• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Preliminary discussion
 Experimental part
 Conclusions
 Acknowledgement














Title: A study of the effect of Florida tung oil on lacquer films
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055746/00001
 Material Information
Title: A study of the effect of Florida tung oil on lacquer films
Physical Description: 28 p. : plates, (photos), fold. plates ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Booth, Donald Carr
Publication Date: 1928
 Subjects
Subject: Tung oil   ( lcsh )
Lacquer and lacquering   ( lcsh )
Chemistry thesis M.S   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Chemistry -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.) - University of Florida.
Statement of Responsibility: by Donald Carr Booth.
General Note: Typewritten copy.
General Note: Contains 1 page of lacquered samples.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055746
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001029680
oclc - 18110652
notis - AFB1782

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Preliminary discussion
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Experimental part
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Image 1
        Image 2
        Image 3
        Image 4
        Image 5
        Image 6
        Image 7
        Image 8
        Image 9
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Image 10
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Image 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Conclusions
        Page 30
    Acknowledgement
        Page 31
Full Text

-L N it'
e


A S


yr ~~'r
Ia.^?\


c -"


TUN OIL


^'.
i.~"S.j


DeuWd


Canr


Booth


Ti m Pmrosd eo the Faculty of the Graduate School of
T Uiverit of Forida


S. w.


1C' riP .'








-1-





-EL ENAT DISCUSSION


Although the

a dtevlowpn


prieont

* them


type


aquer


oture


a& use


9Jn r


no1ent


orian.


Uo.


ltan are
K *- -


mail


o bMv


lag


uRMn


oatoua
eew -


a lsaewU

objects.


typeo


he.


iasoript lons


ProTT-


oa the


Bo-


SrT.


inflation


havia


treted


suoh


subs


nr


osam laonea


Alt-
* -n


res


earlier


type


oflO


aitton


an'


u80


being used.


for


ahrin klT


andM


Pro-


t-tine


the


linam


atirpla


, tor


ooa.ting


Marty oloth

bookbinding


an'


a substitute


upholstering,


for


for lather


uurfciig


bass,


OPPer


an'


Slive


S an'


e-r


for


coating


proaue atificial


parl s.


the


potstest


for


laouer at


resent


the


auto-


blle


Industry,


oan


enlM


tniai


rqpidly


replaogx


S ioh Mrao


the


prvlous-


use


almost


ealUrlTVnly.


hurni


L.rta .


awa


An~nine


intara


- l -


t in


a very


proauoe


mW


i


rl


.I


r.u









-At


apopIr ,


outs tending


diflerenoe


between


a laoouer


and


an oil


base


varnih


the


time


ArylnS.


peyrxlina


laoquer


ill


dry


hard


from


six


tea


hours


a0*


twelve


tort-ei ht


hours


an ordi


oil


base


mriah or


paint.


Laequers a


and


hren


the


rapitl


reapration


rlatle


solvents,


oxtdation


while


lined


ohiarly


oil


or other


the


trying


slow


oils


oauea


the


during


an4


larauing


vama anm


pai*


era


laeuar


belongs


the


noted


tfally


of pyrozylin


pro4uo ta,


whioh


inoldesa


photopaphia


l, athar


austitutae,


artificial


silk,


eal-


luloit,


pyralin


and


th


trial


for


all


these


prodto t


oellulose,


mi


an imortant


plant


produo t.


to


oallulo


firnt


nitratad


with


tran


sZlpIurto


and


nitrio


aei


a pro-


ueot


whioe is


as nitroeelulose,


eelluloa0


ait$ta,


,zia,


cUn


ootton,a


or soluble


cotton.


Sraatuia









-Se


reach nearly


aanufaoture


fourteen


about


percent,


twelve


for


percent


lacquer


nitrogen


preferred,


Nitrated


cotton


readily


dissolved


oer-


tain


orpanio


solvents,


suoh


as ketones,


esters


and


aloohols.


Collodion


a colloidal


solution


nitrooellulose


a mixture


ether


and


ethyl


alcohol.


en solutions


nitrooelluloae


are


exposed

ing a t


air,


romparent


and


solvents


more


or less


evaporate
tough f


ilia,


film


nitrocellulose


practically


rthleos


as a substitute


for


a arnisah


film,


beoau


does

quite


not


thin


adhere


and


ellu


brittle.


surfaea
Modern


and


lao quers


gaorrally
consist


solution


speoially


prepared


nitrooelluloae


whioh


a reainoua


trial


and


a softener


pla


tioiser


bare


been


added.


The


resin


imparta


Mardeasa,


durability


and


strength


the


film,


and


in many


oase0


adds


gloss


and


luster.


the


resin


oont ent


laoquers


may


consist


ural


produots


suoh


, oopal,


ad


lear-










-4-


us.


lacquer eoonosition


of these


resins


has


certain


liitat ions


and


no one


theu. oae


usre


aSran


all


lacquer


frma2aa


S


PRO


The


present


,k is


devoted


a stu


la*-


quae


which ller ia


tung oia La


uead


replace


various


poport ions


the


resItn


toerial.


a contination


the


resent t


rk of


was


conduotead


titution


in'


the


school


year


1926-81


Bet


object


a the


intrs uotl.o a


of tung


oil


into


--


the

oil


laequer


til ana


a study ot -the


effect


on the


Sas


OIL


TanM


oil


also


known


Oil)


was


t introuoaed


an abultemnt


into


Europe nrom


Chi


1735 as


Zn China it


has


beea


us.'


tor


years,


a.t


tar


a naberr


pur-


Hent, fl.4na ra


1111


*itl f


tnram *mlain h a m


dtu-


ELooa


...


.


| -


Him|








.4'.


purposes.


s eoured


from


nut


or fruit


the


tung


oil


tree


pressure


or extraction.


may


mentioned


that


Chinese


still


use


crude


and


tive


thods


pressing


and


obtain


a lower


yield


and


poorer


grade


oil


than


that


whioh


produced


more


modern methods.


The


meat


nut


contains


are


kinds


fifty


sixty percent


oonmeroial


tung


oil.


oil


There


market,


"the

The


cold

"oold


pressed

pressed


oil"

oil"


and

has


the


"hot


a pale
*


pressed


yellow


oil"


color,


and


called


"white


tung


oil"


a The


"hot


pressed


oil"


known


"Blaok


tung


oil"


on aooount


dark


color.


"Black


tung


oil"


has


a muoh more


pronounced


odor


than


tung


oil"


'ue


a larger


oentage


impurities


extracted


hot


pressing.


obvious


that


because


color


and


odor


W'blaok


tung


oil"


practically


unit


for


use


paint


and


Tarnish


uiaoture.


oil


fas


on0e


classed


as an adulterant,


unfit


for


use


as a paint


and


varnish material.


This


Saa


per-


Tung


J &


i









n4a


st ennh.


eerthJ.


oil,


when


pro-


pearl


trentS,


beooes


one


the


most


able


valuable


paint


and


varnish materials


hatv


The


treeatent


tung oil


suitable


for


paint


andt


garnish material


oall n


"boT-


inm"


and


the


produot


resulting


froa


this


prooes


knom


asu bod


oil"


plishe


ture


ting


with


the


oil


oertain


nt~ga


o sal


lead


e*,


ana


pxatak e


raw


lin- 1s


oil.


tty


naphtha


or benzol


adaod.


nhe


resulting produot


a olear,


varnish-


oil,
f


ioh


dri


nmoh aore


oily


than


the


oil,


but


tung


nesl


oil


has


* cler,


certain


elastio


outstanding qutl-


ioh


Tal


the


paint


rar


niah indt


try.


will


try


sphere,


and


are


very


hade,


waterproof


and


dut-


tas


um


tMenl


and









-T-

a..F


9ug ial l .


oomnonly


used


the


rine


pain


terproof


paints,


and


"soar"
saper
-' .


Tarni she's


on the


ket


today.


epeolally


useful


paints


and


put


on surfaoes


that


re-


quire


treqwmt


washing


as on the


deoks


boats.


Since


tung


oil


exhibits


suoh


euirable


properties


as a paint


ami


varnish material


reasonable


SeS


it 3ight


useful


as a lacquer


terlal,


aM


that


eht


laoqner


fila


those


popertie


which


a valuable


onsti tutent


inta


a& Taishess.


Whe


per


tal


work upon


whioh


pqper


based


nastrates


that


these


0U8W


tiomu


oorreot.


it :


OTnER


INVESTIGATORS


interesting


note


that


some


eqIerti


tal


woxek


on the


use


tung oil


in laoquer


progress


IKale


predicts


quite


gel-


oral


use of


,ouers


containing


ryina


oils,


and


oesoribes


*eperilents


oh ha


mixZ


raw


tma


oil


'ety


and


thirty


percent


solutions









-S


any


tooount


the nature


Aurbili ty


the


produo ed


uoh mixtures.


*. ooa


tng


began


prepare


tung


tion.


oil


his


investigation


tiafastory


ateotly


reported


laoquer


a nitrooellulose


results


as follow


attempt-


adding


solu-


RBaw


tung oil


ized


ith


a solution


nitrooel-


lulose


tuwr


(about


SBKe


1:8)


an apaquet


and it


a found.


fil of very


low


that


the


tensile


strength


billty.


istto


The


gras


ni trooelulose


one0


solution


coo0nd,


0on-


Cotton


dis


lved


160


ar-S


butyl


aoetate


andu


grams


butanol"


Shet


results


were


the


as those


desoribet


ison


ua follows:


"The


oil


a te teno


gire


with


pyroxylin,


QAuo


very


low


11eil


strength


or dor-


ability,


but


properly


proo e


sed


oil might


prove


of value"


the


next


step


in blood's


consisted


hat-tr


.tins


the


oil,


or buyingg"


with


per


I


C










-9g


oent


by night


glyoerol


two


hpndr.e


de-


e.


Oenticrade


for


one


hour,


and


then pasaing


sup-


heatedd


1ift


degre


remove


any


through


the


Oentigtade


uLees.


oil


for


glys ol.,


one


orty-fi ve

his tr


and


minutes


eatent


orted


oil


ware


a clear,


reddish


colored


pro-


duet.


Mr.


floo


found


that


the


bodied


oil aind


reAtily


with


solutions


ni troo ellulose,


giving


lacquers


tram


which


soft,


weak fi


were


obtain-


able.


reoognise


the


fact


that


the


bodied


oil


showed


real


possibilities,


but


found


desirable


direet hi


attention


another method


intro-


(uoing


nmg


oil


laoquer.


There


details


utffieient


no need


flood's


say


here


further


that


inTe


into


the


tigation,


a special


heat


actual


but is
treat


stare


eater


and


oil


suooeeded


producing


a yathetio


resin


ioh


was


elear,
4 4


trane-


t end


hard


.eue


ratures,


and


oontain-


hts h am


thirty


naraant


tuni


oil.


Thi


avTtha-


Si


tnge









-10-


and


olJar.


The


produced


from


these


lao-


were


practically water white,


clear,


tough


and
ious


durable, After
oombinationa o:


te:t


experiment


solvents


and


tilenta


with var-
Shood


proet u


a laeque


ompare favorably with
.


two


popular


rolial.


laqouers.


found,


how-


wer,


that


the


tung


oil


laoquer


after


stanf-


ig for


time


brittle,


losing


0so0


its


adhrenroe


ana


plastioity.


oounteract


this


plastioiser was


added


dibutyl


phtha-


late.


A series


laoo


prepared


Oonltain-


ing


10,


anU


percent


dibutyl


phtha-


late


based


on ttght


dry nitrooellulose


pres-


ant.


Tese


laoQuers


were


clearer


than


ptade


used


ooparison,


and


did


not


blush


hunid


weather.


They


re hard,


msaoth,


and


very


tough,


adhering well


surC oe.


Quer









-11-




XPBDIUDITAL PART


he


t part


this


investigation


consist-


the


preparation


the


best


laouTer


that


had


been


ade


. n.


in order


Ieoure


soan


additional


durability


on the


the


effeot


the


the


laoquer


tagn oil


had


the


follow-


in'


owO


aition;


oquer


Pea


wight


utlos


(try)


Erter guo

a ~oil


Xhano


seema -nee-e a-- aa --crne


19.21


4.4)

1.44


Remi


8.2


thyl1


atake


e-e ---------a


6.'7


Oee


e---- -------- nai a


baoe tone


alcohol


see -- -- --- ee- rrn


3.00


elua
a o me


-------------- -ec -- as- a-can er

- a eec macmean- -ee-e- -- fl-


13.50


a oquea


inolusive,


were


then


pre-


pard.


Ihr


erae


identical


with laoquer


esoept


&ka.b I A l All


asA


nAme awi t


.waMnant vat w


m0.00


S.


I








*1a-


Laequoer


inolusive


were


identioal


with


Iaoquer


ezogpt


that


tuna


oil


usedt
m*


Eter


alone


uad


laoue


toll


as the


iB.


rosin,


OOP


hor


sition;-


sonw


Po eat


]Ntro olluosee


flter

]lthanl


(tcy)


ace- eass ca


pp --- en see s


- V -


5 ,78


8.24


Ithl


aoetate


so mom- men- z -


6.7T


1 it


Dlantor ale


*-l -mI *---- *
see ansese --sees-- a


S80.00
5.00


me msn z


ease


1, SO


o0lmOe


S-se- ma- n e- es- mo se


15. 0


A flas ne


Introal.


*ster


Uas


lisht


ber oolor


an'


very


olear,


having


as ai


*r ot


5S.6


The


turn


oil


us A


SFlorI


0119


the


tieoiatty


nesrllln.


The


soen-


the


- .


oil


* I


were


I *4y*


a aces


0,1416


- t .


Sits ite n


Inxax


* e0.)


1.1T


Ml


ear ---cmss- 0b5


5.,


p onltltt


No.


ease r50-5 -0


191.


4.-


I" nqlp~


~








03*3..


-NOT


07 TONG


OIL


LAQUER n


thne


twelve


laoquers


three


etsk


tal


vere


up.


brn*


Mas.


woto


were


us; ;


oak,


orpren,


and


pine.


Xaoh


panel asaured


6 by


5/'


inohe


The


pan


were


carefully


Iand. '


The


lacoqers


were


applied


with


a bruh,


two


ooats


eaoh panel,


tihe


first


ooat


lightly


befon


applying


the


seoonA.


hoH


peel


aw


Aitiaed


half


an'


carried


two


laoquerrs,


littered


only


the


preseno


eaoh


or obsenoe


uas


fade


oil.


One


with


extra


the


panel


outstanding


a---m


roiaX laoquers


on the market,


designated


Laaqoar


and


After


the laoquern


had.


been


applied,


the


baoks,


tides,


and


enda


the


panels


re ooated


with


red


paint,


lapping


the


laoquer


surfaoe


about


a quarter


an inch


completely


seal


the


w0ed


from air


and


ij-


tUfe.


This


a to


prevent


isture


froa


seeping


seeath


the


an4


thus


false


results.


O pan


Soonaisting


three


sets


swe


eaoh,


re exposed


on the


roof


the


aa-L


pan-


unting


mung


enaal


giing


penel


__


1


L








-14'


that


the


laoquers


containing


tuna


oil


were


more


durable


than


those


wi thout


tunge


oil.


This


belo


s well


as in


the


photogrphs


srreral


panls.


onmoT


* laquer


ADDITION


bha


TONG


been


OIL


prepared


LAO QUR


containing


iunt


tung


oil


the


form


oil-easter


resins,


an'


obsezred


that


presence


tung


oil


hat


a beneeioial


erfeot


on the


durability


the


, it


of bodied


ats


tung


eoidAed


oil


att


laoquer


the


sO as


direct


replace


addition


nariosu


proportions


ester


The


oil


"boeaie"


aooording


the


following


prooeedure;


855


U r-


Florida


tumn


oil


together


U-


lyroerol


parent


by weight


the


oil)


were


heated


* Ceatigrade


for


one


hour


and


. Than


superhateA


waa


passed


thra


the


ail


for


about


thirty minutes


the


ezoes.


gelyoerol.


heo


results


were not


ezaotly


as expected,


for,


although


the


oolor


had


not


changed


muoh,


oil


a eleouy appeanoe


after


cooling


which


appears


81.9






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OK


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g*-*1
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r, r,


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TiNd


( N


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OIL


30 S


CbS


C)OK


P S


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( TK


Oh


)O


(tickeR "I.
ortu


I IT r- --r.- r-


. K


()IN


I I I


( '"


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k )


SOh


Cam^cto f.t
onE conaru.


CRa-
or,(


I


:Kc0 on
trio


OK


u(nit rlr
m&Aipa<


Sust c OVUA


.4.~~


Tw BtTT41.l
1IAAN <41.


b A r i


C(RAtKFo.


VuIN


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CVUCKm In


rA~ Y rc',rp


rte CRACYKS
rmots q3I~gs


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~ri


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haqtuez
ntflr


on pine
oent of


containss tung
plastiiol .)


oil


m l


phLto
nre


bu on


nll as
January


those
5, 19i8.



































a




- "


oil


I.


- .1
* <


Shose
S. 19;


4. **







































que


on pine


ao quer


on piun







































Laoquer 34 on oak containss tung oil
and 50 per oent plasticizer.)


foquer 44 on oak (free from 1
contains 80 per oent of plastl







































Laequer


on oypress


Laquer


on press




































Laoquer 36
and 60 per


on oypess containss
cent of plastioizr.)


tung


oil.


Laoquer 46 on
oil, contains
oiser.)


oypress (trn
60 per cent







































Laoquer 52
and 10 per


on oypreaass containss
oent of plasticizer.)


tunw


oil


Laoquer 42 on
oil, contains
oizer.)


oypress
10 per


(free
oent a







-1-


was


then


reheated 1 u.der


reduced


pressure


for


one


hour


150I


Cenmtilsrade.


This


treatment


elari-


ftie


the


product o onsiderablDy


but


still


had


creamy,


yellow


turarbidity.


this


treated


tung


oil


was5


dissolved fl n


a mixture


equal


parts


benzene


and


toluuanb,


the


solution


wasb


slightly


turbid,


although


suspended matter


oould


re-


moved


thru


paper.


en Florida


tung


oil


heated


win


ester


no olouAineas


ob-


sered,


the


tiMm shed


product.


sample


rt-


tung


oil


that


;ras


bodied


Mr.


Flood


became


red


color,


the


but


difference


mned


perfeotly


bereenn


the


olear.


action


The


oause


Florida


and


Chinese


tung


.-n


heat


treatment


has


not


yet


ben


explained.


The


olaritia


, pale


yellow@


solution


bodied


tung


oil


was


usele


making


several


lacquersa,
*


which


ve called


'bodied


tung


oil


lacquers"


* In mak-


ing


these


boied


tung


oil


laoquers,


same


for-


nlaa


used


atu *n


the


previous


laoquers


except


the


composition


the


resin


was


varied.


Thia


was


thought


best


way


which


effeots


Wlhen


filtrathl0o


I









-16-


The


laoquers


were


prepared


as before.


The


nitrooellulose


was


dissolved


solvents;.


the


bodied


tung


oil


and


ester


gum,


or tung


oil


alone,


aooording


the


lacquer


being made


were


dis-


solved


the


benzene


and


toluene;


and


finally


two


solutions


were


Sizd.


the


tion


composition


ns constant


the


nitrooellulose


throughout,


only


solu-


neoe8ss


ary


differentiXate


lacquers


the


various


per-


oeatages


tung


oil


used


the


resin.


The


list


be-


gives


the


tabulation


laoquers,


and


the


perentagesu


bodied


tung


oil


used


the


resin,


the


balance


resin


being ade


eater


8-


Laequer


resin


contains


1t% Biled


Oil


257.

38%

45%


657.

T5%

loo7%


Tung







-17-


but


this


disappeared


on drying.


The


laoquer


had


good


flow


and


dried


touoh


twenty minutes.


Two hours
hardness


after


(by


dipping


fingernail


the

and


films

kife)


were
and


tested


was


for

in-


tereating


oil


note


content


that


harder.


laoquers

Laoquer


high


tung


produced


that


was


stronger


and


harder


than


all


the


oth-


ers


and


Sinoe


closely


bodied

;as .


tung


resaebled


oil


o ted


the


dries


that


the


from


and harden
laoquers


lacquer "A
very slow-


containing


the


higher


cono entrations


oil


would


remain more


or less

time.


soft

This


tand

was


tao k


not


for


observed


a considerable


practise,


period


however.


All


the


bodied


twng


oil


laoquera


dried


and hard-


ended


approzi


tely


rate.


The


bodi


tung


oil


aots


as a resin,


rather


than


as a drying


oil


these


lacquers.


Due


vious


the


the


weather


pine


faot


tests,


or oypre


that


had


and


the


held


were


oak panels


nuoh


not


the


better


so prone


pre-


than


oraok


or wrp,


was


decided


use


only


oak


pan


testing


the


lao quers.


The


only


difference


__ _








-18-


asr


rubbeA


and


allowed


drr for


a day


to.


The


surp luS


oil


was


removed


ith


a 1i


MIeane.


filler


te


for


object


wood


and


this


was


an unemrooat


proTde l a.


for


laouer.


Xaoh


panel maasure4


6 by


3/4*


imohm,


as before,


and


was


divided


into


halves


ac-


laoquers.


Below


a able


showing


the


results


the


exposure


tests.







*^-" .-1
^ *i T *
^ p'"


',r L C|il O Iti-
* or
atrt


15 t BTO.


StS*sUM


reROuM


35s B.T o
651foE STR aGuM


j *'
.-
S.


4-


U I
-I
CIX QI'(


45 TO


SNEL)utf


r* ~ ts '^Sa&-!-
3cr--,
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i *^e ^'1 w-~'-1 -f


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i. 1 At t J j t ,- tjfc _t-


OK'^V f'V-


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* *- n r.
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+ Ih
01 '> -, k


- I- 1 I I .----- ---


4I Krr IGu


i- I ..--.I------------------------


35%. EsTrR GLn


1To


E R CTERGuJ


1 I I .I


toce: r.


tM OLy CuACKCo


'ko st


11,,.,,,


. MAC H


I I I,. .


t1UtR TMlrA 5e


I I
~uA'. -


41ML o-l*.
^S^'F --*::'.
^.t iA. -


4.


COK


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OK


C) K


OKI


COK


55s60TO


OK


C)OK


C) K


0


C)K


(O K


OK


OK


OK


M 4


MA CC


GO E








-19-


BODIZD


TWO


OI,


LACQUERS


WITH PLASTICIZER


After noting


the


surprising


and


interesting


result


hioh


were


obtained


with


the


bodied


tung


oil


a laoquer


film it


rwa


decided


try


some


the


best


laoquers


with


aibaty1


phthalate


plastiioer.


lea


eaoh


the


best


laoquers,


ant No.


twenty,


forty


and


izxty


percent


Albutyl


phthalate


(based


on the


iaht


nitrooellulose


present)


,a added.


These lae-


quers


were


then


applied


panels


(oak)


aa de


orib-


previous


test


and


ezpo sed.


was noticed


brushing


these


.oquers


on the


panels


that


68 laoque


fled more


readily


than


the


oluer.


Al..


that


with inoreaasng


amounts


tieinr


the


and


brushing


qualities


the


eoque


ere


salt rray,


inormaed.


laeoqered


and


pperanore


he.


1926)


aay


was


a poor


these


Srainyg,


for


applying laoquers.


A1n


panel ,


however


were


elear


an'd


tbou


even


a temporary


bluash


with


a aa ..*-


a


a-


a


__


- L


-1








e-0E


Ioiate


that


the


tung


oil


was


rating


a moisture


reirstanoe


tila.


8a-


les


laoquers


and No.


were


also


exposed


this


time


tor


oawlri


son.


Belo


a table


showing


results


the


eosure


tests


on these


lao quers.


They were


put


out


on the


root


the


irs r


building at


ma i


a of


forty-five


degrees


and


southern


exposure


1928.
















w~r a
CRob c3tU)14
c~rcttCr6 .


JEWy (IME
N*~oizT cQCKs
-L cOVE2.
.I Iv~e


I -9%


C2.ACpo
ALL OVV.l


..1*r


17 .q .- 7~
f, *' *.***' .


I .1 4~ r 4 -1---- Ir -. I- 1 'I-?IT


11
Ar


Rir ~aRT wt
IA~ULI9-
U)4' Y


PJWML ~@cJ
sbnQuI CtSD
t43A.' CerrCwU.


LoMQ c.cKs
V411Nb i meikl
IsMOz C DIs
BEXA.? tfACKcw.


4UAIfl rI.I


f4t -b4O'!
Cr.ACK ALL
VII F a


FILM OK


sALYV
CRAC~Kto
^%-%. avea.


1IInt CUJ..
ALL *VVLe.


1-'i


-- CI-Al--
S.OK Q) K CCK 0 AK

60% OK AO K 0 K:..A

or. A.



'- __ __ __ __ .-' .... ( 51.0% __ _ _
IO ')<0 )K C~) K O ` trc~w


r ...r
T6 J,


: :-. OK


FIFW CbtDOITVl1t


- i i 9 9 --.


OK


OK tieCf
POIL n.


.-
I4


*~ -p
A.
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Ii
I i-''.2


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OK


iAY 17



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COK


OK


OK-,


*

(i)' '


4oZ'


*1*;/

OK


I


7* 1..


OK


014f. LOrucm
WOOD MACK
FILM OK.


3MALL SPD1D


~n5* ;~~; ,


$43
;< *^ a


*o a '.


N


5R4 i


.*.~~- Id
a


(
1'
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r
~~cb~l









481-


DIIONAL LOOYa
ADDITJIONA~L LABOR,~ORY


DATA.


Reain


Ester


OuA


Boasian


(pale)


a------ S


250


Glyoerol


ese ----


Bos*in


and


glycerol


were


heated


together


an open


flask


140 *


reflux


condenser


was


attached


the


flask,


and


Ias


then


passed


thrn


the


charge


while


the


temperature


was


raised


840*


The


ftur


na


then


heated


240 *.


290'*


without


and


kept


890 .


for


an hour


a half.


was


then


passed


until


penratre


dropped


8S0*


The


product was


then


poured


out


and


allowed


cool.


The


eater


gum


was


very


oiar,,


deep


red


col-


hard


(like


rosin)


and


easily


powdered.


The


aoid


number


was


7.08,


when


determined


a benzene


and


toluene


solution


using


Iphthalein


a in-


Lieator.


(4).


Gad-er, "Papera
IS flbae4 an


on Paint


and


Tarnish"







-38-


Resin


Estfer


Rosin


(pale)


---- ----- 250


Olyo erol


-I- -------- e


he


sture


18as


heated


without


stema


890*


usinq


a reflux oondenser.


The


temperature


kept


890*


tor


about


three


quart era


hour.


Wheoa


appeared


olear,


eed


until


the


0D


erature


dropped


23Oes .


(T!o


rea


a for


passing


thi


point


ve any


eoeasl


glyoerol. )


The


product


then


poured


out


and


allowed


cool.


The


ester


'as


olar,


but


lightly dar


than


Resin 1.


It was


hard


andt


easily powdered..


aaid n


er war


19.5.


The


above


two


reaina


were


adeo


identical tIn


0031-


itloen


but


ditffering


temperature


control


trmaent.


It made


a differenoe


the sa:


or and


a slight


inteMded


ter


oould


Aeoided


Ohange


used


oolor.


n. up


use


ourtd locally,


having


tOes'.


laeouers


rolal


a fine


and


a 1


aoit number.


were


raa


vhiah


Oma


:but


a loo









-a8-


aesla 5.


tasg


011


- Xster


GB Mixture
e S


aung


ter


011


(rlori4a)


Gum


oaneroial)


78.6


13.17.


516.0


86.0%


Glycerol


S- -a e-


5.4


00.9
S a -


be


eter


gua had


an avoid


number


5.6,


and
S


the


The


tung


oil


above


(tlorida)


sture


was


had


an avoid number


heat ed


a round


4.32.


bottom


having a


vent


but


no reflux


oondenear.


The


nature


was


raised


slowly


25*


Laun


kept


for


until


an hour


the


and


a halt.


erature


fell


was


o80 .


then


The


passed


mix-


tue


aus


poured


out


and


allowed


oool.


The


protuat


very


olear,


light


er color,


hard ana


brittle.


The


toid number was


6.15,


ealt


aTun


Oil-ster


Gum Mixture


Tong


i0


(florida)


en


14T.6


--


a4.6%


ter


Gloerol


roial))


m ------------r


444.0


8.4


- le


7t4.07.
1.4%O
1.4%


te mtrt e


trials


was


were


heated


the osam


the


ua ued4

a aennOr


in Re


as ResinS.


there












ofter


than


the


proceeding


gu~.s


The


avoid


ber was


6.60.


BResi


Tuna


0il


- hster


GQa Mixture


Twng


Oil


(rlorida)


e e-m


147,6


one-


24.6%


sater


o meroia l)


444,0


---


74.0%


Qlyerol


- e--s mes m


8.4


1.47.


The


mixture


was


heated


a7Sb


for


hours,


after


rhiah


'as passed


until


ra-


ture


Aroppedl


180


was


then


poured


out


and


allowed


cool.


The


product


was


a olear,


transparent,


light


yellow


was


hard,


fairly


brittle


but


taok .


The


aoid mn


s 5.30.


No.


ant NO.


5 are


the


sn.


oompo-


action


only


but


differ


apparent


lightly


difference


time


the


twro


heating.


resina


The


the


aidt


This


e a desirable


for a


low


avoid


number


imperative


laoquer


oon-


sti


tani


mDo


Itb









-28


LaOquer


(floo'


No,


Non-volatile


matter


ss57


Nitrooellulose


(ry )


-- 320.4


-- 76.997,


Resin No.


Tolatile


416.4


liquid


- 2S.


100.0


- 757.


Ethyl
]thl


Iso-awl


alcohol

aoetate


--a--- a

fie a---- a


aoetate


157,4
112.8


499.8 g.


"-


---


a7
)


407.


Dmacetone


aloohol


50.1


47.


boluene

Baenne


ma- -----a-a- n

em- a- ----a--f


885.0

88225.0


7867
36


1&50. 1


100.0 %


Te


nitrooellulo


* used


was


" regular


soluble,


1/'


seconAd


viscosity pyroxlin"


h Biroules


Pol-


Cer Company,


the


per


nLton,


nitrooell1 I


* .,


"olvents.


Delaware,


wer


kindly furnish-


in" theaq


all


hi, I 'a
higli erade


laoquer


0oal1


products


fad tif


'tor' the


laoquer


indum-


Sre


nitrooe llulo


e waAs


dia


IrOd


the


etbyl


alcohol,


ethyl


ao tate


iso-anyl


maotate,


and


diaoo-


01%


ex-


Ttifc


* *









efle


plete,


they


re miodt.


Laoquer


(Flood' s


but


without


tung


oil.)


Solid


257.


Nitrocellulose


(dry)


320.4


76.o9%


Resin


(Bater


Gum)


a- e


-- II


46.4


100.0


ni%


Liquids


S7%


Ethyl

Ethyl


alcohol

aoetate


-l- -------


13T.4


ao%


---)


aoetate


499.8


Diatetocno


aloohol


80.1


aI


Tbinen


Nasa


sea---nsen ease


2M5.0 .


se


567k.


100.0


Laqouers


base


No.


laoquers


and


hioh a


were


series


used


as the


laoquers


were


varying


only


the


peroentages


plastiaxe.


leurq


adding


poroeant


Nos.


lao que


dibutyl


and


No.


phithalate


mte


an'


respeotively.


aneh


ease


a one


hundred


psam


lao quer


- a a


F


gai io


4o%


a








*ff-


ahe
dW
S- C -


- .4-


ero


ois -


* we1i
cyslqt,


ntao oelluloa


ent.


a similar manner


lac queras


HO8.


and


nere


prepared.


this


oase


however


the


ba8se


Laoquer


was


whioh


contained


no tung


oil.


having


wo


lao quers


with


the


same


oompo


ition


ex-


- Sp


oil


ble


the


tnsa


oil


the


-; ^^ ,( ,
^.~ -^
'(<- ;-
r<* Q^;-


fI oot












































1:^
































































r'*
*
















Laoquer


ame


rroal


automobile


spray


laoquer. )


lacquer


containss tUi
plastoixsr.


oil


and


sirty percent


Lacquer


(resin
tagn


ontent
oil.)


100


percent


bodied


Laoquer


(fein


content
oil and


is 100 percent bodied
60 percent plastioiser.)










CONCLUSION8-




CONLNUSIONS


Bodied


tung


oil


may


incoorporated


direot-


into


a laoquer


without


first


preparing


as a special


resin.


Tung


and


oil


gives


durability,


and


the


with


laoquer


increasing


film added


mount


strength


the


oil


the


wearing


are


inore aed.


The


tune


oil


laoquer


aots


as a resin


rather


as a drying


oil,


for


in no


way


appears


Tun


anLoe


slow 1p


oil uape

oisture,


the


hrts


and


drying


the


time


laoquer


deoreses


lacquer.


film resist-


tendenoi es


blush


whem applied


a sphere.


Laoquers


containing


tuMg


oil


oOe r


very


far-


orably


durability


and


wearing


qualities


with


the


aaeroal


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