Florida farmer & fruit grower
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055763/00006
 Material Information
Title: Florida farmer & fruit grower
Uniform Title: Florida farmer & fruit grower (Jacksonville, Fla. 1887)
Alternate title: Florida farmer and fruit grower
Physical Description: 3 v. : ill. ; 50 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: C.H. Jones & Brother
Place of Publication: Jacksonville Fla
Creation Date: January 19, 1887
Publication Date: 1887-1889
Frequency: weekly
Subjects / Keywords: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Jacksonville (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Duval County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
newspaper   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Duval -- Jacksonville
Coordinates: 30.31944 x -81.66 ( Place of Publication )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan. 5, 1887)-v. 3, no. 3 (Jan. 16, 1889).
General Note: A.H. Curtiss, editor.
Funding: Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Library Services and Technology Assistance granting program of Florida, the State Library and Archives of Florida, and other institutions and individuals.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000454290
oclc - 11040152
notis - ACL6442
lccn - sn 95026760
System ID: UF00055763:00006
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Florida dispatch (Live Oak, Fla.)
Succeeded by: Florida dispatch and farmer and fruit grower

Full Text
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Kelsey's Japan Plum. somewhat noted. During our- brief stay ORANGE CULTURE ABROAD. Moors throughout Northern Africa and full bearing at from four to twenty eaten by cattle, and as they, abound in
BY H BURR we saw much that delighted us, and that Spain. This variety acquired in Spain years, and the age at which they cease prussic acid, the eating of them'in any--
BaYtrl oiridafarm.n ri .B RR added to our previous high estimate of 6s present name of Seville orange, and to bear at from twenty to two hundred quantity cause s death. The black, oval
.Ttorlorida.-"er andi -Grower: that portion of Florida. If we were to III--Notes on Varieties, Lon- y the Spaniards it was introduced into years. Such discrepancies indicate a berries are borne in great abundance, : '
This very valuable fruit was intro- specify the object that interested us o .. ... P f <- 2-e West Indies and Florida, where it lamentable lack of careful research, and remain on the tree until March, .
duced into this section less than two most, it wquld be a Kelsey plum tree on gevity, FUlIUrIneSS, EtC., on took to the woods," so congenial Fifty years is the limit of age fixed by when the robins on their flight north--
years since, and by its great promise of Mr. T. K. Godbey's place. It had been Our Department Reports, while con- 7d it find all the conditions of s il and most of those who report on this point, ward stop and gather them. ,The birds
success, is now attracting deserved at- budded on a wild plurm tree twelve training a vast amount of useful infor- climate. though several admit that orange trees sometimes become partially stupefied by
tension. months before, and had a luxuriant .and mation, are not always compiled in such -' The sweat Indiafi orange was carried may live for one or two centuries. It is the poisonous element inthe berries and :
The first trees brought here were well-proportioned top with several fine manner as to present the subjects treated to Syria, whence i'was introduced into a well established fact, however, that stagger about on the ground-asif.drunk.
worked on peach stocks and produced specimens of fruit. Recently we wrote of in as lucid and intelligible a man- Southern Europe under the name of the orange tree, under favorable condi- The short racemes of white flowersap-
some fruit the past season-one year to Mr. Godbey, for some particulars re- ner as could be desired. Jaffa orange. This and. a sub-variety tions, is very long-lived. Dr. Neish pear in profusionf soon after the berries
afterplantling-of fine quality, and fully garding this tree, especially as to the We have recently received from the known as the Mediterranean Sweet, con- states that there- is an orange tree in disappear, in March and April, and at
equal t he deser ptions received from size and qualities of the nature fruit, Department of State a volume contaii- tinue to be the favorite varieties in the France 468 years old, one in Spain 600 this time the tree istruly beautiful, as ift
alifornia. These. trees have made only and received the following reply: ing reports from over fifty consuls of regionsbordering the Mediterranean Sea. years old, and one in Rome 684 years old. is, indeed, at all times.
a moderate growth the past season, due, DEAR SIR.--1 budded the Kelsey plum the United States respecting fruit cul- A third original stock was brought by In the West Indies, according to the The cherry laurel succeeds admirably
possibly, to the very excessive rainfall you speak of on a three year old wild ture in foreign countries, prepared in ile early Portugese navigators from safre authority, a tree ten years old is on dry hammock soil, and makesarapid
during the summer and early fall. plum stock in June, 1885. It made a compliance ith a circular issued from China to Lisbon, and thence to the Per- expected to bear 300 oranges; at fifteen growth, attaining, under favorable con-
Kelsey buds were inserted in .native growth of about five feet that season. It the Department on the4th of December, tugese colonies in the Azores, Canaries, years, 500 oranges; at twenty years, editions, .a diameter of -twelve inches
phom stocks, front three-quarters to an bore some fruit his year, the smallest 1883. These reports differ greatly in West Indies and Brazil. It is known as 2 000; and at thirty years, 3,000 or more. within fifteen or twenty years. We take
ch n diameter, in the fall of 1885, and seven, and the largest nine inches in cir- many respects, varying in length from the China, ..Portugese or Lisbon orange, In Southern Europe 2,000 is given as the 't tobe rather short-lived, and any severe
have so far surpassed the original peach- cumference. They ripened from the twenty-eight pages to five lines. A few .anld the leading sub-variety of it is maximum yield, but in Florida there pruning of it is apt to lead to speedy
stock trees in growth as to be a matter 1st to the 15th of August. were prepared evidently with great care, named the St. Michael. It produces im- are several trees which have borne 10,- .decay.
Tof c surprise. .. t, iThe fruit is purplish red in color, thin but too many of the writers despatched mense crops of handsome and finely 000 in a season, and before the freeze of It is well adapted to-he formation of
These buds are-now, by a.tml me i- skinned, with yellow flesh and a seed the subject with the least possible in- flavored fruit, which have nearly round 1835 there were trees at St. Augustine wind-break, serving Ihe best purpose
uremeit, fromseven to nine feet e igh, about- the size of apru'nesee.I. Ithasa frngement on that habitual leisure Meds; the objections to it are that the which yielded 14,000 each. In the when planted in connection with taller
our thsix feet in wit noth- pleasant rawberry flavor. The tree which is popularly supposed to apertain tree is late in bearing and the fruit- Azones very old trees have been known trees. We would recommend,- for this
standing the fact that the young shoots has made a fine growth again this season to a foreign consulate. father perishable, on account of its thin to yield 20,000 oranges in a season, and purpose, the planting of a triple row the
tre repeatedly ptiched back during and is full of fruit buds, promising a Most of these reports conform in their Hind. letus hope that even this record will one central consisting of live oaks, and the
egrowg season to nsure stocky good crop next year. arrangement to a series'of questions con- These three original- varieties, espeC- day be surpassed in Florida. outer rows of cherry laurel. If the trees,
*Agrowth I have about 25 trees which I putout stained in the circular, therefore, in order lly the first and second, have been in- A.H. C are to be started from the seed, it would
fAs the nrmpast season was too wet,. 'even ,last Spring, and they have made a to learn all that is contained in this vol- Ireduced into nearly all countries which be well to plant one row of red cedar.
o the normal growth of the native growth of from five to seven feet. They ume pertaining to each of the details of are adapted to orange culture, and from Oramntal Tr Water oaks would not succeed so well
plums, this was- a surprising result. are set in pine land, with a yellow clay management of each kind of fruit, the seedlings of them have originated a mul- Our Best Ornamental Tree.. because the roots of the cherry laurel are
The shoo are now filled with fruit buds, subsoil about the feet from thd surface, reader must wade through the majority, titude of varieties, most of which differ THE CHERRY LAUREL voracious surface feeders, and other sur-
and r0io ub is entertained of their I used muck and stable manure for fer- of these fifty reports. from each other but slightly. As show- Pr Cali face-feeders do not succeed so well near
fruinl-next season. tilizer. T. K. GoDBEY. Taking up the subject of orange cul- ing to what an absurd extent these vari- (Prunus Caroliniana.) it as do those with deep roots. The live
owth frtea edly picl* i b the WALDO, Fla., Dec. 8, 1886. ture, we find it treated of in about thirty actions have been carried, we will We have selected this tree for present oakin good ground grows rapidly, and
fthe of l eynT eh ip ur, ie hat of places, in some very briefly, in others quote from an enumeration of varieties description because of its excellent adap- it is not subject to the attacks of borers
.trh eln neT catingaobloheeavy The Kelse y Plum in Baker Co. quite elaborately. Much of this matter that are cultivated in Morocco; "the Bi- station to the purposes of the approach- or to beeing blown over by high winds,
n ag k in the ping A ter eav L Ta'n r, a G is quite unimportant and uninteresting garadia of silvery leaf, of spotted leaf, ing arbor day, and also because it to both of which the wa'er oak is more
ct. tioung hbakoth ian the spring. After a In G. L. Taber's nursery, at, Glen St to an American reader, but scattered of myrtle leaf, of double flower, ofvio'et mates the subject of our fruit article# subject than almost any other tree.
young shoot -hasI made a growth of a Mary, we saw a Kelsey plum tree much through the whole there is much valu- flower, of round fruit, angulated fruit, Both this and the Kelsey Plum belong A. H. 0.
*" -'. ^able information, and to none can it be spotted fruit, crowned fruit and cake- to the genus Prunus. which consists of *
--, more instructive or interesting than to shaped fruit. The sour or bit- some eighty species found mostly in the
S' : ----,,,,-....., I ..the orange culturists of Florida, ter orange with gold and silver striped northern temperate zone, including the HOW to Plant TreeS.
r. t- .r -.-.. *s-., \ \ \\ After passing this very disjointed trea- leaves, myrtle leafed, willow leafed, sloe, almond, peach, apricot, cherry and The following suggestions by an ex-
S- ; ;-: :, ......... .\ "..."-" { "tise on orange culture abroad, it occurred lain and striped, tricolar striped, and plum.
S ,'-..... -- .--. x.-\ : \.to us that the answers to each of the inanyhbers very showy." Horticultur- The Kelsey Plum and other fruit trees perienced tree planter are recommended
S <. e ..... -- '. "\ elh questions regarding the citrus al art' D"noo as f'r advanced in Florida, of this genus belong to other sections or for consideration by those who initend.to
~. .\ --.--.-. .'.... .. ~. , .... .'-, r "' fruits might be collated, epitomized and Vle it i.s in its. first or utilitarian stage. observe the 9th day of February after
presented in a systematic and r.imlkut d n ost inti resting and valuable variety the mnanner recommended in theGover-
Cform. This we have attempted to do 16 one mentioned by the consulate Cala-
for our rc-aders, presuming that but few nia, which, produces fruit at different One of the.first and most important
h i '*.: have Ithis report, and that most persons periods of thie year. This is similar to considerations is lbe adaptation of the
"''*' *'"*.'**I IB lBBHwould prefer a topical summary of its a variety described by Von Mueller as kind of treetothesoil which is to become
''A contents to the highly mixed" original: occurring in central India. "It pro- its new home. It would be useless;to
.-'" '" '" Tihe fir-t of the eight questions rela- duces," says hlie, "two crops a year The p-int a weeping Willow or a swamp< c
.'-.- %. tive to the citrus fruits was as follows; blossoms of February and March yield press on a high, dry, and stony hill.
"What varieties of trees ire grown, and thier ripe fruit, in November and Decem- Noneof thegenera which naturally select
.,^^:A t .a ?;'which are the most valuable? At what ber. wihreas, from the flowers of Jly Bevated and dry localities should be
age ado they come into full bearing, and mature fruits are obtained in March and plnted in low and swampy grounds.
*-:.' r-.; ~.'b how longdo they rerrain fruitful The April. To prevent exhaustion only 'The constituents of the soil may vary -
Ainformation brought out, by this ques- alternate fruiting 6s allowed." In- -grent'y,- but the constant supp~lv of
tion is not of much practical importance stances of this Character have been ob- moisture in the new locality should vary
Though it embodies many interesting served in Florida, and we believe it is:a hut little frg l.at, inu which the tree to
particulars. There is a lack of fullness common practice in countries south of- be tr-. y grew.
": :- ":. and accuracy in the adrnsweis which evi- this to beat. off theearly flowers in-order .-.-y kind of tr(e whoseri4uLno sprouts
V dently arose from lack of careful re- to produce descnd flowering andconse- .- frIv after its t,'unk has been c-a-way
..-.-search on the part of the writer., and quenth- a late crop of fruit- will grow readily after transplanting,- if--
." r *trom lack of esae, knowledge on the Tihe reports from the antipodes, from the work has been properly done ,at the
v .***''^ 'i^ ^ K part of cultivators. It is not every or. the East [ndies and Malayan peninsula, right time. The stump of the pine tree,
angel grower who knows the distinctions represent that all the- fruits of that re- and indeed of minany of the'coniferse,
',.. between similar varieties or the name, gion are extremely inferior, both in ap- rarely sprouts. Every one who has tried
\';-.- ol those he cult ivat, s Consequently we pearance and flavor, excepting the man- it, and has succeeded, knows what a
..: ... .," -:. lf ind fa oiirle varieties designated as go and a species of citrus similar to our CHERRY LAUREr. triumph it is to nurse into vigorous life
i';.' ,^ **co"""mon," "sweet," .."round" and grape fruit. The native orages are Ps a and growth a pine tree or a hemlock tree
'",' ... *! *.'* .. i "'oval." Another drawback may be small and of a dark green color when munus aro inmana. after transplanting it.
S'" ."' "' properly termed a "confusion of ripe, the juice being either unpleasantly sub-genera, which have single or The best time to plant trees is in
'10 ':: 'tonuea;" thus, we are none the wiser by aid or insipidly sweet. They keep but clustered flowers appearing with or be- the spring before the buds have begun
reading that the ombigo and campida a few days after being picked and the fore the leaves in early spring. Our to swell. The top and branches should
.. oranges are favorite varieties in Jamaica; trees which produce them only live cherry-laurel belongs to the section be well cut back. If this be done in the
,' .: .. ; .-KELSE JAPAN PLUMl .. the -pilatta and accawy, in Syria; and about eight years Trees from other Lauroserasus, in which the smaller but fall, previous to transplanting, so much
foot, or more, side shoots a- be forced larer than th .. Wa o .h the kau and parakila in Mitylene. The countries when planted there produce more numerous flowers and berries are the better, as it saves the tree much vital
-ot:b removn tshebud ay t e e d la t a do an with presumption is that they are all identi- equally inferior fruit remaining green at scattered on a common stem racemedd). force.
Sofull stoyving hea t e end, and about a dozen plums on it, but we are cal with varieties having well-known maturity, a circumstance attributed to In Florida there are three members of To insure the growth of a tree, it should
S au, stocy y wead nseure-tu doing not infor sed as to its age; In both cases English hames, but-t.his it was probably the torrid climate. this section. First, the wild black cber- be removed with the greatest of care, so
aw pruning. The increased beaor ring we were messed wth the extremely impossible for the consuls to determine. Oranges from China and Siam are im- ry, so much used in cabinet work and as to keep intact as many of the rootlets
parity of the t in reae bearing ca. vigorous growth o the tree and with the Varieties having marked characteris- ported into these countries in immense medicinally. This is a large tree, in this and their terminal spongioles as possible,
Extra attention p ne appearance of 'he fruit, whici tics, and well known to all' intelligent quantity and are sold very cheap, the State attaining a good size in Alachua The sooner a tree be planted after its re-
The Kelse plum like a th seems exempt from the scourge of the people, are treated in a more satisfactory season being from early August till county and thencenorthwestward, being moval the better are its chances for
hiehle emey plum, like any other American plums, the curcilio manner. Thus the Maltese or blood or- December.. The Siamese orange is de- tardi'y deciduous in this latitude. Its growing. Within certain limits the
highly imperoveavaiety of f ruit re- All that e have seen an heard of ange is reported as being cultivated in scribed as small, only one and a half flowers and small berries'are borne in smaller the tree and the larger the root
tquiraiones generous treatment, thoroun h cul- this fruit leads'us to believe that it is 'Italy, Syria, Morocco, Jamaica, New Zea- inches in diameter, ,of yellow color and racemes four or five inches long. Second, the surerit is to grow.
rotivatied compos of sertilizationur. Well destined to become one of the most pop landand Australia; and the Mandarin sweetish. flavor. The Chinese oranges the West Indian cherry, Prunus sphcero- The place a tree is to be set should be
roduled excelompos of stablet manure pro- ular, and r perhapsprofitable fruit s in as being very popular in all of those are much better, but do not exceed carpa, which we discovered some years throughlypreparedbyspadingupthesoil
dMapedexcellentesults, as also did the Florida. The question now arises, to countries, except New Zealand, and two inches in diameter. The largest and ago in hammocks, eastof the Everglade, to the depth of two feet or more; then fill-
MapThes Tre aead Creek valley are Our wh at soil is this plum best adapted ? also in Sicily, Spain and Turkey. The best variety is known as the swatow or It is quit similar to the cherry laurel, but ing up with loose, rich soil to the proper
gently rolling, first-class pine land e Our Waldo correspondent informs us tangerine is mentioned only in the re- Mandarin orange. Another variety, the leaves are broad, tapering abruptly height. The tree may now be set into
soils varyingfrom vers dar d towliththabt h l ha w asubsol porter from Morocco and Jamaica. It is called the "sucking orange,' resembles to a blunt point, and are of a lighter the place prepared for it. The surfaceior
oras color, variously called olack, chico- M ab erom l hn surfce." a sub-variety of the Mandarin, with the last, but is somewhat more acid and shade. the fine soil upon which you set the tree
laycre, uattorand grey c land oco- r.Ter, and we sur ofao similar char- which it is often confounded. I Paris the skmn ca not be peeled off. A third The third species is the cherry laurel, should be adapted to the inequality of
which the native (commonly called hof ike wise sin ms t ht 's is it is said to be known as the Mandarin, variety called the coolie orange, corre- or, as it is commonly called m Florida, the roots, so that the tree will stand erect
plum flourishes and fruits very luxuri- seenwof thjepdgin Crom what we hae while in Jamaica it' r'sometimes called spends in description to the Florida mock olive or wild olive, both of which and alone. While the fine soillis being
antly. The Kelsey plut grows wel son doe f the Kease peum country tow the Madeira ot- range. The consul at Mandarin, differing, however, in being are very unsuitable names and ought to sifted upon the roots, the tree should be
any of these soils dees 1s succeed iu Tangier makes no allUsion to its origin, very cheap. be discarded in favor of t^hehighly ap- churned up and down with a gentle mo-
The Improvedics. sa. deep Iaoi which suits the orange neither does he spell" the name With two As regards other species of citrus propriate and descriptive name, cherry tion, so there be left no empty space un-
plums have not been su wietl tested rfence we hoaoneo nows from expe- i's as has been the fashion of late in Flor- the information elicited by the "first laurel. In the lower Mississippi valley der and around the roots. A pail of
pere yet to determine their future value Mr Taber h avr rom im. ida. He describes it as "less than half question is so meagre that m this chap- it is popularly called lauria mundi. water should now be poured on the soil
for thit section. The wild goose and de stock of th as nw fr rge and fine the size of the Mandarin, m fact often ter we will pass them without mention. Laurocerasus is as easy a name to pro- obout the roots (this should be done with
foradene, however have wide g poor a se at Glen St.fMri re n his ur- no larger than a walnut, but exceedingly To the question relative to period of nomice as either of the popular names watering can or sprinkler), so as to insure
growth, while the Marianna and Cum- with our es wh We ha e seen sweet and perfumed'"" bearing and yield of mature trees, the mentioned, and we move for its adop- their close embrace and to afford some
berlandohave put on a very good Crowh ment telr eye where is advertise- With regard to varieties of the large answers differ so widely that we cannot tion. food for the fasting tree.
the past season, and wil probably show r ruit gowterls, a wi e glad hat the orange we can gather no satisfactory in- but regard them as unreliable and of lit- The cherry laurel is a native tree of The soil should not be- heaped up
fruit nextyear. show f ave so good a formation, but the leading facts con- tie value. The very intelligent consul the Southern States, growing mostly around the tree, but pressed down, but
The different varieties of Oriental Burr oa alsupptoc.We presume that Mr. corning their origin may be found in -n at Tangier states that orange trees come along the banks of streams, and in a wild not too firmly, to the level of the sur-
plums willing all retiobabilit to btao s th Florida, able treatise by Dr. Neish, of .Jamaica, into bearing nine years from the seed state seldom exceed four inches in dia- rounding surface.
peculuars well adaptedbto pov t oribe judging from his familiarity with the which is contained in the volume. From and two years after budding, and that meter, but in cultivation it succeeds ,
puand will add w a nd hiehly remuner- F A.H.C. this we learn that the original habitat of seedling trees bear three or four thous- finely in the driest locations, often at It would be a singular circumstance if
active class of'shipping fruit to those we the orange is the mountain region of and fruits, and continue in bearing for gaining a diameter of one foot, but sel- the Kelsey Plum prove to be unknown
already posss o Lemon Jutce and Essences Northern India, that being what botan- a hundred years or longer, a while budded dom exceeding thir'y feet in height. It to botanists, but thus far we have been
HOMELAND NURSERIES, Brandon, Polk Ir a t lete f U i ste would term the "centre of distri- and grafted trees live only thirty or forsy is extensively planted in the Southern unable to identify it with any described
countFla Dec 1 88 Stesrcenteer fo the United buton" of the citrus family. Thence it years. The counsel at Catama expresses cities, especially in cemeteries, both as species of uus. The pomologit of
county Fla., Djec. 1a, ]886. ates consul at Messina, it is statedthat 'was introduced into cultivation in China an opinion exactly the reverse, namely, a tree for shade and ornament, and as a of the Department of Agriculture is
the essences exported from Messina in and India. In the latter country sweet that budded trees last from one to two shrub for the formation of hedges. For unacquainted with it, Mr. Tamari the
The Kelsey Plum at Waldo. 188, were valued at $982,894,'of which and better varie ies were cultivated and centuries, while seedling trees are sub- ornamental hedges it is hardly supassed, Japanese horticulturist cannot identify
Last June we made a trio to Waldo *$137,3 were shipped to the United both kinds of fruit were carried east- ject to disease and are short lived. The but being destitute ofthorns, such hedges it, it is not found described in the works

forLthe purpose o tudyie atrthpe orchards tas. 8emon j e exported amounted ward by Arabian caravans, the bitter other consuls make no distinction be- hardly serve the purpose Of a f nce. of Von Siebold, and so our Kelsey plum -
S f andte iurs for which that lorcari to 929 ,707, amount we took going by the way of Persia into Egypt, tween seedling and budded trees and fix As in the case of the wild cherry, the has to go to press without that higbly
an vieyards for wcich that Iooa Sty is $49,203. Lemon peels are also exported, whence the seed was diffused by the the age at which time they come into wilted leaves of this tree are eagerly desirab'e appendage, a.botanical ifme.


rrchard nd arden
Varieties Best Adapted to Hills-
borough County.
Editor l'orida Farmer and Fruit-Grower:
The success of the orange in Florida
has, very naturally, stimulated the de-
sire to find other fruits that, if not
equally valuable, would serve to diver-
sify our productions and afford exercise
for wholesome ambition. The lemons
fast coming to the front as the true con-
gener of the orange, and the success al
ready attained leads to the belief that
in a few years it will have an equal it
not greater market value. From its
tenderness as compared with the orange,
South Florida is looked to as a lemon
producing section in preference to the
more northern counties, and here, too,
experiments are being made with a great
variety of other fruits.
While pretty much everything will
grow in Florida, it holds good as a gen-
eral rule, that the further north a fruit
can be safely grown, that is, the more
cold it will successfully resist, the bet-
ter it will be and the longer it will last.
This holds good in regard to the peach
which is nowhere of finer quality than
in the northern counties of New Jersey,
and which when transferred to Florida,
does better in Baker and Alachua than
in Orange or Hillsborough.
This fruit to do well in these regions
must be essentially sub-tropical in its
nature and derivation, and thus it is that
the Peen-To and Honey peaches succeed
exceedingly well here, for they are true
Southern and not Northern fruits. Neither
were affected by the cold of last winter,
the Peen-To only dropping its buds, but
both varieties bore enough fruit to test
them thoroughly and to prove that they
will thrive with ordinary care. They
were set out here in good sandy loam
soil, without special preparation. We
think enough of them as a shipping fruit
to prepare for a field grove this winter.
The varieties that we hear so much
about, through the papers and advertise-
ments, we know nothing about. South
Florida is slow in trying experiments.
The Japan Persimmon has been fruit-
ed here, but not long enough to test it for
profit. It seems to grow readily in the
same soil as the peach, and while its late
ripening and its tendency to drop is
somewhat against it, its delicious flavor
highly recommends it. Itisunquestion-
ably one of the most delicious of our
fruits and seems perfectly adapted to our
,soil and climate. It should not take
long to find out whether it will pay.
The Cattley guava is no experiment,
but has not been grown, yet for market,
or long enough to test its yielding capac-
ity in this region. We have faith in it,
however, as we have in all the guavas
that can be put into some other shape
for shipping. Theme ought to be some-
thing of a future for South Florida in
the putting up of jams, jellies and other
Most of the grapes do well here, and
the Black Hamburg and Muscat have
fruited splendidly. There are signs,
however, that these and other foreign
i varieties will give out after the third
season. A supply can be continued, of
course, by yearly renewals of young
S- plants, but for those-who do not wish to
take that trouble, something more near-
ly allied to Southern varieties should be
chosen.. .
There are several varieties of the Vitis
rotundhfolia that sare sure to do well, be-
'cause they are "to the-i or born," al-
lied both to the.efland cIifa. The
Scupperoni el6ngs to this fam',.eTh
is-1e-Well known to need mention, and
_-,-- the "Prentiss" and "Brighton" are strong
and rapid growers. The "Flowers" be-
longs also to this Muscadine type and is
hardy. -
I am favorable to the cultivation of
the'Mango, the sapodilla, and the "cus-
tard apples," but simply as curiosities.
They are tropical fruits, need protection
through the winter, and after all it is
doubtful whether they can be made "to
pay." The fact must not be lest sight of
that we are as yet both poor and prac-
tical. The substantial must come be-
fore the luxuries, arid we cannot afford
to lose time in doubtful experiments.
The rich man who farms for mere per-
sonal gratification may raise, what he
chooses under glass, but the man that
has-to earn his daily bread must apply
himself to what has in it all the elements
of probability if not of certainty.
As all rules, however, have their ex-
ceptions, I may say here that no plant
grows here more vigorously than the
banana,and as it sells well in our home
markets and requires. very little care, it
would seemingly pay to cultivate largely.
Its own weakness is that it will not
stand a freeze, or even a heavy frost. It
is literally cut down in a night, but
when the season is unfavorable the
banana fills the eye as no other plant
does. While the fruit is wholesome and
palatable, the leading variety promises
to be "Hart's Choice." The Dwarf is
also a promising kind, producing longer
bunches of an excellent quality. The
land must be rich and moist, but it can
be planted in any corner ofthe barnyard.
BAY VIEW, Hillsborough Co., Fla.,
Dec. 15, 1886.
Importing Sicily Fruit.
The following information concerning
the importation of lemons and oranges
from Sicily appeared in a December
number of the New York Market Journal:
"If the winter proves cold, prices will
probably range from $1.25 to $1.50 a box
for the aaerageshipments, auction prices,
but fine packed choice will bring from
$2.00 to $2.25. Of course, foreign fruit,
like everything else, pays test when it
is selected, packed, and handled with-
"The Sicily season will remain opon
until August. Sorrento fruit will com-
mence to arrive in March and the season
remains open until August.
"-The present transportation rates rule
at Is. 6d., or about 81 cents, but the rate

is largely controlled by the quantity o1
fruit to be shipped and the number ol
vessels ready to carry it. A vessel car
trying 2,500 boxes at Is. 9d. will receive
$7,500. which is considered a fair price
As high as 2s. 6d. has been paid, and
fruit has been carried as low as 6d. The
primage was 15 per cent, hut the charge
now is Is. 6d. net. Valencia oranges
come in cases, each case holding aboul
two boxes and a half. Oranges and
a lemons come in boxes and half boxes.
" "The duty on lemons is 30 cents per
t box and on oranges 25 cents a box.
" Oranges are known by numbers in the
e trade, which represent the quantity in s
box, but are charged duty by the cubic
- feet. Number 96 is the great pulpy
- pumpkin of an orange. No. 200 is the
t kind mostly sold and number 360 is.the
f kind Sunday-school children get at
s Christmas times.
"Mr. Rose, of the Foreign Fruit Ex-
change, said that the duty failed to af-
feet the price of oranges so far as the
consumer was concerned, but the im-
porter had to pay it whether the frnit
was cheap or dear. He said the Florida
I and California growers wanted the duty
advanced in order to protect them, but
individually, he thought a perishable ar-
ticle like fruit ought not to be taxed and
that the abolishment of the tax would
not injure the home growers."

A Strawberry Farm.
A voluminous contributor to Home
and Farm offers some very sensible ob-
servations on the culture of strawberries,
after giving an account of one of the big
strawberry farms of Delaware:
t William S. Moore, of Sussex county,
I Delaware, had during 1886 fifty acres in
a strawberries, chiefly Wilson's seedlings.
r Thirty-four acres only were in bearing.
He employed 400 pickers, and during the
height of the season shipped 507 thirty-
two quart or bushel crates a day, which
sold in New York from eight to twenty
cents a quart. A crate was filled every
minute of the picking. The picking cost
1f cents a quart. There are thousands of
places rearote from the-cities where a
highly remunerative market for this
delicious fruit could be found for all that
will be likely to be produced; and they
could be produced with large profit, and
sold so that a whole family might be fur-
nished with a health-imparting, malaria-
destroying dish each at the cost of one or
two cigars or drinks of beer-the straw-
berries imparting health and pleasure,
the cigar or beer only present gratifica-
tion, with a fearful entailment of cumu-
lative ills physically and mentally; the
strawberries making home attractive, the
cigars and beer the reverse-often worse
than we care to picture to you in this
We can scarcely emphasize too much
the benefits of fruit culture in a bilious
-climate. This I say as a physician of
many years' experience and observation
Seldom are the services of a physician
called into requisition were ripe fruit
is freely used, and used judiciously.
We can scarcely say too much against
the habitual use of alcoholic or narcotic
Nursery Agents.
The writer whom we have quoted on
the strawberry question discourses thus
of the nursery sharps or sharks who now
begin to roam the country, seeking whom
they may devour: "A word to the wise
is sufficient": While I would say
nothing to the prejudice of agents who
fairly and honorably represent the vari-
ous nurseries, it wi'l be well to be on the
guard for sharp dealers who, with beauti
ful color-plates, profess to represent good
houses, but who in reality!sell to deliver,
and buy what they sell where they can
u to best advantage, and never expect
tobUeard from again. In some lo-
calities these--unprincipled men are too
numerous; in others, where agricultural
papers are taken, they are seldom found,
being like those we read of who "choose
darkness" (ignorant localities) rather
than light, or we'l instructed regions.
But, as a rule, it is better to order di-
rectly from headquarters-the nursery-
after careful reading and selecting what
is wanted, than from a.traveling agent.

Sterile Vines.
It is very well known that very many
wild vines rarely bear fruit, some never.
The chief reason is unisexuality of the
vine. In some cases the anthers are de-
fective with a good stigma, in which
case planting a fertile vine which is per.
fect in bloom and that is bisexual, 1 ke
the Concord, will induce full produc-
tiveness by cr6ss'fertilization; if, as- is
sometimes the case, the stigma is defec-
tive, the fertile male pollen will be wholly
inoperative and no influences of cu'tnre
or purning will reach the case with any
certainty, and the vine had better be
abandoned and a better one put in its
Poultry in Orchards.
This is a natter that should be prac-
ticed when possible. We believe that if
farmers and fruit-raisers knew the bene-
fits arising from such management they
would at once adopt it. Last fall we
visited at orchard in which fowls were
kept, the owner of which told us that
before the fowls were confined, the trees
made little or no growth, and only a cor-
responding amount of fruit was ob-
tained. But what a change was evi-
dent now! The grass-was kept down, the
weeds killed, and the trees presented an
appearance of thrift which the most en-
thusiastic horticulturist could but ad-
mire and envy. The growth of the trees
was most vigorous and foliage most
luxuriant. This excellence was ac-
counted for by the proprietor, who re-
marked that the' hens ate all the worms
and curculio in their reach, even the
canker worm." He found less trouble
with their roosting in the trees than he
expected, and a picket fence six feet
high kept them within bounds. His
orchard was divided into three sections,
and the fowls were changed from one to
the other, as the conditions of the fowls
or orchard sections seemed to require.
-American Poultry Yard.

f Gardening at Lake Worth.
e Editor .lorida Farmer and Fruit-Grower:
S The planting season at Lake Worth
e commences about September 1st, when
e the seed of the staple crop, the tomato,
s is planted. With more favorable weather
- than we have had this season, the first
shipments are made about the middle ot
January, but owing to the continued dry
r weather the present crop is somewhat
backward, so that few if any shipments
e will be made before the middle of Feb'u-
ary. A few plants which have lad
c more care than it is possible to give to a
large number, are already blossoming.
Planting out is commenced generally
s from October 1st to 15th, which gives
- matured fruit in the last of January.
Profitable shipments are made until
May, when the crop oi North Florida
_ comes in. In January, plants of all kinds
are beginning to bear.
The tomato will probably always be
t the most profitable crop grown, the
sandy soil seeming to be better suited
- to its needs than any other plant which
- has been tried. It is grown on sand,
_ there being no other soil on the lake- it
varies from rich hammock to fertilized
scrub land.
We have two schooners running rqg-
ularly to Jacksonville, and a variety of
other crafts'plying up Indian river to
Rockledge and Titusville. The citrus
e fruits, especially the lime, and also the
- cocoanut, are being planted so exten-
sively that, in a few years, they will
r command the exclusive attention of
many farmers.
Owing to the lack of shipping facili-
I ties heretofore, there has been little va-
riety in the matter of vegetable planting,
but now, with greatly increased means
of reaching markets, it is to be expected
that all the familiar 'vegetables wilr be
grown. Within the last year, planters
have commenced to diversify their crops,
putting out egg plants, cabbages, cauli-
flowers, melons, potatoes, and onions.
Small shipments of each have been
L made.
FIGULAS, Dade Co., Fla., Dec. 8, 1886.


Interesting Details of Garden
The following account of the expe-
riences of an Illinois man in gardening on
a large scale in the latitude of northern
Florida is instructive in various parti-
culars, the more so on account of the
writer's accuracy of statement. In writ-
ing of crops it is important to be exact
as to details of management. "
Mr. W. L. Wright, the gardener in
question, is described as "a vegetable
raiser of long experience, open to con-
viction and quick to recognize and ad-
just himself to changed conditions."
These qualifications are not possessed by
all who attempt truck garde ing, and
without the last two a man e6en of ex-
perience, in a country new to him, will
hardly succeed. The following accent
6f Mr. Wright's experiences in Louisiana
(since 1883) was prepared by a represent
tative of the New Orleans Times-Demo-
crat: The first year Mr. Wright planted
five acres in snapbeans, two acres in
cucumbers, two acres in Irish potatoes,.
and three acres in tomatoes. On these
he put two tons of Stern's super-phos-
phate in, drills. These crops off,..the
land was put in cow peas, from which- a
crop was gathered. The results of the
.year's business were satisfactory.
Tozsato seed are sown from the last of
December to January 25. Sow seed under
glass and transplant when three or-four
inches high to cold frames. Only trans
plant once. In 1888 the plants were set
from March 17 to 20. The first ripe
tomatoes were shipped Mayr 19-ten
boxes.- The first .year he grew the
trophy. The first shipments are always
to Chicago of every product. The- next
year, 1884, he planted four acres of toma-
toes, and the next, one acre. He has
abandoned this vegetable on account of
the worm (the boll worm), the dead of
the cotton planter. The first shipment
of tomatoes in the year 1884 was.May IT7;:
in the year 1885, June 4. *Both these
years the spring was late. In the years.
1884 and 1885 he planted acme and
trophy. -
The main crop of cucumbes-is planted
in the open air. He starts a few under
glass. He plants the white spine..' 'Ae
first shipment in 1883 was on May 8a
This represents open-air planting. In 1884"
the first shipment was on, April 16.. This
represents cold-frame planting. The
open-air cucumbers, in 1884, furnished
their first shipment May 16. In 188fthe
cold-frame pants gave cucumbers, for
shipment May 15, and open-air foe May
20. June 1 was the day of thefirst open
air cucumbers shipped in the yea- 188.
Let it be remembered that the last two
seasons were late.
His shipments are mainly made to
Chicago by ventilated freight cars, He
has got as high s $1 per dozen for cu-
cumbers-those started in 1884 under
cold frames. The last season cucumbers
were lower in price in Chicago, when he
first commenced shipping tban later.
The dregs or residuum of the New Or-
leans crop explain this. After the crop
around this city was exhausted, prices
got better. The earliness of New Or-
:leans is a virtual embargo on any profit-
able competition with her, though at-
tempts are made at raising under glass
in the pine woods above. In 1884 his crop
of cucumbers, four acres, was ruined by
a worm bred in the cotton seed meal,
with which latter he fertilized the crop.
(Here is a warning and a lesson.) He
does not use this fresh for cucumbers
now. In 1885 his crop of cucumbers
consisted of three acres. In 1886 (last
spring) he had six acres. In this year he
shipped nearly 300 barrels.
Mr. Wright plants the golden wax
snapbean from March 1 to 15. It is more
difficult to grow perfectly, but if well
grown is the best. The first in 1883 was

May 8; in 1884 May 18. He sent in boxes
containing one third-bushel each. Second
year only had half acre of beans Worn
in cotton seed meal annihilated his croe
nearly. He never has raised peas. In
tends this year to plant-six acres and
three or four acres of beans. He thfnki
refrigerator cars make peas practicable
r Express rates are prohibitory. He in
t tends to plant peas in his vineyard.
t Radishes he first planted in 1884. He
Sn tended to have two acres, but his stand
- was ruined by the cotton seed mea
burning them up. This is a common ex
peritnce with vegetable raisers who rashly
handle cotton seed meal. The writer
learned some sad lessons from it long ago.
s In 1885 he only had about a quarter ol
an acre. In 1886 he had eight acres, but
Half of them were French half-long, the
radish planted in New Orleans, and they
would not pay to sell in Chicago, especi-
ally as express rates ate them up Ther
the railroad hauled in tight box cars and
3 ruined such as went that way.
Mr. Wright says that the refrigerator
car is indispensable, and declares that he
would not sow a radish if he didn't think
that he would get it. The ventilated cai
may be a success if the weather be cold;
but anything but a refrigerator ifiakes
the business a lottery in the face of ex-
f press rates and contingencies of season.
Radishes at Ponchatoula are competed
with by hot-houses in Cincinatti and Chi-
cago and along the Jackson line above,
in Mississippi. Many years ago the
writer had an acre at Hazlehurst, Miss.
--the first experiment in field culture.
Had I known as .much before as after
my experience, I could have made
Next year Mr. Wright will sow nine
acres in radishes. He sows but one vari
ety-the long scarlet. This seeding will
take 100 pounds of seed. (Let some one
- calculate how many radishes there are
on an acre, allowing one to the square
. inch of area.) He will begin sowing
radishes in January, and will sow from
the 15th of this month to the 10th of
February. The earliest ever sown was
on January 22. He will follow his radishes
with cucumbers on the same ground after
the former are off. He tried it last sea-
son and liked the experience very much.
The first shipment of radishes in 1884
was on March 18. There were two one-
bushel boxes. Both sold for $5 40 gross.
On March 24 ten boxes sold for $30. 83
gross. All told they netted about $28.
They do not sell nearly so high now. In
1885 the first shipment was April 3; the
last shipment April 15. In 1886 the first
shipment was March 8; the last was
April 9. The first sown seed was January
22. Let it be remembered that the last
two seasons were late, and that last win-
ter was remarkably cold. It was thought
by the- seedman of whom Mr. Wright
bought his seed that the seed were all
lost, but they were not. The total amount
or quantity of radishes shipped last sea-
son was 253 barrels, or the equivalent.
Nearly all that were raised were shipped.
The radishes are tied in bunches of six
with the tops on. They are sent in ven-
tilated barrels. By refrigerator car the
rate is eighty-five cents per 100 pounds
to Chicago. Last season. they had from
two to three hands per acre to pick, tie
and pack. Every day they aim to pick,
wet or- dry. In wet weather the radishes
are washed. Seventeen barrels per day
.was the. largest shipment ever made..
The refrigerator ear is not run every day,
'but its regularity is. a great need of suc-
cess, in the business,. -
Thuse-I have.given many details ofe one
of the largest. experiments-in trucking ih
the, Southwest. With one exception
E(tenty acres. at Norfolk,. Va.). it is-the
largest radish, field known on-the eon-
tiaent. I would. take nothing on con-
jecture' but sent Mr. Wright tohis-ship-
ping. books, for facts.
SBesides- vegetables Mr. Wright hasfive
aereseo C(incord grapes. He shigs-iAten-
pound beoes.toeChicago, Ill., and to.Min-
neapeoli. Mil-n-.. Is 1885 the first ship-
ment was- on, July 8& In 1886% the first
shipment was July 19, both late seasons.
The- Delaware: grape is believed to be a
success there by Mr. Casper Wilde, of
New Orleans,, we. ae informed..
Mr.. Wrtight has. plenty of demand for
his, grapes. The- highest price realized
has. beem twenty-five cents per pound
and they were rtm as low as 8iceits per
poundL In 1885M from four acres of grapes,.
there were marketed about 7.000 pounds,.

Ashes for the Orhard.
. If you have- a young or an old orchard
of any kind of fruit, or a grapery, the
very best thimg you cam do with tee
ashes, as fast as they accumulate u eon
the hearth, is to gather thbem up in the
scuttle and scatter them. around thetrees
and vines. No matter-what the season
may be, the thing to do is to carry them
out and spread them, and not allow them
to accumulate and waste in the cellar.
If they are coal ashes, carry them to the
orchard all the same,. They will do good,
though not so much as wood ashes. Be-
gin at the end of the first row of trees,
and scatter a shovelful around each tree
as fast as the ashes are made. If you
have a good memory, you will not forget
where you left off. Three times a week
in winter, oncein summer, and you will
get over a pretty large orchard in a year,
and save much trouble and extra hand-
ling of the sahes besides, and perhaps
prevent a fire that might occur by put-
ting ashesaway with fire in them. Never
put ashes with animal. -manure of any

S Liquid Manure.
I have carted out hogsheads of liquid
manure, but no more of that for me; it is
more work than will pay. A cistern
may be a good thing to save the liquid,
but to separate the solids from the liquid
is unwise. Nature designed them to act
together; take all the fats from mi!k, and
then make it into cheese, and you have
a parallel case. Let the solids and
liquids go together, and then add absorb-
ents enough to have it handle well, and
you have a pile of manure that is incom-
parably superior to any specialty that
man ever devised.-Ex.

A Disease Affecting the Roots
of Vegetables, Etc.
Editor Florida farmer and Fruit-Grower:
At our place we quite often find the
roots of many plants to be affected by
innumerable knots or enlargements of
the rootlets. Certain parts of the gar-
den seem to be more productive of this
condition of root growth than is shown
I have found it among our young or-
ange trees, among various vegetables,
and occasionally on some wee Is-rag-
weed, for instance. Last summer we
lost our okra crop from this cause. It
often stagnates growth in time of a dry
spell of weather, more commonly our
turnip and cabbage crops are the most
affected by. it. I have found it even
among our flower beds, and a few days
since dug tip a seedling peach of this
year's growth quite badly marked by it.
In some works it is treated as the
work of a maggot, and it is stated that
a wormr- or an egg, is to be found in the
enlargement of the rootlets, etc. I hold an
altogether different opinion concerning
the cause. That it is either a poisonous
condition of the soil, or a lack of some
essential ingredients to a full and perfect
shed upon us (who are interested) a ray
of light upon this matter. An acquaint-
ance (a large cabbage grower), told me
some years since, that he would give a
thousand dollars to know the cause, or
for an effective remedy.
Numerous so-called remedies, have,
time and again, been given to the pub-
lic, but I know of none that is reliable.
I have tried lime, ashes, liquid manure,
and have found a rotation system. with a
clover or grass crop intervening to be
the best remedy thus far, and this year a
crab grass crop has failed to show its ef-
fect to be remedial.
A. F. BOYcE.
JACKSONVILLE, Fla., Jan. 5,. 1887.
[The diseased condition referred to, i-
caused by a small grub which infects
the roots of garden crops when p'anted
on soil that is not highly calcareous.. It
seems that the cabbage and, cauliflower
attract a certain insect, which deposits
its eggs on che ground. The following
year the larvae or grubs which come from.
the eggs, penetrate the roots of vege-
tables that may be growing on the ground.
or those even of weeds or trees,.
The vital energy of the plant is-now
"diverted to the walling off or encysting
of the intruders, the roots become knot-
ted with galls, and unless the season be
very favorable the whole plant becomes'
sickly. Plants of the cabbage tribe suf-
fer most from the grub-, but it also, does
great harm to the field pea, okra,, and
most other crops. The only plantswhol-
ly exempt from club root are the grasses;.
hence by keeping land in grass for a
year or two the pest may be starved, out.
The only method of effectually and
quickly destroying the grubs and eggs
is by making a heavy application of lime;.
One of the best gardeners in -Florida. told
us that he succeeded in freeing land. of
club root by applying two tons. of lime
to the acre. Bone dust is also said, to, be
efficacious, and a large admixture of
shell's is said to render land permanently
exempt from this difficulty. A, H. ..]i

Joseph Harris in the Amersian-G.ardn.
says: Many false ideas prevail, about
asparagus. It is just as easy toplantand-
raise this crop Ps to plant and.raise-po*
tatoes... The old direQtions-in regard, to,
Itrenabhiag and manuring are obsolete.
True, it. will do no-harm to 'work .alot of.
good manure into the so'l and. sub-soild .
provided you do not turn up alblthe-neor,
sutseoii on top. The best asparagnis brd
we have was neither trenched nor. ma-
namedi. We top-dress iti with:nitrate of.
soda every spring and -occasionolly. with
man-ure late in the fall.

Topping Irish: Potatos.
A suberb lot of potatoes which were-
lately exhibited at a.French exposition,
and considered worth a gold medal, at-
tracted a great dealjof attention.. The-
cultivator gave the following as his-
method of increasing the size of thetubern:
When the young stems haue-attained
about four inchesin highh, all:of them,
excepting two of, the central.ones are cut
away, and these two only allowed. to,
grow. By means of this, simple pie.
caution the tubers become much larger
than they are- in ordinaoi cultivation.
-Vick's Magazine,



Three quarters of a mi!,froim St. Johns River,
75 feet above the river.,
20,000Niursery Trees, of all varieties and sizes.
All at bargains. Write or call at
F. C. COCHIANE'S Book Store,
Palatka, Fla.
B ... IS Every cultivator in me
II B T C .Somth should have a
U IE T'S copy f our tiunnuil,
*w m W ~containing 17 pages
SOUTHERN of usefl information.
/Ulnlr Free on application.
hu lA& "|Ac Address lRtlOBILT
SF r 8.... Pa. eSed-Fam s:f Rose.
For 1887 dale and Waterford.

a Specialty.
Ten well-tested varieties ripening from May
till last of October, with the exception of the
Honey and Peen-To varieties. The beaches I
offer have been obtained by CAREFUL SELECTION
from a large number of varieties adapted to the
South with which I have been experimenting for
m -ny years. I also offer our variety of Apricot,
the best of six which I have cultivated-
I guarantee every tree to be true to name and
to be of true Florida ztock.
For descriptive catalogue and price-list, ad-
dress W. P. HORNE,
Glen St. Mary, Florida.



FrDit-gr Tw r

Weekly Journal,








This journal will! have for itsleading bject
:the promotion of rural industriesfin Florida, and
will; advocate especially a more diversfied and
-intensive- system, of agrfiunre and greater
economy of home-resources. ,
Assuming that the agricultural adaptations of
a large portiontoftFlorida areas yet butr imper-
fectly understood, a special, aim of this jiarnal
will! be to describe. the best results wMeh have
been, accomplished, -with the-exact methodsem-
ployed,.and- all inftimnces affecting such. results;
also ,tosuggesti eperimenL, describe newor little
-known, crops,.fruits,., etc., andireeord theprogress
of agricu-lture inneighboringStates.
Oimmencing.with the firstrumbier and con-
tinuing:through;the seasonfor

Tree Planting,
There wilLbe a. series of aitticleson frufits-other
,than, those -of tho. citrus, group-wMhch have
proved mostsuocessfultin, this State.. Each Ta-
riety. will be described and,

Andithere-will.be notes from persons who haen
had. experience in, its. eulroatibn.. This will be
followed. by a similar series-oi .

Forage Plants,
,Andiothaesubj.eots-willlbe-iustatedto a limited
MuoliBattention! wii;be. dioted to

v. Stock

:AMdito the-home-produetlonmoerage and flrili-
:zea,. two economies- which, awe essential te sue-
. -Questions nelamti.oe o, aiments of dmestlc
anitms lawill be-answeioAdil an able valerinary
sunrgeon-whodbmnerly edited a like department

Turf, eld and Farm.
I A due amount o synce will be devoted to
householdieconom and to reports; t the mar.
kets, anA tiee-depatiimnts of

Practice, etc.

wil be ceatribnted to by persons who have made
specialties of those brandies.
All portions of the State will receive-a due
amount of attention, avd -their interests will be.
represented by able correspondents.
Under no circumstances will this Journal be.
come the organ" of any association or locality;
it will start out untrammelled and will repre.
sent all sections and interests with absolute in.
Published at Jacksonville on Wednesday
of each week.

One Year $ o00
Six Months 1 00
Three Months 50
Address subscriptions and other business com.
munications to

Communications for the editorial department
should be addressed to

A. H. CURTISS, Editor,
Jaoksonville, Fla.





fore they are closed more of the farmers
S anelt etngt who read and ponder upon the facts laid
g ayrm 54.UP54tr before them will be believers than skep-
__-- tics.
FORAGE CROPS FOR FLORIDA. To accomplish this great work of de3-
tiny the farmers must take from each
I--Conditions Requisite to Ag- acre of land more than ten bushels of
corn and 300 pounds of fodder, more than
ricultural Prosperity. fifty pounds of sea island cotton at 18
BYJ. G.X.cents a pound. They must stop buying
BY J.Fuit-Grower: corn, oats and hay raised in other States
Editor Florida Farmer and uit-owr: to feed to their horses, mules, oxen and
Passing over discussions of the various cows. Even the wheaten flour of Min-
questions involved in the considerations nesota, the canned goods of Baltimore,
of the climatic conditions of Florida, the pork and beef of Chicago and Kan-
from which a climate is produced differ- sas City must be supplanted by the pro-
ing from those of all other regions, and ducts of Florida. Whatever of substan-
especially from those of the other States; tial food is eaten by man or beast in
so too, merely hinting as teothe soil of Flofida must be raised in the Ftate. All
the different portions of the State, the this and more can be done when the ag-
mere statement that no other portion of riculturalists shall leai n to grow those
the world equal in extent possesses a plants adapted to the climate and soil;
soil more homogenous-a soil evidently to fertilize the soil by the produce of that
formed by the silt of the ancient wash- soil; to so diversify their crops that if
ings from the mountains of Alabama for any cause one crop fails another shall
and Georgia. and. spread over the entire succeed; and also to seize hold of every
surface of this State by the action of an plant that comes with a promise of suc-
equally ancient sea, a soil whose vari- cess, leaving those not so promising
nations are due to the amounts of decay- alone, or give them but slight exoeri-
ing vegetation in the different local- mentation.
ities; we come to consider To name such. plants as give promise
WHAT FODDER AND GRAIN PLANTS MAY of success in Florida and urge their cul-
BE SUCCESSFULLY GROWN. tivation, will form the subjects of the
That hard school-master, experience, chapters that may follow, with the rea-
has for years been teaching Floridians sons for tile belief in their good qualities
that some things they have tried suc- and merits, with their adaptability to our
ceed, but many things do not, Sufficient soil and climate. *
experiments have been already made to Wth P
prove that none of the favorite pasture Oats With Peas.
and meadow grasses of the more north- The following method of a Tennessee
ern States, where the cold of winter firmer, as reported in the Country
'closes all vegetable growths for weeks Gentleman, is applicab'e to those portions
and months, will thrive or even live in of Florida'in which oats succeed:
Florida. Even those grasses that will The land is plowed deep; then I sow
grow 'n our neighboring States of Ala- broadcast two bushels of peas and three
bama and Georgia, will not thrive here. of oats. The land not being harrowed,
So too, the plants from Texas, Mexico leaves it in better condition to cover the
and California, where great avidity pre- seed with more' depth when thoroughly
vails, will die when brought into the harrowed af erward. The above is done
warm, moist climate of Florida. Time as soon as the land is in proper condition
.and money spent upon endeavors to for the plow, say end of March in this
grow such plants here, will prove, as latitude or early in April. The crop is
they ever have, and ever must prove. ready for soiling in the middle of June.
time and money spent in vain; and the Cattle, horses and sheep will leave all
sooner Florida farmers shall cease tru ing other food, and take peas and oats in
such experiments as have been tried and preference. To make winter feed of iP
failed, the better it will be for them- I cut with the mower, let it lie on the
selves and 'he State. ground t'll wilted, then rake up. put in
The States of the Atlantic coast. the cocks until it sweats, and afterward put
great lakes, and the Mississippi valleys in ricks or stacks, or in the barn if there
are by climate well adapted to the growth is room for it, as the crop is very bulky.
of the grasses and clovers, and the grains As soon as the crop is taken off the land,
of Central Europe and Great Britain, I put in turnips, or else prepare it for
the great plains, the valleys of the moun- wheat, or for seeding down to grass
tainous regions, have their own nat- without any crop, which I beg to say I
ural grasses, but will permit those from think the proper w y to seed for grass,
New England and New York to thrive for either mowing or pasture. It is well
under irrigation. So too, California, known that peass are thl6 richest food
Arizona and New Mexico with their pe- given to milch cows, or to ewes that have
culiar flora admit the grasses and dropped early lambs, except palm nut
clovers of Spain and Italy to flourish. In meal. The latter will give more fat or
all of these flourish the blue grasses, cream in the milk, but the butter ,is not
clovers and timothy, and the grains like so sweet or nutty as when fed on peas
wheat, rye and barley, and a long list of and oats. My horses keep fat on peas
valuable plants for food of man and and oats in all kinds of work. I am posi-
beast. Those plants and the climatic tive that no other crop we grow on Ibhe
conditions are adapted to each other, farm is so valuable as peas and oats.
Not so Florida; and in this respect, no The demand has risen from 50 sacks to
:'exception is conceded. Here those 500 last year. One of themost intelli-
plants, whenever brought under the in- gent breeders in this coun ry commenced
flueince of the Florida climate, perish with ten bushels in 1884, and last year
from incompatibility, put in forty bushels. I have tast spring's
Florida must therefore produce other calves, w'ich are now fed, entirely on
grasses, grain and fodder plants than peas and oats, mixed with marigolds,
those regions. The blue grasses are and visiting breeders pronounce them the
here supplanted by the crab grasses, the best they ever saw
Bermuda, the smut, the Guinea, the -
Para, and a ;longist of tall, coarse. Lime and Sour Soil.
grasses. The clovers nd vetches of the Lim is the proper corrective of a
North here find a substitute in theLe- soimur soil, as ma eem to think., The
pidizaThese grassd cow-peas. and eg are not les acidity i4 not caused by an excess of
proliThee gra es and legum tes are not lcor-vegetable matter in the so 1, but an ex-
responding plants farther ;north, which te su ofac-, or just below it, stagnates,
many are so vainly anxious to introidlue; thesu fac, o jusid fromw i t, stagnates,
but as the attempt to do so is in viola- euater, chokes uphe air passaveges and
tion of the laws of nature, all human ter, chokes up the air passages and
efforts' must fail. The conservatism of drowns the life -Out of the land. It is
the farming classes, and- the lodgings quite common ,to hear of drowning soil,
for those things known in childhood, are and sh soil is always sour. n
conceded; but that conservatism must firsThe proper thing to do, get ridof then not
leave its ru and the lodgings yield to super-abundant moisture. The water
Orange trees will not grow in the or- passages must be opened below, and the
chards of Massachusetts, nor willapples Water made to flow away from the sur-
thrive in the valleys of the Caloosahat- fac enough. It is simply impossilgged to put
chee. Rice will not produce in Dakota, lime en itbecauseghon the water-logged soil to
nor will wheat in Manatee. So are the sweeten it, because theaction of the lime
grasses and grains limitedby bounds of is not only checked by too much water,
climate. But if Florida's climate will but the presence of water and decayi
not admit the grasses and grains of the Vegetable matter is ontantly crime
North, labor and time to apply lime to an un-
FLORIDA IS NOT NECESSARILY DESTITUTE drained soil with the hope of correcting
OF GRAIN AND FODDER PLANTS. the acidity. The primary fault must be
If. Floridians were limited to the crab removed.
grasses and the very annoying cock- It is true that a dry season and good
spur, they need never buy a bale of hay cultivation may -make liming without
to feed their stock, provided they but drainage appear effective; but it is only
saved these volunteer products of every temporary and deceptive. Opening the
cultivated field in the S:ate. But hap- soil, so as to admit air and thus dry the
pily they may have other grasses if they land, will do much more to correct the
choose. In the same family as the crab- acidity than any amount of alkaline fer-
grass is the tall rankly growing Guinea, tilizers that can be applied.
which may be cut four and six times in After drainage, however, lime always
the year, yielding a ton of hay at each acts well and exerts a very beneficial ef-
cutting. In the same family is 'he Para fect on such land. It 'is the second
grass, with which all the wet soils may most necessary thing, but not the
be covered with a, thickly matted turf first. The mistake has been made in
for pasturage the entire year. This may making it the first and supposed sole
Also be cut as often and yield as many remedy.
tons of hay as the Guinea. It delights Sour soil is often very productive,
in the rain and heats of Florida sum- without amelioration for crops of short
mers. period; that is, crops planted in late
The Bermuda and crow-foot, the nu- summer, and that come off before the
merous family of the paspalumus, and winter rains begin. Such crops are field
even the much abused maiden cane, and peas, turnips, buck-wheat and late po-
others, will give the Florida farmers tatoes. The reason is that by midaum-
continuous pastures. With these there mer the land has dried out, the acidity
is no need to mourn as without hope. has departed with the moisture, and
Bountiful nature has deals most kindly from then until rains occur again the
with Florida. Man in his conservatism soil is productive. This fact alone in-
and ignorance, often laziness, is alone to dicates what the soil needs: That is,
blame for failures of abundance of food deep and- thorough drainage. This is
of-grains and fodder for himself and bhis the cure for a sour soil.-Times-Demo-
domestic animals, crat.
Every acre of dry land, and every acre By commencing with mixed farming,
of land that can be drained of its water, and gradually advancing to special
can be made to yield food for a cow in crops, less mistakes are likely to be made
Florida; and as a consequence a human lhan if special crops are taken up first,
being may also be sustained from because in mixed farming only small
each acre. This is a broad and, some areas are devoted to each crop, yet
will say, a cranky statement of Florida's enough to test the value of each, thus
capabilities; but broad as'it is its truth 'enabling the farmer to make a judicious
may be demonstrated, and to prove it 'selection without suffering the great loss
will constitute this series of articles. Be- he sometimes would by selecting one

special crop, before lie has tested the
quality of his soil or the correctness of
his own knowledge of the best methods
of growing and marketing the crop.


I--Preparing Plant Beds and
Sowing Seed.
Editor Florida Farmer and Fruit-Grower:
Tobacco seed should be sown during
the last week of December, or the first
two weeks of January. W-en a large
crop is projected, it is well to sow some
seed each of these three weeks, so as not
to have them all come on at once. The
selection and preparation of a tobacco
seed-bed is a matter of prime and vital
importance. Not one in a hundred will
yield plants in due time, if carelessly
and improperly prepared.
Select a rich, moist (not wet) spot in
hammock virgin soil, where the rays of
the morning sun may reach it. There
are some low, black, rich pine lands
suitable for "plant beds" if a ditch of 4
to 6 inches I e dug around, with outlet at
lowest point, which should be done in
all cases unless the ground is in a very
dry point.
In all cases the ground must be burned
over and the ashes dug into the soil
while pulverizing it; don't fail to rake
off the leaves before burning, as the
land cannot be burned if a coat of wet
leaves lay in the surface.
Lay down poles 4 to 6 inches thick
about 6 feet apart. Then pile on brush
evenly and closely, and upon this place
sticks of wood sufficiently heavy to press
the brush down near the ground, taking
care to lay every stick parallel with each
other about 6 or 8 inches apart, at right
angles with the poles or "skids" first laid
down, so that the wood will not lay flat
on the ground while burning. The
burning mass will be about 4 to 6 inches
above the surface, so that the ground
may be uniformly burned over, but not
too much. When the wood is about half
consumed take a pole with a hook on
the end, and draw the burning wood to
the borders, thus extending the surface
of the s-ed bed.
When the ground has cooled off dig or
chop with a hoe, using an ax to remove
the largest ioots. Pulverize well and
sow one large tablespoonfull to every 50
square yards, half enough'is better than
twice too many, as the plants will be
stronger. MIix the seed uniformly in corn
meal, say half a gallon, make marks three
leet apart and sow the meal between,
which, being white, enables you. to see
where the li tle seeds are falling.
Then with a little piece of brush sweep.
back and forth very lightly and tramp
over with "snow shoes" (which can be
extemporized in a few minutes), and
cover, -"shingle fashion," with straight,
leafless brush, which must be removed
with care when the plants begin to grow
well and all danger of frost is over. If
a severe frost is threatened after the
plants are beginning to grow, spread
over the brush light canvass of any kihd
and remove when the sun comes out.
It will be from 60 to 90 days before the
plants will be large enough to transplant
(as cabbage plants are). Transplant (in
rich land) 8 by 4 feet, the wide way for
"laying by" and pass-way in working.
The cultivaticn-Lhoeing and plowing
-is about the same as for cotton or cab
bage. "Top" when the flower bad is
well out, at 14 to 18 leaves. The bud-
worm is to be watched; it ay be
checked by a pinch of strung a hes. To-
bacc transplanted ii March and May
will not be much molested by the green
"horn-worm;." and too acres .set outin
April will cost less to worm than one-
acre set out in June.
How to prepare for planting, harvest,
house and cure, will ibd esribed in due
time '
LAKECITY, Fla., Jan. 5, 1887.
NOTE.-Thle "Vuelta abajo" is prob-
ably the best seed for Florida. It can be
obtained from .Lawton Bros., Havana,
Cuba; Chalker, Bros. and Rice, Lake
City; Landreth & Son; and other reliable
seedsmen; also of the Agricultural De-
partmerit at Washington.
F. B. M.


An Address by Prof. J. A. Myers,
Greenville, La.
Mr. President and Gentlemen-If I
were to attempt to state the difference
in the conditions of the agricultural
classes in this country and in the old
world, I would put it thus: In Europe
farmers make money with great diffi-
culty and retain it with scrupulous care,
while in this country they make money
easily but squander it without thought.
When we consider the wastes of most
of our Southern farms and plantations,
we find ample grounds for serious
thought. I am willing to state that I
believe there is sufficient waste upon our,
farms,. or carelessness in the sale of farm
products, which, if corrected, would
make the South one of the most
prosperous agricultural countries in the
In beginning the consideration of a
problem involving directly millions of
dollars of property, and indirectly, as I
believe, the prosperity or failure of our
Southern farmers, I ask you to go patient-
ly through the array of figures with me,
free as they are from all scientific terms,
and arranged so as to concisely present
the facts that.I wish to develop.
For our purpose we accept as correct
one of the lowest estimates of the cotton
croo for this year, namely:' 6,200,000
bales, equal to 2,790,000,000 pounds. The
cotton seed weight about twice as much,
that is5,580,000,000pounds. The necessary
quantity of seed for the next crop, to-
gether with the unavoidable losses of
seed, will not exceed one-fifth of the en-
tire yield. There will, therefore, be left
4,464,000,000 pounds or 2,232,000 tons of
seed that the planters of the South may
sell, or that may be shipped out of the
This, at the price of $8 per ton, would

bring to the farmers $17,856,000; an I at
$5 per ton (the price of which the greater
part of what is delivered issold) it would
be $11,160,000.
The majority of our farmers are willing
to part with the last seed that they can
spare at the ruling prices. In this very
fact lies the waste of our resources that
I wish to combat.
If we study the economic side of this
question, we must consider how much
will this enormous transportation of a
rich agricultural product from our coun-
try reduce its producing capacity.
If all of the cotton seed that may be
spared from the South this year were ex-
ported, plant food would be removed
from the country to the extent of-
Nitrogen-87.494,400 tbs, at 20e V lb .. .$17,498,880
Potash-45,532,800 hs, at 6c lbH....... 2,781,968
Phosphoric acid-54,460,800 lbs, at lOci lb 5,446,080
Making a grand total of...........$25,676,928.
as the value of the plant food removed.
The figures are based upon the an lysiss
of Prof. White, of Georgia, and are the
lowest -analyses with which I am ac-
quainted, iny own placing the values
much higher, as also do the analyses of
other chemists.
If our farmers receive'for their cotton
seed $8 per ton, it represents a value of
$17,856,000 for the whole. If we deduct
this maximum price offered for cotton
seed this year from the value of the plant
food removed from the country, we
have a loss to the farmers of $7,920,928.
If 'he farmers receive only $5 per ton,
they suffer a loss of at least $14,516,928.
In face of this fact, my friends, is it
not time to call halt? As large as these
figures appear, I believe them to express
the minimum lo1s. Can our Southern
farmers continue long thus to waste the
bounties of heaven and earth? Are we
not tending to ruin, and already out
upon the current that is swiftly car-
rying us into a whirlpool of misfortune
and ruin? If we are thus careless of the
b'essings bestowed upon us, do we not
deserve to suffer for it?
I offer no apology for adopting the
system of valuation that I have, for if
you go into the market and try to re-
place this plant-food that is being re-
moved, you will have to pay this price
for it. In other words, the prices of com-
mercial fertilizers represent the money
value of plant-food. There is no other
standard that I know of with which we
can compare it. If we denude our land
of its fertility either we or our children,
if they retain the land, must restore it.
and they will have to go into the market
and buy the fertilizers as they are now so
largely doing in Georgia and South Caro-
lina, in order to secure the necessary
plant-food for their crops.
You can well understand that I am not
dealing'with theory. The figures that I
have given you are as real values as are
the figures of the clearing-house, and
show us too plainly that if we continue
to check upon nature's bank at the rate
we are now doing we will soon have
drawn all of our deposit from that bank.
Every square foo' of our soil has a fixed
amount of capital deposited in it In the
form of plant-food, and when we have
.6khausted it we qre forced to abandon
it. It is true that a rich soil will with-
stand the prodigality ofothe farmers lon-
ger than a poor one, but it is only a
question of time
There is nothing new in this thought,
and yet it is so intimately connected.
with the success of our farmers that we
cannot too -rea'l- emphasize it To my
mind, the depressed condition of agri-
culture in the South to-day is as easily
explained as is the proposition that art
effect must follow a cause. The orlyv
surprise that can be expressed is that it
is not worse. I do not care to discuss
all of the causes at present, but we all
know that no, business can thrive long
under a'system like this.
Cotton seed worth to the farmer, at
the very lowest estimate, $12.50 per ton
as a fertilizer, and sold by him for from
$5 to $8 per ton, actually paying at the
rate from $2.25 to $3.25 per bale of cot-
ton to have his land impoverished. You
may visit every part of our great coin-
try, and in no place will you find tLe
farmers so ruthlessly sacrificing their
birth-right as here in 'he South. Why,
is there any other section of this wide
world where farmers will so coolly sell
their products and turn right around and
buy them back at from 25 to 50 per cent.
advance for the simple satisfaction of
making a trade? It is only the other day
that I was conversing with a gentleman
upon the street, when a good nature
farmer passed with a large wagon load
of corn, which the merchant across the
way took at 60 cents per bushel. "There,"'
said the gentleman, "is a good example
of the way farmers do business. That
man, I know, has not much more than
half enough corn to do him through to
the next crop. He is selling his corn
now for 60 cents per bushel, and about
next May he will buy back probably the
very same corn at $1 a bushel. I do not
think this is an isolated case. I will even
say this: Every farmer who parts with
his cotton seed for less than its value as
a fertilizer is acting in exactly the same
way. They or their children will have
to buy it back at the prices charged for
fertilizers either now or later, or abandon
the land. Let me implore you by every-
.thing that you esteem dear in life to stop
this waste upon your farms for once and

218 and 220 Washington Street,
(Established 1853.)

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C. S. L'ENGLE & CO.,



For the Season of 1886-7.
Also Apples grafted on LeConte Roots. For
catalogue and prices, address
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The largest grower of these Pears from Cut-
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Seffner, Hillsborough Co., Fla.
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Also, several other choice varieties of Peaches. -My stock o Kelsey's-Japan Plum Trees con-
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FIRST PAGE-Kelsey's Japan Plum illustrated) ;
The Kelsey Plum at Waldo; The Kelsey
Plum in Baker County; Orange Culture
Abroad; Our Best Ornamental Trees, (Illus-
trated); How to Plant Trees.
SzcoND PAGE-Florida Fruits; A Strawberry
Farm; Nursery Agents; Sterile Vines; Poultry
in Orchards; Gardening at Lake Worth; A
Louisiana Truck Farm; Ashes for Orchards;
Club Root, etc.
THIRD PAGZ-Forage Crops for Florida; Oats
with Peas; Lime and Sour Soil; Mixed Farm-
ing First; Preparing Tobacco Plant Beds; The
Value of Cotton Eeed.
FoURTa PAe--(EEditorial) Our Premium; "Our
Home Circle;" An Arbor Day Offering; Let us
Organize for Work; Patrionize Home Nurse-
ries; The Aspects of Fig Culture; Manage-
ment of Farmers' Clubs; Hints to Writers; We
import Too Much.
FiHra PAGE-Veteiniary; How Cattle are
Poisoned; An Old Sprain; Diseases of Swine;
Loss of Cud; Jersey Cattle in Jersey; Cotton
Seed for Feed; Bees in kiouth Florida; Pal-
metto and Mangrove; An Easy Way to Hive
SIXTH PAGE-The Araucarian Pines; Thoughts
for ArboL Day; A Vexed Question; Women and
Wages; About the House; How to Make a
Bed; Don'ts for the Sick Room, etc.
SEVENTH PAGE-Farm and Garden Miscellany
(Illustrated); Serial Story, by S.'Baring Gould.
EIGHTH PAGE-Legend of St. Nicholas; Noted
Indian Leaders, Osceola; The Indian River
Hammock; Food Adulterations; Greasing a
,Wheel; A Cattle Barn for the South, etc.

OUR PREMIUM. readers have settled down to the convic-
The book on Southern Grasses which tion, by this time, that the destiny of

we offer as a premium for new subscrip- Florida does not rest in the hands of the sponse ta creang anu g, ng a
e.ions is thus-spoken of by the New Or- classes we have mentioned. They may separate department, which shall be de-
t"ioeans Times-Democrat:D D L Phares, bring, thousands of .new settlers into the voted entirely,,to the service and inter:
by the publication of his "Farmers' State, and tens of thousands of Winter ests of the gerjqtr inmates of the house-
Book of Grasses," has conferred an ines- visitors, but they-do this for their own hold, the wife and mother and her chil-
-timable boon upon the South. He has aggrandizement, and they do little or dren.
tteh-nothing to advance the industrial intta
not only pointed out to the Southern nothing to advance thedusal inter- No one will gainsay that these are im-
planter the value and adaptability of the ests of the State. ortant members of the home circle, yet
domestic grasses cultivated in the North, An increase of population incresesthe retofore those of Florida have looked
but has made plain to them the wealth apparent prosperity of the State, but all s i
of the native grasses which cover the the while the demands on the soil of a in vain for any real, substantial, helpful
Southern soil. growing population is rendering the ag- recognition of their claims; as it has.
S ricultural problem more momentous, ever been in newly settled countries,

A FAVORABLE RECEPTION. First, we need to solve the question of is it here; out-door life and occupations,
supplies, of maintenance, in short, to the farm, the field, the garden, the work-
The numerous expressions of hearty gain- an independence, for every one shop, are well represented and assisted
and unqualified approval which we are knows that a great portion of the State by words and deeds.
receiving every day, both by letter and is largely dependent on the North for But the real corner-stone upon which
through the press of the State, afford us many of the necessary supplies. the o
much gratification, and we shall make In one respect an increase of numbers rests the foundation of every true life,
more full acknowledgment of these fa- is an increase of strength. This brings Its health, happiness and prosperity, the
vors in our next number than our present us back to our starting point. Two heads Home is too often overlooked.
space allows. and two hands are better than one wheui The husband is told how he may
We are fully convinced, by the best of working for a .common purpose, and lighten his labor, which is already less
evidence, that the general policy and line three are better than two. The problem arduous than that of his faithful wife,
of work which we have laid down meets of the future is crowding on us, and for but the latter and the children are left
with public approval. Encouraged by its solution there is need of clear heads to drag along as best they may, the one
such assurances of sympathy and sup- and willing hands. The destiny of the without help or guidance, the other
port we, shall spare no effort to secure State is in the hands of the earnest work- without healthful, wholesome interests
Sfor the FARMER AND .FRUIT-GROWER a ers. It can be worked out only by intel-
still greater measure of public favor. ligent, systematic, patient research and or amusements.
We think our readers will recognize labor. We must let the veil of romance And here is just where the FLORIDA
marked improvements in our second and drop, and look facts squarely in the face. FARMER AND FRUIT-GRowF.R is progres-
third issues, and that they will find still We, the earnest workers, must put sive and just. It fully realizes the im-
greater in the fourth. We wish to earn our heads together, organize and oper. portance and difficulties of the Work
public favor by honest effort, and can ate systematically. We do not believe which is so quietly and unostentatiously
assure our readers that no effort will be in commencing with State organizations, going on all the time in every home in
spared-to make our paper both interest- or even county organizations, especially the land, and it acknowledges the claim
ing and useful to the farmer and his such as are composed of self-appointed of those patient home-workers and
Home Circle. members. Close-corporate mutual ad- home-makers to such aid and comfort as
"OUR HOME CIRCLE.",, migration societies, pretending to repre- it may be able to extend.
sent a constituency which does not rec- IT e t
It is with a gratification which we ognize them, are of little or no service to To lighten the burden of the Florida
know our readers will share that we an- the community. housekeeper, present and to come, and to
nounce the accession to our editorial staff Let us advance from little to great be of real, practical service in her every
of one of Florida's most gifted writers, things, from particulars to generalities, day life; to add to the comforts and re-
who, under the name of HELEN HAR- and not attempt to build a pyramid on sources of the household in all possible
.---eous, -has-contributed much to the en-. its apex. Let us commence with home ways; to interest the children, and guide
joymeht and instruction of the reading organization, neighborhood societies, their wayward fancies into good and
public,. and has added materially to the farmers' clubs; and when every neigh- useful channels; to furnish to its readers
fame arid good name of Florida. borhood has its organization, then it will information and advice on all points con-
The poet asks, "What is home without be in order to send delegates to County nected with the household and domestic
a mother?" and we ask, "What is a and State Conventions to deliberate on economy, and to be th "friend in need"
family journal without a lady writer on subjects of general importance, and to o m "akr aftn r the truth thee
its corps, to look after the interests of adopt measures whereby our agricul- are the osects for which is called into
what all men concede to be the better tural interests may be properly presented are th r which is called
half of the Home Circle?" to the railroad corporations, -to the State being the new department of the FLORIDA
OUR HoxE CIRCLE will be the title of Legislature and to Congress. FARMER AND FRUIT-GROWER, "Our
the new department which .after this We read recently in a Massachusetts Home Circle."
number will occupy our fifth page. It paper. that the farmers' clubs were HELEN HARCOURT, Editor.

will be conducted by a lady whose nomr
de plume has become- a household word
among the reading public of Florida,
and who will devote to its service her
distinguished talents and extensive fund
of information.
This new feature of the FARMER AND
FRUIT-GROWER should render it doubly
welcome to every home circle, and we
hope to see the time when the paper will
be a welcome visitor to every home in

It is a popularly accepted fact that
"two heads are better than one." The
saying needs some qualification, but in
a general way, taking heads as they
average, it is true. Some sayings, like
those of Martin Tupper, are "more nice
than wise," while others are more wise
than nice, being of broad and general
application, though not accurately fit-
ting every case.
When people "put their heads to-
gether" they can accomplish much more
good or evil than they can individual.
When, however, people come together
and their heads are at variance, it may
be said that their number is a source of
weakness. In most large deliberative
bodies there is too much-of personal am-
bition, jealousyand animosity, too much
of selfish purpose, too much ego. Men
come together with intent to work out
individual purposes, the people's inter-
ests are- secondary considerations, andit
is somewhat a matter of chance whether
the people are benefited or harmed.
Moreover, bodies of representative
men are apt to be manipulated by
wea'thy corporations and led to serve
their interests instead of the peoples.
The country is coming so under the
domination of millionaire monopolists
that it seems the people cannot put forth
an arm in self-defence but it is paralyzed.
But we are drifting now to topics which
it is not our present purpose to discuss.
Our all-absorbing thought is the ad-
vancement of Florida's agricultural in-
terests. We shall not concern ourselves,
except in an indirect manner, about
the interests of the transportation com-
panies, landed syndicates, mercantile
and commission houses, or hotel keepers.
These classes are composed of shrewd
business men who are supposed to be
able to look after their own interests,
and if they lose in their ventures it will
be because they are not so shrewd as
they thought themselves.
We presume that a majority of our


"scaice'y outnumbered by the school-
houses in that State." They ought not
to be. Every school district should
have its*farmers'club. Men and women
need to be educated as well as boys and
girls, and there is no .better means of
mental and social improvement, after
the school days are over, than such as-
semblages at stated intervals, when
farmers with their wives and grown
children meet for the purpose of discus-
sing the agricultural and social interests
of the neighborhood.

V e wish to aid the good cause of tree
planting by works as well as words.
Having claimed for the mock-olive or
cherry:laurel the first rank among our
hardy ornamental trees, we wish now to
do something towards its dissemination
-in the literal sense of the word, that
is, a distribution of seed.
To any of our Southern subscribers
who desire to start the cherry laurel
from seed, and who make application
before the 5th of February next, we will
send a package of the berries by mail,
charging for the same what we think will
barely defray the expense of gathering,
putting up in bags and postage, namely,
ten cents for one-fourth of a pound, fif-
teen cents for half a pound, or twenty-
five cents for -a pound. We estimate
that a pound contains about eight hun-
dred seeds (in the fresh-berry) which is
enough for a hundred yards of hedge,
allowing for probable loss..
With regard to our offer of grape cut-
tings, they are to be sent gratuitously,
not as a premium cr to subscribers
alone, but to any one in Florida who
has the will and ability to propogate
them, without regard to iace or nation-'
ality, ago, sex or previous condition.
In our last issue we acknowledged re-
ceipt of fifteen applications for cuttings
of the Vitis Caribaea, to which we now
add those of R. F. S., W. E. C., J. C. S.,
A. P. B., G. L. T., G. W. I., D. R., T.B.,
W. B., E. N. P., C. C., R. M. T., J. L.
H., J. M. V., D. F. C., J. H., E. R., F.
E., S. P., G. G. B.


Recognizing the fact that the FARMER
AND FRuiT-GROWER, (whether man or
paper,) is but half complete, and can
scarce attain a full measure of useful-
ness without the aid and co-operation of
family ties and comforts, the publish-
ers of the above weekly have summoned
the -undersigned to undertake the re-
$lb k f d uidi


The following account of the practi-
cal workings of farmers' clubs, by a cor-
respondent of the Country Gentleman,
is introduced here in order to exemplify
a system of organization which we have
advocated in another column. We think
but few.clubs have been formed as yet in
Florida, and we hope by this and other
articles to stimulate a general interest
in a system of organization which we
believe will result in much good to the
We have in this neighborhood two
live farmers' clubs, one of which has
been in successful operation for some
twelve years, and the other about half
as long. Both are organized and con-
ducted on the same general plan, are
limited to thirteen families, and the
meetings held at the farms of the memn-
bers. No member is desired or accepted
but such as will promise to attend, as far
.possible, every meeting, and every mem-
ber is expected to take some part in each
meting. During the months of Octo-
ber to March, inclusive, we meet at 10
o'clock a. m. and take dinner, and for
the months of April to September, inclu-
sive, we meet at 2 p. min. and take tea.
When the first club was organized here,
there was considerable criticism because
the membership was limited, but -I think
time has proved the wisdom of the plan.
I have been familiar with quite a num-
ber of country clubs, where there was no
limit as to the number of members, and
in winter they were always obliged to
meet in some hall in town, as no farmer
could undertake to stable the horses
and provide room for them. I have
rarely known one of these organizations
that had a dozen members who could
always be relied on to be present, and
there is a greater danger of a few long-
winded talkers monopolizing the time in
the larger than in the smaller club. A
club may be considerably scattered with-
out serious disadvantage, and the wider
the territory covered by them, the more
the members can see of the crops on
their monthly trips. The extremes of
our club are fully twelve miles apart.
But as the bulk of the club are more cen-
trally located, there are not many of
these long drives in a year, and they
are quite equally divided among the
members. It is a poor team that will
not go a good road trot six miles an hour,
and this enables us to s'art st 8 o'clock
to the morning meetings, and at 12 to
those held in the afternoon. Our ladies
.ay it is much less labor and expense to
provide one meal a year for the club
than to pack a basket for every meeting,
as is done by most of the larger farmers
The social benefits of the club is of it-
self worth 'more than it costs, for the
few families become thoroughly ac-
quainted and strong attachments are
'The atteidancd of the young people is
encouraged, and one, or more, of them is
assigned for some duty at each meeting.
We prepare and print a year in advance
a full piogramme for the year. We put
three of our best members on the pro-
gramme committee, which is appointed
in September, with instructions to re-
port to the November meeting, which is
devoted to the election of officers for the
ensuing year, and hearing of the report
of the committee and discussing, per-
fecting and adopting the programme
At the time this committee is appointed,
,the members of the club are urged to
,send to them any questions for discus-
sion they may wish embodied in the
programme, or to make any suggestion
they think .beneficial.
Our programme contains a list of
members and officers oLthe club, and
one page is devoted to each meeting.
One essay, one selection and one recita-
tion is had at each meeting, and then a
regular question for discussion is given;
usually with several, sub-topics. Some
member is assigned to open each sub-
topic, and after it is opened any one
may 'add to what has been said, or take
exceptions to the same. Any essay or
selection is open for discussion and the
utmost liberty is allowed in asking ques-
tions of any member who has the floor.
The last pages of the programme con-
taii our constitution and by-laws. Our
programme is printed in book form, 16
pages, 6 by 24 inches, with colored cover
and cost us from $5.50 to $7 per 100
copies. Four or five copies are given to
each family, and the remainder are put
in care of the secretary, who is expected
to bring extra copies to each meeting to
furnish invited guests. Of late years
there have been so many calls for these
programmes, that I have bad 100 extra
copies printed each year at my own ex-
pense, and have had applications for
them from all parts of the Union. I
shall have extras printed this year as
usual, and as long as they last shall be
glad to nail them to any who will ad-
dress me at Oxford, 0., inclosing six
cents in stamps, which is net cost.
As some would perhaps like to know
how our questions are stated, I will copy
one or two from our 1885 programme:
One topic was, "Clover, its uses and
value to the farmer: 1. General man-
agement of the crop: 2. Clover as a fer-
tilizer; 8. As a food plant; 4. Seed-grow-
ing; 5. Money value of the crop."
At another meeting we discussed-
"Road making," with the following
sub-topics: 1. Existing laws and usages
governing supervisors of roads; 2. How
to construct roads; 3. Care of roads; 4.
Qualifications needed in a supervisor; 5.
Walks and drives on the farm.
The question of "Preventable losses"
was divided into sub-topics as follows;
1. Losses from inferior stock and tools;
2. From unscientific feeding; 3. From
want of system and help; 4. In harvest-
ing and securing crops; 5. For want of
shelter for tools and stock.
Where even four or five farmers can
be found who are willing to start a club,
I advise that an organization be started.
You can either meet once in two months,
or you can meet twice a year at each
house. There will rarely be a time in

the summer, when by a little planning a
half day cannot be spared, and in the
winter there is more leisure. Even if
you must h ire an extra hand for the time
you are absent, I think that it will be
profitable, for half a dozen even of earn-
est men who meet monthly, to talk over
their business, as they cannot fail to
make it profitab'e, particularly when
the business includes as many details as
does that of the farmer. I think about
the most profitable, as well as the pleas-
antest days I spend, are those at my
farmers' club, and I am sure that one or
more ought to be organized in every.
township. It will not be done without
an effort, and some one must take the
lead and awaken an interest in it. Visit
a few of your neighbors with whom you
would like to be. associated in such an
organization, and as soon as you can
get a few interested, call a meeting- at
your own house. The club of which I am
a member was brganized at my house in
1881, and it has grown in interest from
that day to this, and I expect to stick to
it as long as I can find any other family
to meet with mine.

Editor Florida Farmer and FMuit-Arower:
A lot of 2 Honey peach trees was re-
ceived last winter from New Jersey and
planted here. They started well and
put out new shoots 12 to 18 inches long,
up to June, when they stopped growing.
The hot sun of July and August was too
much for them, and they all died but
A lot of 200 IHoney peach trees was
received from a Florida nursery
and planted ori same soil, receiving no
better care or fertilization than the New
Jersey trees-but all lived and grew
vigorously, sending out numerous shoots
of new wood 12 to 48 inches long.
Moral-Do not. send to Jersey for
Peach trees.
C. H G.
The foregoing experience, and many
others like it, deserve publication as
warnings against a mistake which is
made by many every year, resulting in
no small amount of loss and disappoint-
It is not to be expected that a tree
accustomed to the five-month system f
work will readily adopt the eight-month
system. It does not "stand to reason.'
A tender nursing of a tree, taken out of
the cold soil and from under the cold
sun of a Northern Stlae, transported
through ten or fifteen degrees of lati-
tude, and planted in a land that is all
aglow with warmth and sunshine, can-
not adapt itself to the change of climate
as a man can. To become adapted to
the new conditions, its vital currents
mus' commence to flow and its leaves to
expand two months earlier than is cus-
tomary to its kind. Brought here in a
thoroughly dormant condition, its vital-
ity impaired-by the removal, it is unrea-
sonable to expect that it can perform the
additional work required for its main-
tenance. The roots cannot meet the de-
-mands upon them, the flow of sap grows
sluggish, the tree becomes sickly and
It is folly to defy the laws of nature
and the teachWngs of experience. It is
best to leave experiments in acclimat'oni
t6 the nurserymen.. Let them bear the
losses wh'ch result from such experi-.
ments; and to the extent of, their suc-
cesses reward i hem with your patronage.
Buy your trees from home nurseries and
as far as practicable from those in your
own latitude. There are reFable nur-
serymen in nearly all parts of Florida,
and no one should send out of the Sa'e
for what they can supply. Public spirit,
reason and experience teach the's.
Hints to Writers for the Florida
Farmer and Fruit Grower.
The readers of the FLORIDA FARMER.
AND FRUIT-GROWER are respectfully in-
vited to contribute to its columns articles
and notes on all subjects pertaining to
the farm, garden, orchard and house-
.hold affairs. The range of topics which
will be discussed in this journal may be
gathered from the subjoined table, which
may serve to suggest what might other-
wise escape attention:
Clearing land, draining land, crops for
new land, succession of crops, intensive
farming, treatment of different soils,
resting land, soiling vs. pasturing, cow-
penning, green manuring.
Horses, mules, cattle, hogs, sheep,
poultry-Breeds, feed, diseases, treat-
Cotton seed, cotton seed meal, barn-
yard manure, guano, ground bone,.su-
per-phosphate, gypsum, lime, kainit,
ashes, marl, muck, leaf mould, com-
Bermuda grass, crab grass, Para grass,
Guinea grass, Tterrell grass, orchard
grass, red-top grass, Johnson grass, Texas
blue grass, pearl millet, German millet,
millo maize, kaffir corn, teosinte, sorg-
hum, foddder corn, cow peas, desmodi-
um, Mexican clover, lespedeza, alfalfa,
Corn, oats, rye, wheat-Varieties,
yield per acre, soil and season, difficul-
ties encountered, general treatment.
Cotton-Long and Short Staple-Plant-
ing and culture, marketing crop, man-
agement of seed, products from the
Sngar Cane and Sorghum-Varieties,

culture, making syrup and sugar, condi-
tion of market.
Tobacco-Varieties, history in Florida, "
recent experiences, seed, culture, manu-
Citrus Fruits-Comparison of- varie-
ties, hardiness and productiveness, meth-
ods of propagation, methods of planting
and culture comparative effects of fer-
tilizers, marketing of fruit, preservation
of fruit, wine and other products. -
Peach, pear, fig, persimmon, Jaipan
plum, Kelsey plum, native plum, mul-
berry, quincet apricot, guava, banana,
pineapple sapodilla, mango, avotcada
pear, cocoanut, pecan, English walnut,
almond, -pomegranate, olive, grape,
strawberry, blackberry, raspberryLVa-
rieties, their characteristics, effects of
soil, weather, etc., besf methods of
Plants adapted to this -climate, out-
door culture, management -of green-
Planting trees for ornament or utility,
the burning over of forest lands, the
lumber and turpentine industries, the
tanning industry, phenomena of plant
life, weeds and noxious plants.
N. B.-Specimens may be sent 'to the
editor for identification. Information is
desired respecting popular names and
Nature of damage done and remedies.
Bees and bee plants, silk culture and
the mulberry, hunting and fishing, dogs
and dog laws, fences ant roads, legisla-
tion for farmers, homestead laws, trans-
portation, rrarketing produce, experi-
mental farms, agricultural education,
home manufactures, natural history
of Florida, historic points, -sanitary ad-
vice, farm buildings, house furnishing,
farm machinery, farm implements,
water supply, cooling appliances, re-
ceipes for cooking, home decorations,
household economy, minerals and earths,
clim. ogy, hints on the care of chil-
dren, on dress, habits, reading, amuse-
ments, etc.
In treating of the above and related
subjects, practical experience is much to
be preferred to theoretical knowl-
edge; yet there are topics needing dis-
cussion which have to be treated of
from a somewhat theoretical stand-
In describing any method or experi-
ment it is desirable that all external in-
fluences be explained; -for example, in
tie case of a crop, the character of the
season, of the soil, of the sub-soil, and
the method of planting and cultivating,
all have an important bearing on the re-
sult. Bare statements of results are of
little value, though they may be worthy
of mention.
We do-not desire letters written mere-
ly in praise of special localities unless
claims to favor are based on the products
or productiveness of the soil. Articles
of an animated or vivacious style are de-
sirable by way of variety, but practical
statements and descriptions should be"
concise and as much to the point as pos-
department should be addressed to ,
We Import Too Much.
One is very much impressed in Florida
with the fact that we are very largely
consumers. A visit to the extensive
warehouses of the Savannah, Florida and
Western and Florida Railway and Navi-
gation Railroads at Jacksonville shows
how largely we import many things
which it would seem we ought to produce
for ourselves. Take, for instance, hay.
An immense quantity of this dried grass
from the North is brought in and con-
sumed in Florida, and yet we know that
our. crab grass is equal, and, in fact,
superior, to any Northern hay. Nor is
there any doubt but that it can be pro-
duced easily in most portions of the
When corn is laid by a plentiful growth
of crab grass covers the ground, and is
in most cases allowed to go to waste. In
our hammock groves this grass grows
luxuriantly, and can be cut and cured in
the proper season. We have ourselves
for several years saved all the hay needed
for several head of stock the year around.
It, is no longer a matter of experiment.
Many have tr ed it successfully. So of
oats, a crop easily made and generally
easily saved in this climate.
We bring large quantities of corn
which our own people ought to supply
until April, at least. The weevil makes
it difficult to carry it through the sum-
mer. We import brick and lime, while
there is abundance of clay and shells.
The wealth of a people depends upon the
surplus between their earnings and their
consumption. We need to learn. the
importance of saving as well as earning.
Our yellow pine and other timber, if
manufactured here, would be a source
of great profit. For doors, sash, furni- -
ture, etc., it -is more durable, more
beautiful, and by far more suitable than
the soft woods of the Northern States,
which we import by the ship-load. All
we need is to transfer here the machinery
used by them and have our woods
properly cut and seasoned. We have an
instance in our own city of a house fin-
ished off entirely in our own yellow
pine-doors, sash, casings, tmouldings,
etc.-which shows that we need not go
North for these articles. These and
kindred industries could well be inaugu-
rated here.-Fernandina Mirror.
Some years ago the French govern-
|ent instituted inquiry to ascertain the
amount of salt for different domestic
animals. In the report, made up and
concurred in by practical and scientific
men, the quantities fixed upon as a
minimum were: Working ox or milch
cow, 2 ounces; oxen fattening in the
stall, 2* to 4 ounces; pigs fattenming, 1 to-
2 ounces: sheep (double for fattening), t
to ounces; horses and mules, 1



Inquiries concerning diseases of do-
mestic animals may be addressed to Dr.
D. 0. Lyon, Jacksonville, Fla., who will
answer them through this column.

How Cattle Are Poisoned.
To an inquiry in regard to the cause
of sudden and mysterious deaths of
cattle, Prof. D. L. Phares replies as fol-
lows through the Southern Live Stock
There are a number of plants, which,
eaten by cattle and horses, cause sudden
One species of sneeze-wort acts very
promptly in causing spasms and death.
But this poison is very prQmptly neu-
tralized.by adrench of melted lard.
One species at least of the rattle-box
acts in a similar way although the
poisonous seeds contaica large -quantity
of albuminous food in a very concen-
trated form. Both these weeds are of
frequent occurrence in your county.
One or iwo species at least of lathyrus
are known to be poisonous. To this
genus belong the cultivated everlasting
pea, sweet pea, chick pea, neither of
which has run wild in Mississippi. But
we have at least two native species
which much resemble vetches. But as
. the stems are winged and angled they
may thus be readily distinguished from
all the vetches.
The water hemlock or cow parsley is
probably found rarely in your region.
Leaves of wild peach, common peach and
cherry also kill cattle suddenly. An
astragalus or milk-vetch is also fatal to
cattle, but probably not found in your
Some of the pants named above kill
in a few moments after being swallowed.
When one of your anima's dies sud-
denly open the four stomachs, examine
the contents especially of the paunch or,
first stomach and the fourth. In the
paunch you could recognize peach, wild
peach, cherry or buck eyeleaves, twigs or
fruit, also those of .the other plants. But
in the rattle box and others having bean
or pea-like pods, these may burst and the

smooth seeds pass directly to the fourth An American's Visit to a Small and can look them all in the face, and
stomach, where n'o 'coarse food enters. act too often singular.
Why should your cattle suffer and but Famous Island. With him you go about and see the
other cattle on the'same pasture escape? ? The following account of observations Jersey herds. You can see none other.
Some of your cattle may at tiunes visit -a in Jersey, the little island where "our Only one kind of cattle in Jersey. No
part of the common pasture which others favorite butter-making breed of cattle Shorthorns, Herefords or Holsteins-
do not, especially in departing from the originated, appeared in the Daveport nothing but Jerseys. For by. a law of
pasture, as night approaches; or they Democrat in August last. It was wvrit- Jersey,dating back for manygenerations.
more probably find the poison after sepa- teu by Dr. D. N. Richardson, one of the the foreign sort of -stock that meat-men
rating from other cattle, on the way to leading cattle men of the Northwest, land out here, must be slaughtered right
or at the place of herding for the night. and is so thoroughly interesting that we away. For nearly twice a hundred years
A careful, competent examination of the have concluded not to abridge it, as we this law has been enforced most rigidly,
contents of the stomachs of every cow first intended, but to present it in two and hence we know the Jersey Island
that dies will certainly detect portions sections, believing that the average stock is pure.
of poisonous plants if present; and a reader wil find it quite as entertaining as You may never have thought, or
proper inspection of the range -discover the average "serial": cared to think, what constitutes pure
the growing plants. Down in the English channel a dozen blood in cattle. Now"read on awhile
Certain poisonous parasites grow on hours by land -and sea from London, and see if I can tell you. In olden
and in wholesome forage plants especi- you find the Channel islands-the isles times, our English ancestors abode in
ally during wet seasons. These may with of Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney and Sark factions. They called their factions
more difficulty be detected in the stom- -the largest Jersey-not hardly half as counties. Separate counties had their
achs of animals, but more readily in or large as your Scott county-noted for own laws and waysof doing things. They
on the growing grasses, whether cultivat- its wonderful cattle, climate and its held their own.to be the best, and little
ed or native In all cases, the remedy thrift. On the world's map it is a mere cared to mix with .other sorts. They
is too obvious to need special mention speck-so small that you would never lived among themselves-and inter-mar-
here. find it unless you knew right were to ried. Their flocks and herds were rarely
Another source of sudden death in live look; yet so large in its peculiar influence intermixed with other flocks and herds-
stock is impure water. Your cattle may as to be discussed at every table in the but made as they, could make
drink of some pool containing death enlightened world. You come over here them by themselves. And so you come
generating germs. We have often seen from Weymouth, or Southampton, and 'to hear of Devons, Durhams, Herefords
such cases. You would in such cases be land at fair St. Heliers, the only port in and Ayreshires. You hear of South-
wise to change place of watering. Jersey-a place of thirty thousand-one- down sheep snd Hamshire-down; and
S*half the island's population. You will so you hear of Jersey cows and Guernsey
For an Old Sprain. find a well built city-built up of brick breeds, and Angus and of Holstein
Stimulating embrocations are in order and granite. The wharves and slips are breeds, and Belted Swiss, and this and
insucih casesand should be well rubbed massive granite work, the streets and that-the result of isolated breeding.
in several .times a day This is very walks are granite, the houses largely so Some breed for excellence in butter,
good: Take solutionof ammonia, spiry -a neat and clean substantial little place some in beef, and some in cheese, but all
good: Take solution of ammonia, spiri with railroads reaching out towards the breed for a purpose-and hence through
of camphor, and olive oil equal part east and west a half dozen miles, and enterprise and through jealousy, too,
Another is oil of turpentine, tincture yet they talk of extension! if you please, have come to'us in la'er
of belladonna and soap liniment each It is an awful little place-this Jersey days these wonderful cattle products-
1 ounce and tincture of capsicum 1 garden gem, and yet it has great men, and horses-trotting, running and street
drachm um great industries, and great speculations- and roadster horses,
drAnother may be made of mercurial in fact, is much like other towns. In (TO BE CONCLUDED.)
ointment 4 ouay bes, powder of merd cantharides dress and manners, business ways and
ointment ounce, oil of rosemary two drachms, means it is very much like other seaport Cotton Seed for Feed.
tinctureofbelladonnajouncemixedwell asThey have fine turno ustsba Sir J. B. Lawes, of England, says
together. kets, fashion craze, and busted banks
would advise no cutting or an open- just like English folks or Yankees.. The that he has proved that a ton of cotton
ing wu unless the bone is enlarged.-Dr. people are a sort of French and English seed meal, costing $31.50, that was feed
Phares. grade-they dress and talk like French to his animals, added $28.25 to the value
Pars. or English folk, and have other symp- of the manure they made. So he got the
toms of belonging to both. They speak feeding value for $3.25. He is a man
Diseases of Swine. some French and some English, but the who makes experiments with care, and
One of the most common ailments common talk-the patois of the island- for the purpose of positively knowing the
among swine and the least understood is a bastard Franco-Anglais that baffles facts involved.
by swine producers is hog cough. Many either French or Englishman. If you Another writer has proved very clearly
persons think it is a forerunner of chol- turn your mind to understand them in that a ton of cotton seed boiled, and
era, so called, and commence doctoring French, you soon get lost; if you try to fed to beeves, may be made to add to
accordingly. Some of the principal catch on with your English ears, you the animal $25 in fat, flesh and selling
causes of cough are sudden changes in can't make any speed; and so you simply value.
the atmosphere, cold rains, changes in let therJersey common talk alone. We have no doubt that a ton of good
sleeping places, or anything that gives But when it comes to business, they cotton seed on the lands of the right man
them cold. The following remedy is re- are like all other people, only more so. may give to the farmer in flesh, fat and
commended: Licorice, one pound; ele- They say it takes the devil to beat one manure from $40 to,$50 in value, and
campane, one pound; black antimony, Jew; two Jews to beat a farmer, and the yet farmers are selling millions of bush-
three-quarters of a pound; sulphur, one- whole crowd to beat a Jerseyman. This els of this valuable article at less than
half pound; resin, copperas, and asafoet- is probably libelous, and I should not ten cents a bushel-62 bushels to the ton,
ida, each one-quarter pound. For one have thought of it at this time had it not $6 a ton. And much of this comes from
-pig give a teaspoonful in slop twice a been taught me by an islander. The ho- poor lands, that need fertilizing, and
day. Pine tar in trough is also a tels are grade hotels-neither native nor from farms where cattle in the winter
valuable addition. thoroughbred. Plenty of them, such as have neither bed nor shelter.-New Or-.
Thumps and wormq quite frequently they are, and rather neat and tidy sort leans Picayune.
trouble young pigs. Thumps is usually of inns-neither French nor English, nor
caused by over-feeding,. filling up stom- American, but a little of each. You get Philosophy of Drainage.,
ach so full as to interfere with the work- a room for which you pay a price; the We drain to let water into the soil, as
ings of the organs. The symptoms are meals are nothing. Pay for your room much as to take it out-not merely to
shivering, labored breathing and an ef- and bed and service, and you can have a carry off the surplus water, but to make'
fort to bury itself in the bedding. Give breakfast, hot or cold; a luncheon cold, the fertilizing rain filter through the soil.
the patient clean, dry, comfortable A dinner of hot soups and meats andc Amongst other effects, draining improves
quarters, and once every three or four pastry things. And all this shall not the texture of soil by making it more
hours give a dose of tar, about the size of cost you more than six or eight shillings porous, drier, looser, and more friable;
a walnut, melted and mixed in a pint of a day-a two dollar a day arrangement. it makes land more easily worked; it
milk, after which give two drachms of In fact I got a table d'hote one day of raises the temperature of the soil; it en-
saltpetre in a small mess of gruel for two soups and lots of meat, potatoes, carrots, ables a greater variety of crops to' be
or three mornings. Pigs or hogs fre- parsnips, cabbage, bread and cheese-a grown; it gives an earlier seed-time and
quently suffer from worms which usual- real feast for five and twenty cents I an earlier harvest; and it makes manure
ly locate themselves in theJkidneys or But our hotel breakfasts arerather sump- more effectual. And even this does not
intestines and cause partial paralysis in tuous. Tea or coffee, ham and eggs, exhaust the practical advantages of
the hind parts. A mixture of soapsuds steaks, chops-cold chicken, roasts or draining wet lands.-Prof. Scott, in the
or turpentine, with wood ashes, admin- any other kind; and such a dinner-a Agricultural Gazette.
istered in their food, is a good remedy. full half dozen meats and vegetables and *
A few drops of turpentine powdered on sweets. The meats come forth uncarved. Nearly all the product of the Macomh
the small of the back sometimes gives The guests become the carvers-serve (Ill.) creamery, 1,600 pounds weekly, is
reief. For diarrhoea, which more fre- each other as their wants require. At shipped to Florida. For want of refrig-
quenty effects young suckling and is thehead sits the president-the oldest erator cars, each firkin of butter is pack-
anse by giving improper food to the guest, perhaps; and he will carve the ed in a barrel of oats and travels the
sow, or byrre gular feeding, give two roast beef. At the foot sits the vice, and entire distance as hard and fresh as if a
or three drops of laudanum at night in he displays his keen edged steel about packed In ice.-Dairy World. '. .

a little fresh cream. Also remedy the
For lice on swine use carbolic acid and
butter-milk. It is efficient, cleanly and
rather beneficial to the hair and skin.
A teaspoonful of either crude or crystal
carbolic acid, thoroughly stirred with a
quart or so of milk and then sprinkled
upon the swine from a sprinkling-pot o01
with a whisk broom will destroy the v r-
min as completely as grease, coal oil or
tobacco juice, with none of their bad ef-
fects. Never use pure coal oil. It is a
difficult job to doctor a hog, and most
men would almost as soon have them die
as to go through the operation of giving
them medicine. Prevention will be
found to be the best medicine in all
Loss of Cud.
The following is a reply, made through
the Home and Farm, to an inquiry from
a resident of Florida:
A'l neat cattle chew the cud. It is a
part of the digestive system. The food
is tirst partially chewed, and when they
lie down or stand still to rest, the food is
belched from the stomach to be chewed
again. Loss of cud or inability to belch
:s incidental to cattle. but, as you say, itl
can hardly be considered a disea--it is
a symptom of disease generally-but the
chewing of end may cease without any
disease; it may haveda very trivial cause.
The general cause is disorder digestion
or general disorder of system. But in
any case, without human assistance,
death i is inevitable, as the animal can
never regain the cud without receiving
a stimulant or tonic. The simplest,
most convenient and effective remedy is,
take a slice of salt beef, chop with a
knife, rub in more salt with black pep-
per (ground) added, shove it well down
the -throat: the animal will willingly
swallow it. A salt herring put down the
throat is just as good, probably better.
This is an infallible remedy, and will al-
ways cause the cattle to belch within
five or ten minutes. I have seen this
done, and speak whereof I know. I
think if cattle have a plenty of salt they
will not lose the cud.


a the roasted mutton joint. The roasted
goose or ducks, calves held and other
I meats are placed along the side-so, too,
I the puddings, tarts and other things,
and so one helps the.ooher till all are
I filled-a rather social, jolly way. Some
take a pint of wine or beer, some prefer
water drink qualified with spirits-almost
r every one takes something cheerful. No
- nose, no ladies at our meals and nothing
r boisterous or impolite-a genial, quiet
- party. If one must leave before the meal
is done he asks permission of the presi-
dent and moves in quiet out so as not to
Sdis'urb the business then in hand. We
rather like these orderly and helpful sort
of ways. They speak of decency and
1 good breeding.
But we came not over to Jersey to
speak entirely of Jersey people's ways
-but more to look up Jerseys, that mild-
eyed, soft skinned sort of cows that make
the world so happy. We had seen some
in America and other climes, but when
you see a good thing anywhere, you
rather want to see where it came from.
If you see a pretty girl or boy and take
an interest in their ways, you want to
see their parents and their homes; and
every pretty picture th, t you see or
glorious piece of music that you hear
you would gladly see the artist and the
author. So, then, being a fancier of
Jersey cattle types, and having a week
to spare, we came on here to Jersey-
home of the Jersey cow. Not a common
thing for travelers to do, not an amnibiti-
otis fact, perhaps, but full of real inter-
est, and deserve ng; for he who puts upon
your table two pounds of golden Jersey
butter where one pound of rancid butter
stuff appeared before deserves a cost-
lier monument than he who wastes his
wealth to go to CongresEs
Landing on Jersey soil one naturally
inquires for Capt. Philip Le Brocq. For
him because he is a Jerseyman of note
and a sort of link between the American
and the Jerseyman. The captain is a born
Jersian, who has seen a lot of both sides
of the world ; domes often to the United
States and-contributes much to our real
Jeysey cattle interests. He has a taste
for it, has conscience in it; makes money
at it; and nothing suits hin better than
to portray the merits of the breed or
abcept a good offer for a good animal. He
has many good customers in America,


Notes from "The Palms" Apiary
on Varieties, Care, etc.-
Editor Florida Farmer and Pruit-Grower:
An apiarist coming into this part of
the State from the North, must come
with his mind prepared for new impres-
sions and methods in regard to his fav-
orite persuit. Not only do our honey
harvests come "out of season" to him
(our main harvest coming through the
winter months, from pennyroyal), but
the methods employed differ from those
of our Northern brethern.
So it behooves the newly settled bee-
keeper to move slowly and carefully un-
til he has learned the seasons of honey-
flow, swarming, etc. It might be well
to follow Captain Cuttle's advice, and
"make a note on't a note on't" as to the opening of
the different bloom, time of swarming,
and other items of interest.
Swarming time with us is during the
months of February and March, being
towards the close of the harvest of pen-
ny royal honey. Bees at the date of this
writing, December 7th, are rearing
brood as rapidly as the cool will permit,
and in a few weeks the hives will be
filled with the busy workers.
Right here I wish to say a few words
as to varieties of bees. Not long ago I
saw in one of my Florida agricultural
papers an item stating that the leading
apiarists of the State had decided that
the native bees were far preferable to
any of the three "foreign" varieties,
viz.: Italian, Syria'or Cyprian, for this
I find here as at the Nor[h, that cross
between the Syrian and native race pro-
duces the best honey gatherers. More-
over, this cross gives the desired prolific-
ness at this season. I have colonies of
Syrio-German bees that are to-day run-
ning over with young bees, building
new comb, and have the ten Langstroth
frames in the upper story nearly full of
None of my black bees are so far
along as this,; only a few have begun
storing surplus yet. Still, I am not sat-
isfied yet that we have found "Apis
Floridiana." When we do get it, I think
it will be a cross between the Syrian,
Cyprian and native, or German varieties.
I wish to emphasize the necessity of
shade for bees in this warm climate.
The best protection of course is an open
shed with a good cypress shingle roof.
Cabbage fans are very good if well put
on, but harbor so much vermin. in the
way of roaches, ants, etc And a great,
way better than nothing at all is the
shade afforded by trees and plants. The
Palma Christi'or castor bean (Ricinus)
makes a: capital shade, ,and grows very
rapidly, and keeps growing perennially
unless killed by a freeze.
I would a so like to emphasize the
necessity of a careful .grading of our
honey. Keep the different kinds separate,
when possible. We want to make a
special effort to have our honey sold.ion
its merits, and not lumped off ais "South-
ern honey 50 @ 60 per gal," as we"gee it
quoted in the ,market reports everv
week. .What shall we do about this,
brother bee-keepers? So far as I am ac-
quainted with it, the bulk of the surplus
honey of- the State is fine-flavored and
light-colored and ougkt to bring more
than it does.' How can we accomplish
this desired end?'
ALVA, Monroe Co., Fla.

Noted Honey Trees Tested.
Editor Florida Farme'~ and Fruit-Grower:
For a number of years past corres-
pondents of the various apicultural
journals from Florida have referred to
the cabbage palmetto as one of the best
of our honey producing plants. Bloom-
ing as it does at the same time as the
black mangrove, it received credit for
furnishing nearly if not quite as much
nectar as the mangrove.
This matter has been the subject. of
much local dispute, a few of our experi-
enced apiarists contending it was of no
value whatever, as a source of surplus.
The fact of the bloom being frequently
covered with bees, wasps, butterflies,
and other insects whose instinct causes
them to visit the plant in search of nec-
tar, rendered the facts in the case ex-
tremely difficult to decide. .
It so remained until the present sea-
son, during which the black mangrove
was almost entirely destroyed by the
cold wave in January. At the proper
time the cabbage palmetto yielded' an
abundance of bloom, more so than for
several years previous. The bees visited
the flowers as in years past, but with no
visible results, save to stimulate them to
excessive brood rearing. The colonies,
previously almost destitute of .stores,
commenced work with renewed energy,
barely securing a few pounds in excess
of that required for daily consumption.
As a result, after the 'supply ceased from
that source the colonies were abundantly
supplied- with bees, and nothing to sub-
sist upon. The result can be imagined.
En many apiaries the colonies having
consumed their stores united with oth- -
)rs, leaving their combs a prey of the
noth worm and otherenemies.h
This was the condition of all those not
supplied with honey by the apiarists at
the commencement of the yield of the
lyrup from berries of the saw palmetto.
After this those colonies within easy ac-
ess rapidly gained in might, and are
iow without doubt amply supplied for
he winter or until the next honey flow
n January. Whether the lack of nectar
a local or general I am unable to say.
From reports -from Wewahitchka, in
3alhoun county, as well as in Munroe
county, the cabbage palmetto is consid-
red of great value to the apiarists. The
present season in the mangrove district
f the east coast has certainly corrobor-
ted the assertions made by our native
pianists. Reports from those having
practical knowledge of the value of the

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Hernando County, Elorida,
Sixteen miles west of Hernando Hotel, Brooks.
ville, on the shore of the Gulf .at the mouth of a
beautiful Spring River. Finest fishing, boating
and sailing. Good accommodations. Try-weekly
Hack Line.

R. NW ELLIS, C. E. A. E. MCCLURE, Architect.

Arcliitocts & Civil Eninoers,
Plans for .
P. 0. ox 784. Rooms 7 and 8 Palmetto Block,
Bay Street.

Tropicaf and Subtropical. .
Oranges, Pomegranates, Figs, Peaches, Grapes, Pears, Pecans, Oriental Plums and Persim-
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Catalogue FREE.

Seffner, Ilillsborough Co., FlIa.

3I:z Tn lA T. -BjST.AfT'E3 :BRO -E-.E3R.,
Orange Groves, Town Lots in Bartow, Winter Haven, Haskell, Punta Gorda and Charlotte
Harbor, for Sale. Unimproved Lands, in small and large tracts, at $2.50 per acre, up. Choice teh
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acre. All property guaranteed to-be as represented or money refunded.
gar-Money Loans, well secured, negotiated at 15 per cent net, to the lender.

Florida Winter Homes I


Beautiful location, facing on Lake Oriole and on the South Florida Railroad.
Lands all high and dry. New settlement; between twenty-five and thirty new houses.
A Church, School, daily mails, stores, bakery, saw mill and hotel. Large area already planted
in orange groves. Choice building lots for winter homes for sale cheap. Ten, twenty and
forty acre orange grove lots. A healthy settlement in a healthy State.
Call on or Address,
Oriole, Florida. Jacksonville, Florida.



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SO U '*J-..-'- LOZIIDA.

cabbage palmetto as a source of surplus
rather than for stimulative purposes
would be of interest.
NEW SMYRNA, Dec. 25, 1885.

An Easy Way to Hive Bees.
The plan I practice in swarming is to
have all queens' wings clipped, and what
a swarm is seen to issue, I bring the
empty hive that is to receive the swarm,
and a small cage which I have previous-
ly prepared for the purpose, which is
simply a piece of wire cloth about three
inches long, in the form of a tube. with
a cork in the open end. As soon as the
queen comes out (which is generally with
the first part of the swarm), I hold the
cage down in front of her, and as soon
as she is safely in, replace the cork, and
lay her on the cage, at one side. I then
removed the parent colony from the old
stand, reversing the hive end for end
and setting the hive in its place. Then
I lay the queen and cage on the alighting
board. Finding their queen is not with
them, the bees will soon return. As soon
as the bees get nicely started into the
hive I release the queen, and see thatshe
goes in with the others.
It is a good plan to close the entrance
of the old hive entirely, as soon as tihe
bees commence to return, so the bees
will all go into the new hive; the old hive
can then be taken to a new stand or if it
is placed beside the swarm for three or
four days, and then recover at a time
when the young bees are out playing, it
will so weaken the old colony that there
ivill be no more after-swarms to bother
with.-Grange Bulletin.



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Arrive Rolleston 10 s a
Leave Roleston via Ferry Armsmear....._ Io s a
Arrive Palatka 11 005am
Leave Palatka 11 2 a
Arrive Jacksonville 1 28 pm
Making close connections for all points North an -
paSrecsal Inducements to immigrants and excaMnM
Through rates of freight given to all points on tihe
East Coast, and as low as by any other line.
Road w ill be compleAted in a few days to Ormond an -
Daytona; thus rendering the hack transfer unne
W. B.cWATSON, ( Aa.re, n
Traffic Manager. .

without a rival in Florida, t ie peer of an
Sthe (Published every day inhouth. Havie exclusive year,)ght to the
lnd ent in Washinged ton, and'special orrespndent

As complete, comprer the Tnsive, accurate, and rust..
.vorthy. out a rival in o Flobridia, who w ishes tpee of an keep

.breast of what is going on in his own State and
n the world at large can afford to be without it.
rerms [in advance) $10 per year; $5 for'six
months; $2.50 for three months; $1 permonth.
Sunday issue), by mail, six months,',4; one year,
i3. The Sunday Tir.i-Uit,ON by mail, one.
+ear, $2. +



St Augustine and Palatka
St. Augustine & Palatka Ry.
Ieduetion in Timel Reductionin Ratel
Commencing Monday, Nov. 29th, trains will
run as follows:



r $L ^* u m ~ ter is Araucaria Brasiliensis) furnish a principally of elm, poplar, acacia, ash, work boxes, with four short feet and no
S large part of the food of the Indian tribes plane, sycamore and limes. In Ger- cover. A piece of baize or velvet in the
living in districts where they grow. many many thousands of miles of roads cotton prevents too much rattling.
Eighteen trees of average size will fur- are shaded by trees; in some parts they Rattan furniture grows more richly
THE ARAUCARIAN PINES. nish sufficient food to support one man are forest trees, in others fruit trees. I decorative in weave and treatment.
for a year. regret that I haven't the exact statistics. The so-called ebonized rattan is seem-
SThese seeds are apt to dry and refuse J. P. PEASLEY. ingly the favorite, and its ornament,
Some Strange Trees Which May to germinate if kept out of the soil for a The wealth, beauty, fertility, and aside from bands of intricate weave is
be Cultivated Here. long time after ripening, but when healthfulness of the country largely de- generally a ribbon insertion ending in
BY THEODORE L. EADpromptly planted or "layered" in moss pend upon the conservation of our for- graceful bows of garnt, old gold, gold
BY THEODORE L. MEAD. each seed pushes out a thick sprout ests and the planting of trees. grand pink satin ribbons
Editor Florida Farmer ana Plul-Grower: which soon develops into a solid brown JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER; d p ribbons
Among the rarer trees that are of sur- tuber of about the size and shape of the Gray should seldom be combined with
passing beauty and deserve a heartier seed from which it comes, and connect- di blue in the furnishing even of a bedroom.
recognition and welcome to Florida than ed with this by a double stemn, which M Gray and blue are each cool colors, and
they have hitherto enjoyed are the reAlly corresponds to the seed-leaves of the effect of the two together is decidedly
Araucarias, a genus of tropical and sub- an ordinary plant, except that the upper chilling. There are shades of red which
tropical pines that have won a place for ends remain in vital connection with the A Vexed Question go well with both, and are much nicer
themselves in the choicest conservatories kernel still left within the shell of the ueto in combin-tion for a mantel or a chair
of the world, in spite of the fact that seed. In this State the sprouted seed BY MRS. S. L REED. or a curtain.
they have neither flowers nor fragrance may be dried off and retain its vitality Editor Florida Farmer and P-uit-Grower: To make home really attractive, we
to offer in requital for the care which for months unimpaired, and may then Not having engaged in silk culture, I must make it a perfect garden of corn-
their culture requires in northern lands, be safely sent by mail or otherwise from can say nothing from experience con- forts, a place of delight at whoso thresh:
One of the most beautiful of these hemisphere to hemisphere, always ready cerning it. I have read Mrs. Long's hold husband, father and sons may drop
trees, the Norfolk Island Pine, (Arau- to send up its mail-clad shoot when put book, and her articles on this subject are their burden of care, sure of solace and
caria excelsa) is the very embodiment of in proper soil and favored with suitable logical and seemingly convincing Still, recreation at their own fireside. No
symmetry, the branches are horizontal warmth and moisture.. when we consider the cheapness of labor time is ill bestowed that is spent in the
and clothed with fir-like needles of em- In the order of nature, the Araucarias in China, where the business is so ex- adornment of a home. Not too much
erald green that persist for many years, are among the first of now living genera tensively carried on, the question arises, fancy work but just enough to brighten
even when the branchlet has become a of trees to appear in geological will the women of this co'intry ever try and relieve-a few houseplants, a bird,
sturdy limb. These horizontal branches time, and the fossil species seem to stand to compete with the coolies of the and some other bright objects. The
are arranged in tiers, decreasing in size in place of one "missing link" between "Celestial Kingdom," who labor from windows of the stores that line the city
from the ground to the summit of the our modern conifers and the gigantic morning until evening for afew pennies? streets for miles win many a purchase
tree and remind one of the delicate six- club-mosses of the carboniferous period in this country there are so many through tasteful arrangements of their
branched snow crystals, each branch whose fossil leaf-scarred trunks are pre- avenues open to women that they are goods, and so should our doors, set bos-
being symmetrically divided with geom- served so abundantly in coal bearing not obliged to choose the least remuner- pitably ajar, reveal cosy home interiors,
etrical exactness, and is so precisely like strata. ative ones. I have no doubt that most whose warmth and harmony brightens
its fellows of the same tier that the ORANGE Co., Fla., Jan. 6, 1887. of your readers would be astonished did and makes for friend and kin a little
whole recalls the beauty of some intri- they know what a variety of ways wo- heaven here below.
cate design, seen through a kaleidoscope. THOUGHTS EOR ARBOR DAY. men find to make money in Florida, and #
This tree is a native of one of the South also what a large amount they do make. HOW to Make a Bed.
Pacific Islands as its name implies. FOREST SONG. Now th le Mulberry tree is not one that Ordinary shts an s and vrds
Another somewhat similar species, A song for the beautiful trees, we want to see largely planted here, for Ordinary sheets, blankets and coverlids
Araucama Cookii, is found in New Cale- A song for the forest grand, this reason: Winter is our sala time are too short and too narrow; they do'
aliadoecosiuu r e-o ti The garden of God's own hand, hsrao:Wne sorgl ie not admit of a bed being well muade. -A'
donia, and one conspicuous tree of this The pride of his centuries. when we want to look oui best, that our
Kind is mentioned by Captain Cook in Hurrah! for the kingly oak, visitors may be able to note the contrast quarter of a yard all round, i beyond the'
the account of his voyage around the For the maple, tile forest queen, between their unsightly fields and our edge of the mattress, is necessary for
w'orld^T lscrib'~by6^ 1t queen bewe their^ unsightly fields and our ^ ^n'~~ll~^ te~
world. It is described by more recent For the lords of the emerald coiak,, tucking in and for overlaying at the top
travelersasrese g an mensean-For the ladies in living green. unfading green; and,"as you all know, so that the shoulders may be covered. i
travelers as resembng an immense an- othe mulberry then ii only a bunch of A worn but clean blanket should cover
gulart column of verdure, 200 feet in- Asongforthe palm, the pine, brown sticks jointing upward, as un- th e upper mattress in winter and over
eighth, gently taping from base to And for every tree that growsupwad, as un- upper mattress in winter and over
s i s l ng From the desqjate zone of snows sightly as any they have left 'behind. this the sheet should be spread smoothly
sumit A suiall pant ofthis specie s^ ^a nni608 ^oeso ttb~nr e vl this the sheet should be spread smoothly
was safely brought this species To the zone of the burning line. Roses ought to be more extensively and adequately. The bolster with its
was safely brought from Englana in a Hurralh! for the warder proud cultivated here. They will add greatly hem-stitehed linen cover, should be laid
basket with half a dozen other rare plants Of the mountain-side and vale, to the wealth s well as tf ty hem-stitehed linen cover, should be laid
andgThat challenge the lightning cloud, to the wealth, as well as the beauty of a few inches below the top of the mat-
and when planted in the open ground at And buffet the stoi'my gale. o'ir flowery I aid, and I believe the time tress so as to better support the shou'ders
Eustis endured 25 unprotected. Last is near when their' name will be legion
S fall it had grown (in four years) to a A song for the forest aisled, inerida andatheusandwill be e en when laying down, and give a better
grwnr With its Gothic rool sublime, in Florida, and a thousand will be seen h to the pillows as they stand against
i lttle tree nearly five feet high, and at- The solemn temple of Time, where one flourishEsS now. t head of the bedstead. Blankets to
-tracted much attention from all visitors Where man becometh a child, The belles of the New York ball room thbe large enough must be of good quality;
by i't-beanty and graceful symmetry. As he listens the anthem-roll aereciatetheir fraan an ap blarg e enough must be of good quality;
Being expded-n-hill-top, to the full Of the wind in the solitude, appreciate their fragrance and beauty at
f f The hymn that telleth his soul and we can send them a fresh as if just because inadequate both in size and
force of last winter'sod and wind, it That God is the Lord of the wood. from their own hot houses. Jackson- warmth. Care should e taken that they
Succumbed. villeis about to open a perfumery and warme nolare ev el tkenth at they
Araucaria Ounninghami, the Moreton So long as the rivers flow, are not'laid evenly together upon the
So long as the mountains rise, the flowers around us seem to take the bed, but the upper one lowered from Ibe
Bay in o sri isoMay the forests sing to the skies, hint and are everywhere nodding their flthdt
hardier than the last. It is not quite Anit shelter the earth below. appreciation. top cf the 0tho fully the depth of the
geometrically regular in its early growth, Hurrah! for the beautiful trees! r bordering. This graduates the bulk and
t Hurrah! for the forest grand, S. L. REED. will prevent undue weight about the
though still a beautiful and symmetri; Theridesof his centuries, raPITTMAN, FLA., Jan. 7, 1887. will prevent undue weight about the
cal tree, attaining ultimately a great The garden of God's own hand. shoulders when the clothes are turned
size. My plant was cut to the ground" PROF. VW. H. VENABLE. w over; it also allows of abundant margin
by the frost, and if it had been promptly Written for Cincinnati "Arbor Day," Women and Wages for tucking in" at the foot; a matter of
chopped'down after the freeze, might However much the Knights of Labor great-importance, especially when" a bed
have been saved, as this species when Monumental Trees. may like women they do not like women's is occupied by two persons.
felled sprouts again vigorously from ... competition in the matter of wage-earn- The "foot" blanket-is another impor-
the stump, which is a rare trait among What conqueror in any part of "life's i An causethati crasesthedemand tant item. If the luxury of narrow
the pines. In Australia these trees are brad fied of battle" could desire a more for employment depreciates' the price of down coverlid can be afforded for the
largely used for timber and produce beautiful, a more nob e, or a more pat- labor. A lessening of men's wages and feet so much the better; it is a comfort
much resin, which sometimes depends riotic monument than a tree planted by an increase of woman's independence that once enjoyed will never after be
from the larger limbs like great icicles, the hands of pure and joyous children, result in a sensible decrease in thd num- willingly dispensed with in cold weather.
a yard in leny.th, as a memorial of his achievements? her of marriages. The more bachelors It should not be too wide or thick as a
Araucaria Bidwlli is said to be one of Wha t earnest, honest worker with land o'd maids there are, the greater the feather bed as they're madein Gexmany,
the hardier species. My plant was hand and brain, for the benefit of his amount of discontent, turbulence, but large enough to cover the larger half
sheltered last January so as to be subject ,ellowmen, could desire a more pleasing strikes, riots, revolutions of the bed and-extend over few inches
only to. two or three degrees of frost, recognition of his usefulness than such a Here we find some of te influences at the sides. The coverlid laid smoothly
which had no effect upon it. This is a monument, a symbol of his or her pro- -minor ones, we would say-which have over this, all the clothes turned down
species with its leaves arranged in two auctions, ever growing, ever blooming, led to t.he great labor agitation which is twice at the top and 'he whole worked
rows on its branchlets, very much as and ever bearing wholesome fruit? desturbinga great poion of this con- smoothly into the sides and end of the
thos ofthd'comnen emlck f th Tres areay gown ncint hve eendesturbing a great portion of this coun- sotl notesdsadedo h
those of the com n hemlock of the Trees already grown ancient have been try. What will be the ultimate results bedstead, the pillows only need to be
North, but the branches are curiously consecrated by the presence of eminent of these changed relations of the better placed in their proper position to render
North, ut the'branche are cuiously o .of these changed relations of the better P ." P -
symmetrical in their arrangement, as is personages or .by some conspicuous event and worse half of mankind no one cm the bed-making complete. -Demorest's
the other species I have mentioned, and in our natual history,'such as the E predict. It is one.of the '"vexed ques- Monthly.
the leaflets in the older plants are very tree at Philadelphia, at which Willia tions" which we cannot solve. It is well .
large, broad and pointed. One of the Penn made his famous treaty with nine- to view it on all sides and to consider Don'tS for the Sick Room.
most curious and certainly the hardiest teen trtford arwrhichs; reserved arte every remedy that may be suggested. A Don't allow offensive matter to remain
of he Araucarin as is A. mbncata, the ak written guarantee of thie liberties of the representative of the Knights of Labor in cases of emergency. Where these can-
hiian ine which has been dubbed by l ecut treats of this subject as follows: not be at once removed, wring a heavy
sailors, the Monkey Puzzler. The leaves Colony of Connecticut; the wide-sprea Inii the cotton and woolen factories of cloth, like Turkish towelling, out of cold
or needles of this tree are broad, triangu- ingOak tree of Flushing, Long Island, enlightened Massachusetts, women and water, use it as a cover, placing over this
lar plates of large size, overlapping each under which George Fox, the founder of children'now compose two-thirds of the ordinary paper. Such means prevent the
other on the branches somewhat as do the Society of Friends or Quakers, working force. The necessary result is a escape of odor and infection.
-preached; the lofty Cypress tree in the .ypp
the scales of a pine-cone; they are reace the lot Cypes tre i great reduction in wages. It is notorious Do't fore t hve a fe w beans of
sharply spiny-pointed at tahe apex, and tD ismal Swamp under which Washing that the wagesearnied by a whole family coffee handy, for this serves as a deodor-

popular~~to repofsneyPzersem T ",f*d cotn~a- oe ne a t s u nigh int store cofe hany, for ths servabes buts o a deo p
so persi stent s to still cling to andn ni i young man- do not, on an average, exceed those o izer if burnt on coals or er Bits of

hvud nswc .ae cliobn ; l ne. houg rnta n battle reel inSuhmear n oe wor sieb iead Do' emtcrenso obo
cover with a stout suit of plate armor hood; the huge French Apple tlee near the head of the family in occupations charcoal placed around are useful it ah i
even the trunks of large trees of this Ft. Wayne, d., where Little' Turtle, where it has not yet become habitual to sorbing gases and other impurit ies.
species. the great Miami chief, gathnerea s war- employ women and chi d en. What do r in ot '
In large trees the smallest branchlets riors; the Elm at Cambridge, in e those who believe in enlarging the num- Don't have the temperature of the ,
areas thick as a man's wrist, and the shade of wi ich Washington first took er of occupations which women may sick rooms much over sixty degrees;
popular name of Monkey Puzler Seems command of the Continental army on a enter sau o thu ais u ing al st o..r an seventy degrees i allowable, but not ad-
quite justified, for this formidable living hot summer's day; the Tulip tree on even wors state of affairs exi sts. Young vable. e ua-
wos stnats mountain aastle.Yelo in voutb
wchevaus de fhe, which makes climbin g s e men and women work side b side and Don't permit currents of air to blow
u o down fimseswihemakes ci n Kin' Mountain bte n Southirt .v .
-up of down impossible for any creature Carolina on which tn. bloodthirsty divide between them the wages which upon the patient. An open fire-place is
not itself provided with a coat of mail. Tries were hung at one ime; the l man would command if the woman an excellent means of ventilation. The
But ithappens sdar t tho rem- uis tree at wa fouwaru, N. Y., under A
gut it happens that there are no mon- Pie, h tree at Ft E N Y were his wife, and at home, instead of current may be tested by burning a piece
keys in tihat particular part of South which the beautiful Jane McCrea was working beside him. Wages are grad- of paper in front.
America where the tree grows wild, o slain; the magnificent Black Walnut ally being scaled downto the basis of Don't give the patient a full glass of
the name is hardly as appropriate as it tree, near Haver.traw on the Hudson, what single young men and women can water to drink from unless he is allowed
seems, A. imbrictata is quite at home in at, which General Wayne mustered his live upon, thus banishing all idea of mar- all he.desires. If lie can drain the glass e
the climate of England, and has even forces at midnight, preparatory to his riage from a majority of wage workers he will be satisfied; so regulate the quan-
withstood the wis coldin some u attack on Stony and establishing instead a bad system. tity before handing it to him.
aithstood.he .s a -n som nt; ne ranl av ola u nh gacrol
parts of Norway. In Chili it frequents ite and Magnolia tree near If the cranky, independent women, as nelc duri rest
the driest hilltops and there attains Charleston, S. C., under whih General known as suffragists," were all married Don 't neglect daring the day to e atte
r ....... T,m,O ,' he d c ofuw war previousS tor aneareessaro=*ies for the night, that the rest
height of 150 feet The trees are of sep- n h off to some st rong-willed Petruches, we of the patient and family may-not be
rate sexes and differ sufficiently in as- to surrend ering the city; the great Pecan should be better off as a nation a few disturbed.
pect to be distinguished even when nt tree at Villere's plantation, below New years hence Let me ask the true, ho e.
in fruit or bearing pollen. The color of Orleans, under which a portion,. of the oving, anti-suffrage m others and wives Don't jarthe bed by leaning or Sitting
the foliage is so dark green as almost to remains of General Packenham was of our lind-and thank God themajority upon it. This is unpleasant to the sick w
verge on black, and the tree is most buried, and the Pear trees planted, re- of women, as yet, arethose whom all men and nervous. .
useful when contrasted with its more spectvey, ly svano onrcot Oa del ght to ho nor-to use their ir od in- Don et stme hwers remain a ic r
Mspectuvely s, by Governor EnSotu ofyelih tohno-o.s.ter .od .n
S slender and lighter colored relatives. Massachusetts, and Governor Stuyves- fluence to counteract the effect of this chamber.
The catalogues of foreign florists men- meant, of rNew York, more than two hun- perversion of society which confronts aDon't be unmindful of yourself if you
tion a kind A. Muelleri, wi h foliage of dred years ago. their sons and daughters as they. step oare in the responsible position of nurse.er ]
a purple shade as a new impor station These trees all have a place in our na- across the home threshold and o To do faithful work you must have proer
- from one of the South Sea Islands, and tional history, and are inseparable from the busy world. Parents, let meask you food and stated hours of rest.
as very desirable for out-door planting, it because they were so consecrated. My to leach your children that a manly Don't appear anxious, however great
with other Araucariashin gardens On the eyes haveseen all but one of them, and mant s first business in life is to establish your anxiety.
Mediterranean. This species has-'.prol- patriotic emotions were excited at the a new home, and that a womanly wo- Don't forget that kindness and tender-
ably not reached the United States e sight. How much more h significant and man's first business is-to be the wife of ness are needful to successful nursing.
yet. .. .... suggestive is the dedication of a young some such man, and not to become a Human nature longs to be soothed and
SAraucarias are rarely kept in stock by tree as a monument, wage-worker, unless sheer necessity comforted on ang occasions when it is out sA
florists in this country, though occasion- BENSON J. LossING. compels her to do so; Then ,the labor of tune.--American- Druggist. i
ally one or two sorts may be had from ROADSIDE TREES. qtiestion will take careof itself, without Asmal y st
large establishments, and then usually In Germany, France, Italy, and many any suggestions from any one. h small boy sedDhs their at H
at a high price. At a trade auction of other countries of Europe, as has been oone of the grammar schools the other d
plants this summer in New York plants seen, large forests are planted annually About the House. 'dayby asking her how far a procession
of three serts of Araucaria, from one to under the direct supervision of the say- Sunshade lamps, standing eight feet wof k t reats of the nrite Stated sit
two feet high, brought three and four eral governments; but besides these and high are the craze, would reach ifxtheysn werepad ignorance
dollars each, showing that they are in private forests, trees are planted in great Huge lanterns of artistic workmanship he calmly announced: "From Washing-
demand for conservatory purposes, numbers by the roadsides. At present are used in modern halls, ton to Cleveland."--Springfleld Republi- at.
though, owing to a curious peculiarity the total lengthof public roads of France A well-filled bookcase is one of the best can.
of the seed, araucarias should be is 18,750 miles, of which 7,250 miles, are decorations for any sitting-room. C
among the trees most easily introduced bordered with trees, while 4,500 miles 'Cniaefrcrnr"ee id'
into foreign countries, are at present being planted or will Wire picture cord is best for hanging wife, when I get elected my fees will buyJ
The seeds are produced in large cones shortly be planted. On the remaining pictures, as it will bear a heavy weight, u's all the comforts of life."
and are themselves very large, often two 7,000 miles the nature of the soil does not and at the same time is so small as hard- Wife--"But, John, suppose there areH
inches long and half an inch thick. They admit of tree growth. The number of ly to be seen. no sudden deaths?"
are well-tasted and nutritious, the Chil- trees already planted by the roadsides in English spoon trays, to be used instead Candidate for coroner-"Oh, well, weF
ian Pine and the Brazilian Pine (the lat- France amounts to 2,878,603, consisting of the ordinary holders, are oblong, open- won't look at the dark side."--Tid Bits.


Laugh, and the world laughs with you,
Weep, and you weep alone,
For the brave old earth must borrow its mn rth,
It has trouble enough of its own.
Sing, and the hills will answer,
Sigh, and it is lost on the air;
The echoes rebound to a joyful sound
And shrink from voicing care.
Rejoice, and men will seek you,
Grieve, and they turn andgo;
They want full measure of your pleasure,
But they do not want your woe.
Be glad, and your friends are many,
Be sad and you lose them all;
There are none te decline your nectared wine;
But alone you must drink life's gall.

Feast, and your halls are crowded,
Faft, and the worldgoes by;
Forget and forgive-it helps you to live,
But no man can help you to die!
There is room in the hall of pleasure
For a long and lordly train,
But one by one, we must all march on
Through the narrow aisle of pain.

Queer Humanity.
Every American who has traveled
abroad knows that English men and wo-
men of established position are habitu-
Sally brusque to strangers, inferiors, or
equals, while in private houses they are
sometimes capable of a cool impertinence
which astonishes an American. A dis-
tinguished American lady of fortune and
position,.who for years had made every
properly accredited English man and
woman welcome to her beautiful home
and cultivated circle, passed three
months at a we!l known English water-
cure with her invalid husband. In the
house were several Eogi sh people of
rank, friends and relatives of whom she
'had entertained in this country. Not
one of them recognized her existence in
any way, not even by a "good morning"
on the stairs or a bow in the gardens,
their position being that they did not go
to a "cure" to make acquaintances
"In three months," said the lady, "the
creaking of my own boots was the' only:
cheerful sound I heard, and I was cured
of a belief in the courtesy of the English
peerage..-Harper's Bazar.

Boston Training.
A nice little boy, reared in the intellec-
tual and heterodox atmosphere of Boston,
happened to be a witness in a case in
Cincinnati, and the question arose as to
has being old enough to understand-the
nature of an oath, so the judge investi-
gated him.
"WellWendell," he said kindly, "do
you know where bad little boys will go
when they die ?" .
"No, sir," replied the boy, with confi-
"Goodness graciously" exclaimed the
judge, in shocked surprise;- "don't you
know they will go to hell?"
"No, sir; do you?" -
"Of course ,1 do."
"How do you know it?"
'The Bible says so."
"Is it true?"
"Certainly, it is."
"Can you prove it?"
"No, not positively;- but we take it on
faith," explained the judge.
'Do you accept that kind of testimony
in this court?'" inquired the boy coolly.
But the judge didn't answer; he held
up his hands and begged the lawyers to
take the witness.-Washington Critic.
Whom to Marry.
The following hints on the choice of a
husband were given by Rev. T. DeWitt
Talmage in a recent sermon: .
I charge you, don't, marry a man of
evil habits. If he will not now resist
them, he certainly will not when he has
gained the prize. The almshouses are
f1l of women who thought they could re-
form their husbands. No man 25 years
of age, if he is addicted to intoxicants,
can be reformed by a wife, for in the .
present day his system is full of stryc- '
nine, nox vomica, logwood and other
poisons. He is past reform; it is like
taking a wheelbarrow on the tracks of
the Hudson River Riilroad to stop the
lightning express. I would also charge,
you to avoid alliance with extremely
selfishmen, those who think of their busi-
aess and nothing else Some men are so
*nuch married to their business that their
marriage to you would be absolute biga-
my. In India the wife leaps upon the
funeral pyre of her dead husband, but in
America many wives leap upon the fune-
ral pyre of their living husbands.
I counsel youto unite yourself with
a man who is a fortune in, himself.
Lands, money and the like are all well
enough, but two or three unlucky invest-
nents may upturn them. There are men
who are fortunes in themselves, who are
always genial and large-hearted. But I I
vould also charge you don't look for a
perfect man. If you find a man who is
perfect, who is incapable of mistakes,
Lon't unite yourself wi-b him; what a
wife you would make for him! In other
rords, there are no. perfect men. The 0
only perfect pair slid down the banks of
paradise together. '


Beautiful location, facing on Lake Oriole and
a the South Florida Railroad.
Lands all high and dry. New settlement; be-
ween twenty-five and thirty new' houses.
& Church, School, daily mails, stores, bakery,
iw mill nad hotel. Large area already planted
in orange groves. Choice building lots for win-
ir homes for sale cheap. Ten, twenty and
urty acre orange grove lots. A healthy settle-
aent in a healthy State.
Call on or address,

Oriole, Fla.

or Jacksonvile, Fla.


Western Railway.
All Trains of this Road are ran by Central Standard-
Passenger Trains will leave and arrive daily, as follows:
Webtind a Fa-tlMall.
Leave Tampa via S. F. R. R........................ 8 00 p m,
Sanford J.T. & K. W..................... 100 am
Jacksonville 7 00 ama
Arrive Jacksonville 12 00 noon
Waycross 9 10 a m
Savannah 11 55 a in
Charleston 450 p m
Richmond 649 am
Washington 11 00 ai
Baltimore 1218 pm.
Philadelphia 247 p m
New York 5 30 am
Pullman Buffet Cars Tampa to Washington, and New
York to Tatmpa.
New Orleans Express,
Leave Jacksonville 7 00 a mn.
,Arrive Jacksonville 7 85 pm,
Leave Callahan 7 33 a m
Arrive Waycross 9 10 am,
Thomasville 122 p m.
Ballbridge 335 pm.
Chattahoochee 404 pm.
Pensacola via L. &aN. R.R.......... 10 10 pm-
Mobile via L. & NR. .................... 2 15 am.
at New Orleans via L. & N. R. R .......... 7 10 am.
Albany 3 42 p mi
SMacon via Central R. R.................. 8 24 p m,
S Atlanta via Central R. R......................12 15 am.
Chattanooga via W. & A. R. R..... ... 5 5 am.
Nashville via N. C.& St.L. R.. .......11 45 am .
Lbuisville via L. & N.-R. R................ 6 50 p m.
Pullman Buffet Cars to and from Jacksonville and.
New Orleans via Pensacolai and Mobileand to and ftorai.
Jacksonville and Louisville'via Thomasvllle, Atlanta.
and Nashville, and Cincinnati to Jacksonville viaJesup,,.
A. C'. Lfne Express.
Leave Jacksonville 2 05 p nm
Arrive Jacksonville 12 00 noon
Leave Callahan 2 47 p m
"' Chattahoochee 11 30 am
Thomnasville 145 p mn
ArriveWaycross 440 pin
Brunswick via B. &W W. R. ...............t 8 28 p m
Jesup 6 16 pim
SMacon via E. T. V. & Ga.R.R ............1120 p m
Atlanta via E. T. V. & Ga. R. R........... 2 25 am
Chattanooga via E. T. V. & Ga. R. R....'8 20 a in
Cincinnati via Ciu. So. R'y.................. 6 42 p mn
Savannah 7 58 p in
Charleston 1 2 a m
Wilmington 3 30 a mn
Weldon 2 15 p m
Richmond 6 00 p m
Washington 11 00 p in
Baltimore 12 35 a m
SPhiladelphia 3 45 a us
New York 6 50 a n
Pullman Buffet Cars to and from Jacksonville and
New York, also JacksoLnville t qCinciunati viaJesup.
East Florid a Express.
Leave Jacksonville 5 00 p m
Arrive Jacksonville 8 55 a min
Leave Callahan 5 41 p m
Waycross 7 8 p m
S" Gainesville 3 55 p ms
LakeCity 3 20 pm
Live Oak 7 20 p m
Thomasville........ 1130 pm.
Arrive Albany 1 55 a m
Montgomery via Central R. R.............. 7 30 am.
Mobie via L. & N. R. R........................ 2 10 p m.
New Orleans via L. &N. R.R-............... 7.30 p m "
Nashville via L. & N. R. R............... 7 05 p-m
Louisville via L. &N. R. R................... 2 12 am.-
Cincinnati via L. & N. R. R................... 6 30 ami
St. LouisviaL..&N. R.R. ..........:........ 740 am "
Pullman Buffet Cars to and from Jacksonville and
Louisville via Thomasville. Albany, Montgomery.and
Nashville, and to and from Bartow and Montgomery
via Gainesville.. .
Savannah Express
Leave Jacksonvilte 8 15 p mn
Arrive Jacksonville 6 a me.
Leave Callahan 9 05 p m
Arrive Callahan 5 25 a m
Leave Gainesville 3 55 p nm.
Arrive Gainesville, 100 S aim
Leave Lake City 320 pm.
ArriveLake City 10-15 am.
Leave Live ORk 7 20 p m
Arrive Live Oak 6 40 a mn,
Thomasvilie 7 15 a m
Albaihy 11 40 am
Montgomery via Central R. R ..........-. 7 55 p m.
Nashville via L. & N. It. R............... 6 55 a mi
Louisville via L. & N. R. R.................. 1 57 p m.
Cincinnati via L. & N. R.R .................. 6 36 p m
St. Louis via L. & N. R. R...........8...... 8 00 p m
Waycross.................. ....... .................I1 20 p ni
Brunswick via B. & W. R. B............... 640 a m
Albany via B. & W. R. R....................... 4 45 a m
Macon via Central B. R........................ 9 04 a m -
Atlanta via Central R. R...................... 1 05 pn'-
Chattanooga via W. &A.R. R.............. 7 07 pm
Jesup 1 00' a m
Brunswick via E. T. V. & Ga. R. R....... 6 00 a m
Macon via E. T. V. & Ga. R. R............. 7 30 am
Atlanta via E. T. V. & Ga. E. R...........11 30S a m
Chattanooga via E. T. V. & Ga. R. R... 615 p mn
Cincinnati via Cin. So. R'y................6 40 a mn
Savannah 610 a m
Charleston 12 55 p m
Wilmington t 8 30 '
Richmond to 45. am
Washington 3 4, p m
SBaltimore ............ 4 64 p m
Philadelphia I pm
New York 290 pm e
Pullman Buffet Cars and Mann Boudoir Buffet Cara
via Waycross, Albany and Macon; and via Waycroea,
Jesup and Macon; between Jacksonvilleand Cincinnati.,
Also Through Passenger Coaches between Jacksonville
and Chattanooga. -
Pullman Bufet Cars to and from Jacksonville and '
Nashville via Thomasville and Montgomery.
Pullman Buffet Carsbetween Jacksonville and Wash-
tolrtn. .-
Through Tickets sold to all points by Ball and steam-
sliip connections, and Baggage Checked Through. Alsm
Sleeping Car Berths and Sections secured at Company's
Office, In Astor's Building, 82 Bay street, and at Passen-
ger Station, and on board People's Line Steamers H. B.
lant and Chattachoochee and DeBary-Baya Lino
eamer City of Jacksonville.
General Passenger Age.
J& G. F.lJSING, Superintendent.




Daily Except Sunday.

Leave Jacksonville via J., T. & K. W.. ....,412 0 op m
Arrive Palatka 2 15 p m
Leave Palatka-via Ferry Amnsmear 2 20 p m
Arrive Rolleston 2 s5 p5m
Leave Rolleston S00pm
Arrive Tomokn 5" S0 Pm
Making connections with teamers and 'hackIs'fr -
inrelnlana damage for Ormond, Daytonaandall polnt=
on .Ifax~Ri ver. ", ..
Leve Tomokl0 a"
Lrrlve Rolleston 8100am'-
Leave Rolleston via Ferry ArnmAr 10" 'L Sa
Arrive Palatka '11 00a S.
Leave Palatka U 82 maS
IrrlveJacksonluMe.& 1 28p -.
Making close connections for all points North auG
Special Inducements to Immigrants and. exoniurte
Through rates of freight given to all points on the
Ptst Coast, and as low asbyny otr line.
Road wil be ea0.leted aF days to Onnond A
aytona thus rendering the hack .a rilteunneoes. "
W. B. WATSON; -0. .'A.
Traffio4uga. .





rcltects & Civil engineer, PH
0. Box 784. Rooms 7 and 8 Palmetto Block, TS AD PRO
Bay Street.
JACXSONvILLE,FLA. Get our Prices before buying.



s IN






dan ald dandeq.


How Science Aids Farmers-Pigeons and
Their Cotes-Circumventing a Wind
Sucker Horse-Curious Plant Decora-
tions-Cutting Up a Hog.
The carcass of a hog is first properly
divided by splitting down the backbone
into two sides, after which the sides may
be economically cut as follows:

The shoulder, No. 1 in the illustration,
Is cut as shown by tTie first dotted line.
The ham (2) is cut in the direction of the
curved dotted line, and the bone is sawed
through a short distance from the hip
joint. The small triangular rump piece
(3) with or without the tail attached, is
kept for a boiling piece and salted, as is
the last loin piece (7). The pieces indi-
cated by 4, 5, 6 may be used for roasting;
or these may be cut up for chops and cut-
lets and eaten fresh; or the ribs may be
taken out and the entire side, including
the belly piece (8) cured for bacon. When
this, is not desired these pieces 4, 5, 6 can
be salted for frying wet out of the pickle,
in which condition they areextra nice and
are termed by packers "mess pork," or
when excessively fat, "clear mess pork."
Then the belly piece (8) being composed
of thin and alternate layers of fat and
lean makes excellent bacon, the sort
known as "English breakfast bacon."
The head may be split down the face
and the chops separated, salted and
smoked. The ears and rest of the head
are usually boiled with the trimmings of
the hams and the feet and made into head

Bees and Grapes.
In a statement of experiments made at
Aurora, Ills., forming a part of Professor
Riley's report to the department of agri-
culture is describe ee proof house in
which three- colonies of bees -brought
nearly to the starvation point were con-
fined with twenty different varieties of
grapes on plates. The test was continued
for thirty days. The bees showed no
more disposition to attack thin skinned
grapes than the other. As long as the
skin remained whole they did not harm
the grapes. When the skin was broken
by violence they partook of the exposed
juice. This experiment coincides with
others made in the same direction in its
results, viz.; bees do not attack unbroken
or whole-grapes.
Pigeons for Ornament and Use.
Pigeons are every year now being
valued more and more, not only as orna-
mental birds in the fancy breeds but as
furnishing an exceedingly delicate article
of food. When reared for profit pigeons
must be comfortably housed over the
stable or some outbuilding or in a house
specially bifilt for their occupancy, where
they will be secure from cats, rats and
weasels, and where the owner has access
at. all times to their nests. The loft or
room ii subdivided by lath work parti-
tions into as many apartments as are
desirable. The main thing is to secure
cleanlies;, provide abundant and varied
food and ,furnish suitable nests. In
and about large cities the raising of
squabs for market is an important in-
dustry. Large lofts are hired at'amerdly
nominal price and the pigeons permitted
to forage in the streets at will. The
result is a large number of squabs are pro-
duced fof sale at an exceedingly small
cost. Pigeons begin breeding at the-age
of nine months and breed every month in
the year, except in the cold weather. -

It often occurs, however, that persons
do not care to make a business of raising
pigeons, but wish only to keep one or two
ornamental varieties, in; which case it is
well to make the cotes or houses contrib-
ute to the ornamentation of the grounds.
The above engraving represents a pigeon,
house of:simple construction and attrac-
tive appearance. 'It Is made ofround and
;. jbalf round sticks of uniform:siie, which
.. having been dried with the bark on, are
-tacked upon a-box made for the purpose.
The dove cotes ought to be frequently
cleaned, and it. is a wise plan to paint
them white,, that color being very attrac-
t ive to the birds and contributing to retain
them when new cotes are made. A slip
of wood should be placed in front of each
cell for the pigeons to.sit and coo on.
Pigeon are fond of all the grains, but
wheat and cracked corn are perhaps most
largely employed in feeding them, with
occasional rations of crushed oyster shells
-and pounded mortar. Pigeons' may be
trained. to return to their houses after
they have indulged in an hour or two's
A* flight, by' a 'shrill loud and prolonged
- whistle; after they have attended to the
: call some favorite food should be given
Various Colors in Milk.
The characteristic' white color. of milk
has been attributed to different causes.
The National Live Stock Journal claims
that it is due to the casino in the milk.
But milk is not generally of a pure white
Color. It varies in respect-to shades as it
Does In richness by breed and feed, the

-- -

Readers who may be so unfortunate as
to possess animals with this troublesome
habit-are advised to try the hitching ro&
represented in the engraving whenever it
is -desired to fasten the horse to a post.
It consists of apiece of hickory, white oak
or other tough wood, about twenty-four
to thirty inches, thickest in the middle,
where it ought to be an inch in diameter.
A ferule with a ring is fastened to either
end. In one ring a snap hook. is placed
while a short leather strap is passed
- through. the other by which the stick is
fastened to the post. A horse thus hitched
cannot possibly reach the. top of the post
,with his,- teeth, and, as every farmer,
knows, a crib biter cannot drnaw in the air
or "suck wind" unless he has some pro-
jecting object that he can lay hold of with
It need hardly be added that a crib bit-
ing horse when in a stall ought to be
hitched with two straps one at each side
of the stall and so short that he cannot
reach either side to take hold of the rail
or partition. Pluce a swinging feed box
before an animal so secured and he must
perforce suspend the vicious habit.
A lMiniature Oalc Tree.
- If you want a pleasing and interesting
object on your mpntel shelf try growing
an oak tree in. a bulb glass. Suspend an
acorn by a thread within half an inch of
the surface of some rain water contained
* in a hyacinth glass, and permit it to re-
main undisturbed a few months, when it
will burst and throw down a root into the
water and shoot upward its straight and
tapering stem with beautiful green leaves.
These miniature trees live but a few
months, but during that time afford con-
siderable interest.

Experiments at the Maine Agricultural
station have demonstrated that about 8
per cent. more of the organic matter of
ground corn is digested than of the-whole
In training young horses much time in
the heavy work of a farm may be saved
by the cultivation of a good walking gait.

latter sometimes giving different and very
decided hues. As affected .by breed the
Guernseys give it the deepest yellow.
Their milk, like their butter, is sometimes
so deeply tinged as to approximate an
orange red. The Jerseys, the Brittanys,
the Kerrys and the Devons all give milk
of high color, while the Dutch Ayrshires
and Shorthorns turn out a paler product
when all are living upon similar food.
The cause of this difference is not easy to
explain in a positive-way.
It is a matter of common observation
among dairymen that the yellow color in
the flowers of yellow daisy and of dande-
lion when in full blossom is carried direct-
ly into the milk and gives intensity to its
yellow shade and to the butter made from
it. Carrots are well known to act in the
same way and are often employed to give
a deeper color to milk and butter. The
juices of other plants which have a de-
cided color of any shade are liable to, and
do, occasional carry their peculiar tints
into milk and into other animal products.
Thus the coloring matter in madder,
tumeric, annatto and other vegetable sub-
stances containing strongly colored juices
make their impression upon milk and
other secretions.

Scientific Farming Pays.
Farmers are gradually awaking to the
fact that scientific farming under prac-
tical control pays, and that in*the near
future extensive farming will be the only
kind that will stand the money test. The
richest soils under crude culture and poor
management fail to produce as profitable
returns as do worn out soils cultivated by
improved methods. In substantiation of
this statement is the fact that the average
of the last five harvests in the west was
twenty-nine and a fraction bushels of
cereals per acre, while the New England
states, with good culture and liberal appli-
cations of fertilizers, yielded thirty and a
fraction bushels per acre. The work of
progressive men like Farish Furmfin, who
increased, the yield on sixty-four acres of
scrub land from eight to one hundred
bales of cotton by extra culture and gen
erous manuring, is doing the whole coun-
try a service. But he does not stand alone
in the good work. In all sections of the
country progressive farmers are increas-
ing, along with experiment stations and
farms, and the result is a gradual increase
of product per acre, with the margin of
.profit widened and the general condition
of farmers improved.

Marketing Fowls.
Poultry designed for market presents
the best appearance when killed by cut-
ting through the roof of the mouth to the
brain with a sharp pointed knife. Dry
picking is required in many markets and
as a rule dry picked fowls gain the high-
est prices. Fowls are generally drawn
-but not always; this point must be de-
cided by the requirements of the special
market in which the birds are to be sold.
The successful marketing of fowls, says,
The'Poultry World, requires just three
1. That the fowls should be in prime
2. That they should be neatly dressed.
8. That the special requirements of the
market in which they are to be sold
should be strictly complied with.
If these three requirements are met the
fowls will bring the highest market prices
and the seller will always find that his
poultry will be in demand; if they are
neglected they will bring a reduced price
and the seller will find difficulty in dispos-
ing of them even at any lirice. "What is
worth doing at all is worth doing well"
certainly applies to marketing fowls.'
How to Treat a Crib Biter.
Among the,many annoying vices horses
indulge in is that of-crib biting and wind
sucking. While this is at first but a
vicious habit its -ultimate effect is to in-
jure both strength and condition,breaking
or wearing of the front teeth making the
animal old before his time and sometimes
rendering it difficult for him to graze.

4amilg 0ipzhet0 t


As a child, her mother's talk had not
taken great, though it had taken some
hold of Trip, but as she grew out of child-
hood it fired her imagination.
She had been so nursed in the notion
that she was to have a grand future, and
that the only way in which this grand
future was to be secured was through a
grand marriage, and the only way in
which a grand marriage was to be ar-
rived at was by personal ornament, the
cultivation of complexion and hair, and
by coquetry, that as Trip grew into young
womanhood she qualified for it with even
greater eagerness than she had qualified
before for idleness by passing the fourth
standard. A life of luxury and extrava-
gance, of wearing of fine dresses and of
seeing sights, of being admired, and of
doing nothing was held up to her as the
reward of passing the fifth standard.
That fifth standard was the captivating
and catching of a wealthy husband.
In spite of the deterioration of her
character, in spite of her mother's re-
monstrance, the friendship with Joe Wes-
tern was not broken; it lasted on with
fluctuations, it lasted in spite of Joe's ill
humor and her provocations, that ill hu-
mor in Joe being the result of her provo-
But good there was, lying deep below
the 'surface, buried under a wonderful
accumulation of frippery and folly.
They had their quarrels, when Trip
bounced out of the mill, vowing she
would never again revisit it, because Joe
was glum and had not a word to cast at
her; or when Joe, angered at some foolish
remark or exhibition of petulance, gave
her a sharp reprimand. Sometimes these.
quarrels lasted a week, once or twice a
month, when they neither met nor spoke.
Reconciliation always came from the side
of Trip. Joe never sought her out; but
when she reappeared, penitent, with
downcast head-pitiful entreaty to be for-
given-and pleading eyes, he could no%
resist the appeal. They shook hands,
and were friends again.
"My dear Lema," said her mother, "I
don't half like you to see so much of Mr.
Western. He may be, and no doubt is, a
respectable young man. But respecta-
bility is not what we look at; we look
miles beyond that. So, my dear Lema,
give him no encouragement. If ever it
should happen that he persuaded you to
become Mrs. Joe Miller it would bring
my gray hairs-no, they are- brown, and
not gray yet-with sorrow to the grave."
"Mamma, what a comical ideal Joel"
"Let it remain an idea, and a comical
one, Lema. As an idea only it is like
cold water trickling down my backbone.
My dear, if you were to be such a fool as
to take Mr. Joe Western, I'd wash my
hands of you. Flying would be as out of
the question as when the wings are
clipped. You'd stick to the soil. I'll tell
you exactly what it would be like. I was
once at a show-a sort of mixed circus
and menagerie-and it was advertised
and given out in public that an elephant
was to ascend in-a fire balloon. Well, I
s'pose pounds was took at the door of
people, that went in to see. I went in,
T rue enough there was the elephant, and
there was the fire balloon. The balloon
was hooked on to a belt-a very orna
mental belt it was, of all the rainbow
colors-passed round the body of the
elephant. There was a catch at the top,
and into this catch went an iron hook
from the bottom of the balloon. Well,
Lema, a fire of tow and spirits of wine
was lighted in the balloon, and I will say
this for the balloon, I believe it did its
best to rise, but it couldn't, because of
the elephant. It could neither lift the
great beast nor rise itself. So at last the
cord was cut, and away flew the balloon
without him, and we looked after it till it
was no more than like a star in the sky.
But the elephant didn't budge an inch,
not he. He didn't even look up after the
balloon." I
"Where .did it come down, mamma?"
"Oh, I don't know, nor whether it ever
came down at all. They ought to have'
Returned us our coppers as the elephant
didn't go up, but you may be sure we got
nothing. back. Now, my dear Lema,
true as I stand here, that was a picture' of
an unequal match. So never you think,
of taking and fastening of yourself on to
any elephant;, you're a fire balloon, and
ordained to rise to be a star."
Much about the same time Mrs. Wes-
tern was addressing a word of caution to
her sonil.
.She had watched Joe for long with the
anxiety of a mother and the.perception
of the loving eye. At one time he seemed
to be escaping from his silent ways, to
become more genial and sociable; but of
late his curious closeness had closed over
him again, and had become -more con-
firmed and intensified.'
Something weighed, on his mind. His
mother was sure of that; but what it was
she did not at once discover. For a time
she suspected that the business was not
prospering, that his accounts -had not
been paid to Christmas, that something
was wrong with the machinery of the
mill, which would entail a heavy outlay
which he did not know how to meet, that
custom was falling off-but she aban-
doned all these suppositions, there was
no evidence to substantiate them, and the
man was able to satisfy her that every-
thing went well with the mill.
What was the matter with Joe?
She observed that his fits of deepest
depression occurred after his interviews
with Trip. Nevertheless, she did not ar-
rive at the- right solution even then; it
seemed to her prepossessed mind that Joe
would never care for any girl who was
not as grave, sedate, and systematic as
himself. That so frivolous, inconsider-
ate a coquette as Trip should have seized
on her son's heart was inconceivable by
her for long. She resisted the thoughts
-she fought against evidence when it
came on her; No-Joe was ill, he was
suffering from some internal malady.
She asked him if he had any illness

hanging about him; anything the matte?
with his liver? He shook his head and
answered, "I am quite well, mother."I
'"Have you been clipping the stones,
and the grit got into your lungs, Joe?"
"My lungs are sound," he said. .
"And there's nothing the matter-with
your heart?" she asked.
Then he stood up, shaking his head, and
went out to his bees.
She watched him through the window.
She saw him presently standing looking
at his hand and squeezing it: She went
after him into the garden.
What is it, Joe?"
"A bee has stung me, that is all. I
have drawn out the sting. It will hurt
no more."
"Will you have the blue bag for it,
He shook his bead. "No; when the
sting can be drawn out the hurt is soon
over; it is where the sting goes deep and
remains, that it rankles and aches and
poisons the blood."
He was not thinking of the bee. She
was sure of that. He spoke of another
sting. Her eyes were opened. She saw
all plain. Then her face became very
"Now, Joe," she said, "put the thought
from you. It never can be. She is not
the sort of wife for you; with such an un-
reasonable name, too. Triptolema Yel-
lowleaf I It would give me the bronchitis
to call her by it every day."'
"Mother-oh mother I -.
"It is of no use your 'mothering' me. I
can see. I know what consumes you.
You love her because she is beautiful and
winning. I don't deny all that; but she
is not for you. If you had her you
would be utterly miserable."
"I know it."
"Yes,-Joe, you know it; and yet you
love her, that is it. Your reason says
that she would drive you mad if she
were yours, and make your home a hell,
and yet you have not the moral courage
to think no more of ,her. You think of
her all day and all night-when you
work, when you pray, when you dream."
He put his hand to his heart.
"Then, Joe, pluck the sting out; pluck
It out and cast it away." .
"'Mother, I cannot; it is too deep.' It
poisons me, that is true-but-I cannot.
Indeed, I cannot!"

There was a small inn, called the Dog
and'Pheasant, between the park and the
mill. Sometimes, when -any visitors
were at the hall, the servants who could
not be accommodated in the house were
sent to the Dog and Pheasant. It was a
tidy, respectable, old fashioned inn, low,
yellow washed, with russet tile root, and
a vine, a Black Hambroough, trained on
a trellis over the roof, Where it ripened
well in warm summers. The host had
been a butler to the old squire before the
property was sold to the successful Ox-
ford street tradesman. However much
the host might turn up his lip of scorn in
the privacy of his own room with his
wife over these parveTius, he was most
urbane and obsequious, to them in public.
for Mr. Tottenham was his landlord, and'
the hall brought a good deal of custom
to .the Dog and Pheasant.
Throughout the neighborhood of Lon-
don the old families have well nigh dis-
appeared. They have migrated, and sold
their estates and mansions to wealthy
tra lesmen, who live in the old seats in
far grander style than did the plain coun-
try squires.
Ringwood had belonged to the family
of Ringwood for three hundred years,
then came a spendthrift, then rash
speculation, bad times, finally a breakup.
Squire Ringwood was obliged to sell his
ancestral estate and manor house, and it
was bought by the Tottenhams of the
firm of Tottenham & Sons, Oxford street.
One day there arrived at the Dog and
Pheasant a gentleman of engaging ex-
terior and manners. He wore a black
frock coat that fitted him admirably,
lavender pants, and kid gloves, a crimson
ribbon round his throat, a Glorie de
Dijon rose in his buttonhole. His name
-he showed his cards-Mr., Algernon
Beaufort. He had a delicate complexion
and a slight cough. He came into the
country because he had been ordered
country, air, and to Ringwood because
Ringwood was prescribed as specially
sal ibrious.
He strolled about the neighborhood for
a day or two, and found it dull-an end-
less tract of London clay, broken by old
tile pits and puddles. In time one may
have too much of a good thing; it takes
very little time to have enough of Lon-
don clay.
Mr. Beaufort, standing in the bar,
drawing on his gloves, with his elegant
lavender legs wide apart, asked if it were
permissible for strangers to stroll in the
park. The host of the inn hesitated. It
was not a favor generally accorded, but
if -the gentleman would not mind taking
a. message of thanks from him to the
keeper, whose lodge, was in the park, for
a brace of rabbits -he had sent his mis-
sus, it might serve as- an excuse. Then
Mr..Beaufort could look ,about him, and
see the trees, and the deer, and the lake;
and the keeper might, perhaps, take him
over the warren.
Mr. Beaufort was much obliged. His
Gloire de Dijon was faded, so he ven-
tured to beg a China rose of the land-
lady, which suited his compelxion better
even than the Glorie de Dijon, assumed
his highly polished hat, curled up at the
side, took his cane, lighted a cigar, and
sallied forth. He entered the side .gate
of the main entrance, sauntered, about
the well wooded grounds," came to the
keeper's lodge, delivered his message,
and asked to be allowed to sit down and
drink a glass of water. His appearance,
his complexion, his address, struck Mrs.
Redfern as aristocratic. She made him
very welcome, entered into conversation
with him, assured him that her marriage
had been a come down in life, and that,
though she lived under a cottage roof,
she knew what good society was, having
lived in baronial halls. This was a little
bit of an exaggeration, but it did not
matter. Baronial halls-even when con-
verted by an infirmity of the speaker's,
into 'alls-sounds well.
Mr. Beaufort assured the lady that he







quite believed Rt. Something in her
speech and bearing struck him as out of
the common when he first saw her. Then
she told him how she had acquired her
finished address and polite bearing. She
had been lady's maid to the Misses
Tottenham, of the great house, one of
whom was now married. The other was
still single, but said to be engaged. It
was a sad blow, she said, to old Mr. Tot-
tenham that his eldest son had married
an actress; he was not allowed to remain
in the firm. He was given an annuity,
and did not come to Ringwood.
"And this, sir," she said, as Trip ap-
peared, "this, sir, is my daughter."
"Your sister, surely," exclaimed Mr.
Beaufort, starting to his feet and bow-
ing gracefully, with a wave of his hat.
"My daughter, an only child, sir, aged
"Impossible, madame 1"
"Pray be seated," urged the flattered
Mrs. Redfern.
"If I might offer you some of oar mod-
est ale and humble cake, sir, or unpre-
tentious biscuits--"
"With the highest pleasure. My name
-I ought to have introduced myself-is
Beaufort," he put a card on the table.
"You may chance to- know the name; if
you study the peerage, you will have ob-
served that there is a duke of my name."
Mrs. Redfern was giddy with excite-
ment. She whispered to her daughter.
"Lema, put on your myrtle green with
coffee trimmings;- in it you look beauti-
fullest." Then she hastened to produce
cake, biscuits, glasses, and a jug of ale
and place them on the little table under
the balcony of the picturesque oettage.,
After a pause, and the eating of a bis-
cuit, Mr. Beaufort said: -..
"So you, my dear madame, were lady's
maid at Ringwood. A position of great
responsibihty-next to that of the butler,
the most."
"Respeondbilityl" exclaimed Mrs. Red-
fern, "I should think so. I've had thou-
sands of pounds' worth -of jewelry pass
through my hands. My young ladies
were awful careless, and left their
brooches, and bracr'ets, .and necklaces
about. I've had times out of mindto put
them away for them. -I didn't think it
right that they should be~ left littering
"And where did you put them away,
"In morocco cases, locked in a jewel
box, which was kept in the wardrobe.
But there is not quite so much now as
was, as tthe eldest of the young ladies is
married, and took hers away with her."
"I suppose the plate of the family must
be superb?". "
"Soup-erb ain't the word for-it," said
Mrs. Redfern. .
"What sort of a gentleman now, is the
"Mr. Thomson. Oh, polished as his
plate." -
"Would it be possible for me to see
over the house? I am-thmiking of build-
ing Beaufbrt court in Gloucestershire,
and am interestQd in gentlemen's places.
One can take hints everywhere I find,
that is, if one has an intelligent mind."
"Well, sir, Ringwood ain't generally
shown; there's generally some of the
family here, though they do go to London
a deal. The ladies find it dull in the
country, and the old gentleman hap been
so much in business all his life that he
must be doing something in his old dge,
so they make over to him the hosiery
branch of the affair. But I dare say the
house might be looked over. The family
are mighty proud of their pictures,:
painted by the most d-, I mean fashion-'
'able artists, and which, have cost the
old gentleman pounds on pounds. Come
here, Triptolema. My daughter and I
will be pleased to walk with you, sir,
to Ringwood. Mrs. Podgings, the house-
keeper, is a very superior person, _and
eager to oblige me. Mr. Thomson, I
have no doubt, will allow himself to be
coaxed into letting you have a peep at. the
plate." Then, aside to her daughter,
"My dear, go on with the gentleman. I
will follow. The opportunity has come.
Now is your chance. Lay 1old."'

TIME CARD IN EFFF(T DEC. 27, 1886,. 12 06 a. m.
No. 19. -
All Trains Run by um uteridlan" Time.(Central).
Shortest and Quickest Route to New Orleans and the
Southwest. Direct and Northwest.
"a" means A. M. time. "p" means P. M. time.
Read up. Read down.
No. 10. No. 2. No.1. No. %
1145a 7 3ip ArJacksonville............Lv 8 00a 300p1
10 0a 6 0 p ArBaldwin.................. L 841a S60p
818 a s6 19 p Ar Lake City................ Ar 10 10 sa 558p
7 12a 4 27 p Ar Live Oak.............;..Ar 10-68 a 7 05(p
6 0la 3 26 p Ar Madison.......8...........Ar 12-01 p 8 837 p
5 15a 2 0 p Ar Monticello ...............Ar 135p 10 35p
3 10a 1 05 p ArTallahassee.............Ar 2 27p 11 25p
1 40 a 12 08 p ArQuincy ....................Ar 822p 1 40 a
12 01a 11 25a Ar liver Junction.......Ar 4 05p 3 30 a
11 00p 10 20 a Ar arianna...............Ar 6 07p 4 '25a
00p 8 15a LvDeFuniakSprings..A 7'05p 8 00a
'0 p 5 15 a Lv Pensacola................Ar 10 10 p 11 50 a
12 15 p 3 00.a LvFlomaton.................Ar 11 59p 3 18p
1 00 a Lv Mo il ..................A..r 26 a -
00 p Lv New Orleans...........;Ar 720s -
20 7 0 p LvMontgomery........Ar 7 1a 7 08p
S55p 7 27 a LvNs N ville......;........Ar 640p 720 a

12,451 12 45 a LvEvansville...............Ar 110a 2 i36p
2 st A, 12 36 a Lv Louisville................Ar 2 25a 220p
8 1 a 8 20 p Lv Cincinnrtl ...............Ar 68. a 6 3 p
710a 7 20p LvSt..Louis.................Ar 7'40a 8 00p
oj 8 40 p LvChicago................... Ar10-0 a 8 00p
Sleeping Cars on No. I and 2 between Jacksonville and
New Orleans. F. R. and N. Sleeping Cars Jacksonville
to DeFuniak on No. 9 and b0,lo. 1.2,9 and 10 daily.
"Shortest and Quickest Route to Gainesville, Ocala,
Leesburg, and all points In South Florida.
Read up. _, Read down.
No. 4. ,No. 8. 1 No. .7. No.3.
4 00 p 11 25 a Ar Fernandina............Lv 10 10 a 4 45 p
2 47 p 7 45 a Ar Callahan.;..:............Ar 11 24a 6 45 p
1 47 p 6 00a LBaldwin...... Ar 12 25p 10 1 p
2 40p 6 30a Ar Jacksonviii ............Lv 11l. a 8 30p
I &p 5 30s IvBaldwl, .. ....... Lv 1 40 p 0 00 p
I p 4 uja L LiLi'ty ................. Ar I .u p p
I tE. 1 .Lv. L ari ...................,J I1 'p 1 -'7p
au ii u -jI-. L% GIu...,rSl)[]............ 5 p 6 46 a
S ., a I" L,''E Inr K%.v.............. U 6 p 146p
II t p 1 :,.. Lv HB a I.:..I n ........... A .'2 p 12 6d a
v4 a L' U &.,u LL >:,itraDra R c LsKe--Ar 2 0 p 1 43 a
Is .' -- L, lj. ,r l-g...... .A.-r J.ia p
S,. 11 a Lv OLLOi.u, ................Ar 3 50p 2 46a
i i' U' p iJ. L n, \ iJaANO ...............A.r 4 3 p 4 6a
S p L. Pa.-..,Iiae.............Ar .- lea
..j p -- Lv61. ,ibnrine.......... r 11 00a
l. Ip 6 4u a L% Leabu'r ...........Ar 6 O0p 4 b3a.
3l p 168 a Lv rra .reo................Ar 6 4bp 530a
;p 7 ia LvA|.p,)pce..............Ar 6 7 p 721a
S up 1, &j h L-%viiLIudio ....... ...... Ar 7 06p 7 64a
Thtnugh Pullman Sleeping Cars, No. 3I a.,d 4 between
J.acK,'nie lf on'i jrthanau s thout change. N(. 7and
laily'. Nod.Sand 4 eliy EXC-pL Suri..yu.
Read up. o o o BRead down.
No. *11. No 5. No. 6. No. 12.
445p 8 40a ArJatisonvillUe............Lv 500p 80&a
3 00p 7 Ia Lv F-nrindtina......... Ar 6 20p 10 00 a
At Callahan with,Savannah, s lorida and Western
Railroad for Savannah, Macon Atlanta, Charleston,
Washington, -Baltimore, New iork Cincinnati, St.
Louls, Chicago, and all points North, West and North-
west. '
At Silver Springs, with Ocklawaha River Steamers.
At St. Catherine, with Florida Southern Railroad, for
Brooksville Bartow and Tampa. .
At Orlando,-with South-Florida Railroad for Sanfo4r
Lakeland ana Tampa. "
At Cedar Key with ibamer Gorrnor Safford Monday
and Thursday for ianate and 7amp. ,
sails from Fernandina. Sunday and Wednesday; from
Jacksonville Friday, for Charleston and New York.
Steamer Express leaving Jacksonville .805 A. X.-
Wednesday and Saturday, connect with the elegant
Steamer.St. Nicholas.-, Inside Route for:Brunswick
Darien, Savannah; connecting with steamers for Balti-
more, Philadtlphia, New York and Bostoin.
Steamers Express.leavingJacksonville daly8:0 ajn.
City of Brunswick connects/with sterner for Brunswick
an through trains of the E. T. and G. and B. and W.
rairoa ... -. ... '
WALTER 0. CLEMAt. den ti, anen iAgen.-
A. 0. M1oDONELL,
General Passenger and Tike n AgeL.
F. B. PA .,
Traffo Manager.
D. E. MAXWELL, Gen. Sopt.

On LeConte and Keifer Pear Trees, Figs,
Moore's Eariy Grapec, etc., to the



Fine sour stocks, budded *ith beat varieties.
Nursery on high pine land. Trees carefully
packed and delivered at shipping point in Pa-
latka, at the following prices:
inchh in diameter, 25 cents each; $200 per
l inch in diameter, 85 cents each; $800 per
thousand. .
l, inch in diameter, '4 cents-each; $400.per
thousand. "-
Palatka, Fa.


The Florida Times-Union


Best Equipped Office the outh
1F 1o1




A holy man, gray-haired and pale,
What shall I call his name;
Lay on the mat that was his bed
And to himself his prayers he said,
Not dreaming of. his fame.
For famous he was sure to be,
Although he never knew it;
A simple, kindly man was be,
A simple kindly life led he.
SAnd well did he go through it.
No loving wife did he e'er have, .
No children climbed his knee;
His parish claimed his love and.prayer,
His parish, was his only care,
Content were they and he.
Long ages since did this man live,
Nearer to Christ than we;
Ah, long it is twixtt now and then,
The year he died, plus two times ten,
800A. D.
His name, how shall I tell in rhyme,
It is ridiculous;
How much it gives the mind a strain,
To hunt the word (how long the lane)
To rhyme with Nicholas.
Children whom he had christened grew,
They loved him like a father;
They went to him with every trouble,'
For every tear he gave back double,
In tender words and pother.
One maillen fair, his chiefestpet,
Bright-eyedand full of fun,
Was sought and won by lover bold,-
The story has been often told,
Of-two hearts joined in one.
"The course of true love don't run smooth,"
These lovers too were troubled;
The father swore his son should never
Marry the girl, although so clever,
S Unleos her dot was doubled.
The bishop saw his fair pet pining,
SIt grieved hill tender heart;
He could not draw his cdeck on bank.
He had no silver-plate to I lank,
How could he take her part.
He conned the matter day and night;
To shorten a long story. -1
He dreamed there was a pot of gold,
Or, angel's lips the secret told,
All bright with heavenly glory.
The moon was hid behind-the clouds,
SThe stars could not be'see'n,
The darkness veiled the midnight walk,
-Of his good deeds io idle talk
S Could the old bisi'bp spleen.
.0 '
-" Straighfdown the street the bishop went
To where the fair girl slept.
He put the gold upon the sill,
He gave it all with right good will;
And then he homewards sept.
At early dawn the maiden woke '
And by the window kneeled;
What was that gold before heo eyes,
W hat was 't she read with great surprise
"By this your woedis healed."
Soon to the bishop's house she hied
To ask him what it meant;
He heard her tale, hlie read her thought,
: He said to her "keep it you ought, *
.From heaven it was sent.'
When next she came; oh, she was led,
Blushing like a rose,
Her hand another gently took,
The bishop read out of a book,'
One we're they, at the lose.
When therefore ever after- this
'- The circling year brought Christmas,
.. All boys' and girls who hung out stocking.
v -Believed their gii' i-i tall c.-ine flocking.
S' -" Fromn good S.,int Nieh.ias.
S :--PoxoMA,Fla Dec. 17,1886.

The Most Noted Indian Leaders
of the Florida War.
By C. M. B.
Far different" from that of Micanopy
S was thecharacterof A;-se-se-ho-ho-lar,
or Oseola, who is, I suppose, better
known to fame than is any other warrior
of that period. His name signified
Black-Drink." It may not be amiss to
note that, the ."black-drink" .was a con-
coction of various herbs, and was sup-
Sposed to be a magic potion giving wis-
dom and clearness of mental vision: the
Simbibing of it, by' the chiefs and sub-
: chiefs of the Seminole: nation previous
to the assembling .of council was a
solemn and important ritbe.
Oseola belonged to. the Creek nAtion
and was born in Georgia.. His father
was W illiam.Powell, an Englishmen who
was for many year, a trader with the
Creeks; and who married one of their
.women. In 1808 Oseola, then in his
S. fourth year,' came with his mother to
Florida. When' the troubles began be-
tween the whites and Indians, Oseola
bhar'reached full maturity. He is said to
have been of moderate height and of
dignified, self-possessed bearing; his
S countenance was frank and pleasant.
: : He did not share the superstitions of
S- the majority of the Indians, nor imitate
their diplomacy, but openly and fear-
lessly declared his views and persued his
course. He identified himself with the
Seminoles, with whom he had lived
s ince childhood. His wife Chechoter
: (Morning Dew) was a Creek. To his
; wife' and children he was always kind,
and it may have been. his affection for
them that made him merciful towards
the -women and children of his enemies;-
S- for, when setting out on the war-path.
S he would say to his warriors: "Spare the
Women and children. It.s not upon
'2 themathat we make war ai draw the
scalping knife; it is upon men; let us act
like men."
In the spring of the year 183.4 when
General Thompson called a council of
: the chiefs to debate the question of emi-
: gration,. Oseola, who could not speak in
council,-as'in was not a chief, sat beside
..' Micanopy,i apd whispered in his ear the
words he iaiuht use. The Indians" were
"greatly excited and uttered much abusive
language, muttered, groaned, and gesti-
culated wildly.
General Thompson told the Indians
that they should receive no .more money
from the governmenL. Now Oseola
made no further attempt to restrain him-
self. He rose from his seat and said that
the Indians did not care if they never re-
ceived another dollar from the great
father; then he drew forth his knife and
driving it into the table cried: "The only
treaty I will execute is with this" From
that time he was the governing spirit in
council and the leader of the nation. By
his energy and indignant representation
of the wrongs of his people he strength-
ened the determination :of the majority,

and forced into action those more pease-
fully or indolently disposed.
In April 1835 the sale to the Indians of
powder and fire-arms was prohibited
The Indians were very indignant, for
they knew no better proof of the white
man's friendship than the permission to
purchase ammunition. "Am I a negro?
Am I a slave?" cried Oseola. "My skin
is dark-but not black. I am an Indian
-a Seminole. The white man shall not
make me black. I will make him red
with blood, and then blacken him in the
sun and rain."
It was now too late to prevent hostil-
ities. The Indians had for months been
accumulating ammunition and maturing
plans, and while the government agents
had been making estimates of the num-
bers of the Indians so as to provide for
their transportation, thelndians had been
making estimates for another purpose
-to ascertain the number of warriors
each chief might bring into the field. Of
the two estimates, that made by the In-
dians must have been the more correct,
for the whites were comparatively igno-
rant of the geography of Florida, 'and
many of the nation., found hiding places'
in the swamps and hammocks.
About this time Oseola came. often to
Fort King, the headquarters of General
Thompson, and, upon several occasions
indulged in niost violent language, heap-
ing abuse upon the General and defying
the power of the government. He was
put in chains and confined within the
fort for six days; at the end of that time
he voluntarily promised to abide by the
treaty of emigration, and, on account of
this promise, was released.
From this time the whole course of his
conduct seems to have changed. For-
saking the uprightness and candor of
former days, he acted with deep cun-
ning and subtlety. Soon after his.release
he returned to Fort King, bringing with
'him seventy chiefs, whom he declared,
and who declared themselves ready to
emigrate; by this step confidence was
apparently restored, and the government
agents believed that the treaty would be
fulfilled and thal the emigration would
soon take place.
However, this apparent peace did not
long continue. In the autumn of 1835 a
"friendly" chief with four hundred fol-
lowers hastened to Fort Brooke for pro-
tection from a war party led by Oseola.
Charley E. Mathler, one of the -chiefs
who favored emigration, was murdered
by this pady. He met it near, his vil-
lage, aqd -some of the men fired upon
him; at/the first shot he fell upon his
face, and so received the deathblows
brutally dealt. ?He had tied in a hand-
kerchief some money he had just re-
ceivedl for the sale of his cstth ; Oseola
said that this money was made of the red
man's blood, and forbidding his men to
touch it, cast it away with his own
By'this cruel and cowardly murder.
was fulfilled the-will of the hostile chiefs
of the nation, who had ecreed in coun-
cil that the.first 'Indian disposing of his
property, as the first step'towards emi-
gration, should be put -to death.
The'murder of Charley E. Mathler was
followed by that .of General Thompson
andLieutenant Smith, who, as they were
walking together, were fired upon by the
war party in ambush. They fell in-
stantly, their bodies pierced with many
The war was now fairly begun. The
report of theo guns7 and the war whoop
were heard at Fori King, and, as it was
supposed that the enemy were in full
force, preparations were made for a-
vigorous defence. The situation was
critical, 'but relief was expected from
Fort Brooke. This relief did not, come.
The party, under Major Dade. was, as
we have seen, attacked and massacred
by Oseola's party. A few days after was
fought the battle of the Withlacoochee,
when the Indians were forced to retreat.
SOn the 21st of January Major General
Scott was placed in command of the
'oorida army. He took the field on the
'*2d of February and continued opera-
tio.ns until the 30th of May when bhe was
ordered to Georgia to conduct operations
against the C'reeks. 'le was succeeded
in Florida by General Jesup. :
The Indians now found it necessary to
take-some steps for the securing of
temporary peace, so that they might
have time to plant crops. Accordingly
they assembled at Fort Dade and entered
Into capitulation, agreeing to leave the
country and to give up some of the prin-
cipal warriors as hostages. Oseola went
with his family to F,-rt Mellon. arid de.
cleared himself desirousolf peace and will-
ing to abide by the treaty of capitu-
lation. The war was now considered at
an end. The white inhabitants of the
territory,, who had fled from their
homes, returned., But the day of peace
was. riot yet.
On the 5th of June, 1837, Oseola and
:Caocooche came to the camp at night
and insisted -that the prisoners should
make their- escape. "Now," writes
Captain Sprague, ,,wel] ( lothed for the
approaching season, their crops far ad-
vanced. and sickness throughout the
country precluding the poslibilily
of' military movements, they asked
nothing more of the whites, and were
determined to enjoy their homes ,until
another emergency should compel them
to capitulate. Some were inclined to
emigrate, Micanopy at the head, but the
majority never designed to fulfill the
capitulation made at Fort Dade. The com-
mander of the army was discouraged at
so unexpected and infamous an act of
treachery. No vigilence, sagacity, or
forecast could close a contest with an
enemy utterly regardless of integrity and-
honor, nor could human wisdom defeat
a scheme so ingeniously and covertly de-
signed and so promptly executed."
During September of the same year,
Oseola sent by Caocooche to General
Hernandez, who commanded east of the
St. Johns, a white plume, which signified
a desire for peace; Caocooche returned
bearing presents and messages of friend-
ship, and soon afterwards a conference
took place between the General and
At this conference Oseola evaded the
questions addressed to him, and indeed
after a little while became silent; turn-

ing to one of his friends,:he said in a low
voice: "I feel choked; you must speak
for me."
General Hernandez was not pleased
with the result of the conference, and
gave a signal to the troops who closed in
upon the Indians, and, without further
parley, conducted them, as prisoners, to
St. Augustine. Oseola was thence re-
moved to Fort Mou!trie, Charleston
Harbor. All his hopes were now de-
stroyed. "His lion heart lay sick." His
proud spirit could not bear defeat; he
could not live in confinement, and by
death received his freedom.


Key Westhas 17,000 population.
Tampa has three weekly papers-now
talk of a daily.
Strawberries are looking splendidly at
Keuka and the crop will be large.
Ormond, on the Halifax, is shipping
1,000 boxes of oranges per week.
The State convention of the W. C. T.
U. will be held next month in Orlando.
The depot to be erected at Ormond, on
the Halifax river, will be of squared co-
Arbor day. according to a proclama-
tion issued by Governor Perry, will be
the.ninth day of February.
Mr. 1. L. Mead, near.Maitland, gath-
ered eighty boxes'of oranges from nine
trees eight years old last spring.
Mr. W. Lyle, of Polk county, has
raised a cabbage which weighs ten
pounds, and says he has 100 more just
like it.
The South Florida. Exposition will
open at Orlando, Orange county, Febru-
ary 15th, and probably continue two
The sum necessary for the establish-
ment of glass works at Milton, Florida,
has been subscribed at Milton and Black-
A railroad to connect Tampa with
Clear Water Harbor is one of the move-
ments spoken of to take place in the near
Two Leon county pigs were killed, one
year and twenty days old, one of which
tipped the beam at 862 and the other at
849, net weight.
The people at Clear Water Harbor
have raised subscriptions to the esti-
mated amount of $20,000 to donate to
the Orange Belt Railroad.
It is stated that the travel- to Ha-
*ana is now heavier than ever known
before at this season of the year. Every
steamer from Tampa -goes out with a
good list of passengers,
Mr. Ed. Plummer, of Mandarin, re-
ports the best -prospect for the coming
strawberry crop ever known. This is
gratifying news, for last year's crop.
netted the above settlement $10,000.
A company from St. Louis has shipped
by the New Orleans steamship Morgan a
complete steam boring machine for bor-
ing artesian wells at Key West. It is
proposed to bore down to a depth of
fifteen hundred feet, when it is believed
th't plenty of water can be obtained.
The Indians of South Florida are now
on their annual hunt, and are scattered
in bands of three to six from Rockledge
on Indian river to Miami, coming into
the settlements along the river nearly
every day to dispose of their venison and
skins, and for the purchase of ammuni-
tion.. .
By January 10 the company of Rose &
Diseton, at St. Cloud,,will finish plant-
ing 110 acres of cane. They are about
ready to ship cabbage and cauliflower, of
which they have twenty-fiveacres. The
farm is well worth a visit as showing
the fertility of this seciion.-Kissimmee
The Tamnpa Tribune says'tbat Messrs.
Miller & Henderson contemplate' build-
ing an iron steamship as large and as
swift asthe Mascotte, to run from here to
Nassau. They are now receiving bids
front contractors in this an'J foreign
countries for the building and equipping
of it. : .
*" The increase in the duties of leaf to-
bacco alone,.for the port of Key IWeit,
during the past -year, was $157,00(1, that
is more than :the duties collected in all
the rest of the State, combined with-the
States of :- Georgia, and-South Carolina.
This in the face of the prostration,of
business by the big fire is a hopeful sign.
L. D. Cullen, formerly of Louisville,'
Ky., now a resident of Seffner, near
Tampa, has on his Florida farm a Jersey
calf which when three years old he sold
a few days ago for $120 cash to General
Hazen, of Thonotosassa Lake. Mr. Cul-
len is' selling $1,000: per year in poultry
from his farm. These are the men and
farms wanted in Florida.
:Aninvestigation. of the books of the
offices of the express and railroad com-
panies show that Waldo has-shipped 40
per cent. more oranges this 'season than.
ever before. This certainly refutes the
"calamity liar,"1 and conclusively- proves
that last winters cold was far from dis-
astrous.-Wald o Advertiser.
The great artesian well of St. Augus-
tine is down 750 feet, and is still-flowing
at-the rate of from six to ten thousand
gallons per minute, or ten million ga'-
lons per day. The drill is 550 feet in the
coral formation, which is supposed to be
1,000 feet in depth. No change in the
temperature of the water is expected un-
til the 'drill passes the coral rock.
* There is scarcely room to doubt that
Jacksonville can handle 20,000 bags of
Sea Island cotton during the coming sea-
son if a few of its business men will dis-
play the enterprise and energy that char-
acterize such cities as Atlanta and Rich-
mond. There is no reason why it should
be over-shadowed by a fossil town like
Savannah.-Bartow Informant.
W. J. Dodson, who is farming near
Oxford, made a fine crop of oats last sea-
son, and had about 200 bushels threshed
out, using the old-fashioned flail in do-
ing so. The oats being of a superior
quality he finds no trouble in disposing
of them for seed purposes at $1.25 per

dr et e srtz.
rhel ''S Q/
s fffs ^i------------^isli ^ '^ f

bushel. Mr. Dodson made as minuch as
thirty bushels to the acre on some of his
Titusville has built $37,000 worth of
new buildings, during the year 1886.
That town on the Indian river has made
wonderful strides in every other direc-
tion, and will continue to grow.on ac-
count of its many advantages. Orlandc
wants a railroad direct to the ocean via
Titusville, which will open up a fine
country en route, as well as make a
straight and short cut to the beach. It
will be built during the year, we under-
The canal from the Withlacouochee
river to Lake Charla Apopka was opened
through to Floral City last'Saturday, and
the steamer Sam Pyles, with Captain
Lay in command, passed through, and,
for the first time in Floral City's history,
a steamboat anchored at her wharf. The
arrival of the steamer was the occasion
of much festivity, consisting of a colla-
tion at the hotel and two excursions
around the lake. On one of the excur-
sions the steamer carried a party of ovei
250 persons.
We are informed from what seems a
reliable source that the Plant Investment
Company have commenced work on.the
extension of their railroad from Tampa
to Old Tampa Bay, the terminus to be at
Brushy Point. The company has let the
contract for building their wharfs at
that point. We suppose this move will
not be particularly pleasing to the people
of Tampa, but it will certainly be a pay-
ing thing for the company to bring their
road to deep water, and we believe that
it will be a benefit to all the towns on
the Bay, and will give the people of
Point Pinellas a good outlet. It will be
only a short run across the bay for a
steam ferry.-Disston City Sea Breeze.
Mr. G. W. Marble, in company with a
party of young boys, went on an explor-
ing expedition to Warren's cave Monday.
They entered it to a distance of 600 feet
In some parts of the cave the roof, which
is of solid lime and flint stone, is fifteen
feet high. The sides are ragged and
rough, and the cave. or natural tunnel,
has evidently been at some time the
channel of a subterranean stream of
water. In various places in the floor of
the cave are cracks through which run-
ning water may be heard. The boys in-
tend to return in a few days better
equipped for furthering the exploration
of t-is natural wonder.- -Gainesville
Shared work is dearest
Shared love the nearest,
Shared faith is clearest
On this side heaven.
Shared hopes are sweetest,
Shared fears are fleetest,
Shared lives the meetest
On this side heaven,
Seed Irish Potatoes.,
The best potatoes for planting in this
State are those brought from extreme
Eastern points. Acting on this belief,
we imported last year from
large quantities' of 'Early Rose, .Chili
Red, Beauty of Hebr m- and other varie-
ties. and the potatoes raised from this
seed were the finest we have ever seen
here. "
We will receive, in a few days another
cargo of the same potatoes, which we
will sell at the following prices:
Chili Red.......per barrel $3.50.
Early Rose ............... $3.00.
Beauty of Hebron........$3.00.
Every barrel guaranteed as represented.
Remit witl. order, and we will ship the
potatoes prom ptly.
Jacksonville, Fla., Jan. 5th, 1887.

Farmers often fall over a stumbling
block in regard to fertilizers by thinking
that barn vard mnanutre cost them noth-
ing. s6nce it is a natural income from the
keeping of s'ock. But when it comes to
paying out the direct profits of the farm
foir commercial fertilizers '. you toucli the
main point upon whichli they base tbeir
opinion.-New England Hom'estead.

Groves where Williams, Clark & Co's
Orange-Tree Fertilizer has been used are
looking finely; :

Geo. E. Snow,. Esq., of East Lak?,
says: ."That he is better satisfied with
Williams, Clark & Co's Orange Tree
Fertilizer than any he has used in eight
years' experience with orange'tree.fertil-
;. -: .
"Nothing Comes up to Brad-
(From ''- .ley's."
(From, the Treasurer of the South-Florida R. R.)
'I have used Bradley's Orange Tree
Fertilizer for two years, and I have bb-,
tained from it entire satisfaction. My
trees have -made uniform and rapid
growth, and they are fairly bending to
the ground with bright handsome fruit.
I have used many brands of fertilizers
but nothing comes up to Bradley's.
Sanford, Fla.
SMr. R. J. Broad, of Welaka, Putnam
county, says: "For the past two years I
have used Williams, Clark & Co's High
Grade Bone Fertilizer for Orange Trees
and Vegetables, with the greatest satis-
faction and profit, and in using their
goods I believe I have received full value
for my money. I most heartily recom-
mend their fertilizers."
"We Know by Experience."
For three years we have used Brad-
ley's Vegetable" Fertilizer. After test-
ing along with other high grade fertil-
izers, we pronounce it better than any
sold in Florida. We shall use it again
this year.
We do not hesitate to say to the vege-
table growers of. Florida that they can-
not use anything so good as Bradley's
Florida Vegetable Fertilizer. We know
by expe-ience what we say regarding
this fertilizer.
Ft. Mason, Fla.



JAMoMKONVIA. January 17. & 7
MxATs-D.S.shorn rnos noxed, 57 10. D:S.
Long clear sides 7 0-1: D. S. bellies 74ca...:
smoked short ribs 7%; smoked belltes 78/4;-
4. C. hams, un 3anvased fanoy,ll%; S.C. breax
fast bacon, uncanvased, 94c; B3. 0. shon'-
Iers, uncanvatea, 7%o; California or plo
.ic hams, 7%i. Larad-refined tiercet 70
Mess beef-barrels 810.50 halfbarrels 65.75;meEss
pork 818.26 These quotattior's r for rn-
lnta from first bands, whole cattle 7@74;
dressed hogs 8e; sheep 9c; pork sausage Be;
loins 8Yc; long bokoena7c; head cheese 65c;
Frankfart sausage 10cy; rounds 8c.
BUTrIE-Best table 2@25c per pounad.
looking 15@20c per pound.
I BUTTERTiE-Oreamery 20o; Extra- Dairy
t6c; Dairy 15.
OH esu--Half skim lOc.beGt cream ll.c per
Grain, Flour, Hay, Feed, Etc.
.a&rN-- Oorn-Tne T smarset is higher
The following figures represent to-day's
values: We quote white corn, Job
lots, 60 c@.. per bushel; car load lots E8i
per bushel, mixe oorn, job lots, E8 per
bushel: carload lots 55%o per bushel. Oats are
better demand firmer b the following figures
mixed, in Job lots, 45c, car load lots 42o;
white oats are Blo4ihlsh'er all round Bran
Innrmer and higher, I20@821 per ton,job lots
HAT-ThemaAet Is firm and better de-
nand for good grades. Western choicp,
mall bales, 818g... per ton; carload lots 816.75
o 817,50 per ton; Eastern hay 820 ner ton
SPBaRL GITs AND MEAL-Higher 8 3.00 per
FTou--Firmer and higher; best patents
I. 6), good family 15.10; common 64.25.
tBov"qD mfBD-Per ton 64
HIDEs--Dry flint, cow, per sound, first
lass, 12@13c%; and country dry salted 11
lloc; butchers dry salted 9 9%i.Skins- Deer,
Slnt, 17o; salted 1'@i2e. Wurs-Otter, w uter,
each 2ic4;i racoon 10(20c; wild cat 10 20c:
fox 10@20c. Beeswax, per pound, 18o; wool
free from burs 22(25c: burry, 10'al5c; goat
ikins 10(25O a niece.
Ooasjzi-Green io 1Ril5l8a ,per ponind
lava, roasted, 30.1i3c; Mocas, roasted, 80@38s;
Red, roasted, 23@26c. "
COrTON SEND MEAI-Scarce and higher.
Sea Island or darr meal 610 per ton, bright
or short cotton meal 821.50@22.50 per ton.
TOBAcCO sTrms-Market quiet but firm @
$13.00. per ton.
LIIME-Eastern, job lots, 91.25 per barrel,Ala
0ama lime 81.00. Cement-American 12.01)
English 83.75 per barrel. .
Bor--The quotations vary, according to
nantity, from 8%@6%c per pound.,
SALT,-Liverpool, per sack, 81.00; per oar
1 ad, 8590c. '
Country Produce, Hides, Skins, Ete.
*CHEEs-Fline Creamery 13yo per pound
IYVB POUiLTRY-lAmited supply and -good
demand as follows: hens 83c.; mixed 25c.;
half-grown 20 to 25e.
EGeS-Duval County 283 per dozen, with
s limited supply and good demand
IRISH Po'TAToR--Torthern potatoa 82.10
?er barrel; Early Rose $2.61; Chili Reds '$7.75.
OstIoNs-New York, 8.0J; Yellow Denver
)3.25 per barrel; White Onions, 63,76 per bar-
NORTHERN OABBAGE-Plentiful with good
emand, at 12c per head; Florlda cabbage
Jto lte.
NW YORK BETse-Good supply at 82,25
to $2.50 per barrel.
NORTHRN Tips-Qood o supply at t200
to 62.25 per-barrel.. .
.GREEN PzA--Per box 82 25.
EGG PLANTS-No demand at $2.50 to
9'J5 per barrel.
Foreign and Domestic Fruits.
.FPRuNes-French, 9so...
PINE APPLEs-Per barrel $6.
LumONS-Messinas. 4 00 per box. .
kPPLEs-New York 4 0) to -4.50 perhbatrel.
FIGS-ID layers 13c; 'n 1 nen bag6.9o.
DATES--Perslau-B nies 9c; Fralis 7c.
GEAPEs-lOc per pound, with poor de
mand. They are of very fine quality. Mal-
&gas, 15.00 ter keg.
NuT---Almonds 2)c; Brazills lc; Filberis
(Sicily) 12c; Enellsh Walnuis, Grenobles, lac;
Marbels tIo; Pecans 12ce; Peanuts 56oie5oe
Coc0,n uta b5c
RAisiN MS-London layers, 53.20 per box
CBaNBERIEaS-4850 per crate; 11ltlJ per
OANbirs-FlIorida-Per barrel .00 per
box 82,7510 4 25. ....
BAn&NA--Goed SpDDply; from 75c Le '10
per bunch.

) Jo

3b prirgtiq



Carrots wholesale at 82.0 per barrel, and .-
retail t 60 cents per peck ALL VARIEES OF '
Green Onions wholesale at 75 eent4 o 51 '
per bundled, and retail 5cenis pe, bunch
Florida Cabbage wholesale for 9 to 10 con's ORANGE AND.LEMON TREES.
each, and ret Ill at 16 cents. ..
Qull wholeialeat 10 cents each and retail '
%t 15 cehts, or tvyo for a quarter.
- Oranges wholesale as t2.00 to #3.00perbox,
- id retail at twu and three fur 5 cents.,, Budslnot placed on small stocks, but on extra" "
Spinage wholesales a8 $ .25 per bushel a.d r and flio
tails at four quart lor 25 cents. large and fine ones,
Sweet Potatoes wholesale at 50 cents per
uahel, and recall atL cents per quart; -
Lettuce wboiesalJeb at i5 to 80 cents er -
.dozBn.headsanha retail at 5 cents per head. -. t '
Parsnips'wholesvdat 52.50 per barrel, and Lake a SpecialtyoA the :
retail at four and five-for 10 cents.. A EARLY SPANISH ORANGE--
Robins wholesale at 6 cents each and retail
at 10 ceuts. (the earliest variety known)' -
Green Peas wholesaleat82to$2.60perbushel -
and retail'at 15,coents per qua:t or two quarts TOHITI LIMES and
(or 25 cents.' ".
Celery Whoiesalesat-0Oto65 cepisperdozen, VILLA FRANCA LEMONS, -
and retails at three to. four stalkAjur 25 cants ; "
according-torize. and can show trees of -the latter that stood the
Eggs are in demand. Duval county eggs cold last winter as well as the Orange, and -
are quoted at wholesale at 25 to 24 cePts ptrRI HE
dozen, and retail at 80 cents. NOW HAVE FRUIT UPON THEM. ,
Northern cabbage wholesale at 10 10o 12 cents -. -. .--.'
perhead. They retail at from 15 to 20 cents.
Boston marrowfat squashes wholesale at
82.50 per barrel, retail at 5, 10 and 15 cents -- '' "*"' "
each. Send for Catalogue. : .: '-
New York Irish potatoes wholesale at KE V PR ..
$2.50 ptrbarrelandrotatllat10 ce-itsperquart KED'EY CAREJ;
or two quarts for 15 cents. .." P.0. Winter Park, "
Northern beets are worth wholesale 8225 ..
per barrel and retail at 10 cents per quait, or,-r i -',. /
two quarts for 15 cents. O' -T'oAL PALM IJRSERIES '
Badisbes bring at wholesale 25to 80 cents --- -
per dozen unohes of seven radishes each. : :
They retail at 5 cents per bunch, or three MANATEE, FLORIDA. "
bunches for'10 cents.
Live poultry-chickens, wholesale, from 80 Rare tropicals ornamental and fruit plants for -
to 35 cents each: retail, 45 to 50 cents each open air culture in Florida, and for the North- -'
Dressed poultry, per p'ound-chickens, retail em greenhouse. Also, a full line of.semi-tropi-
18 to 20 Cts. Turkeys, wholesale.elr7 laltrees, plants and grasses, and general nur-
each, and retail at 20 cents per pound. sery stock adapted toi orlia and te South. -
Si Exotics from India, Australia and the West
Northern meats retail as follows.: Chicago Indies, many of them never before introduced ,
beef from 18 t 25 cents per pound; Florida into the United States. -
beef6Oto1l5 cen;saperpound; veal, 20.to 25cents; The most completedeseriptive catalogue of '
porK, 12 to 15 oeunts; mutton, 10 and 20 cents: tropical and semi-tropical plants published in-
venison, 25 cents; sausage, 16 cents; corned America. Catalogue mailed, post-paid, on re-
beef, 10 cents. ceipt of 15 cents. Free to allcustomers.
S_ __ Manatee, Florida. '

marKets Dy Teiegrapn.

The following special despAtches, by special
arrangements with the Florida Fruit Ex-
ehange, are sent to the TiM,-UNIxoN by the
agents of the Fruit Exchange in the various
oltles. They caa be relied upon as ac urate:






Special to the TIMR.S-UNION:l
w:a. -YoRK,.Jailuary 17.--Twelve hundred
box 's auctioned ,to-day, 8.10@l.25,. Bulk of
common quality whieoh.-comes-into im.
mei late compete In .with the Mrediterranean
oranges; dealers only seeking fihest grades
of. brights; aUll others, decidedly neglected.
Hea'vy rain storm to.day. Sicily glut con-
tinues. -
Special to the TIMls-UNION:]
BALTIMoaE, January 17. Market same
as last quoted; somewhat better demand.
Telegrams from California state the oranges
have been hurt by frost, acoutfily thousand
boxes ruined, and .this in tie fintst districts.
lIX&.Wzl.xKI .
Special to the TrXzS-U1DIoN:] -I
CiNCiNoSATi, January 17.-Bright -oranges
82.5f@8; russetts $1.25@2. -
Special to the TIxs.-Ui io: -'.
SCommission Merchants'Quotations.
SPHILADZI.P-HIA, January 17 -No ch-rge;
$8.'5 is outside for fancy; fair V2.50; russets


Special to the TxIKEs-Uizo. i
. SAVANNAH, January 17.-The upla d
market closed dull at the following quota-
Middling fair........... ..... 99.-16
1oodmlddllng 95...... 9 16-
Middling ........ 91-16
Low middling 88-16
Good ordinary 8 7-16
The net receipts were 3466 bales; gross re-
ceipts 8496 bales; sales Sf0 bales; stock at
-this port Sr078 bales.
Exports continent 5M23; exports to Great
Britain --- exports coastwi e 251.
The market was quiet and steady,, and no
change in quotations was noted.
Common Plorldas ......................15
Medium ......16
Good Median a......... ............ 17
Medium fnhe;....................1........ 18
Fine ...... :.. 19@20
Extra fine ......
Choice ............5

NEW YOKK, January 17.-Ther srket is
quiet and comparatively little is doing.
Western leaf is.in no request..
Common lugs........................ S350@ 1400
Good lugs ............... 4 00 500
Low leaf........................... ........... 5 2 5 50
Medium leaf 7 00@ 8 50
Good leaf........ 875@10 00
Fine leaf 10&i)@1200.
S le et leaf............ .................... 12 00@15 00
Seed leaf Is in moderate request Pennsyl-
vania Havana seed, selling at from 8900 to
$15 00 per 100 pounds.
SThe market for Havana tobacco is active,
prices ranging I om 60 cenis to $1.05 per -
hund ed. Sumatra I in-ngood demand at
LOUISVILLE, January 17-New leaf is
steady and firm at uobanged quotation.
Trashy and common.... ............150@11 75
Medium lugs.;.... 2300 295
Good Jugs........................... .... 500 800
Common leaf.... -800@ 4 25
Medium leaf.":... ....... ................ 4.75 5650
Good leaf 6a('@ 650
BIOHMOB D, January 17:-The market is
quiet, but bright wrappers and fine grales
are ,in -od demard. .