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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
-VOL. 1---NO. 6. JACKSONVILLE, FLA., WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 9, 1887. PRICE $2 A YEAR.
'A Word of Caution. phylloxera insect never attacks an irri- PEEN-TO AND HONEY.PEACHES. bushel, and some exceptionally good lots more prolific than the Peen-To, still the
Stated vineyard. It does not-follow that yielded at.th e rate of $50 per bushel latter bears sufficiently large crops to be
U. S. DEPARTMEIT OF AGRICULTURE, irrigation is a remedy, as some have HOW They are Regarded by Ex- These results prove its great value for very greatly in demand for home use,
WASHINGTON, D. C., Jan. 29, 1s87. thought, for the disease The only fact Nrey the orange growing be!t, and are to us a and the exceeding earliness of the crop,
SEditor oridaFarmerand ruit-Grower: yet demonstrated beyond doubt is that perienced Nu eymen. source of gratification in having added when properly marketed, commands for
DEAR SmI-To-day, Commissioner Col- vineyards-which are regularly irrigated The two peaches which are represented this valuable peach to the fruit growing it such prices as to make it a very desir-
man handed me a copy of your paper. I are never subject to the ravages of the in the accompanying illustration are resources of Florida." able orchard tree for market growing."
am delighted with its contents in almost disease." among the numerous fruits for .which The following is Mr. Berckman's con- Mr. A. I. Bidwell, one of our pioneer
every particular A Napa nurseryman writes as follows Florida is indebted to the antipodal re- cise description of the Honey peach: nurserymen (now of Orlando), has for
From all that I can learn from those to the San Francisco Merchant: "The gions of the globe, among-which may be "Medium, oblong, with a sharp recurved years expressed the opinion that none
who have tried Kelsey's Japan plum in subject of the assistant stocks and graft- mentioned, in addition to all the citrus point, creamy white, washed and mot- but Asiatic fruit trees could be grown
this 'country, and from Mr. Tamari, who ing is coming more and more to the fruits, the persimmon, medlar, Kelsey tied carmine, flesh of a peculiar fine tex- profitably in Florida. Writing to us re-
is an intelligent native of Japan, and in front, and I can only repeat what I have plum and the Chinese, pears and quince. ture and a honey sweetness; tree very cently (from Orlando) he says: "The
my office almost every day-it is qui-e for the last seven or eight years con- In their native lands these trees grow, as thrifty, distinct grower and prolific. Honey peachis adapted to the'northern
likely to prove an excellent variety for tended, that every successful vineyard it seems to us, with their tops hanging The fruit is apt in some soils to be de- and middle counties; here I do not look
the Southern States, but will not be in Cilifornia must be on resistant stock. downward. Their adaptability is due void of flavor. This peach is second to for success. The Peen-To is only- par-
more hardy than the fig. It will be well Many large vineyards in the richest val- mainly to the fact that for thousands the Peen-To only in its remarkable tially successful in the northern coun-
for' all who contemplate planting this ley land, four, five or more years old, of years they have been sub- adaptability to Upper and Middle Flor- ties, owing to loss of crop from too e r-
novelty to"plant with this information, are showing now the ravages of the jected to. artificial treatment and it is ida where it succeeds where no other ly blooming; here it succeeds finely, I
One point, however, I wish to correct, phylloxera to an alarming extent, thus well known that the horticulturists of varieties of the Persian or Chinese look upon the Peen-To as almost tropical,
and that is with regard to its being proving the foolishness of the many mis- China and Japan resort to much more strains give satisfactory results." and for this portion of Florida the out-
preyed upon by the curculio. Mr. leading statements that the phylloxeraa artificial methods than we do. ThI record which these two peaches look is very promising, both for the
Tamari confidently affirms that in Japan only attacks vines in poor,- light land.' We have had Chinese peaches both in have made in Florida is well set forth by Peen-To, its hybrids and seedlings. I
all varieties of the species to which this A. H. C. the Southern and Northern States for a Rev. Jas. P. DePass in the Trade Num- have some 300 trees from seed of my
one belongs are damaged by the cur- T long while, but the Honey and Peen-To ber of the Times-Union for 1885. (Mr. new seedlings which I shall plant in an,
culio much worse than those belonging The Persimmon on Hard-Pan. varieties are of recent introduction, and De Pass has been termed the Father of experimental orchard this winter, hop-
to any other species, and that the crop is EditorFlorida Farmerand Mruit Grower: they evidently originated in more south- Peach Culture in Florida. Recently ing to find many- choice vari-ties amion,
sometimes entirely destroyed from this As I have been very successful with ern provinces of China. We draw the some one has brought forward Mr. Wm. them." A H. r.
cause. the Japan persimmon, perhaps my ex- inference from the fact that- in this P. Horne as a claimant to the same C B
Therefore we may conclude that. we perience might be of value to the read- country they succeed only in the ex- title. As paternity is clearly not capa- CULTIVATING NATIVE-BERRIES
may as well plant on this continent, ers of the FARMER AND FRUITm GROWER. treme Southern States, this State seem- ble of transfer or transmission, Mr. De
with the probability that it will be no In the spring of 1884 I dug up some ing to suit them best. Pass finds it impracticable to relinquish Wild Blackberries Brought Into
less exempt here. What the people roots of the wild persimmon, which I The famous Georgia nurseryman, P. his claims to the title, but is quite will- Profitable Cultivation.
should know abo-t these new fruits are grafted with the Japan, and se? them S. Berckmans, claims the honor of hav- ing that Mr. Horne be considered the a "
the re-al facts as fast as they can be out on" a spo* of land which was under- About eight BYears since begDANBY.the
known. laid with a hard ferruginous subsoil, or About eight years since I began the
Yours in the interests of the fruit- hard-pan.. \ cultivation of berries. Like most be- c
grower. H. E. VANDDEMAiN, Orange trees had been planted on this ginners,I sent North to the nurseries,
(-'*hie-f t<-.islon of Pomology. spot, and they absolutely refused to -" and purchased such kinds as ere re- ied
tOur next issue will contain an article grow. The persimmons seemed per- mmendd as the best. Having tdiled i
__o the Japanese plum, by Mr. Tamari, fectly adapted to ihj,. hard-pan tflatand. for two years, it occurred to me io try I
the Japanese horticulturist. We have have madepach season grwthof from some of the native kinds growing wild
much yet to learn concerning the Asiatic four to five feet, about half'of which has around in'the fields and woods. I gath-
fruits, which are found to be so well been cut back for grafts. Ladt season / ered them up from the fencecorners
adaited .to: Floria and we hope to they wee .aloadd with fruit." Igat- and woods, but mo.-tly from an old field
obtain from Mr. Tamari a series of arti- ered a bustle and a half fom6t one tree. my icinity, and planted the out r., t
clesou this importantsubject.-A. H C.] I have used all the grafts I could get 'I hopi that some of them might prove
--- grafting them on the wild persimmon thr be good, fully expecting to hare to
Baron von Luttichau on Grapes. roots. I have set them all in hard pan, "1'' less. a wort
riitor Floritn Farmer naia P'riiG.-roww'r and they have done better than anytrees When th fried [found thm dis
I am inclined to think that my views in this section, many of.them bearing .tiet kinds, all'- hich haove done welld
o a Cncor1d to h in l tha m when but .ne +year old.. I have used ... -, ti t kirds, all of n hish have done well
on the Concor, grapewill diffr from nothigbut fresyswamp uckas afer -- i. under cultivation -and proved tobe val- t
onthoseof Con g i r thihg but fresh swamp,-muck as a fer- ''
those of others, e-pec-iall of some piant- tiizer. .had..any reason to expect. Onesortis
grapes near Walo. Some fair Concord I think we can utilize otherwise arecumbnent, growing close to the gortround,
grapes may have been grown once -worthless lands in growing this valuable reumbe":goigchprloe toltegoud
in atwhile. hut have no'r seen any fruit, asJ have seen the wild persimmon stems small, rich purple colo .spines h
wholat were whacnider the Concord ill- ited growing from high black-jack ridges to numerous, small and straightThis
whole I consider the Concord ll-suited rlow. cypress fiants. i to
to the Floridaclimate and our ros. low press flats. -. dsequently the most of valuable for macoket.
The growth is good enough. but te. .T. K. GODBEY. The first is abundant, argue andshowy.
fruit will not ripen evenly. Some ber- W AL oo, FLA., Jan. o, 1887.w a4kasthe ir i ndgrow s arte upr Ph t, b
riea will always remain green, alto gh falling over after attaining a height ofb-a
altThoug Potashfor PeachTrees.
full-grown. This grape may do at pros- Po s oPeach Trees. ofiwo feet. The stems aresmall, of a
ent for the home marker. but other The most successful peach growers in a grsomewo fee t. Thn color, spines not numerousmall, buof
kinds will soon push the( Concord out of the Middle States iare those who use pot- te hooked, berries medium size, rather T
sight. ash liberally as a fertilizer. In his late 0- loose, !limbing and very sweet. This eT
It we grow grapes for early Northern report on peach orchards to the NewJer- sort comes ,..in before the first is gone. t
markets, and that is what we aim to do, sey experiment station, Mr. J. M. White The third variety seems tho be a sort gone. t
the -oncord is quite uele-ss It is not a remarks that the healthiest and longest- -,Th e third variety seems to be a sort ofv
good keper. becomes in-ipi,:l soon .after lived orchards in that State "are those bed stems-some twofeet in length, then w
being gathered, is to,:, late. cracks easily which have been fertilized with potash bedcomingrecumbent and running pro-t b
and is not good for shipping. and phosphoric acid. Among other or- c uely; coloreuofmstems purple, spines hp
M.re v*ines of this one variety are chards, he describes that of J. S. Quin- iff, curved and sharp; berries -medium
planted in other Sttes than ,of all other by, of Chester, who had 4,000 trees in s firm, very sweet and abundant. s d
varietiescombined, not on account of its bearing six to ten years old. He applies ow have these different sorts planted ra
superior quality, but for its adaptability 500 pounds of bone to the acre. and as searatel y.nt sorts planted ra
to different soils and climates. There is much ashes as he can secure. The fruit As to the ultivatlion, ferti. -lizing and b
no reason why we should ina.ist on grow- is abundant and of good quality. If dis- ., ," genesro cuanag to, fter" aiou ox- c
certainly does not overcome its faults moved and destroyed at once; and no iments, I have adopted the following th
In thesoncordhere w.eritssuccsss a d te i -' p.oenas, I hes:Make othe rows seven se
All my Concords will be grafted this instrument on a diseased tree is fused on feet apart, and set the b plants three feet re
winter with better and more suitable a healthy one until thoroughly cleaned. .." e asundTertn rows. As hree fee the-
The Herbeni.nt. on rich soil or with ing trees, twice in a season. The ,past with a liht stic k throw them back on
much fertilizer, makes too much wood season he had 3,600 baskets of peaches. t.i --thehrow Coninue todo ths as ey gr
and has shown some rot, and is also less Dr. H. Race, of Pittstown, gathered 5.100 '... ,, ., ,' I a row, maintaining a olearspace of at g
productive, but on warm. sandy ground baskets of peaches from 3,000 trees. He least two feetin t a clear spae between the drco
without any fertilizer and summer prun- used super-pphosphate and potash J. L rows. Thi spaeeti whe.reb.. the pik rs
ing. it has been wonderfully productive Nixon. oif Quakertown. sold 9.0ii.i bas- walk in gathering the fruit, and should ti
and perfectly healthy. kets from hi l2.'lou trees, the past b cul iv aterdan e e d shoud t(n
Most of my F. ri,,fera, as Hungarian for$0,(145: he cultivates Well and applies sweep runningva er as neehallowith wined gr(F
Tokay, some of the Charelasand other,' barnyard manure and wool ashe-s As noon aste crop is gathereand wo gr
are grown on their own roots. Wea' Peach growers in this State who have rwO CHINESE PEA(.HE--PPER, HONEY"LOWER, PEEN-TO." sold convertthis central walk into a Ea
growers are grafted on F. atiali, applied wood ash liberally to the or- ditch by meansert ths eof a turning plow, run- T a
rapestris apd Ti riparia. chards have succeeded in raising good ig intr,.-duced the Peen-To into the kets. Last year the early shipments made ing bac anforthin the sameurow ru n Th
H. VON Lurricap, crops of fruit when the orchards of their United States in the year 1869, and of before thiuit was developed created a as often as maybeneoessary toaccom- yew
BELVIDERE, near Waldo, Fla. neighbors wh used no ashes were bar- having introduced te Honey peach into bad impression on the Northern markets sh the purpose. Now ssarywith stout.acom- ye
Sren.--Rural Californian. the Southern States in 1858, Charles yet those who gathered at proper period sharp steel-hoesproceed to cut the stems
Phylloxea. Downing having received the pits fro of maturity received from $li to $25 per of the plants to within an inch of the s pe
Weagain raise the voice of warning Fertilizing Peach Trees. ina four years previously hr. (inbdfatht- of Peach Culture, which ground and roll them intothisditch, pe
against ihe practice of planting vines of Ba c. .. kmasMSup the atharacer.of course is W u erior i.itle.' e think where they should be well packed down ber
the vinfera grapes grown on the, own Hoe out a shallow trench around each Altough very harry ere the tree has and ta y ut will prove sa e questisfact on and covered with the turning plow. ff so
roots. Phylloxera will in time find them tree about where the ends of the roots. produced truit but very seldom,owing to laIties cqncernedI. thestubble on each side, and in the fur- asou
out. It is not at al probable that should le. three to six feet from the itsabit of blomn in January. In r. DecrPassrediscusses these peaches as rows scatteraonliberal supply of manure- anold
enough vines of this type will ever be trunks according to size of tree. Fill Fiorida. however, this tree has succeed- follows: It has become a demonstrated Put it in with a free hand, if you want gro
grown in Florida to render their safety the trench with a rich compost of muck. ed adruirabiv. In Pensacolait produced fact t hat Florida produces the earliest an abundant croa of luscious berries the rato
subject of serious concern, but it is manure and cotton seed meal or cotton the enormous amount of 1,201 peaches marketable peach i Aoduerica b from next seasondant cWell ro oftted stable manure the rat
best not to attract such a pest to our seed. Coverupand rake sio,,th around upon a three year old tree. Reports three to four weeks, witn h ths, a sty frl good compost, any rotted stable brand of va
shores. Such diseases sc metimes attack the tree. Then broadcast over the whole from Florda state that this peach, to- great to er advantage, that her early complete manure, or bone dust, wildo. A
and become adapted to other species of orchard a mixture of ashes and bone gether with the Honeuy. succeed there peater advan-tageo, atpens regularly andCovmplete manufertilizer i. boneth dufrows with bldo.
vegetation, and possibly our Is cul- meal, three parts ashes and one of bone when th other varieties o thecommon fully ad-of most delicious and av Cover abull-tone fertunnin, the. rrows wiAtth laden
pin or I esiclls might fall a prey to meal, one or one and one half ons to or Persian strain prove of little or no Tis I wedy the Hony, thought same timongubreak up wllenning remaiep. ningAt the den
it. In California, where the r-;ne.rta the acre. Early summer is said to he valuA Fruit 2 to 2-~inches in -liameter by a greafany to e a Honer ptougach, space between thisfurow and the ditch ian
grapes have been planted extensively the best time to feriliz.- hearing peach iery flat, skin pale greenish white, wit and is a r stone, wa ilethe Peen-To ispace bein themiddle.w and the ditch an
without the needed precaution, the vine- trees, or just after the crop is gathered. a beautitul mottled red cheek. peels ahalf stonli. w t wilnowbe in order to matter ashes and
yards are in danger of destruction. A Young trees should be fertilized in readily at maturity, flesh very finely "The me of ripening for theell nowbroadoast over all. Then give the Dand
correspondent of the Cotry Gnl,e- spring assoon as bu. egin toswll grainel, juicy ddissoling.witha d- peaches orthe Pof en-To t:fir tweekstubbleroadcoasthorough andll. Then give the Daing,
man writes from San Francisco as fol- The above is all the fertilizing the tree icate almond aoma, quality let -A- in peay and for the oneTo the last ofweek stubble and thorout the growing seasoncuin Flo
lows: It i a fact not generally known, will need and should beapplied nnuall. sto. Maturity in Florida from April .ay and thefirst of June. The laHoney tivatewithawingedsweep,runnngvery Itcu lo
and seldom spoken of in the papers, that Pruning is absolutely necessity to in e 15th to Ma 1t. peach comes i dirJunect ometiti on withishallowtha wingedsweeprunning bus
-bat dreaded and destructive, as well as heavy Iruitage and fine fruit. Cut back **This peach -olors a long tie before hearlyom es in di mpeition with short tie, a ne and vigorous
curable disease of the vine Ph1lloxera one half of previous year' growth. m during or full deveerlyar lopmentad is agf d gi and oter Ingr short time, a new and viorbus ahr
t-i-, has obtained a foothold in S- therefore often gathered prematurely. clear-stoe, will;.doubtes, n a shot As the uners roach the middles are
ards of some 'portions of the Seel knives which are not ingeneral which -'enders it unfit for use. It should while, when dorl generally known be throw them back oappthe rows as at first are
hatiallnthe efforts to control usmay be kept from rustingiFt ey are be allowed to hang upon the tree until 1in great -. gener m mand higher This process should be repeated every The
rance,ayet proved un- dipped ina strong solutlohn f a, oe approaching full maturity, it.omand high ear to insure t succession repeated every leav
u.cfac has.how- -art water to four of soda;'iv dry, roll shows .its excellent quaF- P e. e vari year to urom the same ssion ta '
at-ia, 'tha4he iflii-nnel, and keep inadryplace then be e varie rp from the same
, ...:-_; : . ._.
plants of what you call the sand black-
berry: I put them on a piece of thin
sandy land, and although the bushes
made a satisfactory growth and are
every spring white with blooms, yet
the show .r truit is not abundant. WVhat
they do bear, however, is first-rate, is
firm, very sweet, and keeps well. Alter
ripening it will bang on ihe .Ltem for
days without deteriorating. coming in
after all the others are gone: it com-
mands a good price in the marker, if
it would only fruit well and it prob-
ably would. on 't stiff soil,. I should con- -
sider it the most valuable berry on the
NEW FAmi, near Pensacola, Fla.
Native Blackberries of Florida.
Our' wild berries deserve more atten-
tion from gardeners than they have re-
ceived heretofore, and we hope that
many of ,ur rcaderIs will ;e stimulated
by Mr. Dan-.y':,s successs in this direc-
tion to follow his example. On ham-
mock land there is usually an abund-
ance of the tailing,. earl-lIruiting
* -Jewberry." liu the bush blackberries
are not eleryvwhere abundant or acces-
The c-ninmon dewberry iREbus tri-
eiahsi is the first of the kind mentioned
by lMr. D.Fnsby. We were not a little
surpriS,.d in going over his place to find
that Le had given up to this willing a
-onsiiderable area of his fertile land-
made ferlile in the manner he has de-
'cribted in his admiiable-series-of articles
on "Reclaiming Pine Lands." He in-
foimed us that he found them more
profitable than strawberries-that is, for
a home market like Pensacola. '.
The two other varieties cultivated by- '
Mr. Dansby we did not see. but presume
hey are forms of ihe common high
blackberry. which varies mue'h. This
species (Raub,.s 't7losi.i abounds in dry
learings at the North, but here is found
mostly in low thickets: ".snaky places,"
which are not the ideal spois associated
with "going a-berrying." For cultiva- -
ion special search should be made for -
lushes of tnis species growing on dry
and and bearing fine fruit.
From t' i common high black erry
havY ; nearly all the varieties in
uht..ation. The original of the Law-
on was found near New Rochelle,
Vestchester county. New York.
After beiig cultivated for nine yeats -
y the dii-coverer it finally attracted the
attention of a lawyer named Lawton,
who brought it into public notice and
erived from it both fame and wealth.
lhe original of the Kittatinny black-
erry was foundon the Kittatiuny Moun-
ains, N. J.
All of the species of Rubus are so.
ariable that Benthan considered there
'ere but five absolutely distineC species,
ut botanists generally r' cognize one
hundred. Inthe United States twenty-
ne species are enumerated. These are
divided between the blackberry and -
aspberry tribes, the distinctions be-
ween which are as follows: While in
tlth forms of fruit each seed has a pulpy
covering and all cohere 'together, in
e raspberry this collective mass of
eds sl poff at maturity from a dry *
ceptacle, while in the blackberry it -
heres with a pulpy and edible recep-
In the strawberries the receptacle is".
eatly enlarged, and may be. said to ,
institute the whole fruit, the minute
y seeds being borne on its surface.
iis distinction places them in a dis-
ict though closely related genus
ragaria). The Northern strawberry
ows sparingly -in Western Florida,
here there is also found a naturalized
st India species (Fragaria Indica.) ,
is very pretty trailing plant is found
rich, sheltered locations. It has small
low flowers, and small, crintson ber-
s, which are destitute of flavor
Returning to the blackberries, a third -
dcies occurs in Florida which deserves
ecial attention. This is the sand black-
ry (Rubus cuneitolius), which abounds
sandy lands from Southern New York'
.thward. It grows in great abund-
te along .railroad embankments, in
dry fields, and sometimes in moist
unds. In a wild state the fruit is
her small, and inclined to dry rather
n to decay, a quality which is of ad-
ntage in its cultivated state.
.t Waldo Dr. Ambrose has the sand
ckberry in cultivation inside his gar-
fence. The bushes are more luxu-'
it than on wild lands, and they bear
abundance of fine berries, as Dr.
brose informed me. His land is low
of different quality from Mr.
We believe the best blackberry for
rida will originate from this species.
s easily distinguishable from the high
h blackberry. It does not grow over
ee or four feet high. The stems and
'es, especially on the lower surface,
covered with a cloeBwl'te down.
berries and flp e The
ve sf. .nipu 1
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. FEBI UARY 9,1887.
ORANGE AND LEMON OILS.
Various', Methods by Which
They are Extracted in Sicily.
Very little attention has been bestowed
in Florida on what have been-termed the
by-products of the orange'grove. The
minor methods of turning the citrus
fruits to profit have been treated as un-
worthy of attention in this country. The
only alternative recognized has been
shipment in boxes or waste, and the two
have to a great extent amounted to one
and the same thing.
There needs to be a systematic trial of
certain citrus manufactures which are
carried on abroad, with improved apl-
pliances if possible, and if it be found
that they can be carried on profitably
here, as home 'manufactures, without
the intervention of *commission men
and.without-great outlay for freight, an
industry may be established of very con-
sider ble importance.
In the second number of the FARMER
AN6D FRUIT-GROwEi there- appeared an
interesting paper on this subject by our
Consul at Messina. W6 now present a
more detailed account of the methods
employed in these Sicilian manufactures,
written by F. Gradenigo, and published
in the British and Colonial Druggist:
Although most people in the north of
of Europe believe they know all about
Sthe modes of extracting essential oils,
this is not true as regards even so com-
mon an essence as oil of lemon. Several
methqds of obtaining the oil are prac-
ticed in Sicily, which may be considered
under these heads, viz: distillation of
the peels or rind of the fruit; expressing
the oil in rude presses in which the re-
quisite power is. applied either in the
form of loaded or weighted boards; or
through the intervention of a screw or
lever. Another'method is that of the
ecuelle (ecuello), an instrument also much
Used in the South of France for a simi-
lar purpose; the fourth mode consists in
a species of distillation, the partly rasped
or abraded peels being placed iin a re-
S. evolving sylinder or barrel, and subjected
to the influence of a current of hot air
(with or without a little steam), which is
subsequently drawn through cold wa-
ter in order to separate or condense the
oil. Lastly, the very finest essence of
all, for I have given these methods in the
crder of thb-ir merit upon an ascending
S scale, is obtained by the ancient and
S simple plan of pressing the reel with a
bit of sponge.
Respecting the first named, or distilla-
tory process, I have little if anything
novel to ,6ay. The peels, which should be
from selected fruit, buc which only too
often are those of lemons or oranges in
various stages of greenness, maturity
and decay, are sprinkled with powdered
salt, a little nation being occasionally
added and sufficient water to moisten
S them being turned ona few hours after-
wards. No great care is taken about the
proportion of salt used; perhaps from
twenty to thirty-five pounds per 1,000
fruit peels may be hazairded as a roiughli
guess. A day or two afterwards iaccord-
ing to the weather and the condition of
Sthe peels) more water is added, and the
*hole is distilled until either no more oil
S visibly separates or the steam, at first
'.:.. purely fragrant, begins to acquire a
rank and rather unpleasant smell. In
These distillations a portion of the marc
S or waste from some of the, expression
proeeses is generally added to the charge
of fresh peels. Various little contriv-
ances for concealing the inferiority of
these, distilled oils or.of improving their
fragrance, are practiced throughout the
province of Messina, of which European
and American consumers have no idea.
Amongst these are: The addition of
some leaves of the bigarrade orange,
Citrus bigarradia, to the peels, just be-
fore distillation ; shaking up the dis-
tilled oil first with warm.water in which
some natron has been dissolved and
t hen with a very little orange flower wa-
ter, or by digesting the .oil for a few
days with fresh magnolia flowers. The
essential oils of lemon and orange, like
the fixed animal and vegetable oils, dis-
olve or absorb other odors with avidity,
and this faculty is often taken advan-
tage of for trade purposes.
SOf the lemon and, orange oil-presses I
need say nothing, since they differ in no
way from .those which have been so fre-
The ecuelle is an instrument of which
there are many forms, the. principle be-
ingthe same in them all; it consists of a
drum, pan or cylinder, capable of hold-
ing, when about two-thirds full, from 80
to 600 or700 lemons or oranges, as the
.,ease may be. The interior is studded
with spikes, sometimes of hard wood,
: but more frequently of metal. An
ecuelle may- be of the shape of a rice
bowl, hemispherical, or in two halves, or
again like a barrel or churn mounted
horizontally upon trunnions; and capable
of being slowly rotated by hand or other
motive power. Indeed, a not uncom-
mon variety, which has' the advantage
Sof being easily put together by any vil-
lage carpenter, consists merely of a
small cask through which a great num-
b ber of wire nails have been driven, so
that their points-which must not be too
sharp-project some little'distance inte-
If the cask be mounted churn fash-
ion so much the better, otherwise the
requisite amount of rotation may be se-
cured bly the more primitive way of
trundling it up and down an inclined
plane of some sort. Here and there,
even now, young people of either sex
may be observed engaged in tthe Sisy-
phean task of rolling a barrel t6 the top of
a small hill, apparently for the mere
pleasure of seeing it roll down again.
In reality the barrel is often a rude
ecuelle, half full of lemons, limes or
oranges, and the supposed plaything is a
machine for oil extraction. In emnloy-
ing an ecuelle, however it. may happen
to be constructed, the fruit is not pa._ed
,.-:-7' .' "'-"'
tIi t. but is put in a hole. aid utbJeeted
to the scrat,.i ng or rasping aclion of the
spikes. These open or crush up the oil
cells: of the rind, and the fragrant es-
sence so liberated collects at the lowest
part of the ecuelle, when the ins' ruinent
is permitted to rest, and may be poured
off by means of a tap, spigot, or any
similar contrivance. -.'
Lately a combination of the ecuelle
with an intermittent hot air current has
been.tried with,. I hear, good results.
Machinery,- however, of any but the
simplest kind takes a loig time-'to get
into use in this country. Oils of excel
lent quality are yielded by the ecuelle,
but the operation must not be carried
too far, else the essences are contami-
nated by agitation with the other 'pro-
ducts of the peel, and with the juice of
the fruit itself, while if the rasping is
stopped at too early a stage the yield of
fine oil is smaller and the profit conse-
quently less. 1%
The most curious method of oil ex-
traction, and that, as I have said before,
which yieds the very best and most
delicate-scented product, is the follow-
For this process the fruit is peeled first,
and is selected by preference when
about three-quarters ripe. From 8,800
to 4,500 lemons can be peeled in a day
by one man, so expert do those become
who are constantly engaged in this in-
dustry. Three lightning-like flashes of
a sharp knife and an equally rapid
movement of the thumb suffice to de-
corticate the fruit, to whatever species
of the Citrus genus it may belong. The
fruit is forthwith pitched into a basket
lying near for i's reception, and simul-
taneously the peel is allowed to fall into
a pan, generally of course of red earth-
enware, placed in front of and imme-
diately below the operator. For every
"peeler" at least two oil makers must be
allotted, and if the latter are not first-
rate hands five may be required for each
couple of the former class.
The next operation the peels undergo
is that of soaking from fifteen to twen-
ty-five minutes or so, according to the
kind, age or density of the rind, in wa-
t'r; a pinch or two of natron is fre-
quently dissolved in this water, which
may be used over and over again, for
different lots of peel, during one day
only, after which it is thrown away or
consigned to the still. The pieces of
soaked peel are taken up singly in the
workman's right hand, and the outer
surface of each is firmly pressed against
a large and rather hard-grained sponge
held rigidly in his left hand by means of
a kind of strap or cross bar of elastic
cane. Two or three sharp turns of the
wrist impart what might be called a
screw pressure to the peel, and extra-
ordinary as it may appear, this opera-
.tion effectually fractuees the oil cells,
and the sponge instantly absorbs their
contents. The peel'is ,almost entirely
exhausted in a very short time, and I
have frequently tested piece after piece
of this peel from the waste heap, by
sharply doubling it nrar-a candle flame,
but not any which have passed the
sponge have ever given that sudden
flai e which shows there is still some oil
left in the peel. A very little of course
remains, but this may-be either recover-
ed in the still or disregarded.
The sponge, held constantly over an
earthen jar, and occasionally squeezed
into it, thus becomes the carrier of the
finest essential oil obtainable. The fluid
in the jar speedily separates into three
different products-the dregs or deposit
(feccia) of mucilaginous and cellular
matter, some fruit juice, and the pure
oil which floats on the top. The latter,
when bright- and clear, is passed, by
means of a small glass syphon, into the
cans or drums of thin copper in which
it is, after duly sealing down, stored
away for export or home consumption.
The baskets of lemon peel each contain
about 65 or 70 pounds, and three of these
are considered to afford a fair day's
work for one oil-presser.
One thousand lemons yield upon an
average from twelve to sixteen fluid
ounces of the pure essence.
Profit by Experience I
It is stated- by good authority," says
the Sumterville Times, "that the orange
tree can be as readily grown from the
cuttings as the pear or fig. Any suit
ble limb cut from the tree and buried
with the small end down, kept moist
and treated as other cuttings, will root
and readily grow. Some of the finest
trees in this country, we are informed,
were propagated in this way." .
This method of propagation was much
in favor in Europe until the appearance-
of the fatal gum disease, when it was
discarded for the reason that trees grown
from cuttings succumbed to the disease
more readily than budded seedlings.
"Forewarned is forearmed" in some
degree, and the orange growers of Flor-
ida cannot too fully acquaint themselves
with the symptoms and treatment of
thismuch dreaded disease, which bai
decimated the groves in some of the
most productive range regions of Eu-
Propagation from cuttings and by
other methods will be the subject of
chapter V, of."Orange Culture Abroad,".
and one or two of the later chapters will
treat; of the goma and other diseases of
the orange that are prevalent in the
Mediterranean countries, some of which
have been introduced already into this
Mr. R. 'J. Broad, of Welaka, Putnam
county, says: "For the past two years I
have used Williams, Clark & Co's High
Grade Bone Fertilizer 'for Orange Trees
and Vegetables, with .the greatest satis-
faction and profit, and in using their
goods I believe I have received full value
for my money. I most heartily recom-
mend their fertilizers.". .
(leo. E. Snow, Esq., of East Lake,
says: "That he is better satisfied with
Williams, Clark & Co's Orange Tree
Fertilizer than any he has used in eight
years' experience with orange tree fertil-
'Katfl --ad ar MI.-
THE CORN CROP.
Its Importance to.'the E-armer,
and Proper Management. -
-BYW. P. HORNE;. ;
As it will'soon. be time to plant corn I
will giveyour readers my plan. of plant-
ing andcultivating this most important
crop., Every farmer in-Florida should
raise his corn, as. it is .the staff of lifefor
man and beast. Show me farmer who
has to buy his corn and I will show you
a man that does not always have enough
for his family and stock; and when ever
you see a farmer who says he will raise
cotton and buy his corn, just mark him
down,for he will have poor horses and
stock the next year.I '
So take my advice and raise every-
thing on the farm that we need for our
family and stock. Then if we should
fail to make much money, we will be
0. K. anyway. Just let every farmer
in Florida raise all his provisions on his
farm and keep out of debt; and you will
not hear so much about hard times.
Well, now I :will give my mode of mak-
ing plenty of corn.
The land should] be thoroughly broken
up in the winter, turning in all grass and
weeds as deep as possible. Juet before
the time to plant haul ut the manure.
If it should be stable or good lot manure
I generally put fifty cart loads per acre,
but it would be better to compost some
cottonseed with the manure before
hauling it to the'field. If I should not
have enough manure to put on corn, I
use a ton of ground cotton seed per acre,
which costs now ten dollars. It is as
good as fifty loads of lot manure, but to
compost the two together is the best way
to use both.
When the fertilize is all onthe land
run the rows off eight feet apart with
a six inch shovel plow. Scatter the ma-
nure in this row, and be sure to put
a plenty, as you need not fear you are
going to ruin your land. Then run six
furrows around this row, covering up
the manure and making a small bed on
the manured row. Open the bed imme-
diately over the manure, running or
opening this furrow at least six inches
deep. Drop the corn pretty thickly, say
three or four inches apart, Besure and
have a plenty to make a good stand and
some to spare, as old Ned used to say,
"have one grain for the black bird, one
for the crow, one for to pull up, and one
for to grow." .
I -usually cover corn with a small
scooter or bull-tongue, plow. In five or
six'days afterwards run a cotton board
over the covered row, to leave it smooth
for the corn to comd up and destroy the
young grass, that maybe ready to come
up. When the corn gets up about three
or four blades high, side it with a scoot-
er plow as close as p63siblviithobt
covering up the young corn.
If there has not been plenty onmanure
put on the corn to make a _good. crop,
now is the time to scatter some two or
three hundred pounds of cotton seed
meal in this furrow on each side. Cover
this row with a six inh shoveland plow
as deep as possible, while the .corn is
young. Afterwards, every twenty days
plow shallow with a cotton sweep.
Thin the corn out when six inches
high, leaving it one foot apart at the
drill. I usually hoe twice and plow
three times. This crop should be plant-
ed the last of February, with Northern
seed, as that variety does not grow as
tall as our Southern corn, and matures
Now, my friends, do not think I am
done yet, I am only half done-with this
corn, crop, I' have got to have another
crop of corn yet off of this land, besides
making all the crab grass hay I want .for
next winter. '. ..
About the 10th of May open a deep
furrow in the middle of the corn rows.
Put in the manure and plant just the
same way as the first crop was planted.
By the time this last planting gets up
knee-high the first planting will be in
mutton corn. Then cut the tops off just
above the ears, so as to prevent the old
corn from shading the last or young
corn. Have the last planting the same
distance in the drill as the first and cul-
tiyate the same way. The rows should
run east and west, if possible. Planting
corn this way makes the rows four feet
by one in the hill.
If there is good stand, and you have
given old mother earth a good square
meal, you will gather sixty or seventy
bushels of ine corn, and by having the
land well manured the latter rains will
give you all the crab grass hay you can
save in the fall. To keep the birds and
prows from pulling up your corn stir in
a.little coal tar in your seed con before
GLEN ST. MARY, Fla. ,.
Tobacco from Cuban Seed.
EAditor cIlorida Farmer and Y5nit-Grovier:
Ai-you- desire to obtainsoEf*' informa-
tion concerning tobaccos growing, I will
give yon the substance of a letter
which I have reelved from a gentleman
of this county.
He tried raising Havana wrapper to-
bacco last year his place being all high
rolling pine land with a chocolate sub-
soil., He set out about fifty plants as an
-experiment, and it appears to have been
*a success. Without any fertilizer the
plants grew six feet high,, and d.formed
about fifteen. perfect leavesewhich
measured about sixteen inches in length.
The person who made this experiment
is satisfied that a fine Havana ]Uaf. can
be raised here successfully. Theilan he
recommends for starting the .seed is to
burn a brush pile (this will destroy the
insects). Dig up the ground, sa6as to
mix it well together; rake off clean and
sowbthe seed. pressing the earth down
lightly. In this way he has got the seed
up in a few days.
The plants are set out twvysfSa half or
three feet apart, watered, (T~d a palmetto
leaf is stuck on the south s'.de of each for
a shade. In three or four days they are
to be hoed, giving me fel'iIizer.
A *- r -. -
Hoe frequently and kep pI.be worri. o'ff
the plants. '.' .
There is no-doubt that good. Havana
tona.-co c.n I.e obtained in HiJllsborough
county. We shall give it a fair trial tuil,
yeai ,tand let you know the results
C.'A.N"'EY T '. WELLT.
T.\MPA, Fla., Jan. 14, l .'r.
EY P. p.
Previous t:o. the first ,f April the- berry
should remain on the vine until 'vell
co:loredJ. ithen the stem cut off with the
thumb nail about one inch long, careful-
vly put in thie basket and taken to the
packing house. here each berry munqst
be examined, and all imperfect ones re-
jecteil, s. lecting the largest and] most
perfect ones to place upon' the lop,.
Slightly rounding up.
This being done, the quicker they are
put in a cool, dry atmosphere of about
88 above zero, the-bettei. If that tem-
perature is continued the berry will re-
main in perfect order for six or eight
days. No other method or condition can
insure perfect success.
Popular Gardening for January con-
tains the following points about straw-
berry culture: Hen manure is excellent
for strawberries, but it should not be
used in its crude state. If ashes can be
had at a reasonable price, then, for an
acre, crush down 800 pounds of hen ma-
nure with the same amount of ashes. If
ashes cannot be had use a like amount
of gypsum (land plaster). Then mix all
intimately with a wagon load of dry
muck or good loam and apply the whole
broadcast over the bed, or if the straw-
berries are in rows apply to' the cultiv-
able spaces and cultivate in slightly.
[The Farm, Field and Stockman is de-
cidedly off the track in giving the fore-
going advice. If you wish to make fowl
or animal manure worthless mix it with
wood ashes. If the writer meansicoal
ashes all right. We have applied hen
manure freely direct to a strawberry bed
after bearing and the next year and the
year following obtained splendid crops
However, it -is well to mix it with five
times its bulk of dry earth.]
A Florida correspondent writes us he
has ordered strawberry plants from the
North to be sent in April, and has had a
nice supply of strawberries for his own
use months after plants there had fruit-
ed. Of course it would not pay to prac-
tice this on a large scale, unless they
sold for at least 25 cents per quart, in the
A correspondent in Polk county writes:
"Can you suggest any kind of plant
suitable for borders of flower beds?
Would any variety of Euionyaus bear
.the close pruning necessary for such a
purpose ? .
'"Wve need something to take the pla' e
of the abominable beer :bottles, and
wh ileit may be an easy matter to select
plants that may answer ihe'purpose in
the summer and fall, yet, as a rule, the
beauty of most plants, otherwise suitable,
vanishes at the tirst icy breath of. win-
ter, lea-ing our garden hare at the very
time we would like to have it a "thing
of beauty." ."'
We can think of nothing that serves
as an evergreen border better than the
cherry-laurel, of which we have offered
to supply seed. It bears trimming as
well as privet, and we doubt not that it
could be kept down to within a foot of
the ground if desired.
The pyraantha, of which wve have
seen bordering that. could not be ;ur-
passed Ias illutrated on the fifth page
of out tirst number; is the best plant for
this purpose in Northern Florida, ,ut "xe
liave ni-ver -een it in the reagi n of deep
- iaua,.-the vxiy tull and exactuarket re-
ports,.the weather record, tto., will con-
vicee all that our mniottd is eicehljor, aud
as our paper goes out to a h ghly intelli-
gent and appreciative population, we
count on a rapidly increasing measure of
public favor, andl expEct soon to have a
very large circle of readers.
We shbail be glad also :of adverse criti-
cisms, provided l the alleged faults are
clearly specitfied, but thus far we have
received commendation oniy. In a few
instances we ,.an glve the se'ntiment of a
letter hy quoting one or t'o sentences,
as in the following example:
Mr. J. V. iDanisbvy. ot Pensac.:'la. whose
eminent success in truck gardening as
well as hi. able wririugs 1on rai m torkis.
enti tle his opinions to epect. expresE .
himself as follows : "The first number of
the FARMER ANt, FRUIT-GR(VWVER was. duly
received and is lthe best thing in its way
I hav- seen. It is juit tile paper needed,
and if you keep itup to the present stan-
dard of excellence must become popular
with the people. I can't see where you
have left any room for improvement."
Mr. Chauncy W. Wells, of Tampa,
writes : "I have looked it over and find
much valued information and consider
it worthy to be placed side by side with
any other like paper published."
Mr. Charles W. Stevens, of Orange
county, writes: "Your able paper fills
a want long felt in this part for a good
agricultural paper. Success to you."
Rev. T. W. Moore, of Marion county,
writes: "I believe your paper will do a
good work in disseminating new ideas in
regard to fruit raising, farming, stock
A veteran nurseryman, who objects to
the publication of his name, expresses
himself thus: "I like. your paper first-
rate, and believe it will be the agricul-
tural paper of Florida. I, hope after a
little while to give you an article every
Mr. H. G. Burnet,-of Monroe county,
writes : "First copy of FARMER AND
FRUITrr-GRowER received. It is- a pleas-
ant surprise, being even better than an-
Mr. H. G. Daniels, of Amelia Island,
"Judging from what I have seen of the
FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER, it is the
best agricultural paper published in the
South, I predict immense success for it."
Mr. Arthur Brown, of Santa Rosa
county, writes: "Judging by the copy
sent me the paper is 'A No. 1,' and' I
do not wish to miss a single number.",
Mr. W. S. Moore, of Alachua county,
writes: "I have read with much inter-
eat your FARMER AND FRrIT .GRIWER
and am- much pleased with'it.I ft is
much needed and can be made of much
value to Florida."
Mr. A. F. Brown, of Putnam county,
writes: "I -am very much pleased in-
deed with the new paper. : It is just
hbat we have needed for a long time.
Success to it." < ..
Mr. S. L. Culler, of Seffner, Florida,
writes: "'If you continue to make the
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUITI-GROWER
equal to the first' number, you will cer-
tainly furnish'the agriculturists of Flor-
ida with a paper that will please them.
I am traveling through the country
among the farmers, and in' every way
that I can assist you it will be cheerfully
done." .,. .
Mr. H. W. Greetham, of Orlanido,
writes: "I am-greatly pleased with the
sample copy of your paper, and feel sure
it will prove a valuable addition to agri-
cultural literature devoted especially to
Mr. W. N. Justice, commission mer-.
chant of Philadelphia, writes: "Having
received the fir-.t issue of your asricul-
tural raper, and being di-lighted' with
its tone, we wish you to insert our card
tor six months."
[From the Citra New Era.]
(GROWE will meet with favor and re.
e&ve a bheaity support t'fror Florida
growers there is no question.
DEVOTED TO THE
This journal will have for its leading object.
the promotion of rural industries in Florida, and .
will advocate especially a more diversified and
intensive system of agric.ule -'-and-greater
economy of home resources.
Assuming that the agricultural adaptations of -.
a large- piortion :. Florida are as yet but imper"- "-'
iectly undert:,ojd, a speeini a im of this journal
wii be to ,itei.ribe the best results wh].,h hbve ,
t.,'en accompliahsbid, with the exact methods em-
ph:.yr-d. and atl ,nilnuen-me aff-.:tng such reuaits;
alic to .ncge-t experiments, d-scribe newor ourttle
known '-rop- It, i r[i>. c., and r-ee,:-rd the pro.greEs.
of agr;.tUirure in neigbb,.rr.n'tate.
C:.Mumecing wib bthe idrt nuiberanod con-.
t[nuingia thrOugh the .-:eaauo for
There ,-ill be a -r;eze of arni-ies on truits-othe-r
than rh'b ,!e f tbo: ctrti cro.ip-whjcb ha ve
pr'r'rod nimoEt soi CSi'ill In thj3 StEe Each va.-
rn.ry will be 'iearibed and
And there wiLrbe- notesi from pe-rs-a:, who hare
had .pn-raei.e i irs ..,ijtiratnon. Thbis will be
i,:lii:,wEd by a sinIar r-'rie on
and.-- with --one exception all o(if 'ur We have r-eceivel the first number of .
num'rcusnative r'la'gireturclayc the FLORIDA FARMIER AND FRUir And othersubjects wi be dluastratedtoa limited
nlr and we are confident tat i thf- ,:;RO ERc, pubr-lished at Jacksonville. extet.
cail, nd w e are itonidiet thit. It is au elegant publication and deserves Much attention, wit be devoted to
WVe Ian 6 0,en very pretty to succeed,iaDl we trust it wiil. .
made of iosemary.v but tlis plant has [Fil-m the Apopka Union.] Live tocK
scarcelv enough of real green to admit The FLORID.. FARMER ANDt F trl Ai.,l to hlie bme prod-ctionofrforageandfertili.
of its beinlig called an everlien. The I-ROWEIR is the title of the uew agricul- zers, two e D.mi- n-wich tarec csentialios61c-
wild pennyroyval would Lie about as de- tural paper, e diteJ ry Proi. A. H. Ctr- f. ef.r.i. .
sirable as ro-Lemary, ant an abilndance ti,., the eminenut botanist, and puLblished Que-n relative to ets of domestic
of it near a ,tidwlitng iuigt help, kee,- Fit) Ja,-konville v ,C. H. Jones & Bro..
ayofe a ay i au a pr at ep pr anut It is a handsome I aniaais will he answered by an able veterinary .
away mquito. Have any ,f our papi of eight psges, and the name ot surge,.n wh,: i,,rmerl y edited a ltke department
readCetis suggesting to make on this .tub- theeditor is warranty that it will be inter- Of the-
jA correspondent at Malabar House :f esing ind valuable. Turf,
Refuge rhas made a discoverywhich w IFro the Mariana Courier. Turf, Field and Farm. ,
music "mention in this connection. She T he F.ORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT A due amount or space nill be devoted to "
IwRouWaER, published Iv C. H. Jone c'- houseboid economy and to reports of the mar-
writes : "I found a small plant growing proprietors of the Tnss- Union,. at ets, and tb6 departmentsof
on the sand hills, and as it was some- Jacksonville. is nowon our table. The 5 th d
thing ditfctient from anything I had ever initial number of0this publication proves Truck-Gardening,
seen, I took it, up and set it out in my plainly its aim and purpose, and it will -
yard, and I think it made one of the be ofvast importance to the fruitgrow- Floriculture,
prettiest border plants I ever saw. It ersand farmers of the Siate. It is neat-
does not grow more than eight inches ly printed and contains some valuable Poultry, -t
high. and is an evergreen. So many information in regard to the fruit grow- u-ty,
people see the plant and want to know ing interests. Send your address and Ve rin
what it is that I send a specimen to see get a copy of it free and then subscribe. V erinary
if you can tell me its name." [From the Pensacola Advance-Gazette] Practice, etc.
We apprehend that Mrs. K. F. H. will We are in receipt of the initial num- wilj be contributed to bypersonsawbo bave made
not derive mnch satisfaction from know- ber of the FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUnT specialtiesOf those braces.
ing that her pant is Euiphorbia tricho- GROWER, published at Jacksonville, All portionsof the tae will receive a due
toma. This immense genus, of which Fla., by C. H. J-ones & Bro., A. B. Cur- am porntonf of the taiae wa i receive a dw e
there are nearly thirty species in Flori- tis. editor. This is an eight-page week- amountof anention, and their atereats will be
da, was named after the ancient physi- ly and will prove a valuable addition to represeented by able correspondents. to
cian Euphorbias. This species was theagricultural and horticultural inter- Under no circumstances will thiasjournalbe-
named trichoiomra because of its thrice. ests of the State. Parties desiring the come the -organ" of any association or locality;
forked h abit of branching. It grows piper will address C. H. Jones & Bro d it will start out untrammeled and will repre .
only by the sea side on the southern [From the Floridian.] sent allU sections and minterestswith absolute -im" .3_-
coast, and it would hardly bear cultiva- The FLORIDA. FARMER AND FRUIT partiality
lion inland. GROWER is the title of the new agricul- li'lhe at Jacksonvi...l le"Wdes
Pubglishled at Jacksonvilile on Wednesday
Several others have sent in plants for tural paper edited by Prof. A. H. Cur- h ac-ek '
determination, and in the next number tis.s and published in Jacksonville, by of each-week.
we will give their names, with some ac- C. H. Jones a Bro. at 82 per annum. It -
companying notes and some hints on is a handsome paper of eight pages, and PRICE OF SBSCIPTION. --"
systAmati. .b.tnical work. A. the name of the editor is warranty that PRICE -. rBisC-P ..I,:
c it will be interesting and valuable.: One Year $2 00 -*
the mothers, who have the making of Six Monthb 00''7
How Our Paper is Regarded the mental and physical vigor of the Three Months so
__ men of the coming century. srPouiN COPIES Faze.
Judging from the expressions of ap- [From the Baker County Sentinel. .
proval whicharecoming to usdaily from The FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT Address subscriptions and other business corn- ,
correspondents and the press, and from GROWRR, just out from tbeTtMES UNtON mnicanons o.,
the rapid increase of our subscription office, has just been received "at this TT Tyy TTy'O 0 rr-k .
list, it is evident that the FARMER AND office. It is a handsome six-column- L., Hl. JOUNELS & 06C D l9U -,',
FRUIT-GROw-ER has met with a more fa- eight-page paper, and is perfect in gen- _BSR "
vorable reception than we had ventured eral make-up and typographical appear- PUBLISHERS. .S
to expect, ance. Among its crops of contributors Communications for the editorial department I
The addition of several features of are numbered-the most learned and pro- should be addressed to -4.-,
interest which were lacking in the first gressive meni of-our State in matters of A H. I'T?5 S. Xldit..'P0
or "sample" number, such:as.the ladies' which the paper will bean exponentV' A n ... ,' ,-J'-J1V. B
and children's departments, the Florid 'FT ''th"S,.A *tFABIMV AND FUIT,,, .- 0 Jabksp l
.. .. :-. .- ,. ,
A- .k- .. ... i "A .
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, FEBRUARY 9, 1887.
I--How They May be Draine
and Fitted for Cultivation.
BY D. R. GREEN.
There is in this State, as we all knov
a vast amount of land commonly know
es saw-grass. These lands are found i
bodies varying in size from one-fourt
of an acre up to 10,000 acres. After
three years of practical experience i
cultivating this class of lands, we moc
estly offer our experience to the public i
hopes that it may aid in develop
ing one of the most valuable natural re
sources of the State.
The first point to be considered is th
selection of these lands in regard to their
adaptation to a. successful plan of drain
age and cultivation.
Saw-grass lands vary in the amount o
vegetable matter deposited from the
merest "sand pond" with its few bunche
of saw-grass, to the: wide marshes with
their deposits of vegetable matter some
times eight feet in depth.
The very best class of lands will be
found underlaid with a stratum of clay
or marl. It is hardly worth while ti
consider the drainage of any tract of
these lands, unless the deposit of vege
table matter averages at least twenty
Sin depth and contains no more than 50
per cent. of sand.
After deciding on the quantity anc
quality of the deposit, the next thing ii
the drainage The first step of this is to
learn the amount of fall from the bot
tom of the marsh to the nearest anc
most certain outlet, which may be a
river, creek, slough, or possibly only an-
other marsh. A fall of two feet from the
bottom of the marsh to any point of free
outlet is the very best fall allowable for
successful drainage. This vital point of
levels cannot be decided except by ithe
aid of a competent engineer.
The area to be drained in, reclaiming
Sany marsh is not dependent on the area
of" the marsh alone, but extends to the
summit of surrounding ridges or slopes,
and includes the actual area drained, by
all sloughs or water countries draining in-
to or'thrbugh'the marsh. .
As no marsh can be found that has
not a drain 'area of at least 40 acres, we
will take that area and a fall of. two feet
as the basis -of our, calculations.. The
average rainfall during any 24 hours in
this region is inches, 40 acres of water
8 inches deep equal, 435,600 cubic feet, a
fall of 2 feet gives an average current of
4 feet per second, hence a ditch 2 feet
wide at top, 1 foot at bottom, and 2 feet
deep, will carry off the 8 inches of wafer
in 14 hoin-e, and to calculate the size of
S-dithfi for any area, divide the area in
acres by'40 and it will give the propor-
tion to the size of above dich. Forfalls
greater than 2 feet deduct one-tenth
from above size for each additional foot.
With main ditch cut through centre of
marsh according toesrimates given. and
late-rals cut at right angles to main ditch
every 300 feet. and extending back to
margin of marsh, when all lateral must
be connected by a ditch dug all around
the margin, the nest step is to plow or
break up the surface, as soon as possible,
but. never deeper than this at first plow-
ing. Then follow the plowing with a
thorough harrowing to tear out all grass
roots and thoroughly break up the soil.
The grass roots are easily raked into
heaps and burnt. '
To prepare the land for Irish potatoes,
which is the very best crop for the first
season, plow the soil into ridges parallel
with lateral ditches'and 3" feet apart,
and about January 1st, plant the pota-
toes on the very top of the ridges..
Lime applied at the rate of 100 bush-
els per aci e will aid in preparing the land
for crops at once, otherwise full results
may not be obtained the first season.'
In our .next we will give a plan of
barbed wire fence best suited for all
purposes, with precautions necessary in
setting ifi soft marsh.
RECLAIMED LANDS EXPERIMENT FARM,
., $ "
How to Save Hen Manure.
B- Y OccASIONAL.
On many places a great amount of
valuable manure is allowed to go to
waste for want of proper care in saving
Sit. The people of Florida are-expending
large, sums of money, for commercial
fertilizers, which .might be saved, in
part, by carefully utilizing all the fertil-
izing materials they have at home.
One of these, of recognizing value, is
poultry droppings. I will give my
: method of saving, it, requesting, if the
method is not a good one, that some one
will point out its defects. A comparison
of views even upon minor topics of ag-
riculture cannot fail to be of some value.
I' keep from 75 to 100 hens, ,and their
droppings, if properly saved, ih quite an
offset to the expense of their feed.
SI have a poultry house 10x20 feet,
covered by a tight roof, which I consid-
er indespensible to the proper saving of
- the manure. I was told when I first
came to Florida that a poultry house
should have an open roof, so that the
rains could enter, and that no roof at
all was better than a tight one. With
perfect ventilation and a thorough clean-
ing out of the house every day, a roof
that will shed rain is preferable, both on
the score of health and economy.
Under the chicken roosts is 'an in-
clined platform made of inch boards,
and at the lower end of the platform
is a long shallow' box or trough to re-
ceive the droppings. The receptacle for
the droppings is a covered pea at the
side of and adjoining the poultry house.
A sliding door communicating with both
facilitates the removal of the manure.
The house is cleaned out daily and
there is an almost entire freedom from
the offensive odors. common to most
chicken houses. It is a good plan to
sprinkle dry sand or land plaster on the
platform each day. .
In the bottom of 'the pen I spread .a
layer of decomposed muck three or four
Inches in depth, then a layer of the ma
nure the s ime depths; on the top of thi
I scatter several handfuls of kainit an
pure saw-ground bone; I repeat this ur
til the pen is filled. This compost i
kept moist by house slops and soap sud
Sput on from time to time. It should nc
u be kept wet but sufficiently moist t
favor decomposition of the material
composing the mass.
The muck acts as a dilutent and absorb
W' ent, holding moisture which helps to ro
' the manure. Kainit is added for tw(
n purposes, first, to absorb or "fix ammc
th nia"and thus prevent its escape Hei
Fr manure when exposed to the air amn
n rains rapidly parts with its ammonia amn
" becomes much less valuable as a fertil
in izer. In the second place, I use kaini
" for its potash. Bone meal furnishes -thi
e- phosphates or phosphoric acid.
We have in this compost the three es
e sential elements of a complete fertilizer
ir viz.: Ammonia potash and phosphori(
Said. Should there be an objection to
the use of kainit, sulphate or muriate of
)f potash might be substituted in iti
e place. Aside from the property kainit
s has of fixing ammonia, it has a recog.
h nized agricultural value when applied tc
Snew land, especially if somewhat
swampy, promoting decomposition ot
e the grasses and roots and filtering it
Y more quickly for intended crops.
o This compost should be turned over
Once or twice, and become thoroughly
Spotted before using.
y PARADISE, Fla.
S Fertilizer Formulas.
SFurman's formula is, about this:
0 Barnyard manure, cotton seed, each 80
- bushels; acid phosphate, 400 pounds;
d kainit, 200 pounds. Mix intimately at
a once. Or put in alternate layers of 1st,
- cotton seed, 2nd, phosphate and kainit,
e 3rd, manure. Repeat these layers. The
e seed to be well moistened, aid in the
r latter case :mix by cutting entirely
. through from top to bottom. It should
8 be-in pens with perpendicular sides and
at least four feet thick, and covered over
With a layer of rich earth six inches
Stick. It will need no roof. It will be
Ready for use in four to eight weeks
Sand must be used as soon as ready to
S:. Prof; Newman's formula runs about
thus;'500 lbs.. acid phosphate, 750 lbs.
Search' cotton seed, and stable manure
green. Treat as above.' This is a" cheap
compost" 'and .'very valuable" -'On old-
clayey lands especially, 'either'of these
Sis perhaps preferable to any formula'
Sin which cotton seed meal is substituted
L for the,'seed. .
The-reason why 'the crude -sded- are
better :than, the meal is that the former
produce humus of which such lands
are destitute. If -cotton seed meal must
be usd tin the "compost, use'a- third less
by-weight than bf seed, and 'atd*eeta-
ble mold. -Southern Live S,.osk :Jo6rnal.
The Value of Humus..
The important properties of humus
are thus analyzed by Prof. Pendlpton in
Scientific Agricullire.: II ir
1. Humus renders stiff soils friable.
and open. '.
2. It absorbs moisture from the atmos-
phere and thus supplies plants with it.
8. It-retains the moisture longer than
any other ingredient of soils.
4.-It furnishes a considerable'-portion
of carbon to plants, either directly or
indirectly., '4 '
5., In its' widest sense, it supplies the
mineral elements of decayed matter in
solution for plant food.
6. It absorbs'and holds free ammonia
and its carbonate, and thus' supplies
7. It absorbs lime and its carbonate
and renders it assimilable as-plant food.
8. It furnishes a solvent to the soil
(carbonic acid), for the silicate of potash
and phosphate of lime, by which plants
are. supplied with the two important
compounds, phosphoric acid and potash.
S9. In warm climates it cools the soil
by the constant imbibition and evapora-
tion of moisture. ,
'10. It is, in fact, a prime agent in the
laboratory of nature, for carrying on
chemical changes in soils, producing
heat, evolving carbon, oxygen and hy-
drogen, as well as nitrogen obtained by
Perhaps of all of the benefits resulting
from humus in the soil, this last is the
Each and every one of these effects
have been again and again demonstrated
by the author and others, not in flower:
pots only, but in the open fields, and
yet we find men assuming to be agricul-
tural chemists Who consider humus in a
soil of no agricultural value.
Coiln and Meal for Cows.
Corn is a fat producing food, and if
a cow in milk is fei liberally on corn or
corn meal she will gradually fatten, and
diminish in the yield of milk. Remem-
ber this and do not make the mistake of
feeding too much corn.
It has been found by experiment that
meal will pass through the digestive or-
gans quicker than hay, and that if the
meal is fed to the animal on an empty
stomach, it passes away before it is fully
digested, but if fed after hay it becomes
mingled, with. it and more benefit is
derived. Do not allow animals to take
much water immediately after feeding.
-The Western Rural.
Transplanting Nut Trees.
All one-year-old seedling, nut trees
should be transplanted in order to get rid
of the long tap root,- and to induce the
proper development of side roots. Seed-
lings, of course, which are to remain
where they grew, need not be disturbed.
Somebody recommends simplifying
matters by digging down into the soil
close to the seedling in order to get a
chance for cutting the tap root off by
means of a butcher knife, inserted into
the ground right under the seedling. The
tap root has to go, at any rate, if it is de-
sired to produce a nut tree which can be
safely transplanted.-Orchard and Gar-
.SPONGES AND SPONGING.
d Facts of Interest Concerning a
is Product of Our Gulf Coast.
Is In a recent number of the Apalachi-
t cola Times we find a very interesting ac-
o count of that curious creature, the
Is sponge, which naturalists, after much
controversy, have assigned to the ani-
I- mal kingdom. Through such low forms
't of life the animal and vegetable king-
o doms appear to merge into ,each other.
)- As the sponge fishing gives support tc
n several thousand of the population of
d Florida, we think this subject has a good
d claim on our columns:
Sponge is the common name applied
Sto the technical order Spongidme. Sponges
3 have been for a long time regarded as
plants, but the more able and later nat-
- uralists now agree that they belong to
Sthe animal class, 'yet one -naturalist
Places them near the coral family. It is
0 claimed that the covering round the
f cilia or fine hairy like framework is the
8 Sponge animal, and the jelly or sarcode,
Sor sponge flesh which fills the living
* sponge, is made up of an enormous num-
bher of microscopic animals or so-called
f The large and small orifices scattered
t over the surface lead into sinuous canals,
permeating the substance in every direc-
Stion. Water is continually absorbed by
r the small pores of the sponge supplying
food and air. Although the sponge has
neither mouth nor stomach, yet it takes
in solid nutriment, and rejects what is
indigestible. This miracle, for so It may
almost be called, is so perfected by na-
ture, but whether there is any canal
With difinite walls through which 'the
food passes, is doubted by many natural-
Sists and denied by not a few.
Sponges have no nerves or blood ves-
sels, but the function of muscular con-
tractility is manifested, while there is no
appearance of muscular tissue. The cur-
rent of water is kept up by the action of
minute vibrations of the hairy likeparts,
which is a voluntary act if it is not au-
tomatic. It is constant day and night.
This animal never sleeps, or appears to
Stake any rest. Professor Huxley has
represented the sponge as "a kind of
sub-aqueous city, where the people are
arranged about the streets and roads in
such a manner that each can easily ap-
propriate his food from the water as it
Passes along." '
S" MODE'OF GROWTH.
SSponges vary much in form, being
irregularly branched round, pear shaped
or cup-like, and are fixed by a kind of
root at the base or incrust, other bodies
growing mostly in groups and, attached
to all kinds of objects, living or dead,
fixed or floating. Some 'instead of in-
crusting other objects excavate branch-
ing cavities in shells, which they inhabit.
The adhesion to the bottom is generally
firm and the growth slow. -I
Sponges are marine, yetsome grow in
fresh water. They are propagated by
parts of the sarcode mass--caled among
the fishermen 'gurrie," being carried
out of'the orifices by the.current. They
are .mostly formed in the spring, and,
like the oyster, spat, after swimming
about sometime become fixed and grow.
They are' said to grow by division or
growth of detached portions of the pa-
rent body. They are nourished by
minute particles contained in the water,
so arranged by nature and drawn with-
in their pores.
'Of their proper sexual reproduction
we know nothing. We only know they
multiply, and that when portions of the
mass are cut or torn away these main-
tain an independent existence and soon
acquire the shape and functions of ma-
ture animals. Analogy leads us to sup-
pose that this multiplication by division,
whether spontaneous or artificial, must
have its limit and a proper sexual repro-
duction by germ or sperm cells be inter-
Some sponge live in shallow, others in
very deep water, being scarcer and small
in shallow water or cold latitudes. They
increase, in size and quality, toward
the tropics, being most abundant in the
Australian seas. The sponges of com-
merce are procured chiefly in the Me-li-
terranean, the Bahama Islands,Cuba and
the Florida coast. Those from the Medi-
terranean are mainly obtained by div-
ing, to which persons are trained from
childhood in the Greek Islands.
Symrna is the chief place for the ex-
port of the finest sponges, but the
Florida sheep wool sponge is, aside from
these, the finest sponge in commerce.
Next to these are the sponges obtained
from the south side of Cuba; next in
order is the Bahama and then the 1lexi-
can. The coarse sponges used for rough
work-are mainly brought from the Ba-
hamas, where labor is cheap, yet some
coarse goods come from the Florida
coast, the market for the Florida sponges-
being Key West and Apalachicola. On
the Mediterranean and in the Bahamas
the sponges are first buried in dry sand,
and when decomposition has ceased are
exposed in wire cages to the action to
and fro of the tide water for purifica-
The sponge soon after being taken,
from the water has a sickish, disagree-
able odor, having a large percentage, of
ammonia, which soon becomes disgust-
ing like that of decomposing animal
matter, yet to this odor the fishermen
soon become accustomed.
THE SPONGE FISHERIES OF FLORIDA
give employment to the owners and
crews of over three hundred vessels of
five to fifty tons burden, and is carried
on with some risk from the- weather,
and at times much hardship. Each ves=
sel is fitted out for a trip of four to eight
weeks, carrying from two to five din-
gies and a crew of five to twelve men,
and makes two trips a year, usually
spring and winter, the latter being the
best catch. The. position of the sponge,
as it grows on the bottom, is ascertained
by means of water-glass, which is simply
a bucket with a glass bottom in It. The
object of this glass is that on placing it
on the water it makes a smooth surface,
and holding this bucket over the water
one can see everything through it as
clearly as in an aquarium, fish, sponge,
I coral, shells, etc?
The Florida sponges are chiefly of four
sorts-sheep wool, which is the most
- valuable and most desirable; velvet,
- reef and glove. It requires about five to
a six years for a sponge to grow to eight
inches in diameter, and about three
- years to make six inches. The warmer
s the winter, which makes warmer water,
the faster they grow. The fishermen
soon learn from experience to be able to
distinguish the grades before taking
Them. Owing to the clearness of the
Water they are able to do this, but rarely
beyond the depth of thirty-five feet, as
I that is about the limit that can be
reached with the naked eye, and, be-
sides the weight of the poles of this
length, weighing about thirty pounds,
with an iron, four-prong hook on the
end, is as much as a man can handle.
The deeper the fishing the greater the
skill required, and it is a rare thing to
find a fisherman so active and muscular
as to successfully handle a forty foot
HOW CLEANED AND SOLD.
The sponge when first caught resem-
b'es a head of decayed cabbage. When
taken from the water the sponges are
thrown on the deck of the vessel
and left long enough for the animal or
sarcode matter which they contain to
decompose. They are next placed in
pens or "crawls" on the beach, where
the ebb and flow of the salt tide-water
washes out the dead matter. After sev-
eral days they. are thoroughly cleaned
by the fishermen by beating and scrap-
ing,. then placed on strings and are al-
lowed to remain on the shore away from
the water, where they are more or less
bleached by the action of the sun and
They are then ready lor market.. The.
vessels take their catch on board and
proceed to town to sell. The sponges
are graded in the markets by the differ-
ent buyers as their judgment and wants
require, in order to make a value. The
buyers make sealed bids for the sponges,
which are not sold by the pound but by,
the lot, and this to the unitiated is "buy-
ing a.cat in the bag." If the catch is a
fair one each man will receive as his
share from $60 to $125. The vessel gets
one-third of the total of the net earnings.
THE SPONGE MARKET.
After the buyers procure their lots
they assort the sponges, in different
sizes and grades, after removing there-
from bits of rock, shell or any other
foreign substance that may be present.
This is done by beating the roox of the
sponges with mallets on a wooden block.
The only impurities of sand and other
substances is in the root or base as sand
is as foreign to the body of a natural
living sponge as it would be in the flesh
of fish or animal.
Sponges are packed in bales of from
twenty-five to sixty pounds weight.' A
pure sponge is free from all rock, or any
material used as loading or bleaching.
Some few years since sponges were
much lower in price than now and'at
one time the Florida sheep-wool was not
appreciated as it is now. Prices haye
continued to slowly advance and owing
to the extreme cold of last winter all.of
the sponges inside the depths of twenty
feet water were killed, thus making the
stock scarcer and causing another ad-
vance, but there is a limit in prices
which are now attained, as the Cuban
and Bahama sponges can and are used
as a substitute for many purposes by
reason of their lower price. The present
wholesale price is high enough to stim-
ulate the adulteration of the goods, for
which purpose several substances are
used; glycerine, sand, lime, marble dust
The glycerine and sand is not in the
least injurious and adds the least weight.
Lime bleaches and adds a greater weight
than sand. Marble dust is heavierand
is retained in the pores better than eith-
er sand or lime, while litharge is the
heaviest and nearer the natural color of
the sponge than either of the articles
used. It fills the pores better and there
is less chance of detecting its use than
that of the other substances, but is high-
ly injurious. It is frequently used in
increasing the weight of sponge to an
extent sufficient to reduce the price
from 50 cents to $1.00 per pound.
It will thus be seen that dealers and
consumers need to be constantly on their
guard in purchasing sponges, or buy
only of the most reputable houses. When-
ever sponges purporting to be pure or
natural are offered below the ruling
market price of reputable houses there
is good cause for suspicion that they are
adulterated. Some dealers who care but
little for integrity palm off on the inex-
perienced retailer and druggist inferior
-goods, such as velvet for sheep-wool,
and again to pack low-priced sponges,
with the Florida sheep-wool, Cuban or
Bahaman sponges. The writer has seen
reputable druggists and others selling
a velvet or Cuban and insisting that it
was a Florida sheep-wool, being in good
faith, as their ignorance of quality was
taken advantage of.
TAMPA, HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY,
General Business and Real Estate Agency of
If you wish a town lot, an orange grove, or
wild lands In this rapidly Improving section,
or If you have taxes to be paid, or property to
be improved, or money to be Invested, write
to this agency.
Money can be placed on Real Estate with a
Margin on two-thirds of values at 10
and 12 per cent.
FREE OF CHARGE TO LENDER.
Ninety days to foreclose mortgage where
there Is no contest. All costs and attorney's
fees provided for In mortgage. Write for
further information and send for list of prop-
erty for Sale. .
RrxRroOScs-Ex-Governor Drew, Jackson-
'vlfle; First National Bank, Tampa, and Hon.
John T. Lesley, Tampa.
FLORIDA RAILWAY AND
S NAVIGATION COMPANY.
TIME CARD IN EFFECT DEC. 27, 1880, 12 06 a. .,
All Trains Run by 90th Meridian Time (Central).
Shortest and Quickest Route to New Oleans and the
SSouthwest. Direct Connections to Iinta West
"a" means A. M. time. "p" means P. M. time.
Read up. Read down.
No. 10. No. 2. No. 1. No. ..
11 45 a 7 30 op ArJacksonville............Lv 8 00 a 3 00p
10 S0 a 650 p ArBaldwin ..................Lv 8 41a 350p
e 18 a 5 19 p Ar Lake City................Ar 10 ia I5 58 p
7 12a 4 27 p Ar Live Oak.............Ar 10 58 a 7 05 p
6 01 a 3 26 p Ar Madison......... ;........Ar 12 01 p 8 37 p
5 15 a 2 50 p Ar Monticello...............A 1 35 p 10 35 p
3 10 a 1 05 p Ar Tallahassee..............Ar 2 27 p 11 25 p
1 40 a12 08 p Ar Quincy.................. Ar 3 22 p 1 40 a
12 01a 11 25 a Ar River Junction-........Ar 4 05p 3 30A
[1 00 p 10 20 a ArMarianna................. Ar 6 07p 4 26a
00 p 8 15 a LvDeFuniakSprings...Ar 7 05p 8 00a
N) 1) 5 15 a Lv PensacolaA.............. Ar 10 10 p 11 50 a
'2 l15p 3 00 a LvFlomaton.................Ar 59p S S18p
100 a LvMobile....................Ar 2 25 a -
00 p LvNew Orleans............Ar 7 20 a
a p 7 L50 p LvMontgomery.............Ar 7 la 7 08 p
p 7 27a LvNashville.................Ar 6 40 p 7 20 a
2 5 p 12 45 a Lv Evansville-...............Ar I 10a 2 35 p
-" i 12 36 a LvLouisville................Ar 2 2a 22Op
8 1 a 8 20 p Lv Cincinnati-...............Ar 6 35 a 6,35 p
7 10 a 7 20 p LvSt. Louis..................Ar 740a 8 00 p
p- 8 40 p Lv Chicago....................Ar 10 80 a 8 00 p
Sleeping Cars on No. I and 2 between Jacksonville and
New Orleans. F. R. and N. Sleeping Cars Jacksonville
to DeFuniak on No. 9 and 10, No. 1, 2,9 and 10 daily.
Shortest and Quickest Route to Gainesville, Ocala,
Leesburg, and all points In South Florida.
9ead up. Read down. -
N0. 4. No. 8. No. 7. No. 3.
4 00 p 11 25 a Ar Fernandina.............Lv 10 10 a 4 45 p
2 47 p 7 45 a Ar Callahan.................Ar 11 24 a 6 45 p
S1 47p 6 00 a Lv Baldwin .................. Ar 12 25 p 10 16 ip
2 40 p 6 30 a Ar Jacksonville............ Lv 11 35 a 8 30 p
1 65 p 5 30 a Lv Baldwin..................Lv 12 40 p 10 00 p
1 00 p 4 03 a LvLawtey....................Ar l 20p 11 05 ip
12 45a 3 35 p LvStarke......................Ar 1 32l p 11 27 p
t10 o0 a 10 00 op Lv Gainesville..............Ar 3 30 p 6 45 a
7 10 a 3 10 a Lv Cedar Key...............Ar 6 45 p 1 45 p
1131p 1 45 a Lv Hawthorn ...............-Ar 2 26p12 68a
11 04a 12'56a LvCitraOrangeLake-Ar 2 p 143a
o0 22a -- LYSllver Spimg.........Ar3 86p -- .
SliO p 11 38 a Lv Ocala.................... -Ar 360p 245a
to 00 p 9 08 a Lv Wildwood...............Ar 4 3 p 4 15 a
5 00 p LvPanasoukee..............Ar 940a
S,20p -- Lv St. Catherine...........Ar -- 11 00ia
913p 8 40 a LvLeesburg............._.Ar 6 20p 4 53a
8 30p 8 15 a LvTavares....................Ar 545p 6 30a
7 37 p 7 23 a LvAppopke..................Ar 6 37p 7 21 a
7 10 p 6 55 a Lv Orlando ................Ai 7 06 p 7 54 a
Through Pullman Sleeping Cars Nos. 3 and 4 between
Jacksonville and Orlando without change. Nos. 7 and
daily. Nos. 8.and 4 daily except Sunday.
FERNANDINA AND JACKSONVILLE BliANJH
Read up Read down.
No. 11. No. 5. No. 6. N6.12.
4 45 p 8 40 a Ar Jacksonville............Lv 00 p 80 a
3' 00 p 7 1 a LvFernandina......... .Ar 6 20p 10 00l s
At Callahan with Savannah, Florida and Western
Railroad for Savannah, Macon, Atlanta, Charleston,
Washington, Baltimore, New York, Cincinnati St.
Lou, Chicago, and all points North, W 'st and North-
At Silver Springs, with Ocklawaha River Steamers.
At St. Catherine, with Florida Southern Railroad for
Brooksville Bartow and Tampa.
At Orlando, with South Florida Railroad for Sanford.
Lakeland and Tampa.
At Cedar Key, with Steamer Governor Safford Monday
and Thursday for Manatee and Tampa.
CLYDE'S NEW YORK AND FLORIDA S.'S. LINE
sails from Fernandina Sunday and Wednesday; from
Jacksonville Friday, for Charleston and New York. '
SEA ISLAND ROUTE. -
Steamer Express leaving Jacksonville 8:05 A. M.
Wednesday and Saturday, connect with the elegant
Steamer St. Nicholas. Inside Route for Brunswick,.
Darien, Savannah, connecting with steamers for Balti-
more, Philadelphia, New York and Boston.
SSteamers Express leavingJacksonvilledally8:I05a.m.,
City of Brunswick connects with steamer for Brunswick
and through trains of the E. T. and G. and B. 'and -W.
WALTER G. COLEMAN, Gen. TravelingAgent.
A. 0. MAODONELL, ,
General Passenger and Ticket Agent.
F. B. PAPY',"
D .Traffic Manager.
AX. MAXWELL, Gen. Supt.
5, .- BETWEEN
St Augustine and Palatka'
St. Augustine & Palatka By.
"THE STANDARD SHORT LIME."
Reduction in Time! Reduction In BatM
Commencing Monday, Nov. 29th, trins will
run an follows:
Leave St. Auguottne. 00a...... -oam Ispm
Arrive Polatka 9 05a I m 140pm
Leave Palatka 10 IS a m 4 50 p m
ArriveSt. Auguatinep...........-- '0 a m 00 p m
Leave St. Angugtnes.n....... 0 a m 15 p m
Arrive Palatka a05a2m 425ppm
Leave Palatka 903am 450pm
Arrive St. Augustine.................10 40 a m 6 00 p m
At 'Palatka connects with Florida Southern R'y
Jacksonville, Tampa and Key West R'y. and St. Johb
River steamers to and from all points in South Flor-
ida. The Monarch Parlor Observatory Car "Ymiz
will be on this line by December the 10th.
ST. JOHN'S RAILWAY-ANCIKENT CITY.ROUT,-
Leave St. Augustuine....... -.... 80 p m ,.......
Arrive Tocol 6 15 p m ....
Leave Tocol 45 p m
Arrive St. Augustine..................7 30 p m .
Connects at Tocol with Fast Mail Steamers ftom
Jacksonville to all points in South Florida.
Leave St. Augnusfn..._..10 45 am 45 p m
Arrive Tocoi 11 30 am 3 S0pm
Leave Tocol 11 45 am a45 p m
Arrive St Augustine -12..... 80 p m t. 0 p in
Connects at Tocoi with the ftat and popular steamer
John Sylvester, of the Post Line, to and from Jackson-
ville, giving 2 hours and 15 minutes at St. Auigustine
and return to Jacksonville same day, making this a de.
sirable routs for Tourists. Trains run into Augus-
tine within three minutes walk of the Plaza.
Su FR H&WOOD,
W. J. JARVIS, GeiL Fnight & Fan& AAt
Gen. gupt. ;__
P ABLO BEmss .
JACKSONVILLE AND ATLANTIC B. B.
In effect November lSth, IM.
I.10. I 45.5
Leave Jacksonville..". I 93Oam| ISOpm
Arrive Pablo Beachl -.-. 10 I 5 m 12115 p m
I S0.3 I J .
Leave Pablo Beach......M...,,, 42 1206Xppm |4*06pm
Arrive Jacksonville........... 1250Opm t Mpm
Trains No. 1,, 3and 4 run dally.
ONSIGNMENTS OF' EGGS
c CHICKENS, FRUITr. AND
SOLICITED BY o TY PRODU
J. H. SUITHERLAND,
28 OCEAN Si'itzr,
B. N. ELLIS, 0. E. A. E. MCOLURE, Architect.
ELLIS & McCLURE,
Architect ,& Rivil Eniers,
HOTELS PUBLIC & PRIVATE BUILD-
IN(OS, ANITARY ENGINEERING &o.
P. 0. ox 784. Rooms 7 and 8PalmettoBlock,
S AVANItAH, FLORIDA AND
Western Rallway. :=.
WAYCROSS SHORT LINE.
TIME CARD IN EFFECT DECEMBER 5,1886.
All Trains of this Road are run by Central Standaed
Passenger Trains will leave and arrive daily, as followal
West IndIn Fa-t afl.
Leave Tampa via S. F. R R ........................... 8 00 p m
Sanford J. T. & K W.................... 1 00 a m
Jacksonville 7 00 a m
Arrive Jacksonville 12 00 noon
Waycross 910 a m
Savannah 11655 am
Charleston 4 50 p m
Richmond 6 49 am
Washington 11 00 am
Baltimore 12 18 p m
Philadelphia 2 47 p m
SNew York P' o0 a m.
Pullman Buffet Cars Tampa to Washingtgn, and New
York to Tampa.
New Orleans Express,
Leave Jacksonville 7 00 a m
Arrive Jacksonville 7 358 p m
Leave'Callahan 7 33 am
Arrive Waycross 910 a m
Thomasville 122 p m'
S" Bainbridge 885 p=
Chattahoochee 04 p m
Pensacola via, L. & N. R. R............10 10 pm
Mobile via L. & N. R. R..................... 2 15 a m
at New Orleans via L. & N. R. R......... 710 am
SAlbany 3 42 p'
Macon via Central R. R............. 8 24 p .
Atiantavia. Central R. R......................12 1 am
S Chattanooga via W. & A. R. R............. 6 am
Nashville via N. & St. R. R. B.......12 4 a m
aLouisville viaL..&N.R.R-................6650 pm
Pullman Buffet Cars to and from Jacksonville and'
New Orleans via Pensacola and Mobile.and to and from
acksonville and Louisville via Thomasvllle, Atlanta
and Nashville, and Cincinnati to JacksonvilleviaJeRap.
A. C. Lisne Express.
Leave Jacksonville 2 6 pm -
ArriveJacksonville 12 00 noon
Leave Callahan 2 47 pm
" Chattahoochee U I 0 am
Thomasville 145 pm
ArTriveWaycross '. 440" pm
Brnnswick via B. & W. ................ 8 28 p m
Jesup 610 p.m
Macon via E. T. V. & Ga. R...........1120 p m
Atlantavia E. T, V. & Ga.. R.... 3 2 2 am
Chattanooga via E. T. V. & Ga. .R.... 8520 a m
Cincinnati via Cin. So. R'y...............6421 pm
SSavannah 7 68 pm
L Charleston 126 am
Wilmington 830 am
Weydon 5 p mi
Richmond 600 p m
Washington U 00 p m
'Baltimore 1235 am
Philadelphia 8 45 am
New York 6.50 am
Pullman Buffet Cars to and from Jacksonville and
Naew York, also Jacksknville to Cincinnati via Jesup.
East Flnrlda ,xpres s '
Leave Jacksonville s 6 p mn
Arrive Jacksonville 6si am
Leave Callahan 4 ,. p m
e ea.r.-o'ille 8 5'' pm ,
Wr 758 p-ul~'W
SLaLrke Ciy 32) pin
Live Oa.7 i0 pm
ThomafYille u 36 p m
.rrire AJl ...r, ..................... 1. I 6.5 a m
Mn-ntgomerv via Ceurral R R.......... 7 80 a m'
Moile via L. & N R R .. ............... 2 1 pm
Ntw Ourleanv la L. & N R R ............... 7.30 ipm
N" snale via L. & N. R .....7....... 05 pm
L" ousville via L. N.R. R ............... :::2L2 a am -
'" UrCnwnarl via L. N. R. R ................. 6 30 a m
S" t LOU16 via L & N. R. R ............. 70 40 am
Pullman B fet Cars arid from Jacksonville and p
"ouisviile via Tbnomsaviae. Albany. Mon.gomery and
a Br.vslle.. ad t. and from B&.-ow and MoD.. emery
"a Galnesville. '
Savannah Expre ss
ave Jarikonrtio 8 6 pm -
.rrn.vJack:,)inU% 6 15 am
eave Callahan 90 5 p m -
A'nreCallaban 625 am in
Leave CGanevile a 65 pm -
.rrno.'i. aneC.tUie 1.05 am6 --
eaett Lake Ciry 26 pi :
.mve LakeCiy 10.16-am
Leave LieOak 7 pin
Arrive Live Oa 640 a m
bomasvtle.. 7 16' a m .
NaosvUe via L. &N. R. R ............ 6k a m
Loustwils via L. N. R. R.............. 1 67 pm
Cincinnai "ia L. & N. R. B...........- 36 p m
SLl. 1,)uu.vi L.& N. R. B........... 0 pm
a" vewCiors.......... .. ... .. ............u 20 p m
n Brunswick isa B. & W. RR.Bo....... 6 40 a m
S ibanyr via B. & W. R. R..............aa ........ 4 46 a
SMacon via Central R R .................. 9 04 a m
APllanBiau aCenral R.t................. 1 05 p m
Chattanooga via W. & A. R.d R........ 7 07 p m
u Jesup.... 1 0e am
Brurisick via E.T. V. & Ga. R. ...... 6 00 a m
SMacon ia E T. V. & Ga. R. R............. 7 30 am
a ilata via B. T. V.&Ga. R. R-.........J 80 am
CnatLinoga via T. V. &G. & R.... a 16 p -'
SCincnali via C. o. R'y................... 6 40 am
S avannan 10i a m
C harlesmton 12 56 p m.
6Wilmi C On b0 pm
SRicamond F1045 am
h Sotinpon 340 -pm
BanEim ore ........................ ............... 4 pm
Padiadelphia 7 17 p m'
New York ......................... .........p..... 9 m
Pullman Buffei Cars and Manns Bondo Buffet oars
a Waycroes Albany and Macon: and via WalCrews
omp andlMaconmtreenJackBratie, adtcinnat.
leo Through Passenger Coaches between Jacksonville '
Pullman Buffet Cars to and t o. i Jacksonvlle ana
tshville via Thomasville and Montgomery.
Pullman Buffet Caranbetween Jacksonville and Wash-
Trough Tickets sold to All points by Bail and stlam-
ipconnections and Bre C checked Through. Alom
eping Car BerTh and ions secured atCompany'
Bce, In Astor's Building 31 Bay street, and at Pa.een-
r Station, and on board people's Line Steamer, H. y ,
ant and Chattachoochee and DeIary-Baya lna
mer City of Jacksonvfille.' '.
t. G-. FLMING, Superintendent.
(Published every day in the year,)
id enlarged to an
EIGHT PAGE PAPER,
56 COLUMNS. -
As a newspaper the TmBS-UIohN now stand
without a rival in Florida, and the peer of any-
the South. Having the exclusive right to the
ssocaoed Press Despatches, itts own correspon-
tnt in Washington, and special correspondents
roughout the State, its State and general news
complete, comprehensive, accurate, and trusnt-
orthy. No Floridian who wlshe to keep
-east of w h at ip going on in his own State and
the world at large san afforded o b without it.
irms [in advance) ;10 per year; e 5 for six
onthsa; $2.60 for three months; a1 per month.
THE DAILY TIMES-UNION' (without the
rday issue), by mail, six months, $4; one year,
C.The Sunday TIMES-UNION by mail, one
MI of the TIMES-UNION) Is admitted to be tile
!8< dollar newspaper in the South and one of
.e best family Journals in the country. It is a
*eat 38-column paper, eight pages, killed to the
'im with State and General News, Market and
weatherr reports, etc. Its AgrdatswtrI Depau.
cut, edited by Judge KNAPP, agent of the Na-
inal Bureau ot Agriculture, Is written with
>ecial reference to Florida's clImate, 5011 and
*ednctions, and alone worth ten times its
hbecription price Also, a large colored map ej'
forida to all yearly subscribers free. Terms
a advance, $1-a Fyear; 50 cents foB six months.
emittances rshollld be made by draft, money
*der, or postal note. or registered leiter.
C. H. JONB8 & BRO., Publlshers
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER,,FEBRUARY 9, 1887.
The Floriia Farmer an Fruit Grower,
A. H. CURTISS, Editor.
C. H. JoNEs & BROTHER, PUBLISHERS.
Office Cor. Bay and Laura Sts.
THE FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER is an eight page 48 column Illustra-
ted weekly newspaper, devoted to the Farm,
Garden, Orchard and Hdusehold Economy,
and to thepromoton of the agricultural and
industrial interests of Florida. It is published
Terms of Subscription.
For one year............................................$ 2.00
For six months 1.00
Clubs of five to one address................... 7.50
With dally TIMES-UNION. one year...... 11.00
With daily TIMES-UNION, six months 6.u0
With WEEKLY TIMES, one year...... .. 2.75
4-,-Subscriptions in all cases cash in ad-
vance, and no paper continued after the
expiratiofi of the time paid for. The date on
the printed label with which the papers are
addressed I the date to which the subscrip-
tion Is paid and is equivalent to a receipt for
payment to that date; if the date is not
changed immediately after a new payment,
the subscriber will please notify us at once.
CORRESPONDENCE solicited on all sub-
jects pertaining to the topics dealt with in
his paper. Writers may affix such signatures
to their articles as they may choose, but must
furnish the editor with their full name and
address, ndt for publication but as a guarantee
ofgood faith. Rejected communications can-
not be returned.
ADVERTISEEENTS inserted to a. limited
extent.. Rates furnished on application.
REMITTANCES should be made by Check,
Postal Note, Money Order, or Registered
Letter, to order of
C. H. JONES & BRO.,
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
FiRST PAGE-A Word of Caution; Baron von
Luttichau on Grapes; Phylloxera; The Per-
simmon:on HardP-an; Potash for Peach Trees;
Fertilizing Peach Trees; Peen-To and Honey
Peaches, (CIllustrated); Cultivating .Native
Berries; Native Blacberries of Florida;
SECOND PAGE-Orange and Lemon Oils; Profit
by Experience; The Corn Crop; Tobacco from
Cuban Seed; Shipping Strawberries; Straw-
berry-Notes; Border Plants; How our Paper
THIRD PAs-Improving Saw Grass Lands;
How to Save Hen Manure; Fertilizer Formu-
las; The Value of Humus; Corn and Meal for
Cdws; Transplanting Nut Tree; Sponges and
FOURTH PAGE-(Editorial) Memoranda; Distri-
bution of Tree Seeds; Questions df the Day;
South Florida Exhibition; Experiments with
Wheat; In Behalf of the People; Two Weeks
Progress; Hints to Writers.
FIFTH PAGE-(Edited by Helen Harcourt); Our
Home Circle; Cozy Corner; The Family
Friend; Our Young Folks; Forests and Rain-
SIXTH PAGE--(Veterinary): Milk Leg; Axle
Grease for-Sores; Windgalls; Far ,y; Horses in
Florida; Goats; Noted Indian Leaders of the
r--" EVENTH PAOGF-Open Air Silo (Illustrated);
The Horse's Tail; Gypsum as a Manure; Agri-
cultural Experiment Stations; Pleuro-Pneu-
monia; Irrigating Canals; How to Keep the
CarriageNew; Little Tu'Penny (Serial story
by S. Baring Gould).
EIGHTH PAG--Florida News; The Climate of
Lake Worth; Latest Reports of the Cotton,
Tobacco and Orange Markets and of the Jack-
sonville Wholesale and Retail Markets,
As the planting of nursery stock is a
subject which demands especial atten-
tion at this season, and as we aim that
our.journal shall keep well "abreast of
the times," we have felt constrained to
devote a considerable amount of space
to horticultural topics while the season
of tree planting continues.-
For this reason we have allowed our
series on "Orange Culture Abroad" to
restin "dormant bud" for a while, but
the series will soon be resumed. Our
article on native blackberries maybe con-
sidered one of the series on "useful na-
tive plants." As there is a common
misapplication of the terms plant and
herb, we concluded not to employ the
above caption, but we shall always de-
vote some space to our varied-and inter-
esting native vegetation.
The serial story which was com-
menced in the first number will be con-
cluded in the next issue, after which we
hope to present-one of equal if not
We .feel like apologizing to many of
our kind contributors for the non-ap-
pearance of articles sent a month and
even two months ago. On certain sub-
jects we receive a greater number of
communications than on others, and as
we aim to devote some space in each
number to each leading farm topic, we
often find there is a deficiency 'of ma-
terial for some departments, and for
ethers a superfluity.
Articles which exceed a column in
length and which do not treat of sub-
jects interesting alike to all sections of
the State, are very apt to lie over from
. week to week. We hope our correspond-
ents will bear this in mind.
DISTRIBUTION OF TREE SEEDS.
Next week we shall send out to appli-
cants the cherry-laurel seeds which we
promised some time ago. We are en-
abled now, through favor of Mr. Dansby,
of Pensacola, to offer seeds of that favor-
of very rapid growth, forming a trunk a
foot in diameter within five years when
planted in a dooryard enclosure. Its
curious manner of branching, its re-
markable symmetry and its graceful
deep green foliage have rendered it very
popular. For those who desire a de-
ciduous shade tree we can recommend
nothing better. We will send seeds of
this tree or of the cherry-laurel to any-
one who sends stamps for postage.
QUESTIONS OF THE DAY.
During the continuance of the South
Florida Exhibition at Orlando we be-
lieve there are to be conventions of the
Florida farmers and fruit growers at
that place. We hope to have reports of
their proceedings and copies of some of
the papers which will be read for publi-
cation in the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROW-
We hope that the formerly all-absorb-
ing topic of discussion, orange growing,
will be considered to be sufficiently ad-
vanced to allow of a serious considera-
tion of some other topics which we are
not alone in regarding as being of far
greater importance to the State.
There is, first of all, the subjects of im-
proved forage and cattle, their general
introduction into the State and improved
management. Those subjects are linked
together naturally and with a third no
less important, that of home-made fer-
tilizers. The most intelligent farmers
in the State need to experiment in these
directions, to arouse their neighbors to
similar efforts and to communicate their
knowledge through the press.
Measures may be taken for bringing
some influence to bear upon Congress in
behalf of the Hatch bill, which, if passed,
will secure to Florida an experimental
farm, an institution which, if properly
managed, will greatly assist in the State's
-Then as regards our prospective State
department of Agriculture some meas-
ures may be taken which will conduce
to its efficiency. For the head of this
department there is needed a man of
practical experience, good judgment,
sagacity and vim. As the office is to be
filled by election, it will naturally be-
come a matter of "politics." There is
danger therefore.that the office may be
secured by some one not qualified for
the position; therefore the greater need
of educating public sentiment on this
The matter of freights and commis-
sions should receive attention.- These
are consuming the profits of industry to'
an undue extent, and are threatening to
paralyze the energies of the people. For
cotton-especially the sea-island variety
-producers are becoming convinced that
a new market is needed. Anew market
will be afforded them, and it ought to
become in two ways a source of home
economy, first, by securing to the plant-
ers increased returns for the staple, and
second, by adding, to the State's commer-
cial importance and wealth.
That crying evil, exorbitant local
freight rates, ought certainly to be cor-
rceted in some way. Let it be agitated
continually, but in a temperate and cau-
tious manner. We had intended to treat
of this latter subject more fully, but de-
cided to allow Mr. Germond to make
the first presentation of it. We think
his sentiments, as expressed in another
column, are in accord with those of the
people at large throughout the State.
Let us hear the opinions of others,
whether pro or con; but whether they
incline one way or the other let them be
well supported by facts, by cases well
authenticated and which cannot be dis-
THE SOUTH FLORIDA EXHIBITION.
The idea has been advanced of late,
probably by parties who have sectional
interests at stake, that Florida's "star of
empire" is taking its course southward.
It does seem that the youthful en-
ergy which characterized Northern Flor-
ida a few years ago has in a measure been
transferred to the southern counties. We
trust that no portion of this .young State
is lapsing into a condition of senile inac-
tivity, yet we must admit that even Jack-
sonville with all her increase of wealth
and population, is not half so progres-
sive as she should be in matters which
call for a manifestation of public spirit.
Ten years ago Jacksonville invited the
world at large to come and inspect her
exhibit of Florida's products which were
gathered together within the new and
spacious State Fair building. The
exhibition proved highly attractive, and
argued well for the future. But the
managers of the fair were not calculat-
ing for the future. The exhibitors were
treated offensively, and when after-
wards called upon for assistance they
felt a natural disinclination to expose
ite among deciduous trees, the Umbrella themselves again to the arrogance of dia the records of rainfall show that dur-
China-tree. petty officials and to submit their exhib- ing the period of growth of this crop,
For casting a deep shade in summer- its to careless and incompetent criticism, namely, between Septembei and April,
time the tree has no superior, and it is As it became apparent that the so- less than an inch of rain falls in any
called State Fair had fallen under the
control of a sectional clique, most of
the counties afterwards left it severely
alone. From year to ypar efforts were
made to fulfill the good promise of the
first exhibition, but without avail. The
enterprise had taken the die-back in-its
youth. Then a stock company took
hold of the State Fair and tried to resus-
citate it, and nothing that horseflesh
could do for it was left undone.
The last desperate effort in behalf of
this institution was the diversion to its
use of the exhibit of citrus fruits de-
signed for the World's Exposition at
New Orleans. In consequence of this
procedure Florida has suffered severely
in the great prestige which California
thereby obtained. "Florida Day" at the
Exposition amounted to a ridiculous
farce. It was not until the day was far
advanced that her much boasted fruit
could even be unpacked. Then what
remained of a dusty State Fair's exhibit
was turned out on the tables for compar-
ison with the fresh and beautifully pre-
pared fruit from California.
And now, after ten years have passed,
what represents that much boasted State
Fair ? Nothing but a big empty build-
ing surrounded by a rickety fence, with
a device over the front portal which has
been allowed to become a carricature of
the word FLORIDA.
We hope that the managers of the Ex-
hibition at Orlando will take warning
from the fate of this ill-starred enter-
prise and avoid the mistakes which
caused its failure. To the managers we
would say, do not allow any cliques or
ambitious individuals to insinuate them-
selves into the control of your very
promising enterprise. Such influences
will undermine your best objects and
efforts. Be careful of the interests 'and
sensibilities of exhibitors. Remember,
even after their exhibits are secured, that
they are human beings, that they are
super-sensitive on 'certain subjectlfor
the time, and that you may want their as-
sistance again. If exhibitors find that the
awards are made carelessly and with ev-
ident favoritism, they will be very apt
awards to imitate the proverbial burnt
The "Premium List and Regulations
of the South Florida Exhibition to_ be
held at Orlando, Fla., Tuesday, Febru-
ary 15, 1887, continuing through ithe
week," is in itself a most creditable ef-
fort. The subjects for which premiums
are awarded, amounting in all to 846,
are carefully systematized, and seem to
cover all the possibilities of present pro.-
We like the title, South Florida EXhi-
bition. There is something genuine in
.the sound of it, a ring of the tre met:l.
If it had been called a State Exposition
we would not have had half so much
confidence in it as we have now. As it
is, our sympathies are fully with this en-
terprise, and we predict for it a success
which will increase from year to year
and redound to the deserved prosperity
of Orlando and Orange county.
EXPERIMENTS WITH WHEAT.
It is generally believed that Florida is
not adapted to the produce ion of wheat.
We do not assert a contrary opinion,
yet our prejudices have been somewhat
shaken within a twelve-month, and we
move for a reconsideration of the ques-
Why does not wheat succeed in Flor-
ida? To what is its failure thus far at-
tributable? It must be due to anunsuit-
ableness either of climate, soil, method
of culture or variety cultivated. We
suspect that our failures are attributable
almost entirely to' lack of a variety
adapted to this very peculiar peninsu-
la. Surely the climate of Florida is not
warm nor the soil too sandy; in India
countryy where people do not often
suffer from cold), nearly thirty millions
of acres are successfully cultivated in
wheat, and the soil of the wheat produc-
ing provinces is as sandy as that of
Florida, judging from analyses and from
accounts of its easy culture.
For live thousand years wheat has
been a staple crop in Egypt and China
as well as India, and it is cultivated
with success both in Russia and Abys-
sinia. There are many species of wheat in
cultivation, and a still greater number of
varieties, each having its geographical
limitations, outside of which it cannot
be profitably cultivated. Two grains of
wheat laid side by side may look and
taste alike, but within them is a subtile
germinal instinct which -would cause
one to thrive and the other to languish if
planted in the same locality. The wheat
of Illinois would not thrive in Russia,
month, often none at all. And as the
temperature there is' higher than here,'
drought is more sensibly felt, and irriga-
tion becomes a necessity and a chief
item of expense.
It may be objected that the soil of
Florida is unsuited to wheat, perhaps
lacking some essential element. This
may be true in localities, but we have a
great diversity of soils in Florida, in
every county; wheat has been sown (in
small quantities) in many localities, pre-
sumably on the better qualities of soil,
which certainly are good enough, but
never with sufficient success to warrant
a more extensive sowing.
It is probable that the crop has seldom
been properly treated in this State, and
that the culture has been more at fault
than the soil. Our authority on farm-
ing in India, in describing the painstak-
ing methods pursued in that country,
makes this striking assertion: "Take the
average soil of these provinces to Min-
nesota and it would be har ily worth cul-
tivating, Bring the average soil of Min-
nesota here and it could all be sold as a
An American farmer cannot adopt
in full the methods which succeed in a
country where laborers are hired at a
sixpence per day, and where a pair of
bullocks can be bought for $8, but he
may study' with advantage a system of
agriculture by which the productiveness
of a naturally poor soil has been kept up
for thousands of years without the pur-
chase of fertilizers.
The soil and climate of Florida are
favorable to wheat culture without
doubt, but we have got to find a variety
suited to the State, When our experi-
mental farm is established, we will treat
in a systematic manner all the varieties
of wheat that succeed between the 10th
and 40th parallels of latitude. We will
try the wheat of Japan (where many of
our most successful fruits originated,)
which is described as being of "extra-
ordinary precocity and greatly recom-
mended as a forage plant"; the Emmer
wheat which is "prolific on poor soil";
the Dindel wheat, which "'succeeds on
soil of very limited fertility"; the four
varieties exported from India; and the
varieties which succeed in the countries
bordering the Mediterranean.
-Meanwhile, without wishing. to de-
prive our experimental farm (of the fu-
ture) of the honor of discovering a wheat
for Florida, we have undertaken to test
on a small scale, a remarkable wheat
which we found' last spring in Hills-
borough. county.. In going over the
fkrm of Mr. Joseph Robles, whom many
of our readers know well and favorably,
either personally or by reputation, we
came to a row of wheat which had been
planted the fall before in the vegetable
patch on light sandy soil which had been
cow-penned some years previously, and
since then cropped continuously with-
out further fertilizing, The largest of
the stools had set fifty heads of wheat,
and this we engaged of Mr. Robles on
condition that we would distribute it to
cultivators, for the patriotic farmer was
equally anxious to have his wheat fully
tested in Florida soil.
In due time the ripened heads came
into our possession, and allowing for
some unfortunate waste, we estimated
that the single seed planted the fall be-
fore had produced nearly or quite 1,500
plump, heavy grains of wheat, weighing
fully two ounces. Of these we divided
1,200 into eight equal portions which we
sent, in September, to experienced culti-
vators in as many different counties,
who have acknowledged receipt of the
seed, and have promised to cultivate the
wheat carefully and report results next
spring through the columns of the
FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER. The per-
sons to whom we sent the seed are:
J. H. White, of Brevard county.
R. E. Rose, of Orange county. *
A. L. Duncan, of Hillsborough county.
F. D. Pooser, of Marion county.'
J. C. McFarlane, of Columbia county.
^P. Houston, of Leon county.
0. C. Banfill, of Walton county.
J. V. Dansby, of Escambia county.
In addition, the wheat will be tested
again by Mr. Robles and by others to
whom he may give seed. Should the
results of the experiments prove satis-
factory, we shall present our readers
with a history of the discoveryof this
wheat (it evidently originated in a more
southern country),, together with an i.-
lustrative cut and a descriptive letter by
Mr. Robles, from whom we expect many
interesting notes relative to his observa-
tions and experiments during forty
years of farming in Florida, besides
some of his previous experiences in
Pending the development or evolution
of a wheat adapted to Florida we trust
our readers will suspend judgment as to
the State's capacity for grain production
and that they will not rest satisfied on
this question until it is decided by an
elaborate and well directed course of ex-
IN BEHALF OF THE PEOPLE.
An Appeal to Railroad Managers
For Lower Freight Rates.
Editor Florida Farmer and Fruit-Grower:
I wish through the columns of your
paper to make an appeal to the gentle-,
men who own, control, and manage the
various transportation lines' of our State,
for lower freight rates to the North and
I appeal to you, gentlemen, not as the
representative of any particular society
or organization, but in behalf of every
citizen of the State of Florida, irrespec-
tive of order or creed
I appeal in behalf of' the merchant and
the manufacturer, the farmer and the
fruit grower, the truck grower and the
cattle raiser, and last, but not least, in
behalf of the laborer, who by the sweat
of his brow must earn the wherewith to
procure the necessities of life, and who,
in consequence of a high freight tariff
on those necessities, is compelled to pay
to the merchant an exorbitant price for
There is not a merchant in the State
who will say, if the question is put to
him, ,that he can buy goods at the
North cheap enough, but the high'freight
rates on the same, by the time he re-
ceives them, compels him to charge a
high price in order to save himself from
It is an actual fact that it wi'l -cost as
much to transport a barrel of potatoes
for a distance of 20 miles over some of
the railroads in this State, as it would to
transport the same from New York city
The season for the shipment of veget-
ables, strawberries, etc., grown in this
State is now at hand. The grower who
has labored hard and spent both time
and money to bring his crops to perfec-
tion, will now gather the same and send
forward to the Northern market, and
await returns from the commission
house he has supplied; and when he re-
ceives such returns, in a great many
cases 'it will probably be simply a notice
telling him that the amount realized
from the sale of: the same will only pay
the freightage, commissions, etc., and
just as likely as not leave him in debt to
some railroad company, for freight
charges. He has not only lost his money
and labor, but also his time which he
cannot regain, simply because transpor-
tation companies will not reduce their
high freight tariff and do business on the
principle of "live and let live."
How long, gentlemen, do you think
the grower will continue to do that kind
of business? How long would you op-
erate your roads for the accommodation
of the public if you were doing so at a
loss' financially to yourselves, and no
prospect ahead of your doing better?
Now let me see if there is any reason
why the railroad companies of this State
should charge a high freight rate. They
are granted by the State a charter as
an inducement for them to build and
operate a road, securing to them so
many dcres of wild land per mile for ev-
ery mile of road built, and of course the
more miles the more land, which no
doubt accounts for some of the curves in
the railroads of this State. Their right
of way costs little or nothing. Ten
miles of road can be built in this State,
for the same amount it would require to
secure right of way and build one mile
of road on an average in my native
State, New York; and yet freight rates
here are more than double what they
Railroad corporations in this State
have another advantage over Northern
cporations. I refer to the land grants
here. The amount realized from the sale
of such lands is of itself sufficient to
build and equip a considerable -portion
of the road receiving such grant. Take
for instance, the Florida Southern Rail-
road, which is now advertising 2,500,000
acres of land. At the very lowest esti-
mate, the corporation will realize 'one
million two hundred and fifty thousand
dollars, at fifty cents per acre, and I do
not think there is a doubt but what they
will average that acre for acre. .
I wish to ask the gentlemen compos-
ing that corporation if that amount will
not go a good way towards building
ahd equipping that road, or in other
words paying for the same? That cor-
poration has within the past year in-
creased its milage, increased rolling
stock, increased business, and last but
not least increased its local freight rates.
Now, gentlemen, I do not believe there
is a resident of Florida but who appreci-
ates and is thankful for the benefits de-
rived from your enterprise in providing
-transportation for her products to the
markets of America, and none but what
wish to see you reap fair profits-as the
results of your enterprise. All I ask for
in behalf of the citizens of the State, is
that you reduce your freight tariff so
that we can live as well as you. A low
freight tariff means increased produc-
tion by the people of the State, and the
present high freight tariff means de-
JNO. A. GERMOND.
KEUKA, Putnam Co., Fla.
January 27th, 1877.
According to La Gaulots, the Princess
of Wales lately got from Paris a winter
costume trimmed with a fine, dark gray
fur, which she greatly admired. "You
are a sportsman," said she to her hus-
band; "tell me what kind of fur it is."
"I don't hunt rats and mice," he replied
laughing; "I leave that sport to the
sewer men." And now the Princess
does'nt like the costume as well as she
"PLANTING and pruning trees," Sir
Walter said, "I could work at from
morning till night. There is a sort of
self-congratulation, a little tickling self-
flattery in the idea that while you are
pleasing and amusing yourself you are
seriously contributing to the future wel-
fare of the country.'"'
Hints to Correspondents.
Thereaders of the FLORIDA FARMER
AND FRUIT-GROWER are respectfully in-
vited to contribute to its columns articles
and notes on all. subjects pertaining to
the farm, garden, orchard and house-
hold affairs. The range of topics which
will be discussed in this journal may be
gathered from the subjoined table, which
may serve to suggest what might other-
wise escape attention:
Clearing land, draining land, crops for
new land, succession of crops, intensive
farming, treatment of different soils,
resting land, soiling vs. pasturing, cow-
penning, green manuring.
Horses, mules, cattle, hogs, sheep,
poultry-Breeds, feed, diseases, treat-
Cotton seed,' cotton seed meal, barn-
yard manure, guano, ground bone, su-
per-phosphate, gypsum, lime, kainit,.
ashes, marl, muck, leaf mould, com-
Bermuda grass, crab grass, Para grass
Guinea grass, Terrell grass, orchard
grass, red-top grass, Johnson grass, Texas
blue grass, pearl millet, German millet,
millo maize, kaffir corn, teosinte, sorg-
hum, fodder corn, cow peas, desmodi-'
um, Mexican clover, lespedeza, alfalfa,
Corn, oats, rye, wheat-Varieties,
yield per acre, soil and season, .difficul-
ties encountered, general treatment;
Cotton-Lang and 6hort Staple-Plant-'
ing and culture, marketing crop, man-
agement of seed, products 'from the
.Sngar Cane aind Sorghum-Varieties,
culture, making syrup and sugar, condi-
tion of market.
Tobacco-Varieties, history in Florida,
recent experiences,' seed, culture manu-'
Citrus Fruits-Comparison of varie-
ties, hardiness and productiveness, meth-
ods of propagation,. methods of planting
and culture. comparative effects of fer-.,
tilizers, marketing of fruit, preservation.
of fruit wine and other products. -
Peach, pear, fig, persimmon, Japan '
plum,. Kelsey plum, native plum, mul-
berry, quince, apricot, guava, 'banana,
pineapple sapodilla, mango, avocada,'
pear, cocoanut, pecan, English walnut,:
almond, pomegranate, olive,. grape,;-
strawberry, blackberry, raspberry-Va-'
rieties, their characteristics, effects bf'
soil, weather, etc., best methods of:
Plants adapted' "to this climate, out-
door culture, management 6an-
NATIVE TREES AND HERBS. .
Planting trees for ornament or utility,
the burning over, of forest" -lands, the
luinber and turpentine industries,' the
tanning industry, phenomena of plante
life, weeds and noxious plants. I: :,
N. B.-Specimens may be sent to the
editor for identification. -Information in-
desired respecting popular names and
INSECT ENEMIES AND FUNGOID DISEASES.
Nature of damage done and remedies.-
Bees and bee plants, silk culture and
the mulberry, hunting and fishing, dogs.
and dog laws, fences and roads, legisla-
tion for farmers, homestead laws, 'trans-
portation, marketing produce, experi-
mental farms, agricultural education,"
home manufactures, natural history
of Florida, historic points, sanitary ad:
vice, farm buildings, house furnishing,
farm machinery, farm implements,
water supply, cooling appliances, re-
cipes for cooking, home decorations,
household economy, mineral and earths,
climatology, hints on the care of chil-
dren, on dress, habits, reading, amuse-
In treating of the above and related
subjects, practical experience is much to
be preferred to theoretical knowl-
edge; yet there are topics needing dis-
cussion which have to be treated of
from a somewhat theoretical stand-
In describing any method of experi-
ment it is desirable that all external in-
fluences be explained; for. example, in
the case of a crop, the character of the -
season, of the soil, of the sub-soil and
the method of planting and cultivating,
all. have an important bearing on the re-
sult. Bare statements of results are of
little value, though they may be worthy
We do not desire letters written mere-
ly in praise of special localities unless
claims to favor are based on the products
or productiveness of the soil. Articles
of an animated or vivacious style are de-
sirable by way of variety, but practical
statements-and descriptions should be
concise and as much to the point as pos-
All communications for the editorial
department should be addressed to
EDITOR FARMER AND FRUIT-GEOWER.
A Very Useful Implement.
We have just had the pleasure of wit-
nessing the operations of Lewis's -Com-
bination Force Pump, and can unhesita-
tingly recommend it as being a very su-
perior instrument, being capable of throw-
ing a stream of water over any ordin-
ary house or a fine spray over fruit trees
or garden plants. It has an attachment
for veterinary use, and various others,
and altogether is a very desirable as well
as a cheap instrument, Agents are de-
sired in every neighborhood and are
offered very liberal inducements. For
particulars apply to FRANK M. HAUSER,
In the distribution of clothing over the
body, the main part to keep warm is the
chest. The throat, too, ,deserves careful
attention. Ladies, make a note of this.
nor would Russian wheat succeed in
It may be objected that in Florida the
spring is too warm and dry, but in In-
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, FEBRUARY 9, 1887.
nur jamy giiUde.
HELEN HARCOURT, Editor.
With a helping hand and a Welcome for all
Who wish to be friendly and make us a call;
With words of good counsel for old friends and
Who come to us seeking the best way to do.
All questions of general interest will
be answered through these columns.
Personal inquiries will be answered by
mail when accompanied by stamp for
Subscribers are cordially invited to
take a seat in our Cosy Corner, and ex-
change views, experiences and recipes
of mutual benefit. "Help ye one an-
Communications intended for publi-
cation must be brief, clearly written,
and only on one side of the paper.
All matter relating to this department
should be addressed to
EDITOR OUR HOME-CIRCLE,
Fla. Farmer and Fruit-Grower,
Our Cosy Corner.
THE HOUSEHOLD HELP QUESTION.
In our last talk together, we were
looking into the question of our Florida
so-called "cooks," and we then detailed
some of our own opinions (we had oth-
ers, of which more anon); they were very
amusing, as well as exasperating, all the
more amusing, when seen now "as
through a glass, darkly," in the dim
light of the past, but there was a web of
weariness and pathos woven all through
them, as every housekeeper well knows.
How to bring relief, a better class of
help into our households, is the question
now pressing upon us, and we cannot
better discuss this point, than by quoting
at length from the advance sheets of a
work now in press.
"In the 'Old Regeime' the South was
famous for its good cooks, the wives and
daughters of the planters vied with each
other in making their homes attractive.
They were wise in their generation,
and knew the royal road to a man's,
heart, so they taught the most promising
of the slaves how to-cook, and allowed
them to do nothing else; hence, with
pains-taking, careful teachers, who en-
couraged them to devote their whole
time and thought to this one branch of
duty, and with an unlimited amount of
,that practice which alone "makes per-
fect," it'is not to be wondered at, that
the genuine old plantation cooks ex-
celled in their art.
But after the "New Regeime" set in,
these cooks were scattered abroad, atnd
there remained none to train up the
rising generation "in the way they
Our State papers are full' of discus-
sions and -plans concerning oranges,
crops, freight, politics, and all the time
there is one powerful class of readers
whose claims they almost totally ignore.
The-question of better help for the
Florida housekeeper is a- previous one,
and bears heavily upon every wife anid
daughter in the land, and should be
earnestly heeded by every husband and
father, if only from the selfish sonsider-
ations which actuated a German we
heard of not long since.
He had hired a housekeeper for sev-
eral years, and finally married her, ex-
plaining that he did so because he had
found out that "A vife is cheaper dan a
vomans; you has to pay de vomans to
do sometinks, or she von't stay, but you
no pays de vife at all to do everytinks,
and she has to stay all de same."
We could lay our hand to-day on
men who call themselves "gentlemen,"
and yet leave their wives without even
the inefficient help that might be se-
cured, and in addition expect them to
cook and work for the colored men
whom they hire to enhance their own
ease and for their own purposes.
Such men as these will ere long have
the opportunity of discovering, as the
old German did, that "a vife is cheaper
dan a vomans," and that a mother's
love and care cannot be duplicated.
Out-door labor can be supplied readily
enough; there are few colored men-who
cannot plow, hoe, and wield the axe,
and readily earn their wages of from
$15 to $20 a month.
But, as we have seen, the in-door work
wears a far different aspect; it is an im-
portant problem that must be shortly
In Florida are hundreds of housekeep-
ers crying out: "Give us servants, or we
die," and far away, in the frozen, cor-
roded North and East, are hundreds of
intelligent, capable, deserving young
women, crying out: "Give us work or
we die I"
American girls, the daughters of hard-
working farmers and mechanics, whc
would fain help themselves if they
could; who are willing to go out to ser-
vice in private families, but whose bet-
ter education and more refined tastes,
cause them to shrink from putting them-
selves on a level with the more ignorant
class of- foreign origin, from whose
coarseness they recoil.
Now, here in Florida, we can offer
just the very homes they are looking for
and now more than welcome would b
the assistance of their deft, tidy hand
to the over-worked, workout house
But now to bring them together-
these two classes who have such son
need of each other, yet are blindly grop
ing in the' dark along two diverging
We have thought much and seriously
on this subject," for it deeply concern
the welfare and happiness of every re
fined household in Florida; nay, even th(
very life of the delicate wife and moth
er, whose strength is not equal to th
unaccustomed strain of "doing her owl
work," with all that it entails.
SAnd we would respectfully submit ti
the earnest consideration of our Florid,
readers, the outcome of our medications
with the hope that some action may bi
taken upon this, or a better plan sug
In every county there is, or will short
ly be, a Fruit Growers' Association. The
men who compose those associations
are, in the majority of cases, husbands
and fathers who should have the wel-
fare of their families at heart.
There is also a State association.
Let these, as bodies already organized,
take this matter up and look into it until
they fully realize its vital and pressing
importance; and then let them act
promptly and officially.
Let the State association select as its
agent in each of the large cities of the
North and West, a thoroughly reliable,
well established "Labor Bureau," or
Having done this, the next step would
be to notify the several county associa-
tions, that the secretary or some other
officer specially appointed for the pur-
pose, will receive and forward all appli-
cations from communities or families in
need of servants.
Then let the county associations pub-
lish in their local papers, and by circu-
lars, the fact that they stand ready to
receive such applications from. their
members, or any others, and that terms
of service, qualifications desired, must
be plainly stated, and guarantee of
good faith given. .
Then, if in their turn, the agents in
the great cities would advertise largely
in the city and adjoining towns, as the
"Florida Service Bureau," does it not
look as though this difficult problems
might be solved and a great good ef-
fected for two classes who so much need
The seekers and the sought would be
brought together; many deserving,
needy persons, single or in families, pro-
vided with comfortable homes, and the
life of the Florida housekeeper relieved
of its worst trials and tribulations.
Of course there would be many points
to arrange as to fees, transporta-
tion and other necessary expenses,
but these could be easily met and
smoothly settled by the joint associa-
SBut there is one point that.should be
fully understood by both parties, the
employer and the employee, for without
such understanding, discontent and im-
pertinence on- the part of the latter are
apt to ensue;: we 'have. known such in-
,stanpes within our own experience.
The trouble we refer to is just here:
When the white servant, either man
or woman, sees neighbors whom they
recognize to be no more educated, per-
haps less so, than themselves, received
as guests of the family, and treated as
such, they are almost certain to rise up
in rebellion, and claim the- same treat-
ment for themselves.
They cannot see that though they may
really be the intellectual superiors of the
rough, uncultured neighbors' whose
ways are not as their ways, yet the
social status of the latter is different, in-
asmuch as a land-owner and household-
er conducting -his; own business, free to
come and go at will, ranks higher than
the hired household servant.
Hence trouble crops out.
We know of one instance wheie the
.mistake (iiis a mistake as a crule),'was
made of bringing white servants from
the North without such an underStand-
ing, and one of the speedy results was
that the humble neighbors who called to
pay their friendly respects to the mis-
tress, were either invited into the kitch-
en or were turned away from the house
without her knowledge, by the woman
servant, who asserted that "the kitchen
was the place for them folks, they
wasn't as good as she was."
And finally admittance to the family
table being asked and refused, they (the
husband and wife) sat down to their
own meals at the same moment as their
master and mistress; actually cutting
into beef or chicken before serving it
The mistress was an invalid. No other
help was to be had; so all these and
other trials had to be borne, for a time
And "up North;" those who had been
fully content with their position, and
never dreamed of claiming equality;
but here, with superior education and
tastes to many of- their neighbors, who
ware so treated by courtesy, they be-
came demoralized, and being finally
dismissed, went about slandering a
friend of the mistress, who had had the
misfortune to "bring them down" in
order to get the new home in readiness,
and also the kindest, 'most considerate
mistress that servant ever had.
So let this point be fully settled, that
the 'srvant engaging with the Florida
mistress'will be well and kindly treated
-and have a pleasant home, but must be
f content to remain a servant, and not
I claim the privilege of a family guest.
This matter, understood, there will be
comfort and good will for both parties.
-From advance sheets of "Home Life
in Florida, by Helen Harcourt," stolen
T by permission, df author.
The Children's Aid Society.
- The editor having in view this very
t subject of alleviating the daily burdens
B of our housekeepers, recently applied, in
their interests, to the Cnildren's Aid
r Society, of New York, to ascertain if ii
, were possible to have young girls
e brought to Florida for household service
s This hope, however, has proved futih
- for the present, but vte look -for better
success later on.
We also made inquiry, concerning
e boys', which resulted more satisfactorily
- as those who have read the correspond
; ence on this subject in the Times-Unioi
of the 25th inst. are aware. :
A number of applicants have been re-
s ceived for boys of about sixteen years o:
- age, and the agent of the society ex
e pects to arrive with a party of the boya
- on the day of this publication, Februar
e 9th. "
n Our Home Circle welcomes these boys
and trusts that from this day forth the:
o may never again find themselves, a
a heretofore, "homeless ahd friendless."
s, We consider this society, whose solid
e aim is to rescue and provide -homes fo
Spoor, helpless children, as one of th
noblest institutions on earth, and hop
t- that this "experimental -party" "o
Florida homes may be by no means the
It shall not be our fault if it is.
Answers to Correspondents.
J. F. B., Evinston, Alachua County:
Application for boy (as above) receiv-
ed. See general letter to Times-Unton
of February 1st.
Mrs. A. A. D., Jackeonville, Fla : See
column in present issue for reply to your
query, as advised by mail. Glad to learn
that you "are already in love with our
paper and wish it all prosperity" So
We hope that a legion of our sisters
may "go and do likewise."
J. C. G., Palatka: Application receiv-
ed. You need only to be on hand; "first
come, first served."
The Family Friend.
ROACHES VS. MOTHS.
We wonder how many of our Florida
sisters have made the discovery, that we
confess it took us several years to make ?
It is this: That a great deal of the
damage done to clothing while hanging
up in dark closets is done by roaches.
Again and again we found clothing that
was only occasionally in use, yet fre-
quently taken out, shaken and aired,
was badly eaten here .and there; some
times the holes were small and round,
again round and irregular.
%We wondered how the moths found
time to do it, when they were so often
disturbed; for of course we laid all such
transgressions on the shoulders of the
poor moths (this world is full of in-
justice), although we very seldom saw
any of the silky-web traces of their pres-
But after a time we began to notice
that there were always big roaches near
by, when we moved the clothing, and
then we remembered that "once upon a
time," in South America, we had been
put to just such loss and annoyance, and
that these big lack roaches abounded
there even more than here.
Another thing we noticed, too, and
that was that the holes were almost in-
variably eaten where something had
been spilled, and we knew that it was a
matter of indifference to.moths whether
the garments theydined upon were soiled
or new; only so that they were made of'
And there came up another point.
These holes were not only in woolen
materials, but in anything and every-
thing that had been worn; more still,
there was always a dark -brown spot
close to the hole, and that we knew the
roaches were responsible for.
Finally, after a little more detective
business, we found a true bill against
the roaches, and honorably acquitted
the moths from this count in the indict-
ment against them, though they are
guilty enough on their own account
Andno tattie Ays regroin
the spirit as well. An infusion of these
could readily be made, either green or
dry, and a tea or tablespoonful of the
flavoring liquor used. One of the most
useful and harmless of all leaves for
flavoring is that of the common syringa.
When cucumbers are scarce these are a
a perfect substitute in salads, or any-
thing in which that flavor is desired.
The taste is not only like that of cucum-
bers, but identical-a curious instance
of the correlation of flavors in widely
different families. Again the young
leaves of cucumbers have a striking
likeness in the way of flavor to that of
the fruit. The same may be affirmed of
carrot tops, while in most gardens there
is a prodigious waste of celery flavor in
the sacrifice of the leaves and hard part
of the stems; dried and powdered they
impart a perfect flavor to salads or
HOW TO MAKE RUGS.
Here is something nice and useful, too,
that our girls can do, I am sure; just
try and see what good rugs you can
make out of "nothing:"
Cut rags a little finer than for carpet
and knit on large wooden needles. A
good way is to knit the centre hit and
miss 8sstitches wide and then a row all
around of black 4 stiches wide and then
a row of hit and miss 8 stiothes wide;
that makes a good size, and if the rags
are bright it lopks well considering what
it is made of. Of course one can make
differently according to the rags they
have. Another rug:
Take an old coat or any pieces of thick
cloth, cut out square pieces of them dif-
ferent sizes, and button-hole stitch one
on the other, then crochet these blocks
together with German-town yarn, and
also working the button-hole stitch with
the same, finish with a border.
And not to forget the boys, here is a
neat, comfortable hammock, that they
can make, at little, if any cost, one that
the mother or father can rest in when
tired with the work of the day they are
doing all the time for their little ones:
Take a clean barrel-those made of
oak are best-and bore half-inch augur-
holes just below the top hoops, or, say
four inches from the end of the staves,
boring 'exactly between the staves,
to that'&ach stave--will- have its half of
the hole. When you have bored be-
sween ~very pair of staves, repeat the
operation at the other end of the barrel.
Then take a small rope, pass it through
one hole and back trough the next around
the barrel, leaving about five feet loose
at the ends, Pass another rope through
the same holes, but on opposite sides of
the staves precisely as a carpet is woven.
Do this at each end, and then cut your
hoops, take -them off, spread out your
hammock, tie the ropes in a hard-knot at
the last stave to keep it in place. paint
it a light* cream tint, hang it pretty
straight under a big tree or on the ver-
And now that the days are growing FO O FIT LETTER
warm, and springs rushing close on the Ri U F ,T ". .
the heels of winter, these roach maraud- And right here I will "speak out in
ers are coming on the war path again, meeting" and 'say thatE I know Grac e, f
"bad luck till the craythurs e and that this is her very first letter, h
But here we are, and so, whileit isstill written "all by her lone self"' And very a
-too early to-put away all the heavywoo -ell has she succeeded. She has sent d
en cothinig, lest it might be needed something more than a letter, too; all
once again, keep a watch on them, both herowny also. Let all our young folks
roaches andclothing. folew her examp e: y
Take the latter from the closets, shake MONTLAIR, FLA., Jan 26, 1887 k
and hang out in the breeze; then, before' DEAR COUSIN HELEN:-I am a little c
you put them back, dash scalding water girl only ten years old, and so cannot a
freely in every crack and corner of the write much of a letter, but to please you st
closet that is not plastered; then, Wvith I will try. I came to Florida four years h
a little powder. gun sold at the drug- ago, andlike the life here very much. i
stores, send insect powder flying into I have two little brothers; their names h
every corner, are Bayard and Neal; Bayard is nearly 5
This is a gun that every housekeeper five, and Neal is three (years old-ED.). c
should leai'n to fire, even if she be afraid They call themselves Puck and Kip. M
of any other, though without lock, stock The youngest, Kip, is a little Floridian. Sl
or barrel. They are a pretty curly-haired little pair, o
FLAVORING EXTRACTS. and they keep the house lively with i
Forged and fraudulent fruit essences noisc and comical ways; for instance, P
manufactured and sold and used bycthe the other night as Kip was saying his P1
ton, not only byoprofessional confection- praye e suey sopped an sa:
era in creams, ices and candies, but by Mamma, who takes care of us T'
cooks and housekeepers in private Being told it was God, "God is a good
houses, who ar entirely innocent of the boy,is, he not, Puck? Don't we like
fraud. The makers of fruit essences, him?" .. i
flavoring extracts and coolilag extracts, They ask lots of questions very hard
laugh at the idea of there being any of to answer. We play out-doors all the i
the real fruit in their compounds. So time, and have such goo times; we are
universal is this system of aduteration, so well and strong. Alitle friend f t
or rather fabrication, that no one is cer- mine, Yena Herndon, twho is mthy arge t
train of usin an ounce of real fruit juice a day, and I had a little birthday party"
all their lives who do not themselves ex- this month. There wereEfifty (rats, n
press these juices from the fruits, dogs, or what, Graoie?-E present,
The only safe way for flavoring creams quite a lot fior such a small place as
and ices is for each confectioner and Montclair. We had a pleasant time, t
housewife, as I say, to use the pure juice payed all srts ofgames. near, that, at
of the fruits themselves. How this can rnice little shcool qi n a ,
be-done I will now explain. The juice, tend; we all like our teacher so much. I
after being expressed from the fruits, hope you wiUi print this letter, though I
should be kept in bottles and securely know it is not interesting, but I have only
shoulrked andbe ke t in bottles and let the written once before (with some assist-
bottles bedqandutietly boiled fdnor half anhour ance"-ED.) That was for Harper's
inwater. Allowthe bottlesto remain Young People, and it looked so funny in
in the water until the water is old. By print. I must close sow, as I want to
this means fruit juices may be kept good compose an enigma. EN
for years, always furnishing a true and GRACI.E MURDER.
genuine flavor fr anyuse, whether for And here it i, let us see who will be t
creams and ices, or for desserts, sauces, the first to solveAitN
or any kind of entremets. n ENIGMA NO. 1.
Lemon or orange skin, when cut off My first is in hat, also in hall.
very thin, taking only the yellow rind, Myv second is in cat, also in call;
make elegant flavoring tinctures, when My third is in yarn, but not in thread,
placed in alcohol. My fourth is in awful, also in dread.
Have the latter in a bottle, and drop My sixth is i rope, also in card,
in the peel from time to time, until it is My seventh is in dagger, als6 in sward.
full, then pour off the tincture, and if it My whole i..a boy's name.
is not of- a. deep yellow color, drop in
fresh peels. -Our Young Folks' Corner.
The lemon and orange flavoring thus ITS STANDING OFFER.
made, is not only pure, but better than ITS STANDING OFFER.
any you can purchase. A nice picture book each month to the
Leaves are a much neglected source of boy or girl who sends us the largest list
pure home-made flavors, of subscribers for "THE FLORIDA
With the exception of sweet and bit- FARMER AND FRIUT-GROWER" during
ter herbs, grown chiefly for the purpose, that month.
and parsley, which is neither bitter nor A beautifully bound copy of the fa-
sweet, but the most popular of all mouse. children's magazine, ST. NIc.HOLAS,
flavoring plants, comparatively few to the boy or girl who sends us the larg-
other leaves are used. Perhaps I ought est numb li of subscribers during six
also to except the sweet bay, which is months. Awards will be published.
popular in rice and other puddings, and We want LETTERS from our young
certainly imparts one of the most pleas- friends, descriptive of places, things or
ant and exquisite flavors; but, on the doings. Write only on one side of the
other hand, what a waste there is of -paper. Give'age.
the flavoring properties of peach, almond We Will publish the best letter received
and laurel leaves, so richly charged with each week, with name and age of the
essence of bitter almonds, so m'uch used writer.
in most kitchens I Of course such leaves btOw go to work and seewho wins.
must be used with caution, but.so must ;Wellmy little cousins, I did think of
beginning the story of my Pets to-day,
ut after finding such an avalanche of
arses as those below, thrown into our
corner by an insignificant thing like a
ree-frog, my heart is so lacerated, my
ride so crushed, that I have nothing
ore to say this time. For the worst of it
, the frog has found a "true bill"against
our Cousin Helen, and she must plead-
uilty to once having been the "goose"
e calls her.
"SOLD I! CHEAP."
BY A TREE FROG.
'Twas the voice of a Tree-frog,
And Lheard it declare, ,
"I can sing like a chicken-
Don't believe it? well, there!
I will tell you the story,
And then you will see,
WhRt a dear simple old goose,
Cousin Helen can be.
She had just come from under,
The drear Northern skies,
And the things here were many,
SThat she saw with surprise.
I donit think she was wise, as
The most wisest could be,
For you hardly will credit
She had never seen ME!
Well, the rein was down pouring,
And the wind blew a gale,
When right in the midst of it
Came a sorrowful wail.
'There's a poor little chicken,
Getting drowned in the rain,
I will go to its rescue,
For I pity its pain,'
She put on her waterproof,
And her thick rubber shoes,
Then rushed out, this good Helen,
There was no time te loose.
Struggling with the wind and rain,
At last what did she see,
Sitting on the old gate post?
I was the'little chicken,'
I grinned and then I spoke,
And 'sung 'a song of sixpence,'
'Twas such a jolly joke."
Well now I've told the story,
It was too good to.keep,
Was not it a funny thing.
To sell "H. H." so cheap ?
Forests and Rain-Fall.
There is nothing of -greater impor-
ince to the agriculturists than rain at
e proper season and in proper quantity
ad science-mhas demonstrated that the
crests, of a country are potent in the
regulation of storms, the formation of
clouds, and the descent of raiu. Any-
hing which vitally affects the interests
f the farmer and producer affects the
whole State, and demands the earliest
attention of the people's representatives,
The reckleds destruction of forests, so
strongly condemned by many American
writers, which has been practiced by
heir countrymen, is now bearing its
ruits in the terrible spring arid autumn
loods which of late years have affected
large portions of the United States. -The
Linericans might spare much of their
are for the channels of the Mississippi
f they.would restore the groves cut from
he hills which feed its sources. To dis-
orest a mountain slope is to devote the
height to barrenness, the valley to flood,
nd both to parching drought when
drought is most injurious.--Selected.
The orange trees around Starke are
yet uninjured, not even a young tree
killed or damaged to any extent. The
rop of 1886 was good- both in quantity
nd good prices realized. This fact will
tart the orange boom again. Few people
ave an idea of the extent of the range
industry here. The Pennsylvania grove
as 100 acres in trees, while groves of
to 40 acres are scattered all over the
county. Bradford county people have de-
monstrated the fact that orange trees can
nccessfully be grown in the flat woods
f Florida. Strawberries are also becom-
ng quite an important crop. The area
lanted being doubled yearly and the
public interest increased in more than like
"We Know by Experience." ,
For three years we have used Brad-
ey's Vegetable" Fertilizer. After test-
ng along with other high grade fertil-
zers, we pronounce it better than any
old in Florida. We shall use it agaii
We do not hesitate to say to the vege-
able growers of Florida that they can-
tot use anything so good as Bradley's
Florida Vegetable Fertilizer. We know
by experience what we say regarding
WOFFORD & WILDER.
Ft. Mason, Fla.
Seed Irish Potatoes.
The best potatoes for planting in this
State are those brought from extreme
Eastern points. Acting on this belief,
we imported last year from
large quantities of Early Rose, Chili
Red; Beauty of Hebron and other varie-
ties, and the potatoes raised from this
seed, were the finest we have ever seen
We will receive, in afew days another
cargo of the same potatoes, which we
willsell at the following prices.:
Chili Red........per barrel $8.50.
Early Rose................. $8.00.
Beauty of Hebron...........$3.00.
Every barrel guaranteed as represented.
Remit with order, and we will ship the
CHURCH ANDERSON & CO.
Jacksonville, Fla., Jan. 5th, 1887.
The largest grower of these Pears from Cut-
tings. Buy no other and avoid Blight. Cata-
logues free. W. W. THOMPSON
Name this paper. Smithville, da.
- (\ END YOUR
Job pri tij
:TO THE TIMES-UNION. JOB ROOMS.
. --- -.5 .
WeoeM l- JoiiaI,
DEVOTED TO THE
This journal will-have for its leading object
the promotion of rural indusrriesin Florida, and
will advocate especially a more diversified and
intensive system of agriculture and greater
economy of home resources.
Asesuming that the agricultural adaptations of
a large portion of Florida are as yet but imper-
fectly understood, a special aim of this journal
will be to describe the best results wtuhich have
been accomplished, with the exact methods em-
ployed, and aU influences affecting such results;
also to euggest experiment, describe newor little
known crops, fruits, etc., and record the progress
of agriclmrure n neighboring States.
Commencing with the flirst number and con-
tinuing through the season for
There will be a series of articles on fruits-other
than those of tho citrus group-which have
proved most successful in this State. Each va-
riety will be described and
And there will be notes from persons who have
had experience in its cultivation. This will .be .
followed by a similar series on
And other subjects will be illustrated to limited
Much attention will be devoted to
And to the home production offorage and fertili-
zers, two economies which are essential to suc-
Questions relative to ailments of domestic
animals will be answered by an able veterinary
surgeon who formerly edited a like department
Turf, Field and Farm.
A due amount of space will be devoted to
household economy and to reports of the mar-
kets, and the departments of
will be contributed to by persons who have made
specialties of those branches.
All portions of the State will receive a due
amount of attention, and their interests will be
represented by able correspondents.. .
Under no cireumstances-will this journal be-
come the "organ" of any association or locality;
it will start out untrammelled and will repre-
sent all sections and interests with absolute im-
Published at Jacksonville on Wednesday
of each week.
PRICE OF SUBSCRIPTION:
One Year $2 00
Six Months 1 00
Three Months 0 -
sPECIMEN COPIES Fpaz.
Address subscriptions and other business com-
C. H. JONES & BRO.,
Communipatlion tor the editorial department
should be addressed to
A. H. CURTISS, Editor,
.46 -.. -- .---=-= FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, FEBRUARY 9, 1887.
Inquiries concerning diseases of
mestic animals may be addressed to Z
D. 0. Lyon, Jacksonville, Fla., who v
answer them through this column.
Editor Veterinary DepartmentW:
I have a mare which would be valu-
able but for an alleged snake bite on
the left behind leg. The snake bite is only
presumptive, but is assigned as the cause
*of a very sudden inflammation which set
in some four or five years ago. She had
a short time before lost her foal. The
inflammation is persistent, at its best the
leg is twice its normal size. The swell-
ing goes down a little in the course of a
day's exercise. There are several inter-
mittently running sores on the inside of
the foot, just'above the coronet; and a
slight amount of pus exudes a good deal
of the time from the wrinkles on the in-
side of the hock joint. When driven
too hard the leg flares up, swells to
three times its natural size, 'the inflam-
mation extends along the under side of
the belly; finally the skin bursts in sev-
eral places on the inside of the ham, and
yellow bloody pus exudes. Farmers say
it is the regular "big leg." I do not
suppose there is much help for the ani-
mal, but I should like to ask if there is
any such disease known to the profes-
In case of a snake bite, does it flare
up once a year or once a month, with
any regularity ? -
,' LAWTEY, January 24.
.ANSWER.-It is quite probable the
-swelling is the result of drying up the
milk suddenly after loss of foal. Do not
think a cure can be effected as the case
is of., so long standing.
,'Would;advice giving a good tonic and
regular exercise, and keep the leg clean
by washing once a day with waim water
and castle soap, and apply the follow-
ing solution after bathing: Permanga-
nate of potash, 1 drachm; rain water;
one pint. Apply to the entire leg and
give the following tonic: ...Citrate of
iron and quinine,.one ounce; Fowler's
solution arsenic, one ounce; water, one
: pint. Give poe inc nce n a day. Keep
the mare in a dry place. The swelling
from snake bite is notperiodic.
D. 0. L.
Axle Grease for Sores, Etc.
Editor Ftorida Farmer and .Fruit-Grower:
rA litte axlgre gr e rubbed on sores,
cuts, etc., will keep off the flies and help
i healing. It will also keep off wood
ticks by rubbing a little on the hind
quarters of cattle just above the udder.
WM. B. SCHRADER.
.-' TALkAHASSEE, Fla.
Windgall, Farcy, Sores. -
Here are three veterinary cases treated
of in Home and Farm. The ailments
described are reported from the Caro-
linas and Missouri, and the same occur
doubtless in this State :
QUESTION.-I have a valuable horse that
has a windgall on the hind leg near the
knee joint. What will remove it ?
ANSWER.-It will be difficult to effect
a permanent cure, the cause being a
spavin, probably, o'r some interruption
of the integrity of the parts. Apply with
vigorous and long-continued friction,
any good stimulating horse liniment
and bandage the parts, removing it ev-
ery second or third day to use the lini-
ment, and return..
QUESTIoN.-I have a large bay horse
about seven years old that is effected
with itching and a slight eruption
starting between the forelegs and ex-
tending to the sheath. The vein on the
left side is swollen where it is com-
pressed by the girth. What is the mat-
ter, and what can I do ? i
ANSWER.-Something resembling farcy o
seems to be troubling your horse. Give i
him, daily, in a bran mash, half an I
ounce of nitrate of potash and one
ounce of sulphur. Do this for a week;
then give nothing but green food for a (
week, and resume the medicine and try
it another week, and so on till material ]
benefit is secured. &
QUESTION -I have a fine young jack
that gnaws his legs in summer. He be- ,
gins -about July. I have tried every i
remedy known to me, but without satis- 1
*ANSWER.-Jacks, whether young or li
old, are apt to be troubled with sores on i
their legs in the warm season, which
causes itching and invite gnawing. If t
the sores ar'obn his hindlegs, you can t
manage by using a stick and a surcingle s
to prevent his biting them; if on his s
forelegs, you can tie his head up of days t
so he cannot reach them. You may u
cool his blood, so to speak, by feeding g
grain food and giving nitrate of potash w
and flowers of sulphur, e
HORSES IN FLORIDA.
Suggestions as to Their Feed,
Drink and General Care.
BY S. POWERS.
The gray mule is the better horse,
would not be an inapt paraphrasing of
an old saw: The point seems to be that
the mule endures the sand better than
the horse, for one of the most prevalent
complaints of our equine friend in Flori-
da is "sanding." The cow is less subject
to it because she does not graze so close
S to the ground, but the mule isa 'less fre-
quent sufferer from it apparently be-
cause of its stronger d igesteion.
There seems to be a fatality attending
the horses of this colony ; it, is almost
an impossibility to put ones hand on a
horse, especially one that has been here
a few months, and say that there is
nothing'the matter with it. Next after
sand, I think tie greatest enemy of there
horse in this latitude is the average col-
ored hostler or chore-boy; and the third,
in my opinion, is improper feed, for
which the master is more to blame than
.1 make no pretensions whatever as a
veterinary surgeon, therefore will not
attempt to prescribe remedies for "sand-
ing" and other diseases. Prevention,
however, is infinitely better than cure.
A veterinary surgeon is a valuable, if
somewhat humble, member of a noble
profession, and we ought to have more
of them. But I should be rather dis-
trustful of the ordinary farmer who was
profoundly versed in horse-ails, for it
would seem to indicate that his horses
were oftener sick than sound. How to
keep a horse well is of vastly more im-
portance than a knowledge of many
medicines, to be used only after the ani-
mal has fallen ill.
PREVENTION OF SANDING.
The most obvious preventive of -sand-
ing is stabling. But constant stabling
is expensive, especially if the horse is
kept on Northern baled hay at $1.35 a
hundred and corn at seventy-five cents a
bushel. But can a horse be allowed to
run on pasture without great danger of
getting sanded ? The horse ought by all
means to be allowed a run in the pad-
dock and a roll in the sand, for exercise
and health. There are some varieties of
grass that the horse grazes closer to the
ground than others. The flat grass (Pas-
palum platy caue), Bermuda, crab,
blanket and.some other grasses are eaten
very close to the ground. Wild oats and
the wire grasses, if eaten at all, are
cropped higher. A horse which is gen-
erously fed on grain will secure all the
coarse feed he requires in a pasture
composed almost wholly of these tall
grasses, and be in little danger of "sand-
One of my neighbors, an excellent
judge nd managerof horses, believes
that crab grass :hay is injurious to
horses; but I think this view is unfound-
ed. Choice bright crab hay can be
bought in this colony.at 50.cents a hun-
dred, at the mow, which is little over
one-third the price of the northern
article. My horse eats it with avidity ;
prefers it, if anything; to timothy.
FEEDING WITH WHEAT BRAN.
Now, crab hay-at 50 cents, and wheat
bran at $1.5 a hundred, constitute a
most excellent arid sufficient ration for a
horse, and not expensive, "either. The
reader may smile nstredulously at'the
idea ofa hard -working horse being fed on
bran I But an experience ,of two years
has satisfied me of its value, and I would
not exchange it for a like weight of any
othergrain for an all-year-round horse
feed in this. sub-tropical' climate. Of
course-it must be given in liberal quan-
tities-as many' pounds at a feed a one i
iw6ould give.of meal or chop.. My horse i
has performed. hard labor day after day,
lowing in summer, hauling mnuck In
,winter, and kept in'good condition o n
bran. Several of my neighbors,'on be- I
ng toll of this fact, have expressed i
themselves with surprise, not always
inmingled with sarcasm, "Don't you
give that horse hany grain except wheat
bran ?" It is the simple fact, and the .
condition of the horse speaks for itself. I
The bran is not given in a mash, but I
Iry. A horse swallows wet bran too
ast; he does not accomplish that thor- s
tough insalivation which is requisite to
igestion, which is, in face, tIhe first pro-
cess of digestion, and without which s
here will be a partial failure of alimen- I
ation-that is, a loss of sojne of the N
utriment which should be. extracted t
rom.the feed. i
Corn meal, or chop composed largely e
f corn meal, is too heating a feed for s
his climate, especially if given in con- a
section with timothy, a
POOR NORTHERN HAY. t
Timothy is binding at best, and that
which is sent here from the North is
generally overripe (cut in that condition
because it will weigh well), woody, dry, t
Iodorous, full of indigestible seed, and,
n the whole, about as poor a quality of
ong feed as the money would buy. The
orse might perhaps eat meal or corn L
'ith impunity if he had clover hay,
whichh is cooling and laxative, but he
cannot do it long with timothy.
While nearly every horse around mea
as, first or last, been down sick with a
and or sweeny (which is simply v
trophy)) or some trouble, mine has b
ept right along in sound care and work-
ag trim without a pound of grain but
ran in a year. t
There is an almost complete lack of s
me in the soil of Bradford county ; in
act, in a belt extending from Georgia
own to, Alachua county ; and this is
bought to be the cause of many of the
'oubles, which horse flesh is heir-such
A "big head," "big shoulders," enlarged
iffe joints, etc. The Waters seem, also li
o have a deleterious effect on the kid-. t
eys. Some horsemen in this region A
ive lime to their horses in the drinking e
ater-say a lump as large as a hen's
g in the course of a week. Others O
low them to drink only cistern water. d.
ost men, however, adopt none of these
precautions, and, as above remarked,
or some reason or other, the horses of c
is region are greatly afflicted. u
LAWTEY, Bradford County. hi
Few people are aw are of the value of Pi
.e neglected if not the despised goat as h
most useful animal, to be kept about w
e house. No animal 'that chews its
don the same coarse vegetation, even vi
e most bitter and strong scented food, in
s no effect upon the flavor of its flesh re
milk; and no domestic animal is more br
ntent when confined. Give the goat a th
other a few feet in length, fastened to a T
)ck of wood large enough for it to lie on, W
.th. water to drink, and a cheap kennel F
protect it from rain, and it will feed .ac
everything within its reach, and give Pr
owner from a pint to a quart of the b(
ost nutrititious of milk, for the baby
ice each, day. da
"-." ,:, J.G. K. m
Groves: where Williams, Clark & Co's tv
ange 'Tree Fertilizer has been used are rm
king WILLIES, CLARK &Co. t
The Most Noted Indian Leade
of the Seminole War.
BY C. M. B.
After the death of Oseola, by far t
greatest chieftain of the Seminoles, w
Caocoochee, or Wild Cat, the son
King Philip. On account of jis ran
King Philip had the right to speak
council, and in time of peace was hea
with much respect; yet, though a lov
of peace, he was not fearful of war. T
soil, he said was the gift of the Gre
Spirit to the red man, and- must not I
surrendered; if possible, let the whit
be avoided, but if they, could not
avoided they must be resisted.
As for Caocoochee, .war was his d
light. Active, intelligent, resolute ai
courageous, he was by nature a warric
the thought of difficulties strengthened
his determination; the presence (
danger was like wine to his spirit. A
the beginning of hostilities he was twe:
ty-eight years of. age. He is describe
as slender, and well formed, with a
expressive and pleasing countenanc
his voice is said to have been clear at
sweet, and his speech eloquent.
To the Indian women and children, l
was kind and gentle; considerate <
their comfort, and generous in supplying
their wants. He believed firmly in th
existence and goodness of the Grea
Spirit, whom he honored by the accu;
todied rites, and to whom he believed h
must render an account of his deeds. I
"the land of the hereafter". he said tha
he had many friends whose spirits ha
taken care of him all his life. .
In speaking'of his twin sister, he said
"She died many years ago. When Idib
I shall go and live with her. She die
suddenly. I was on a bear hunt, an
when seated by the camp 'fire alone,
heard a strange noise-it was something
like a voice which told me ro go to her
The camp was some distance, but I top
my rifeand s tarted. The night wa
dark' and gloomy; the wolves howie
about me as I went'from hammock t
hammock; ,souds'cname often to my ear
I thought shewas speaking to me. A
daylight I reached the riltage .tShe wa
de iad.. ,'.. I' h s. ..
. "When hunting some time after, w.it
my brbther,'Otulke, Isat, alone beneath
large oak. In the moss hanging orei
me.I heard strange sounds,'I could nco
sleep. I felt,. myself- .moving, ani
thought I went far above to a new coun
try, where all "ias bright and happy
I saw clear water, ponds 'and .riv
Irs, and prairies on which the sun- never
sets. -All was green, the grass grey
high, and the deer stood in the midst o
it -looking at me. I then saw a-smal
white cloud approach,-when just beforE
ne, out of it came my-sister, dressed ii
white, and covered with bright :.'-silve:
ornaments. Thelong, black hair, which
I had often braided, hung down leem
"She elapsed 'me around the neck, anc
.aid, 'Caocoochee i Caocoochee!' I shook
with fear. I knew the voice, but could
lot speak. With one hand she gave me
string of white beads; in the other she
held a cup sparkling with pure water,
which she said came from the spring of
he Great Spirit, and if I would drink oi
t, I should return and live with her for-
ever. As I drank it she sang the peace
song of the Seminoles, and danced
around me. She had silver bel's on heI
ankles. Taking from ler bosom some-
thing, I do not know what, she laid it
before me, when a bright blaze streamed
far above us. She then took me by the
hand and said, 'all is peace here i' I
wanted to ask for others but she shook
her head, stepped into the cloud and was
The light she had made went out. All
vas silent. I was sorry that I could nol
have said more to her. I felt myself
inking until I came to the earth, where
met my brother Otulke. He had been
seeking for me, and had been alarmed
.t my absence, having found my rifle
here he last saw me asleep. I told him
where I had been and showed him the
eads. At certain periods of the moon,
when I had those beads, I could see the
spirit of my sister. I may be buried in
he earth, or sunk in the water, but I
hall go to her and live with her. Game
s abundant there, and the white man is
At the beginning of hostilities, Cao-
oochee left the open country around
.popka Lake, where he had always
ved, and crossing the St. John's River
occupied the swamps and hammocks be-
oween that river and the Atlantic coast.
.t the battle of Fort Melon, he was.pres-
at with a war party of two hundred
men; he was also present at the battle of
keechobee, but then his party was re-
nuced to the number of eighty.
Soon after this battle his father was
captured and sent a message to him
questing an interview, Assured. that
under the circumstances, he would ,not
3 detained by the white man,Cao0oo-
hee went at once to the camp of Gen-
ral Hernandez, where his father was a
prisoner. It was upon this occasion that
e bore to the General the white plume,
ith friendly messages from Oseula.
The result of this visit was the inter-
ew with Oseola which 'ended in the
imprisonment, and was succeeded at no
mote period by the death, from a
token heart, of that brave Indian. At
ie same time, Caocoochee and his friend
ilmus Hadjo. were captured. They
ere imprisoned at Castle Marco-now
ert Marion-at St. Augustine. The
:count given by Caocoobhee of his im-
risonment and subsequent escape may
s of interest to the reader :
'"We had been growing sickly from
my to day." he said, "and weresolved to
ake oar escape or die in the attempt.
re were in a small room eighteen or
enty ,feet square. All the light ad-
itted '-was 'through a' hole about
ghtean feet from the floor. Through
Lis we must escape, or remain and ds
RASIN FERTILIZER CO'S
SOLUABLE SEA ISLAND GUANO
DISSOLVED BONE AND ALKALI
AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN
FRUITS AND PRODUCE.
Get our Prices before buying.
WESSELS & CQ.,
218 and 220 Washington Street,
NEW YORK CITY.
Prompt Returns Refdered. Stencils
Don't Fail to visit Brooksville, Hernando Co., before you se4'le or
with sickness. A sentinel was constant-
ly posted at the door. As we looked at
the hole-we, thought it small, but thought
if we could get our heads through, we
S should have no further or serious diffi-
"To reach it was the first object. In
order to do this, we, from time to time,
cut up the forage bags allowed us to
sleep on, and made them into ropes.
The holb I could not reach when upon
ie the shoulders of Talmus Hadjo; but.
while standing upon his shoulder, I
as 'worked a knife into the crevice of the
>f stone work as far as I could reach, and
k, upon this I raised myself to the hole,
n when I found that with some reduction
d of person, I could get through. In oider
Dr to reduce ourselves as much as possible
e we took medicine five days. Under the
,t pretext of being very sick, we were per-
e mitted to obtain the roots we required.
s For some weeks we watched the moon,
e in order that the night of our attempt
should be as dark as possible.
.- At the proper time we commenced the
d medicine, calculating upon the entire
r; disappearance of the moon. The keeper
1 of the prison, on the night determined
f upon to make the effort, annoyed us by
t frequently coming into the room, and
- talking and singing. At first we thought
d of tying him and putting his head into a
n bag, so that if he should call for assist-
; ance he could not be heard. We first,
I however, tried the experiment of pre-
tending to be asleep, and when he re-
e turned to pay ho regard to him. This
f accomplished our object. He came in
g and immediately went out; and we could
e hear him snore.
t "I then took the rope, which we had
hidden under our .bed, and mounting.
upon the shoulders of- Talmus Hadjo,
Raised myself upon the knife worked
t into the crevice of the stone, and suc-
I ceeded in reaching the hole. Here I
made fast the rope, 'that my friend
might follow me; I then passed through
the hole enough of it to reach the ground
upon the outside. I had calculated the
I distance when going~for roots.
I With much difficulty, I succeeded in
getting my head through, for the sharp 0
stones took the skin off my breast and t
back. Putting my head through first, I f
Swas obliged to go down headforemost k
until my feet were through, fearing ev- h
ery moment the rope .would break. At f
last safely on' the ground I awaited the
h arrival of my comrade. I had .passed
another robe through .the hole, which,
in the event of discovery, Talmus Hadjo
was to pull as a signal that he was dis- i
covered and could not come. .- i
r As soon as I.struck the ground J.took ,
hold of. iy signal for intelligence of my i
friend. The night, was very dark. Two i
men passed near me talking earnestly,
and I could see them distinctly.. Soon I
heard the struggle of. my- companion far
aboveme. He,had succeeded in getting 1
his head through, but his, body would n
come no further. ..In the lowest tone of
voice I urged him to throw out his I
breath, and then .try. Soon after he
came tumbling down the whole distance.
For a few.moments I thought him dead.
I dragged him to some ,water close by (
which restored him; but his leg was so ,
lame he was unable to walk. .
"I took him upon my shoulder. Day- t
'light was just breaking; we must move
rapidly. I caught a mule in a field, and
making a bridle out of my sash, mounted
my companion and started for the St.
Johns River. We used the mulea one
day, but feared the whites would track
us, and thought it safer to go on foot
through the hammocks, though we must
go more slowly.
"Thus we continued our journey five
days, eating roots and berries, when I
reached my band at the head waters of
the Tomoka river dear the Atlantic coast. C
I gave my warriors the history of my
capture and escape, and told them they
should be satisfied that my capture was _
no trick of my own, and that I would -
not deceive them. When I went to St.
Augustine to see my father I took the
word of friends; they said I should re-
turn, but they cheated me.
"When I was taken prisoner my band a
was inclined to leave the country, but
upon my return, they said : 'Let us all F
die in Florida.' This caused great suf-
fering among our women and children.
"I was in hopes that I should be killed
in battle, but a bullet would never touch
me. I would rather be killed by a white
man in Florida than die in Arkansas.
The whites are too strong for us, they T
make powder, we cannot. I could live
like a wolf, but our women and children
die when driven from swamp to
T There being no Usury Law in the State of Florida, io to
per cent. on unquestionable security can be obtained both
Town and Farm Property.
Situated on a hill, altitude 828 ft., only sixteen miles from the Gulf of Mexico,
is properly called
"THE HILL CITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA."
The County seat, with a stirring population of about 1;000. Fourteen Well
stocked Stores, Two Newspapers, Railroad and Telegraphic communication,
Churches and Schools, and numerous residences, surrounded by beautiful old
bearing Orange Groves, presents to the Tourist, .Settler or Investor, the most at-
tractive Town in Florida. Among these hills_ are to be found the largest .and
most fertile bodies of Hammock Land in the State,. heavily timbered with giant
Oaks, Hickory, Bay, Magnolia and other hard woods. No- County in the State
offers so many advantages in general farming, or yields such heavy crops of Rye`
Oats, Corn, Cotton, Potatoes, Sugar Cane, Rice, etc. .
Early Vegetables for the Northern Markets are grown with more certainty
and greater perfection, without fertilizers, than in any section of the State.
Special attention is called to the .: ... .
A Great Bargain for a Capitalist or a Stock Company.
This property is situated on the.Withlacoochee River,'-and-contains 320 acres
of the best orange land, about one-third of itbeing hammock. The river, one of
the most beautiful in the state, abounding with fish, forms its western hoimdary
for one mile, and connects it by teamers with the Gulf, and with the F. R. &
N. o's road at Panasoffkee, at anasoffee d with the F. S. Railway a Peberton's Ferry,
from which it is distant only about fihe omies. River and railroad transportation
competing lines. .'"- ":"-' ',- ,
SThere-are 120 acres cleared, under fence and in cultivation.- There a 100
acres in solid' grove. 6p0 old bearing trees, some of them being'from on to 30
years-old; 5000 trees-from-6 to &years, which have been well cared for. and will
ill be in bearing very soon, many of them'boi-e this year.. Three-fourths of these
rees are budded from the finest varhe t varieties, and e rest aresweet seedlings grown
from carefully selected seed. Valuable nurseries on the place containing about
0O,0.00 trees'from two to four years old. -There is &7so a natural or wild grove on
this property, containing hundreds of thousands of budded trees and seedlings,
from two to six years old, situated-inu a cove where: they are protected on the
north, east and west by woods and by the waters of the river and a beautiful lake.
The other improvements consist of a plain dwelling of six rooms, cistern,
outhouses, stables, etc. There is a splendid boat landing and wharf already
built. The bluff abova the landing commands a beautiful view of the-r-verlthe
neighboring lakes and the hundred acres in orange trees. No prettier sites fot--
winter homes on the Peninsula. The property being susceptible of division, will,
be sold as a whole or in smallerparts. For the whole, if sold the present season,.
we will take ; -
)ne-half cash, the 'balance on time to suit purchaser. What do experienced
orange growers, and they are the proper judges, think of such' a price for such a
property? The 600 old trees are worth the money. The 5.000 young trees in
grove form are worth.it. The seedlings in the wild grove and nursery are worth
t., The land itself, located as it is, is worth at least one-third of it.
L. Y. JENNESS. -J.,C. PRESTON.
Tropical and Subtropical.
Oranges, Pomegranates, Figs, Peaches, Grapes, Pears, Pecans. Oriental .Plums and Persim-
ons, Limes, Lemons Guavas Bananas, Pineapples, Avocado Pears, Anona, Acacia, aerium,
aladium, Poincia'na, Valmns, etc.
Catalogue FREE. Seflier, Rillsborough Co., Fla.
c0. O'O. BT-OUI'TT,
Orange Groves, Town Lots in Bartow, Winter Haven, Baskell, Punta Gorda and Charlotte
Harbor, fo Sale. Unimproved Lands, in small and arge tracts, at $2.50 per acre, up. Choice ten
and forty acre tracts of good, high. ro lingPine hands, near SF. FR. depot, at 20 to $5 per
icre. All property guaranteed to be as represented or money refunded.
tV~ Money Loans, well secured, negotiated at 15 per cent, net, to the lender.
. P. CHAMBERLAIN.
. A. W. CUSOADEN
SOUTH E- FLOI:I D.A.
Real Estate- Agency,
A&MPA, FLORIDA. Office: Twiggs St., two blocks east of Passenger depot..
Florida Winter Homes
.ORIOLE, HERNANDO COUNTY.
B eantiful location, facing on Lake Oriole and on the South Florida Railroad.
Lands all high and dry. New settlement; between twenty-five and thirty new houses.
A Church, School, daily mails, stores, bakery, saw mill and hotel. Large area already-. planted
in orange groves. Choice building lots for winter homes for sale cheap. Ten,- twenty and
forty acre orange grove lots. A healthy settlement in a healthy State.
Call on or Address,
J. W. GROVES, or W. B. CLARKSON,
Oriole, Florida. Jacksonville, F lorida
W. E:- PILLOW.
FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PACKING,
FORWARDING AND COMMISSION HOUSE.
-- o---- -. "
Usually have orders to work our consignments into, enabling us to make PROMPT RETURNS.
xtensiVe Facilities for Repacking,
for outside parties, to which prompt attention is given. Packages suitable for
SHIPPING ORANGES, STRAWBERRIES AND VEGETABLES,
both made np and in the flat, always on hand, and for sale. Also, Hoops, Wrapping Paper, eto
Best of location, viz: WHARF, :
S.culars and Stencils on appF. W.R.R.WHARF
Circulars and Stencils on application. JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
WV N. JUSTICE ...
Wholesale Commission Merchant,
NO. 813 NORTH WATER STREET, PHILADELPHIA. .
Specialties: SOUTHERN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. Consignments Sololted Returnu.'-
m ade on day of sale. n. -
,. ~ ~.._,
S Don't Fail to visit Broqksville, Hernando Co., before you settle or
REAL ESTATE AGENCY,
OFFER FOR SALE-
Improved and Unimproved Town Lots, Orange 'Groves, young or in
bearing, Truck or Geneial Farming Lands, High or Low
Hammock Lands, and every grade of Pine.
Pay Taxes for Non-Residents, Manage Property and Collect Re, :.ds, and
-do a large business in Loans.
LST. NICHOLAS, FLODIDA,
Agent for GEORGE W. BAKER'S
Rotted Bone Manure,
DECOMPOSED WITH POTASH.
Price $25 per ton free on board in Jacksonville
Bone Flour, for cattle and poultry, $43.00
Ground Bone Manure, 1st quality. 85.00
1 2d 82.00
Ammontated Phosphate, 82.00
Budded Oraine Trees and Texas Umr-
brella Trees, from 26 cents to $1.00 each.
ILEY, GROVER & CO.,
STATE AGENTS FOR
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. FEBRUARY 9. 1887.
HOW EXPERT FITTERS IMPROVE
Agricultural Experiment Stations in thi
United States-An Open Air Silo Wlicl
Is Simple, Cheap, Practical and of Easy
Our farmers are generally well posted
In regard to preserving fodder in under
ground sUps. The open air silo, however
is a nover affair. Mr. A. Cochard, presi
dent of an agricultural association in Ger
many, is the inventor of the open air silo
The Country Gentleman describes thi
silo, which is simple, cheap, practical and
also has-the advantage of easy transport
One puts on the desired site two beams
of abbut 4 metres in length, so as to. lie
about 2 metres
e apart, and paral
lel.. Chains of I
metre long are at
tached to each end
of these beams
and having a
hook fastened to
--Y _, ^ their last links
-- ./. Z On these two
J beams a floor
is made -by placing old railway sleep-
ers (if obtainable) crosswise on them
and on the flooring the fodder ii
placed, which in Fig. represents a four
cornered stack, containing about 45 cubic
metres. Then on the top of the stack is
placed a roof of old sleepers similar to the
flooring; on this roofing are placed a
.couple of beams. These latter have at
each end chains about 3 metres long,
without any hooks.
To obtain the required pressure, which
is unavoidably necessary to preserve
green fodder, one -A
uses a lever (Fig.
2) i. e., a simple
round iron bar, --- .
about three centi-
four metres long.
This bar has three
holes, _about ten Z '
centimetres' apart / ' "
from each other, in which are fastened
strong, short chains of about fifteen
centimetress in length, each of them
having a little. hook attached to the.
The chains (Fig. 2) are arranged so that
the middle chain works in an opposite
direction to the other two, The hand
labor is very simple, one man alone be-
ing needed, but it is preferable to have
two, thus obtaining a greater and more
equal pressure. :-
.----The man fastens the middle hook (A) in
one of the links of the lower beam chain,
and ditto the hook (C) in a link of the
upper beam chain (Fig. 8, left), and the
Shook (B) can then be put about ten centi-
metres higher than thb hook C) in an-
other link of the chain; the position of the
lever is now as represented in Fig. 3,
right. Then the lever' is now raised, up-
ward, to even ten centimetres more; the
man then fastens the hook (C) higher up,
and continues this till the lever can no
longer be worked. Finally he fastens the
lower beam chain hook on the upper
beam chain. If, as I have described, there
is only one man, this occasions an unequal
sinking of the'stack; thus the- men work
at different ends on the same beam, each
having, of course, a lever, and keeping
the pressure equal.
At first one must press the stack every
day, so as to "keep up with its gradual
about ten days
: JS the pressing is
C over. Fodder pre-
,-'- B j served in this
manner will keep
.. for years, and-
excepting A layer
of about ten centimetres thick at the sides
-gives an excellent quality of ensilage.
The sheep and cows ate it greedily. For
use, one takes up one or two of the sleep-
ers, and with a sharp hay knife cuts
enough long, vertical strips as wanted;
then hook on the chains as before. The
temperature of the inside of the stack is
about 70 degs. C., and remains as high
till the fermentation begins, then it sinks
to about 50 or 40 degs., at which point
it keeps the same for a long time. This
high temperature destroys the fermenta-
tion powers, and hay so preserved is one
of the sweetest ensilages known.
The Horse's Tall.
Ornamentation rules so generally in
these days, that to overlook any point
through which this may be reached in the
horse is to lessen the prospect of. attract-
iveness, and, in this way, lessen the pros-
pective price. In the mere matter of speed,
a horse with a rat tail will go as fast as
though he carried a handsome flowing one.
All the same, the latter is a very desirable
A low-carried tail and a slim tail detract
wonderfully from the looks of a horse
otlhwise of good proportions, stately and
a good stepper; while a flowing tail, of good
length, -well carried,, makes an otherwise
plain horse attractive; and there are cir-
cumstances where it will add materially to
his selling qualities. 'An expert fitter will
greatly improve the mode of carrying the
tail by using appliances for elevating it at
the root, and especially may it be improved
when carried partially to one side by severe
ing the tendons on the lower side of the
tail, on the side toward which the tail in-
clines, putting the tail in pulleys, drawing
it gently over to the other side, until the
space between the cut ends of the tendons
fills up with new deposit. There is little
danger of getting the tail too far over, as
the tendency of. the healing process is
'toward contraction, and this requires to
be guarded against until the new material
to fill the space is firm.-National Live
Gypsum as a Manure.
As a manure gypsum is of- limited value.
It is composed .of calcium and sulphuric
acid, and is most suitable for crbps such
as clover and turnips. As superphosphate
always contains much gypsum, special ap-
plications of gypsum win lbe necessary 4t l *t e
where superphosphate is employed.
Agricultural Experiment Stations.
SIn Commissioner Coleman's report for
1886 occurs the following concerning insti- LIT1T1LE 1 UPI INN\
- tutions *for experimental work in agricult-
ure: Agricultural experiment stations in BY S. BARING GOULD.
this country have been established in '
nine states, in the following order: Con- APT .
e necticut and North Carolina in 1877; New CHAPTER XII.
hi Jersey, 1880; New York, Ohio and Massa- HOW SHE BEGAN TO FIND IT OUT.
y chusetts, 1882; Wisconsin and Alabama, "Is it a longvoyage to Norway?" asked
1883, and Maine in 1885. These are all Trip at last, timidly.
distinctly independent institutions, with They were far from Ringwood, and
j their own organizations, and supported Ringmour mill, and the little church
.. by state appropriations or special tax; nd clutser of houses and elms cf the
and clutser of houses and elms of the
some, however, are located at state agri- village.
cultural colleges and officered by the col- "We shall stay a bit in Lun'on," he an-
c- lege professors. These stations differ swered.
o greatly in their organization, facilities and There was a change In her husband's
work. Some are required to control the voice, in his intonation, that surprised
s business in commercial fert2aers in their her. "In your London house?"
her. "In your London house?"
d respective states, while others do nothing "Ahl" he'laughed. "Well-yes, in my
Sof this kind. In New Jersey and North Lun'on house. Now, my dear Trip, don't
Carolina $10,000 or more are expended you get the indigestion if the dinner is
Yearly, mainly in laboratory work and the not as high seasoned as pleases your
Publication of results, although land is mother."
Somewhat used in New Jersey. In Ala- "What do you mean, Algernon?" It
Sbama and Wisconsin large areas of land was with an effort that she called him
1 are used-100 acres or more; in Ohio, 25 by his Christian name.
acres, and in New York about 125 acres. "You will find that out all too soon,"
d 'Inseveral other states there are pro- he replied, somewhat uneasily." "I am
visions made for systematic experiment sorry, dear girl, that things will not be
a work at the agricultural colleges and state quite as you might wish. In fact, Beau-
0 universities by appropriations from college fort house, Piccadilly, is in the hands of
funds and the assignment of professors to the house painters, and the smell of the
o this duty. In some cases the results are white lead is deleterious, so I thought it
r becoming very valuable-at least, locally as well to take lodgings."
--while in others the efforts arc feeble and "But-we go to Norway to-morrow?"
uncertain. Other states and colleges are she said, looking round at him, and this
Considering the inauguration of experi was the first time she ventured to do this
Mental ifiquiry, and efforts in this direct since she had stepepd into the carriage
Stion are apparently limited only by lack of with him. His face was troubled, he
Means. Experimental agriculture is ex- took her hand and kissed it, then looked
Pensive, out of the window.
S-"Norway must wait," he said-with
SPleuro-Pneumonla. averted countenance.
S It may- be of interest to put on record Then he turned, and with a laugh said,
the fact that horses have suffered quite "Perhaps Jericho will suit you better."
extensively, particularly in Indiana and She could not make it out.
Missouri, from what Dr. Salmon has de- "I've been considering that perhaps
cided to be vermiculor or verminous bron- you are a bad sailor, and would be upset
chitis. He has fully treated of this dis- at sea, and the barometer has been fall-
ease, and illustrated the strongyli, which ing, and I see by the paper that the storm
induce it in calves and lambs, in the vet- signals are up, and so we had better post-
erinary "Agricultural Report of 1885." pone our departure."
"That producing the disease in horses," "Till the storm is over?"
says Professor C. V. Riley in Science. "Oh, yesl till the storm is over."
"seems to be strongylus mircrurus meplis, What was the meaning'of the altera-
which is an elongate thread like worm from tion in his manner and tone of voice, even
an inch and a half to two inches in length; in the appearance his face wore I They
and the point that I wish to put on.rec- were in the train. He made her get out.
ord is -that these strongyli have very at a station where there were branches
generallybeen supposed to have some con- and cross lines in all directions. They
section with the narrow elongate eggs of changed' platforms, took fresh tickets,
orchelimum glaberrimum. The eggs of got out again; had a cab. Took the.
this species are inserted in the pith of Metropolitan; then another cab, and at
number of different plants, and are par- last drew up.
ticularly- abundant in stalks of corn "'Your lodgings seem very difficult to
tassels. -reach," said Trip. -
"The bronchial disease which has been "They,are .sequestered," he answered;
'so prevalent and fatal to horses has been "more suitable for lovers."" ..I ,
quite generally associated with these eggs, The house at which the cab deposited
the supposition being that. the horses be- Trip and her husband was a small half
came diseased by eating the corn tassels villa at. Lower Norwood) in a new road p
and stalks. The orchelirnum eggs have half made, and where the row of houses
been received from about a dozen different was only half built. The garden 'was
co6respondents,-all of them independently uncultivated, a small patch in front 'of *
making the same suggestion as to their thelAobr; the turf was not even green.
connection, with the bronchial Worms-a The entrance door was fresh painted and
rather remarkable instance of a prevalent stuck.- When. it was opened, admission j
and popular error arising from an imper-' was obtained into a small hall, so narrow
feet knowledge of natural science." that two could ill walk abreast in it, The
mean stairs were steep and uncarpeted.
Irrigating Canals. There was accommodation only on one ]
A great olistacle in many sections otfour side-the right side ofthe house; a blank
country to successful cultivation is the in- wall divided this half house from the.,
sufficient rainfall. To remove this obstacle other half house. There was a parlor on .-
it is only .necessary that a system of irri- -the ground floor, and a small dining room
gation-be adopted. To irrigate success- in the rear, opening into a yard. The .
fully is required a large amount of tech- furniture was of the plainest description '
nical knowledge and skill and the expen- and sparse. Only one servant appeared,
diture of much labor and money. Irriga- an ill favored, elderly, smallpox marked i
tion belongs, in fact, to progressive agri- woman.
culture, and pays best when applied to Trip was puzzled and frightened, and T
valuable land by intelligent men. Under very ready to cry. She was afraid to ask S
such circumstances it pays for itself many questions, and afraid to express her dis- h
times over by rendering large tracts of appointment. -
land otherwise valueless highly productive. For supper there were mutton chops i
In proof of this assertion are many and boiled potatoes, and cold rice pud- m
successful efforts with irrigation in our ding; no wine; but ale and whisky and d
own country. A notable instance at hand water. '
is the state of Colorado, with its 800 miles Certainly the style of living was better
of first class irrigating canals, 8,500 miles at Ringwood, though the Tottenhams a
of secondary canals and 40,000 miles of did belong to trade, and had no pretense a
smaller ditches, which have cost in the to a duke in the family.
aggregate about $11,000,000, and will irri- That Mr. Beaufort was very fond of -
gate 2,200,000 acres. The largest canal is Trip was the only reality of her dream, u
taken from the Rio del Norte. It is nine- and it was the reality she could best have
ty-eight feet wide at the top and sixty-five spared. She did not care for him; in-g
feet on the bottom, with, a carrying ca- deed, as her marriage drew on, she had iJ
pacity of 207,000,000 cubic feet per diem. felt a shrinking from him, and now that
The main line is fifty miles long, and it is she Was married awoke to the fact that h
designed to irrigate 200,000 acres. It was she disliked him. '.
constructed in four months by 6,000 men There are some persons with whom jou h
and 1,200 teams, may pass a score of years, and whom you.
may meet every day, and yet you get no "
How to Keep the Carriage New. nearer to knowing them. You know ri
The preservation of a carriage depends their exteriors, every line of their faces, E
largely upon the way in which it is every mole and blemish in the skin; you
housed. The barn or shed should be airy know their tones 'of voice, their walk, o
and dry, with a moderate admission of but you never'get within, to know their 'o
light, otherwise the colors of painting and true 'natures, to feel that you have ,
lining will be affected. Do not let the touched a pulse, not a bit of cloth or h
vehicle be rolled near a brick wall, as the sable jacket.. :. W
dampness of the wall will fade the colors There are other individuals whom we -
and destroy the varnish. The coach house fear to look into. We know that some on
should not be connected with the stable or i day or other the peep will be given, .and
next the, manure pit,; since the ammonia I we shall see what we had much rather- hb
fumes rising from the manure will do not. We.are glad to know their exterior bi
more to crack and ruin varnish, and ruin only, and dread the day when they shall g)
,colors of paint and lining, than all other' become transparent to us. t
causes put together. Some such a feeling was in the heart a
Do not allow mud to dry on a newly of Trip. She began to fear her husband, cI
varnished carriage; spots and stains will i to suspect that under the surface she
be the result if you do. Do not permit should come" on, not a hidden treasure, 01
water to dry of itself on a varnished sur- but dead men's bones and rottenness. t
face, but remove all moisture with a Day after day passed and Trip was
chamois leather only, after the soft sponge very dull. She asked if the Norway ex-
has been used. Do not let the leather top curslon were finally abandoned. He said
carriages lie long unused with the" tops it was so; but gave no reason. Had the
down, but 'raise occasionally, taking off storm that was expected missed Its
the strain on the leather and net-stay by course? He did not know.
slightly easing the joints. Keep the Were they going into Gloucestershire? hE
moths out of cushions and linings by fre- He laughed at the question. The foun- w
quent brushing. Examine the axles often; dations of the house were not laid. The
keep well oiled and see that the washers 1 estate was in Cloudiand. Ti
are in good order. Occasionally he took her out. Once to wi
-- the Tower, once to the Crystal Palace; o0
In reply to a question as to the expe- but he did not like visiting public resorts tr
diency of keeping bees over winter in the apparently, for he seemed uneasy when Y'
center of a strawstack, James Heddon there, took no pleasure in the sights, and hi
thinks they would be well protected if the was impatient to get away. er
straw was stacked to turn water. Trip asked her husband if she might of
Reports from the Massachusetts expert' write home; as she-was not going abroad, ca
iment .station go to show that potash fer- she would like to send a line to her "m
tilizers have decidedly improved the desir- mother. He peremptorily refused to al- wI
able qualities of fruits, low her to write. "Not for a month, hr
mind you: .your muot her expects no letter
and will not be uneasy about you. Li
her believe you are in Norway. Whi
matters?" .. :
S"But why this mystery, Algernon?"
"Why-mystery?" he rubbed his chli
"There is no, mystery. You don't under
stand. I have, objections. My friend
and relatives may call, and.I don't wai
'em to come in and find your mother
here. If you wrote, she'd be fumbling i
with her airs and grimaces."
Trip was hurt.
Why do you go out so much ar
leave me alone?"
"I have business, and business must 1
"What is your business?"
"Nothing that you can understand."
"I insist on knowing," said Trip, wit
spirit. He looked at her with surprise.
"Well, then, I have political, occup
tion, am secretary to a Liberal club; v
have to work for elections, and see an
arrange with agents, organize meeting
and so on. What do you know aboi
politics? Areyou much the wiser nowi
No; Trip had to admit that she wi
Trip only half believed her hushar
when he said this. She was ashamed
herself for the mistrust which grew c
her, and made her doubt everything 1
said, and everything he had said to he
Not one of his promises had he fulflllei
His boastful words had been utter:
false. He would not suffer her to leave
the house by herself. He pretended thi
she would lose her way. But, she argued
unless she went out and about, and di
lose herself occasionally, how was si
ever to find her way at all? His hou:
were irregular and strange. He was o0
mostly at night, but not always; som
times he had friends to see him on bus
ness-political business, he said, and.the
spent the night with him and spirits an
water and tobacco in the back parlor, th
shutters of which were fastened'
After he had been out all night, I
slept all day.
Trip was surprised at the amount (
coal ash which was left in the grate i
the -morning, after the party of polit
clans had sat up all night. She asked he
husband how they had come to consume
so much, and put the stove in such
mess. He turned off her question with
jest, that as they were all Liberals the
had dealt liberally with the scuttle.
One morning, when .in his room tha
looked out on the back premises, Tri
found in the drawers a plan. She looks
at it carefully and curiously, and wa
surprised to find that it was a plan c
Ringwood hall. She was convinced tha
it was so, all the rooms were arranged 1i
the same order as those of the hall. Sh
took it to her husband.
"This is Ringwood,'" she said.
SHe started. "Where,'did you find it
What hare you been about?"
"I found it in 'the backroom. Wha
is it for?"
!''Oh, I took it when shown over thi
place. I said then it' was for billdinj
'"But you are not building in Glouces
tershire,' you have rio Gloucestershiin
property." -1 -
S'Whotold you that? How' clever yot
are- I intend to build some day, so keep
the.plan by me:."
"That is not the plan you drew. Thai
was in your pocket book." I
"Well-I made a clean copy on paper
Look tere, Tripl I will not be spied on
and cross-examined. I give you fair
warning, I will not allow it. Miachiel
-will com,;of it." n
Trip soon perceived .that .she was
watched by the woman who did all the
house work, when her husband was
away .This woman was clearly initiated
nto the secrets of her master, secrets
which were kept from herself, the wife.
This made Trip jealous and suspicious.
ihe particularly disliked this maid, who
had an unpleasant face, and was dirty.
?he woman did not take the pains to
be civil to Trip. She viewed her with
malevolence, and was sometimes disobe-
lient, and occasionally rude. Trip re-
aonstrated with her -husband. She said
hat she could not endure the woman,
and would not live in the house with her
"All right," answered Mr. Beaufort,
'I'll give Nelly a month's warning. Put
up wtih her for a few weeks, and I'll en-
age you another. Servants are hard -to
get, and we should be in a pretty plight
f left without any."
"Oh, let her gol" entreated Trip. "Let
er go at once, I will gladly do her work
myself, for the pleasure of getting rid of
"WhatI" exclaimed her husband.
You work 'as a menial after having mar-
ied me? Not to be thought of for Mrs.
Trip, who had been so free, was a pris-
ner; so lively, was now pensive; so fond
A singing and skipping and talking, now
iat still in her chair, with her hands in
er lap, looking at the plain paper on the
'all in front of her, doing nothing, and
without the heart to sing, and with no
ne to whom to speak.
She put on her pretty crushed straw-
erry dress and black mittens'and pink
onnet hat, and looked at herself in the
lass; then threw away her bonnet on
he bed, cast herself into the chair again,
id the tears ran silently down- her
Poor Trip! She was beginning to find
it that she had been deceived in every-
'ing which she had expected.
HOW SHE BECAME AWARE OF IT.
Trip had no money in her pocket. She
id started from home with five pounds
which her father had given her.
"Although your husband be rich,
rip," Dick had said, "still it's just as
ell you should have something of your
en, and not have to ask him for every
tie you may need. And, Trip if ever
iu want aught, and are shy of asking
m, I'm your dad, in velveteen and gait-
s, and I've good wages, and the disposal
sdme of the game as a perquisite, and
n put away a pound or two; and you
nst ask me at any time should you
ant money unbeknownx to your grand
isband in broadcloth and silk hats."
r, No.w this : lve ..pouni4s- was. gone-. -.t
at had been given to Trip in a note, not in
at gold' She had not'changed it; she had
liad no:-occasion, no opportunity, to
change it; "and 6ne day -it was 'the very
n. day after her marriage--Mr: Beaufort
r- borrowed it of her.'
ds She did not like at once to remind him
at of the money, though he had asked the
ir. loan 'for ten minutes to pay for' coals;
in But, when a week passed and nothing
was said of the five pounds, she ventured
timidly to recall it to Algernon. He
ad laughed. "My dear Trip, what can you
want money for? I pay for everything.
be You have no bills, you buy nothing. Ask
me for anything you want, and you shall
S "I ask for the five pounds back," she
'h said with some spirit.
"That," said he-putting his hand in his
a- pocket and drawing forth'some silver,
ve "that is not possible just now; I have
ad not been to the bank and drawn any
P, money out. I have only seven and six in
ut silver, tenpence in copper, and thirty
Sshillings in gold."
as "Then let me have the thirty shillings.'
"My'precious Trip-what for? It will
ad force me to go to-day, which will be most
of inconvenient, to town, to my bankers."
in "Then the seven and six on account."
ie "That I want for the baker, who is de-
r manding his account. We, have had
d pound cakes as well as bread, and tea
ly cake, too." I
ve "Then give me the tenpence in cop-
d, "I must buy some stamps; I am run
id out of queen's heads."
le "That is precisely what I want money
ra for," said Trip, testily. "I have neither
it paper nor envelopes nor stamps. I have
e nothing to do with my time; I want to
i- write letters."
Py "Do you?" asked Mr. Beaufort, with
id some ..sharpness. "Have I not told you
be that I will not have letters sent home or
anywhere for & month? Wait till the
te month's end, and then you may write as
much as you like."
I "But why not now?"
n "Because I will not allow it.'" He was
Angry, and an ugly exlressibon came in
er his face which frightened Trip. "Mind
*e what I have already said. You disobey
a me at your peril."
a Then he left the room.
Y Instead of crushing her with his
threatening words and tone, he had irri-
t. tated her. Trip had been accustofied to
P have her own way all her life as far as it
d had run, and contrariety was what she
could not endure.
f She did not cry; she sat -brooding, with
't pursed lips' and contracted brows, and a
n very angry, rebellious light in her eyes.
e She sat twirling her diamond ring on her
S.pretty, delicate finger, the ring worth,
According to Mr. Beaufort, a hundred and
t fifty pounds. Had he lied to her abour
that ring, as he had lied about the Nor-
t way journey, and the court in Gloances-
tershire, and the house in Piccadilly?
e She would like to know. She would be
g guided by this. This was a matter in
which she could satisfy herself; and, of
course, there was still just a possibilitry
S that he was really prevented from cross-
ing to Norway as proposed, that he had
Some property in Gloucestershire, and a
p house undergoing repairs in Piccadilly.
S So she resolved to put this matter to
a test, a crucial test, and act according as
it gave reply.. If Mr. Beaufort had been
false in this, he was false in everything.
SShe would write to her father, tell him
Everything, and beg him to come'to Lon-
Sdon and. comne to an explanation with her
S She was then without any shoes on her
.feet; she supposed theywere belowin the
Back kitchen. The maid, Nelly, had not
brought them up, and she had taken them
3 down overnight or early in the morning
So, in her stocking soles, she stole to
the head of the kitchen stairs, not to call
the sulky Nelly, but to fetch them for
She heard ger husband and the servant
talking together in a low voice in the
kitchen; this angered her. Her little
shell of a left ear was burning. They
were talking about her. He had been
so unfair to her that she excused
herself for being underhand with him.
She crept to the bottom of the stone steps
"I say you're a fool, said the maid.
"Whatever can have possessed you to
bring this wax doll into the house to ruin
"I could not help myself, she is so con-
foundedly pretty. She; bewildered me,
and her mother threw her at my head."
"You are old enough to know better,"
growled Nelly. "If 'twas yourself alone
were endangered you might go the whole
way and be welcome; but it's the lot of
us, as you know well enough."
"Nonsense, Nelly," said Mr. Beaufort,
she's such a fool she can do no hurt."
"She's not such afoolas you suppose,"
remarked the woman, "and may play us
an ugly trick yet."
"She must. not leave the house."
"I've taken care of that," said Nelly;
"I've took away her boots, and she'll
scarce go abroad in her slippers. Still,
that is neither here nor there; what I say
is that you have run us all into great
risk by bringing her here."I
"Well, well, Nelly, it ain't for long."
"No, it Is not for long; but it may be
just too long for our interests."
Then Trip heard her husband's step,
as though he were coming to the stairs,
and she stole back as she had descended.
What was the meaning of this?
To come to some understanding, she
asked for her boots. The woman said she
was sorry, she had put one pair to dry
ovca the kitchen range, and the fire had
been too hot, it had burned them. The
soles had warped and curled so that'the
threads were torn, and the top leather
had parted from them.
"Where Is the other pair?"
"The rats have eaten holes in them. I
left them on the sink in the scullery, ]
and the beasts? came up from the drains i
-they do, of a .night, after the potato
"Let me see the two pairs."
"Very sorry, but, because they were
spoiled, I chucked them away .into the
ash pit, and the dust cart has taken them i
off this very morning."
"S.o I have no boots to go out Inl"
PRAIRIE LEE POULTRY YARD,
Seffner, Hillsborough Co., Fla.
IL. B. CUILLEN, Propr.
Single comb White Leghorns a specialty.
Only one variety kept (J.Boardman Smith's
pure stock). Eggs for sale at all times; Chicks
after June 1st. Write for what you want, en-
closing stamp for reply. No circulars.
. S. L'EIm OLE & CO.,
PRICES THE LOWEST.
"'*l :. C. 5, L'ENGLE & CO.,
RtOYAL PALMI NIJSEBIES
Rare tropicals ornamental and fruit plants for
open air culture in Florida, and for the forth-
ern greenhouse. Also, a full line of semi-tropi-
ical trees, plants and grasses, and general-nur-
seny stock adapted to Florida and the Sonth.
Exotics from India, Australia and the West-
Indies, many of them never before introduced
into the United States.
The most complete descriptive catalogue of
tropical and semi-tropical plants published In
America. Catalogue mailed,' post-paid, on re-
ceipt of IS cents. Free to all customers.
*. A'-l."*ope atra)Pl?"-:^-,-. -* *"-s^
Trip turned to her husband, who stood
at the windoW ,drunimning with his
fingers on the glass. -
"Algernon; will-you go out and send
me a shoemaker, or some shoes to fit ou
"Yes, my dear; I will go at once.'" -
SHe left the house; hours passed, but no
bootmaker appeared. .
Trip was very'angry; she was being'
fooled. She called the woman to her,'
and bade her go for what Was wanted. -
"I dunstn't,"' said Nelly, "not till. the
* master be come in. How do I know but
he may have spoke with some one in Ox-
ford street, or the Strand, or Regent
street? You must cultivate patience.
When he comes home he will bring the
shoes with him. Out this way the shoes
and boots be all bad, not fit for such aa
you to wear. The master knows that; -
Sthat is why he has gone into London: for .
them. He likes to see you stylish shod."
Trip's blood was up. She was not de- '
ceived. There was a leer in the woman's -
eye that mocked her.
She waited till Nelly was gone, then
t she hastily opened the front door and
walked forth in her slippers, and without
a bonnet; she' would not go uptsairs to
fetch one. After she had reached the
head of the street of road in which was
th6 house, she turned and saw the-
woman following, watching her. rI
She went on, head in air and with flam-
ing cheeks, into a main thorough fare,
where were shops, and went into the _rst,
jeweler's and showed him her ring, and ,'
Asked him to. lend her Something on it. IL"-..
SHe laughed and, shook his head. The
Stones were false; he would advance
Nothing on it. It was rubbish.
Trip left the shop. Her -heart beat f&A
riously with shame and wrath. Before
her was the pockmarked face of the
woman, puckered with laughter, looking
in at the shop door. '
"Well, so- you've not got money for
boots yet," she said. "Come home and' -
be peaceable. Wait till the master's re-
turn. He'll be in presently, and then you
can have your.b'eots-2and hook it." .
fi tGM GRADE JERSEY CATTLE.
To-purchase Grade Jersey Cows from one-
half to seven-eighths, sired by registeredbuffl,
some with calves and some to -calf shortly,
Spinlices $30 to $40. Apply to .
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA. -
References given if desired.
M/AITLLND WUMHSERIES. : .
SALL VARIETIES OF
ORANGE A.ND'LtMON TREES.
Bd4nuot placed on small stocks, but on extra
-. Iarge and dne ones.
: We make asp-eciJaliJty of the -.
--EARLY SPANISH ORANGE- .
(the earliest variety known),
TOHITI LIMES and -
S VILLA FRANCALEMONS,
and can show trees of the latter that stood the
cold last winter as well as the Oranges and
NOW HAVE FRUIT UPON THEM.
Send for Catalogue.
KEDNEY & CAREY,
P.O. Winter Park, Fla.
Cr -Every cuaw,iv .. ,, ta ,
f I UBC O .iSouthI should h.,-e a
MWUyI T"Sl copyof our l1alll$iti,
W HB^^"^ containing 176 p'ges
SOUTHERNDM of useful information.
BKl oUU/inanni Free' on application.
H~l asI~dilL aAAddress ROBILTR
ALMANAC BUMl r.ha.
o. Foer1 7. Farms: Rose-
,'aa" V'or lSSV, dale and Waterford.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, FEBRUARY 9.1887.
Eau Gallie has incorporated and th
officers are elected.
A large turpentine farm is soon to b
started near Lake City.
For the seventh time Hon. J. S. Den
ham has been elected Mayor of Mont:
The receipts for cotton in Lake Cit
of the last crop are about $60,000 les
than for the crop of 1885.
The Columbia county tobacco move
ment has already created inquiry fo
lands suitable for tobacco culture.
Mr. E. Higgins, of Jacksonville, sol.
4 his orange grove in Orange Bend las
week to Mr. Northerly, for $14,000.
Prof. L. W. Ruchholz has received hi
commission from the Governor for Su
superintendent of Schools for Hillsboro.
The little steamer Lena, a pleasure
boat for the Hotel Indian River, arrive
at Titusville from Jacksonville Friday
The people of the Thonotosassa Lak
neighborhood are about to build a hand
some church. It will be of the Epis
Mr. B. B. Barnumn,.of Longwood, i
preparing to set out a large bed 'c
orange seeds. He has twelve bushels o
seed he intends to plant.
James Crawford, of Boggy Bayou, re
ports the killing of two snow white dee
near his plantation last week. They wer
full grown, and both does.
Herman Ward was drowned nea
Sumterville recently while out hunting
It is supposed that he went into the wa
ter to get a duck which he had shot an
thus lost his life.
A largely increased area of land i'
Gadsden county will be put in tobacco
this year. The factory of Hughes & Co.
at Quincy, will employ thirty hands
who have been engaged.
A few days ago a gentleman at Kis
simmee shipped one hundred and fifth
boxes of oranges from that place to Eng
land and realized $3 per box. Th
freight on the oranges was less to Eng
land than to Boston.
One gentleman in the vicinity o
Waldo who already has a peach orchar,
of 1,500 trees, is now setting out 2,00
more trees. Just before the freeze las
year.he set out quite a number of tree
which bore fruit largely last season.
The premiumlist of the-South Florid,
Exhibition,, which is to be held at Or
lando, Orange county, commenoinc
: Tuesday, February 15th, to continue on
week, is out. The list is complete ant
full, embracing-premiums amounting to
Judge Means, of Micanopy, appears t(
have great faith in peach culture. Hi
-- has gathered" from different source
"- eighty bushels of peach seed, which he
is now planting, and he will soon havy
one of the largest peach orchards ii
SCol umbia county exported of her own
productions in 1885-$750,000, and it is
safe to say that the acreage in tobacco
: this year will run up her exports t(
S_ $200,000 more in its unmanufacturec
S state, but if made into cigars will go-
great deal more.
Volume one, number-one, of the -De
La-nd Collegiate has appeared. .It is
neat paper,-.printed in magazine form
and contains eight pages inside of cov
ers. -It is under the editorial manage
-ment of 'the students of the DeLand
Academy, and is full of interesting read
This month will just a out witness the
winding up of the orange shipping
business. The shipments have been large
and the returns generally satisfactory,
A trip through our county will convince
any oke that there are ten young groves
not bearing to every one yielding a reve-
nue. In three 'years' time the young
groves will be bearing, therefore it is
safe to estimate that the orange industry
will.in three -years increase tenfold.-
Pine Level Times.
Colonel W. R. Coulter, of Levy
county, sent a box of clay, taken out of
a well on his place, to a jar factory in
Albama to have its quality tested, and
the report is as being the best clay they
ever worked. A jar made from the batch
was sent him. The Times says: it is one
of the best earthen jars we have ever
seen, being smooth, glossy and well
finished in every particular. The jar can
be seen at this office, where it will be
kept on exhibition as a sample of the
product of the excellent soil of Levy."
Arrangements to set the dredge Ala-
bama to work again- on the Matanzas
neck, on the east side, are completed.
Dredge No. 1 will work from the other,
side. Dredge No 2 is to be sent to Indian
River narrows, and the dredge Chester,
after completing the Haulover work,
will cut out shoals at Shipyard Reach
in the Hillsborough, and then be moved
south to Jupiter. The Chester has cut
her way a thousand feet across the flat
in-the west side of the Haulover in the
S Tampa News.
The strike of the cigarmakers at Ybor
City is dwindling, quite a number of
the men having returned to work in
Ybor & Co's factory. However, there
are some Cubans who may not go to
work, and will possibly return to Key
West or go elsewhere. Ybor & Co. have
decided to run their own business here-
after, and they have the sympathy of
the business men of Tampa in the stand
they have taken," and the fact is devel-
oped that the present strike will be a
good thing for the company, for the
cigarmakers and for the community, as
it will settle a very important question.
Improvements are going right along in
-Ybor City as though nothing unusual
had happened, and everything is orderly
SAnother very important matter has
been settled that will be of great benefit
to Tampa. The Hillsborough river is to
Sbe bridged, and the S. F. RR.R. Company
will extend their line to deep water on
Tampa bay. President Ingraham, Presi
dent of the S. F. R. R. Company, ha
o been in the city several days this week
and has agreed upon a plain with th
Board of Trade, the County Commi,
sioners and the Common Council where
by a fine bridge is to be constructed
- across the river, and to accommodate
i- both the railroad and the public as
carriage way. The bridge will cos
y about $20,000, and is to be complete
is within four months. The railroad comn
pany will extend its line at once t
Brushy Point, in West Tampa. The fin
er depot will be built on the Tampa sid
proper. Our citizens now feel assured
that the great Plant system has cast an
d chor permanently at Tampa, and tha
st this will forever be the great entrepc
of commerce between the United State
1s and the West Indies and South an
l- Central American countries.
The yacht Meteor. owned by Commc
re dore Bateman, of. New York, which re
d cently came into this port from Havan
y. without having entered at Key West
e was taken in charge by the Deputy Col
L- lector here, and returned to Key Wes
- in charge of Inspector Andrew, where
fine of $400 was imposed.
A proposition from the corporation o
s North Tampa to come into the corpora
)f tion of Tampa was considered by th
f Council of the latter corporation at it
session on Thursday night of this wee.
i- and accepted, which makes an import
r tant extension of the city limits and in
e creases the population about one thou
sand.-Judson in Times-Union of Feb
r ruary 5.
:- THE CLIMATE OF LAKE WORTH
The Influences Which Give it
n Sub-Tropical Character.
O BY PROF. JAMES WOOD DAVIDSON.
', The climate of the extreme southern
end of the peninsular of Florida-emr
- bracing the counties of Dade and Mon
s- roe, we may say, is sub-tropical; and i
differs essentially from that of the great
e Orange Belt, or central portion of th
State, which is semi-tropical. The line
dividing these two regions, beginning on
the Atlantic side, runs from Jupiter In
tf let and strikes the Gulf of Mexico some
d where between Cbarlo'te Harbor an
0 Cape Romano, probably nearer the lat
t ter than the former; in general, not fa:
s from the 27th'degree of north latitude
The iso-floral line marked out by Prof
a Curtiss some years ago connects St
Lucie, 38 miles north of Jupiter, on the
g Atlantic side with Cape Romano on the
e western side, points more than a degree
d and a half of latitude apart. The line
o between sub-tropical and semi-tropica
Florida indlines somewhat in the sami
e CHARACTERISTIC PRODUCTIONS.
s These climates are marked by their
e productions. Semi-tropical Florida pro
e duces the orange, the guava, the loqua
u and numerous other fruits too tender fo:
the merely southern climate and capa
ble of standing frosts of the lightest
kind: while sub-tropical Florida pro-
Sduces yet tenderer growths than these
o sudh as the cocoanut, the lime, the date
the mango, the banana, the pineapple
the ,tamarind, and so on, which cannot
a, stand frost.
But my, subject embraces only a part
of the sub-Tropics; that is, the Lak(
a Worth region-a strip along the*Atlanti
about thirty mileslong and maybe four
The climate of Lake Worth is unique,
so far as this continent is concerned; and
this uniqueness arises from well defined
and well known causes. The only. par
e allel of this climate is to be found. if
1 found at all, in the Island of Formosa or
e the coast of China. There the nearness
of Kurs Sivo, the direction of the pre-
a vailing winds, and the insular limit of
s land surface,'produces as near a parallel
to the Lake Worth climate as can be
Sound on the earth.
s The causes producing the unique
r climate here are mainly these three-the
Gulf Stream, the Trade Winds and the
F EFFECT OF THE GULF STREAM.
The Gulf Stream presses close to our
shore, the most eastward point of our
I shore being at Lake Worth. The stream
is a body of water a thousand times as
large as the Mississippi river, flowing
northward at the rate of over four miles
r an hour. The stream leaves the coast
I near Jupiter where the shore trends a
little westward. This immense body of
water, about 82 the year round, warms
3 a stratum of atmosphere above it. This
stratum of tempered atmosphere is
blown across our land here, and thus
attempers our climate, reducing the
summer heat and raising the winter
EFFECT OF THE TRADE WINDS.
The trade winds are caused by the
equatorial heat, as Lieut. Maury so fully
demonstrated; and their courses, if the
earth were standing still, would be due
south; but the axial revolution of the
earth deflects it to a southwest-what
we call a northeast wind. Year in and
year out our prevailing winds are from
the eastward points, mostly northeast.
But the force of the Gulf Stream, when
the winds are light, tends to decrease
the deflection from a northeast to an
east wind, and sometimes to a southeast
wind; but nine-tenths of the time it
blows across the Gulf Stream to us, and
brings us its attempered breath.
INFLUENCE OF THE EVERGLADES.
The third cause-the'Everglades-is
rather a passive one, and operates, so to
speak, as a preventive. West of the
strip of four miles along the ocean coast
begins that very remarkable stretch of
may be fifty miles of country known as
the Everglades. It is in effect a surface
of water; so that the alternation of
warmth and cold that usually produces
a land breeze and a sea breeze once a
day, does not exist here; so that the
irade winds are not deflected by that
local cause in any appreciable degree.
By reason of these three causes, ac-
cordingly, we have a very equable cli-
mate. Sultriness in the shade is almost
unknown here, especially on the west
shore of the Lake where the trade
i- winds have a clear sweep; and this i
is true of the mghts as it is of the days.
K, RECORDS OF TEMPERATURE.
-- We have no complete set of long ex
- tended climatic observations, but al
d most everybody has a thermometer
te Our general agreement, arrived at i:
a this way, is that our summer average i
at about 800. My own thermometer, in
d three summers, has never gone above
2- 910. The same attempering influences
0 observed in the- same non-professions
e way, produces a winter average of about
e 650. The annual average is of course
d between these extremes of 800 and 650
a- and is probably not far from 700. My
It thermometer "has fallen as low as 82
3t but once-at the cold snap in January
s 1886. The entire range then for there
d years is but 59.
The fauna and the flora both contri
bute some evidence of the exception
mildness of this climate. The conch an
a the flamingo are not found north of Ju
,_ piter, and scores of trees, both sub-tropi
1- cal and trop'cal--trees that are killed
st down by frosts every few years in semi
a tropical Florida-are being grown her
with safety and success.
I THE COLD SPELL OF JANUARY, 1886.
e The severest cold we have had' here
5s certainly since -1835 and probably fo
k over a hundred years, was that of Janu
r- ary of last year. On the 10th, 11th an
I- 12th of that month my thermometer
- hung under cover and exposed to th
- northwest wind, fell to 320. On the two
first of these days I produced ice b:
sprinkling water on the iron pump, ii
the wind; and on the 12th ice nearly a
quarter of an inch thick formed on som
a water in my poultry yard. Ice was ob
served on botn sides of the Lake. And
yet as far as I could see, in fact and ii
effect, there was no frost here on any o
n those three cold days. It was doubles
I- prevented by the wind which at no time
l- lulled to a degree that permitted th
t formation of frost. Such lull woukl
,t have to occur after a northwester had
e been blowing for some ten hours o:
e more, and occur but a few hours before
n sunrise; and these two conditions cai
- hardly ever concur.
- The January snap did some injury ti
d vegetation and to fishes in the Lake; bu
- it was the injury of cold, and not of fros
r in either case. The fishes died by the
hundred thousand, because of the with-
. drawal of heat; and a number of very
. young and tender plants and trees were
e injured-none killed, so far as I observe
e ed, by the same cause. The blasting of
e growing leaves occurred in places where
e the wind could strike and not where the
i frost would .have formed; and plants
e soon recovered, and went on growing
I had Tahiti limes-the teriderest variety
I believe in F1orida-at that time in
Sbloom.nd there was not a sign of in
j ury,'ilthough the trees were not pr.
t tecttid in any way. I had also other va
rieties ot the lime, the mango, almond
-' date, tamarind. aguacate, Spanish'lime
mammee, mammee sapota, guanabena,
cocanpt, cherimoyer and eucalypt4i'
Sglobulus-most of which Prof. Whither
classifies s tropical treesd-and not oone
of these was in any way injured. -_
t Pineapple plants, where the wine
Swept over them in long reaches, were
t whitened on the top leaves, and somd'oi
e the leaves died; but where the plants
were not thus exposed, no injury at all
r appeared. It was so on otbermparts ol
rthieiake with cgpoanuts, which looked
sick for some time, with bananas, tan-
yahs, and similar tropical growths. It
is protection against wind tkat we speci-
ally want in this region, and not against
f frost. Half a degree north of this the
Pineapples were killed down by frost,
but grew out again and made fruit this
year about the usual time; and some of
Sthe other vegetation mentioned above
ADVANTAGES OF EARLY GARDENING.
e On Lake Worth the temperature on
B the east side is in summer some five de-
s agrees higher than it is on the west side;
arid in winter something less than five.
This makes gardening earlier on the
east, but at the same time increases the
r discomfort of the gardener.
These conditions of climate-condi-
3 tions that are permanent-point out sub-
tropical Florida as the field for early
vegetable growing for market. Although
t no great deal has been done in the way
of market-gardening as yet, the possi-
bilities in that direction aro vast. The
hammocks, mainly on the east side of
Lake-Worth, will not need much fertil-
izing for some four or five years at first,;
while the sand and sandy-loams of the
west side generally need manure from
the first. But the.materials for compost
are amply abundant in the muck, fish,
leaf-mould, ashes, animal droppings and
slops. These will need lime in corbon-
ate.and sulphate, that is, lime and gyp-
sum, and possibly other helps, to insure
the best results from composting.
: But water Is the greatest need, and
though irrigation must not be neglected.
My own opinion is that the market-
gardener will find it pay well to provide
for perfect subsoil irrigation. This sub-
irrigation calls for not a fifth-one
thoughtful writer says not one-tenth-
as much water as does surface irriga-
tion' by force pumps, hose and spray
nozzles. But water, especially on the
west side, is abundant and easily ob-
tained. I have several drive-wells on
the west side, and none of them needed
more than ten feet of the iron tubing.
Liquid fertilizer can be applied along
with the water in sub-irrigation.
But this equability of temperature has
another feature worthy of notice. The
region is a sanitarium for a large class
of lung, [throat and nerve diseases.
There is no long, or Spanish, moss drap-
ing our trees. The absence of this moss
is an evidence of a comparatively dry
and non-malarial atmosphere. Malaria
may arise in the Everglades, but if it
does the tiade winds sweep it away
from us over to the Gulf of Mexico;
Some of our esthetical settlers have
brought a few handfuls of this moss to
the east side ot the Lake, and are trying
to cultivate it, thus far with rather dis-
In summary, Lake Worth enjoys a
climate unique in its equableness and
high range of temperature in winter,
its sanitarial qualities, and its availabil-
ity in growing sub-tropical fruits and
early vegetables, such as limes, lemons,
pineapples, cocoanuts, bananas, man-
goes, sapedillas, mammees, tomatoes,
egg plant, melons, and other garden
growths; and there are active causes in
the physical world amply sufficient to
account for the exceptional climate.
LAKE WORTH, Fla.
JA CKSONVILLE MARKET.
d JACKSONVILLE, February 5,1887.
- MEATS-D. S. short ribs boxed, $7 50; D. S.
long clear sides $745; V. S. bellies $65;
smoked hliort ribs 790; smoked bellies 7%;
- S. C. hams, uncassed fancy, 114; S. C. break
S fast bacon, uncanvassed, 91c S. C. shoul-
ders, uncanvassed 7yc; California or pic-
nic hams, 8%c. Tard-ritined tierces 6%/sc;
Mess beef-barrels$1050 halfbarrels$575; mess
pork $13 50. These quotations are for round
lots from first hands; whole cattle 7@73%;
8, dressed hogs 8c; sheep 9c; pork sausage 8c;
r loins 8%c; long bologna 7c; head cheese 6c;
Frankfort sausage 10c; rounds 8c.
BUTTER-Best table 23@28c per pound,
cooking 15@20c per pound.
r, BUTTERNE--Creamery 20c; Extra Dairy
e 16c; Dairy 15.
S COiESE--Half skim 10c, cream 13e per
y Grain, Flour, Hay, Feed, Etc.
a GRAIN-Corn-The market is higher.
The following figures represent to-day's
e values: We quote white corn, job lots,
60c@... per bushel; car load lots 58c per'
d bushel, mixed corn, job lots, 57c per bushel;
car load lots 55%c per bushel. Oats are better
n demand, firmer at the following figures
f mixed, in job lots, 41c, car load lots 41c; white
s oats are 3 to 4 higher all round, Bran firmer
and higher, $19 50@21 per ton, job lots.
e HAY-The market is firm and better de-
e mand for good grades. Western choice,
d small boles, $18@...per ton; car load lots $16 75
d to $17 50 per ton; Eastern hay $20 per ton.
PEARL GRITS AND MEAL-$2 60 to $3 00 per
e FIou0-Firmer and higher; best patents
$5 60; good family $510; common $4 25.
GROUND FEED-Per ton D$24.
HIDES-Dry flint, cow, per sound, first
o class, 12@18c%; and country dry salted 11@
t llc; butchers dry salted 9@9%c. Skins-Deer
flint, 17c;. salted 10@12c. Furs-Otter, winter,
t each 25c@$4; raccoon 10@20c; wild cat 10@20c,
e fox 10@20c, Beeswax, per pound, 18c; wool
free from burs 22@25c; burry, 10@15c; goat
skins 10@25c apiece.
y COFFEE-Green Rio 16@20c per pound.
a Java, roasted, 80@338c; Mocas, roasted, 30@38c;
Red, roasted, 28@25c.
COTTON SEED MEAL-Scarce and higher.
f Sea Island or dark meal $20 per ton, bright
e or short cotton meal $21 50@2250 per ton.
e TOBACCO STEMS-Market quiet but firm @
S$'300 per ton. '.
S LIME-Eastern, job lots, $8100 perbariel, Ala,-
* bama lime $115. Cement-American $2 00,
SEnglish $4 75 per barrel. .
RicE--The- quotations vary, according:to
quantity, from 3%@6%c per pound.
SALT-Liverpool, .per sack, $100; per car
load, 85@90o. .
Country Produce, Hides, Slins, Etc.
COHESE-Fine Creamery 13%c per pound.
LIVE PouLtRY-Limited supply and good
demand as follows: hens 33c;. mixed 25c; half-
grown 20 to'25c. ""
SEG-s-Duval County 25 to 25c -per dozen,
r with-& limited demand and good supply.
S'IsH-POTATOES-Norther potatoes 8$2 50
per barrel; Early Rose 82 60; Chli Reds $2 75.
ONIONS-New York, 83 25; Yellow Denver
I $8 50perbarrel; White Onions, 8375 per bar-
SFlorida cabbage 9 to' 10c. .
f NEW YORK BEETS-Good supply at $250 per
1 NORTHERN TURNIPS-Good supply at $225
Super barrel.' .-
GREEN PEAs-Per box $225.'
EGG PLANTS--NO demand at $2750'to' $275
per barrel. '
Foreign and Domestic Fruits.
PINE APPLES-Per barrel $6.
a LEMONS-Messinas, $4 00 per box.
'APPLES-New York $4 00 to $4 50 per barrel.
FIGS-In layers 13c; in linen bags 9c.
S DATES-Persian-Boxes 9c- Frails 7c.
f GRAPES-10c per pound, with poor demand.
They are of very fine quality. Malagas, 85 00
ORANGES-Florida-Per barrel 00; per
box 82 75 to $425.
BANANAS-Good supply; from 75c to $2 00
-NUTS-Almonds 20c; Brazils 12%c; Filberts
(Sicily) 12e- English walnuts Grenobles, 18c;
Marbots, 1i'c; "Pecans 12c; Peanuts 5c@6Oc;
; Cocoanuts 5V0.
IuINS-London layers, $320 per box.
CRANBERIES-83 50 per crate; $1000 per
The following quotations are carefully re-
vised for Wednesday's and Saturday's paper
from quotations furnished by dealers in the
Carrots wholesale at $2 50 per barrel, and
retail at 50 cents perpeck.
Green Onions wholesale at 75 cents to $100
per hundred, and retail 5 cents per bunch.
Florida Cabbage wholesale for 9 to 10 cents
each, and retail at 15 cents.
Quail wholesale at 10 cents each and retail
at 15 cents, or two for a quarter.
Oranges wholesale at 2 50 to $3 00 per box,
and retail at two and three for 5 cents.
Spinage wholesales at 8100 to $125 per bushel
and retails at four quarts for 25 cents.
Sweet Potatoes wholesale at 50 to 55 cents
per bushel, and retail at 5 cents per quart.
Lettuce wholesales at 25 to 80 cents per
dozeiaeads, and retail at 5 cents per head.
aPrsnips wholesale at 82 50 to $275 per bar-
rel and retail at four and five for 10 cents.
Robins wholesale at 6 cents each and retail
at 10 cents.
'Celery wholesales at 60 to 65 cents per dozen
and retails at three to four stalks for 25 cents,
according to size.
Eggs are in poor demand. Duval county
eggs are quoted at wholesale at 25 cents per
dozen and retail at 30 cents.
.Northern cabbage scarce. Wholesale at 8
t 9 cents per head. They retail at from 15 to
Bostbn marrowfat squashes wholesale at
$250 per barrel, retail at 5, 10 and 15 cents
New York Irish potatoes wholesale at
$2 50 per barrel and retail at 10 cents per quart .
or two quarts for 15 cents.
Northern beets are worthwholesale $2.25
per barrel, and retail at 10 cents per quart, or
two quarts for 15 cents. .
Radishes bring at wholesale 20 to 25 cents J
per dozen bunches of seven radishes each.
They retail at 5 cents per bunch, or three
bunches for 10 cents.
ILive poultry-chickens, wholesale, from'30
to 85 -cents each; retail 40 to 50 ceuts each.
Dressed poultry, per pound-chickens retail,
18 to 20 cents. Turkeys wholesale, 41.00 to (
$1.75 each, and retail at 20 cents per pound.
Northern meats retail as follows: Chicago t
beef from.18 to 25 cents per pound; Florida
beef 6 to 15 cents per pound; veal 20 to 25 cents;
pork 12 to 15 cents; mutton 10 to 20 cants;
venison 25 cents; sausage 15 cents; corned
beef 10 cents.- .
NaTsau tomatoes -wholesale at 60 to 75 cents
per box and retail at 15 to 20 cents per quart
Markets by Telegraph.
FLORIDA ORANGES. m
The following special despatches, by special
arrangements with the Florida Fruit Fx
change, are sent to the TIMES-UNION by the
agents of the Freit Exchange in the various
cities. They can be relied upon as accurate:
Special to the TIMEs-UNION:]
NEW YORK, February 7.-It Is raining
and disagreeable. The Savannah boat got
here late to-day with 5,500 boxes, of which
1,700 are ones from the Exchange, and we
auction on Wednesday. No change in prices.
Sound fruit $8.50, but if with decay or if com-
mon quality prices are unsatisfactory. Very
light arrivals from the Mediterranean sec-
SGOBEL & DAY.
Special to the TIMES-UNION:]
CINCINNATI, February 7.-Bright oranges
$email@example.com; russetts firstname.lastname@example.org.
LOWHEAD, DALE & CO.
Special to the TIMEs-UNION:]
BALTIMORE,i February 7.-Market same
as last reported.
Dix & WILKINS.
Special to the TIMES-UNION:]
PHILADELPHIA, February 7- The market
is cleaning up, and choice fruit is very scarce
and firmer. There |is more demand for me-
dium fruit, and we think that prices will ad-
E. ROBERTS & BRO.
Commission Merchants' Quotations.
Special to the TIMES-UNIoN:3
NEW YORK, February 7.-The Savannah
steamer,due late to-day will bring 5,500 boxes.
Fancy fruit is in better demand at email@example.com,but
inferior fruit is not selling and is worth
$1.50@2. The.trike is prevailing but only in-
terferes with out-going freight. the report of
the Tampa Tribune that Florida oranges are
rotting is untrue.Q
good demand, especially for the better grades
of which there is a scarcity.
RICHMOND, February 7.-The market s.
Improving with favorable weather for ship-
ping. The better grades of stemming leaf
sell rapidly at from to 18 cents per pound..
Bright wrappers forplugs command from 18
to 20 cents.
DANVILLE, February 7.-Business is im-
provingrapidly and prices-have 'an upward
tendency. There Is a better feeling among
planters, manufacturers and business men
BALTIMORE, February 7.-The market is
dull, very little desirable stock-being on sale.
Maryland leaf is quoted at from $5 to $15 per
100 pounds.1 -
pEACH. HILL NURSERY.
PEACH TREES ADAPTED TO F]WORIDA,
Ten well-tested varieties ripening from May
till last of October, with the exception of the
Honey and Peen-To varieties. The peaches I
offer have been obtained by CAREFTUL SELEOTION
from a large number of varieties adapted to the
South with which I have been experimenting for
many years. I also offer our variety of'Apricot, -
the best of six which I.have cultivated-
I guarantee every tree to be true to name and
to be of true Florida Stock. ,.
For descriptive catalogue and price-list, ad-
dress W. P. HORNE,
Glen#St. Mary, Florida.
IN PUTNAM COUNTY *
Gr. a. PALMER. ----- ... ,o- .,K
75 feet above the river.
SAVANNAH COTTON MARKET.
Special to the TIMES-UNION:] ONE LOT IN KEUKA.
SAVANNAH, February 7.-The Upland 20,000 Nurspry Trees, of all varieties and sizes.
Market closed quiet at the following quota- All at bargains. Write or call at
Middling fair 98 F. C. COCHRANE'S Book Store,
Good middling 9 Palatka, Fla...
Low middling 8, THE' FOLLY NURSERIES,
Good ordinary 81
The net receipts were 1389 bales; gross re-
ceipts 1452 bales; sales 850 bales; stock at this
port 72,332 bales. -.
Exports coastwise 236. PALATKA, FLA.
SEA ISLAND COTTON. --
'The market continues quiet at unchanged .
otation.loridas Fine sour stocks, -bdded with best varieties.
Co S1 pac N'ursedy on high pine land. Tress carefully
Good Medium packed and delivered at shipping point inPa-
MGoodumedu latka, at ,the followine prices:
Medium fine 18 inch in diameter, 25 c.t.i each-: 200per
Extrafine 2 linch in diameter, 85 cents eachI; $Ai per.
Choice 23 thousand.
LEAF TOBACCO MARKET. th ineh in diameter, 45 cents each; $400 per
NEW YORK, February 7. The Western W. C. HAGROVE Pralatka
leaf market is dull, owing to the light de- Paiatka, la.
mand. The New York leaf is quiet, while the DAYPORT,
Havana leaf is in active demand. New -
York Pennsylvania and Western sell at from -Hernando County, Elorida,
$4 to 15 glper 100 pounds. Havana, 50 cents to d .
$1.05 rpepound. Sumatra, $1.20 to $1.60 per Sixteen miles west! of Hernando Hotel, Brooks-
poun Februar for ville, on the shore of the Gulf at the mouth ofa
leaf is light, ut improving, and the outlook, beautiful Spring River. Finest fishing, boating'
is rather encourage and sailing. Good accommodations: Try-weekly
'LOUISVILLE, February 7.-There is a Hack in" "
ORMOND ON THE HALIFAX7
PO1l BEST OF HAMMOCK LAND OR BEA-RNG
. : : i
S-----ALL ON O ADDBnS8-
i t *-
Ormond Land Agency,
East Cc astiof Volusia CountyN
Ir3iLe o Besiet Iiealorta. ouLtesor3
Is on the Line of the Florida Southern.
Unsurpassed by any other section for the production of Fruits and Vegetables. If you are com-
ing to Florida, whatever may be your means or condition, you will most assuredly be pleased with
this Centre of the&Lake Region. F'or further particulars address,
S. L. REED, Pittman, Fla. '
GLEN ST. MARY NURSERIES!
A general line of Fruit Trees adapted to Florida,'including the
LAR -EST STOCK -F PEACH TREES
To be'found in the State.
PEEN-TO AND HONEY PEACHES A SPECIALTY.
Also, several other choice varieties of Peaches. My stock of-Kelsey's-Japan Plum Trees con-
sists of 5,000 or upward-all home grown, and buds taken from bearing trees on my place.
'1,00 PICHOLINE OLIVE TREES (2 to 6 feet high); 0.000 ORANTGE TREES (8 to 4 years
old)t A full supply of Leonte, Kieffer and other Pear isrees Japan Persimons, Figs Quinces,
Apricots, Nectarines, Japan Medlars, Mulberries, English Walnuts, Pecans, Almons, Japan
Chestnuts Grapes, Raspberries, Blackberries, etc., etc.. An examination of stock solicited.
Catalogues free on application to .
GLEN ST. MARY, FIA.
T S ~size 40x100 i.A W! W, on Lake Kingsley, lay.Co., only 8. A
m w feet in -- hoie 5-aere tract for an O0ANGE n
GROVE costs but $50.
| Highi rolling Pine Lands, Salubrious Climate, a good invest- .A
| ment. Send 2-cent stamp for Maps, etc., or remit P. 0. Order or ki Il ll
i Bank Draft to JOHN T. TALBOT, and get WarrantyDeed, Title U
Perfect, from the -
TrKOE IOA.IJ itiMTD ooJAJN4y,
P. O. Box 158, Jacksonville, Florida, 89 W. Bay S48
NEW YORK & FLORIDA STEAMSHIP LINE.
T- TRI-WEEKLY SEjVAE BETWEX .
NEW YORK, FERNANDINA AND JACKSONVILLE.
Steamers are appointedto sail from Pier 29, E. R., N. Y., every Tuesday, Thursday.
and Saturday, a Anp. m. -
FROM JACKSONVILLE-CHEROEKE (new), and SEMINOLE (new) every FPIDA-Y
FROM FERNANDINA-DELA WARE and ye.fASSEE every MOnD Y, p., G
OP ATLANTA and CITY OF COLU.MBIA, every WEDNESDAY p. m.
The Freight and Passenger Accommodations by this Line are unsurpassed by any ships in
he coastwise service. For further information, apply to .
CLARENCE WAGNER, Agt., J. A. LESLIE, Agt.,
Fernandina, Fla., Jacksonville, Fa. S. W.'cor. Bay and HogAU.
TMUO. G. EGER, Traffic Manager, WM. P CLYDE & CO., .
85 Broadway, N. Y. General Agents, 85 Broadway, N: Y.
THE BEST HEALTH REPORT
-IS ON THE LINE OF THE FLORIDA SOUTHERN.
-Unsurpassed by any other section for the prqduotion of Fruit, and Vegetables.
ryou are coming to Florid whhatever may be your means or opudition, you will
ost assuredly, be pleased wfa this Centre of the Lake Pegion.
# For further particulars address S.- T. TE !Mr'-D
Mirhoel H^ wi.
Three quarters of e
' ^ '