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VOL. 1--NO. 5. JACKSONVILLE, FLA., WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 2, 1887. PRICE $2 A YEAR.
VITICULTURE. Most of our strong, vigorous growers, ping, except a short distance. With is a more rapid growth, and more apt to Budding or grafting above the ground is the most compact arrangement possi-
the Concord, Ives, Hartford, Clinton, some of my neighbors it does not ripen keep pace with the growth of the bud or heavy pi uning induce attacks of the ble. If we allow to each tree a circle of
Taylor, Norton and Herbemont, will evenly, but I think that is the fault of than a plum stock, borer and leads to decay. Hence the ground extending from the tree ten feet
A Promising Industry in Course need eight to ten feet in the rows ; Soup- the cultivation, and not of the grape." Considering the comparative adapta- point of junction in grafting should be in every direction, we can plant eighty-
of Development. pernongs are planted twenty to thirty Our remaining testimony in regard to tions of our three native wild plums, beneath the surface of the ground and it six trees to the acre by the septuary sys-
feet apart, while the Delaware, Catawba, the Concord is decidedly adverse, as will we find that the Chicasaw (Prunus should be protected with clay, grafting tern, and only seventy-five by the square
Experience with the grape in different Creveling and lona may have sufficient be perceived. At another time we shall Chicasa the commonly cultivated wax or waxed cloth, system.
parts of Florida leads to the opinion that room when planted six feet apart. discuss the merits of some other popular kind) is most objectionable, its trunk be- The Japanese tree grows more vigor- If in the center of each square we
the State as a whole isvation, eptionally well The number of vines required to set an favorites, such as the Hartford Prolific, ing small and slow growing, and its ously than our native species, and the plant an extra tree then we have 185
the purpose o winevation, especially acre, if the rows are six feet apart, is as Ives' Seedling and Delaware. roots inclined to sprout excessively, sap starts earlier. For the latter reason trees to the acre plantedon the quincunx
the purpose of wine-making. We be- ai f At s f part ith os A. H. C. Seedlings should be planted, if any, for the scions should be cut before the na- system. This method may be employed
lieve this e destined to become a leading 210 t eight feet 907 ; at tn feet trees grown from sprouts are far more tive stock is in condition for grafting to advantage in starting a 'seedling
industry in Florida, and as its develop- ; t eig ft, D, s e th n- inclined to that habit than those grown and kept.in damp earth or moss. This orange grove by planting in every square
ment requires a vast amount of experi- 725. If the rows are eight feet apart, Professor Dubois on the Con from seeds. This fact should be borne is work for February. the peach or some other early-bearing
mental work, which needs to be con- the number required per acre will be one- cord. in mind in planting any tree that is dis- A. H. C. fruit tree, which may be removed when
ducted in a scientific manner, we feel fourth less. posed to sprout, such as the live oak and the orange trees become large enough
that no subject has better claims on the THR MOST POPULAR AMERICAN GRAPE. Editor Florida Farmer and Fruit-Grower cherry-laurel. Never plant a young tree LAYING OFF AN ORCHARD. to need the entire space. A. H. .]
columns of a journal devoted, as this is, When I started our vineyards I that springs from the root of another. e
toprogressive horticulture and and agricul- One of the many ircumstancs whh though Coord being so As to the hog plum (Prunus umbellat a aaon Transplanting.
ture.t pgsehave given fame to the town of Concord, cheap I should set out a few acres in the species with round, excessively sourransplanting.
In some of the central counties much Mass., is the fact that the mdst noted of that variety. I knew that Concord vines, fruit), that is inclined to sprout too, and Method of Arranging Trees. In Spaulding's valuable treaties on or-
progress is being made in viticulture American grapes originated there. The even in the most favorable localities, do the wood is of slow growth and subject BY R. D. HOYT. ange culture in California, there is much
through the well directed efforts of ex- Concord grape was introduced to the not bear more than seven or eight crops. to early decay that is equally applicable to this State.
perienced vintners who, fortunately, world in 1853 by Mr. E. W. Bull, and it Iknew that Concord grapes were too The Sloe (Prunus Americana) is a vig- To lay off a grove on the "Septuary" From the chapter on transplanting we
are well disposed to communicate to the has proved to be the most hardy and pro- tender to be shipped North, but I thought orous and healthy tree, sometimes a foot plan, stretch a line from east to west, make the following extracts;
public the results of their experience. In ductive of all varieties, and the best that if raised in this climate they would in diameter, but it is not as available as lay and begin g at the southeast corner Trimming Trees Before Transplant-
other portions of the State the efforts in suited for general cultivation. It is said ripen more thoroughly and have more the other two mentioned. It abounds lay an equilateral triangle (made of any ing.-It is a goodplan to prune nursery
this direction have been of a rather des- that more vines of this variety are now saccharine matter than in the North, and in Gadsden, Jackson and many other of stock quite heavily a week or ten days
ultory character. It is easier to find in cultivation than of all others together. I expected to convert all the grapes into the northern counties of Florida, ex- l---'---- :" ---' before transplanting. This gives the
varieties that are adapted to the counties In the inland region of the Southern wine. tending northward to Canada. At the I trees a chance to recover from one
which have a clay subsoil than to those States it does not succeed very well. In I have found out since that this grape, Northwest many varieties of the sloe I "- O shock before encountering the second.
which lack clay (at an available .-depth). Florida it has proved satisfactory as a if not entirely worthless, is at least of are found in cultivation. It may The shock of pruning has a tendency
Without doubt varieties may be found grape for home use, but- its extensive little value to us. It ripens here later be known by its large coarse leaves and -'\- .- also to throw the tree into a more com-
which will flourish on such lands. Much cultivation is not to be recommended, than a great many other better varieties. whitish bark, which cleaves off like that plete dormant condition, when it suffers
is to be expected from experiments in either for the purposes of shipment or It does not mature evenly, black, red of the paper birch. least from the laceration of the roots.
grafting the native grapes, of which two wine-making. A cheap and healthful and green berries being seen on the same Probably the Sloe would not thrive in It is a universal rule in horticulture
grow luxuriantly in our deepest sands, wine is made from it in large quantities bunch. It rots and mildews in wet sea- the orange region of Florida, yet it i I-. -" that in transplanting a tree, the top
In Europe it has been found that many in other portions of the United States, sons. might do well in Alachua Co. and on the should be cut away in proportion to the
varieties do their best only within very hammock lands of Marion. We would loss of roots with orange trees this is
limited areas, and so it may be in this like to see it tested by our nurserymen I t almost a sine qua non. If the trees are
country. Certainly it is no easy matter to .. -- -- not only for the purpose mentioned, but t N not pruned before removal they should
determine what varieties are best adapt- with a view to improving its fruit. II } be pruned directly afterwards, and the
ed to each portion of this heterogeneous A. H. C. I I knife should be used vigorously. I know
State, and how much may be accom- an experienced grower who follows the
polished by originating new varieties. More About the Persimmon. rule of depriving his lemon trees of every
For such work as this an experimental f __The following notes relative to this I leaf at the time of transplanting. He
farm is most urgently needed in this popular fruitwere intended to accom- I claims that they start more readily for
State. It is earnestly to be hoped that the pany a&a-leeinet bhe other articles this 'heroic treatment, and I amnot
bill before Congress for aiding States in on this' sjet contained in our last is- ( '. prepared to dispute his bypotbesie.
this direction will be passed during the __-.-_ sue, but were omitted for lack of space. Puddling.-In this method of trans-
present session. Its passage would se- The spiziflc name which botanists planting a trench is first excavated and
cure to Florida an important aid to her have bestowed on this kind of Diospyros SEPTUARY PLAN OF ORCHARD. the tap roots cut. The tree being loos-
agricultural advancement. is simply the popular Japanese name for (Showing method of laying off, etc.) ened, it is left standing in the trench
A. H. C. " the fruit-, which is r onounced as if light material), on the ground, and drive with a shovelful of dirt upon the roots
spelled kk -ke, as Prbfessor Clark in- stakes at the three corners, to keep them from drying. A puddle is
SOIL AND LOCATION FOR VINEYARDS. forms us. Kaki is about as musical a Carry the triangle along the square formed .at some convenient point by
Every variety of the grape has its word as' could be found in Latin or side to the line, staking the first and sec- mixing loam and clay to the consistency.
special adaptations, but all have in com- Greek, ak ithe botanists wisely decided ond rows as you go until the end is of thick cream. A sufficient number, of
mon certain requirements as to soil and to "let wVl enough al e." reached; then reverse it, move the: line trees having-been dug, they are gathered
climate. In Peter Henderson's treatise The Diyros kak is a native of to the third row and work back east. up, a few at- a time, and the roots of
-on viticulture we find some points to China anpl Japan, w e, by long cul- The dotted lines in diagram show posi- each immersed in the puddle. They are
which we would invite the attention of tivation, numerous v ties have been tion of triangle. To a person standing thus cased Witih a film of soil which
our Florida readers. Though his direc- produced, varying fr each other in at point "a"'in diagram the rows wil protecthlieem from the drying action of
tions are intended for more Northern shape, col flavor an lther qualities; all appear twenty-one feet apart, while the air. Aan additionalprecaution, the
latitudes, they areat least suggestive to The fa ite variety are know n in from the north or south side they will roots are parked in damp straw for
Southern vine growers. We quote the Japan by a ih names yakunma. Ron- appear but twelve feet. transit. For shipment long distances,
following passages: osan, Nih Micado, aimio, Taikoon, The advantages of this system over a number of trees may be bunched to-
The best soil for the grape is undoubt- Yamato a gJogen. I first named is the square are, first, there is: less unoc- gether and their roots packed with
edly a sandy or gravelly loam. A loam t be largest uing som mes four inches cupied root space.; and, second, fifteen damp straw in a barrel. The stocks and.
is always to be preferred to clay. If ne- long. The, at two a mostly used for per cent. more trees at any given dis- tops are generally wrapped with bur-
cessity compels the use of a clayy soil, drying. dry the fruit it is peeled tance may be placed on an acre, and laps, rushes or other materials a means
it should be thoroughly underdrained, and suspr d on strings for a month, still each tree will have the same amount of protection.
and will be much improved by a liberal Thefruis-i 'haid frequently to weigh a of space as in the square. Packing in Damp Straw.-With this
addition of sand. Always seek to give pound, as it.l. oes in Florida. In fact, one The latter method, however, may be method the tree is prepared in the same
the vine a "dry foot." CONCORD GRAPE VINE-EIGHTEEN MONTHS OLD, GROWN AT WALDO, FLA., specimen as produced in this State that employed very profitably by planting manner as just described, except that
One of the oldest and best vineyards of BY T. K.'GODBEY. weighed I V-unces. peach trees in the centre of each square the puddling operation is omitted. I
New York is planted in a soil (if it may but varieties of the aestivalis type are to If one year the Concord happens to do The tree s introduced into Florida when th rve is firstsetout and the have transplanted trees by thismethod
beso called) that was originally a pure be preferred in Florida. well there is noway of mar gthe from Califrnia nurseries, where the orange trees very small. The peach be- as well as by puddling and balling, and
and to the depth of eight feet or mor be preferred in Florida well there is no way of marketing the original nales had been discarded to a ing a rapid grower will commence bear- I find tha the damp straw alone ag-
Clay, muck and leaf mould were near by favor vai ous counties we he ar Conord as a would not stand ship n lcAlity,forit great extent and others of a less barbar- ing the second year, and will produce swers every requirement.
and abundant, andthe sand was lbera- teo the nearest ous sound substituted. For this and five or six crops before the 6r&hge has The principal precaution to be ob-
ly treated to each when the vineyard grape for home use, but, except in two important market other reasons the nomenclature of this attained sufficient size for them to inter- served In transplanting orange trees is
was made, a todr in eve w instances, the objection is urged that the Why should any one plant Concord fruit is fou to be very much confused. fre with it. They may then be removed, to avoid the 'contact of air with the
ears since. It wl be thus seen that a lack of uniformity in ripening and its when we can raise several other grapes Of this sulc Mr. Berckmans'says: and as the peaches will not add mate- roots. If the roots be thoroughly dried,
valueless sand may be converted into a poor keeping qualities render it unfit for superior in every respect Some such as "Wevndeavoredto arrive at acor really to the cost of cultivation of the the vitality of the tree is lost.
profitable vineyard. The preparation of marketig. One nurseryman writes : Delaware and Ives, standing shipment rect nomenature, but after seven years grove the income from the fruit will go Settling the Earth.-It is not neces-
the soil, whatever its nature, should be I ha seen as fine onord grapes to perfeon, such as than in fruiting e persimmons we are as a long way toward paying the expenses sary to spend time tramping the earth
most' thorough before the vines are raised in this State as are grown any- and Nbrton's, being entirely at home and much puzzLqd.now as at the start. Large of the whole. down about the roots, as the water to
planted where. making the finest of all American wines? quantities trees are annually imported BAY VIE Hillsborough Co. Fla be applied will settle it more effectually
The selection of a proper location is a It is much esteemed among the grape C. for myself, am going to dig up all from Japan'e varieties seldom exceed [Other advantages of the septuary ar- than it is possible to do with the foot.
matter of the first importance. The soil growers of Waldo, and is reported to my Concordsand replace em with the twelve in'tmleollections usually sent to rangement, or marco real, as it is called Irrigating.-Oitrous trees should al-
should be naturally dry, or, if not, it succeed well on either. high or low iron-clad Cynthiana and Norton's, and this couitrj t when the trees bear ways be irrigated as soon as planted.
should be made so by artificial means, ground. One person having six six-year- my advice to others is to avoid all such fruit the,' 's7at name is often found to ,. Run the basin at each tree full, and after
such as undeidraining. It is nothing to old vines is said to have shipped nearly future expense and trouble. apply td se vaLdistinct varieties, or one 3 the water has soaked away, fill in with
the purpose to say that vines are some- 150 pounds from them last year. At DUBOIS. variety has'isyval names." J .. dry earth, which prevents evaporation.
times found' growing, wild in moist Mr. Godbey's place we saw a good ex- TALLAHASSBE, FLA, With rei to the ripening of this 4.... .-- -. .~.-- : Additional Pruning.-If the tree
places, unless you are content to eat ample of the extremely prolific nature of fruit.Mr,.Be'mans.makes the following shows a tendency to wilt, it is a good
%wild grapes with all their wild flavor and this variety, a .vine which, the second Budding on Wild Plum Stocks. observation ~ibegins to color when Vs plan to prune it still further, even cut-
indigestible pulp. Flavor and tender- year after planting, matured forty-eight e a half grown- i would be allowed to ting away to a few leaves or none at all.
ness are promoted by a well drained soil bunches. We secured a photograph of Editor Florida Frmer and Pit Grower: hang 6n the6 eniljust before a frost I '. Indications.-If a tree wilts and the
as well as by culture. In addition, the this vine, and sent.itor New Y to be In your issue ofJanuary isaletteris expected, inthe case of the early leaves cling to their stems. becoming
grade should be such that no water can engraved, with the result which is be-. from Mr. T. K. Godbey, of Waldo, In ripening .ariies when fuUy soft. If dry and dead, the chances are that the
remain on the surface at any time of the fore the reader. The subject is too much reference to Kelsey's Japan Plum, in gathered "bjfoe a frost there is a tree is lost. If the leaves drop off, the
year. Low grounds should be avoided reduced in size, and the work so fine, which Mri. G. mentions that he budded 'slight astrig enjoy next to the skin, but tree willalmostsurely put forth fewones.
as much as possible They are always that we fear the impression will not be it on a wild or hog-plum stock. In an- this disappear after being kept in the Washing the Trees.-If the trees are
colder than uplands, and are subject to satisfactory. Our artist took the very i other letter from Mr. R.' H. Burr this house a few'days or weeks. If allowed f 'infested with any sort of scale or smut,
cold vapors'and fogs, and early and late -improper liberty of bringing all the clus- gentleman states that he worked his to be slightly" touched by frost the flavor 7 wash them thoroughly with soap suds,
frosts, all of wnich more or less promote ters into sight. In his anxiety to do full buds on peach stocks. is much im ved, but the fruit will then scrubbing the stocks and spray t
Smildew. justice to the vine he has done a vio- .It seems to me that, other things be- not keep many days. It is therefore de- ..'. tops. It is but fair to give them a clean
A location near large bodies of water lence to nature, which anyone at all ing equal, it would be much better to sirable to other the fruit before frost if start.
either fresh or salt, is desirable, because acquainted with the grape-vine will bud on peach stocks, and those always intended ft keeping, and then some va- (. V Wrapping the Stocks.-If rabbits or
of the ameliorating influence of the wa- detect. of varieties thoroughly acclimated to cities will i6main sound until January rodents are apt to prove troublesome, it
ter. Some of the best vineyards in the In compliance with our request, Mr. Florida, rather than on the native plum, and Februaty." is a good plato wrap the stocks with
' country are so located. Hillsides may Godbey has kindly furnished the follow The -great objection to this latter is its In Japan ?the persimmon is said to be paper and tie tightly with twine. This
always be safely dhosen. They usually ing exact account of this vine: "The persistent tendency to sprout from the short lived, but it is so -planted as to se- keeps the animals from knowing the
afford ajlonger season of growth. The ex- Concord grape-vine was set out in Feb- root and fill the ground full of bushes cure a succession. This point has not SQUARE PLAN OF ORCHARD. bark. The wrapping is also good pro-
posure must in some cases be determined ruary, 1885, and was one year.old when as far around as its rootsextend. been testedln. Florida, for twelve years (Showing proportion of unoccupied space.) tection'to the young and tender stocks
by the local surroundings, but should be set. I cut it back to within two eyes of POWERS. is probably khe. greatest age of any tree in Europe, are found in the matter of against the hot sun. Some people white-
-as far to the south as possible, the ground, and permitted but one shoot LAWTEY, Bradford Co. in the State;' plowing and in the handsomer appear- wash their trees instead of wrapping
S LAYNG A to grow, keeping off all laterals. It [We were informed by Mr.Godbey that It inclines to fruit precociously and to ance of the grove. Mr. Hoyt has a grove them and are well pleased with the result.
SLAYNG OFF A VINEYARD. made a growtli of about fifteen feet the he had worked the Kelsey both on. plum- shed its frujibefore it is ripe. We have arranged on this plan, which is one of Designating Varieties.-If you plant
From an equally good authority .we first year. Last.spring I cut it back to and peach stocks, and found that the seen trees which, one year from the bud the handsomest we-were ever in. At our several varieties of trees, the best way
-quote as follows, concerning the laying six feet, and wound it around a stake. bud grew more vigorously on the plum. set a hundred fruit. In such case, after request he kindly furnished the above to keep track of them is to make a dia-.
off of vineyards :' Planting in rows, six It bore forty-eight well. developed But the objection urged by>Mr. Powers the fruit is well set, all buta dozenef the directions and drawings for the accom- gram of the orchard in some convenient
feet apart, is now the usual method,- It clusters of grapes,whichweighed twenty isa Tery serious one, and it is highly de- most 'vigorqs' should be removed. The paying diagrams, book of record, disignating varieties'by .
gives sufficient space .for-a horse and pounds. '. sirable that a different tree be found for next year fft will be enough to leave As will be observed, the septuary ar- numbered rows. Tags- on trees are a
man to pass through with plow or culti- "The Concord is one of. our best table this purpose. on the tree*" We presume the leading rangement is composed of perfect tri- nuisance, and besides, soon -become
valr. The distance in the rows varies grapes, being much sweeter here than 'Mr. Dansby, of Pensacola,'-uses the causes of. t4e dropping habit are exces- angles'and hexagons, the latter joining weather-worn and obliterated. The
'somewhat with the growth of the differ- in the North, but the skin is so thin and wild sloe as budding stock for peaches, sive fruittnig, lack of drainage and the each other like the cells of a honey same is true of lettered stakes in the or-,*
*ent varieties and the richness of the soil. tender here that it will not do for ship- the reason assigned by him being that it use of too much or improper fertilizer, comb. Therefore it is evident that this chard ground.
-' :- 0 .. ,--6 --.'_. -. ;
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. FEBIt UARY 2, 1887.
r hard and adeq
Fruit Preserved Fresh and
Sound for Eight Months.
BY REV. W. M. DAVIS.
In the Times-Union of June 29, 1886,
appeared the following :
"The Sanford Journal suggests that
Mr. Davis, and others who have tried it,
publish full details of their experiments,
alluding to the preservation of oranges]
so that all may get the benefit of it. The
suggestion is a good one, and we shall
Stake pleasure in publishing the accounts
of the experiments and the results."
As I am the person named in the above
quotation, something of my experience
is here offered in the matter of keeping
oranges through the sp' ing and summer.
A few years since I put away a few or-
anges in winter and kept them, I think,
till April. In that first experiment every
specimen came out looking as sound as
This first trial encouraged me tc make
a second- and more extensive one last
winter. Before the great freeze I had-
Iput away the crop from ten trees. The
-object was to hold it over for spring
In the last week of February following
I shipped to the Fruit Exchange, as their
books will show, 31 boxes of my fruit.
Sounder or better flavored fruit I do not
expect to see. I may say, just here, that
these preserved oranges had very much
better flavor than when taken from the
trees. Nor had I any intimation that
they failed to remain perfectly sound till
they reached Baltimore.
After this shipment, being confident
that my remaining stock was keeping
too well to be yet disturbed, I waited
much later before making another ship-
ment. I do not remember with certainty
to a box, but I am sure my shipments,
first and last, amounted to over 60 boxes
from the ten trees, besides the hundreds
retailed in my own town.
To show the condition of my oranges
in June, I quote again from the Times-
Union of June 10.- "They"-certain
gentlemen from Lake City-"brought
with them specimens of Rev. Mr. Davis'
crop of oranges which he picked early in
December last, and which he has kept
until lately, and is now selling at a
round price In Late City in small lots.
The oranges are- just as bright, perfect
and juicy as they were when picked
better than any Sicily or California
fruit in the market."
On the next day, June 11, the editor
volunteered the same remarks on the
same subject. I quote but in part: "In
this experiment at Lake City all the con-
ditions are favorable to its being taken
as positive assurance of the virtue of the
plan"-the plan employed in saving the
i The editor here proceeds to make a
statement in reference- to the way in
which my fruit was saved. In this he
greatly mistakes. If anyone will try the
experiment -of- putting .up oranges "in
hills like sweet potatoes," I am quite
sure he will not try it a second time. But
'he proceeds: "As, was said in the local
notice, the form,_ color, weight, juci-
nss and soundness of the fruit is perfect.
specimens brought to us from
SeCity-were taken from a basket of
S-'-- Davis' fruit exposed for sale in mar-
ket, and were carefully examined by
Mr. Ives, manager of the Florida Fruit
Exchange, before they were submitted
All this is not only unsolicited testi-
S. mony, but was given entirely without
my knowledge. To the editor was merely
giving what he regarded as acceptable
news and seeking to further the great
fruit interest of the State.
~ How much fruit I sold in July is not
remembered, but a good deal, and some
of it was on exhibition August 4th, at
Ocala, as will be remembered by several
readers of this article. It is worthy, per-
haps, of statement that on the last day of
August there was still a remnant left of
Just here, however, it is proper to say
that the last box opened was the first
packed and I am confident the last of
the fruit in it was somewhat injured be-
cause the packing was not quite up to
When my success in this business had
%become so evident a suggestion to apply
for a patent was made by a friend, and
the patent was applied for.and granted.
Did I not believe the State would be much
more profited by my discovery than I can
ever be this statement would never been
-written, and I am confident that the or-
ange men will do well to make early use
of my method.
LAKE CITY, Fla., Dec.,81, 1886.
THE STRAWBERRY CROP.
Mulching, Picking, Packing and
BY S. POWERS.
To raise a strawberry in this thin light
sand of Florida, keep it clean, pick and
ship it a thousand miles and lay it down
on the table of the New York Lucullut
crisp, bright and fresh, is a high tri
umph of modern material civilization.
It requires very careful, rapid work-and
To keep the fruit clean plenty of
mulching must be applied. This is more
for the benefit of the grower than th
consumer, for the housewife always
washes the berries before setting then
on the table anyhow, removing the sand
whether much or little. But she "doei
-' not want to see sand on them when shi
buys them in the market; hence, as
said before, it is more to the producer'
interest than the buyer's to mulchthor
oughly. It is this heavy mulching anm
the consequent freedom of the berr'e
S- from sand'which have given the Lawte;
-: strawberries, their .efeptionally goo(
S reputation in New York and Philadel
S .* phia.
: Our best grbwers use every precaution
to prevent any deterioration in the
quality of their fruit. They do not al-
low the pickers to seize the berry, itself,
but require them to take hold of the stem
when picking. This keep the berry from
being mashed in the hand. On the sorting
table all over-ripe berries, those nibbled
by crickets, or small, ill shaped. knotty
specimens are carefully culled out. The
berries are spread out very thin by a
quick dexterous movement in emptying
the box, and no unnecessary handling is
permitted. When ready to be returned
to the box they are swept off the table
by the open hand into the box held un-
derneath the edge; thus the bel'ries des-
tined to be shipped are hardly taken into
the hand at all. They retain as much as
possible their crisp and plump condi-
It is a great mistake to pack in the
bgxeA over-ripe fruit; it might better be
given away here. It is liable to become
mashed and give the rest of the fruit a
smeary, mussy look, which is the special
detestation of the tidy Northern house-
keeper who goes to market to buy fruit.
In the early part of the season or in
locations where there are not berries
enough grown to justify the expense of
a special refrigerator car, resort must be
had either to the open, ventilated
crate or to the ice-box. Many
growers seem to be carried away
with the idea so assiduously propa-
gated by the circulars of a certain
Florida fruit commission house in Phil-
adelphia, that the light, open ventilated
crate is a better and cheaper medium of
shipment than the ice chest. It may be
under certain conditions, but those con-
ditions must be observed or the shipper
is likely to meet with disaster:
1. Early in the season while the cool
weather still prevails far enough south-
ward to meet the fruit very soon after it
leaves Florida, ice is not necessary for
small shipments, even if they should be
three or four days on the way to the
Northern market. At this time of year
almost any kind of package that will
hold the fruit firmly and prevent It from
being jostled about in the boxes, will
answer the purpose.
2. It makes a vast difference whether
the shipment is a large one or a small
one. Two or three dozen crates can be
packed in an ordinary express car, where
no ice is used, and go through in good
condition. But let the growers be so
rash as to fill a car nearly or qu'te full
of crates without ice, and the chances
are their fruit will arrive North in such
a condition that it will be incontinently
dumped into the Delaware as food for
the fish. One grower shipping ten or a
dozen crates of the open, ventilated pat-
tern, without ice, in an express car
where there is plenty of room and plenty
of circulation is another and very differ-
ent colored horse from a large number
of growers filling the same car so full
that no circulation could take place.
What does the "ventilated" feature of a
crate amount to if there is no ventilation,
that is, if the car is so crowded that the
circulation of the air is impossible ?
Ventilation is all right, it is eminently
desirable for all fruit in transit or in
market stalls either. But a car packed
full is death to ventilation in the very
nature of things. Let us take for grant-
ed-what is not yet by any means fully
demonstrated-that ice is not necessary
at any season of the year when straw-
.berries are likely to be shipped out of
Florida. We must have either ice or
ventilation, one or the other. But in
the common express car, "rammed,
jammed full," there is neither the one
nor the other, no matter what patent
"ventilated" crate is used.
For a strawberry colony like Lawtey,
therefore, where the acreage amounts
well up toward a hundred, the refriger-
ator car is an absolute necessity; and it
behooves the growers to standing with
the Northern dealer and sustain him in
furnishing that accommodation. They
ought to stay with the wagon. If any
grower chooses to ship on an. indepen-
dent basis, a few crates by all rail ex-
press, without ice, that is his undoubted
privilege; but if later in the season,
when it gets so warm in the North that
it is risky to ship in open crates, he
wishes to secure a place in the refriger-
ator car, he certainly ought to be allow
ed to do so-after the regular shippers
by it have been accommodated.
I had intended to give some description
of an ice chest patented by a gentleman
of St. Joseph, Mich., also of a method of
shipping in an open crate covered with
wet gunny-cloth (a method tried by Mr
M. Knickerbocker of this place), bui
space does not suffice for the present.
LAWTEY, Bradford county, Fla.
The cultivation of the sunflow er ii
now attracting the attention of many
agriculturists. It is of easy cultivation
growing freely in all soils and is not very
sensitive to climatic conditions. 0
course the better the soil the better thi
product. It is, however, a very exhaus
t tive crop, taking from the soil a copiou:
supply of potash, and therefore should
not follow itself 'in rotation, unless thi
ingredient is very fully renewed. IL
t some of the river bottoms, and rich mois
I lands of the West, a variety grows wild
Sand its seed are used by the Indians a
s food, but the variety most in cultivation
- is the "Mammoth Russian," which ii
good soil grows to an immense size
l twenty-four to thirty inches in diame
ter, and yields a large quantity of excel
f lent seed. In some places, where wooi
e is scarce, it is grown solely for fuel, th
e stalk making a very hot, though brie
s fire. In others it is cultivated only t
Utilize its seed for feeding stock, as i
, forms a good winter food for both fowl
s and horses, giving to the feathers of th
e one and the hairs of the other a bright
I glossy appearance, and making then
s lively and spirited, by feeding half
- pint, night and morning. It is said t
d give horses a great power of endurance
s when mixed with their rations, It i
y also grown in some localities as a pro
d ventive of malarial diseases,-its great ab
- sorption of nourishment from the air b
ing supposed to prevent the spread o
n miasma. In still other places it is grow
as a substitute for bean poles, the leaves ishes for a crop, no seed of the truck p
being stripped off, and the stalks still at- farmer should be sown broadcast. Drill- c
tached to the roots n ake a good support sowing, either by hand or machine, is t
for vines. But its chief value lies in the much to be preferred, as the seed may 1
clear palatable oil which can be ob ained be deposited more regularly at uniform g
from the seed, and which is equal as a depth, and the young plants may be 1
drying oil to linseed, and superior to more conveniently thinned, weeded and a
that for many uses. There are no mills worked, if necessary ; besides the opera- c
exclusively devoted to its manufacture tioni may be performed during the r
in this country, but both the linseed and prevalence of a wind with the machine, a
cotton-seed oil mills express it occasion- I s
ally, and are frequent buyers. It is not MANAGEMENT OF CUTTINGS. f
cultivated to any great extent in .this e
country as a marketable crop, but is ex- Eas Methodof Proaatin c
tensively grown in Russia, where it is Easy Method of Propagating
said to average fifty bushels of seed to Herbaceous Plants. a
the acre, and one bushel of seed to yield in this climate is the best f
about one gallon of oil. With the im- February in this climate is the best
proved methods devised by the cotton- month for starting the grape, fig, mul-
seed crushers in this country, it is quite berry, etc., from cuttings. Provision
likely this yield could be increased, and can be made likewise for stocking the
rich, moist lands would probably largely flower beds during the coming spring,
increase the product per acre. There is summer and autumn, by propagating in
no established price for the seed in our similar manner from herbaceous plants
leading markets, but buyers at the mills which have been kept over winter, such 11
report that they pay $1 per bushel.- as salvias, bygonias anid heliotropes.,
Cotton Plant. theySuch plants may be multiplied very a
easily in the following manner: Put a 6
GARDEN SEEDS. or 8 inch flower pot inside a larger pot l
or other receptacle, which must be large
Hints on Selection and Sowing enough to rise a couple of inches above n
--A Test of Freshness, Etc. the inner pot, leaving a space below and
On the subject of seeds, which is one around to be packed with* earth. Fill i
of interest at. this season, we the inner pot half full of earth "andh
of special interestat thise e on topof this put about two inches of
need not look for more reliable advice clean sand. Soak the earth and sand e
than is contained in the treatise on with waterand do not apply any more
Truck Gardening at the South in the re- water until the cuttings havelstruck:root. h
portof theDepartment ofAgriculture Then nip off the ends of small bunch of
for 1885. The writer, Dr. A. Oemler, ofated from and
Wilmington Island, Ga., has had great the plants to be propagated from and inside of the
experience and success in the business, arrange them around the inside of the
and is probably the best authority on pot in such manner that they will lie
everything pertaining to it., Of seeds he leaf jot covered with the sand, which
saysThe quality of seed is of more impo is to be packed snugly inside of the
The quality of seed is of more impor- circle. 0
tance in market gardening and truck Then la a light of lass over the out-
farming than in any other branch of er ot or box and let it remain till the
of agriculture. Should they fail to ger- er pot or box and let it remain till th, as
minate, a loss of a couple of weeks cuttings show signs of new growth, as
might be fatal to the prospects of the they will do pretty surely within two
might be fatal to the prospects of the eks. After this they need only par-
entire crop, the produce being comparon the trial protection apd may be given a little
tively worthless unless placed upon th water to compensate for evaporation.
market at the proper time. No such After one or two pairs of new leaves
dangerous casualty applies to grain or have developed the young plants may
cotton planting. Again, if the seed do be transferred to small pots or the open
not prove true to variety, the same con- und. A H C
tinigency obtains for an unpopular va- ground. AH..
riety will meet with very poor sale. OTHER METHODS OF CUTTINGS.
Hence the importance of the truck The old way of rooting cuttings in a
farmer's procuring his seeds from the small glass bottle filled with water is a s
most reliable sources. Poor ones are dear good method when a hot-bed cannot be
at any price. He can better afford to used; but the bottle should not stand so i
pay treble the price for those which close to the window as to become hot, 1
from experience he knows to be good, and thus scald the rootlets. A little cotton
* than to experiment with cheaper, for or wool within the rim of the bottle will S
half the success of his crop will depend prevent evaporation. In two or three 1
upon the seed he uses. In my experience weeks the roots will be plentiful, and I
I have found a considerable difference then the cuttings may be transferred to a
in the trustworthiness of some of the thumb pots, or, if the season suits, into
most extensive seed dealers. It is the the beds. As each cutting is taken from 1
best policy for the truck farmer to save the bottle dip the roots into a little warm t
l his own seed, when possible, but our sand until each fibre is coated; this will
Southern climate is not favorable to the keep them apart and pre vent wilting. If E
quality of some home-grown seed. Thus pots are used, nearly fill them with a I
cabbages, cauliflowers, beets, carrots, a rich sandy compost and press it to the
turnips, etc., and a few others, natives of sides so as to leave room in the centre. r
cold climates, would, even the first,sea- Put the roots in gently and give the t
7 son, be inferior when produced fron plants a little twist to spread the roots, a
Southern seed; but there is no r eson or separate them with a hairpin. Then c
why the Southerner should not .use his put in more soil and press it about tke t
F own seed of cucumbers, egg plants, roots. Tight pressing is one of the
onions, melons, squashes, peppers and secrets of success in raising plants from
tomatoes, being plants indigenous to cuttings. Water the young plants well i
7 Southern climates. .- and shade them at first from the sun.
- If there be the slightest doubt in ref- Cuttings can also be started in pots of b
erence to the freshness of seed the safest sandy compost, with a glass tumbler t
course is to make a preliminary test of over them to confine the moisture and
their vitality. To test seed, I place a keep them from the sun two or three
, sample, wrapped in moist- cloth or blot- days; then place the pots in the warm-
ting paper, in the bottom of a small est window, exposed to the southeast. I
t empty flower pot, w bich is plunged in Wet sand is also good for growing cut-
the soil of a larger one ; a. third, full of tings and they will start quicker than 1
moist soil, of the size of the first is set in in compost. A shallow pan is prefera-
that upon the parcel, thus surrounding ble; fill. it up with sand (not sea sand) 9
- it with moisture. The sample can be sopping wet, then press in the cuttings
t readily examined and the percentage of tightly and keep-them wet. When new 1
sound seed easily ascertained, leaves show themselves, in two or three
Beans, peas and onion seed cannot be days transplant into pots filled with f
relied on after the first year. Cabbage light, sandy loam. After shading a day
and turnip, if carefully preserved, may or two they must have ample sunshine 1
- be used the second, and those of (e and sufficient water to keep them moist.
* cucurbitaceae up to the fourth. Exie- 'Cuttings taken from the fresh growth 1
rience teaches us that fresh seeds of. of a plant strike best. It is better to
cucumber and the other plants of that break off a branch .of geranium than
t family are apt to run more to vine,while to cut it (if it breaks easily). Cuttings
Those a year or two old will be produc- of roses, heliotrope, etc,., will grow bet-
tive. As a rule, however, it is safest to ter if taken off at the junction of the old
procure fresh seed. I and new wood, and should be cut off
Old seeds, being endowed with weaker just below a point or bud, as the roots
vitality, are used by florists to produce start from that point; and if a bud is
double-flowering plants. For this rea- not left near or close to the base, the
u son fresh tomato seed should only be cutting is liable to decay in the soil.-
f used, because the double flowers forhi Tribune and Farmer.
h ill-shapen, knobby fruit, while the single BEST TIME TO TAKE CUTTINGS.
. flowers bear the desirable round fru-t. When the cuttings are in the.best con-
SThe degree of beat necessary to start dton for rootg s the best time. This
vital action varies in different species, i t more easily to ascertain than
which is important in germinating seed is a matter more easily to ascerta than
under glass. Seeds of plants indigenous might be supposed. Inothe first place
to warm climates will require a higher the cuttings should come from a succu-
degree than those of a colder one. lent shoot, one that is rather young, but
s The most favorable temperature of the not too young. Old and tough cuttings
Y soil for the germination of seeds of root slowly and as a rule make inferior
n plants from cold climates is from 50 to plants. The place of taking off a cut-
y 55 degrees, those of green-house plants tming when it is fit for propagation is irm-s
f from .60 to 65 degrees, and those from'aportant. Examine a young growing
Sthe torrid zone from 70 to o80 degrees. Of shoot and. it may be seen that there
- all the setord sown by tfrom he truck f e are different degrees of hardness present
Sall the seed sown by the onitrukon will germinarte ae in the wood, the youngest part being
s those ofmperature, only a few egrees the softest, and from that back to where
Slowest temperature, only a few degrees t it is likely to be quite hard and fibrous.
Smabove freezing being suown in wint and t To sever the cutting at a point where it
n may therefore be sown in winter in the stoo soft, and early decay is apt to set
t :open ground. Those of the melon and tfo the s'.. ; if down in tet ogh and
, egg-plant require the highest degree of inrous par it will, i t roots all, do
a N sf rul s o so slowly; and to the making of an in-
SNo safe rule as to depth of sowing ferior plant. The right place to take it
seed can. be established, as both the soil off is at such a point back from the end
, aid the weather must be considered. where the growth is found to be some-
- During the period of germination the what hardened,but where it is still suffici-
.- latter may change from one extreme to ently brittle to snap with a clean break
Sthe other. If moderately moist weather without bending, or. without the fibres
e could be assured, the rule might be de- f the back rotrudin. A little careful
f pnded upon to cover them to the depth testing of cuttings will soon show the
o of their own thickness. Ordinarily this right place for this.-Popular Garden-
t would be much too shallow. In a light, -
s sandy soil theyshould be placed deeper i"ng. .
e than in a tenacious or loamy one. If PROPAGATING THE MACRTNEY ROSE.
, seed absorb more moisture than they This favorite hedge plant was intro-
n can decompose they rot ;. therefore wet duce. from China into England in 1795
a ground makes an improper seed bed. On by Lord Macartney, from whom it takes
o sandy soil, after a rain following a se- its popular name. We find the follow-
e vere drought merely moisteningthe sur- ing directions for its propagation in
is face, they should not be sown, for if no Home and Farm, in response to an in-
e- further-rain ensues they may perish at- quiry from a person inh Alabama:;
b- ter having germinated, the young root Success in propagating the Macartney
e- not finding enough moisture for its sup- rose by cuttings depends largely on the
>f port. -' preparation of the ground. A strip five
n With the exception of those of rad- or six feet wide along the line of pro-
posed hedge should be deeply and thor-
ughly broken and freed from roots and
rash; in other words should be prepared
ike a seed bed; cuttings of last year's
growth, well matured, and about a foot
ong, should be prepared in Februa y,
nd everything gotten ready to put them
out between the 15th and last of the
montlf. Open a wide, deep furrow
along the line of hedge, put cuttings in
sloping, so s to rest against one side of
urrow, having a care that the lower
end' of the cutting as it grew is placed
downward, then fill the furrow partly
with dirt and press the same firmly
against cuttings. This done fill up the
urrow, leaving only an inch or two of
cutting: above the surface. Keep the
ground on each side of cuttings thor-
oughly cultiv ted.
Cabbages the Year Round.
The following directions for managing
his favorite vegetable are taken from
he Southern Livestock Journal. They
apply more particularly to the central
South, where the spring opens a month
ater than in Florida:
The cabbage, brassica oleracea. is a
native of various portions of Europe, es-
)ecially the coasts of England, and in
ts wild state a biennial, with fleshy,
obed leaves, undulated at the margin
mnd covered with bloom. Differing so
entirely in form and appearance from
;he cabbage of our gardens, one would
hardly believe it possible to have been
the parent of so varied a progeny as is
row in daily use upon our tables in the
form of Brussels sprouts, cauliflower,
brocoli and the different varieties of
When the thermometer does not go
much below freezing point, this vegeta-
ble can be produced for the table very
nearly the entire year: commencing
with the first sowing early in February,
protected by cold frames they can be
transplanted 'in five weeks, bringing on
good, hard heads by the first of June.
The next sowing should be made in open
ground, about the middle of March, and
transplanted as early as practicable to
be in head by the middle of July. The
next sowing should be made anywhere
rom the middle of May to the middle
of July on bottom land well prepared,
or in beds convenient to be watered, as
sometimes the weather becomes so inten-
sely hot and to destroy plants. This sow-
ng, if transplanted as soon as plants are
eady will mature heads by freezing
weather, and can be kept here in open
ground through the entire winter, if not
unusually severe. The outer leaves,
having been killed by the cold, answers
as a shield or protection to the heads
within. Seed beds should always be
highly enriched, and for this purpose,
there is no better fertilizer than good,
well rotted stall manure. In preparing
soil for cabbage, the best preparation of
and is necessary to insure a full crop.
We would impress this fact upon your
readers; no plant so fully repays for
thorough preparation, high manuring
and good cultivation of soil as does the
cabbage. The ground most suitable for
this vegetable is a damp, sandy loam;
any soil, not too thin, can be made to pro-
duce good heads if not planted too long
n this crop without rotation.
To prepare land, pulverize deeply,
broadcast with manure, remembering
;hat you can hardly feed the cabbage
plant too much; incorporate the manure
well with the soil by a second flushing.
Stable manure, applied at the rate of
forty two-horse wagon loads to the acre,
on good land, is considered a fair man-
uring; if this cannot be had. any reli-
able ammoniated super-phospate of lime,
good Peruvian guano, or cotton seed
meal in sufficient quantity will answer
the' purpose. The specific manure for
the cabbage plant, is gaod, fine bone
The ground can now be 1 id off for
transplanting either in checks or drills;
we prefer the check system, allowing
three feet distances, as it affords the
easiest and most convenient means of-
cuitivation. If it is preferred to culti-
vate in drills, lay off rows three feet
apart, and give plants two feet distance
The ground being ready for trans-
planting, when plants have attained the
height of four inches, draw from beds,
injuring the roots as little as possible;
do not attempt to remove without first
lifting or loosening soil with a fork.
Open the furrow to receive them deep,
with a scooter; set plants out and
press dirt firmly around the roots so as
to exclude all|until new roots have been
formed, which will take place in about
two days-then hoe over, loosening the
earth around plants. Frequent and
light cultivation, such as will keep the
ground stirred, is now needed, as all
plants grown for their foliage require to
be pushed by constant starring of the
soil. The one-horse cultivator is the
best plow to use in cultivating cabbage,
To raise chufas prepare the land as for
beets or carrots, in two feet rows, ridg-
ing very slightly. Open the drills two
inches deep, and drop single nuts, one
foot apart. Keep them free from weeds
by shallow, level culture. As soon as
the shoots appear, they.will commence
throwing out fibrous in every direction,
upon which roots the tubers are formed.
These in time send up new shoots, and
thus the plant continues to grow and
spread until the crop matures. About
one bushel of seed is required to plant
an acre, and a fair yield is from 150 to
200 bushels. Few chufas are raised
north of the parallel of 860.-Country
This journal will have for its leading object
the promotion of rural industries in Florida, and
will advocate especially a more diversified and
intensive system of agriculture and greater
economy of home resources.
Assuming that the agricultural adaptations of
a large portion of Florida are as yet but imper-
fectly understood, a special aim of this journal
will be to describe the best results which have
been accomplished, with the exact methods em-
ployed. and all influences affecting such results;
also to suggest experiment, describe new or little
known crops, fruits, etc., and record the progress
of agriculture in neighboring States.
Commencing with the first number and con-
tinuing through the season for
There will be a series of articles on fruits-other
than those of tho citrus group-which have
proved most successful in this State. Each va-
riety will be described and
And there will be notes from persons who have
had experience in its cultivation. This will be
followed by a similar series on
And other subjects will be illustrated to a limited
Much attention will be devoted to
And to the home production of forage and fertili-.
zers, two economies which are essential to suc-
Questions relative to ailments of domestic
animals will be answered by an able veterinary
surgeon who formerly edited a like department
Turf, Field and Farm.
A due amount of space will be devoted to
household economy and to reports of the mar.
kets, and the departments of
will be contributed to by persons who have made
specialties of those branches.
All portions of the State will receive a due
amount of attention, and their interests will be
represented by able correspondents.
Under no circumstances will this journal be.
come the "organ" of any association or locality;
it will start out untrammelled and will repre.
sent all sections and interests with absolute im.
Published at Jacksonville on Wednesday
of each week.
PRICE OF SUBSCRIPTION:
One Year $200
Six Months 1 00
Three Months so
SPECIMEN COPIES FEEE.
Address subscriptions and other business com,
C. H. JONES & BRO.,
Communications for the editorial department
should be addressed to
A. 1I. CURTISS, Editor,
DEVOTED TO THE
A LBERT PRIES
l ST. NICHOLAS, FLODIDA,
Agent for GEORGE W. BAKER'S
Rotted Bone Manure,
DECOMPOSED WITH POTASH.
Price $25 per ton free on board In Jacksonville
Bone Flour, for cattle and poultry, $43.00
Ground Bone Manure, 1st quality. 86.00
". ". 2d, ." 82.00
Ammonlated Phosphate, 82.00
Budded Orange Trees and Texas Un-
brella Trees, from 25 cents to $1.00 each.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, FEBRUARY 2, 1887.
FORAGE CROPS FOR FLORIDA
The Sorghums--Their Origin
and Adaptation to Florida.
BY J. G. K.
The sorghums constitute a species o
tell grasses with succulent stems, native
of tropical India, and derive the name
from a naive language of that country
where it is grown in quantities for food
Persoon named it Sorghum vulgare (corn
mon sorghum), Limens,Holcus sorghum
and Roxbury, named it Andropogoi
sorghum (bearded sorghum), from the
The common English names for the
non-saccharine varieties are doura, o;
durra, great millet, Turkish millet, gui
nea corn, and broom corn. These sor
ghums are the most important dry grail
plants of tropical countries, and are con
sumed wherever they flourish by boti
men and all domestic animals. Somi
of the varieties have been known to
Southern Europe and Egypt since thi
days of Pliny, who speaks of it.
Three varieties of this family ar
growing indigenously in Florida, upon
the ridge of the pine barrens, and ar
known as "wild oats." All these ar
eaten by stock; but as they grow in
chumps mixed with other tall, coarse
grasses, they afford scant pasturage
From growing where they are found
the inference may be drawn that the
same lands may be made to produce bet
ter varieties of the same family.
THE JOHNSON GRASS.
The seed of this (Sorghum Halapense
-was received many years ago by Gov
Means, of South Carolina, from the con
sul in Egypt, as a very excellent fodder
grass in that country. It went by the
name of the Governor Means grass, and
acquired considerable reputation on ac-
count of the amount of fodder whict
was cut from itf; but it soon fell itito dis-
repute on account of the difficulty ol
eradicating it from land in which it was
fairly set. It was subsequently taker
up by Col. Johnson, and under his name
has been spread into various portions ol
Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Ar-
In Florida it may be cut-four tines a
year, and yield a ton of course but nu-
tritious hay for each cutting. But, owing
to its habits of spreading by under-
ground roots, the difficulty of eradicat-
ing them, and-the course quality of the
hay, it cannot be recommended for ex-
tensive cultivation in competition with
the other members of the family, which
are within our reach from the tropical
. regions of India.-*
These are saccharine and non-saccha-
rine. They grow with solid succulent
stems jointed, with eyes at the axils of
the leaves clasping, long and broad as
corn leaves; bearing their seeds upon
.the ramifications of open or compact
panacles; seeds rich in starch and albu-
minolds, affording nutritious food for
man and beast; both leaves and stalks
are greedily eaten by all domestic afi-
mals when green, and the dry stalks
chopped fine and -mealed with the
ground grains, is preferable to the best
hays.of the Northern States, and yield
many times the amount.
I The saccharine sorghums were first in-
troduced into the United States from
China between 1845 and 1850, and seeds
distributed by the Agricultural Depart-
ment under the name of "Chinese Sugar
Cane." Seeds of other varieties were
also introduced from Africa. At first
these did not ripen their seeds under 120
days from planting; but-these varie-
ties riixed and there woa a ten lency to
earlier maturity, and a, break ng into
new varieties, until sorghum is grown
as far north as corn.
The early attempts to obtain molasses
from these were not attended with suc-
cess, by reason of working- the cane in
an immature state, and the difficulty of
purifying the juice of distasteful qual-
ities. By allowing the seed to mature,
it was discovered that the juice was im-
proved and the seeds formed excel-
lent food for fowls, and when ground,
made an excellent meal for mixing with
cut fodder for stock, and not unpalata-
ble as human food, thus giving an ad-
ditional value to the crop.
The leaves are as easily cured as are
corn blades, yield several times as much
weight, and the stalks, when properly
prepared and green, are greedily eaten
by horses, cattle and hogs; but owing to
the juicy character of these stalks, they
are cured with| difficulty, except in the
gilo. The outer shells of the matured
stalks are nearly as hard as sugar cane
and masticated with diffliculy. The
seeds of all the saccharine sorghums are
colored, so that meal and flour made
from them, though palatable, is dark
In FloridaAthese varieties make small
stalks, except upon well manured soils,
so that although these varieties might be
grown for cutting before the stalk be-
comes hard, and fed green, they can-
not be recommended to take the place
of the true sugar cane as sugar crops.
THE NON-SACOHARINE SORGHUMS.
These varieties of the Sorghum vulgare
are best adapted in every way to the
climatic conditions and soils of Florida,
and Irequire an extended and careful
consideration. Their varieties have been
cultivated from time immemorial for
their grain, in the same region as the
rice, and in contra-distinction to that
crop known as a wet crop became cul-
tivated by irrigation Sorghum is known
as. a dry crop, because it is watered only
by the rains. Whether the location of
growth be amid the rice fields along the
great rivers of Southern India, or the
wheat fields of the upper provinces, sor-
ghum is always planted upon the sandy
ridges and dry land&, at the time of the
Monsoons, and is never irrigated during
seasons of the most severe droughts.
SNo other grain-producing plant is so
well adapted to all the vicisitudes of hot
and tropical climates, as these non-
saccharine sorghums. They thriv
throughout the extreme southern an.
most tropical regions of India, yielding,
more grain than rice, where India:
. wheat and the cereal grains of Europ
will not grow, and there supply mil
n lions of people with their bread, and
even where wheat is grown in India
more sorghum grain is eaten by th
people than wheat. So extensive is th
cultivation that their grain exceeds th
f products of the wheat and rice of th
s same country; and yet the yearly ex
ports of wheat is 1,500,000 tons, or 56,
' 000,000 bushels, and the exports of ric
Sis 67,200,000 tons. Of the 191,000,00
inhabitants of India, about 70 pdr cent.
or 133,700 000 of them, subsist on millet
n for their bread.
e These millets are well adapted to Flor
ida. The climatic conditions of Florida
e correspond more nearly with those o:
r India than with any other region. Thb
northern and mountainous regions o
India may correspond favorably with
n Southern Georgia and Alabama, the cen
- tral portions with Northwestern Florida
h and southern India and southern Flor
e ida agree. From this the inference rra'
o be safely drawn that the plants will also
e possess a similarity. On this point we
are noftleft to conjecture. Those plants
that have reached Florida, both directly
e and through other regions, have thrived
n as well as in the sandy ridgesand valleys
e of the Ganges and the Burmapatra, not
e withstanding Florida is free from the
a debilitating effects and miasmatic in
e fluences of those valleys.
There being, then, good reason to be
I lieve these sorghums will not prove an
e exception, but, on the contrary, where
- er they have been tried, unexpected suc
cess has attended the experiments. Al
doubts should vanish and the cultivation
may be entered upon by our farmers
) with perfect confidence upon any soils
on which corn may be grown.
In our next chapter the varieties like-
r ly to give the best yields will be con-
- SORGHUM SUGAR.
f Results of Experiments with
the Diffusion Process.
2 For some years past elaborate experi-
e ments have been in progress, under di-
f rcetion of the Department of Agricul-
. ture, with a new process for extracting
. thejuice of sorghum, the same method
being applicable to cane and beets. By
the old method of pressing not more
-than 80 per cent. was obtainable, and
often half of it was lost. By the new
method of "diffusion," which consists in
soaking out the saccharine matter, it is
claimed that from 90 to 95 per cent. of all
* thejuic can be extracted, and that in
i superior condition for conversion into
I By this process it is claimed that sugar
can be made more cheaply than from
cane and of equally good quality. Prof.
P. Collier, of the experimental works at
Fort -Scott, Kansas, recently appeared
before the Board of Trade of New Or-
leans and made a statement of the pres-
ent prospects of sorghum sugar manu-
facture. The following report of his re-
marks is from the Times-Democrat:
The professor said that sugar could be
made of sorghum at a cost of not more
than a cent a pound. It was a mistake
that the inhabitants of India lived most-
ly on rice. It is principally on sorghum
seed.. He had in his possession 250 vari-
eties, and could no doubt obtain 500. He
had made over 600 analyses of over
seventy-five varieties of sorghum, and
there were few sciences based on more
Sorghum could be grown wherever
corn could. It required the same condi-
tions of climate and soil, with the excep-
tion that sorghum could be raised where
long drouths prevailed that would kill
corn. All the varieties were equal in
their'amount of sugar if they are ripe.The
variety called Link's hibrid matured in
eighty-five days; another variety called
early amber, required 100 days; another
variety took 140, and others that could
not be grown in this climate required
180. The amount of sugar that could be
obtained was 150 pounds to the ton of
cane. The production of seed was about
7,000 bushels of seed on 250 acres. Sor-
ghum seed could be used for every pur-
pose that corn is used for. Glucose had
been made from it and it was sweeter
than corn glucose. In some places it
was used to feed hogs.
It took about $5 an acre, all expenses
included, to get the cane ready for the
miller. We could grow a crop of sor-
ghum for one-tenth what it cost to grow
an acre of Louisiana sugar cane. In ad-
dition, there was the seed, which more
than paid for all expenses with the sor-
ghum. And after the seed had matured
,the stalks contained an amount of sugar
fully as great as was present in the
best Louisiana cane. October 10, he an-
alyzed an armful of cane at.-Fort Scott
and found it contained 13.75 per cent. of
sugar. October 13 a load of cane not
thoroughly ripe contained 13.07 per cent.
That crop had about a month to grow yet.
The highest percentage of. sugar in Lou-
isiana cane was 11.95, the average being
11.03. The sorghum was found to con-
tain an average of 267 pounds of sugar
per ton, of which 204 pounds were avail-
able, and Louisiana cane contained 213
pounds, of which 163 pounds were avail-
able, and the sorghum juice available
was richer than that of the cane.
The experiments were conclusive that it
could be, by methods that were prac-
tically identical with those used in ob-
taining the juice of the sugar cane. As
the result of ninety-two experimental
analyses of sorghum and fifty-eight of
sugar cane, it was found that in sorghum
the coefficient of purity, which was as
essential in the manufacture as the pres-
ence of sugar itself, was six degrees
higher in the syrup than in the juice as
originally contained in the plant, .where-
as in the case of sugar cane it was five
degrees less in the syrup than in the
juice they were made from. It was evi-
dent, therefore, that there was no trouble,
if properly manipulated, in obtaining
the sugar present as easily as out of sugar
cane. The sorghum syrups after stand-
ing twenty-four hours would become
solid with crystalized sugar, showing
the large excess of sugar over water. An
acre would yield a crop of eighteen to
twenty tons of sugar cane and twelve to
purteen tons of sorghum, but there was
more sugar in a ton of sorghum cane
than in a ton of sugar cane. The sweet-
e ening qualities of sugar once obtained rate of eight hundred pounds per ac
d were identical, which bed on to with turning sho
g The reason that some of the enter- and let it remain until ready to pla
n prises in manufacturing sorghum sugar when smooth off the top of the beds w
e had not been a financial success was that a steel rake, and set the plants eight
the men had to learn, andwere ignorant inches apart.
of many thingcA which science could
d have told them. At Fort Scott they As soon as they begin to grow off
", were now getting 100 pounds of sugar before the vines get in the way, run
e and ten to twelve gallons of molasses time in the water furrow with the bli
e from every ton of cane. The cost of shovel, and follow with the hoes, dr!
e manufacturing sorghum sugar is identi- ing up the earth around the plan
e cal with that of sugar cane. If they got forming a rounding ridge, rather flat
c- thirty pounds out of a ton they could top. The vines will now soon cover
. compete withLouisiana sugar cane and ground, and need no more attent
e sell it at 31 cents a pound. Now they until gathering time.
0 are g-tting not thirty but 100 pounds, re- Continue to prepare the land and
during the cost to nearly 1 cent, and out as you have the plants (using vi
they could, after a little more experi- instead of plants as soon as you can
o ence, get 160 pounds at least out of a ton. istead ohpuntsas whoon sfini hew
As for the cost of starting a mill, he em), until the whole is finished wh
- would put it at $250,000, including about should be done by the middle of July
a 3,00O acres of land and the building and possible.
I machinery. The refuse in the shape of With ordinary seasons the yield sho
e the exhausted stalks could be used for be not less than two hundred bushels
f paper pulp and made an excellent qual- marketable potatoes ahd fifty bushels
h it yof pulp. It might also be used for smaller ones, which are valuable f'
- fuel. for all kinds of stock through
H, ""s winter, more especially for milch co'
7- How to Raise OatS. The crop should be housed as soon
y EY W. P. HORNE. ripe, and if before frost, so much
In my boyhood days,.hen any of the better, as Ihe vines are then more
e old farmers would make agoodcrop f able for turning under to rot. W
s anything-corn, cotton or potatoes-it sharp steel hoes they should be clipi
Swas a common saying ng the people from the top of the ridge and pac
that such a farmer had mad e more pota- down in tlie water furrows between
s toes than Carter had oats. I ofteilasked rows, where they should be buried
" how many oats did Carter make, aid of the way by running a turning sho
e how one seemed to know. but after on each side, thus adding to the soil t
- awhile a man by the name of Bragg and tons of green manure, which, wi
told me that he had made more oats than rotted, will afford a large amount
- jould lie on the ground where they grew. pabthlum for future crops
Hearing it so often in my young days it. The nextyear plant potatoes aga
- became so impressed on my mind, that I using the same amount of cotton s
commenced to try and see how many I meal scattered in shallow furrows it
Scouldraise. mediately over the buried vines. Th
S By this time, which was a few years crop should be better than the fir
s ago, I had got to believe that I could Under similar conditions I have gather
s make as muchiout of old Mother Earth four hundred bushels to the acre, b
as Mr. Carter or anybody else. I had the season was good. In harvesting p
been gardening for the northern mar- and bury the vines in the water f urr
Sketsseveral years, and hadlearned how to as before.
make two sprigs of grass where one grew The stumps should now be remove
before So I went at it on the intensive They have been allowed to remain so:
plan, made my sand ery rich and plant- because they were not much in the w
ed a patch in rows the same way that I in the simple cultivation of the potato
dIand also that the sappy portion mi
planted garden peas and cultivated them and also that the sappy portion my
by plowing them once. I soon saw that have time to decay, leaving only
- cultivating the oat was what they need- Theart to cut off t ey a t
ed to make them yield a good crop. I the ousimplest and the easy way tohi
made the best.oats that had ever seen them ot is to remove the eart fro
grow in Florida and have been planting one side to a depth of two feet and su
them in rows ever since. ciently large to handle an axe ci
November used to be considered the veniently standing in the bottom.
best month to sow them, but my experi- Cut them off eighteen inches bel
ence has been that January is the best the surface. When cut off roll them 6
month as I have never made a failure in and fill up the hole. But before fill
raising a good crop when planted in this gather all the trash and litter, ba:
month. When planted in the fall they chips, roots, etc., and even small stum
. come up annc stand still (as it were) all and put them in the bottom. This-
) winter, without growing much, and in convert it into a sort of under-dra
cokI weather often get killed, but when The stumps may be put into small her
r planted in January we rarely have any and burned.
weather in February to hurt them, and The land, free from all impedimen
by manuring them well in the rows they allows the use of improved farm imp
grow off without any back-set or cold to ments, by means of which much mi
hurt them. and much better work can be done.
I broke up the land deep with a turn. The next crop I plant in the renova
plow, then run off the rows deep with angprocess is oats, which in this a
six-inch shovel plow three feet apart, tud. tnNo ally succeeds best sowed
Then I scatter cart loads of stable ma- November, though it may be done in t
nure to the acre, or one thousand pounds spring.
of crushed cotton seed does well, cover Put in a bushel and a half to the ac
the manure with a turn plow, running and, be sure it is some rust-proof v
four furrows, which will plow out the riety. -Before sowing prepare the la
middles and make a bed on and over the thoroughly with a disk harrow; whi
manured roev. Open the bed with a will not drag up the buried potato vin.
four-inch scooter plow over the ncanure. but rather compact them. It is also t
Drill the oats in this furrow at the rate best thing to cover your oats with.
of a bushelper acre, cover theoats with tivate the young cropoof growing
a cotton, board, the same as we use for with the Thomas Smoothing Har,
cotton which will drag off and smooth two or three times before the oats ba
down the bed, leaving a smooth clean to boot
bed for the oats to come up on. At the last arrows sow seeds
When the oats get up about six inches ahenMexican clover (Richardia sca
high run close around them with the After the oats are harvested the cloV
four-inch scooter plow, just so as not to will take the ground. As soon as it h
cover them up. Scatter at the rate of matured its seeds turn the clover and c<
five hundred pounds of some good fertil- stubble completely under, beginning
izer or cotton seed meal in the furrows the outside and winding up with o
on each side. Plow the middles of the water furrow in the centre. I fin
row out with a small cotton sweep, cov- Mikles'wo- orse sulky plow an exc
ering the fertilizer well. This is all the lent tool-for turning under green crot
work that is necessary fro" them. The ngxt season I plant Irish potatoE
Then, brother farmer, just take your fetilizing well. This crop is harvest
horse and plows out of thai oat field and by the last of May, after which the Ia
go around and ask all your friends and is leveled and pulverized with the di
acquaintances, just to come up and see harrow.
what old Mother Earth is going to do for The clover, which is self-seeding. nc
you. Now if the old lady don't smile comes forward beautifully, and shou
and put on the prettiest green dress she be turned- under as soon as it is a fco
has then I am badly mistaken. And high. Begin on the outside and fini
when you get that patch of oats cut you up in the middle. Within a month or s
will say that some one else can make weeks turn under again, beginning ti
GLEN ST. MAtRY, Baker county, Fla.- with a furrow all around the outside
G S A Turn under the last crop just befo
frost, running each time a little deep
RECLAIMING PINE LANDS. than before.
-- This completes my process of convert
Bringing the Soil to a High ingthe thinpine lands of this count:
State of Fertility. into a soft, mellow soil, abounding
dunthe necessary mineral elements and rn
BY J. V. DANSCY. in humus, which has been supplied 1
Our pine land is now in good order for the decay of the large amount of ve
the first crop, which may be melons, etoble matter turned under, and whit
cucumbers, Irish or sweet potatoes. will by proper management and cull
Either one of the above, by suitable for- nation produce abundantly all crop
tilizifig, would do well. Our object be- suited to this climate.
ing to plant such a crop as will not only NEW. FA near Pensacuola, Fla.
be profitable itself, and at the same time *
assist in making a soil suitable for alr A-bout Seed Corn
crops, I find in this section -the sweet
potato to fulfill the requirements best. One of the most successful corn raise
Of the various kinds of sweet potatoes I of Tennessee is credited with sayin,
prefer what is called.the Southern yam in sutistance, that seed corn ought to
It was procured by planting in alternate raised on rather thin land without t
rows the old Georgia yam and the assistance of Jny kind of stimulating
Hayti, and allowing them to mix in the manure. His theory is (having prove
foliage, and manner of growth, is like perience) that seed grown on such lan
the Hayti, while the tubers are very when planted in rich soil, will insure b
much like the yam, and about as palata- far a larger yield than seed from rich soi
ble. It is a heavy cropper and keeps planted on rich soil again. -He dose ni
finely. explain the philosophy or sceince which
With its large leaves and vigorous brings about such aresult, being contec
growth it not only shades the ground to accept the proof of substanti
during the summer heats, but supplies a experience.
vast amount of material which at gath- *
ering time may be buried in the earth to Geo. E. Snow, Esq., of East Laku
rot, thus supplying that indispensable says: "That he is better satisfied wit
something to the soilcalled humus. Williams 'Clark & Co's Orange Tre
Ten days before the plants are ready, Fertilizer thanany he has used in eigh
which in this latitude is about the mid- years' experience with orange tree ferti]
four feet apart, running shallow with a ,zers.
blunt eight-inch shovel. Open up as Groves where Williams, Clark & Co'
many rows as will be needed for the .Orange Tree Fertilizer has been used ar
fiumber of plants on hand. Into these looking finely.
furrows scatter cotton seed meal at the WILLIAMS, CIARK & CO.
Winter Homes I
ORIOLE, HERNANDO COUNTY.
Beautiful location, facing on Lake Oriole and on the South Florida Railroad.
Lands all high and dry. New settlement; between twenty-five and thirty new houses.
A Church, School, daily mails, stores, bakery, saw mill and hotel. Large area already planted
in orange groves. Choice building lots for winter homes for sale cheap. Ten, twenty and
forty acre orange grove lots. A healthy settlement in a healthy State.
Call on or Address,
J. W. GROVES, or W. B. CLARKSON,
Oriole, Florida. Jacksonville, Florida.
F. P. CHAMBERLAIN. *
A. W. CUSCADEN.
ld SOUTTTI- FLORJIJDA.
S-Real. Estate Agency,
u11 TAMPA, FLORIDA. Office: Twiggs St., two blocks east of Passenger depot.
)re VALRICO NURSERIES.
Tropical and Subtropical.
rt- Oranges, Pomegranates, Figs, Peaches, Grapes, Pears, Pecans, Oriental Plums and Persim-
ry mns, Limes, i emons. Guavas, Bananas, Pineapples, Avocado Pears, Anona, Acacia, Nerium,
in Caladium, Poinciaua, Palms, etc.
W. G. lTOUSEY,
Seffner, Hillsboroagh Co.,'Fla.
TJ. O'O. 3BL3OTTITT,
=F.'I A T. EiSTA'TE BEI.OEESFI.,
Orange Groves, Town Lots in Bartow, Winter Haven, Haskell, Punta Gorda and Charlotte
Harbor, for Sale. Unimproved Lands, in small and large tracts, at $2.50 per acre, up. Choice ten
and forty acre tracts of good, high. rolling Pine Lands, near S. F. R. R. depot, at $20 to $85 per
acre. All property guaranteed to be as represented or money refunded.
V Money Loans, well secured, negotiated at 15 per cent, net, to the lender.
;g NEW YORK & FLORIDA STEAMSHIP LINE.'
e TRI-WEEKLY SERVICE BETWEEN
i, NEW YORK, FERNANDINA AND JACKSONVILLE-,
.l, Steamers are appointed to sail from Pier 29, E. R., N. Y., every Tuesday, Thursday
ot and Saturda at p. m.
,h FROM JACKSONVILLE-CHEROKEE (new), and EMINOLE (new), every FRIDAY.
FROM FERNANDINA-DELAWARE and VXMASSEE every MONDAY, p.m., GIT'
ut OF ATLANTA and CITY OF COLUMBIA, every WEDNESDAY p.m.
al The Freight and Passenger Accommodations by this Line are unsurpassed by any ships in
the coastwise service. For further information, apply to
CLARENCE WAGNER, Agt., J. A. LESLIE, Agt.
Fernandina, Fla., Jacksonville, Fla., S. W. cor. Bay an Hogan.
e, T O. EGER, Traffic Manager, WM. P CLYDE & CO.,
h s5 Broadway, N.Y. General Agents, 85 Broadway, N. Y.
e T flI size 40xI100 IP AFT W on Lake Kingsley, Clay Co., only 68. A
it I '0 8 feet in LA5v Ia, 5~W choice 5-acre tract for an. ORANGE
High rolling Pine Lands, Salubrious Climate, a good invest-
ment. Send 2-cent stamp for Maps, etc., or remit P. 0. Order or | || |||
Bank Drat to JOHN T. TALBOTT, and get Warranty Deed, Title FLOR IDA
'S perfect, from the
e TIOXPIOCAL LAnITD COOVIPAW'aY,
P. O. Box 158, Jacksonvile, Florida, 89 W. Bay St.
cre, @ Don't Fail to visit Brooksville, Hernando Co., before you settle or.
ent, invest elsewhere.
een THE HERNANDO '
,a- REAL ESTATE AGENCY
ionu -OFFER FOR SALE-
Improved and Unimproved Town Lots, Orange Groves, young or in
bearing, Truck or General Farming Lands, High or Low :
Hammock Lands, and every grade of Pine.
Pay Taxes for. Non-Residents, Manage Property and Collect Rents, and.
do a large business in Loans.
There being no Usury Law in the .State of Florida,' ioto
15 per cent. on unquestionable security can be obtained both,
on Town and Farm Property.
B.R 0 AKS VIL LE
Situated on a hill, altitude 328 ft., only sixteen miles from' the Gulf of Mexico,
is properly called
"THE HILL CITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA."
The County seat, with a stirring population of about 1,000. Fourteen well
stocked .Stores, Two Newspapers, Railroad and Telegraphic communication,
Churches and Schools, and numerous residences, surrounded by beautiful old;
bearing Orange Groves, presents to the Tourist, Settler or Investor, the most-at-
tractive Town in Florida. Among these hills are to be found the largest and
most fertile bodies of Hammock Land in the State,. heavily timbered with giant
Oaks, Hickory, Bay, Magnolia and other hard woods. No County in the State
offers so many advantages in general farming, or yields such heavy crops of Rye,,
Oats, Corn, Cotton, Potatoes, Sugar Cane, Rice, etc. -
Early Vegetables for the Northern Markets are grown with more certainty.
and greater perfection, without fertilizers,, than in 'iny section of'the State.
Special attention is called to the
A Great Bargain for a Capitalist or a Stock Company.
This property is situated on the Withlacoochee River, and contains 320 acres
of the best orange land, about one-third of it being hammock. The river, one of
the most beautiful in the state, abounding with. fish, forms its western boundary
for one mile, and connects it by steamers with the Gulf, and with the F. R. &
N. Co's road at Panasoffkee, and with the F. S. Railway at Penmberton's Ferry,
from which it is distant only about five miles. "River and railroad'transportati6n
competing lines. .
There are 120 acres cleared, under fence and in cultivation. There are 100'
acres in solid grove. 600 old bearing trees, some of them being from 20 to 30-
years old. 5000 trees from 6 to 8 years, which have been well cared for, and will
all be in bearing very soon, many of them bore this year. Three-fourths of these-
trees are budded from the finest varieties, and the rest are sweet seedlings grown.
from carefully selected seed. Valuable nurseries on the place containing about
20,000 trees from two to four years old. There is also a natural or wild grove on
this property, containing hundreds of thousands of budded trees and seedlings,
from two to six years old, situated in a cove where they are protected on the.
north, east and west by woods and by the waters of the river and a beautiful lake.
The other improvements consist of a plain dwelling 6f six rooms, cistern,
outhouses, stables, etc. There is a splendid boat landing and wharf already
built. The bluff above the landing commands a beautiful view of the river, the-
neighboring lakes and the hundred acres in orange trees. No prettier sites for
winter homes on the Peninsula.- The property being susceptible of division, w
be sold as a whole or in smaller parts. For the whole, if sold the pre season,
we will take I -
One-half cash, the balance on time to suit purchaser. What do experienced
orange growers, and they are the proper judges, think of such a price for such a
property? The 600 old trees are worth the money. The 5,000 young trees in
grove form are worth it. The seedlings in the wild grove and nursery are worth
it. The land itself, located as it is, is worth at least one-third of it.
L. Y. JENNESS. J. C. PRESTON.,
The Florida Farmer and Fruit Grower
A. H. CURTISS, Editor.
C. H. JONES & BROTHER, PUBLISHERS.
Office Cor. Bay and Laura Sts.
THE 'FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER is an eight page 48 column illlustra
ted weekly newspaper, devoted to the Farm,
Garden, Orchard and Household Economy,
and to the promotion of the agricultural and
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C. H. JONES & BRO.,
ABLE OF CONTENTS.
FIRST PAGE-Viticulture; Soil and Location for
Vineyards; The Most Popular American
Grape, (Illustrated); Prof. Dubois on the Con-
lord; Baron von Luttichau's Opinion; Budding
on Wild PlumStocks; More About the Persim-
mon; Laying off an Orchard, (Illustrated);
Hints on Transplanting.
SECONI PAeE-Keeping Oranges; The Straw-
berry Crop; Sumlower Culture; Garden Seeds;
Management of Cuttings; Cabbages the Year
THIRD PAGE--Forage Crops for Florida; Sor-
ghum Sugar;.How to Raise Oats; Reclaiming
Pine Lands; About Seed Corn.
FOURTH PAGE-Missing Numbers; Distribution
of Cttings; The California Fever; Inquiries
Answered; Aspects of Fig Culture; State and
Agricultural Convention; Inter-State Agri-
cultural Convention; CautiO6 to Orange Ship-
pers; Orange Market in January; Two Weeks
of Progress; Hints to Writers.
FIFTH PAGE-Our Home Circle (edited by Helen
Harcourt); Celebration of Arbor Day, etc.
SIXTH PASGE-Veterinary: A Lame Ankle, Fa-
tality Among Mares, Stomach Staggers, A
Weak Calf; Improved Cattle Breeding; Expe-
rience with Poultry; Ailments and Remedies;
New Breeds of Poultry; A Doctor's Advice;
How Our Paper is Regarded.
-SEVENTHr PAGE-Root Cutter, (lUustlrated);
Coring Hams; Adam's Needle,, (llutrated);
Reclaiming Waste Lands; Sheep in a Yard;
New Geranium (blustrated); Serial Story, by,
S. Baring Gould.
Reports of bhe CoIton, Tobacco and Orange_
arkets,,.and the Jackonrille Wbolesale and
Having received complaints from ser-
eral parties of the non-receipt of papers
fdue them, we would say that the FARM-
ER AND FRUIT-GROWER has been issued
regularly on the stated days of publiea-
tion and has been mailed with equal
It is possible, however, and indeed
probable, that some irregularities have
occurred in the matter of mailing. With
a rapidly increasing subscription list and
with the multitude of other details which
pertain to a large publication office a lit-
tle time is needed to get everything sys-
tematized, but we hope by this time all
are receiving their papers promptly.
Any irregularities which may occur
hereafter should be reported to the pub-
lishers who will spare no effort to rectify
DISTRIBUTION OF CUTTINGS
The first' issue of the FARMER AND
FRUIT- GROWER contained an account of
the discovery in Florida of the Caribbean
grape, and an offer of a dozen cuttings
of the same to be sent by mail "to any
one residing in Florida who is skilled in
the propagation of the grape." Know-
ing of but one vine we felt that we must
put some limitation on the offer, there
being a decided limitation to the capac-
ity of a single vine.
Although we thus restricted the dis-
tribution to one State and to skilled hor-
ticulturists, there have been nearlysixty
applications, all of which have been duly
placed on file. It appears that we un-
derestimated the horticultural skill ex-
isting in Florida, and we are only too
willing to acknowledge our error. But,
much as said horticultural skill may
have grown in our estimation, said
grape-vihe has refused to develop so
much as a single extra bud, being appar-
ently quite oblivious of the high mission
to which it was born. Plants did not
behave so in the good old times described
in mythology-they' had some sense in
those days! '
But to return to the subject in hand,
or rather to the subject which, we are
happy to say, is off our hands-for we
had some apprehension lest some modern
G. W. should come along with his hatch
and with one wanton stroke bligl
our brightest hope and bring our pron
ises to naught. But no such mischance
has intervened, and we feel well sati
. fled to have secured fifty dozen cutting
of last year's growth, and to have fo]
warded them by mail to that number o
To secure these cuttings and put the,
up for mailing we employed a perso
more skilled in such operations than w
profess to be, and we believe he ha
sent out none but good healthy eye
o which, being put up fresh from the vin
in damp sphagnum, and wrapped wit
oiled paper, ought to reach their destiny
tions in prime order.
And now we rest content, fee
ing assured that the cuttings are g(
ing to persons who know what to expec
and how to treat these little sticks. Unde
other circumstances we would not doub
that some would expect to receive man
tel ornaments, and that others wouli
plant the things like Irish potatoes o
graft them with the leaf scar above th
eye. But to the class who will receive
them we need only observe that the cut
tings are not, in quantity and size, wha
they would have been if we had had
dozen vines to select from. Yet wha
we have sent in skillful hands will pro
duce a thousand vines.
We have not been able to supply a]
applicants, but have sent to every post
office from which applications were re
ceived. In the subjoined list we hav
given the initials of all in each count:
who have been supplied. Anyone wh
finds his initials here and does not re
ceive his dozen cuttings within the press
ent week will please notify us of suc]
failure. Before the end of the year w
hope to hear from all relative to the re
sults of their experiments.
Alachua--J. C. N., 'F. E.
Baker-G. L. T.
Bradford-M. D. R., E. N. P., C. C.
Brevard-F. H. B., G. W. I.
Duval-D. R., J. F. I. T. C, C H. H
Escambia-J. v -.
Hillsborough-J. T. H., S. P., F. H.
M. L. S., J. G. K., A. L. D., E. H. W.
Manatee-P. W. R., J. L.
Marion-J. M., W. E. C., T. W. M.
' Monroe-C. E. R.
* Orange-A. E. C., A. P. B.
Polk-C. J. C., C. B., R. 0. W., R. H.
B., J. M. V., I. B. Y.
Putnam-A. F. B., E. R.
St. Johns-W. C. S.
Sumter-G. G. B., J. H., R. F. S., G.
A. T., J. N. W.
Suwasnee-J. B., W. W C.
Volusia-C.,H. M., A. L. M., J. C. S.,
R. M.T. ,
THE CALIFORNIA FEVER.
The American mind is notoriously
restless and unsatisfied with present
things. In consequence of this quality
it is peculiarly subject to a temporary
malady variously termed a fever, a
craze, or a furore. This malady is con-
tagious in its-nature, usually of brief du-
ratipn and varies much in the violence
of its manifestations.
These paroxysms of public sentiment
have occurred all through the nation's
life, appearing in its history abruptly
and sometimes with momentous results,
like the rapids and abrupt curves that are
met with in the course of a river. With-
out referring to other examples we will
cite that of the California "gold fever"
which broke out iu 1849, and raged for
several years. Gold had been found in
California. Some said that- the California
streams flowed over beds of golden sand.
The impecunious were only too willing
to believe to be true what they wished
to be true, namely, that there was a bag
of gold in California for everyone who
had the hardihood to go and get it.
The result was that thousands of men
left their families and for one or more
years deprived themselves of the com-
forts of home and the privileges of civil-
ized life. They incurred the hardships
and hazards of a mode of life little better
than that of a savage, while their fam-
ilies at home were left a prey to constant
anxiety. Many of them met with vio-
lent death, many were demoralized, and
it is probable that their pecuniary gains
did not aggregate more than could have
been earned by equal exertion at home.
The "gold fever" had its run, just as
the dengue and other fevers have
bheir run. It is remembered only by
persons pretty well advanced in life. And
now we hear that a second California
fever has broken out, and that everyone
who takes it-and it is said to be very
catching-is seized with an impulse to
rush to Los Angeles, which in plain
English means The Angels. One surely
might goto a worse .place, still, if all re-
ports be true, we prefer those partic ular
Angels to be some .thousands of miles
Of course we have not taken ths ifever.
rn If we had, we should probably be a
et Los Angeles now, and while thus affected
it w\e would undoubtedly admire the pecu
i- liar system of water supply and the cli
ce matic eccentricities of that region, an
s- we would feast on frozen oranges, an
gs enjoy spring frosts and earthquakes a
r- the year round. But after the fever ha
of abated we might find ourself stranded
so to speak, without enough of the avai
m able to bring us back to Florida.
n One idea that is diverting thousand
7e from Florida this winter and turning
Is their course toward California, is this
es The report has been sent out by parties
e, interested in Californian hotels an
h lands that the climate of the Los An
a- geles region is superior to that of Florid
for consumptives. It has been found
1- that persons who come here in the las
o- stages of tubercular consumption do no
-t have their lease of life materially ex
3r tended. Some die immediately afte
it returning from Florida, and some actu
- tually die in Florida.
d So it has conre to be pretty general;
r known that Florida cannot save incur
e ables, and now the Northern doctors
e rather than combat this idea, havi
t- adopted a more plausible pretext for get
.t ting rid of their bad cases by sending th
a incurables to California. Florida ha
it been weighed in the balance, and now
- California is being weighed. We havi
no apprehensions as to the result. South
l ern California may be riding the crest o
t- the wave just now, as Florida has doni
- before. When these popular wave
e break, many are engulfed an
y ruined, but for the people as
o whole, for the State, it is best that
- the waters should find their normal level
-- as they must do everywhere.. The tim
h of a "boom" is not the time of most sub.
e stantial prosperity. It is of brief dura
3- tion necessarily, and if a section must
have its boom, it is well when it has
cone and gone. Then people ;have tc
adopt the "slow and sure'l methods
which are the only permanently safe
PRICKLY COMFREY, .
, SUBSCRIBER asks: "Doesthe Prickly
comfrey grow in the sandy soil of Flor-
ida?", We think it has never been tried
in this State and that its -cultivation
would not prove satisfactory. It has to
be propagated from cuttings of the root.
SUBSCRIBER also inquires: "Is the salt
in kainit injurious to frui% tree,% -especi-
ally the citrus fruits? How much can
safely be applied per acre?" It is always
best to use the German potash. salts cau-
tiously, and in an experimental, way at
first, as they vary greatly in constitu-
tion and quality and adaptations to .dif-
ferent soils and crops. Applying the
lower grades -at the prescribed rate
of from 300 to 600 pounds pe': acre, or
r the higher at the rate of from 200 to 500
b pounds per acre, mixing the same with'
r several times -its bulk of earth before
applying, or, still better, applying it in
L compost, it is not probable that any
harm could arise from the excess' of salt
which an inferior grade may contain.
Kainit is considered especially beneficial
for fruit trees and grapes, fodder,root and
leguminous crops, and tobacco, Try
- one row of trees- this year, and next
year- be governed by experience.-
SEED OF TEOSiNTE.
A. B. H., of Winter Park, asks: "Can
you tell me where teosinte seed can be
purchased, and how much jier pound it
costs?" J. H. Alexander. of Augusta, Ga.,
is an extensive dealer in seeds adapted
to the South, and has a good reputation.
His price for teosinte seed is 25 cents
per ounce or $3.00 per pound. For 41
ceuts he will send by mail a pound
either of pearl (cat-tail) millet, yellow or
white millo maize, large African millet,
conch peas, chufas, etc. For 65 cents
he will mail a pound of kaffir corn,
mammoth millo maize, rice of the de-
sert, etc. Send for his price list.
We hope that every one who has an
acre of ground in Florida, will put in a
variety of these rank-grow iig semi-trop-
ical forage plants. We regard them as
being of so much importance to this
State, that we feel quite wIlling to give
any dealer in such seeds a free adver-
TANGERINE AND MANDARIN ORANGES.
A. A. CONSTANTINE, of Plant City.
wishes to know where "Dillard's grove
is; also who has the best Tangerine and
Mandarin orange," and which of the
two brings, the most in market. We
will thank nurserymen to reply:
N, D. S., of Beauclerc, sends some
diseased orange leaves, with the follow-
ing statement: "One tree so affected has
shed most of its leaves for two years,
putting on new ones, which in time be-
came likewise mottled. The branches
gradually die back and still the tree is
half in foliage, more or less affected. The
trees are on high, dry hammock land
how n- an....0.t....... I, we .. The following statements from the
cannot but think that with proper me- The g statements from the
chanical appliances American figs will New York Market Journal relatives
yet be made to supply the American the condition of the New York orange
market We have recently seen ani- market about the iniddle-of January, are
market 'e have recently seen an in- i h s o h -
teresting treatise on this subject which interesting as showing some of the cir-
was read before a convention of-Cali- oumstances of weather, foreign compe-
fornia fruit growers, and we intend to tition, etc., which affect the sale of Flor-
give our readers the benefit of some por- Aida fruit : :
tions of it 'at an early day, perhaps in Arrivals oT Florida oranges have heen
tno it e d pe very light of late, as compared with re-
the next iss-ue.. ceipts prior to January 1st, but still
Pending the solution of the question ample to meet the small demand, which
of profitable fig culture, Dr. G. K. S. is owing, in part, to the extremely cold
may rest assured that a small grove of weather as we as reent enormous
figs is an extremely desirable feature of No less than five large cargoes corn-
any place in Florida. The fresh fruit prising a total of 42,500 boxes and 8,000
and numerous preparations of it, add cases (each equal to 2 boxes),pof Mediter-
an oufranean oranges have been laying at our
materially to the comforts or luxuries of wharves this week, awaiting sales, and
a Florida home. some of them have been held many days
We counsel every one who thinks of for the weather to moderate before
locating in Florida or adjacent States to breaking bulk. There is consequently a
regular "glut" in this fruit, with very
come resolved to "sit underhis own vine low prices, late auction sales -ranging
and fig tree" within three years. With from 76c. to $1.25 per box. It is safe to
a little trouble one can train the native predict that when the next "warm
scuppernong into a leafy awning, shad- wave" pays us a visit, the streets will
swarm with wagon boys and everybody
aing any extent of door-yard and furnish- with his neighbors will eat Oranges;
ing a delightful play-ground for chil- One essential advantage possessed by
dren in the hottest days. As to the fig receivers of foreign fruits over the con-
tree, it grows with'the vigor of a poke signee of domestic fruits is that no fruit-
laden steamer from a foreign port can
weed when planted in rich ground, and legally discharge her cargo in freezing
bears an incredible amount of fruit dur- weather in New York, or any other
ing the summer and fall. American city, unless by consent or re-
On account of the extreme ease with qquest of consignees. Decisions to this
effect have more than once been render-
which the fig is propagated and brought ed by Judges of the United States
into bearing, because of its extreme Courts, and there is liti I doubt that our
healthiness and long-continued, irre- domestic or coastwise steamship com-
pressible fruiting, We believe it is not panics can also be held to a very strict
accountability, and be made to pay for
half so much esteemed as if it were of a losses to shippers or consigees occurring
tender nature and required skillful cul- under such circumstances.
ture, and as if it fruited precariously, But notwithstanding the condition of
and for only a week or. two during the the market, as set forth above, prime-
qualities of Florida oranges sold this
year. Among our fruit trees the fig has week, at the auction house, at from $3.15
had to take a back seat, so to speak, but to $2.50 per box, and a considerable por-
we believe it will yet come to the front. tion of this fruit was damaged from ten
to fifteen per cent. by decay.
Late telegraphic advices report a se-
State Agricultual Association. vere frost in portions of California,
LIMONA, January 21, 1887.-The Flor- where such an occurrence is almost un-
ida State Agricultural Association will precedented. At Riverside in that
State, we are advised that at least 500
hold its annual meeting at the city of car loads of oranges are damaged or de-
Orlando, on zhe 16th of February, 1887. stroyed by the frost, and it is feared the
commencing at 10 o'clock, a. min., for the trees are nipped.
transaction of general business, election Sales of Florida oranges at auction in
of officers, discussions or such other bus- New York have, so far this season, been
iness as may come before the society, comparatively small- less perhaps than
.The object of this association being was anticipated, but it is maintained
the advancement of the science and that prices received have been satisfac-
practice of agriculture, horticulture and tory, and quite equal to returns as gen-
the mechanical and household arts, it rally made the growers by New York
covers the entire field of agricultural commission merchants. Prices have i
productions of the State, and subjects ruled higher in some other markets, no- ]
connected therewith. Since the last tably in the West, for reasons whichwe
meeting of the association a constitu- stated in a late issue of this paper.
at near the river." The apparent cause ol
d the disease is the "red scale" mite,which
a- may be found by cutting into the minute
- pustules on the under surface of the
d leaves, using a magnifier and a sharp,
d thin bladed knife. The insect can hard-
1 ly be reached by any solution not power.
d ful enough to kill the leaves. But it
1, may be expedient to try such .heroic
1- treatment, to defoliate the tree and then
burn all the leaves.
Is We regard all such insect parasites as
g symptoms of a more radical difficulty.
: A tonic is needed more than an insecti-
?s cide. If trees are kept in good health,
d they will be able to resist all the ail-
i- ments which have attacked the Florida
a groves thus far. If trees are starved,
d mutilated, frosted and, above all, planted
t too deep, then they become a source of
t vexation and loss to their owners and
c- had best be dug up and replaced with
r young and healthy trees.
. For answers to other inquiries, see
- THE ASPECTS OFFIG CULTURE.
' From a gentleman residing at Cedar
e TRapids, Iowa, we have an inquiry in
regard to the profitableness of fig cul-
e ture. He writes: "I have a farm near
Ocala that I am improving, and wish to
know whether, either dried or fresh, the
e fig can be made profitable. Give me, if
" possible, the names of parties who are
f now raising figs for market. I under-
e stand there is a gentleman twenty-five
d or thirty miles from Jacksonville who
Shas quite an orchard."
a We are acquainted with the party re-
ferred to and with his experience with
' figs. After he had brought two thousand
e trees into bearing condition he went to
New York to make arrangements for
t marketing them. On consultation with
s dealers in imported figs he became con-
vinced that there was no chance for
competition with foreign producers on
s this side of the Atlantic. He felt like
exclaiming, after the style of Bret Harte,
"We are ruined by cheap Turkish labor."
There is the rub, foreign production at a
cost which to us appears merely nomi-
nal. Figs and many other articles are
produced so cheaply abroad that, after
the addition of ocean freight and import
duties, they can be sold cheaper in this
country than they can be produced here.
After our friend returned to Florida,
he laid the axe to the roots of half of his
fig trees, and thenceforth became a
strong advocate of protection. He has
many varieties of figs, one of which has,
even when fresh, precisely the same
flavor as the fig of commerce.
Considering how abundantly and for
how long a season this tree fruits we
St. Johns "
W. P. Horne.
J. C. Richard.
C. B. Magruder.
J. Q. Stewart.
0. P. Fannin.
J. T. Copeland.
Geo. M. Whetstone.
J. Woodson Davidson.
oJ. B. McGinnis.
A. A. Chapman
Geo. I. Davis.
J. H. Ancrum
H. T. Lykes.
W. B. Henderson.
W. F. Green."
E. B. Bailey.
SW. M. Girardeau.
W. D. Hankins.
oW. B. Schrader.
J. B. Davids.
Geo. D. Mendenhall
W. H. Neel.
Capt. J. L. Inglis.
Col. John Martin.
F. A. Hendry.
J. J. Upchurch.
H. D. McLeod,
P. P. Bishop.
T. V. Moore.
M. M. Blackburn..
Dr. Wm. Judge.
T. C. Lanier, Jr.
J. R. Kelly.
A. R. Jones.
R. W. Ashmore.
Gen. Wm. Miller.
GOM E TI. NM R.
THE ORANGE MARKET IN JANUARY.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, FEBRUARY 2, 1887.
tion for the State of :Florida has been
framed and adopted, providing for a
State officer, in whom shall be invested
all matters of agriculture. By aiding
that officer in his duties and the promo-
tion of the greatest inter, st of the en-
tire State, this association may perform
most efficient service, by way of organ-
izing county and local associations, by
holding 'agricultural institutes, by lec-
tures and discussions, and by aiding
generally -in the work of making the
productions of the soil of Florida com-
mensurate with the capabilities of a cli-
mate superior to that of other States.
In view of the importance of this
meeting a full attendance is desired.
A. S. MANN, President.
J. G. KNAPP, secretary.
INTER-STATE AGRICULTURAL CON-
Governor McEnnery, of Louisiana, has
called an Inter-State Agricultural Con-
vention, to meet at Lake, Charles, La.,
on the 22d of February next, in the in-
terest of Agriculture, Dairying, Stock-
raising, etc., and invites the co-operation
of neighboring States.
Governor Perry, acting upon this in-
vitation, has appointed the following as
delegates to the said Convention i
Alachua County, General Elias Earl.
Hints to Writers for the Florida
Yarmer and Fruit Grower.
The readers of the FLORIDA FTARER
AND FRUIT-GROWER are respectfully in-
vited to contribute to its columns articles
and notes on all subjects pertaining to
the farm, garden, orchard and house-
hold affairs. The range of topics which
will-be discussed in this journal maybe
gathered from the subjoined table, which
may serve to suggest what might other-
wise escape attention:
Clearing land, draining land, crops for
new land, succession of crops, intensive
farming, treatment of different soils,
resting land, soiling vs. pasturing, cow-
penning, green manuring.
Horses, mules, cattle, hogs, sheep,
poultry-Breeds, feed, diseases, treat-
Cotton seed, cotton' seed meal, barn-
yard manure, guano, ground bone, su-
per-phosphate, gypsum, lime, kainit,
ashes, marl, muck, leaf mould, com-
Bermuda grass, crab grass, Para grass
Guinea grass, Terrell grass, orchard
grass, red-top grass, Johnson grass, Texas
blue grass, pearl millet, German millet,
millo maize, kaffir corn, teosinte, sorg-
hum, fodder corn, cow peas, desmodi-
um, Mexican clover, lespedeza, alfalfa,
Corn, oats, rye, wheat-Varieties,
yield per acre, soil and season, difficult.
ties encountered, general treatment.
Cotton-Long and hort Staple-Plant-
ing and culture, marketing crop, man-
agement of seed, products from the
Sngar Cane and Sorghum-Varieties,
culture, making syrup and sugar, condi-
tion of market.
Tobacco-Varieties, history in Florida,
recent experiences, seed, culture manu-
Citrus Fruits-Comparison of varie-
ties, hardiness and productiveness, meth.
ods of propagation, methods of planting
and culture, comparative effects of' fer-
tilizers, marketing of fruit, preservation
of fruit wine and other products.
Peach, pear, fig, persimmon, Japan
plum, K elsey plum, native plum, mul-
berry, quince, apricot, guava, "banana,
pineapple sapodilla, mango, avocada,
pear, cocoanut, pecan, English walnut,
almond, pomegranate, olive, grape,
strawberry, blackberry, raspberry-Va-
rieties, their characteristics, effects of
soil, weather, etc., best methods of
I FLOWER GARDEN.
Plants adapted to this climate, out-
door culture, management of green-
NATIVE TREES AND HERBS.
Planting trees for ornament or utility,
the burning over of forest lands, the.
lumber and turpentine industries, the
tanning industry, phenomena of plant
life, weeds and noxious plants.
N; B.-Specimens may be sent to the
editor for identification. Information is
desired respecting popular names and,
INSECT ENEMIES AND FUNGOID DISEASES.
Nature of damage done and remedies.
Bees and bee plants, silk culture and
the mulberry, hunting and fishing, dogs
and dog laws, fences anil roads, legisla-
tion for farmers, homestead laws, trans-
portation, marketing produce, experi-
mental farms, 'agricultural education,
home manufactures, natural history
of Florida, historic points, sanitary ad-
vice, farm buildings, house furnishing,
farm machinery, 'farm implements,
water supply, cooling appliances, re-
cipes for cooking, home decorations,
household economy, mineral and earths,
climatology, hints on the care of chil-
dren, on dress, habits, reading, amuse-
ments, etc. ,
In treating of the above and related
subjects, practical experience is inuch to
be preferred to theoretical knowl-
dge; yet there are topics needing dis-
ussion which have to be treated of
rom a somewhat theoretical stand-
In describing any method of experi-
nent it is desirable that all external in-
luences be explained-; for example, in
he case of a crop, the character of the
eason, of the soil, of the sub-soil and
he method of. planting and cultivating,
11 have an important bearing on the re-
ult. Bare statements of results are of
little value, though they may be worthy
We do not desire letters written mere--
y in praise of special localities unless
laims to favor are based on the products
r productiveness of the soil. Articles
f an animated or vivacious style are de-
irable by way of variety, but practical
statements and descriptions should be
oncise and as much to the point as pos-
All communications intended for this
department should be addressed to
EDITOR FARMER AND FRUIT-GEOWER.
Nothing Comes up to Brad-
"rom the Treasurer of the South Florida R. R.)
I have used Bradley's Orange Tree
fertilizer for two years, and I have ob-
Lined from it entire satisfaction. My
tees have made uniform and rapid
growth, and they are fairly bending to
te ground with bright handsome fruit.
have used many brands of fertilizers
ut nothing comes up to Bradley's.
C. C. HASKEILL,
The E. Molie Florida Floral Perfumery
company will pay twenty-five cents
sr pound for Yellow Jasmine Blos-
ms, delivered at 5 East Bay street.
parties who can pick flowers for the
>ove Company will please correspond
Ouftr Romf lifrk.
HELEN HARCOURT, Editor.
With a helping hand and a Welcome for all
Who wish to be friendly and make us a call;
With words of good counsel for old friends and
Who come to us seeking the best way to do.
All questions of general interest will
be answered through these columns.
Personal inquiries will be answered by
mail when accompanied by stamp for
Subscribers are cordially invited 4to
take a seat in our Cosy Corner, and ex-
change views, experiences and recipes
of mutual benefit. "Help ye one an-
Communications intended for publi-
cation must be brief, clearly written,
and only on one side of the paper.
All matter relating to this department
should be addressed to
EDITOR OUR HOME-CIRCLE,
Fli. Farmer and Fruit-Grower,
Our Cosy Corner.
Every housekeeper North, South, East
or West knows full well that her path is
not strewn with roses, whether there
are servants to perform the daily work
(or make more), or whether the wife and
mother has to be cook and maid of all
work as well.
This latter, more's the pity, is a posi-
tieM, or rather a combination of posi-
tions, held, and held competently, too,
by many a woman in this work-a-day
world of ours, but we have never yet
met a man who possessed the patience
and energy to meet so many varied calls
upon his time and temper, or to master
so many different branches of duty.
No, the housekeeper's place is no sini-
cure, and Florida forms no exception to
the universal rule. t
Houses must be kept in order, meals
must. be cooked, and, worse than all,
dishes and pots and pans must be washed '
three times, every day, whether one
dwells in Florida or Maine, California or
The business of a housekeeper is a
complicated one; a hundred different
branches of skilled. labor massed into ]
one, and it is full of trials and tribula-
In some respects Florida presents h
fewer of such troubles than most other (
sections, but the worse trial of all that s
her housekeepers have to face, is the
almost total absence, of -reliable help in
Not that there are not in some locali- 8
ties ,plenty of so-called "cooks" to be I
had, and usually the new-comer who I
has never been used to doing her own t
work, makes it a point to secure one of I
these assistants immediately.
And if she has had dreams of the .fa- b
mous old plantation "aunties," so falth- b
-ful, so respectful, so' competent, then
indeed -'great is the fall thereof." .- '
Of a far different class from the faith- e
ful old slave of yore are the present gen a
oration of free-born colored ladies and 8
We have had "culled gen'ermen" call
at our dwelling to inquire if the "young J
lady" was at home, the said young lady a
proving on investigation.to be our sable- s
hued.servant, and not a few are the oc- d
casions when our"young gen'erman" has
been asked for by .other gentry of his a
'own hue, a
We made not a few ludicrous mistakes s
before we finally settled down to the sad
conviction that'the heads of the house- tl
hold, the white members of the family, n
were only men and women, and he col- tl
oredpeople gentlemen and ladies. We
know- all about it now, but still an oc- -t
c: asional smile-is ineviiable.- ,
How the terms ever came to be thus
confused and reversed, no one can say, g
bu.t it is certainly a rare thing for the g
:Florida negro to use them in any other n
way; not only in speaking to the whitee
folks," but in conversation with each di
other, they habitually say "lady" or pE
"gen'erminan," and as a rule the prefix
"culled" is omitted, to the frequent con- bi
fusion of the ignorant white people who ce
have "just come over"?' from the North. it
The older race, those who were' born re
and trained as slaves, are very scarce in
Florida. They have, for the most part, w
remained near their old homes in the om
older States, and the few who have do
found their way here have come almost "s
invariably with a settled purpose, which ha
they have carried out, to acquire lands
and a permanent home, either by home- hc
stead entry or the purchase of a few p%
acres to be paid for in labor.
These few, who, unlike the great ma- nc
jority of their-race, take thought for the w
morrow, are usually well to do, indus- to
trious citizens, recognizing their proper fir
S- station, and quite content to render due lil
respect to their white neighbors.
We could name. several within a be
radiusof fivemiles of our present home ne
who own their lands, a comfortable be
house. a horse"and wagon, flourishing
S groves and cotton fields. ce
S But these, more's the pity, are the ex- th
S ceptions. and are "not available for ser- on
."*' "-. vants.
-' The younger onesouly "'hire our." and
: all are '"cooks." no matter whether they st(
are competent to make a loaf of bread, a if
pie, a pudding, or even to cook a beef- fo0
steak or boil a potato, or not, ard it i 1i
-:V, -more often "not" than otherwise, n
.The housekeeper who engages the or- nij
dinary Florida "cook" must make up ,he
her mind to '"endure all things," or do mi
her own work. The probabilities are that ou
'after a time she will come io the con- cci
clusion that the latter alternative in- ,l
volves the least wear and tear to sat
nerves, temper and musc'e. am
We can best illustrate our meaning by am
giving some of our own experiences in lea;
this path : it was not strewn with roses, as
though there was an oasis of laughter cie
here and there, especially after the expe-
riences that caused them were number- the
ed amongst the things of the past. E
When we first arrived at our new be'
hove we found the routine of hou
work far from pleasant, having ne
before found ourselves without train
competent city servants to do it all
us; especially did we grow desperate
weary of the disagreeable monotony
washing dishes, pote and pans; it was
weary enough, but this was the we
So when a little colored girl ca
along one'day and begged to stay w
us, "to wash dishes and do errands,"
gladly accepted the offer, fondly hop
to train up the little sable sister in
way she should go.
But we did'it I We very soon fou
that we had a very fair specimen o
self-willed, untamed savage in
kitchen, and that the task of taming
same would be one requiring no lii
patience Pnd perseverance.
Our experiences with the Goddess,
we will term her, since she was uam
for one of those famous ladies of old
times, our experiences, we repeat, w
exceedingly rich and unique, and Fo
day we will tell our readers all abc
them, but our present concern is w
the "cooks," of whose ranks the Gc
dess did not pretend to be.
We labored with the latter in cc
scientious patience for no less than f
years, and then her "way" went so ve
much awry that we were at last co
pelled to10 lay down our self-allotted ta;
realizing that "a silk purse cannot
made.from a sow's ear.'
Then followed an" interegnum
weary housework again.
Then appeared a "cook" who did n
know how to even fry potatoes, but w
very anxious- to learn; she could wa
clothes and dishes, and iron, after
fashion,, and there the sum total of h
Her lessons in cooking she took stan
ing in the doorway, with her back
wards the stove, while we watched t
dinner; if a particle of fat flew or "spu
from the frying pan, she fled the kitch,
entirely, averring that she "wasn't goi
to be burnt up afore her time, no how
We had learned to expect but little
and we bore much for the sake of bei'l
spared the dish-washing, but when wi
the Christmas dinner on the stove, ai
stranger guests in the parlor, we found
the fire out, the kitchen deserted, ai
our "cook"strolling in the woods, pickir
flowers, we felt that our patience ha
reached its extreme limit.
She departed forthwith.
Our next servant could really cook
little, she was able to accomplish a pla
dinner, without the after-clap of a de
sort, but alas 1 we "wore her heart ou
a washin' dishes," and she soon vanished
from the scene.
"Mighty nice folks," was the verdi
she pronounced elsewhere, "but they';
got too much style for me; b:
plates fur dinner, little plates fu
tremattersses, and more plates fur ti
puddin'. it just wore me heart out!
Her successor was a genuine cook, ha
been used to a hotel kitchen and kne
bow to do all, and more than all, thi
vas required of her; not only so, but sa
was an excellent ironer, the first we ha
encountered in our new home; we ha
at last stumbled upon a rara avis,
gIorious treasure, so we drew a Ion
breath of delighted relief.
But, alas, it was only a/breath indeed
A cook we had it was true, but alas a
nyalid, nearly half her time in bed, he]
elf to be waited on, her work to b
She occupied the "servants quarters,
Detached room back of the kitchen
nd1 the groanings and grunting that is
ued thence were simply-a vful I to
Intermitting, too,for we soon discover
hat when we were not supposed to b
ear, the groans ceased, to be resume
lie niomeni our tootscteps soundedmdear
When remonstrated with concerning
these distressing noises, the reply was
"The Lord made some of the folkses t
runt when these sick, and some not t
runt. I'se one of the grunfin' sort
must grunt, got to!"
And she did, there was not the leas
doubt in the world about that, she wasE
perfect mistress of that accomplishment
This was one of the crosses we had t(
ear, and another was a pipe; we suc
ceded in banishing it from the kitchen
self, but between whiles tobacco smok
The end of it all was that bye and bvi
e concluded that it was easier to do our
vwn work,'having a woman to come anc
> the washing and the scrubbing
scouring,' they call it, of floors, and we
ive held to that view ever since.
Before we settled down to it finally,
however, we tried the "dish-washer'
ire and simple.
This means, in local parlance, a boy
ot big enough to do heavy out-door
ork, but capable, or at least old enough
be capable, of washing dishes, making
'e, carrying water, and doing other
We had one boy who persisted in the
lief and practice that dishes did not
ed'to be-wiped, nor pots and pans tc
.washed outside as well as inside.
When remonstrated with upon this ec-
ntricity, this wonderful boy procured
e cart whip, and threatened to use it
Shis mistress. -
He departed very suddenly.
The next boy was very much averse to
upping outdoors in a summer rain, and
on an errand, would delay returning
r hours on that-account, but meantime
ayed marbles in the midst of the rain;
ally, after spending the afternoon and
ght out on a visit, without permission,
returned to his own home a very
ich astonished boy, sorrowing over
r unreasonable objections to his pro-
3ut there are, here and there, a few
:ie factory dish washers to be found,
d judging from our own experience
d observation, they are the leaut help-
s and hopeless of tie Florida "helps,"
things are at the present stage of so-
low all this is rather discouraging to
i new, comer, is it not? -
But it is the truth, and it is better to
prepared to meet the enemy, and to
ise- know them, than to venture into an un- case may be,. are arranged around their
ver known country, as it were, without respective trees or groups. At the con-
ied, weapons, delusion of this part of the programme,
for But mark this, Our Home Circle does let all the pupils come together and sing
:ely not mean to discourage, but rather to en- our national and other appropriate
r of courage the Florida housekeeper, and to songs, and listen to short addresses by
all meet with these in council in the hope of speakers selected for the occasion. All
worst devising ways and means of relief, the exercises should not occupy more
than two hours, and at the expiration of
ime The Family Friend, that time the children should be per-
vith Oranges are "all the fashion" now-a- mitted to enjoy their holiday (within
we days, and since "everybody as is any- proper limits, of course), after their own
ing body" says, we "might as well be out of manner, on the green sod. Thus, "with
the theworld as out of fashion," here are the ceremony of a celebration, and with
several recipes for making the best use the attraction and pleasures to the
mnd of this famous Florida staple. young minds of a holiday, the exercises
f a and what they symbolize will be deeply
our ORANGE WINE, NO. ,i. stamped upon the memory of the school
the Juice of sweet oranges and water, children, and the entire effect upon
ttle equal parts; to every gallon add three them must prove to be of the moat im-
pounds of raw Florida sugar; place in portant and satisfactory character.
as light barrel, filled, with abent tubefrom In order to indicate more fully the
ned the closed bung hole to a pail of water, character and score of the Arbor Day
len When the gas bubbles cease to show in celebrations, we will here give a brief
ere the water, close the barrel; leave it un- description of the celebrations held by
me disturbed for four months; then bottle the public schools of Cincinnati in Eden
out and cork tight. This makes a very fine Park. For a fuller detail of thle same we
ith wine that will keep in wood or glass, refer you to the last two annual reports
od- SOUR ORANGE WINE. of th'schools."
To five gallons of water add half a gal- About six acres were set apart in the
?o- Ion of juice and fifteen pounds of brown park for a grove, now known as "Au-
lve sugar; put the sugar and water together, thors'Grove." Selections on trees and
ery let it cgme to a boil; when cool add the forestry from various authors were sent
'- juice. Let it stand open till fermenta- -to the several schools to be memorized
k lion ceases; then stop tight. It may be by the pupils ; also information con-
be bottled after it has remained in barrel corning historic trees of our country,
about six months. This makes an ex- and many facts of history giving the
of cellent wine, and if recipe is followed effects upon climate, soil, production,
it will be a success. etc., both of the destruction and the re-
lot moval of forests were given to the
'as ORANGE CAAMPAGNE. scholars. These formed the basis of corn- -
ish One gallon sour orange juice, three positions in the upper grades. In addi-
a gallons rain water, seven pounds white tion to the above, the teachers gave 1
her sugar. Put into a keg. and each dayadd sketches of the lives of their respective 1
a little fresh juice until effervesence authors, and the pupils learned selec-
d- ceases. After standing about eight days, tions from. their writings. In some of the
to- or when it becomes perfectly clear, bot- schools the boys were organized into R
he tie and cork tightly ; secure the corks companies, under the name of Forestry
It" with twine or wire and set aside for use. Cadets; the girls and boys not organized
en SOUR ORANGE PRESERVES. were called Foresters.
in' Grate or pare the outside rind of the That the part taken by the pupils in
'v" fruit; cut in half and take out the seed; the actual planting of the trees may not
ae, sprinkle liberally with salt, and let it be misunderstood, I will state that expe-
ng stand twenty-four hours; wash off the rienced tree-planters did most of the
th salt thoroughly and boil in soda water, work of setting, out the trees previousto
'd allowing a good handful of soda to two Arbor Day, and that the pupils finished
id gallons of water. Then scald in clear the settigby filling around each tree
nd water until the rind can be pierced with soil left in heaps for this purpose.
ng a straw. Allow one pound of sugar to *
ad every pound of fruit, and a pint of water Healthfulness of Forests.
to every pound of sugar. Boil the syrup The influence of forests on healthful-
until it begins to thicken; then add the ness of the atmosphere demands
Sa fruit and boil until clear. When the thoughtful attention. Plants imbibe
in fruit is cooked enough, if the syrup is from the air carbonic acid and other
is- not thick enough continue to boil after gaseous and volatile products, exhaled
it the fruit has been removed. Change the. by animals or developed by the natural
ed clear water two or three times after boil- phenomena of decomposition. These the
ing in the soda water before putting the trees, more than the smaller plants, ab-
ct fruit in the syrup, sorb, and'instead of them pour into the
ig ORANGE MARMALADE. atmosphere pure oxygen, essential to
ur Take twelve oranges of fair size, with the life of animals; The carbon, the very
he smooth, highly-colored skins, score the substance of wood, is taken from the
peel off in quarters, taking with it as carbonic acid thus absorbed. "Humid a'
td much of the white skin as you dan with- air," says Bequerel, .'charged with mias- c
w out breaking the pulp. As you remove mata, is deprived of them in passing
at the peel put it in a basin of water. Put through the forest." R. W. EMESON.
he it all, when ready, into a stewpan, with A mountain cliff, a wall, or a forest,
id water enough to cover the peel; change are thb,.. natural .protection against the
*d the water several times during the boil- wind.- In this respect the forest cannot
a ing process, and when the peel is quite be without beneficial effect on the adja-
ig soft and very tender take it out of the cent country;- the young growth of
pan and drain it in a hair seive. Spread trees flourishes, screened from the force
L I out the peel when nearly dry on a paste- of the wind, the arable land develops
.n board and cut it into fine shreds, itself better, sands-meet an impassable-
r- Squeeze the oranges and add the juice of barrier, and the noxious influence of the
,a three or four lemons to every dozen dry winds is turned aside. It is. then,
oranges. The peel and juice, must be indisputable that the forests exercise a
weighed, and to every pound add a salutary influence on the temperature of
n pound and a half of loaf sugar. Allow a country. The sanitary condition of
s to this amount of sugar a pint and a half manand the domestic animals, as well 0;
of water, obtained by washiiig and as the growth of cultivated plants, de- af
d straining the pulp of oranges. Boil-and pends ou the climate of the locality. The cl
e skim carefully -.for fifteen or twenty fertility of a country depends on its
d minutes, then add the washed pulp.and supply of forestland ; foron thisdepenil d _C
n juice, and boil until it. commences to the foundation of soil, the precipitation
g thicken, then put in the pulp and boil for of dew, the fall of rain, the steady cur S
Twenty or thirty minutes until it jellies rent of rivers, the mitigation of the evil
properly. influences of unhealthy winds, and the
0 ORANGE SOUFFLE. growth oft- vegetables in the fields and
o Grate, peel and slice six oranges, put meadows. ,^ SCHACHT,
;, in, a glass dish a layer of-oranges, then I *
one of sugar, and so on, until all the Where tbees are not, behold the deserts L
3t orange is used, and let stand two or more swoon 'I .
a hours; make a soft-boiled custard of Beneath the brazen sun and mocking
Syolks of three eggs, a pint of milk, sugar moon ..
Sto taste, with grating of peel for flavor, Where trees are not, the tawny torrent
and pour over the oranges when cool leaps,
n enough not to, break the dish. Beat the A brawling savage from the crumbling
n white of the eggs to a stiff froth, sweeten steeps,
to taste, and poor over the top. Serve Where once, the ferns their gentle
very cold. RES A branches waved,
S. GREASE SPOTS. And tender lilies in the crystal laved;
r If grease or oil is spilled on a carpet A brawling savage, plundering in a
sprinkle flour or fine meal over the spot night,
', as soon as possible, let it lie for several The fields it once strayed through a
e hours, and it will absorb the- grease, streamlet bright..
POTATOES FOR SUPPER. .
SA nice way to prepare potatoes for- Caution to Orange Shippers.
supper is to take cold mashed potatoes, Messrs. Wessels & Co., orange mer- '1
roll out with flour scattered on the chants of New York, have issued the
kneading board, and out in cakes with a following circular under date of Janu- Ge
cooky cutter; wet them over with the ary 24th:
white of an egg, and bake them until To our 8hip.pers -
light brown. To ourhipp :
h br We request that you will stop all ship-
ments to us as soon as you receive this ori
4' -e notice. '.' be
+^I/(1 J Our market is badly overstocked with to
fruit, and forced sales mean a loss to M0
ARBOnR DAV CTELEnATITON shippers. We have kept you posted as
ARBO DAY CELEBRATION.., to current'"prices, but although these
oan. --" ,have been very low, you continue to
Suggestions as to Manner of ship freely. 4
O observance by Schools. We now have to say that there is no the
Thep oloi s u ggestio ato. s sign of improvement in the near future, feei
e ouowan suggestins as to suit- and it will be to your, interest to hold fr
able exercises for schools on Arbor Day your fruit untilfurther notice. ert
are by Professor J. B. Peaslee, the ener- Rest assured that as soon as we can of-
getic Superintendent of the Public fer you any inducement we will quickly -
Schools of Cincinnati, and. the originator ask. you to resume shipments, but to 'i
of the popular memorial services : ship at this time means a loss upon what Job
We suggest that the ~exercises consist you would realize if you held your fruit N
of reading by the pupils compositions until the glut was cleared away.
or essays on the.importance and useful- Respectfully. WESSELS & CO. SO
ness of forests; of reciting, individually
and in concert, selections on trees from A number of the enterprising citizens
various authors ; of giving extracts from of Norwalk have united and purchased
and sketches of' the life and writings of a very large wind-mill and one thousand 8 C
the particular author in whose honor or feet of piping. The piping will be run
memory each tree or group is planted ; into Buckskin lake, and the water will .S
of singing ; of the ceremony of throw- be pumped from there to be used for the
ing the soil, each pupil in turn, about purpose of irrigating the groves and
the trees; and of appropriate talks by vegetable farms. Next summer they
trustees, teachers and others, will be thoroughly independent of the
It is intended to have the exercises in- droughts, and some extra fine crops.may on
dica ted above take place while thepu- be looked for that directlon--Palatlca Moo
puls of each class, room or school, as the News. "
[IB[H GRADE JERSEY CATTLE.
To purchase Grade Jersey Cows from o
half to seven-eighths, sired by registered bui
some with calves and some to calf short
prices $30 to $40. Apply to
References given if desired.
LL AITLAND NURS OIES.
ALL VARIETIES OF
ORANGE AND LEMON TREES.
Budslnot placed on small stocks, but on extra
large and fine ones.
We make a specialty of the
--EARLY SPANISH ORANGE--
(the earliest variety known),
TOHITI LIMES and ---
VILLA FRANCA LEMONS,
ad can show trees of the latter that stood the
old last winter as well as the Orange, and
NOW HAVE FRUIT UPON THEM.
Send for Catalogue.
KEDNEY & CAREY,
: Winter Park, Fla.
F. 0. Winter Park, Fla.
PRAIRIE LEE POULTRY YARD
Seffner, Hillshorough Co., Fla. -
L. B. CULLEN. Propr. .
Single comb \Vhlte Leguoras a specialty.
nly one variety kept (J.Boairdman Smithi's
ure stock). Eggs for sale at all times; Chicks
ftler Ju l st. Writ lfor what ou want, en-
oilngslamp pfor roly. NocirclarL.
PRICES THE LOWEST.
C. S. I'ENGLE & Co.,
AMIPA, HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY,
hneral Business and Real Estate Agency of
If you wish a town lot, an orange grove,'or
Id lands In this rapidly improving section,
If you have taxes to he paid, or property to
improved, or money to be invested, write
Money can be placed on Real Estate with a
Margin on iwo-thirds of values at 10
and 12 per cent.
FRBE OF CHARGE TO LENDER.
rlnety days to foreclose mortgage where
are Is no contest. All costs and attorney's
s provided for in mortgage. Write for
their Information and send for list of prop-
y for Sale.
W. N. CONOLEY,
.tEFERENOES-Ex-Governor Drew, Jackson-
le; First National Bank, Tampa, and Hon.
hn T. Lesley. Tampa.
a .Le., Tana
iONSIGNMENTS OF EGGS
CHICKENS, FRUIT, AND
B COUNTRY PRODUCE
J. H. SUTHERLAND,
LYE IIONEY -
BY SENDING FOR OUR
LeConte and Keifer Pear Trees, Figs,
re's Early Grapes, etc., to the
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. FEBRUARY 2. 1887.
"We Know by Experience."
For three years we have used Brad-
ley's Vegetable" Fertilizer. After test-
ing. along with other high grade fertil-
izers, we pronounce it better than any
sold in Florida. We shall use it again
We do not hesitate to say to the vege-
table growers of Florida that they can-
not use anything so good as Bradley's
Florida Vegetable Fertilizer. We know
by expe'-ience what we say regarding
WOFFORD & WILDER.
Ft. Mason, Fla.
Seed Irish Potatoes.
The best potatoes for planting in this
State are those brought from extreme
Eastern points. Acting on this belief,
we imported last year from
large quantities of Early Rose, Chili
Red, Beauty of Hebr .n and other varie-
ties, and the potatoes raised from this
seed, were the finest we have ever seen
We will receive, in a few days another
cargo of the same potatoes, which we
will sell at the following prices:
Chili Red........per barrel $3.50.
Early Rose.................. $3.00.
Beauty of* Hebron......... $3.00.
Every barrel guaranteed as represented.
Remit with order, and we will ship the
CHURCH ANDERSON & CO.
Jacksonville, Fla., Jan. 5th, 1887.
SAVANNAH, FLORIDA AND
WAYCROSS SHORT LINE.
TIME CARD IN EFFECT DECEMBER 5, 18M.
All Trains of this Road are run by Central Standard
l'Passenger Trains will leave fnd arrive.daily, s follows:
Weot/ind a Fa tMail. -
Leave Tampa via S. F. R. R.......t.............. 800 pm :
Sanford J.T.&K. W...................... 1 00 a m
Jacksonville 7 00 a i
ArriveJacksonville 12 00 noon
Waycroos o9 10 an,-
Savannah 11 55 a in
SCharleston 4 50 pm
Richmiond 649 am"
'"Washington 11 00 a in
Baltimore 12 18 p m
PlillUadelhia 247 p
New York 6 30 a47 m
Pullman Bullet CiasTampai to Waiashiigton, and New
*')rk to Tampa.
New Orleak Express,
Leave Jacksonville 7 00 am
Arrive Jacksonville 735 i pm
Leave Callahan 7 33 am
Arrive Waycross 9-10 am
Thomasville 1 22 p m
SBainbridge 3 35 p m "
Chattluhoochee 4 04 pm
PensacolaviaL. & N. R. R ............ 10.10 p m
Mobile via L. & N. R. R..................... 215 a m
Sat New Orleans via L. & N. R. B.......... 710 a m
Albany 42 p m
Macon via Central R. R..................... 8 24 p m
Atlanta via Central R. R....................1215 -am
Chattanooga via W. & A. R .............- 5 55 ia m
Nashville via N. C. & St. L. R. R..........11 45 ainm.
Louisville via L.& N. R................... 650 pm
Pullman Buffet Cars to and from Jacksonville and
New Orleans via Pensacola and Mobileand to and from
Jacksonville and Louisville via Thomasville, Atlanta
and Nashville, and Cincinnati to Jacksonville via Jesup.,
A. C. Line Express.
Leave Jacksonville ....... ... : ..:............ 2 5 p m
Arrive Jackson, ilie....... ................ i noon"
Leave Callahan 2 47 p m
Cht',rw a '.i h .i....... .. ......... .... i 30 am
ir.:,ruj.,,iie ...... .......... .... .. .. I p F. min
A nrinve%- ,,:ri .. ... .... ................... f)I p m -
E-iri.;Ilk .i. B VW. l. R.. ....... ... a pm
". .... ... ... ... ..... ... 6 lo P m "
S oMiu,.i-nvi E .v &AU R .. II : -pm
A %ilain aE r V.&(G R.R ...,'- am '-'
Ciai'.n.n.:.ga ,. E % V & Ga-& R .. -, am.
Ci ...rnati -a .,C S.) R'"y....... ..... d 4- p m
a''arhr,.n......... ...... .... .................. 7 [. m -
..,riini ..........i .......... .............. .l 2 a m -
.J.i.,r, .... 1.i, p m
Ricriff, "n-j ....... ......... .................. ^... ..' r. [i n
,,,, t i nnon .......... .............. ..... ..1 p m i
B ILlr,- ..... 3S ai am
F'il ..Jripi,. 345 am "
N r. Yo k .... .................... .. k. a 5 m1 a m
Pulrrimar, Bti Cars b ac.'L'from Jacki.,nviili and
N Bi' Yor. aiJf j .icLnr iei to' Cinciriab, viaJesup. ,
Eial Florid A Erpresm .
Leave Jack -:,11vi.ls ...................... ................ 00 r, m
A rries-Ja'k, .'-e"di,..
Arrive JafkB.:rD>illt ......-....... .. ..... .... ..... 8 .M5 a m
Ilait Caliahan. .... ....................... .... .. 5 1 p m
Svcr,:,. ...................... ................... 7 '.- p m
Gair;.. iie ................. .. 3 6j p m
LaKi i L ........ .. 3 i.)
Live oak .... ... ... .......... ............... .. ; "-"u p
T,.nmast lle. ............. .......... I tI p M
ArrIV Alt"r,. .. ....... ., aia m
7 Wii.n iSari 5linC-nrni-st R R..... 7 I a m
Mot.il via L & N R B ........... 2 lu p m :
N 'rle. I i,a L.& N R R ...... 7 0pm
Naehlfela E L. A N P R ......7..... p m
LouisVtile via L & N R R ............... 2 12 a m
('inlcinsu via L.&N.R R ............... 30 am
Stl. Uia va L. & N R R ...... .. 7 40 a'm
Pullman ijtfcti Cars to an,] 'rom Jackioa.iJie and
Loui-.'iie va Triomnias.viU. Aitay. MoLAg.,'-mey and
ashviiLe. an.i to ari d f.-om Barrow and Mritgomery
via Gamesvilie. ., I : ,
Savannah Expres -" :"-'
L Jrs m JacS:.nvtlie ... ................. ........... 8 1 pm -
Arr,.'e Jac" O"vCille 1 .. t 15 ia m
Lfsa LJa an ...................................... 9 (6 p m
ArriveCaIlabsan. .................. ..... ........s:.. 5 25 am -
L.ai Ga;nvilie .................. ................... 3 6b5 p m
A I. irv ,'i.le .................. ............. .. ....... 50 0 a m
Lea't Lake Ciry ................. : ....... ............. m 3 pm
A mr. L '.iLt ............... ........ .. ..... ....... i. ii a m
iLea.e Lie ('ic .. ......- 7 2(i, p m
A -rnT Li (,ak .. ....................................... 6 40 a m
ThCrrinst-illie.. .. ......................... .. 7 15 a m
AJ ..... ... ................... .... ........ 11 40 a m
MontLrBe(- via CeuLru R. R ............. i M pm
NasBu;,il. .'a L A N i R ............. 6 6 i a m
L'os' uIvia L A N. L. R ................ I 6; pm
Circr,aDt via L & N. R. R ........... 6 3o p m
S. LOui via'L. & N. R. R .... ........ 8. 00 pm
W ) ........ ........ ..................... I s20 pm
Plir,-wi,:k r B. A& W. R. ............ 6 40 a m
Albiany va B W R R ....................4 443 am
Mac.n emvL Central R. R........................ 9 4 am
Atlanta na.Central R. ..... ............ 1 U5 p m
Chran'.nrga va W. & A. B& R............. 7 u; p m
JCsup ....... .. ................... i am
Brunawlravia E.T.V.&G6.o.R... am
Macon ia E T. V. & Ga. R. R 7 ....... .. 0 a m
SAiLJanta vaE T. V: &Ga. R. B ....... 11 3u am
Cbatianoeva RE. T. V. & Ga. R. R .. 6 15 p m
Cnciririat -via Cn. So. a'y................. 6 40 am
SSaannah 410 am
Chairlein 1256d pm "
Winvlrmhn is.... 0 p iM
Rfr.bmoi,.ii 10 I.i am '
W asrne on ................. .............. ....... 3 U p m
B iirre .......................................... 4 54 p m
PQLlkd0lc.nla ....... 7 17 p W
Nea Yrok ......... ................ 9 '0 pm
Pullman Budffi rs and Mann Boidor" Bunftela '
ia Wayrr.* Aiuany aod MIacon. and "a Wacroam,
-,iip and M acon, lweiw r, ja, -k -.ivlleand CinctnnatC.
i L', br.;ugb Passenger Coaches bDereen JaKJOKniIti
P,,illman Bunet (arsto i and from Jacksonville and
abhvillle via Thomiasville and Mionigomery.
PuIlman Buffet Carsbetween Jacksonville and Wa.&- -
Through Tickets sold to all points by Bail and steam-
Iip connections, and Baggage Checked Through. Al ,
sleeping Car Berths and Secuons secured at Co6mpany's
)ce, In Astor's Building,82 Bay street, and at Pai.
sr Station, and on board People's Line Steamers H. 3 -
lant and Chattachoochee and DeBary-Baya Li b
eamer City of Jacksonville. -
-' *WM.P. HAK- E,
General Pasenger AV '
It. q.. FLA--ING, Superintendent.
Y I 1
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38 FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, FEBRUARY 2, 1887.
Inquiries concerning diseases of do-
mestic anima's may be addressed to Dr.
D. 0. Lyon, Jacksonville, Fla., who will
answer them through this column.
A Lame Ankle.
-DR. D. 0. LYON.
KISMET, Fla., Jan. 8, 1887.
I have a horse whose ankle jumps
over in front and is a little inclined
(bent) to right when walking. Though
sore it can be worked upon, when off
the ground without seeming to pain
him. He has been unable to work for
three months. I don't think it is a
sprain, as it came on him gradually.
Have tried everything I can think of
without success. Please answer through
your columns and oblige J. B. K.
The probability is that the horse has
some foreign substance in the frog, or
possibly a severe bruise on bottom of
foot causing contraction of the back
Make a thorough examination of the
frog and remove any decayed or foreign
substance and apply the following
blister to the ankle :
Cerale of Cantharides, 1 oz.
Red Iodide of Mercury, 1 dr.
Apply once only and tie the horses,
head up so that he cannot bite the part
for 24 hours. Give the animal a few
Fatality Among Mares.
This and the following cases are de-
scribed in the Southern Live Stock
Journal and prescribed for by Dr. D. L.
COLDWATER, Miss., Dec. 24, 1886.
My horses and mules are' dying, and I
can find no one who is able to tell what
the disease npr what is the treatment to
follow. I will give symptoms as near as
I can and beg you to give me some infor-
My last mare died to-day, which makes
four-three mares and one mare mule.
They begin to droop, appear stupid two
or more days before getting down, lose
appetite, hold head toward the ground,
and breathe with difficulty. No urine
passed that I could see (perhaps a few
drops); appear weak in the loins. I dis-
sected three of them and found the lungs
normal, spleen digested, the kidneys
badly congested, surrounded by a yellow
jelly looking substance, one of the large
intestines congested in one. I suppose
there were three or four gallons of urine
in the.stomach between the bowels and
I will say that my horses and horse
mules have not been affected-only
B. F. S.
Although nothing is said about the
liver, it is almost certain there was ob-
struction of this organ with enlargement
of right side of the heart. These together
would cause the condition of spleleni
and kidneys observed, and the effusion
into the chest' and abdomen of the fluid
mistaken for urine, as well as for the
stupor. and :weakness of back. There
are a number of things that could cause-
the liver trouble. The most probable
being some. fault of food. Grazing 'pn
grass changed by the effects of frosts is
a frequent cause, or feeding on hay or
other matters containing too much hard,
dry, indigestible woody fibre, or smut-
ted, or otherwise unsound. On noting
first symptoms, give four drachms pow-
dered aloes and one or one and a half
drachms calomel, well mixed together
and made into'a ball with, molasses, or
mixed in a pint of mucilage and given
as a drench. Every eight hours give
half an ounce of saltpetre and eighty
drops tincture of aconite mixed and dis-
solved in one and a half pints of flaxseed
tea. By pressure, examine along the
back fAr a tender place and if found
make vigorous applications of blankets
folded and wrung out of hot water; or a
sheep skin with the wool. on is an excel-
lent substitute for the blankets,
Carefully examine all food and reject
any that is at all liable to suspicion as
the preventive of the disease. Let the
sick animals have plenty of pure water
not very cold, no. crude, hard hay, but
sound steamed or moistened hay; soft,
semi-fluid or fluid mashes made partly of
flaxseed meal or flaxseed tea. A little
later steamed oats, cut up sweet potatoes
and other roots. Many horses readily
eat the potatoes and other roots cooked
and this is much better.
MARION,'Ala., Dec. 23d, 1886.
I have a cow that has been sick sever-
al times during this year and last year,
more often during the summer than at
other times. She is sick sometimes for
one day and other times longer. When
sick, for a while she holds her head near
the ground and will at times rest her
head against a fence or tree near the
,earth, and the skin seems puffed around
the eyes and the eyes appear weak and
smaller than when well. Sometimes she
grows worse and lies down, groans and
turns her head to her side. I feed cook-
ed cotton seed, wheat, bran and corn
L. S. E.
The symptoms are those of stomach
staggers or inflex meningitis; and the re-
peated.attacks indicate the presence, in
the paunch or the reticule, of some for-
Seign body, perhaps a nail or other bit of
metal, balls of hair, bone or other indi-
gestible substance. Hair balls are of
more frequent occurrence, but seldom ir-
ritate enough to engorge the.eyelids and
brain and cause-the headaches shown by
the cow pressing and resting the head
against a post or other solid body. If the
trouble is caused by, a foreign body in'the
stomach, it might be dangerous to un-
dertake its expulsion by powerful ca-
thartics. For it may be too large (as in
large balls) tg pass, and under pressure
of a purgative might rupture the bowels..
If a nail, wire, bone or wood (as many
times occurs) the shape may be such that
straining may cause it- to puncture the
bowel and other parts as has many
times occurred. Ii a number of cases
the paunch or reticule has been opened
and the foreign body or bodies removed,
with subsequent recovery of the cow.
But unless positively certain that such
foreign body is present, the surgical op-
eration is not to be commended. As a
palliative, ice or cold water may be
freely applied to the head till relieved
and an embrocation of mustard rubbed
on the sides of the neck and legs. A
mild purge would afford some relief
and perhaps not endanger life-say a
pound of salts or a pint and a half of raw
linseed oil. P.
A Weak Calf.
CURVE, Tenn., Jan. 4, 1887.
We have a twin Jersey heifer calf that
was apparently in good health when.it
was dropped, but after a week or ten
days it seemed to be paralyzed. It lays
down nearly all the time and her head
.(except when she lays it on the ground)
works regularly from one side to the"
other. There seems to be something the
matter with its legs; it is a hard matter
for her to stand when she first gets up.
She sucks well after she gets started.
When she first starts to suck she don't
draw well, but gets over it to some ex-
tent after she pucks awhie. The bowels
are loose and natural. She is perfectly
formed. She is now about three weeks
old and does not seem to get any worse
nor any better.
J. W. L.
There is no disease of the legs. They
are weak simply from disorder of the
nerves extending from the brain to the
legs. And the head motion and other
troubles are from the same cause. They
may be aggravated by torpor of the liver,
which often occurs in new born ani-
.Give once a day, for three days, fifteen
grains mercury and chalk (grey or blue
powder of the druggist).
Twice a day, give chloral hydrate fif-
teen grains, carbolic acid two drops,
tincture lobelia fifteen drops, laudanum
fifteen drops; mix, dissolve in milk or
warm water. As the condition improves
reduce dose or discontinue.
The following may be rubbed gently
on top and sides of the neck near the
head once a day: Tincture of arnica and
aconite, each, half ounce, water one
Improved Cattle Breeding.
BY WM. B. SCHRADER,
Secretary Leon County Live Stock Asso-
Before we can hope for improvement
in the class of cattle which now supply
the demand for lacteal fluid in Florida,
and to a great extent throughout the
_whe.S6Iuth, a radical change must take
place in the handling of the animal from
the day of its birth.
We believe it susceptible of proof that
the average yield per cow of butter in
seven days will not exceed one and a
quarter pounds or one half gallon milk
per day.. Here is room, and lots ofit,,for
Scrub bulls run with the herd and
breed at all times and serve females of
all ages; calves run with the cows during
the day "so as to be sure the calves get
some milk," as a prominent planter and
owner of a registered bull told me. Oth-
ers are penned up during the day, turned
loose at night, and receive about as much
(if as much) attention as a pack of
The cows are milked in one pen with
the calves waiting, bawling, kicking
around in another adjoining. "Turn in
a calf!' yells the milker. Then about
twenty 10-foot rails are pulled down, a
calf scrambles through, and runs from
one cow to another until it discovers its
Then comes the circus. The milker
wants some of the milk and the calf dit-
to. She squats down alongside the cow,
while the calf suckles on the other, until
the cow has somewhat recovered from
her nervous attack and lets the milk
flow, when bang, the calf gets a whack
on the head and lets go its hold. Some
milk is then coaxed down, the calf is al-
lowed to suckle again, a little more milk
is added to the quantity in the pail and
the youngster is allowed to take the bal-
Can you wonder that the cattle do not
improve in this country where green,
succulent food can be had the year
around? The remedies are, get an im-
proved male, keep him in a pen 100x100
feet the year round and record day of
A month before the calf is due feed the
cow well until the second day before it is
dropped, and two days after feed lightly.
Within four hours after the calf is
dropped- take it away and milk the cow
dry. Stable her in a dark place, milk
her three, if necessary four, times a day
until the "udder is clear." If the bag
cqkes, grease well after washing with
warm water. Rub it well with the whole
hand. Keep her up three days, then turn
out to graze, and in a week she will
mourn her calf.
The latter should also be placed in a
dark place some distance from its dam
and let alone for ten hours, when it
should be fed its mothers milk through
a nipple fastened to a pint bottle. In
three days it will suckle milk out of a pail
by holding your finger in its mouth- and
inside of a week it will not require your
assistance. Alivays feed warm milk,
otherwise it will scour. Feed it all the
milk it wants for a month, then you can
feed a little bran.
Fresh tender grass and rutabaga tops
will then be acceptable,also oats chopped
fine with a little meal sprinkled on them.
This weaning process can best be done
in summer with old cows as in winter
they are apt to go go dry, but withheifers
do it all the time. And furthermore, it
can only be recommended to those who
take sufficient interest to see that it is
WAVERLY STOCK FARx, near Talla-
EXPERIENCE WITH POULTRY.
The Best Breed for Florida--
Treatment of Diseases.
BY DR. JACIENNE. ,-
My experience in the chicken line has
been varied and doleful at times. I have
discarded after a fair trial most of the
fancy breeds, and now think the Leg-
horns the best for Florida. Why ?
1. Earliness. As a rule the Brown
Leghorn hen at seven months begins to
lay, and rarely ceases for five or six
months, and chicks hatched in May have
proved the best layers.
2. Non-setters. The heavy breeds will
lay, at the most, but two or three dozen
eggs, a.nd then for a struggle of a week
or so about setting. The Leghorns are
not troublesome this way.
3. Activity. The Leghorns pick up
half their living, and this in Florida is
quite an item. Clipping one wing will
keep them in bounds.
4. Freedom from disease. The smooth
legs, single comb and active habits dis-
pose toward health, in the freedom from
sandspur and insect harbors that other
breeds with feathered legs and top knots
supply. My birds have fewer mites, lice
and sandspurs than when I had the
Cochins or Brahmahs.
I had a siege with the cholera this
year, aod at one time thought I would
lose my flock, but after repeated trials
of remedies found this a "sure -cure."
One dose brought back the appetite to
the listless hens, and two restored the
color the pallid combs ; the third, and
the cackling began. The cholera was at
Half gallon fresh blood from the
60 grains red pepper, pulverized.-
60 grains calomel /
Half peck parched corn meal.
Mix thoroughly-three feeds for 30O
fowls.. Repeat in three days if needed.
Of courseI took antiseptic. measures,
cleaned out the coop, spread two inches
of fresh red clay on the floor, and
"sprayed" the perches and sides of the
coop with corrosive sublimate, 2 grains;
water, three gallons; salt, 2 ounces,
besides giving occasionally a little "cop-
peras" in the drinking water.
The sore-head is another pest. I am
satisfied it is not the "Roup" of the
North, but a contagious disease on the
order of small pox in the human race,
and running an analogous course. My
observations this year lead me to think
that it has a period of incubation of
eleven days after exposure, .that it has a
febrile stage of a week, during which
the "sores" appear, first on the comb or
near the beak, and extending to the legs
and feet, and that, like small pox in
humans, the chicken as a rule has sore-
head but once.
I have had a woful experience with
this disease, one year losing 96 per cent.
of my June hatch, and no remedy
availed. The rule is that chicks under
two months when attacked soon suc-
cumb, at least 75 per cent. At six months
they rarely die, and at one year seem
exempt from the contagion. When the
disease occurs during the rainy season
it is most fatal, and often becomes epi-
demic over a whole section of country.
I find that an ointment of acid nitrate
of mercury, diluted with lard .to one-
quarter its official strength, and applied
with a soft rag or brush to the sores,
first tearing off the hard scab as soon as
it appears, seems to prevent the spread
of the sores around the head, and to
shorten the duration of the disease per-
ceptibly. I visited the coop about an hour
after dark each night and brushed the
combs, thus ensuring the stay of the
ointment for some hours, and in some-
cases it seemed to prevent contagion.
Of course I used the same antiseptic
measures as when I had cholera to con-
FLEAS, MITES AND LICE.
The chicken flea made havoc among
ducks and geese last year iu-this neighbor-
hood, but a mixtuireof kerosene and lard
Ir-ushed over the fleas easily killed them.
These fleas can be found on the ears of
cats and dogs at almost any time deeply
buried in the flesh, riot like the nimble
black flea, but brown and sluggish. A
dose of kerosene on the ears of the
family cat and dog will often prevent a
plague among the poultry.
Mites and lice are easily gotten rid of
by the liberal use of tobacco dust in the
nesting places, and the spray of corro-
sive sublimate, adulterated with kero-
sene or whale oil spray. ,
I believe in a good coop, slatted on the
west and south-and tight on the north
and east; plenty of "ever-bearing" mul-
berry trees near for food and shade dur-
ing the summer; a good roof over the
coop, a good door and a good lock to
both yard and coop. It is needless to tell
a Floridian why to take such precau-
AnRCHER. FLA, Jan. 18, 1887.
Ailments and Remedies.
You can cut combs of fowls, if you
prefer. Use a sharp knife; cut off
oth combs and wattles. To prevent
bleeding first wash the head with strong
alum water, and then sprinkle with
one powdered tannin. .
For swelled eyes, bathe the head with
a warm- solution made by dissolving a
teaspoon of powdered boracic acid in a
pint of water, and then anoint, with a
few drops of glycerine. Repeat this daily.
For roup dissolve a teaspoonful of chlo-
ride of lime in a pintof water, and give
the bird a'teaspoonfull of the solution.
Birn tar and turpentine in the poultry
house after 'the fowls have gone on the
roost at night.
For soft shell eggs put the hens to
work scratching,for it indicates that they
are too fat. '
For indigestion, give the birds plenty
of sharp gravel, and also a teaspoonful
of fenugreek, in the soft food, for every
For lice dust Persian insect powder
freely in every crack and crevice, and on
the bodies of the hens, among the
To procure eggs avoid over feeding
and feed meat and milk, with plenty of
grain at night, omitting corn.
For bumble- foot make the roost low
and keep afflicted fowl confined.
For debility keep the fowl in a warm,
airy place, feed meat, and give a peice
of ginger daily.
New Breeds of Poultry
There seems to be no end of. new
breeds of poultry. It has not been very
long since we hbd the Wyndotte; now
we have the White and we have the Black
Wayndotte. Two kinds of white Ply-
mouth Rock--single comb and peacomb.
Also Pea-comb Wayndotte, and Pea-comb
White Cochins, Rose-comb Leghorn
White Houdans, White Hamburgs with
yellow legs, and many others too nu-
merous to keep up with -Southern Live
A DOCTOR'S ADVICE.
II.--A Philosophical View of the
Cause and of Disease
BY G. ADOLPHUS, M. D.
Phyisological science teaches that the
human body is a very complex cmahind,
constructed to perform complicated
functions. It is no matter of surprise
that this wonderful machine should be-
come deranged. The causes producing
these derangements are numerous. The
circumstances of their occurrence are as
various as the individual organisms
affected. How to avoid or prevent these
derangements, constitute the science of
The science of hygiene teaches how
best to avoid the causes of impaired
function or disease. In ancient times
diseases were regarded as the work of
malignant spirits, the "evil eye", etc.
Science has long since dispelled these
superstitions. However, there are still
many people who think disease is a thing
or an entity-a something which enters
the body for harm. You will hear them
say, the fever, the consumption, the
pneumonia, the this and the that. 'Evi-
dently believing disease to be a some-
thing only to be removed by a specific in
the hand of a physician.
. It is now necessary to learn what con-
stitutes health and disease, in the human
body. The lungs supply the blood with
oxygen, the heart forces the- blood
through all parts of the body. Digestion
and assimilation of food supplies both
heat and vital force. The constant
destruction and renewal of the tissues,
in a natural and unobstructed manner,
is health. The perversion or disturbance
of this change of the tissues is disease.
It is not a thing, or a malignant entity;
it is morbid action.
The rule of .estimating a departure
from health is very simple; it is always
in one of three directions, above, below,
or from, a health standard; either excess,
defect, or perversion. To apply a reme-
.dy rationally, you must use means to
diminish an excess, to decrease a defect.
and if perverted, to return to the normal
As there are various elements that are
necessary to constitute a. health stand-
ard, so there must be many to constitute
diseased action. There can be no doubt
rbut many of our chronic, and some acute
forms of disease, have origin, in the
violation of the laws of dietetics and
An observance of these laws would
unquestionably increase the average of
human life. When we consider how
commonly-and constantly people violate
every law of health, we are surprised
that every one is not diseased, and that
people live at all. Impure, badly cooked
food, taken in quantities too large for
the powers of the digestive machine
(man seldom consults his stomach) can
have but one result, viz., disease.
Of all the inorganic elements necessary
to the growth and health of the body,
water is by far the. most important. It
is the solvent of all that enters into, or
is evacuated from the system. It is
found in every tissue and -in the firmest
solids. The importance of water in the
human system cannot be over-estimated.
Water of a temperature lower than fifty-
five degrees, should never, at any time,
*be taken into the stomach. Ice water
is always injurious, and often danger-
ous, especially at meals.
The subject of ventilation should also
be carefully considered by those wishing
to attain a high state of health, also by
those having charge of public schools
and churches. It is not my intention at
this time to discuss the details of the
subject of scientific ventilation.
Before closing this article I must say
something about feeding children. Good
nourishing food should be selected for
children. The morning meal should con-
sist of eggs or fish, with'brown, or gra-
ham bread, with butter and plenty, of
milk, also cooked fruit of some kind
(baked apples and cream are excellent).
At dinner give meat, well cooked, in
reasonable quantities, with vegetables,
bread, butterand always plenty of milk
(don't scrimp the milk pitcher). For
supper always give a light diet, and give
it early-,'no worse thing than to give a
child supper, and then to bed.
Among the articles of diet which are
injurious, and which should be given to
children only upon special occasions,
and then in small quantities, may be
mentioned confectionery, preserves, jel-
lies, pickles, pie, cake, tea, coffee, and
chocolate. The diet given above, should
be changed from time to time, to suit
the taste of the child.
The reform in our manner of living as
a people will come. slowly. From the
present generation we have little to
hope. For abatement .of the evils of
which we complain, we must look to
the mothers, who have the making of
the mental and physical vigor of the.
men of the coming century.
I have been obliged to be brief and
have omitted very much that would have
been interesting and instructive. My
intention at the beginning was only to
touch the most important points, and
that I have now accomplished, in a very
brief and imperfect manner. There still
remains a wide field unexplored which
I am forced to leave for want of time.
In closing I would say, if the perusal of
these articles has been instructive or in-
teresting, or has awakened a desire in
the minds of any to know more respect-
ing the general laws of health, I am
LYNNE, Marion Co., Fla.
HOW OUR PAPER IS REGARDED.
Judging from the expressions of, ap-
proval which are coming to us daily from
correspondents and the press, and from
the rapid increase of our subscription
list, it is evident that 'the FARMER AND
FRUIT-GROWER has met with a more fa-
vorable reception than we had ventured
The addition of several features of
interest which were lacking in the first
or "sample" number, such as the ladies'
and children's departments, the Florid-
iana, the very full and exact market re-
ports, the weather record, etc., will con-
vince all that our motto is e welsior, and
as our paper goes out to a highly intelli-
gent and appreciative population, we
count on a rapidly increasing measure of
public favor, and expect soon to have a
very large circle of readers.
We shall be glad also of adverse criti-
cisms, provided the alleged faults are
clearly specified, but thus far we have'
received commendation only. In a few
instances we can give the sentiment of a
letter by quoting one or two sentences,
as in the following example:
Mr. J. V. Dansby, of Pensacola, whose
eminent success in truck gardening as
well as his able writings on farm topics,
entitle his opinions to respect, expresses
himself as follows : "The first number of
the FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER was duly
received and is the best thing in itsway
I have seen. It is just the paper needed,
and if you keep it up to the present stan-
dard of excellence must become popular
with the people. I can't see where you
have left any room for improvement."
Mr. Chauncy W. Wells, of Tampa,
writes: "I have looked it over and find
much valued 'information and consider
it worthy to be placed side by side with
any other like paper published."
Rev. T. W. Moore, of Marion county,
writes: "I believe your paper will do a
good work in disseminating new ideas in
regard to fruit raising, farming, stock
A veteran nurseryman, who objects to
the publication of his name, expresses
himself thus: "I like your paper first-
rate, and believe it will be the agricul-
tural paper of Florida. I hope after a
little while to give you an article every
Mr. H. G. Burnet, of Monroe county,
writes: "First copy of FARMER AND
FRUIT-GROWER received. It is a pleas-
ant surprise, being even better than an-
Mr. H. G. Daniels, of Amelia Island,
"Judging from what I have seen of the
FARMER AND'FRUIT-GROWER, it is the
best agricultural paper published in the
Mr. Arthur Brown, of Santa Rosa
county, writes: "Judging by the copy
sent me the paper is 'A No. 1,' and I
do not wish to miss a single number."
Mr. W. S. Moore, of Alachua county,
writes: "I have read with much inter-
est your FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER
and am much pleased with it. It is
much needed and can be made of much
value to Florida."
Mr. .S. L. Culler, of Seffner, Florida,
writes : "If you continue to make the
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER
equal to the first number, you will cer-
tainly furnish the agriculturists of Flor-
ida with a paper that will please them.
I am traveling through the country
among the farmers, and in every way
that I can assist you it will be cheerfully
Mr. H. W. Greetham, of Orlando,
writes : "I am greatly pleased with the
sample copy of your paper, and feel sure
it will prove a valuable addition to agri-
cultural literature devoted especially to
Mr. W. N. Justice, commission- mer-
chant of Philadelphia, writes : "Hving
received the first issue of your agricul-
tural paper, and-being delighted with
its tone, we wish you to insert our card
for six months."
[From the Citra New Era.]
Wehlave received the first number of
the FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER, published at Jacksonville.
It is an elegant publication and deserves
to succeed, and we trust it will.
[From the Highland Post.]
The first number of the FLORIDA
FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER made its
appearance this week. It is an eight-
page journal with six columns of solid
reading matter to the page, and is edited
by Prof. A. H.:Curtiss, and published by
C. H. Jones & Bro., of the Times- Union.
Its columns are replete with articles on
fruit growing, farming and stock raising,
written by some of the most practical
men in the State.
[From the Apopka Union.]
The FLoRIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER is the title of the new agricul-
tural paper, edited by Prof. A. H. Cur-
tiss, the eminent botanist, and published
in Jacksonville by 0. H. Jones & Bro.,
at $2 per annum. It is a handsome
paper of eight pages, and the name of
the editor is warranty that it will be inter-
esting and valuable.
[From the Mariana Courier.]
The FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER, published by C. H. Jo.e s&
Bro., proprietors of the Times-Union, at
Jacksonville, is now on our table. The
initial number of this publication proves
lainly its aim and purpose, and it will
e of vast importance to the fruit grow-
ersand farmers of the State. It is neat-
ly printed and contains some |valuable
FLORIDA RA IL WAY AND
TIME CARD IN EFFF" T)EOc. 27, 188., 12 05 a. .
All TrainsRunby l9m ,,,-ridlan Time (Central).
Shortest and Quickest Route to Ney Orleans and tlu
Southwest. Direct (Cnnections w .R.inms West
"a" means A. M. time. "p" means P. M. time.
Read up. Read down.
No.10. 2. No.2. No 1. N.
11 45 a 7 0 p Ar Jcksonville.......Lv 00 a 3 00 p
10 0 a 6 50 p Ar Baldwin ..................Lv 8 41 a" 3 50 p
S 18 a 5 1 p Ar Lake Citya.............Ar0 0 a 5 58 p
7 12 a 4 27 p Ar Live Oak..... ..........Ar 10 58a 7 05 p
6 01 a 26 p Ar Madison... ........_Ar 12 01 p 8 37 p
5 15 a 2 50 p Ar Monticello.............Ar 1 35 p 10 35 p
3 10 a 1 05 p Ar Tallahassee.............Ar 2 27 p 11 25 p
1 40 a 12 08 p Ar Quincy.................Ar .3 2 p 1 40 a
2 01a 11 25l a Ar River Junction ........ Ar 4 05p 3a
11 00 p 10 20 a ArMarianna................. Ar 5 07 p 4 2 a
8 00p8 15 ia LvDeFuniak Spring....Ar 7 05 p 8 00 a
00n 1s5 a LvPensacola................Ar 10 10p 11' 50
'2 p 3 00 a LvFlomaton...........Ar 11 9 p 3 18 p
00 a Lv Mobi0le,................. Ar 2 25a --
a6 00 p. Lv New Orleans............Ar 720a -
7 2u a 7 50 p LvMontgomery............Ar i7 1a5 7 0 p
7 55p 7 27 a Lv Nashville................Ar 40p 7 20 a
12 45- 12 45 a LvEvansville...............Ar 1 10a 2 3 p
9 i >, 12 36 a Lv Louisville................Ar 2 25a 2 20p
8 1 8 20 p Lv Cincinnati ...............Ar 6 0 a 6 365p
710a 7 20 p LvSt. Louis...................Ar 740a 800p
SU', 8 40 p LvChicago...................Ar 10 30 a 8 p
Sleeping Cars on No. 1 and 2 between Jacksonville and
New Orleans. F. R. and N. Sleeping Cars Jacksonville
to DeFuniak on No. 9 and 10, No. 1,2,9 and 10 daily.
Shortest and Quickest Route to Gainesville, Ocala.
Leesburg, and all points in South Florida.
Read up. Read down,
.So. 4. No. 8:- No. 7. No. 3.
4 00 p 11 25 a ArFernandina.............Lv10 10 a 4 45 p
2 47 p 7 45 a Ar Callahan.............Ar 11 24 a 6 45 p
1 47p 6 00a Lv Baldwin .................Ar 12 25p 10 15 p
2 40p 6 30 a Ar Jacksonvill............ Lv 11 5a 8 3 p
1 55p 5 30a Lv Baldwin..................Lv 2 40p 10 00p
1 00 p 4 03 a LvLawtey....................Ar .1 20 p 11 05 p
12 45a 335p LvStarke......................Ar 1 32p 1127p
10 So a 10 00 p.LvGainesville..............Ar 3 30 p 6 45 a
7 10 a 3 10 a Lv Cedar Key..............Ar 6 4p 145
i 31p 1 45 a Lv Hawthorn ...............Ar 2 26p 12 58a
11 4 a 12 55 a Lv Citra OrangeLake...Ar 2 5 p 1 43a
10 22a LvSilver SpEing........._Ar 336 p -
10 10 lp 11 38 a Lv Ocala.......................Ar 350p 2 45 a
10 00 lp 9 08 a Lv Wildwood...............Ar 453p 4 15 a
5 00p LvPanasoukee.............Ar -- 9'40a
3 20p -- LvSt.Catherine.......... -- a1100a
9 13 p 8 40 a Lv Leesburg................Ar 20 p 4 53 a'
80sp 8 1 a LvTavares................... Ar 545p 530a
7 37p 7 23 a LvAppopke.................Ar 6 37p 721&
7 l10p 6 65 a LvOrlando..................Ar 7 06p 7 54 a
Through Pullman Sleeping Cars, Nos. 3 and 4 between
- Jacksonville and Orlando without change. Nos. 7 and
8 daily. Nos. 3 and 4 daily except Sunday.
FERNANDINA AND JACKSONVILLE BRANCH
Read up. Read down.
No.-l. No. 5. No. 6. No. 12.
4454p 8 40 a Ar Jacksonville............ Lv 00 p 8 05 a
8 00 p 7 15a LvFernandina.............Ar 6 20 p 10 00a
At Oallahan with Savannah, Florida and Western
Railroad for Savannah, Macon Atlanta, Charleston,
Washington, Baltimore, New' ork Cincinnati, St.
Louis, Chicago, and all points North, West and North-
At Silver Springs, with Ocklawaha River Steamers.
At St. Catherine, with Florida Southern Railroad, for
Brooksvillel Bartow and Tampa.
At Orlando, with South Florida Railroad for Sanford,
Lakeland and Tampa.
At Cedar Key, with Steamer Governor Safford Monday
and Thursday for Manatee and Tampa.
CLYDE'S NEW YORK AND FLORIDA S. S. LINE
sils from Fernandina Sunday and Wednesday- from
Jacksonville Friday, for Charleston and New York.
SEA ISLAND ROUTE.
Steamer Express leaving Jacksonville 8:05 A. 2M.
Wednesday and Saturday, connect with the elegant
Steamer St. Nicholas. Inside Route ibr Brunswick,
Darien Savannah, connecting with steamers for Balti-
more, Philadelphia, New York and Boston.
Steamers Express leavinkJacksonvlle daily 8:0 a. m.,
City of Brunswick connects with steamer for Brunswick
and through trains of the E. T. and G. and B. and W.
WALTER G. COLEMAN, Gen. Traveling Agent.
A. 0. MAcDONELL,
GeneralPassenger and Ticket Agent.
-F. B. PAPY,
D. E. MAXWELL, Gen. Supt.
FOR R rISI>vu.
DAYTONA AND POINTS ON THI
ST. JOHNS AND HALIFAX RAILROAD,
Daily Except Sunday.
Leave Jacksonville via J., T. & K. W....... ..... 0 p a
Arrive Palatka 18 p m
Leave Palatka via Ferry Armamear.......... 2 20 p m
Arrive Rolleston 2 6 p m
Leave Rolleston 3 00 p t
Arrive Tomola 5 00 p m
Making connections with steamers and hacks t
freight and nassae for Ormond. Daytona. and all Doint
on Halifax River:
Leave Tomoka 8 a
Arrive Rolleston 10 3 0 a
Leave Rolleston via Ferry Arm'smear 10 36 ea
Arrive Palatka 11 00 a
Leave Palatka 11 32 a
Arrive Jacksonville. 1 SS p a
Making close connections for all points North san
Special inducements to Immigrants and exonrsld
Through rates of freight given to all points on tU.
East Coast. and as low as by any other line.
Road will be completed in a ew days to Ormond and
Daytona; thus rendering the haok transfer unneo y.
W. BrWATSON, MQ .
THE FOLLY NURSERIES,
Fine sour stocks, budded with best varieties.
Nursery on high pine land. Trees carefully
packed and delivered at shipping point in Pa-
latka, at the following prices:
e inch in diameter, 25 cents each; $200per
1 inch in diameter, 85 cents each; $800 per
1% inch in diameter, 45 cents each; 400 per
W.0 C. H O aVB Propra.
T OOR HERE I
SPECIAL LOW PRIORcBB
LxCONTE AND KEIFFER PEAR .TREES,
For the Season of 1886-7.
Also Apples grafted on LeConte Roots. For
catalogue anud prices, address
PULESTON & CO.,
Proprietors Florida Nursery. Montloello,Flsa.
information in regard to the fruit grow.
ing interests. Send your address and
get a copy of it froe and then subscribe.
[From the Pensacola Advance-Gazette]
We are in receipt of the initial num,
ber of the FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT
GROWER, published at Jacksonville,
Fla., by C. H. Jones & Bro., A. H. Cur-
tis, editor. This is an eight-page week -
ly and will prove a italuable addition to
the agricultural and horticultural inter-
ests of the State. Parties desiring the
paper will address C. H. Jones & Bro.
[From. the Floridian.]
The FLORIDA FARtMER AND FRUIT
GROWER is the title of the new agricul-
tural paper edited by Prof. A. H..Cur-
tiss, and published in Jacksonville, by
C. H. Jones & Bro. at $2 per annum. It
is a handsome paper of eight pages, and
the name of the editor is warranty that
it will be interesting and valuable.
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER. FEBRUARY 2. 1887.
ability of reclaiming them. In view of the
prospect that all the agricultural land now
rf available in the United States will be occu-
pied by 1895, the recent surveys of waste
lands in the Mississippi valley, along the
A SERVICAL ROOT CTTER A Atlantic coast, in western New York and
A SERVICEABLE ROOT CUTTER EAS-in other states, are of special importance.
ILY MADE AT HOME. The New York state survey reports that
i___ t is perfectly feasible to turn the great
swaucps in Niagara, Erie, Orleans and
Adam's Needle as a Lawn Plant-A Con- Genesee counties, which are now waste
venient Shed on the Farm-Mrs. and malarial tracts, into healthful and
Henry Clay's Famous Ham Recipe. prosperous farms. Twenty-five thousand
News From Many Sections. acres in the Oak Orchard basin alone, now
subject to constant overflow, can, accord-
Farmers generally concede the wisdom ing to our state survey, be thoroughly re-
of cutting roots for stock, but many are claimed at a moderate cost. Waste tracts
deterred from the practice by the cost of like those which exist in the western part
patented cutters. The following illustra- of this state, in parts of the Mississippi
tion described by The American Agricul- valley, and in the now worthless district
tourist represents a serviceable root cutter of 4,000 square miles in North Carolina,
that may easily be made at home by any between the James river and Albemarle
one handy in the use of tools: sound, were drained in northern Europe
at least 80 per cent. of water, and when a
large mass of them are kept together
they are liable to "sweat," and the
) \skins and tops become damp; and if
A / the temperature is above freezing they
/;-4 will throw out roots and commence to
i grow, just as they would in the damp
soil. If it is necessary to keep them in a
large mass, put them in a dry place, such
"' l as a shed or barn; then they will freeze
solid, and stay frozen till wanted in
Spring. They must be well covered to
keep them from thawing, and you should
avoid putting them in a barn with a base-
ment underneath, where horses, cattle,
sheep or hogs are kept, as the warmth
from the animals might thaw them out.
ROOT CUTTER. We have kept them perfectly on the east
At A is seen the hopper, which is made side of a north and south wall, where the
Without a bottom. The slide contains a two snow drifts several feet high.and remains
edged knife, and runs in grooves,G G, in the' till spring. They were simply covered
top of the frame close to the bottom of the -with cornstalks and leaves.
hopper. Near the bottom of the frame is
a roller, R, into which isdfitted the handle, Sheep in a Yard.
H. This is connected with the slide by Professional sheep growers seldom turn
the rod, R. The knife should be about sheep to a thee s sog the
thick, be paced diagonally in the slide, a the rience that it does
leaving half an inch space between it and blnot pay. stock In the ase ometigh priced
mf teslide. When u blooded stock it has sometimes been
the bottom of the slide. When using the pretty dear experience.
apparatusallthat istnecessary is to moe The farmer who keeps but few sheep
the handle to and from the hopper. In and has never made a special study of the
works easily and quickly, is durable, and business cannot do better than to follow
withfair usage is not likely to get out of he example of those who have; yet we
o r ,notice that it is the almost invariable cus-
Famous Recipe for Curing Hams. tom with such farmers to allow their
sheep to take their chances among the
The following is the famous recipe used mixed stock of the common yard.
by Mrs. Heury Clay for curing hams, In most cases they are obliged to get
several hogsheads of which were annually their living frem the straw stack, or ricks
sent to Boston, where, under the name of of hay around which vicious horned cattle
"Ashland hams," they commanded the hold sway. Manyof the more timid of
highest of prices, especially among the the flock will go hungry before they will
w healthy Whgs of t ha t city. I jeopardize themselves by crowding them-
For every ten hams of moderate size, she selves in to get a small share of the com-
took three and one-half pounds of fine moen rations.
mal e t m e ons Npoundoofsaltpeee and tw
Spalt, one pound of saltpetre and two Unless a sheep is killed outright, the
pounds of brown sugar, and after mixing owner is seldom aware of an injury when
these thoroughly together, rubbed the it occurs. It is a matter of great wonder
lams therewith on either side. They were to himh
then packed in a tight box and placed in a lambshir, however, that he has no more
lambs from so many ewes. Looking at
cool outhouse for about three weeks, when the matter understandingly it is a greater
tha- hams were taken out and put in a wonder that he has any, or that half his
pickling tub or hogshead and covered with ewes remain alive.
brine strong enough to swim an abegg. It costs but little to have an extra yard
After remaining in the pickle for about for the sheep opening off their own pen
three weeks they were taken out, thor- or house. A few feet of lumber and a few
roughly rubbed with fresh salt and hung hours' time can be well expended here.
up in a well ventilated house for a few The man who makes proper provision for
days to dry. Next they were transferred his sheep in this way is not the man who
to the smoke house, where they were hung says: "There ain't no profit in sheep, any-
utp and smoked with green hickory or way. I just keep a few to eat up the odds
of bright mahogany. This accomplished, and ends," as a farmer remarked to the
ofc htmwahogan.eTi ac ls writer only a few days ago.-Indiana
coverings -whitewashed, and hung up to
dry, after which they were whitewashed New Silver Geranium.
again and packed away in hogsheads with The new silver geranium introduced to
hickory ashes, until wanted either for the floral world as "Madame Salleroi" and
home use or sending to Boston. catalogued last season with new plants by
Peter Henderson, Vick and other leading
Adam's Needle or Spanish Bayonet. seedsmen, is considered as a great acqul-
Yucca filamentosa, a plant that delights sition to the silver lined class.
also in the names of Adam's Needle and
Spanish Bayonet, has excited during the
past year much admiration in the Capitol
park of Washington, D. C., where it is
planted in large groups, making a most .
Yucca filamentosa, though common in
the southern states, deserves to be planted
more generally for lawn ornamentation.
This beautiful plant, says as good author-
Ity as The American Garden, is quite hardy
and aiso of the easiest culture, growing in
almost any soil, though slightly preferring
one of a sandy and porous nature. The
erect, branching flower spike comes from
the heart of the plant and often grows to
more than man's height, bearing hundreds
of' creamy white and very showy flowers.
Some species of this genus, however, are
not hardy enough to withstand our north-
ern winters out doors, and may be grown
in pots or tubs and kept dormant in a
frost proof cellar through the winter.
Reclaiming Waste Lands.
In his new report on the work of the
geological survey, Professor Powell esti-
mates that there are 100,000 square miles
of coast lands in this country made value-
less by inundations, which, by the use of
proper means, can probably be placed
among the richest agricultural lands in
this country.. His department is now study-
ing the swamp lands and marshes of the
ALhanti_ coast to ascertain the practijc-
MADAME SALLEROI. -
It is an entirely distinct variety. The
leaves are deep olive green in the center,
with a broad white margin. The plant is
of very compact growth, symmetrical in
form, with a dense growth of foliage and
of dwarf habit. It is a splendid variety to
grow in pots as a specimen plant or to use
for bedding or borders.
Best Varieties of Bees.
At a recent meeting of bee keepers the
subject discussed was "Best Varieties of
Bees." Professor Cook said that no one va-
riety possesses all the good qualities, but
that we must cross the best sorts and thus
eliminate the undesirable characteristics
and promote the good ones. A. J. Root
stated that his colony of Cariolans were
strongest in the spring and begun rearing,
brood first, but it stored no surplus.
Many of his patrons will have hybrids
only, and he questioned if it is profitable
for honey producers to breed for any pure
race. Mr. Taylor agreed with Mr. Root,
and said he was certain the time had come
when apiarists must feed bees for busi-
ness, regardless of color or markings. He
had found Italians very cross at time of
Oregon Woman at the Plow.
An Oregon exchange tells of the exploits
of a married woman in Grant county.
When plowing time came she constructed
a box on the plow in which to carry her
baby, and thus she plowed the ground.
She then proceeded to harrow, plant and
cultivate, carrying the child on her back,
and in this way produced a fine crop,
which she carted to a neighboring town
BY S. BARING GOULD.
Joe the miller walked away. He dii
not return, he did not look round again
Trip stood with folded hands looking
after him. The muscles of her mout]
were twitching with laughter. In th
moonlight the merry dimples came int
her lovely cheeks. What a droll idea o
her mother that was of the balloon an
But she was a little sorry that she hai
laughed aloud and hurt Joe's feelings
He was-a good soul. Perhaps she might
miss his friendship when she left tha
part of the country.
She was looking after him as he wen
along the drive, broad and white in th
moonlight, with his hands joined behind (
his back and his head low down. H
was a solidly built young man. H
walked slowly, steadily, with firm tread
Every step was taking him further front
her, not for that night, but forever, so i
seemed to her. The dimples went out o
her cheeks, and she took one step for
ward as though to go after him, and
transient feeling woke in her heart tha
she had made a mistake to send hin
away. But it was soon effaced, as writing
on the sea sand is effaced by the rising
tide, for the next thought that swep
over her mind-she was born for bette,
things than to be, as her mother said, a
So faithful, so kind, so gentle, Joe had
ever been to her, and to every one else s(
inaccessible, so hard and cold. Then i
gush of warm, true feeling poured
through her veins, and she cried out:
The night was so still that he heard
her, and stopped. She ran along th(
drive toward him; and he came walking
back-not fast, not eagerly, as if expect.
ing great things-but firmly, calmly;
ready to accept what she was willing tc
If he had run and thrown himself al
her feet, perhaps she might then have ac.
cepted him; but when he came trudging
back so composedly a revulsion tool
place in her feelings, and when they met
she did not quite know why she had re-
called him, what she wished to say. Sc
she stood still, bent her head, and mut-
"I'm sorry I called. I only wanted tc
say one thing; whether I leave Ring-
wood or whether I stay, you will let me
sometimes come up the steps and go
over the-the"'-her heart became soft
again for a moment, and tears were in
"I mean, Joe, the dear old mill."
"Is that all?" he asked. "Yes, so long
as I am there you can always visit it; but
he, if he sets foot on the ladder, I'll fling
."You are not angrywith me?'" She
looked up into his eyes, furtively. She
was playing with him, and yet she was
half in earnest. She liked him, but she
laughed at him-her elephant.
"Angry with you?" he asked. "No,
Trip, never. I have borne -with much
from you already. I have borne with
you this evening, but I am not angry--
only, Trip, so, sosorry."
"We shall remain friends?"
"Always your friend, but not youi
"And, wherever I may be, you will
think of me?"
"I never do other than think of you-
think of you with such apain and anguish
in my heart that it is like some deadly
disease which has taken hold of me and
is consuming me."
He spoke with averted head. He could
not trust himself to meet her eyes.
"Is that all you have to say?" he asked,
"that you may still come and see the
mill! That"-his voice quivered-"you
may some day drive up to the steps in your
grand carriage, with your coachman and
footmen in liveries, and your brass
mounted harness, and that you may get
out of your carriage, dressed in pink
silk, with gloves and rings, grand as the
greatest lady, and so, so, with your para-
sol over'your face, and hat, and feathers
-so, so, may come up and honor the
poor-as you called him once-dull.Joe
Oh, foolish, unhappy Joe Why did
you speak in these terms? Why did you
call up such a picture before the vain
girl's mind's eye, and spoil your only
chance of winning her, just as her heart
Yet it was well, perhaps, that he did
thus unconsciously thrust her from him.
They were not a pair, the elephant and
the fire balloon
"Yes," she said, "that is all, Joe, that
Shad to ask. I called you back for noth-
ng else." .
Without a farewell he turned -and
walked away; the same steady, heavy
read, in the same way with his head bent
lown, and with his hands joined behind
As he walked away she still stood
watching him, and again did the same
-egret make itself.felt in her heart. Her
iosom heaved, her eyes filled, her breath
ame quick, and her fingers plucked at
he fringe of her pretty light gown.
He was a dear old fellow-old-he was
ut young in years, though old in
bought and feeling. Yes, she did like
im. How would it be if she were trans-
?lanted to another part of England, and
hrown among total strangers? How
lone she would feel! How she would
ong for the wise head and the trusty
ieart of Joe! And now, dimly, she be-
an to see that he had been a better
riend to her than her mother. \Her
nether was urging her to sail on a
holly unknown sea, whereas she knew
ll about Ringwood and Joe. She knew
-ow deep, how still, how stormless was
he Pacific ocean of his heart; and what
Id she know of the character, of the
emper, of the principles of Mr. Beaufort?
'hen she recalled Joe's words about her
future with him. What if, that forecast
should prove true? What if after all he
mother's efforts, and her own ambitious
hopes, the end aimed at should prov
a delusion? She did not in the leas
care for Mr. Beaufort. He flattered
her vanity, but he had not touched
her heart. He had laid hold of her by
the worst fibers of her nature, where
Joe held herby the few fine, subtle, good
Then she cried out again, "Joel Joe"'
Perhaps hoe was too far away to hear
d her voice. He did not turn. He was fur
I- their now than he had been when firs
g called and brought back.
h She waited for him to halt in his walk
e She waited in v in. Then she felt in he:
o pocket; by some caprice she had slipped
f (for no reason that she could give) thi
d whistle into it, he had made for her somi
years ago. She put it to her lips and
d whistled; whistled loudly, shrilly, with
' all the strength of her breath.
t Then she paused, and, holding thi
t whistle, waited. She waited in vain. Joi
walked on. He did not stop, he did no
t hesitate in his walk.
e He knew her mood better than shi
d knew herself.- He had heard her call
e he had heard the whistle, and he walked
Then' the tears that had risen to he:
n eyes became tears of mortified vanity, as
t they dropped from her lashes. Shi
stamped her little foot on the gravel, and
tossed her head. He did not really love
a her, if he would not return when shi
called. Was she not worth the trouble
a of retracing a few steps? Apparently hi
g thought not. There were others who val
n ued her higher.
At that very moment Mr. Beaufort
was beside her.
"Miss Redfern," he said,. "I heard your
whistle, and the trusty canary has flown
to your finger. I am here. Your mother
0 has been asking for you, and I offered to
a go in quest. May I flatter myself that the
whistle was to call me?"
She said nothing. She might be giddy
but was not capable of a lie.
"This is a fine park," said Mr. Beau:
e fort, "but you should see mine in Glou-
Scestershire. This is small, mine covers
three times the amount of land, and my
trees are finer, my deer more numerous
D and fatter."
"What," asked Trip, "what. are your
"Buff and blue," answered the gentle
man. "The Beaufort colors. The stock-
ings of the footmen-white." ,
t "I heard some one say that your har-
ness was brass mounted."
"Not at all.- Silver mounted, far mor
stylish. The Beaufort harness is all sil-
ver mounted. I could not differ from hli
grace. It would not look well."
"Have you many carriages, sir?"
'"I have not counted. I believe I pay
the two guineas tax for four, and how
Many drags I have for which I pay fifteen
shillings, I really cannot say, I leave all
that to my steward."
"Is your house very fine?"
"I am rebuilding it in palatial style.
SThe first architect of the day is employed
on it. I have given him carte blanche."
"Is it not rather dull in Gloucester-
"I am in town for the season.
Have you ever been to the opera? I won-
der what Miss Tottenham would say to
seeing you there in a box opposite her?"
"I am hardly likely to have the
chance," said Trip, and sighed.
"Will you not give me the chance of
taking you there? I place my fortune,
my mansion in Gloucestershire, my town
house, my person, unreservedly at your
feet. And"-he opened a morocco case,
and drew forth a ring that sparkled in
the moonlight-"allow me to present
you with this diamond ring, worth only
a hundred and fifty pounds, as an earnest
of my sincerity."
Since Maiguerite was tempted by the
casket, what woman's heart can resist
"Let us go in," said Mr. Beaufort,
"and announce our engagement to your
mother, that charming Mrs. Redfern."
That night when the guests had de-
parted, Trip sat in her crushed straw-
berry on the side of her bed, a very woe-
begone figure, looking before her without
Then her mother came'in. "Oh, my!"
she said, "not gone to bed yet. What a
blessing has come to-day. The crushed
strawberry did it. Now we may sleep
happy; your fortune is made."
Trip started at her mother's voice,
and, when she came over to her daughter,
Trip, without rising, threw her arms
round her mother's neck and burst into
a storm of tears on her bosom.
"Mother, dear mother! I think I've
masse a dreadful mistake. I-I don't
care for him, not a bit; and I do-I do
love Joe Miller."I
"Fiddle-de-dee1" exclaimed Mrs. Red-
fern. "Hoity toityl Fortunate you have
accepted Mr. Beaufort and taken his
ring. You can't be off that. What!
when you can fly as fire balloon, wish to
grovel as a-as a-garden- roller?"
"Oh, motherI I don't want to be a fire
"Hoity toityl Not to become a star?
My dear, you've made your bed now and
you must lie on it. The world turns and
we must turn round with it. The word
that is spoken and the lover dismissed
are past recall."
HOW SHE THREW HERSELF AWAY.
"The marriage is actively to take place
next Thursday," said Mrs. Redfern,
meaning, of course, "actually." Pres-
ents for the bride poured in from all her
friends, Joe only excepted. Old Mrs,
Tottenham, Miss Tottenham, Mr. Totten-
ham, the housekeeper, the butler, the
maids, the lodgekeeper-all gave her
presents, all personal ornaments, or bits
of frippery wherewith to adorn her
house, Beaufort court, in Gloucester-
shire, in process of erection.
Mr. Beaufort had a mansion in London,
he said, in Picadilly; and' he proposed
that after the marriage he should take his
bride to Beaufort house, Piccadilly, and
then make a tour with her in his yacht
along the Norwegian coast; the fjords,
the glaciers there were worth a visit, he
said; and, as Trip had neyer yet been
r abroad, he ventured on a pleasantry and anow who can help you. "'But, my good
S said that this Trip should be with him. fellow, every other person you meet pre-
e"So, my dear Mrs. Redfern, you must tends a connection with some peer of the
e expect no letter for a month or so. After realm; that is no new thing, though the
Sour return we will communicate wtih connection may be hard to prove, per-
d you from Gloucestershire." haps impossible. But why are you par-
"Lawk-a-bodyl" said Mrs. Redfern; ticularly interested in the matter?"
s "don't there be any postal communica- Again Joe rubbed his head.
tions from Norway?" "Well. sir, Trip and I have been old
"I only say that you must not expect friends, very fast friends, and Mrs. Red*
any, and be agreeably surprised if you '
hear. You see, my dear mother-in-law fern believes whatever she is told, and
r elect, we shall be in our yacht, and may Mr. Redfern don't care, so that Trip has
Snot come near a postoffice-if post- no one to think for her welfare but me."
t offices exist in those parts." The rector shook his head.
"I shall be afraid she'll suffer ship- "It is sure to be all right," he said.
wreck; I've heard there's a great whirl- He was a sanguine man. "Don't you
r pool in those parts. It you was to carry bother yourself.
d my Lema into that whirlpool, and she Joe walked back to his mill thinking, -
e were sucked down, and never come up depressed, uneasy, and puzzled.
e again, but all broken and done for, I'd What more could he do? Nothing. He
d cry my eyes out." was impatient because he could-do no
h Mr. Beaufort did not answer. Any more, and while he was .turning over in
one who had watched his face at that his head how to find out the antecedents
e moment would have observed a change of Mr. Beaufort the marriage took place.
e in it. That he loved Trip was unques- As the coachman with white favors
t tionable. He was bewitched by her. He drove the happy pair away from the
could not take his eyes off her when in keeper's lodge, past the windmill, the
e her society, and, whenever he could, he sails of which were flying briskly, a little
Swas in her society, hand was thrust through the carriage
d Was it wonderful? Such a charming, window, waving a white handkerchief-
lovely creature as this sweet' Trip of the handkerchief was., not dry. Then a -
r 18 is not seen' often in a lifetime. little face looked out, and looked up at
s She was full of faults; ,but her very the mill-a wistful face with very red
e faults were engaging. One could see she eyes and quivering lips; and long after
d was vain, and forgive it-she had a right the carriage had. passed the same face
e to be vain; that she was a coquette, and looked back at the dear old mill.
e pass it over-her coquettishness gave a Did Trip -think that her friend Joe was
e piquancy to her beauty., at the door, or up at the window of the
e "Who would be his best man?" asked corn chamber? She looked at one, then at
Mrs. Redfern; and. with-a flutter of ex- the other, but saw no white head. Yet
citement, "would the duke condescend to she thought he might have come to the
t be present?" door to wave his cap to her. Surely he
No, his grace would not. In fact, the could not be so uninterested in her for-
Sfamily was much offended at the engage- tunes as not to leave his work for a mo-
n ment. They regarded it as a mesal- ment'to wish her God speed Surely he
r liance, they would not countenance it; was not so unforgiving that he still har-
0 that was why Trip had received no calls bored anger in his sullen heart against
e from any of his family-no notes, no her-her who now looked up for his for-
presents, no notice whatever. However, giveness?
Argued Mr. Beaufort, when he introduced Joe had seen her. He was not unin-
her all this miserable prejudice would terested in her fortune. He harbored no
melt away, the irresistible charm of her anger against her. But he would not
beauty and manner would win its way, show himself. He stood back, with his
and she would be received with affection, arms folded over his breast, and his
Mr. Beaufort was very anixous to hurry head down, and he had -two lines on his
s on the marriage. His time, he explained, cheeks from which the flour had been
was precious; his yacht was ready, and washed-away. And hark! Tingle, tingle,
he was desirous of seizing the most tingle I The empty hopper is ringing,
beautiful and suitable weather for his ringing, ringing, and -still Joe stands
honeymoon in Norway. So preparations with bent head and folded arms, and he
were very hasty, a license procured to does not hear the bell for once in his life,
obviate the delay of bans, and the land- and the' stones grind themselves and
lord of the Dog and Pheasant was invited grind sparks out of their flinty ribs.
to act as best man. [TO BR CONTINUED]
During the time that intervened be-
tween the proposal and the marriage Trip 1 MINUTES
was restless and excited. During the 56
day the trying on of her bridal dress, the BETWEEN
talk of her mother, the visits of friends,
Kept her spirits up; but at night, when 1t AUgustine and PalatkA
7 alone, they sank, and she had many a VIATAX
Scry in her little room. She did not care
I for Mr. Beaufort. Her heart was wholly St. Augustine & Palatka By.
untouched, only her ambition was roused "THE STANDARD SHORT LN3Sn
and her vanity inflamed. There were two
spirits in her-one that urged her on in Reduction in Time! ReduetoninBat
Sthe direction she was taking, the other,
that spoke in words of warning, to hold Commencing Monday, Nov. 29th, train will
her back. run as follows:
What did she really know of Mr. Beau- VAILY, EXCEPT SUNDAY.
fort? What was his character? She had
not spoken with,a single person who had Leave St. Augnstne.......... 00 a m it p m
known him before he came to the Dog Arrive POlat o05 am 1pa
Leave Palatka 10 15 a m 4 50 pmin
and Pheasant. She could not wholly put Arrive St. Augustine............ 0O a m 00 p,
away from her the words of Joe, expres- SUNDAY TRAnM
sive of his mistrust. He was jealous, S ......... m
she said, that was why he spoke so Arrive Palatka .905 a m 425 p is
strongly, and bitterly, arnd unjustly. Leave Palatka 9 0s a m 4 0 p ia
Nevertheless, there were times when a Arive st. Augustine................10 40 a m oo00 p
misgiving took possession of her, and she At Palaka connects with Florida Southern '
Jacksonville, Tampa and Key West R'y and St. Jobns
feared the possibility of his words coming River steamers to and fromali points in-South Floe'
true in part. Mr. Beaufort might .have ida. The Monarch Parlor Obevatory Car "Ymilna
a bad temper, might be jealous, might wibe on thi line by December the1
drink-be a gambler. There was no say- ST. Jomps RAILWAY--ANCI3NT CITY ROTJ1-
ing what his qualities were, as no one DAILY.
k-gew anything of his past, but what he Leave St. Augustine............5 pm
chose to reveal himself. Arrive Tocol 6 15 p m ..
Mr' Redfern did not interfere. Love Arrive iugustine....... .......... 7 p ....
making, marrying, was woman's work, connects at Tocowith Fat Mail Steamers, fo
he said; the maid must suit herself; if Jacksonville to all points in South Florida.
the spark suited her, she, was the person
most concerned, and he was satisfied. DAILY-EXCEPT SUUDAY.
Mrs. Redfern believed everything that Leave St. Augustne..........10 45 a m 245 pm
Mr. Beaufort said, and did not dream of Arrive Tocol 11 30 a m 80 p la
doubting it. She had long looked for eave To ugustne............. p am 4p
this happy day, and now it was come. Connects at Tocoi with the fast and oular teamo,
The 1~lht gallant turns up in fairly tales John Sylveserof the Post Line, to and from Jackson
and novels. vile, giving 2 hours and 15 minutes at St. Augustin*
ut Tip a one fiend w thoh aud return to Jacksonville same day, making thisdf"
But Trip had one friend who thought sirable route for Tourists. Trains run into t. Au
of all this, though he did not know how tine within three minutes walk of the Plaa.
to help her-to help her against herself.
He also asked himself again and again: w. J. JARVIS, n.Freght&pa.At.
Who is this Mr. Beaufort who has a duke Gen. Supt..
in his family? It ought not to be hard to
discover if there be a duke of that name. TABLO BEACH.
After much silent pondering of the mat-
ter, he went to the parsonage with his lit- JACKONVILLE AND ATLANTIO B. LL
tie bill for flour and barley meal in his JACKSONVILL AND ATLANTI R. .
hand. The rector liked to have his ac- In effect November 1th, 5.
counts settled quarterly. No.1 I No.
The rector had a great respect for Joe, Leave Jacksonville..... .... 8sAam si-pm
who was so steady a parishioner-flever Arrive Pablo Beach.. -- 10 15am|i 15pm
drank and gave no trouble. No.1 N o.
Jo received his money for his account, Leave Pablo Beach... ............. 1 pm 14530
bu' i not leave at once. AriveJackovuie.....- i1210pm|0p
ase, sir," said he, "have you a TrainsNo. 1,saand4rnndilty.
book about all the lords and ladies in JUMIUSA'nr'F,
"Certainly, Mr. Western, you mean a ILEY, GROVER & Co.,
'Peerage."' "II"RO C
"I'll tell you what I want," said Joe, STATE AGENTS FOR
in his blunt, straightforward way.,
"There's Trip Redfern is going to marry BRASIN FERTILIZER CO'S
a Mr. Algernon Beaufort, who says there
is a duke in his family, and I want to SOLUABLE SEA ISLAND GUANO
find out if it is so."
"Pshawl" laughed the rector, "it i DISSOLVED BONE AND ALKALI
lure to be right. Beaufort-duke. There SOLVED BONE AND ALKALI
Is a Duke of Beaufort, but the family PHOSP TE,
name is not Beaufort, but Fitzroy Somer- PHOSPHATE,
set. Here Is the Peerage, look fo- your- AND OSALE DEALERS IN
Joe looked at the book, turned the FRUITS AND PRODUCE.
pages, and was more puzzled than before.
"Then those of the duke's family are Get our Prices before buying.
not Beauforts at afl?"ESS O
"Certainly not; Fitzroy Somerset. Did WEV SELS CO.,
Mr. Beaufort claim relationship to the REOEIVERS OT
Duke of Beaufort?"
Joe rubbed his head. ORANG E S,.
"That I can't say. 'All I know is, he o8 and 220 Washington Street, "
told Mrs. Redfern that there was a duke and 220 Washington treet,
in the family." 1 13- YORK cITY. :
"He did not say what duke?" (sbihd8.
"I think not." (Established 1858.)
Joe saw his only chance of finding out
about Trip's intended husband disappear- t Returns Rended. Steno on a-
"I fear I cannot helm vou. I do nbt plipation.
4 .~ *s~
FLORIDA FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, FEBRUARY 2, 1887.
There has been a new hotel opened at
DeLand has eight churches and not a
saloon within its borders.
Texas ponies have been plentiful in
Marianna for some time past.
A great many farmers about Quincy
were busy last week planting oats.
Now is the time to graft thd Japan
persimmon and Miranna and Japan
A. mhn can step on a railroad train in
New York, and arrive in Tampa in forty
Dr. C. A. Gee is planting a five-acre
grove of pecans near the eastern ceme-
tery in Quincy.
John E. Bruck, a practical tobacco
planter, will plant forty acres with Cu-
ban tobacco seed near Monticello.
At the close of the Florida war in
1845, Florida had only 54,000 inhabi-
tants, now Jacksonville has 34,200.
The people of New Smyrna will hear
the whistle of a locomotive in their
town before the end of the month.
Oysters in the shell can usually be
bought in St. Andrew's 'Bay, southeast
of Pensacola, for 10 and 124c. per 100.
A meeting of the citizens of Rock-
ledge was held Monday night, for the
purpose of incorporating that place into
There have been but few oranges
shipped from Indian river. Two groves
have been holding back their crops for
In one day last week Author Schele-
man and Frank P. Atha killed, near
Lake Harney, 151 snipe, 6 quail, 20
doves and 3 hares.
Col. Codrington, of the DeLand Agri-
culturist, who has been stricken down
with paralysis, has been obliged to re-
tire from business.
The name of the Orange Ridge Echo,
of DeLand, .has been changed to, the
Florida Chronicle, with Messrs. Leet &
Webb as editors and proprietors.
There is a current report that the
early building of the Orange Belt Rail-
road to Tarpon Springs and other points
on the west coast, is an assured fact.
Mr. Ager McCrory, of LaGrange, Bre-
vard county, has procured a patent or-
ange sizer, that will size oranges fast
enough for twenty to be kept busy wrap-
Banana river oranges are now being
shipped to the Northern markets. Cap-
tains Penny and Wilson brought over a
load to Titusville for a shipment a few
The Whitmore Brothers, a few miles
below Kissimmee, are shipping from 40
to .60 barrels of cauliflower from their
gardens three times per week to the
The new building school bell at Eustis
is placed in position. It-is an acquisition
that is appreciated b) every one,.and the
sweetest, toned of the six which the
town now possesses.
-Orlando has an ice factory-which
manufactures ten'tons of ice per day. It
not only supplies Orlando, but ships
--- ;, large quantities to Winter Park, Kis-
S simmee, Apopka and Tampa
There are now in course of construc-
tion, and in contemplation within the
S :. city limits of Tampa. about seven or
eight brick blocks, costing from $6,000
to $40,00') each, makingon aggregate of
S. $1'16,00. -
F. J. Vogle's nursery is said to be one
of the sights of Maitland: It contains
100,000 fine trees, stretching along- in
one unbroken line for about a quarter of
a mile,"and containing many rare and
choice varieties of trees.
S. Colonel White, of White Oak, is being
prominently urged for the Judgeship of
the Third Judicial Circuit. Mr. W. is one
.of the lawyers of that circuit.. The race
is between him and the present incum-
e Wdave picked strawberries from our
vines, set last September, for six weeks
past, not, in any great quantities, how-
ever,. In February they will bear abund-
antly, and,continue till July. They are
now full of blooms.--Apopka Union.
Hon. J. H. McKinfney, of Marianna,
S was in Talahassee last week buying Leon
county mules to eat the big crop of corn
made last year in Jackson county. The
June storm did not reach Jackson, and
that.county made an excellent crop.
A steamer is needed, to run between
Clearwater Harbor and Tampa, as promi-
S nentbVtiness men say that a full cargo
could be given her every trip. Passenger
travel between these two places is quite
heavy also;' and she -would probably
carry a good passenger list.
Considerable of a boom exists in Arch.-
er in the planting of the Black Hamburg
: and other sub-tropical grapes. About
one thousand vines have been imported
S from California, and are being rapidly
set in' vineyards, as .well as the large
number that Mr. Merion Smith, the
pioneer of this fruit in that locality, has
propagated and sold. .
The Florida Chautaugua, for Febru-
ary, has an excellent picture, and a.
Short, though comprehensive, biography
S of Captain W. D. Chipley The Chau-
Stauqua gives Captain Chipley credit for
the phenomenal rise and rapid,growth
Sof the Florida Chautauqua Assembly, as
well as many other enterprises.of inter-
est to Pensacola and West Florida.
The scales, gauges and all the custom-
S. house implements have arrived, and the
^ preparations are now complete to put
the immediate transportation -act in
S... force. In other words, the customs
dues on goods imported into Tampa will
S" be collected at that place-instead of at
' Key West, as heretofore. -
Rafael Perez and Alhambro, two gehn
.- tlemen from Philadelphdia, are in Or-
S lando, desirous of starting a cigar and
tobacco factory. These gentlemen are
natives of Cuba and, thoroughly conver-
sant with the culture and nianufacture
of tobacco, and believe there is a good
place in Orlando for them.
Mr. R. A. Whitfield sent into Tallahas-
see a wagon load of turnips last week,
the smallest in the lot weighing four
pounds each, and the largest weighing
nine and a half pounds each. Mr. Whit-
field, finding that his turnips were being
weighed, sent back to his farm, and
brought in another load of larger turnips.
Some of the last load weighed twelve
A three-mast schooner, Freddie L.
Porter, F. W. Russell, master, en route
from Charleston to Mobile, loaded with
ground phosphate, sprung a leak while
weathering a gale off Sarasota on last
Friday, and sunk. She went down with
sails spread The steward was Mr. B. K.
Watts. The crew was taken to Tampa
by Captain Bill Smith, of the Cora Lee.
The abandoned schooner was owned by
For some time past the people of the
centre of LaGrange, Brevard county,
have been bothered with hawks, and on
Saturday Mr. G. Gardner succeeded in
catching in a steel trap an immense
white hawk. It is quite a curiosity, as
only one other of the kind was ever
killed there before, that being by Dr. B.
R. Wilson some thirteen years ago. Mr.
Gardiner intends taking it to the taxi-
dermist at Titusville. It is a beautiful
bird and a great rarity.
The sohocner Jesse May, whose master
is supposed to have been murdered, has
been brought up the bay and tied up at
the Plant wharf. Her cargo, consisting
of 19,000 oranges, was sold by direction
of the U. S. Marshal. The mystery is as
great as ever as to the whereabouts of
Capt. Edwards. The vessel when
brought to- the city Was found to be in
excellent condition, with the exception
of the rope mentioned last week and a
hatchet which lay on the forward deck
and on which stains could be readily
seen. This matter should have the at-
tention of the proper authorities and be
thoroughly investigated. If, as is gen-
erally believed, the Captain was killed
for his money, no efforts should be
spared to bring the guilty parties to jus-
In a letter to the Times-Union, under
date of Jannary 26, Stephen Powers
writes as follows of the operations in
gardening and horticulture then in pro-
gress in and around Lawtey :
The planting of Irish potatoes is now
going on. Over thirty barrels of seed have
lately been received here, and will prob-
ably all be used. Beauty of Hebron is the
favorite, Early Rose the second.
Mr. S. A. Bailey has set out several
thousand Osier willow cuttings along
the south side of his grove, to protect it
against the washings of the branch of
the creek which flows beside it. It is
said these can be grown with perfect
Messrs. Hill and Matteson will plant
about 1,000 persimmons, to be grafted or
budded with the Japanese. -L. W.
Sayles is setting 500 LeConte pears; J.
Oraswhaw & Son, several hundred
pears and persimmons, the' latter of
which they have received directly from
Japan, besides Japan pears, plums, etc.
Many others are sein are setting few each 9f
thle pears, plums, persimmons, etc. E.
G. Hill will set about 1,000 orange trees
for himself; C. F. Staffer 100, and. sev-
eral others will plant a small number to
fill up vacancies, etc.
THE CLIMATE OF FLORIDA.'-
Its Peculiarities Attributed to
High Atmospheric Pressure.
-BY-J. G. K.
Much has been said and written about
an imaginary frost line in the State of
Florida. Sneers and pshaws have been
in order as to such at line. Now let it
be conceded that no such line exists,
which may be traced by a surveyor on
the face of the ground, or .drawn by ob-
servation on a map within any definite
degree, yet, nevertheless, the fact will
still remaim, that there is within the ter-
ritorial limits of Florida places where
the thermometer has never been known
to mark as low a degree of temperature
as 86 F. -
But be the frost line a myth or reality,
there exists an oscillating zone or belt,-
it cannot be called a line, in the atmos-
phere possessing a controlling influence
upon meteorology of all the months,
weeks and days of the year. Powerful
as is the action of this atmospheric belt
in its influence upon the climate of this
State, I do not remember to haye seen it
even referred to by those writing about
Florida or its climate. From this si-
lence we might infer that few persons
in this or any, bf the States or foreign
countries, are aware of its existence.
That belt is known by scientists as the
Northern Anti-cyclone,. or Belt of High
Atmospheric Pressure. It is located be-
tween the tropics 6f Cancer and the 80th
parallel, and has its maximum pressure
in Florida at about the 28th parallel,
though oscillating somewhat with the
sun in the ecliptic.
The average pressure of the atmos-
phere for the entire earth at sea level is
placed by the British meteorologists at
29,905 inches, or about 14} pounds to
the square inch. From that measure
there is a variation of 29.4 inches near
Iceland, 28,978 inches on the edges of
the great ice belt of the south polar
region, and 29,074 inches at the equator,
to 31,215 inches in the Atlantic between
the 23thland 30th parallels of north lati-.
tude. A similar high pressure has also
been determined as existing near the
28th parallel in the southern hemisphere.
Thus we find, the atmosphere has two
belts of high pressure at aboutthe 28th
parallel, a low ond -at each pole and at
the equator; and that Florida maybe
said to be entirely in the, northern belt
of highli pressure; and that the highest
portion of that belt passes over its pen-
insular portion. Such is the general
argument, and the observations of the
Signal Service also place this State un-
der the atmospheric pressure of about
30.13 inches, and make that an almost
constant measure, the range seldom
varying 3-10th of an inch during the
.year. This constant pressure of from a
half inch to an inch greater than in any
other State or territory will be found
worked out and established by both
American and foreign scientists, and
proven by extensive tables and mathe-
matical demonstrations, and is as firmly
established as any other physical fact.
Some deductions. may not be inappro-
I-IT IS ANTICYCLONIO.
In all regions of the earth, if, during
high pressure, there be any motion of
the wind, it is never in the form of
gales, tornadoes or cyol nes, for the rea-
son that high pressure causes the atmos-
phere to move from it towards a place
of lower pressure, and consequently the
greatest force of wind must take place
between the high and low pressure.
The deduction from thigh ruJeis that
peninsular Florida, lying entirely in the
anti-cyclonic belt, must be free from
such tornadoes as rage over the States
to the north and northwest of it. Those
storms of wind that sometimes strike
that portion of the State lying west of
the valley of the Suwanee, may be read-
ily traced to the wandering of high and
low pressures, through the valleys of the
Mississippi, and sometimes approach
II-THE BELT OF CALMS.
Between the tropic and the 80th par-
allel in the Atlantic is a region of ex-
treme high pressure, known as the belt
of calms, and which is avoided as far as
possible by sailors when crossing that
ocean. Those calms are the effect of
the outflow of the atmosphere from there
to other regions of low plrssure. To
that region may be traced the origin of
the cyclones of the equatorial regions;
and to a change of breakage down of
the belt of high pressure, over the Gulf
Stream, a why is opened for their para-
bolic passage to the regions of low pres-
surb in the north Atlantic. 'But as the
high pressure over Floridareitains near-
ly constant, those cyclones merely touch
upon the Atlantic coast. Whenever the
track of low pressure shall pass over the
Gulf, as it sometimes does, near the Mex-
ican coast, the cyclones will be drawn
in that direction, and fall upon the coasts
of Texas and Louisiana. In both cases
Florida escapes from the effects.
III-HIGH BAROMETER ATTENDS LOW
To this well established principle may
be attributed the mildness of the sum-
mers, as compared with other regions in
the same latitude, and the gentle freezes
always in motion, arise from the move-
ment of the pressure towards regions
of lower temperature, and thus letting
down a stratum of colder air to fill the
IV-CLEAR SKIES AND BRIGHT SUNSHINE.
High pressures are alwaysaccom-
panied by clear weather. No ACOuds ex-
cept summer showers with electricity,
can accompany a general Highi pressure,
and there are doubts of this. accompani-
ment. Hence results the warm sunny
days during winter in this State, giving
warmth to the surface of hIlfe ground,
and freeing Florida from the; cold that
might otherwise exist; and'at the same
time the high pressure beats back the
cold winds from the northwest.
V-THE THERAPEUTICAL EFFECTS.
That low pressure debilitates, ener-
vates, and enfeebles men arid all ani-.
mals, and causes rapid and unsatisfac-
tory breathing, isa-well understood by
scientists ana observing men. Hence;
thediffusion and feebleness suffered id
equatorial and polar regions,'and upon
* high elevations, with greater liability of
contracting diseases. On the contrary,
high pressure allows slower'breaihing,
and gives vital energy, great" endurance
of 'fatiguing labor of body and mind. I
am disposed to attribute the curative
properties of the climate of Florida in
sections: ofthe respiratoryprgans more
to the high pressure of the atmosphere
than to any other cause. Though I do
not remember to have seen this point
discussed by any of our therapeutists.
yet it would seeni to deserve their care-
flB consideration; also, whether the hy-
gienic effects of an oceanic climate
may not be.obtained in all portions of
the peninsula of Florida. The pressure
of every portion is above the mean of
sea level, and lying in the belt of the
trade winds, the atmosphere nearly
corresponds to that over the ocean, yet
modified' by the effects of its ever-green
VI-THE HETEROGENEITY OF FLORIDA.
g The higher atmospheric pressure has
given to Florida climatic conditions in
marked contrast with all other States
and countries, not only for'its'vegetable
productions,.hut has best adapted it for
the permanent residence pf man. The
more its climate is known and under-
stood, the more new and unexpected
advantages are developed. I desire to
hear no greater words of praise of this
inestimable blessing than issues from
the mouth of every new-comer, "How
freely I breathe."-
The following table, compiled from 'the records
of the Jack onville SignaT Station by Sergt. J.
W. Smith,,represents the temperature condition
of weather, rainfall and direction of wind for
the month of February, as observed at the Jack-
sonvllle station during the past.15 years:
TEMP. WEATHER. .'
178 79 -88 54 9 12 8 2.70 NE
1878 .79 88 59 7 18 8 .59 SW
1874 81 87 59 8 9 11 7.38 NE
1376.82 82 55 11 7 10 8.98 NE
1876 88 86 80 7 12 10 8.45 NE
1877 75 87 56 "8 13 7 1.09NE
1875 74 32 8 9 10 9 5.82 NE
1879 79 35 54 9 8 11 8.51 NE'
1880 81 42 60 12 5. *I1 6.17 NE
1881 78 84 58 11 "8 9 1..12 NE
1882 79 38 62 13 10 56 1.09 NE
1883 83 40 64 11 18 4 '.48 NE
1884 79 87 62 11 12 6 2.45 NW
1885 78 32 54 11 11 6 5.28 NE
1886 73 24 54 12 10 6 1.87 NE
S' J.W. SMITH, -
Sergt. Signal Corps, U. S. A.
S JAcOSONVNILLS, January 27. us .
Ma.ATs-D.S.short ribs boxed, 87 20, DI: 8.
ong clear sides $7 35. D. S. bellies $87:
smoked short ribs 7% smoked bellies 7%-
S.C. hams, un anvasea fancy, 11% 8.C. breax
'ast bacon, uncanivased, ic; C. shoul-
lers, unaanvased, 7%o; Calfornia or elc
alc hams, 7%1>. Lard-refined tierces 6%c
dess beef-barrels 810.50 halfbarrels 65.75;mess
pork 813.25 T these quotations ar for ronnd
lota from first hands, whole cattle 7@7V;
dressed hogs 8c; sheep 9o; pork sausage tc;
loins 8%c; long bologna 7c; head cheese 6y8c;
Frankfurt sausage 10c%2; rounds 8c.
BUTTEBR-Best table 2830' 8 per pound.
Yooikng 160ao per pound..
BUTTERIvE-Creamery 200; Extra Dairy
L86c; Dairy 15.
oI naasi-Half ikim loe, cream 3 per
Grain, Flour, Hay, Feed, Etc.
(HAIN Corn The market higher
t'he following figures represent to-day's
values: We quote white corn, Job
lots, 60 c@.. per bushel: car load lots E8o
per bushel, mixed corn, Job lots, 57o per
bushel: carload lots 55%" per bushel. Oats are
better demand, firmer L the following figures
mixed, in'Job, lots, 48c, car load lots 410;
white oats are 8 to4 j higher all round Bran
trmer and higher, 819 50@021 per ton,Job lots.
HAT-The market is firm and better de-
nand for good grades. Western choice,
,mall bales, 818@... per ton; carload lotsr 16.75
o 817,50 per ton; -Eastern hay 820 per ton.
PEARL GBES AND MEAL-Higher 3 8.00 per
FLoua-Firmer and higher; best patents
46.6); good family 85.10; common 84.25.
BousNr man-Per ton 824
HimDe-Dry flint, cow, per sound, first
,lass, 12@13c%; and country dry salted 11
l1%o; butchers dry salted 9@9%- .Skins- Deer,
Clnt, 17c; salted 0P@12o. Wurs-Otter, winter,
saoch 25c@; racoon 10@20c; wild cat 10.g20o:
'ox 10@20c. Beeswax, per pound 18c; wool
,ree from burs 22025c: burry, 10 150; goat
skins 100250 apiece.
CooFr --Green Rio 15P18 per uound
Java, roasted, 30@33c; Mocas, roasted, 80@38o;
Red, roasted, 2325c..,
SCOTTON BmBx MEAL-Scarce and higher.
Sea island or dark meal 820 per ton, bright
or short cotton meal email@example.com per ton.
TOBAcCO sTuM-Market quiet but firm @
518.00 per ton.
LIMB-Eastern, Job lots, 11.25 per barrel,Ala
oama lime $1.00. Cement-American 12.00
english $3.75 per barrel.
ruO-The quotations vary, according to
aantity,.from 8%@6%o per pound.
SALT-Liverpool, per sack, 81.00; per car
Country Produce, Hides, Skins, Ete.
CHnESz -Fine Creamery 18%o per pound
LIVE POULTRT--Limited supply and good
demand as follows: hens .; mixed 25c.;
half-grown .20 to 25o.
EGes-Duval County 27c per dosen, with
a limited supply and good demand.
-IRmI PoTATOs-Northern potatoes 82.50
per barrel; Early Rose 82.61l; Chill Reds 512.75.
OIONse-New York, $8.25; Yellow Denver
R 150 per barrel; White Onions, 83,75 per bar-
NORTHEmN CABBAGE-Scarce, arriving in
poor oonoilon, wittI good demand, at 18o per
head; Florida cabbage jto 10o.
NEW YOBK BMET-Good supply at 82.50
NoTH zRx Tunza-Good supply at 82.25
GREN PABs-Per box 82:25.
EGG PLAwTs-No demand at 82.50 to
12.75 per barrel.
: Foreign and Domestic Fruits.
PiNE APPLs-Per barrel 86,
L ons-Mesinas. 8400 per box.
A.l'PM--Noew York 84.00 to 84.50 per barrel.
FiGS-In layers 138c; in linen, bags 9o.
DATE3-Persian-Bores 9c; FraIls bo.
G'RAPiES-10o per pound, with poor de-
mand. They are of very fine quality. Mal-
gWas, 85.00 per keg. -
OnAN-Qs-Florida-Per barrel. .00; per
box 82,7561o 4.25.
BANAAs-.Good supply; from: 750 te 13
The following quotations are carefully re-'
vised for We'doesday'sandSaturday's paper
from quotations furnished by dealers in the
City Market. .
Carrots wholesale at 82.60 per barrel, and
retail at 50 cents per. peck.
Green Onions wholesale at 75 cents to 81
per hundred, and retail 5 cents pe bunch.
Florida Cabbage wholesale for 9 to 10.cents
each, and retail at 15 cents.
Quail wholesale at 10. cents each and retail
at 15 cents, or two for a quarter.
Oranges wholesale at 82.50 to 88.00 per bOx,
mDd retail at two and three f,,r 5 cents.
Spinagb wholesales at e2.50 per bushel and
-etails at four quarts for 25 cents.
Sweet Potatoes wh-olesale at 50 cents per
nashel, and retail at5 cents per quart,
Lettuce wholesales at 25 to 80 cents per
dozen heads, and retail at 5 cents per head.
Parsnips wholesale at 12.60 per barrel, and
retailat four and five for 10 cents.
Robins wholesale at 6 cents each and retail
at 10 cents.
Celery wholesales at 0 to 65 cents per dozen,
and retails at three to four stalks for 26 cents
according to size.
Eggs are in demand. Duval county eggs
are-quoted at wholesale at 26 to 27 cents per
dozen, and retail at 80 cents;
Northern cabbage scarce. Wholesale at 10
to 12 cents per head. They retail at from 15 to
Boston marrowfat squashes wholesale at
82.50 per barrel, retail at 5, 10 and 15 cents
New York Irish potatoes wholesale at
51.60 per barrel and retall.at 10ceuts per quart
or two quarts for 16 cents.
Northern beets are worth wholesale 82.25
per barrel and retail at 10 cents per quart, or
two quarls for 15 cents.
ad ishes bring at w hoblesale 20 to 25 cents
per dozen bunches of seven radishes each.
They retail at 5 cents per bunch, or three
bunches for 10 cents. ,
Live poultry-chickens wholesale, from 80
to 35- cents each; retail, 4 to 50 cents each
Dressed pouitry,'per pound-chickens, retail
18 to20 cuts. Turkeys, wholesale, 81 to 81.75
Southern meats retail as follows:. Chicago.
beef from 18 to 25 cents 'per pound; Florida
beef 6 to 15 cents per pound; veal, 20 to 25 cents;
porK, 12 to 15 cents; mutton, 10 and 20 cents;
venison, 25 cents; sausage, 15 cents; onrned
beef, 10 cents.
NUTs-Almonds 20o; Brazils 12%o; Filberts
(Sicily) 12c; English Walnuts, Grenobles, 18o;
Marbots 140; Pecans 12o; Peanuts 5%c6c"
RAIsINS--London layers, 88.20 per box,
OCRANBEMaIES-8.50 per crate; o10i00 per
Markets by Telegraph.
The following special despatches, by special
arrangements with-the Florida Fruit Ex-
change, are sent to the TnMRe-UTNox by the
agents of the Fruit Exchange in the various
cities. They can be relied upon as acurate:
Special to the TxIME-UNION:1
Nzw YoRE, January 81 -Fifteen hundred
saho s pas*
The largest grower of these Pears from Cut-,
tings. Buy no other and avoid Blight. Cata-
logues free. W. W. THOMPSON, -
Name this paper. Smithville, Ga.
b3xes Florida oranges for auction to -morrow;
market strong on fancy fruit, but It mus6 be
b 'ght and sound and choice' to obtain full
prices. Longshoremen's strike is interfering
with sales for cut of town.
SGOBEL & DAY.
Special to the TIMES-UNION:]
BALTIMORE, January 31.-Quotations same
as last sent. -W ;
I Ix & WILKISS.
Special to the TIMES-UNION:] "IL
OINCINNATI, January 81 -Bright oranges
firstname.lastname@example.org ; russet s 6101.50.
LOWHEAD, DALE & CO.
Special to the TIMES-UNION.
PHILABDELPHIA&, January iii -No change in
prices. The market is firm for all grades at
E. ROBERTS & BRO
Commission Merchants' Quotations.
Special to the TIMES-UNION:]
OINCINNATI, January 29.-Brights email@example.com;
., J. O..MooB-&Co.
Special to the TIMES-UNION.1
NEW YORK, January 31.-Market quiet
strikes prevent shipping.
WESSELS & Co.
SAVANNAH COTTON MARKET.
Special to the TrxIM-UNION.1 .
SAVANNAH, January 8l.-The upland
market closed easy at the following quota-
Middling fair........................... 9%
Middling .......... 9
Good ordinary 8%
The net receipts were 1859 bales; gross re-
eelpts 1881 bales; sales 1800 bales; stock at
this p,,rt 73788 bales.
SEA leXLAD. COTTox.
The market continued quiet at unchanged
Common Floridas 15
Medium fine ..............................18
Fine......... 19@ 20,
Extra fne ......22
Choice ............ 28
LEAF TOBACCO MARKET.
NEW YORK, January 31.-The market Is
active and a very good business doing.
Western leaf Is in good request.
Common lugs........................... 83 50@ 84'00,
Good lugs 4 000 5 00
Low 'leaf.............5. 25@ 550
Medium leaf 7 00@ 8 50'
Good leaf 8 75@10 00
Fine leaf 106 0@12 00
Seleotleaf ............................... 1200@1500
.Seed leaf Is in moderate request. Pennsyl-
vania Havana seed, selling at from 69 00 to
815 00 per 100 pounds.
:- The'market for Havana tobacco is active,
prices ranging f:om 60 cents to 81.03 per
pound. Sumatra is In good demand at
LOUISVILLE, January 31 -New leaf Is
steady and irm at unchanged quotation.
Trashyand common.................81 50@8175
Medium lags ...... 200 225
Good lugs............ .5.. 8 ..... ) 3 00
Common leaf.... 800 4 25
Medium leaf.... ........................... 4 75@ 5 50
Goodlenf 600@ 650
RICMOND, Januuary 31 -The market Is
quiet, firm ann bright wrappers and fine
grades -are in .ond demand.
OYAL PALM! NURSERIES
Rare tropicals ornamental and fruit plants for
open air culture in Florida, and for the North-
erngreenhouse. Also, afull line semi-tropi-
ical trees, plants and grasses and general nur- ,
sery stock adapted to Florida and the South.
Exotics from India, Australia and the W6t ,
Indies, many of them never before introduced
into the United States.
The most cofnplete descriptive catalogue of
tropical and seti-tropica t.larit publhe-ed In
America. Ca.kl.uc- niatled, po.i-psiod, on re-
ceipt of "e eeotl. free t' alicustomers
Manatre, Florida. ,
IN PUTNAM COUNTY
Three quarters of a mile frpm St. Johns River,
75 feet above the river.
ONE LOT IN KEUKA. -
20,000 Nursery Trees, of all varieties and sizes..
All at bargains. Write or-call-at
F. COOCHRANE'S Book Store,
R. N. ELLIS, C. E. A. E. MCCLURE, Architect.
Architects & Civil: Engineers,
HOTELS, PUBLIC "& PRIVATE BUILD-
1NtS., SANITARY ENGINEERING &o.
P. 0O. ox 7A4. Rooms 7 and 8 PamettoBock, -
Bay Stree t.
J ACKSON V rLLE, FLA.
Hernando County, Elorida;
Sizteen mi]es wesL of Hernmmdo Hotel, Brooks-
ylule, on Le sbore of theb ulf at the mouth ofa
beautiful Spring River. FineaS fishing, boating
and sailing. Good accommodations. Try-weekJy
E .eiyo',f vaLort un ae
inna I Milshb..ad b, a
U n| I n -j copy of oar .lniLiirLI,
H]r c" coamingg t 7Ipae
v y iiTUrDaofuf tle U| miormatmn.
t SOUTHERN ree on aFlrc-son.
k i &airlif AddreInBIS BEpIoTt -
SALMANAC p1,T Far se:
SFPor 1887. dale and Wanoc.rd.
Peaches.Plunis, Orago Trees, Lem.--n Trees,
Pears Perimmons,' New Fgs,Mulberries,
Nvw Japan Fr'uai bud Pomegranatf.c etc.,
Nut Tree. : Giant"Loquats.
AW 'Ne'w Catilogiie now ready. Address.
S1 rH.-L WHEATLEY,
'Mention this paper..
'ALTAMONTE, ORANGE CO., FLORIDA.
' .. -..
FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PACKING,
FORWARDING AND'COMMISSION HOUSE.
Usully have orders to work our consignments into, enabling us to make.PROMPT RETURNS.
Extensive Facilities for Re oking-
'for outside parties, to which prompt attention is given. Packages suitable for .
SHIPPING ORANGES, STRAWBERRIES AND VEGETABLES, -
both made up and in the flat, always on hand, and for sale. Also, Hoops, Wrapping Paper, etc.
Best of location, iz: .
S S:, F. & W. IC R. WHARF,
Circulars and Stencils on application. JACKSONVILLE, LA.
THE BEST HEALTH RESORT
IS ON THE LINE OF THE FLORIDA SOUTHJERBA1,
Unsurpassed by any other section for the production of Fruit, and Vegetables.
If you are ooming to Florida whatever may be b o, means or conouditiop, you will
most asuredy be pleased wite td h Centre of the Lake 6Region. .. .
For further partfoulars address,,,. S. Ls. EE330, -
GLEN ST. -MARY' NURSERIESI
A general line of Fruit Trees adapted to JFlorida, including the
LARG-EST .STC]K DOF ERAEH H-TREES
To be found in the State, -
PEEN-TO AND HONEY PEACHES A SPECIALTY.
Also, severalotherchoice varieties of Peaches. My tock of Kemlsey'-Japan Plum Trees con-
ss ot s or upward-all home grown, and buds taken rom eating trees on my place.
1,500 PICHOLINE OLIV TREES (2 to 6 feet high); 50 000 ORANGE TEES (8 to years
old). A full supply of LeConte, Kieffer and other Pear Tree, Japan Persimons, Qigs, Quinces,
Apricots, Nectarines, Japan Medla.s, Mulberries, English Walnuts, Pecans, Almonds. Japa&
Cestnuts Grapes, Raspberries, Bla eries, ec., etc. An examination of stock solicited.
Catalogues free on applicatioxf-* -
r e P Gn" L T A BEa r b"
GLEN ST. MARY, FLA..
W. N. JUST
Wholesale Commission1 Merchant,
NO. 818 NORTH-WATER STREET, PHILADELPHIA.
Specialties: SOUTHERN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. ConsIgnmensa Soliolted.-.et urn
made on day of sale. -
The Best I-eaIltb. EsO C>',
Is on the Line of the Florida Southern.
. Unsurpassed by any other section for the production of Fruits and Vegetables. If you are com-
Sto lorida; w.tever may be your means or condition, you will most assuredly be pleased with
ths entire of the Lake Region. For further particulars address,
S. L. aREED, P'
* _- ."
pEACH HILL NURSERY.
PEACU TREES ADAPTED TO FLORIDA,
Ten well-tested varieties ripening from May
till last of October, with the exception of the'
Honey and Pen-To varieties. The peaches I
offer have been obtained by CAREFUL.SELEOTION
from a large number of varieties adapted to the
South with which I have been experimenting for
m any years. I also offer ohr variety of-Apricot,
the best of.six 'which I have cultivated- -
I guarantee every tree to be true to name and
to be of true Florida Stock.
For descriptive catalogue and price-list, ad-
dress W, P.;HORNE, -
Glen St. Marv, Florida.