound.-ST.LUISFebruary,9-Tne demand for
-Airaln, Flour, May, Feed, Ete. leaf is light, but improving, and the outlook
Is rather encouraging. : -
GRAIN-Corn-The market is steady. LOUISVILLE. February 28.-There is a
The following figures represent to-day's good demand, especially for the better grades
values: We quote white corn, job lots, of which there Is a scarcity.
60c@... per bushel; car load lots 58c per RICHMOND, Febuary 28.-The market is
bushel, miied corn, job lots, 57c per bushel; improving with favorable weather for ship-
car load lots 54@56c per bushel. Oats are bet- ping. 'The better rades of stemming leaf
ter demand firmer at the following figures: sell rapidly at from to 13 cents per pound.
mixed, In job lots, 41c, car load lots 40c; white. Bright wrappers for plugs command from 1
oats are 3 to 4c higher all round, Bran steady to 20 cents..Cmn-m
and higher, $19 50@21 per ton, Job lots. DANVILLE Februry-28.-Busness is m-
HAY-The market is firm and better de- roving rapidy.and prices have an upward
mand for good grades. Western choice, tendency. There fs a better feeling among
small boles, 818@...per ton; carload lots $16 75 planters, manufacturers and business men
to $17 50 per ton; Eastern hay 620 per ton. generally. '
PEARL GRITS AND MEAL--2 90 to $800 per BALTIMORE, Februiry 28.-The market is
barrel, dull, very little desirable stock being on sale.
FLOUR-Dull and lower, best patents $5 60; Maryland leaflIs quoted at from $5 to 615 per
good family $510; common 84 2.5. 100 pounds.
GROUND FEED-Per ton 624.
HiDES-Dry flint, cow, per sound, first
class, 12@138c; and country dry salted 11@ Groves where Williams, Clark & Co's
liac; butchers dry saltedP9@9yc. Skins-Deer a F_ r been u
ft, ..t 17c; salted 10612c. Furs-Otter, winter, OrangereFtrtlnzer nas been used are
each 25ct$4; raccoon 10@20c; wild cat 10@20co looking finely.
fox 10@20c, Beeswaxi per pound, 18c; wool W.LIAMS CLn C
free from burs 22@25c; burry, 115c; goat& C.
skins 10@25c apiece. .
COFFEE-Green Rio 16@20c per found. La i' Prh ing Agn
Java, roasted, 30@33c; Mocas, roasted, _@38c; ie rcaing Agency.
Red, roasted, 23@8-29c.
COTToN SEED MEAL-Scarce and higher. A New York lady of experience and
Sea island or dark meal $20 per ton, bright taste, enjoying the besq facilities for
or short cotton meal $2160@22 50 per ton. shopping under advantageous condi-
TOBACCO STms--Market quiet but fim@ --"
T.o..coSto E -r qu tions, offers her services to ladies desir-
61800 per ton. ."
LiME-Eastern, joblots,$fOOperbarrel,Ala- ing to secure any kind of wearing ap-
bama lime $115. Cement-American 2 00, parel, toilet articles or household goods,
English $4 75 per barrel. 90 lwYr nip pdfn ipim
English $4 75 per barrel quotations vary, according to at New York prices. Send for circular.
RICE--The quotations vary, Adoulgg dre MRS S.SJns
quantity from 38@6%c per hound. Address MRS. S. S. Jones,
SSALT--Liverpool, per sacu, d 00; per car 179 Gates Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.
load, 85@90c. .,,prAe
Country Produce, Hides, Skins, Etc. r .-
NOTE-Cabbage and Cauliflower have be- Seeld Irish Potatoes.
come a drug upon the market, the latter The best potatoes for planting in this
hardly bringing enough to pay freight State are those brought from extreme
CHEESE-Fine Creamery 16c per pound. Eastern points. Acting on this belief.
LIVE POULTRY-IAmited supply and good we imported last year from
demand as follows: hens 8c'e; mixed 30c; nalf- N A S
grown 9% e NOVA SCOTIA
grown lee. ...
EGGS-Duval County 13 to 14 per dozen with large quantities of Early Rose, Chili
a limited demand and good supply. Red, Beauty of Hebr.mn and other varie-
IRHS POTATOES-Northern potatoes 62 50 s, an.d the raised from t-h."
per barrel; Early Rose 2 60L Chili Reds 82 75 tiles, and t potatoes raised from this.
ONioNS-New York, 63 25; Yellow Denver seed, were the finest we have ever seen
$3 50 per barrel; White Onions, $875 per bar- here.
rel. W wlrcieinafwdyantr
Florida cabbage 7 to 8c. Imported from We wi receive, in a few days another
Germany 10c. I cargo of the same potatoes, which we
NEW YORK BEETS-Good supply at 62 60 per will sell at the following prices:
NEW BEETS-Florida, per crate, 2 25. Chili Red........per barrel $3.50. -
CAULIFLOWERS-Per barrel, $3 00, and i125 Early -Rose................. $8.00.
per crate. Beauty of Hebron....... $3.00.
CELERy--Florida, per dozen, 60c.E ...
SETTcER-Per p dozen cn, 25 c Every barrel guaranteed as represented.
TOMATOES-Florida, per crate, $2 75 to 3 25. Remit with order, and we will ship the
NORTHERN TURNIPS-.Good supply at 6225 potatoes promptly.
per barrel. CHURCH ANDERSON & CO.
GREEN PEAS-Per box 50 to 00. Jacksonville, Fla, an..th, 17.
Foreign and Dotmestic Fruits. ....
PINE APPLES-Per barrel $6. A'TITT ((
LEmiONS-Messlnas, $4 25 per box., KAFFIR COR"K-N,
APPLEs-New York $4 00 to $4 50 per barrel.
FIGS-In layers 13c; In linen bags 9c. A GRAIN AND FORAGE PLANT.
DATEs-Persian-Boxes 9c; Frails 7c.
GRAPES-Oc per poundwith poor demand Will yield from 25 to 50 bushels grain per
They are of very fine quality. Malagas, $5 50 acre.
per keg. b ... 4 00 pe Plant from March 1st to May 15th; quantity
ORANGES-Florida-Per barrel $4 00; per sed'p o a to pod. '
box $2 75 to $4 25. seedper acre, 2 to 3 pounds. .
BANANAS-Good supply; from 75c to $200 Price 50 cts. per pound; 5 pounds, 62.00; 15
NUrS-Almonds ; Brazils 12; Filberts pounds or one peck, $5.00, 16 cts. per pound'
NUTS--Almonds 18c; Brazils 12c; Filberts er if, -, ~'
(Sicily) 126 English walnuts, Grenobles l6c; extra If ordered by mail. All orders prompt-
Marbots, 15c; Pecans 12c; Peanuts 8c@6cy; ly filled. Strictly pure seed grown by my-
INsLodon layers, 00 per box self at this place last season.
RAISINS--London layers, 83 00per box. dr rr .,,
CRANBERRIES-- 00 per crate; $1000 per Address, JOHN A. GERMOND,
barrel. Keuka, Florida.