Group Title: Plain talk about Florida : for homes and investments
Title: Plain talk about Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: Plain talk about Florida for homes and investments
Physical Description: 2 v. 23 cm. : ;
Language: English
Creator: Macdonald, John A
Publisher: J. A. Macdonald
Place of Publication: Eustis Fla
Publication Date: 1883
Subject: Real property -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by J. A. Macdonald.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055743
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000126544
oclc - 40077858
notis - AAP2525

Full Text


F' 4*l

I r

N A R- ,~k ID
F'~ : ;'. 'p,. p

t,', livi o p w-h r M

-B o -
,a, h'

:1~~~wo ofC ,r govrnt a I~k~ '*
'.~C~ .w~thy d ma& tM : dda .
4, A '- *
-d e* th. a r v

S' 2k ; -i

4 -
c*. a :- .
4?' 4-I
*~ ~ d .-
*~~~ PU



9ttw bppwdb rli l a~ datr lht atcir

*'~6drurae a .
Ir t
ItIsnt heppae fthe wili t&Mw rd Intevftr.rr wit h vctims

of~~~~~~~~ mip won on wl I 4 *or tornwh areP makmng a sobr

a~~ ~ t. Isfl.b hoe ad uh wke aileto we-
r~~~i~~~icicate ted=rP s(-'b lo odad sae.l

~~~Jy'~cimt sl ''td~r'L

i~~o our~ gonruslriit, or
rcmirh .ms

~~~~~n ejiC '~iYldn, tht ,BCU~d hf an
ofC0;ts~~rr- nua~*o.M 41ur 2~c~i~i
lc~l r do~iaLic~ ikiBhj~ii~lM C0
..:,~~we laub *'w1~ia u~~t~i~
r~s~s;dr~Y4 ilt~pa.U A

ii~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 'ItA3 ~ 1~~~C~~CC "I~)~~~E7rii` ~ld* J ~iiCr



.,"o .+;.- -.,.,-
* -r *'

,*-* r ,r

was m at r woea 3ur tue O tt l
by 1.S ldim) dug ~Fted each(I.Ili~k
A t...ll awotkody qqracuwmmil j4s.~
loved mabry. We ~ ~b~'g
an ad dwagh ts, b ichh
ma m and tnaspti, wIs of at au
We owrlodk tberaumems rcia nsoin (aor o wn vf
with hoanor poa a muder in Tea

BdM the (av 1wtbumrrs tabomtvy
taiously wI H.the con. in q.r hfly iein, by 4a.^ *ba qad
wht laboring undet the qaip a nof
in ruch ar dreaMdul clit is that f aman& Iwt et m *ra il ti
sleds that while the deplorab sad uuaw qlmlc was ragtag bi. 4Wph.
sippi Valley, a larger prop-tb aor -w pqahr wanua d
Wda ieafooud tin old climuter cBntumq n arpoyk n inmhi hliarns-
P4, so wea lok spec It wiih Th aec ponis Amakbeai
a brsnduce ol able .ad .a mTcW ac o t e.h i S.i iI
rret to copell N ed to ry, that th, patile Wa tf t
foahtveny driwkck of warsm imaateu,' in
tMieomsPwlata, tMacing, the laorating nluence of cdd, sad wbt ihy awhrAi OP ni@ll
nacy o the po a Iof the tropi t. &Ira Wth
mthat tha is a wrde praed and foeb pdp4c a.we |l
pi f cur N oablStad e re, tic ctee to 'CtUM a
raet (who tech tho subject athei p
publ iniorm s hr pintened top od, and Ut s e ah..l Wtw

paie to trplc, their occupation woul Nj
pr-diae to jopxdxin. pwpart
am asype -ke fm msw -f;il bu 1
wnh it Ai at too old for human W paio
emsc4 part can be ned ( le; aiNOCW
Ae.. Ital thi aI tz wbjr me
oaaneycr.f't eourie.; I bsy; rot 4pa
Youth, w4o ^Sb W bee1 1ninaefy IM ^tfl

fl^ka' aa *ara *a Jl ^ftL _|
Natbem "Swab Mbbtf. mhdth4
&b~ ^^^^^^B *R K
^^^^a k fk
bk "Y^ B&^^L T~fc Ik h A^l Jk.^*^kk '
^^ a.A_^ ^^i r ^^ <-^ ^^"jci~s"* ^i* ^ Hi-^^^ ~ fC^..

~Y -- -~L
X^O^ WsVm r .B^K.iHXi^Fx^^^^^R^H^~^^l^BR^~^^^^'^^^^^H ffS
r. ^-f^?%T;CT^tt~QT~e!fii ^ ^/ ^3.* ^^t1wy^^yr^vrT^J '-3
i i. ^^j -i^M ^AAW L* ~ Z f^ L ^^ t'ff'l^ ~ ilriig~c-t
LZ, rX-^^^^^^^^^^LKIR ^^^^^ ^^-^E^^B ^^IB^^^^^^L^^IBk^^^^^^^L^^^^^^^C^H^^^^ ^9
^I:Zt 'TWT~r^F^'iy^ ff*"^ril~~ >*y- -~jid^P^3 ^<^~8Pl^(f^^

-* *p f 1 *
XM ', %

.. \ '^,
--* ^^'r

* A '.
'. 'W 1 ;* *

St ^ ..I. d. iJ: i 'Meo l. a .w *

# .rl Ud JPor, orr aod AmoMw.m say M al mmnem
-s wSh ht. ym to e-a- [eM.

tt your absn ,sad is; M ya kwe' l.,, n, agrd a by

mM rt-,] t's WU w a,-y W Ishy M so m of a halmd or more
aO'h aab ptiet m sad rdi all mme by e a mavet to t oo d SUma thWe

Sh Me m, by warm oliMin thewMd whet doa* ao as d matar pr.
sb tla Pa weum losa a mth yaou d S&e his* u *8 for that sr

Sims oly ame w.. to eu iao mBultda tsflrh Go w noas youeic
Mi wbM ti dig e hiand 4i o a oiims' pained dso h waiut Ir btad
Itr r ibMdpoor, ae m$ahml ian sM te&d dishk ts of the nudeimul adan
h It mea kI *N-rm rlnd a .n Jul.y Mn hAgst a ayo ent aive no feF_ of
oaM wohrtbn; if you hva. rheuatlm,uMuidigb. emabh, breaila, mhmin
mou $In, Bright's dheMs or l Mmdbh dIomg of aD7 of s hundred or more
hma d&MMss of cold d.imata, yo c get yourHtboftdonbi axraiae tiuoe
o dta B paitt ma 1 radically umd bSy a uwink ioto a good clmate
Thu, 8sh mywarm n la wIn the hUeoMwhn peopl meta mantriums,
at l t letter hll down Soth ~Pord and for tnath. iLoa for that

,lty *.d
Thra la only one way to secure tb. bet isulWJua Florida. Go soon a. you
heome eao osd uat a change g .a.toia meadad,apd do not wait or aoan.
Ift hu haalthkr am n muoh ooaer in the halthtl districts of the peninsula than
ha mf tbNorthen Bmta Sh Julym d Auuati uo o eed hare no fear of
the warn dlmaao
flua roach Jlarkta, poaed a$ owoa down nel into tho peanira. The
xn Ml dooam not poauss tbo peon8ar tftMt. needSd by the inoCit Tbe peo.

prttM oJ[ te Stoe panOtla, the ecufhadUtc hm main lacd, tihen rats
1rst Es ha thtat goqicin>Lo a Taos, GeahMM^ orgia; while
tb mlr a Ie ii angl m aii lylil tj wrter, hus a eHlmat. keore li1k that of
* MliSlk~ Boda,6 to tie bdUab GhsraIo, South CaroHna, never vi-
kl -6 ai mpy ona aunto Ufhaslar posaoo, and thi. pe.iauL of lor.

hlt g poised from tho wrthwua winb by the water of th eu Su of Meera
. Is mair ly t gr-at freedom fe. nddi ehog u; whle, during the warm
r usI d tot get the ooml onhing bra n fr the Qulf -tl you go below
tkrtwut~hn deqgre Tho 9 .L s n the forenooan delightful in the
NmYiu towns, but the'air booeam..ultry and a. opprevely hot as ha New
Yrqb4S)llnh if mou ea towheq yo as gp the Qu b when
^.miuji uW't aaotho I.pTheo rt a-B w i'o a go tnog to

hstt& !IM a i'be t.uaigds pd htw&ap.
fW .t--^. tbp Vbw m* lr#Iurhr'in tb( Ofl?
,.. *ver-' L h
V9FV^ rag~' *:^ wlwat

/jH*1'- w-* t B-^K^.^^^-^^^-a

of hard work, exposure to ramis;or any otebrfa of agraaton, w8ial oa the
chills or fever. Why .is it that in motpaprts of Bravard county, whae tie pio.
neers aretho i care s of hirpma- f ay'psopl b hthe4 tMt Ith
and fever is unknown amonst tem? Why is it that a Boemto thtem s eh
thing as chills ad ivet, still the popu lives in all kinds or stye, fto tSe
houneles family, wBE dep under tho pnae tree thale from year to yar, up to
the wealthy Northern famhile who live in palatial resldenoem. Not bMans the
are no indiriduals who work hard in the sun erld rala, sad live ot hog amAer.
iny," or drink whiskey, or drink lake water or any eo the many eotulM madt hr
the over district',kbt simply beceau this uad many other loolitie y are too br
removed from the mhsuma breeding causes. We shall -not be rpoanble for the
invalid who neglects this mt important prtof our advice. Then the next etrp
in order of importance, is to locate yourself ia cory spot among the pfae tre,
Where the healing baum of the resinous leavr is breathed into the lengs. A 'd
tlnguiahed vitoritoo Florida, two years ago, oomaleneed dueag the e leaver,
swallowing it Juite, shd continued to do so during his stay, and he claimed that
doingso cured an uloertad soro throat of several years standing, which had debed
tho efforts of the boost medical and surgical skW.ll
The invlid should not aenot hotels or boarding houae exceptt oueh as are
away from the railroads and riven, and among the hills), but if possible get a
home in a family where there are no other patients, and then remain winter and
summer till he is entirely cured.

If the invalid
former business
interest in some
ing; go into it
in the morning,
keep up a good

has-locatod himself woll, the next thing for him to do, is to forget
or home ties, unless he has brought them with him, bad take an
I pleasant horticultural pursuit, such as orange or pineapple grow-
with his whole soul, keep th fe et dry, not get db too early
'take plenty of exerdse In the sun, not be afraid to start, and
flow of perspiration; not wpoem himself to sudden ehanes of

temperature, eat plain and wholeome food, and avodt stimulant, and if thee
preeutions aMre eely 'oberved, he will oetatinly U e the day he wgat to8outh



The awful dustruslca .1 hums life aued by thi dradMi dsemis, in cld
ceatetis t moaufutl to oammpia till withafn u Iwy t has bueoa-
ddiard lonuamb, ad'tr aow the Iste no fleml ttieolut tha ca do uare
than a om a teS f mIS'or atsy it i t deemdi cm^ t~-4 whoak mam
ftnt aoy obek* by a6tcS) mesceto itm red tews Is duetnud,. ewe,^
came away iSYESleS t1WtoIS peped. r ,
Ia the UsfuSd eflpa tt (had d f6 to may atI S.. .eak
fir^ rtbll u~rto ~smdiy~biis~ lo,-dabft frem )ilap,eW^ ytfiir
hM, t ad Ibmfcl taro>ilujis~sLib4IhirLeitrrt tie $qtluey4ef*st ywlrwi
- aiaaaS -

-' 7 T

YWa^H a



* h

- tI -

aat. thep re hc* ThiM trible. f .Is spsreadig by lanrmuxTge,
and t4lrwnsyg olqdq My aI. fa stonl tsajt to an lrming;
aat l*is P tLg the mindsot our gret thinker how its di
,be L. It wauld m.. that iuIlaqu mio h tnterpoed to prohibit
ppwwMavig .ape dpOdtioa to Phsi, (irou omrsaa marriage, and In-
ating oe ?a e the border oftospring, in wham boaur mae planted Lho eeda
ofithis brirQe 4euoyw. But God ha luatttod a law to prevent ivalids from
eJp~ylug O mhost mnd of rights, by.Wing permittd to "multiply.and neplwh
tho .th;" 4d we doubs the wisdom of lnterbgn with the propgatioi of the
human speie; maeven though ohldren may ot grow to maturity, or live to a use-
ful o go, the souls of such a as prqdous to the Divine ither as if they hbad
Undt the lqttod "thneco and te." Our Saviour ha said, "Suffer little
children to owe tto o for od uoh is the ag of Haven;" and who can
dkputs that the thousands of the Sower of our yquth, who are carried away by
this .P Ppat of deLlh,'are a wdeome and as pcious as any other ceassions
to the Qeatial hart Nol let invahds marry, rd it their ofpring only breathe
the bas h of lib, theirepirits add so many moe to the myriads of God's servants,
and le away frm us winto illialtbb spb t si ng is prais and enjoy His
mile oever m and ever.
There is room uoagh b this planet for ten thousmnrmilans of humnu beings,
ad aoll an get aunstean from the boso of mother earth by tilling the soil.
T a i g rerntr DUabIr lan it Is poble to obblm, 4 nature ka balaml
.erythig.e well tt there isi naaer of overdowing, therefore no legislation
or others s should ever be adopted to clck the lanes of tomb. But God
i Aia great bouMy Ms provided mas to take ars of all, and situations to suit
uM omSiatiues, bo it become our duty,to do ull we an to sustain and prolong
l,. wih all the mans at our dispol, never sg aSght of the coqmands of our
mtw; .adIt is now a feet, ooo4sed by al wh vao tudied the subject, that
the dmd. mmte, oensumptioi, as I awr4 te a tiame, sad arrested evea
in tho Ittsr atgos, by judicious and peanet change climate, and that
eyonM dl oubt I ravage an be oofted. lp every kmily tainted with the
&inm, to the prent generatio.. This grey tth ha not bean heralded forth
to psubai .c bases a warm llmas Is U Ite gift of ke n rand cunt be
bo t l mdlbd ,hd beOaEaMmedil ,43:P arm sot very uxiou to bve
their pliab ev, hore, n r various meos, *m Ia4I u frca selfih motive;
but gepmy thae. phyaldas oadeutlourly beqiws tc pre apmb a corr of
sratpt I la evej tr$d or utw4il$ moq e *4 thnu wlan change of
dimsAto ,s) aea popular remedy L oeaptlon, a sany fatal rer were
srt I t sh aom ofed theloclity qpm~ to, atb~ g mp in the profesuio
'a &t m A2~eaaant.aauns.. ..4.--

s tb.tidd M J .

*rank, a*d thaf65ay of 15* ,ikh yet

*atest, s* in 'the of '@ ''. '
*4- .1

all th hSaeitM ew

fat otidn'd in th UBOsh *ney 1ift pm^tal hWl eii
afl3eYveU ady d to go tb ruiS. Wlaoe8o. ftbhl aj
ithhi2's appl mtr Ighk1h g hbats id.L hiMSIW*S S. MIS

pens turl, ld tot tie ay of Ilks coouth brthad ex1, 6 &lf
countherotaors oby womanpi 'Ibatt Mi o

rIme thlbu w ialt hat aafottosh
veeitatoit, CArshaiMg ad fnthliSr hd te in "a iatls r a* >g l
Interamt, .td Indt trfi&mt o couaSl&pt&'ii bM &&lbb 'M-ud
an thos whosheao Stnld It iro hao bLt fl a.d iSn ahr9 -lips'
aod tio woihy obetado to Impde tb adopuiorno( th o -,b thr'aWll
ia to be uound In the peftcltsut6ytim tattjmn nn flheda ls oLg hamr, fho
wa ewn ready to volunteer aduic The tiMal Stbo meekly %USiWlAbone
with his captors, With toim chace apai t 6lWp,r (ogtdlyi oeh W s ai ct
and i. likely to fare wone We do noew'lats th4ttSal, or natla m*'l,
the plase rournd to by ooamnptiro psUlma to flur dhaamthdtt to
recommend thab bht we utiat that aay af ofte eaa a hteds dI aMr ts pst
poserof ftracting moely from te punm of the iadMl tlna tl ( ler to ure
bis complaint, ad that tts ao ttl Itportxba fto hm to bme S. jI II A ^
aditae, when he will be most loifly to aid spady sad peanS nv* I
Florida, which is ono of the greatest uorta nao for opuamifb l afP has
where local feven rwtil de nit at. ia.aorFe %1tnr4 flh tb hetkhy .e.&.
aof hisa Bier than thonwrm air abr ben t whis 11n, la. gia pwU4a

Pam Fi ks s ut ,t
a mile or tis be woild in ettrtfyrf r aB'ki 1rla~ a. -k bldlh
Swe th props to sbow what Itriy Iutumj io Be lm&'iua M St tSrSu
a mldablsbeasa qa h cavcaDmd whofly 1 iidiftae froa aysaypwh.S k H
hbrodlttaq. Nq't only consoAmptda beat aiaoat a.#i4ar ass.. hdah t6Ia p iu
pure air warmed by the bon. fldo notriknd u that oaa a be- a l d
Slmat. alaoe V th. inr.! laws .t health saw lrbdgS oi -upvlbdi, -4. te
dhin that curw fl be ebeth aa apediy fltthcatJhi aid l w bb*
belho, that arotbl ic isoeteua tof biN*>t vS iSy1 /
aid amtf tehini toria causnipUve patst otlath elearvor..
Puhn~ooar e~iu~iB7Ujoo i~rlto as. a htiobt~ dUMMaa, i SteYY ConkN~ -J o
delutd TEfgkaf, iS iSe tropics, wbir* prtat a)Ultttsd ttsp'.a ueuz~volSIIis
of weather b htgb i ltndA imaoag t- abw^d te -a-1 mhIW Atd
undrtko equafor-lW and eo< ttl ptmpS6M, if thn-'tmdah It i tk t,
liv Ii ^\AIr< 'abmo$( e oa ibhanalt 'i''y'buftpr.a o.4t an ary;b b
in the loir ot^*, eweuV ttm 1SWa*EtpS 6 n AttI'b CHiQI KOU,*-Mali
as ea. bWtieod to a teroftri Sti4 tb Ipb apsI-ll-s m ms l .
ai~liyt fatal:- ** -* *- -A .* *. ;

lhMe, hd aW ftnoyamfatritfpt n IS|MI^ a>
*-e -. S~l -WI^if 'XV9UmM wwWIII
AHT_ MftCnftQr *Itfl-l-.lW:iif'n-l *^-' ir-is~labir''-- *'*J *^.lZ -~~J^^
*n~lbr~-Wlli lu r:iBBow-i;a.'iM> _* ^liifeMttlM^^ArfMIlii^tftt- ^^^^^^^S^^'^'^*a^M^^Wi^WlSW^^','
'*'tllffWPI^^W^t.-^^^^B^^^y^B^^BW i^Wt^^v^"^^^^^^^*^T^^^CTI^^^^~'

J t + -, *r .;
,f b 4 ,

) ,

f- *

4 p

d or o ow, ,os ar

Ses Id deo o to say l Ia do noa Avel the terrible aldly, hmoe

up we BM t Wey w~t I h k e&mLI we Lbm dr ms d
mn Is m )u 4n- wI UMN,.oa- aw
*9h cwwtlr; Tlm C*r t6' aa ilnto90 *i kt tato ed .wxi *

anw^ veiM lta.-e A', 'fti.s tumb ta e,,h s'moads ua k -
-n i r sde n .w sivebs, smw u9 t.
dram, uas thalbs psotautf *bsot otw psle f ow fUgUMd, and nitty
saa aft fcd iweidaUJ pilttqea t) as w at

*auinplo, while they nredsly a the aaetov of ou Ag ri f aratomrq
lived hlielf a cetury ago. Log abbf, oe. fo, bIniga'atlng bodily exertion,

The Brat meatlon i a lat ade do not w I arlpA t e l h

gaira! dimet Tv ii iaffla Itea n wby t W. thaat of nt
ldPhtm to. eba s a o.Su W' saeek dkahi t -b ato dOsW. I agree
SPlit afrt 1aeretS, am n Stagas oa. the n4at it WOUp uan rnly.
iow, nft my mUcuS pees bWt. Ua poflie fee* ani aio ia fatato
bra o. sp air, oat of torn l. Iem eIry Is bw usL Ther. b
wmi~r the amardity boeats efifsnot hi theoprage, we dieSo, sad ot vs
aIB'flt aS ree that, toA itSos n telTe ar. d,1at tewr n itr,

$S tperWh nquki toSsrOi i tiiger the uterwiy e>m; n wmist ask
tfbflfpeniue unfbgs>d smoqzhur. aew aolar .eat ss-th. eoo

ttdM1 isB th* aore. S aS, *at a meat *otsikj relotega gty thS lbs only

A^.^A^k~~Wub usi^ii|-k^^ -a~ialateu i- U.-
^*^^ w^^ -BT-I^^^ -T^^^^^^^^f^^^^^^ ^T^^^^^^^^^ ^*^*^i^^
w^^^asb^^^tms^^ ne~tt^J~faA ^aS* amjusp rdum- jsn^atuememy. j^ra^
^*W'S ^^^g~pfllW't.^'mM tO-s'or Mutes baha^ma^
1ly Shl~UW4WZ ul*.S lw bti I'. 4 ^ qi
^^^^*^J ^-I-^^/'^^Aj-i ^ ^A-H^ &fliktef^ A ^ ^R^^^^^ ^_ ,^_^^
^^^^^^^^K^BI________B^^^JH^^^^HB^^^^^^^~~ A tS*IWFUH^^k ^*d ou* en.^^^^^^ I^^H^K^^^^upsw^^H^^^^
'^^P^^^P^I-t 4^ffwW^*,4f-lh ^tr .hq^^ ^ ^^au%^1-^^^ pg^^'^
fc*^^^^* ^1^' ofa^ yM.k^A^.'Lnn wdmtkJ^^^ -" *efcb met 4rc *B
^^N^K^Iflv-- l^-iH^B-i^^^feVR^^ b^^^ --a-
-I ^ ^^j l^ ^ ^^^ '*'^ -^^ ^ ^^ ~.-i ^ ^^*1
*f I|^^A^ ^^^^f^^^^^^^^l^^^^^A^^^^^^^A^^ ^^^.^^A^^
'- W, ASA^Sf^^^^^T^^^Wfl^^?^^^^
^*^^ZJt^^ ^ILJ.^^AJ^ ^ ^t^^ |t^^^j^ ;,A, ^^^^^^^^M^^^^^Sft^^ |k& '^^^ ^^^A *
"*' ^^^B^HHW~ ^^B^^^VB^BPiW^^^^^^^^^r T^K^^^^B^ ^^^B^^^^MBI' l^^^^^^^y^v^^^^^W^^'^^^' ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^V^^^ ^^^^T ^^W-^^ ^W>^^^^^^^^^^Br*^^^B^fl^^^^^*i^^l^^^^^^^^k"^^^I^^^^H^J'^^^^^^^^^^^L ^^b^^^B^BlB^^^^^^IL^B^^Bf ^ID^B^^^^^H^^^-^^R^^^^^^F*^^U^Bk^&

- ,o wuht i l Met to Abe tmlt as abx 41..
ne t lh o ha. neswnthh wostsM&:vor ? V.q.* ,Q4 wrs.
that aMduls of 1 alel of mama. tok pur, r .qma nd
* oUst. to met thei wats, kInd wbaa1s, U lR mba a..t ,tblng w!th
the, t ny 'and a wa to gdaa a linhCoo,
The grmtest impdlmnt in the w oi of mmumptis is tbh .apnt to
hm and d emlod t Wkhe n i udt bs*on es the
pMk thenmu ooegtto gve wy to commas umu aW ought ho
outweigh all mnlr detail Hrket oa la 'eia shm b
is too perile and sily a complalasin auy ao of muMs .1a4 tosaur ad
- a ptiot who would rather stay aa t t. aal f-. a ert. S. die
than go a thounad mie. or less from bhome, wiMth mr peS S uuw, mWustol
ouasm edite our sympathy for his imbel y..u t, rSM wtlh r waout

ion nss

Semi tropical Florida ofn to aged penma either taid, or ttly, a na t
where they an slid, down the decline of lie with mio pmmad aomftor than
can be meured in may other ootry i the worbl. It Il withia.ey r oour
Nathern S8ate-the tie. roqtulrd to remh It is ooly four An Ae dad the
et of a jounrm bing the tebapet mow for the same diata ofay route of
travel on the Amertca oodment It Ba about fourtea hadred mle, from oew
York to Emt, Florida;.meals re proeidd aod amnir rble aterooom ex-
tras charged, ad the whole expene Ia bout tweat4ght dol, oa leo tan two
oel per mile, with board and Matsda br eadry a week. /
There are two oBam of od people who oqght by all ea to aA n s
of this beodeiont prerial of a ood camt. Ia theb aml~tonbdofhb aV Sir
of Porda, thoMe who have qt d there amhie or furnm of yrm te ila oLa-
fuloem and thdft, .o End an. ea .that will has a awomrslrl rciqmwasUbg
dft9g od ,a dd tnotoher or to tae Mletod mundame probasom TI
atd pmas who hate srugMld geht eto aB their Iive e hwd M sQt to ,l y
by emah to mooth &t wak b to the wi rlW And wl ,*th 8,lmtid*tUst .tuy
ta mace thL mlvwa moro omkfheabl t w hundred 4d sehm n NQgdt
ema and .affthqm fordi thLr vuore, Msfl OltU kir
oad bass theoad ctadfeI blestU rorbyk at tiom lIt .s v-.yrbJa, ;ad
d.flb oulti o In the op. air atelleemMa o the. .*,,.edSk ^fgt Tft'd
wuldpnmb Sbulr enBas5 lvric w sbmawerel.aMsp ag ylud m l to.
ttsim.. wminlK be.toheir tfan, Mtos S& adn. euplw ,e h^
as e ,. V... ...
Ihodet iMMd tod* d faiapont Biautbegli lIisi be^.^ ^tudie.
eaatst-.i --- Tn rrir rMI* as Sr
S~.t~b~tS**AhbinuH 1.


mapdAtSms th*r OamstltMm aMe uapI, and after fifty, in "the youth of old
5,%" thoy part the mournfll spetado o premnaue decay. Asthma, rhtuma-
ttkm, kUdney Po pWbt, aid a haudred othor ea-plr ml ae their ast few years
ab ntrd, ad mak them wlsh for the end A warm climate wold, anim tom
out of toe, Ige them a new leu ot lie and if they hae not the judgment re-
quidS to move themsndve away from our atrodoas %orthen dimate, it Ib the
dau ot tidir frieds or etdyr to take the where they will oerinly get relief.

Pooo de Leon moght the mythi]al
sikof l erid. It he had take up
r t d ofihtin the poor natirea,
through his thews for a few years
tha, Md lmag from the Indians

fountain of youth in the interior of th Pln-
a home, a-d planted n orchard o garden in-
he would have fouad yothfuls tinglig
at lat But he lived In tie age of superai-

that aged people from

the main land become

young again in the great Penlmula, he contrus is literally, and expected a mir-
aulou tra information from old age to perpetual youth. A few invalids of the
preeot day vie with the upersdtioo Doe tn their absurd requirement, and ex
pest, on going scas the orid boundary line, to fnd a supernatural healing of
thimr ills; they sit around the hot stove all winner, and growl at everything if it
difer from what they are accotomed to at home Instead of going far eough

outhb to gt the beeft of the tropidl dimate, and by coming cerfdnea and
omtetmentiliving in tho open air and helping nature, they whine and 5ough and
dm thamalme, ti outraged nature will do no more for them, they strt for
borne, aad the first chill blat, after they round Cape Batera, winds up their


Tubraa or a pmny ooE mptia a oootut al diee,
msUleag iestaelf by attack on the lungs.
.m ofq.--Te orii of the tubercle is the dead or eMcho partial whose
vtlty hare been destroyed by uposure to cold at the xtertr marsoes of the
boy, and hmuce arrid b the lume, and deposited i the arelatr eane between
sthe alrSb I the ur.ces t mrod in the smaller broohIal tube com-
n ^ with them; vbo the dad matter ia thus arred by the bldd a far
SlMktptrlfji. auqt ega transpor it, them ia no openly through which it
e- be carried ed roqsh the broohal tbea, ad aa t adbeas tothe arolar tU-
wai wob ooeed. plr Mi newa d iAnSaiteally ml partide till
f te, fa muadU haatadm ni- ,lato either p rUb-rd po uo the

rdi ;Sm ,.I er i a mwu.aaB pursaw l eraL
'S.M v. lm. Il w trow^ fjm, u b patknw
mqLmn tIn he l or Me ora dt men. In psatM tbatag a medimry utint
-9I^ 91" -^ *-Mt uWq to a cold Qest^,

!T ma\l, -'d o r ,* 4L J'di,, .-
** .r*

4& *$ *

uniA idh so o 9,d M < A I

border, Is,' tr.,watl, pm -Ml,. a s ayio l CLs

theb phsa s mdaml an amlrm and thl io in .-
in doe b rho eort aPde to dhod cle gm d lar depaal v&dn ,dtr~ir-ln
omah, e a h ,drph m Mah~ hn Mqt.

omies m r at uores md te tag aSb--

w.uazo tlly Mep ta t i- -tels hte ~ l4M o o
n-j'--d4; paStokiacsinu
Ib 4 feel9 .iaga, -a ta k etigue,
qmgma 1 tm iBb bowt A to orb.ta M & angi Sp b( g*hat pl *

Whordm o ondltam sxttly p&o mm, a te ophgh aad atp iul n- ,

*WSq, hb -t seatae m wMImt_ _(e -l amJ ti -.---' ,a
2 pb firt symptom w erehfk stht, h foumvfyi, ae iim tymepghlM tish

I e t .ptt e to r sg thd bMrit her dtgtb h. i ing e
anclar dime. byd aupwton cad dstrucalot Mo t&y psrI ate^ ftr say c

I s urskuu perio without the aupwmia of md
- n
The pridt infr lnu aAe*t pramld s ktp,
heomninukw theI bodiyi IbnHdttop WUid larbaf p .M stese fttm bktL
14 md'berpaa mabiamiind ot the pregmwe nof tielau rqiiMyi;r M e

qmkuin d Julut and oaan. W& WS eit,
*ha hM4 &>dioucxntao W tef t oghutiexcorto D

r *

t .
-' 'p '+ ,
.* l *,
+ +,

J '

* o tbe arom be ^W i^ hei<^ broug tha lawailMJ^ bi
ieNS. Ma pfibL *to asolt o m wesM uti Ml peps ,erhh Idwt -

e arm upMS lbs. l smArw fk hai must blu $ lepvyt-, if- .ron.u uh n
arMwbe thtis m se f m is .nurMd,) nar bMea mlSd wha Die asrUa mel.
. lur ho orand tbo apiw ,ia opoee4 tolea witUoot ai n ipt ikb kii -aaiM
nu b p mble theory ald a d ittb God wtestEb proSairto tesohe
rtbhaeadof auiala.rbnrcb beat. of preyh tme kuvakrl aMm to
bam h berBmam4 t fo!d f t te S oanr; and it d iV d be tIryi to hven's
6a1 4 lanwl h mnu bhogip-whabh appear to have beta frO the arliest
t mble d of dbt o dlsm tis, Mos, ete. be d to
s NItwngwrtuer. wrm mqrrarha (ia physical stri ) p Wi nd
Imrifly carry thim bome for n ta Thlwis provision s wabded hoe to the
airlor Si l, eitt dt aW tobe k1d t aln eiM bo'llfo i of t wloer ani-
SEJ Lkom entry dly, so t. bodi asu boesed br hum food, p away bk-
yd the bour M with le. nIl ucarlig than is geraBy oomrwited to them.
*This ay npiae apeS.,r sodwot of the minds of o6nlBmaptiv valids.
Irf, who a. fitb slight gt mptdail pnlest themselves, you to the patient tiht
ooarrmptou ha him in it gasp, natural dread of deoth will take pouemion of
Idm, and he is ready opt ay rem to o aped; but when the disease
ha hie mflly o ul relectdou-gnpew 1r4 bM. i a omplete change of dimato
Sci ave him, ie calmly aubmits, and caqpot be oeovinoed of the danger at hand,
b oplagmaiat hope, till it is too late, end hodle quietly with sarcely a mumur.
i II iaidieM to give faier dia as no deoripthio, bo*ierdetaibad, would
b a ane. gOie to the pltent who had no medical tralaag bt t i my dpinion
Shtry aoma cod, cod or odthr abnormal condition of the air passages,
oeamg., Mic* oreuat a tendacy or efort to expectoruto, b oat a- form of the
id o4s pel( tM adis, mad It. farther development' due solely to the
at flIor uust ptlbflty of h4 puet, and hit egrvatln influ'-
sac 'Thus it beaaMihedey otf the ptelq to consult a Soroupghf com-
jr~ pbytsidao who -a have no i terest i e the e except ia the asmination, *
|~a* $lha smtaic k 4 t di.teo m rothde bicile of the pbt mt, that there is
|-t#peflity that a.s deretmnt wmfl flow, qad 'a soaequent bll. I
LuMiwiattlhe Is o lapeuitg I whkichor mos iw 'or e adtl cn be fomIC
|th A freitky; btar ta aithK oft ,c taM thm. to a
,| -tde. _ethrmea.l t.thie c-aIzoitu, po Mobt. pyidc iin deny, and
|:iii" oons ontl k4arf eMlfytls tdhnSt. d be-
ii'd M k "o w",( "6 t. "he pai" t'i h" pt phyul-
| f~ii~6iAianti4 A aed a~ir'ki r&aii~ilti ifoofs/As Ms s an^ that
U( A

* I t f r- h t M^ I t ^
S** ;

m' p



An equable tempeature is the ust .duidsa.i
moat fea climate is found, or we tm- is th
tempearte of winr and that of summer, sear
gevity of the IrbaMtint sz at te k -

m. Tb. cnaq w tse
at difir sa, btwee,. the
*-th girmflt a h nd la4-
^9 ^^^^^^P ^^k^ Ti^^^^^^^^^P ~~* ^^^^^^^f^^^^^ ^^^

- Admitting that temrkable intn of is life MUdesepuiPO dken 41
are found in some of the worst climate, jU this doqs set mb t or
it must be remembered, that in the countries sjauub to. pgeat o.tmca, m ly
the wxat hardy, and most tenacious of life can rive the ada~g tlo innum-
erable maladies ntinually thinning out the delicately -ou t and .n otne.-
half of the children born, live to.maturity, but die i ro- das-e- brought on skly
by vicidtunes of climate, and a large proportion of the remainder di before
reaching middle age from herditary taint; while in mild cJmates they nesly
all live, and the two populatims side by side, as two whole, show a better
physque on the part of the hardy Nu.orthura The delicately contitte
Sotherner, who could never have lived ina changeable cliMata ce se aver-
age and give the talm ide of edeminacy setertained by the NJorthi inhabit-


I hate the mow. No mat what poet and chriolem nh&i Itt I itai
prae. Their mlguidd pena deid me, and taught m to beliw that the
cold and cruel winter had charm worthy of the poet' rhapeodin. 'I longed fr.
snow in my lPyhood, and looked forward every All with ardent dIrghtto the
time when I could Jump from a shod Into a Beldlbrdln at, ui ng
were the perdetion of human sports to my uptuked mind. When upset from a
cutter into a bank of wnow, I opuld di rory anmy aut of my ears ad bit
my chilly mngere, and laugh with th other mtgIdd .wethe. To go skaiog
and brak through the toe, get' taki wt, ehlied kto h bo and cough althl
reut of the winter, was rare qoi with me h la borot under the do
laie ilaumeo of internal winter (~dwm as e ~k e it Ia' ogimia. may
t MnIhave it lmbnr-I idILro& it dom; bn then I did not rnab. tht wheb
Christ l1n4 and died re was n enow. I wa ign ant otd iat., saL .a
oasqueo kcw a ry ittle .r .tqof a'ut.* wba ,oe k .brm tq 1.
e&d Madlfl@not Se way fromA,k I Wgao" l*b. maxc pMa
tuted she gdnt9te|Ee of 'Qalr Mm Is
w uari ;o wh ece ha 4.jei qjt.,a by mA
et6t* flab rrlk .'idabwgaw o eni

fetinnvCi of what nw o uran bSau d ifm .re by sa0 y asf I S ha
^e^a ** -r
Us ..aaZ.Zli- .8 A a.Sa~ tn. ......A. UaA As. %I a- -

bwreps -Bo yel of petded 1onteotmont -ot oOsceal. Whwtr Is a hideous
dmope an ilmgap d mlami f, a moMn m a cmi from Hoens, and the
M.rile 4msqrtuIg angel impruoates I hlit hear om1l winkw by itaright
me If Im fln d word m~aidetly trng todcribe it Ther stl may be
wiatr wmebtppm-4hat doe not prowo anything in t aro; wend dei wor-
llpdrk uI P ard mdhmul of votarm o at the shrt of AlohoL whih, ne to
oM .airt the grmett dtroer dof human health ed Thpte. I no longer
bid wlau cuuume: I only mmdn in his dominema N bg tbegiou laJOI a h=
power to poet e from the chill grap th bitaer4ynat
Fe a kug ttmo I believed that winter 'wu a neeaery portiad of our hums
lot, that t wasu no ewcape from him, thi wo. might as weli yit a' phbo.
opfeal ouldiece to his iy eoptre,pa.d that rbdlhon was ftuiW eUa friep
able part -onr earthly gloom sad fate, a peotro which, though perhaps some.
time aunweloome, tll ow of unhstwr doatnion Ampartial to all unM nd, reign.
ing throughout all ime with equal nm:eriw a, to whoe empire there wn
no lint on earth, and from whoee iy dartthere was noovenue ofe w p.
True I bed rad ad heard of swnny hore, but mixed with thue stories mo
bioodcurdlng tales of alligator, snakes and ineote, ad till I moold not for a moo
met think that winter wea a ourd to be avoided. With age hab come expori-
enoe. I have ventured to croe the "snow line; I have taswd tAo dollelom
brme beeaththhe royal plm-tree' ahdo I have eaten in the garden of Ies-
pedd bavs regaled my plate on the hite of a sunny land pludked in all their
ripe fnhnej from the tree. I And that these Elyla fields hae been here
b hng poe s and warmth and light or a-l and that winter in his impotent rap
is hde back In the mnowy empeate (t) anon, whit the glorlo sun sands guma d
oer the ohae ones who beak S his pernial male I fnd that old winter I.
peut up In ha northern wild, and that he is not uiveral in his sovereignty; but
that t sr a many ahir land where ivoer are evr-flowing, lowers are evr-
Sbloit hub erina, and myrada of birds ever-flitting through the air,
their ~ pi nga; k whe sthe oune of first anot dare to coma
I hare lared I oan fly from him when I plea.; I oan beard U in his frowa
homr; and when I exhaust my vocabulary of hard nsam, I an tarn my bahk on
his impotat nag. He may follow and howl on my track like a Baluan wolf, but
whe he oomea tthe '' mow Mne" the Buy, the good wuroe of light and heat,

s*p "U mo, maoM r

you ean como no further I"


Tlfa atMlir In tropical leodr thre Imomethlar .Xsebgly phesut ka
tii tbiw The frfItll tates o@ MSrde; y179 tSwt besUfal
rfAW<^tii tdgboa tSrohwh kmsapsb; yu wrsniy
eit.ull(ai ^nyL hiOe sing Wit ta ou tol up hg
offftefrito'bo~tfnM ari a that loobb fto ait for irth, no
kmrtftt. Yak 1d OPat yfol myjhi-clo front iS maebrs -oMa

tba thae mn m.thnIl.M bstifl 'Uirplba the year d 4.
tlweeghottthstBi- flmS i ntHu. r^lb b ad rfoS aMd
awy down to e ti ke lmlaemut wih t. setotnni e ,d -ad tR o oft

uat. ofth. baothe u ul nbo i t ,, hP thoiagrIm.M k'M a
oto adg nr mo mu yyVem 1
smiserfa lmadmnduTaakIe.tb "PvaqwuiaS?" youan glu&,b
taew that wintra Bobm er a eu'a .a t,
Mi8..wt ra75 tnhIbIW, dt. *thk-- is-- ,icn iw--d i woasJ'ho, bsth
at red, wmout, eimsb>onoa wddS-ai ths sy ew day.' Jo.M n trm
this Rlt a. *rk,-c, Nw-nhlhy M wie, awhset .', tbh 3ar (hb
wrthbd Iole uosly -e tM ru, whmstthme dark, -Lo-Ip alleys ad
ur-wl aer. my fWe Mw. .i.baatywr tads i.fy; wher Lh are
pn seod dugmaes,ad ad rom y, l poor wrttbh, brm thq fool
7a6on,, MoU4rStruo yl ng fluwm, 'anu'd Ulbd.yg, pau where put famine
, tal ther land, abd alioe your M Bowt-m -ebetio aln over tety
fre, or wnppodIn hsap of horribk rg, tryl~ to d an t m mIrabletb e.
*tll apriu eon with i fw was of asnahim oely to b iUond by mosn
h]an eio w .autr .
TYo then m and ponder ovwr the o, old .- Why pr p.
Hve tn fran ladM ?'" wv her. thu le a anbudmane of. saunoine, ad hRitsb-
-gling dr, ad atural prodate to bh had or the go biag; whee on.trth the
hbor wmaed in ekig out a timoa life ton froetn ono would jiB moe a
princely hon hore, wes thacooasnut, the et he mo the barnit.
the plaona, twM banner, snd oMn.Su ti odot anlndlgmas ad pgr enut
peotmualy. There is no way te aooot for it oaly that the white ra or
pa tbmaelum the wrath of Ood, md thoy wer driven oat o te opg im.
ito te harsh re.aS of now, to eplatp thitr reem; nd that aM thl ieml
.war, and oiwo, and ytn smuog MI th nrealt o t*he faa1 though
whicwehae ab npu. ind nagm .. miaay w oar. But ot dee pnne a -
atieo frb, h. a whuit ,aomi rC itlnr U IPts e ee maneted
.o bk&. Ip tia troa

*f r

'* e"

It L au wy r0 now tar am'whbo. aa ood br in to ad
oguof hb -a(If he ha say), qr cthsr tronhothr mor p hsaabt,
ad la a god wintr h6iSa4 i dtba whare aq ambeu of the
tinily whom rew, or may be' t fumsiei nene o ehrae diss s a amny rim

Vr pf SM In *^ Nlri ubo boo^ ^ i l
c^^rrw^ r~kcjrPllarwRjB~^"?y^P^Bi <*--* Ilion ^w ^^yPll'
y1^?^1^ 4q46 ^?^ ^tty~wMjsr,^
^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^Am.





I dp4.t tn tide for Mhe ue ti Se'whe 'tapH to ge mwqa when any
xpar. i.n ,apre MoerNhy uao pda ItHLrd do I oe
toto-- fum^or ^t do ui a ac or latem I
;wr'te1 8i for-(ho IU Waa of those who tSke aehd go Iaa of nd bad~
or a S.thwe twrCl degree of north lattue, or where l. water oa te
redsh' poipet taot to provide that ittHr7 fo wlh I 1omoder
au aM preqaoldte. Asa gneml la kmaunb Ind de5 ur .
M( mwr "uma Thern are, o-howeler, ~, g pon Bu htmo o -
we aU the suser. and wetemrn thwore t gnaet Lake AqoL 4 a M itid
a on Otr mouth stro of Lake Jecna the rd ho t ll of BRMuo ounty,
and, o o.e, many other pleo tt I ooM Uoan t e, perhaps Urly equal
6o p9 Iad. Buts the' mat dmerme par oa ornge irgroww's lot s his rel.
emor in a a o gFroe thee b a i spah bhrrer a hammo, in th
qitablahed fat eo a at land, it aed upon for a pea:rn home,
there e no kfety rom bill and Afev. rammoot orange grovw pow fairly
And ber flue frui t t iaof, hb re almost lav iably short lived.
aCompete ta Ghna gve on the & JoM en aidd h Qlt grove at Ft. Md.
bthe frt on rich sheB hammock, the an p hald, and cech about tie ame
ahe ammoek grove hae ea m etys yr e ego and i faqtig raply;
E tghey ovo on the Wokdva baok, ad the Huhey grove n the pine land
at F iRM.- The anmer, ufter twenty ye.a of pnlila beaerin, heat lut to be
moved up to the high pine had adjomd g, whe the pi land grove Is tooaing
iu pyadftv yearly.
Street at Talahawhih wee a prodnetln and bnMiful a few
yeeagu are now nearly dead, while tro tn o e region no pio land,
twSyare c ee etilB u cllmbi hhr ad higher, and badar enoous
npiwflkbout IntermZaUkm. W' ajIht enumera huadreda of tataMoe
Sit hr ta and eonaeas tnm we uir returm to the origi ea t
that A Mmmuw ek nisew b k M h f m. gumrw
So wS hall e for grbei* th0t our ormage grower ha eithr taken a hoe-
etead o 10 Bead, or bought s lot fomar lmr o, oot hih roilng lAtndta me
pan ofSouth 3w having Bret usttiMd hImeeult h he i eutfsemm- inim ;
h Wt ta hatdtoa a S d m ailla hwap moolk brMaoh afr,
ora iwela Mi. Two raise frmi may do( asn wall be pieaclr aio. If
good teo lad hold brve ptie tree med aomedie 6miaisr of bilm Jack,
wReto cr or -t ork; bhory, pen o- or saf*m rub, b i a grlasd
indltIaOm, bt he bood mhna eU pameMo, gberry, amy lodicsuioa od hard
pan. lend called rub" ( ir the tot .e toid mll u.,, avnd ie aet high pne laud whero the
waer tkh rdaiy me n o at leat tweatyS tfrom thee nuras Millie. of acne
"Ql' hlt Ml oma be found in uth Ford and at pmart theater ca
hte Mk bode. The Ant-mae lad has io tlabr bat ph d ohe orte i
'tlrdoy anoe wituhgn Th eoalt h sb^I d awk yd al ad rie
lk I ll-hst to te plowua so nay pWa km alfl. bes h ad ie
aIIcLqSaro aah ochuvoa. Breed hoaned b or skoebhekjc tb ohiergto eCbit
W .., ehalouM aot take muC heed o taatioia f m
-m t he n t omy hae tit d e thM hMto
Sme thsaw

Whdysstle:a B
!J||tM~fi||t&^^^ tltflO~k Tftfk~ftfa rf I^^ fU> i hiM



Y 1 -- I I A J m @

4 v

bor oountta, or even hirthr south, on tract of op. pine woods, and has
enough money p4f a-yIwd. 1- tIca H"n- tpou;l n this we
shall veure no fsttabtenr;t as he asa e.takwb s aa si his -
purse. He next proceeds to lear, my, four areas of ad for hi gro T
will out him f forty to eighty doll, md u te att
timber a the partlclhr tract; thi log ms als ust .S b r wite l,, will
split into rails. He then has the four ac ts fenamo with a "tn nal et b and
rider" taeo so that he will have uo uasea-n-a quarsels th Lh nailgb'M
mules or pigs.
The hoo should ew be in the Mldd, but il a nM, sB mr M
ate from the oualvated land. a that's e ohidn or oDtb tu i frtsg
gates open, wit not expose hib orop to he depnodrti atllfgOh Si..
The w of 7i nda mquirea every o.e to fe osda pote his owts rop ad alt
*too have th right to grase on uneosed blads. T1ls beq t lhw, it b oar
duty to obey it OfWouMr it is to be hoped that at oMu a tnt the nMarfuta
we shall have the privilege in each country of pausing lasl bhud Iwa requirng
stockbolders to ke are of their Maul, aod let the mcrop ta tre of tmVm.
It is very much to be regrettd that we are dlpoMd to try toantualats thli sappy
* state.of a n, and many of ua prmit our id to na half hfeiuLnd teiA
foolishly blame our neighbors whe the natural inldtict of the ndi' iLg
lead them to roo up our yams or peppia, or "plug" our arly waurmdnus,
Now that our ntler has his a pin, oo LQng bt thirty dhoR.ra, h unt
hire his neighbor and his mule-tf he l. & poor ma ab moet t ot buy a be or
mulethe first or aeond year-odhave his four sorwell plowed and tht^IgjlX
turned over not deper than four inse. He widl ti he ee of palmettoh
blessing, and hi land will be neay broke at a o of three dollar per soe.
When one flnt titles in lorida on wild land, if he buys a bne or mule, the
animal iea tranger to the looalty; it ea ot be ot to rn aClage i ga ra oh the
wild ram, troore the owner must d it either s work or idle. ang every-
thing to buy it coet him a mudh a-it doe to ed hiamlf ad hkmly, but wh6
he has a etw area in oultivstia absuar aor two, he an hbae a ap h of the
ineatimabo "guina gra," and bl i aedt while, g hi baiw hn. bItu* to
the loyalty, allowing it to run eat oaumomly. It will moo han 40 y near
home, begin always on hand whe needed. I atMed to make th leter brief
and pla, bu ctanot help digrsorna wha tbh e bU. bpt optra mater
will oome up before me
Oe6 amegood rdinay p on wr-will ta ,the mil mrdla o w yo
feld, aod where you Intl d to ly the, ioe as wH a a r dian .e omtuhd,
syt feet T. will kill the greas ad lanve bare ars u thas wha tb.
nre run in the wlntr or ~pingyour eam will be I nso dr being b red.
All that wll be oeamr to do atrnwM4 to guard flaia the 4. to rakb awq
thodry pineleaves each meam.
Ad now, sa nothis letter han aumed the nawre of pgene advdr t
beg ot yo to not M into the oomm ror od alothe gra ad dry mvl -
table matlr to aaemulats from yar to year a your unimprowd land, uurd the
imniakn that it is iaperie g the sil. If1 were posibe to retina it, ad saw
it tor ta gma oasy es i S SM it. no doubt, w ot rot ad mof a
Mbeoe to the tad, bta t- mameih buMelt asire Ro r. InJtb la sj toe
the fl runmig over lnd year afyar doM Mt iud to ap4 WvrhI r, bt
athaooteuryede4MJt by nbrmoqg Ix (thI sbhpe o pie abl that is rm*
aMe M b 4esd pl ant s m ia ad0161e im bykI (gNa lar klI

tba' tt w tkhwhe slthste nr. .t ir u m
a> a .L kI. a *. ...

.... Z

r' 1.




ra b M bwr to do mw dmm to the
buarpid it, pbis tomdafl'rm *hfo0 inwnO toGnp-
j. a(Afr*Bd osa f lomer it
i urt~T 'r*'h .8o tOt ke to neo th woae
r iJnh ofK Ru uftgrM forteiro( cathie
d tf *,.w. tar.,ural riht ao ,he.,*
ed In tho pl. Bu' t ai r wy b to brn over
wf i a I" todry &eo'gh to b ua thi ad IfeIa.
r .A "eer rm an1 your kc om upby to h lur : 4as ,iotdr asonn rh iso aM g l mw Myu-Oe, yIf yn h no
wp> aito mt M y iv "up tt ipb Moethat in Loaurl of tiem
Sat o aw at pnesent in te BetS. You vllwet up four
| to aiir anWsa the graove and ee that the t Is robqu Then di-
[r ppi b$eem, a t*As yao will ave Just a rows .ach way thi will
fl W ,tRw nmy forLty be prt ah wayf; It is poor oooay to sawo land
twmty yan tIee ad that your usesa bve ahed tbir il, cape it,
a.tb hmr furgw roo to apd Tk.thbery if pbtig tst to
rd ti ouloy S'pWob whe tn tarB o pbliM ut of its
Sman shoI ttsll yon to pLant applo mtr aeh taogther to
od y p d ad.tia him to go to th ftOirl ho of
ei pe Jyo are nr enough to the sub no a utuel'p)totn "
Stil rown are aI laid of in hlautif ear-here again I munt
a to ar to kwre .d the aocy fgurea a led aeoal, oles, etc.
(hJy are oxigi jd of n- idea, and hae louy noa s es ndbearded
by t k lrd iJE. rt pyur rows run parel) with your tnea, ad do
awy w@ aty of iowlog you greve diagonally, and In meons ring u
lukin apeds oa oht your pimeu a o tmntn IS bfe
|A ofp| t i1rMmow a in e rnry fly, and
tor o wll the mot atItI. Whene tihe a ge Iuaa
|iaimM toa 1 hat ye an crowd more a rem amnd'hae thm
aa ant, ls very diffi ult to sae The oota dM ofage
tralsl f A r Ot rbuadrd +iH from o tue in ta je and mne ao
|US u th boe^paoa btwaathe oam, o latr whato ahape th. may be
klaiN tb tfca are a a where tho moea Arrtata aad Preat~y
)w *a fund a lb pera halsu t daen or more ar
i L n 4. Tb aa a be mae Wdq t t; JT i Ali b44a meful to et trn
tbiias^l^ rheaa retACUid be aefuidly
aa nd smo t a k b bt In d, a
a a bttrndof Mttay-, Te aod, las,
a kg out to e A i o A ria dla oV (or or rfve
^ B >M ^*0> aouMd b o ii es Itbut r fet high

9Sw Bi*M e o o
ttL-{i~liV.1^ A~aM~r tl.1^Mbb ({ t rgr .rfJLP-I ^yyYi,!. ^^'i^M:frs. tX^-l- r- J ffrnkkk "^
IR-' ^*llxRiMMIIW'ftW B en~tl-1 i~vW-W'T*11110;9 :
n^5t~fflB~tfdJ^ liiliii|>T >il|lura61 a fooP(t M Iar

'*' J' '

J* '

ply to lf 'pw on rt M.a ~Jft^*^^?<^>?^ ^g
gnrtly ~inwo r~gI<^T^<5OrY l^^^^
aooapbMJ l. '-prtt dltt^ Mcwtf ii Sca^'^

ag~ing S>S ~atbtut

Whs n udtgn' witiiaU
flYoiui tttttoLi^?b ij~rold uw ou^nwv Lr^^^Yw^^

The^ Th*>^ oyN^^

Y dd f~nlrA( r sh
tb~~ iiWawbag^

rwrt'gvb bltk tM~ s4
a~~* stttA W ao
ot quer b
Inpiic ato ij fidrof tnA^ rls'e~brtyr 'lN'Nrt dbo

Rtr-a~ trlkto fij hr^t; l^Mhao;.hitC~b~i~i^H i ^F ^

wt lm' to.tfcert. B' ft^ b
txrw a hfTkjrla tiftrnilr kf~a ir~rcr *ptaJ~ rtttlC K'i!i tntiY~ fc

tt (ImMtC b jrtM/ itrofc tflrito *tolM tttyi.*^^:Wd~o>A tbo ,
dot th mrra wrt hrM^~ i) Yirtntv~itif~iFir*nh
atri *P< M wOC 't- of*Mt cjM ipllftr liiei4ry. *MOM.
cia s*7 wa M M~ti Uf*l~ HiyMflt.
an ,Ol4b In 0(e M1^b UlW~ro h y(brt
*^Irgtttwnis edtM b,^f^lMt(^

1 la.Whe

6 6


i|U, at.Ay thosirn "aot, it pJ 1 I ban mUu pra aea e Icot on
a tree 4liat was rVad rms the eed itS mood, W bmak in e ~.nar the
rooeaMwltag a bwueamS, as anos n i sqao U iMt ula d tree ~. The best
-idqeto piauog st eed to drop the qmr of a rrge n yoar take,
and whba te M ds all sprout, thbee wil qbe p ap. twp or more tiny r.
Lt thee h m a ew I ave, and ooa one wit show m ire than lat mats
th utbt ,hald be tredow gn ly, wend aith'ea, ad killd without
ubM Meto ol t blu eyoae. Te keepT e and utir the ol lightly,
m a0 mid iM quid amrum of eop rude to apply u. The ame atte-
*op t Lts skilfp rdar would betow on aq favorite t, to nake a ld
mowt, will ik your littio oange t grow lx fe bh in one yar. Yoo
lopid teen it t totlq sthke ae it dimbs up, aod who it grows to where you
want it ) pr asoa o t out the terminal bud-e t er you will have a
|d qme du.f Int yoo gire it all thoe mnour it Ul tke, yo will b have
wgem in eh yarm ; ia an or eight year you wl bato 100,000 oRaes from
oyea 100 tre, which will enable you to rut awhile. Thee tree, 40 fet part,

-a in twenty years be made to br 6,000 to a
eo not over M5-tbe otuht to bear date thnt
I It hilog sines been outr demooetnrtd that
nM dqtod a the number of t m muh as
Orange tres have been known to beer 20,000
irove not alone plated the ~oerason who
r eMoi heoo and why alight it or crowd i
tbom soa and etar aright

tre, and ibyour lifetime-i you
uooeu in orange growing doee
on the are bestowed on them.
oranges to a tree. The average
Splant it, but for thorn who may
i: ? 8 Is not scares now-give


John' EdBo, ao Rngil man, aot to Forida in 1837 a private soldier; when
Idtrfd Uat the aok of the Semiolat wrt, hM amoeped the obr of the Govern-
mat--4o g 160 tore te weh rman who served hi Florids-provi4ed he would
wooor ead wlWtivS a portion o it
Joha ae, like muy ohsen, selected a rmdal spot of 1An4 noar the o-bank of
tlk Johb's river, wherime found a few wild orange tree growing, on I little
b6 mnoMad. The wrhto l xtmSt he cultivated dId not ebeed five acre; he
boSed the wild tre-ebout ffty ll tod---ed lived on that loely spot aboat
mte pans Is a fe w evs hhi Bly tn. broqg bie al .e cash he needed,
-Iah rMd ono mrad yauernnough fw hi ownar Thin coe trI nrednue
dtod ui.i tl tnwa, -rahi pr..ipmey-Ii dAnd f1 theao hin pairog -d
adSelwrm teh. by thi Ste ao uqd to Se higbqS bider. TI agroe r
Mrob Med b the hA Rm. W. WWCaW4rua,. 4I Wtbre thousand dollars.
Joha .n w a orduy th wior, ad mue wlat woqd, bi.
aed S ths ae tn a.ry o weiestao of latd. It I re that a few are were
Pod, buat he eahtistaboe te t. obly aw few afee od at h tz watr .the
grpot. mru 3e7rl7; n ds us, tat 1$ Ma not lpwred much i ferral
pen tis porsOtytt -o *h*wj thj b: 4jtsrl~tjsill^o r' f P o

a ei fvtsyh8i hi mwrld a sac tisemhb of Mfr. Th
:d| -4 mBi m thU e On d bot asoous thsu ly to
wImtk hindred dol3 giea t la gMow ltbS y
<~l~l>Ctt~lr 140flM inl a. o w
*m~bi aYor *mw far <~s 3S;W *r~oyrew

fc P0 M
-a -^ *- a-.

20 .

hand, a relative ef thIs Jobo .ae seed in o, fd tbe beer innlr counties in
Canada, and after thJry e 0 toil ed hrdhi ~ rtng( the primeval foremt, he
opened a hrm of one hundrd aws. Three .o eklidns died of oouumption,
due wholly to the kioldemet qlimamt-he himsbldf ed of ieflamatory t~eumatism.
His wife. who tolled ia snow oneb th a theyw ea nd tb other will, died of
a combination of eomplda~n peculiar to od Jasids ad the saruiding son, to
save his life, visited Flerid a k years ao,. and lookd ito s lalim to John
Eato's estate. He feaod that osm oaANor Tmu plhntd about the time that his
father stsrMd in Oanad, paid two hundred ed ioy dollars oet, while his farm,
upon which the family had worked like daves for thirt years. till they were
nearly all in their grave, was:let to a teimat dariog the owner's absence at a
yearly rental of ome hundred and twenty-flve dollars. We do not give tho names
of the Caada family, beeon we are not at Ilbertyo publish them, but if any
one want the names of vre hundred lfaiilee whoe exprie s will bear out our
theory, in Maine, ia, Northm Uifdlgt Wiaonao, Mnnesota, or eveu the
poorer mountain ounties ofNew York, he can readily find them. .
The moen who gathered the fruit from the larger trees and counted them for
shipping, are John 8 and W. L Barunhrt, of Alamonte, Orango Co., Pla., and
they, as well as many others, can make afdarvits t tthe fel sUteal.
The gentlemen wnlo bought the fruit are kHe Welch and Braudes, wholle
dealers, of Charleton, 8. U. This firm are alo. acquainted with the grove, leaving
visited it several seasons.
It is not a fair test to pt Mr. Eston's One alonFI d any pionoor rmcer, but
he must be compared with men who iaowlted themselves hundreds of mile up the
wild rivers of other now terririeor, with some hermit or realuse who spent thirty
years of his life in the forest cultivang Just land enough to supply his vegetable
food. How many s'ch are there T John Kitson, on the Menomonee of Michigan,
or Leon De'coty. of the same river; Dat Flynn, of Stargeon Lake, in Ontario;
Joe Roubideau, of the Upper Mlbaoih These hardy ploner. spent each more
than half a century in these northern wilds on fertile soil, and now the item of
their cabins are pointed out to the traveller; the chimney are fallen down, the
worn-ou soil suplrte a few old wqnthles apple or pear trees, surrounded by wild
briers, and are the only Bmoumete to mark the .pots where live were wasted.
Not so in the SnMI-TROPIOAL bome of the hermit Johbn raton, who spent his
old ago in ease, a what he rolled, comfort, no cold winter's blast to bill )hia
hones, he was an invlid wh he titled, ad thirty years wore added to his life.
He had plenty of fish and game at his door, ad a lw wild orange trw, which
lihe budded more uas an ooetre freak thaa with a view to prO, have survived
him, seoweriag tbergoten Shait o t o her pts aemIma
tmden, you mnot oa i.r thi a aaa lattstioa of what can b done or has
ben.done by mean whmo orme d with Ju ndget, s ll, and energy, In d
looates in odd Moounetre; k uiasu ply a oearytot the expeaenae dc oseurlc
men in out.ofMbe-way plaes. Of oowse yo0 sae poiet to lovely sad riluable
frew and orehards in that, grdepot, the tpwaebI arlpoa, Ontario; the
fine lmn in Buchmanmo aty s or the f te ds of Wastern New *
YeorZ where plse worth twaey-.e thoaMd dojal or more have been made
by the labor e ,one pemestiu. But nwe veu to asn, ead we think we can
preO, thatiifpopl wh.ervethse rt n dt, es ded u
ma b amery ad ebreiduuM ade. .6 M tb Petij-
sulaoC lSt eMoy, the *

S. I -

1 L -

Qen H. 8. Sanford has made an orange grove of 120 acres; Judge Markham, of
Athltj, a grove of 100 acres; Gen .0E. .Btbouck, grove ofl5 acre ; Mr. Amory,
Soston, grove of 40 areas. All theu. lve been made through agents, the own-
qrldom vwitia4 the State, but prwring for homes in the near future. Hun-
edasof tlue groves are made in South Florida, and owned by persons who have
h never seen Florida or seldom visit the Sita ?hro are plenty of good re-
wle ho will undertake to chdr lind, fence, cultivakt and p sat groves bor
Snrldeftlk and care for them till they come into beaul-men who are forced
remain rida during the whole year to avoid the dagor of euosure to the
*Iaageale climate of the North, and have moved to Florida with their families to
e hem permanent homes. There are thousands, nay, hundreds of thouaandd
t the North, who hold position where they live up to their salaries, or save a
spall sum now and then, and can And 0o safe place to invest. The investment in
small way Ih real estate having proved sodisastrous to many, and savings tlanks
eing often an approved means of making a few idle scoundrels rich, at the ex-
poe of the indutrious and frugal, so we will endeavor to answer the question
rst quqoed, and at the same time ealarge upon it, so that a way may be pointed
t for persons to put aside something for the future, or prepare a home to which
Scan retire when they become tired of the routino of official or profassional
First, let us ee who may make such home., and mention some of the reasons
why they should.
How many thousands are there, in the aervieo of companies or individuals, who
are held so strictly to the rules and orders of their employer or master, that the
smallest breach of discipline on thuir purt would forfeit a position which it has
coat them years of toil and anxiety to fit themselves to fill ? Service of a hurt
duration under a master is beneficial to most men, as it teaches them patience and
forbearance, and is indispensable where a business or trade is to be acquired. It
helps a young man immonsely to have the firm hand of a master over him for a
few years when he sets out in life; but when service becomes perpetual, it is do-
gradig, and no man can feel that he is in full poseadn of all the attributes of
manhood if he is under oblgatios to appear at a certain time and at a given place
each day and obey orders. Ko matter how mild or resonablo the administration
he may serve, he is a slave hi tho fullest sense of the term, if he sees no pros-
p of being his own mater iin the future, of being relieved from thia bondage of
m:y toll; and if he to a person of intelligence, it must lower him in liis own estima-
taoe, Und it is no matter for surprise that so many clerks, aOountnDta, cashiers
end other fiducary igenta commit much senseless and fatal crimes. The thirst for
that freedom of action, that heaven betowed. right to personal liberty, which we
a a*rfifoed every day, bought and sold (as the slaves are sold in Africa) for a
epS't] f jirv'-thia longing for freedom tempts the poor drudge to steal the prop-
eny hia etployer, so that he may have some respite from tfhgalling fetters of
eer anamor a few days' frvedm he oomtnits a crime that either rends him to
praoa, or enods him to some remote pert of th earth, to suffer the remorse and
tpdaUoM sure to follow tho foolish rct
ro a who works for another for was is free Before we reach or major-
bdW o g to our prets; water we reaoh that period i.U wis to submit to
for t hfw years, so that strict discipline will teach us how io appreciate un-
mf.edom when we ps on to the time wlheu we hope,to indulge in that
es Durng the ime of very in the South thee were very few
who had the t remt ide that their condition was amomual. They
lebdas, at rule nd the oest Ihtelligent trid hard to phase beir mas.
u n their e rd look or brd of approbto given
1ftaW~r rooand as a eple
'* of the lowaitsmago nemary to
*ID npt *old good, a.there were
..k~~~ tar .LL rlt *me .a tta ..aia J aJalaaL

gers" weasmagned to this lot a the blackeMt Oo Ido not etd to
argue that it was say adv~tag to them to buwrstmas they were, but dll asUe-
tim to.the fact that a man as be eUe tId la. Qotdlhd ae unnatural for asui
asian as that or being uwre bahtaL AdM lthouogb .su' nr enateotmtper.
vadea the rank of the mdllksm who Wrve materm hialisge, yet in the heer
of ll intUlligt sad eniMlgtned pereus tb sr a wp of the gau utm of
alary4om; a dele Wto e t* time t oom whm tbly ied ask the _" the
superintoedest, or ou)erp r offer, or a reL; a debre to doIi g : their ova
lavess of absne," an4 a. friedoa to itoi nio bGeaudlu fsid. and waohip
him in bi frst triple when the eprimtao them, without mlking auppba.
tion to some em pkqrer or tsmas.nter. .
The normal condition of t pre whime wq behe bmpmu. the bhed of fam.
ily, is to be master of the hruMhor" ,adri to o ad miea work or play, as
suits his owan covenieuoa
The degradation o uervitude depymeua t..spirit, and dwarf the intlslect f
the offspring or the hi mio, no matter whbt poulos hhe nay hod in sooiety.
The man who works for daily, weekly, .only or y y wge for aothr not
a complete man; his wibaad obildnren feI td, tf he bhe aamtot intelligose,
he knows it and bemoazn it himlL. The eap)q may ae a good salary,
live well and be tlhe favorft of his master, but this country is ot a demoaeice
now as few yearago, aad the o mto beoea r are growing worn
every dqy. The wlthy are beoomnig more aeure in their pooa every
year. We have nowa wre-dd ad aMd r-wtehblM ed ritsta y--a ark-
tomacy of the worst type, it Ihas older anatry, deeds of valor, or moblty to
bout of; an aristocracy whoE ealy claui to diadnotm Is the pontrioa of
wealth, often ill-gotten. .he morebaf" are m goei in la in an emormoua
ramio, and the employer aa tmpTed ae ieing autber apart every day; there
was time not many ymea o, wheMa wormaa oreane loyee might be on in-
thmate terms with h eiptrg, et now he may oaidc himulf torauut it be
e see the pcrr kaL warn a time whtn a aood man was act dia-
charged without rauos give, but now he inrimply wedd that hs at nwaed
any longer, and he gets o zmldn "Well,". yu my, "b.b h all*ttra
ooough, but you don't advooae a new deal' do yo.-em equal dhm, and all
that oommunistle stut" on we do no. "Then what an O' about it?"
Our answer is, mae a h N.ot bomeao on a ciLy or aubmru Ira o- where
you may at best fd rMWt Md tttbplgr s the winter povopae
your master, and he will give yorFgea enough to buy coal iad-oo-aud city
or village homes as thoamanda ha utvr tlie aviqc ot yarm la butlding ua,
but till were encumbe for ground, mt or purcham mmmo---little spof tnsty
by a hundred feet, upo whh aL their bopero eiatred, abd from whldh they
are now being eviloem by money ba or the uiace cmpaniea. I d not
a "houee and lot a hbom. No pretty is worth the name of hoe if 1t will
not support its ownersn inlewdobt nfl thM weorild bar the simple paoduot of
ts boasom. A home of ar brod eogh to prowS far this (eneradon and the
next; a freehold that wifejed, bsu It howna ad hiU depsemo n,
and when he entors hisa s he L ( ad mapr; na s r.i, plantda or fruit
garden which gea iwm a Elving, the l. y pg rtwrthy theyaned Sme
of .0me." q A -
ekr artsesa t oaf the lad mae not ean-
late to ago Mt upoan bm tde the Wet. hnd 'qml with the eia
yeqaanri whoAe mC inrpilt Hemna *i thtpefr ofthe
helw olat r SieJ6Jt Ctiiij~ t h thI to poMt tbrMMwr
cbiatotf^ hett f tet l t tiba
*^^^^^^^^^^^-^ P9^r ^^^^^^PI ^^^^^-rW-^^^^^^WjB-^1^^" e^^^B^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ i-Ir-^^^
< ~* *I JJ ^^ ^_JI 1 3^ -- k -c j* r WL ^ ^-- */ '

-rr wr -r r -~nrr~n rrnr S.~ -- .

A ^ wt I.n tr *eerii +a
ww&tayote t(o stld f~ rf -tbtr
i'. *y *

*ww BIg Aisri aO -opst, w ha oo.o
94Pif U0ltar1dto^ttM ts U a btfl'oryJs is

pl o H ayd bd
uu1aoheotm ,oe t h-

Ila r. we An thbl ao DNof malvJuo to atai meat .e t.-

af II~r -.. a. ... .,..a pml

ee t ailliona of older atuiodis pua over look for the spiese,
da. ,tc l a nw d auti t *a p. rfwm olive pu, ga,
4 esBvi~or lacMi a'able mnhh ti.e war dimMee can* .1c peodnc.
,atl w'btU t to appndaml*.M clmed. and It i subject d oomaem r-
irk, wlbseptlttle n E onb Vofr, a*, ta f rule, adubmltd or aa-
nally oyupO ;J coven more itat omMlaqry lUidot A pe o.pursmed of
mae mutqbvaqr will OL stay la mild dtiM ; .he murt ha a winter to ooa-
ad wJtlho rPbp its, sat I witeak 4or rsfg p;rJfli
not eoStod with anything that ho i a e to. -

* tI 't ,

id i

16a andp
teplg i

:. r

m e

wu for mmal yt m slater fro Uiteold
eth) VUiBnmqma. eOqMaita a.Ud utlar m
r, thati l .uur et wht .iuilia W md de
wned Amp Mo hisavwgdi ha.. lIre tflc of
the udws clint. Ja olod.4, mbd Usihad
rule te *' migsahe a d iqUw -
ro Bsir.ih Mwbm VhPa MiJaf th. ar.m.
antal themniu tioe outhern pro( aPoda. Thi
jam, ,tro punhbrohin ul d Ml ts plalutstM
e& tutte btno~~mm i-, sItb.-,,,an
; ywi f : mou+,rmldm, ,wi pe r m 'nv
a Mrng tin Raving ha hem $1 thl sMult
tb wbhit rnM, they asm maklt ru$4 ttdn
wlhb wans w.rped and dwarld in the o
li.utee ndt bg td peoPe to b high doe of

mbdut #tSlaMrt; bhefr I mS
trpo Hots tho ause a. w vq c a
r fC.l e ,andittfor hafswlun tht
VJ.C sy sTM *U**~f *

'r f '' '

;.. i- .* cntl rrw- 'J Y '*A ^*^
\rd cffi t 'l~b+2 ;,?i~i ,. ?
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ p VT < i:^^' li''e.^^'^ v' 1 "**

-<* w

4' .' tf *- -
I!g .rn C u 'dl

. r *
*-.,+-.' *'

..I,. "*
>. +-

i 1tr.n

a .OL A W .A L. A.


i '

;, .

a -

tF 1i



W me AMik a





aau'df wn thn oat h called th-oe *:f ogt bo te% if
the 8. Ltw*noes, on nqot s the gn-Mmaags.T-- ieridba M g
a Ventian' provinciltda having ~rem toll 'e or 4 a aore
saw that portion of America known as Mor4 toby,. am the wh Oe w Wqth
Ameita, !q t quarter otf entry after lry,` wa knoAn a Ldhaukd
Florid. Td' the .division Melo wea ddod by roa, and during ti t1
hundred yenw that followed, the Nwithern pan orthm wb orld.waa dn
to Lm Cbradb e New Pranoce Now Nugis, bew Housd. OaitfOrnhi *iw
etc., whlitlidg down Florida till nothlag bet the ptImutta bow enrihg that ".
was known by the original title. The an e great nanuy ptt'y atoei i
listed about ghe St. John's River bealq leonoeed on "Paauiqetod "
(Kater Sundaj.) but the foregohig 6 ti tUhe a*I S the name, sa, ae day
wheu North Amerle become one emp ir, a n led-' people will bpt iabt for
a uame for the nation, loida being the first aqlUtfob will, no dom, boe .ed
a the moat' pprcpriate and beautiful; then oar mat gited-bflds a wEi Nbe
South Florida Is fllling up more ranpdly.than any new a onTry -in the Vs.
The State cannot show eo great an inlux of aettlers anUualy sa Kp ,aqm,
or several other Western Stan, bet We are die sly Sittetd.. -' gn as urant-
ter all over the other new Iate., while It Fleda the eomigndio- Im eowfied to a
limited ar, not more than a tweatitth of the Sat, and Ivemnre that if mll the
portion of Florida which offer a eteetion to bomemer* *re lopped oI; the
region being settled would etlit a monrren iedlojsent than w: portion of
the other newly-settled Gemfiuts
The settlers in South Florida wa bettor atisied with their aw horae than the
new bottlers in any new oounut in or Unisn. There arena ww reuaruing of
thoee who make ofdorit eo k eum holme tea hMftbtrt from the Weat
There is no Stat in the Unio where land ehaanea so rapidly in raln A
traet that wa taken a a hae a a yer or two ego i now rorth fram na
to one hondued dollar. per acre in maqyio, ia not a itU i la the Wat,
fmply beMuae town has beu htl o -t, btL'r agrotaltral .urpous only.
The at winter ha giTen it. new Imlptu. and now it can be ately rollod
upon for a log tenof nenrmpled pw~ prty, No previooa scn o hase.m a
may vdftoer s that of 1881, sad newer before have oa tf th homaek.
obroule growlrs wisitMd the Stt. Many orthose who lound fault~ few years
are now permanently etttld there. All the acounU now pre g{ the remake
Plorida did not feeI the eseets of the pol for veal yes after t am of
Jay Ooke bCa, sa B ehe l she ntpt e to gortet O had 'hr or
four railroad ae ow being built in South loMda; two vmry pitBapclat oA are
being projected in the Northern ar of the sme, which. ill matPialy sot
our thriving little metropolis. A lw years go Jekeosvuile wasu ota tomw to
be very proud of, but now it ha ad thatag when even rndt* the
girs Oity of Sew TYot invarbly aplk oa it ta the sunrst wpip tbh
That it will be et commerclm l aMrm i a Sw yes there anse a'the
Hlghteat doubt Thrs a Wf aorto ooal ptriwis Is ewey hae at.opUwgaaa
from what t known a "Satte ri. t," that amin to each 8aUe fl s iM..
p dlls Trh plae ,.which lm.arbe lead e oacra t f.lo. pf.d to
every dtimn of th btew, rerpti perhaps at 81, thao doeo t tt isn UZAW by
little, hia faling grows until t pervda every mind ad every iren, ad rival.
tM a back eats, and the inhabisank mreglt. be issuE tbho wbhoptni
the 4 big town." Jaaclonwille hdisclc ai vat IOONaginbri to
. be tA town of Florida Od therpI:i paau irra twt
Sa thir united forte wr breOt t the uowh o jal
Wbrinoi~Z~- s~um t M*WLW

Further Mooth, bat Jacmihie is situated just right. She is noar enough to the
sea allow her dune to lso to it bring beach whoaen they wish. I.e i
far enough to emcpe the gals ad i nsw and- is sitated on a river hb most
oaaveuien tia Akee io r tInlnsd Vtafi. Tho St. John's present. no obstacles to
navigadon at auy seaon of the year nor under any circumstances. For one hun-
dr d and fifty miles s is a broad c spane of water with no current/, with no ice,
no rapids, shoals, nor osaoons of low water; year in and year out it is the Uamo
broad, beautiful placid stroum, jnvitig alke. tho.magnifioent ooean steamer and
the pJor aeUler in his dug out, but truit the moat republican stream in the world,
for it ofers no inducement for monopoly. Unlike the Hudson, Jack Frost never
meals it over, throwing the inhabitant on it .s.hores into the hands of a railroad
monopoly; unlike the Missisppi, its currents osfer no insurmountable opposition
to the progress of smull boats, or large ones, up srnam or down. It not only
ders no ourrenw to interfere with the efforts of the most puny oarsman, but it is
no aooommodatiag that thi laIy man oan wait a few hours And he is sure to get a
breeze to waft him in any direction he may wish to go by spreading his aco or a
blanket on bis oar, if he has no more approved nautical applianeoe
A few travelers oomplaiu of the fitness of Florida, the absene of mountain
whieh, it i said, add to the moenery and lend attractiveness to the landscepa. But
in Holland and Blgium, the most populous and healthy countries in northern
Erope, there are nom aina. This very batena i a gnat bling o Florida.
In Tense and Virginia the are many noble rivers that are of no us .what-
ever fr avlgation, are in the way of land carriage; they are dry at one season
and roaring kmrtW at another, always in the way of some iawrest and seldom
of use to any one. The mountains are barren, and the foot hlls are continually
seadiog down their fertility to be carried out to sea and become the soil of some
future cutinent, but entirely lost to the present proprietor. The flatanes of
Florida prevents washing of our soil; oonsequeuntly, like the Netherlands, it will
improve with culivatiu See the frmnn in Georgia, Mimouri, .Virginia aud other
Staes, that once 1ad a splendid loam rbil. The hilly and mountainous nature of
thi country has pemitted it to be all washed down into the rivers, while the once
fertile lops are now barren. rod hil that camoot grow cotton u foot high. The
treams are of the ooastewucy of cream when they have any water in them, aud
the farmer has to buy guano fr all the crop he can sell, with no hope of ever
renovating the worn out lad. The atossee of Florida precludes all this. Our
little streams always eler, and we never need fear the time when our planta-
tdoes will desert us and weh away to Old Ocean. Our streams are always navi-
gable; tlre is no part of our State where such a thing au a ureuity of water is
ever known. pad with little expense we Oan open up communioation from river to a
river, over tw ty thmusad miles of inland navigStum all over our State. Still
we have, own at Jadaoville where it is very fiat compred with other parts of
orda pIety of undulation to give a erfec drainage; fiy feet in a mile of
fall we fnd much bettor for the arleultural interets of a Oountry than five
hundred: fie feet dmral it, while ive hundred washes it away.
Soeh thing as gully washed in the oil of Florida is a rare thing to ee,
rrop in the o bills of Middle Florida, a mseto of nonter the inteading
TYea the noble t. John's is everybody's friend, and it is the set of the soo-
wn of JwuSIUYk
O eWm growe of ti ty ve, a o the trade
wMth e .wig the apthy of ardlMu, ws allowed to be curid away so far
k-I ah a d Charistn, wi l etel in JacksonvUle, and thea we
*0 nOW 't .o ShUiHtlm To apitl will b wowed rom Tallahame,
swea w Forida to Aa we will thar- a Sae g than
gj^Th Arta Will be et whfte oar State will be morpe cosp .
nrrt~JtliAMD thIs mow I Wanting prgr into

k aa mnmtomomu_. t* *-^.


comparatively valueless, in Middle and Northern loaida bwausu not far enough .
South for semi-tropioal fruits, will sm onea tito atoer for othe products quite
profitable; and the extreme Southern portia, where, i is ~ flat without drain-
ing for tree growing, will all be utllied for the more strictly tropical production.


There is no country in the United States where a poor man can get a foothold
more easily tha in Florida, and there is no country in t.e Wot whore he can
make a small tract of laud mo valuable.
I have meen all kinds of times in Prida and lot me teU poor men what I would
do if I were ontirely out of money-- eondti mn I sbhal a certainly come to if
I ooutinue to devote my time and limited talents to the eause of em tiom tIo
I would go to South Florida Jiut as ro a I a I ld procure sage there, and
squat on a homestead of 160 acres so soon a I codd arn maey enough to pay
the fees; cut down pine saplhng, peel the bark of, and lay up a pole cabin twelve
feet by twenty-four. I would cut down a larger pine tree that would split freely,
and "rive" out shingles and boards for my door, floor, and splints to nail on the
open seams between the logs. I would then put up my roof in the simplest way,
and close in the gable as well ms the joints between the logs, And dig a well.
which I would curb with split pine also, as there is no stone to be had. Then I
would cut out a few logs in the end of my hm seand build a clay clinmey. Every-
thing would be done as a native cracker would do it, and if 1 didn't know how
myself, I would get one to show me-wh ch they will willingiy-as the mot
gentlemanly and obliging neighKbr I ever pet are them ame s-csIled 'm erahke;"
and I am sorry to may that our Northern people, with all the advantage of dcirll
zati n, do not turn out as many naturally humane and hopttbs people, to tL.f
dozen as you find among the poorest white people of the south. But I digest.
When completed, I would have a nice little new, elan. and comfortAle log-boum,
and all I would have to buy would be about 0O pounds of nails. If 1 had a
family, I would make a nest partition dividing it into two rooms. I weald put on
a little kitchen as soon as I oomild get time from my labors elsewhere, ma a
little plans along the front. The whole cash needed would be about $5, and I
could even do with considerably leas.
* I would then fene in one acre, deaden the big tree, and put op a good high
rail-fence, which I would split myself. Then, I would fence it a small pla* fifty
feet square, for a garden, back of my hose, and about hali as much in front,
with a paling fence so strong and calbe that rabbits could not come through, or
pigs. and of the first enclosure I would m*ke a kitaem.prden where I could grow
a small quantity of vegetables, but I would make k rich if I had to buy guan
and have my tomatoes, egg plant and other vegetable all the yar; cabbr,
peas and Irish potatoes In winter, with okr. bens; etc., in summer. On this malt
patch I Would raise all I should need by keeping it up to its capacity, winterand
My front yard would be planted with a pomeraate, a oouple of olendera a
pondiana--the most beautiful of flowering shrub-a erp myrtle, and a guqra
selection of such rare and beautiful plans ao weras a oa be grow aMw .e
north ot the twehty ninth degreE I wmald the paL tw Pmag
mnih a I oould ge, on my fenoed are. and hoe the lroMad up hes bedlsl whlI
would let sron o the first rainy day, ad pknt wMi mset potae. Ma
away from around my fecsm, eep llay rgmod:e, ad tf Is-dee la .tI
sumae, by next winter I would hawsee patmoms a sd matn, daId tO
h a wAa m- -am, Ira eals 8- a.L m Af L ..a uas a a

neighbor, wlhose hopes and sympathies wee like my own. I would ble hpper
than it I had a salary of two thousand dollm a year in Sew York. and forced by
tyramlical fashion to live up to it, seeing no future bet the shop or the desk before
me year after yar.
On my homestead I would have to live, perhaps, on the nantie diet-baoon'
and hominy, or sweet potatoes and stewed beef for a while, until I ocS treak
the monotony from my garden.
In a few years [ would have a few orange trees bearing, and increase my cul-
tivated land s' that I could work for myself, and not have to work for hire at all;
but I would prefer to work ten years as a farm hand for some rich neighbor than
to be a landless, houseless nonentity bound to serve some one for life. In ten
years, with my spare hours, I would have a nice little orange grove bearing
enough fruit to bring me $SUO a year, and other things to bring me enough in ad-
dition to make a good living, while my homestead would be certainly worth at
least $25 per ucre from the inevit ble progress of the settlements around me.
Then I could extend my grove, build a better house, and come North to see the
snow again for curiosity. Whon a m n has acted wisely, kept very quiet, made
no experiments, contracted uo debts, and gained the respect and confidence of his
neighbors, he is rich with such a property as I describe. "His wealth then ac-
cumulates with rapid strides for such a small oeglnning, and twenty years sees
him an independent man, as the world bhas it; but in reality, a man who has the
manhood to start this way, is as independent as a king from the start.
One might think that such a small beginning, suoh humble surroundings and
scanty means would consign the Nettler to obscurity, and effectually debr him
from all decent society. It would in most countries, but not in Florida. There
you will find as good families as the country affords situated Just in that way.
and anyone who goes there with ordinary intelligence and the last spark of po-
litene. is treated as an equal.
There is nothing inhoapicable about the climate or the people. A man can live
out doors the whole year it he prefers-, and ntffer very little iuoonvenience at any
time, but with real comfort most of the time; and I would beg to say that the hum-
blo coume which I have depicted w.muld be within the reach of the most inex-
perienoed. Still it would ben pftlatial reaidonoe and princely grounds compared
with the pole cabins or palmetto huts of some excellent citizens. A rtn of good
physique and energy would have no difficulty, oven without a dollar to stirt, in
having an eutaUlishment of flvo-old the pretensions in fire years that I have al-
loped ten years to accomplish, mud in ten years would halmve a hundred acres in
cultivation with a thousand orange trees in bearing. Of course all depends on
the parsons who undertake home making. But itb South Florida the perpetual
plkasint weather, or almost entire ekmption of winter horrors, is what makes the
home seker's lot an easy one. People of the West casi readily understand what
a p or pioneer fears mot. If h hhas no m ,ney, no teun, no house, no fuel, no
food supplies laid up for hiimolf or his care, what a horrible fate is before him, and
if he hse built a "' dug out" hour, by excavating in the side of a bluff or canyon,
and covered it with sods, and hIs provided food and fuel. lie has done so at a

waste of physical Ibrco that might bettor be expended in making his home than
prepAriag for a worse than useless winter. But it is only repetition to enumerate
and compare a country possessing a free government, free land, civilized society,
freedom frop.the curse of winter, and products of the highest commercial vslle.
with a country where winter consumes more than summer can yield, and where
the oil, though rich, produces crops that h .rdly pay for mnoing them, and where
the pioneer is in dread of Norhern fr~es, snows, Indians, grasshoppers,
droughts, pr lrie fires, tornadoes or horse thieves if he owns a team. To a reflect-
inog mind the diffeemone I ohvious.
The pottage I have blilt in iminatloo I have twioe built in reality, and would
that I had never lft my first that I ensttmected when I Was young and hopfthl.
thirteen yaem ago; bat I longed for speeulatinn afgin, as ann as I frlndn that
FloarS was so wonqerfnilv adapted i the ootitdne of Northern people. And
.SAI,.. I sant 1k Dat--A,.l Vm..--J ,, It --- --. -- L ... I i ... A -t -



prise I had learned in the West oould not remain dormant, and instead of building
up my "h',me I built up the country (a thankless task). I made money, aln
spent it all in trying to bring about what I had prophesied, that Florida woul4 be
a great field for immigration; but still I am not forty, and I can go back now to
my dear old Peninsula, take a pre-emption and bily my lad. and in ten years
more I Oma make up for my losses, besides having the proud satisfaction thatmy
country has been bottered by my efforts, and that thousands of lives may be
saved through my exertions, for, after all, sy what wy may, the wonderful effects
of bouth Florida dlimau in the cure or arrest of deadly disease, is above all its
other attracdons.
A home such as I will make, if I am entirely penniless, is not long the "cabin
in the woods that the reader's magriuttion may paint The growth of trees and
plants in this quickening atmosphere of a perpetual rprmg, with the tender care
of an enthusiastic husbandman, soon transformed his little farm into an arboreal
paradise. In a year he has pineapples, bteanas figs. In two years he has added
guavas, poaches, pomegranates. In three years be has lemons, oranges, limes,
.Japanese persimmons, cherries. Chinese pears, and if he desires the more delicate
tropical fruits, he can, by light protection, have innumerable luscious and whole-
some kinds. Ilis oettnge will be embowertd in vines and trees; growing trees
will be a continual object of his tender solicitude and enrapt ,dmiration; every
win'or and summer his trees are growing, and no pet animal becomes more dear

to tho owner ith
pays a.oution 1
into bearing in
hundred orange
dollars; so is it

the fin

only m
has 1i
he wil
will gc


in an orange tre. It is always lovely, and
by making a moit wonderful growth. I ha
ive years foem the Ased, and the seventh
3, which brought the owner (on the tre e) 2a(
not plain Lhnt a very poor man needs only

if eared for well, re-
ve seen .j tree nursed
year it bore twelve
oents each, or thirty
twenty-five trees for

it ten years, n I a .thao end of which Lime they can be made to pay him
a thousaul dollars? To that number he can gi o good care, while If he
more. hit labors away from homo will interfere with their care, and they
ake slow progress.
pine forest mnv still ho standing within a stone's throw of his house; if lie

large tract of i:an he mar bi a
that way lie will keep his eyes on
s hair; he will be absorbd in
i see nothing but loveliness in the
will only seem in keeping with t
* away with the teautiful picture

mile from a neilbor, but if s traveller
thi deep green of thus foliage around the
the beauty of the flowers and fruit, end
lindc.,pe. The humble rusticity of the
ho tropical surroundings, and the visitor
of an orange tree indelibly photographed

on his mind, having wholly forgotten to look for disagreeable features
orange grove makes a location beautiful, no matter where situated.
seano when there leaves aro fallen and the fierce rusting gind ii h<
the bare forbidding branches u in an apple orchard, when the farm
trees and plants and is absorbed in the business of keeping hi:
animals wnrm and fed; so the settler in South Florida makos his t
leaving a life of enturies before them. lie thinks of how he is 4
tree for thie twentieth generation of his deoendsnts, ad being
perpetual beauty it is a Joy foreverr"

. A thriVing
There tis no
rling through
ler forgets his
nsolf and his
rees his pets,
eMtablishing a
a thing of



We started from Lake Munroe in a yawL and sailed or rowed all the way to
ealt lake, at the head oa the east branch of the 8t. John's. ait Lake is quite
brackish, and surrounded by pnarahes or flat lnds for mile. in every direction.
ess to to tsat, where the country is phe wood all the way to Indian River, a
daooe of about eve miles. We employed a team to haul our boat over tc
FPwl Point, a erwioe or which we ws duohiw the exorbitant snam of tep dollar



"dead ahead," so we knew that to proceed would be impossible against the wind.
The river is several miles wide, but the channel is narrow, and it is impracucable
to beat against head wind, so we did like other coast people, we waited till the
wind changed. All at once it came from the north, and away we went right be-
rore the breeze, bounding over the waves. It took but a few hours to laud tls at
aprn. Here we camped, found the mosquitoes bad and sand tiles worse. Hired
s wede to gather some oysters-the largest and most delicious we ever tasted.
Next day we sailed on down St Lude Sound with a fair wind. Went ashore at
veral old abandoned clearings, where a few lime and lemon shrubs, of a very
stunted growth, showed signs of former cultivation. Tile soil is all exceedingly
andy and poor, and where the land had been plowed it was bare and barren us a
leert. The high land is along the west bank of St. Luile Sound, and back a few
hundred yards iL is a fiat region to the great Alpatiokee Swamp.
Old chimneys and foundations of buildings remained to show where lives had
een wasted, and when we saw it, it was lately abandoned. in the high hammocks
re found cactus vines that ran away up amongst the branches of tlihe trees, some
f which must have been twenty or thirty yards long, bayonet shaped, and about
s large as a man's finger.
We found here the india rubber tree-a most wonderful plant A small vine
kill creep up the bark of a gigantic palm or magnolia and climb to the top, then
t will throw out lateral branches, which will wrap themselves around the trunk of
he tree; the vine and branches wiii frm a network around thedoomed tree that
e kindly gave the slender vine its first support. When the vines come in contact
hey grow together, and soon the whole tree is wrapped up in the meshes of this
viog net The india rubber grows on till it rushes the supporting tree as a bo t
oostriotor doe his prey. The magnolia dies, the vines grow together and form a
old trunk as oon as tile wood of the magnolia has all rotted away, and wepee
he grand Finaue ndiaa in all stages of growth, from the thresd-like vine to the
perfect tree, having ungratefully completed the destruction of its first protector.
We see evidences all around us that we are in a different climate from that of
he St John's River, or any region north of us. Here we see the mangrove
staining the proportions of a goodly s.ued forest tree, but one of the most
traordinary vegetable productions in nature.
The mangrove begins growing at the margin of the lagoon, grows up straight a
w fets, and sends down tendrils from its branches, whioh take root on touching
e mud. The tree grows on till it attains thirty or forty feet in height; it then
as over toward the ocean, its branches send down numerous slots which
e root adthe fiast oem oease to grow and soon rots off, leaving the trunk of
Strs leaning in the air, supported by the new trunks formed from the tendrils,
tlntug the phenomenon of a huge trunk of a tree broken off at the stump
Sand hoited twenty fet in the air, supported by twenty or more small slems,
ke a pany legs in a bench. This wonderful tree continues to grow at the top
d and delay at the slump. lying in a nearly horizontal position, aid literally
\awinug on toward the beach, forming new legs as it advances. This, I consider,
of the most wonderful of Florida's many eccentricities.' The woodl of the
grove is exceedingly hard, and for handles, mallet., etc., would be very valu-
e. It is capabt of a high Kciah. I believe it is the only treo in the world
is able to change its loton. I have no doubt that many of the trees we
w had moved at least forty or fifty rods omwn where they first commenced to
ow. Nothing in ti vegetbl kingdom p em a more novel and interesting
tlha a tr, lying up m the air, making new legs at owe end ad rotting away
the other eztremlty; in this way traritng about like a Miasru emi.rant,
iookMh for a htter lmdoo." It reminds one of a huge ocatipede, or the Irish.
Serplsdnao a oI kMoowve, a tuamoat looking for water." The younger
i 4k.. #h l ..a. *am in IndaIa m*naminenc fvar the armndn. And


River, we came to Jupiter narrown Had we not been pretty well acquainted
with the salt lagoons of Florida we would have great trouble in finding the right
channel. The whole lagoon is a collection of channels and ialands. In some places
the water is only a few inches deep, and it would be impossible to navigate any
but the one deep channel.
We had a pleasant sail down Jupiter, and at night we camped near the light-
house. Jupiter Inlet il sometimes closed after a gale; all the oysters are killed
by the fresh water. This had happened a year or two before our visit, and there
were no live oysters in Jupiter Sound.
Along the west bank of the lagoon there are high banks and mounds of sand,
and no land fit for cultivation. Between the river and the se is a unarrow strip
of rocky land, with stunted, semi-tropical vegetation, but not enough soil to en-
courage cultivation. The climate improves rapidly as we go south, but the soil
grows poorer, and the face of the country preaenta a muot barren and wretched
apperanoe. We went up in the light tower, about ope hundred feet above the
see and had a view, as fq as the eye oould reach, up and down the eoat, and for
twenty miles In the interior the white, glistesing sandy beach of the ocean, and
the surf breaking on the coral reef outside, leaving a strip of comparatively
smooth water between the coral reef and the bore. The long, winding, silver
threads of Jupiter River on the norti, and Imake Worth to the south, made a
pleasant study, from an artist's standpoint But when we looked back on he land
and beheld the barren, utterly wretched character of the whole faee of the country,
every inch of which im subject to luundation during the ruiny season, it is a pic-
ture to depress the homeeker. There is not a place that I have ever seen
where rain lall, that oan compare with this region in poverty. The soil ia not
only barren, but -t Is covered wkh a dene growth of saw-palmetto and thicket
tha are almost impenetrable. The country abounds in game, but, owing to the
denee growth, it is nlmoat tmpsible to get at the wild animal. No desert in
Artiona or Lower California I a more uninviting appearance than tbi flat
rqiou along the east oant of Florida.
As a place for a population ambitious to bund up a country, to make ettle-
ment, there are but few pots on the east coast of orida, below Cproa, worth
one moment's serious conalderation; but as a retreat to get away from "dolin-
queon debtor4," or Importunate creditor, it has no superior on the codtineot; and
a living can be made, of a rude and hand to mouth kind, for I conceive that
starvation would bo lmpoaaible in a country where people ma eat alligator and
hal tortle These deliaclee with excellent fish, abonnd.
The few people who live along the coa4 get a prat -t of their livig by
beach combing." Thisladatry corlst4 in going along tie beaoh several mile.
every morning, and appprtrating what comno ashore. Thfe meh bomber" is
amomthnes fortuato In finding valuable parmela; for intasme% ak of rum or
brandy, drifnd from nome wreck. Such a windf is cwonaiored a godepd, and
gives the finder oonasiderable ipotanoe amoug hhis yellow till the tear gives

Portions of woftn a dft ashore, and the copper from the bottomS quite
valuable In this way, uoueuimea, a beach tomtbe," am a e Base a oideabMe
sum. The who shbore h tinwith prtse of tu In a mecam the entire
hull ioanad rtly barred n the urnd; span and rliarc s found lying~ near
tho iamts of tbh aud ridgc, trid there, during a -fe, by dth angry waves;
rd wheo -.t cofattmrapkt -ei e, y ae are app d wth he very thought of
haow this esn fS uni look dutg a twn, VI wid, te anfd bramktnoc
thU beak S aEM ud rout mll thHpy or fety foot -h m taoll And
im thf tlfto.wev e n rEd away over tl om d hele, 0pmdBM the -lt
#w i q Qter of b mle inland, mery oear mw d mr hwrteW urIt
h1i fral eubanaest, threat t6 *r7 a*y7 oiultofmtto @d na$ ..l ..&.a an &n t tend,. A SaW4*I-n fr IA at ma wvw SM

Aftr a greest storm the whole omit is strewed with the flotsam and Jetasam,"
and this makes amends fr the terrors of the thratpmod liundatiou. Valuable
package of all kinds of goods oone ashore, and the " comber" is happy.
Along their coast there is no tide or rocky clifa, so the shipwrecked mariner is
arrived in his veasl and landed high and dry on the beach of sand. Very seldom
life is lst; a1ptaIns and crews take the nearest route to Jacksonville or Key West.
It would make a New York junkman wild with ecstacy to see the vast qunanti-
ties of ship iron work and old r upes lag the beach, but when he knows that
there is no mans of getting this valuable material to where it could be sold, he
would be correspondingly depressed. The iron woik of the broken up vessels is
expo d to the action of the salt water, and in a s.brt time bermes completely
oxidisd, leaving nothing but a mams of iron rust.
The timber vesals from the West Indies and Central America are often
wicked, or their deck loads carried away, and splendid sticks of mahogany or
other valuable abinet woods lie rotting in theim ad.
The "beach-comber's" habitation is a wonderful conglomorstion of the artistic
and the rude. Four pieces of spars st in the saud for the corners, the sides
closed up with rough slabs, and richly gilded or polished pieces from some lost
ship, in studied confusion. One plank will contain, in golden letters, "Cleoptra,
Liverpool," and the next will be a half-decayed board taken from an adjoining
mare swamp The roof is thatched with palmetto leave,, and the door
takenrom the saloon of some costly Steamer. The furniture is as badly mixed,
and the partition is an old piece of sail cloth But no dukeo in ]isi private shoot-
g box in theElighlands of Scotland could show a more independent and lordly
ir than a thorough "besch-comber." They have all seen a great deal of the
world, become thoroughly tired of the mcalld "cIvilization." and look with
mingled pity and oontempt upon the Ordinary pursuls of lifo and those who. still
folow them.
If you have any do of settling on the cost, the "beach-comber" will treat
ou coldly, and discourage any such' foolish speculation; but let him know that
ou are dmpb miudedl enough to return agl n to ivilised society. anadl have only
*e to gratify a barbarian curiosity, and tihe B. O(.'s heart will wanrm tn wards
on. He will tell you all about Ir, and entertain you mas hospitably. He wdl
n up the demijohn and the stoehoma of his mind; his wife and children will
a buck sat, while the 2d mad mater will spin yarns honrw' long. Ho will
peak of propdlous ad bad sena, aa a former would of his crops, and from his
overudon you will extract the belief that he l oks upon a terrific storm that
oy doenes of noble veuhl as a special interpsition of Divino Providence,
I about for the beach-amber's mle benefit.
Nevertheless, I love the bMch-towber. Themr Is a manliness and franknem
bout him that pin... HpIaltly Sad unselfishneas arem prominent traits in his



Iarotm'. iemps his sqsadveme Le regard to any pnrepetdve enacochments
a his tarritoui*a right thee is Lothilp in bin to flud fauit with. He may wish
we rao to cover the beech with wrecks; he may pray for such good fortune
rhe flO to bed, d deam that his pyes have becnanswered, and that a
z a s h sa e m h rh mar his abin; that she is broken to prices,
cha s aks and d am o f eoly liquorh, the eases of canned fruits,
LOaStrIM of oorned be, ad SI the Siewn of the topic are washed uip to
b door; that the !apin, nd pse have abandoned her and left him
b le of stall this wesl-ve% the bach mcomber many gloss over this pie.
ms. hit aneo or i& nrstl, anaumdll tW me humane than any speulator in
t a the s of ,squ The por beach oomber ha done nothing
Sf the WM*; hal sy es DW of is unbne and unavoidable
iUSSUU wMs the mly b is -t ble lights to lure others to demre-
ha5~1,r ~s be Wlps a ob vb stlms. The beach comber's
&*aW~~~h akl La -m~r ..A larahi. .kaatbn i .k.I.a41l




Oh, Winter, beautiful and bright,
I breathe thy warm, delicious air,
And watch the splendors of the light,
Whore all around 1i gay and fair.

I roam as in a waking dream,
The garden of Ieeperides,
And seoe the golden frultage gleam *
Amid the stately orange trees.

Unfading green is on the hill,
Tho vales cre decked with conuntle flowers,
While hums the boe and song bird trilla
Sweet music through the sunny hours.

Thue -s n waring in the gale,
F mnn kos, hickory and pine,
And dwbj e a bridal Yell
The b toe ymbrw -eummnle,

Whoee trumpet, with their rich perfume,
Like centre rwlno aurond my bead-
Where the dAo hammock's growth and bloom
Their dtk bewild'ring richnae* spread.

Through countless vistas in the wood
I see the window of the morn
Ope to the world a glowing flood
Of glory when the dy is born.

And when, with roiae of Tyrlan dye,
The evening comas when day is dose,
I eee around the radiant sky
A hundred sneta ble: in one.

I walk upon emchantd ground,
Where tleoa change. into truth,
For hoary whtte here hath fond
"'Tho fountain of eternal youth."

Oh, Flao romaUnti lad,
Bnrptand, I tt pr-It hy-,
For atall on rey ba d,



The line between the "hammock and the "pine woods" is distinctly drawn:
e growth of one not encroaching on the other. There are a great many varieties
hammockk, but the distinguishing feature of all is the total absence of pine, and
thick or heavy growth of deciduous tree, and semi-tropical evergreens of the
k and magnolia families.
The name hanmock is derived from the Creek or Seminole tongue, and was used
the aborigines to distinguish a deciduous forest According to. the poet, Will
illsco Harney (good authority), it should be spelled and pronounced Hamak."
has no such signfleoaton as the word hummock as used at the North. Forest,
lied "hamock, may be high or low, wet or dry; and may be a few square rods
extent and surrounded by pine woods," or it may extend over a vast area of
untr, including all kinds of soil. (The magnificent annutaliga hamak in Her-
do county covers 100,000 acres.) But the growth of oak, magnolia, hickory,
other deciduous trees, is its mark, and where the pine begins the hammock
SA pine tree in the hammock is rarely met with, while hammock trees in
pine woods is an anomaly quite as infrequent The pine woods" being the
ject of a separate chapter, and the first appearance of this class of land having
ndency to impress the traveller in search of a home with the poverty of Florida
we shall leave its pnrk-like vegetation, tako the traveller with us, and plunge
noe info that grand mass of green rising up from the edge of tie pine woods
re us. We can seeo no trunk or branch of a tree, or anything to support that
dt mountain of foliage; it commenoes at the roots of the pine trees and rises
above tha.; but liere is a deer trail, and in we go, cutting a few vines of the
p awhile" briar, which obstruct our way, and in our efforts to extricate our-
es we do not look around us till we are fairly inside the hammock, which from
outside seamed as impenetrable as a haystack. The open pine woods have
We look up in wonder and awe at the lofty dome above us; the sun
t entirely, although it is midday, and before we entered this mysterious

fli perhaps, rather warm, except in the shade, But here is a different
sphere, only the most furious gales c n stir the air under these dark sylvan
des. Nevertheless, the atmosphere is pure, cool, and laden with a lich per-
ie, the wild orange bloasoms, the aroma of the ripe fruit, thie broad flowers of
magnolia granditiora and the wild Jasmine mingle their fragrance, and we are
tivated. Our peconceived notions of sandy plains and scanty vegetation in
rida have vanished, and here is Florida as she ought to bo.
'he soft, sabdued light, so dark and yet so bright, ia in seich striking contrast
b the glare of a vertical sun in the pine woods wo have just left, that we
actively look up first to soo where the. sun has gone, and what grand arches
our gual Immense timbers, as large as any forest tree we have ever seen,
Ining acro each other far above our heads; they look like huge tree laid
tally; we trace them from smaller to larger, till we find that they are only
chea of enormous lire oaks, whoseerots are at our feet; on every aval-
spot or seam in te bark, epiphytos or air plants grow like parasites on the
ng ass of those giants of the forest Bouquets of flowers and tiny ferns
womei'delight the heat of a forist, grow in every depression where they can
os-by the b(rk and limt n the air.
he fM ercrooks anmd angle of the enormous limbs of the live oak are what
this wemder of the orret o valuable to the shipbuilder, their ugly forms
asfly 'oalklbe t'the shipwrlght'e axe into the graceliful curves and liar-
ln a ship. The amoauig ertMlity of a soil which can produce such a
growth i abem ll oalculatioa. Beede a live oak ten feet in diameter, we
popMs o .twenty istn h circm**eue growing to the height of a hundred
wlt t a brnoh; th immrese hiokories, ash, and magnolias, seem to need
tqi|t ]room, like t y plhatq .One of the live oaks will spread in a


some and winding around others, till -they have separated into innumera'
branches, and look like the rigging of a frigate all loosely stretched from spar
sper. Not a leaf of the vine is to beo seen under the roof of tids living arch, ln
when they reach the light they spread over the topmost branches of the trees ti
one vine covers an incredible area, and producing enormous quantities of grape.
quite out of human reach, but very convenient for the feathered tribe. The br;.l
vines, and a vine called "bamboo" by the natives, groin up and out to the t'p
and, like the grape, utilize the treetope as a trn His, their singing tendrils bindixi
the upper surface into one solid mass, so dense and tenacious of grasp that tL.
axeman finds great difficulty in getting a tree to fall, oveu when cut clear from tl,
stump. I have meoa a large hickory cut off in lengths several times, and thec
swing clear from the ground, supported by the living net from whose meshes in
ponderous weight could not free it Only the great chieftains of the forest, lik
great empires, can fall of their own weight when their trunks have been erred
Just about the time we were ready to decide that the soil of Florida could in
support heavy growth, we have been transported, as if by magic, into this grain
temple of tropical luxuriance. Wo look around us for some tree, plant, or flow<
that we can call by name, but all is now and strange, and incomparably lovely
The undergrowth it made up of palms, ferns of tree-like proportions, and shrub
or vines to us nameless. The saw palmetto, or sabal ba relata, with its procun,

bent trunk creeping along and warning us with iu serrat

the thil

not force
d with hoo

an acquaintance; the blackberry vines ;
ked thorns, that when once touched it t


the needle palmetto, with long, sharp spines, like the qi
orry vines rising up among the troea like the sheets
but things to be lot alone; all this and much more Is


you are not at
You are no
conception of
North, o" the
pared with th
two inches in
here a stately

Above your head is this gloomy,

lo to take in a hammock without I
longer astonished that the poop
the word, as there is no word in
this wonder of vegetation. Tho w
thing to which they are applied, s
is grand display. The blackberry
diameter; tho gooseberry would
tree. The hickory has no leave

organic can


time to

stems that we ha:
) inches thick, at
g time to get awn
uills of a porcupine
and halyardt of
strange, interesting:
r, and you feel tl
study it and reflte

le of Florida have borrowed
our language that could give i.
words hard wood forest, used at t
teem tamo and insignificant co
bush grows twenty feet high a
not be recognized at all,.hS it
s till it spreads 6ut at the tol

hundred feet above our heads. A loaf like the sugar maple is eagerly pluch
and grasped as we would the hand of an old friend, but it emits a delight
resinous fragrance, and wo'find that it is the sweet-gum. Tim groat white flo c
of the magnoMia grandiflora look like white Joponiha~, as large as breakfast plat*
in places the ground is covered with oranges, sour and bitter sweet. The truwi]
vine, displaying its gorgeous garlands of scarlet flowers liko miniature trump
climbs up, and reaches out from the trunks of the tall slender cabbrte pal:l
whose immense crowns of fronds tower up to a giddy height. All this is n,
strange, wonderfuL Tho practical map will examine tlho soil that produces th,
wonders-one would naturally suppose that it must be a rich, deep, dark lo..
but on scraping away the surface we find that it istho same sand that we let t
the pine woods. We see (in some hammocks) corrugations in the soil, and up
close examination they prove to be the idges or beds where sugar cane or jS
potatoes have been grown ages ago Unmistakable evidences of aqcient till
are often found in the deepest hammocks, and are attributed to the Jesuitu
Indians. Thero is no satisfactory n ason for this being a hammock, except ii
the fire has never run over the surface as it dos in the pine woods overyy 7
and tihe falling leaves have enriched the soil until it has cuinated in this
ldon of forests, for which there is no other appropriat e bt "ama *
I remarked ,at the beginning of this chapter that there are may vtk
hakmmnrwk hnt the fenmi wAe )t n iti a tn w tw ie alA n Ir et i1



The tints of opal and pearl have 4ed.
And the lake i blushing rosy rod,
\bUle the pure, translucunt waters ahine,
.Lke a crystal vae of ruby wine,
There's a glory in the earth and air;
Th ea baa tfiea on Lake 8014a.
On the thither shore the water's sheen,
teflect hMe ua gl the forest's green,
And lie la 4dp and wavelem calm,
Aronaod the bbaUtill isles or }alLm.
A marvelloan picture, %r? lr fair.
On the placid braas of Le reu-'lair.
Fieroer and closer comes the heat,
And the nuontide's fevered pulsm boat,
And the Iake like molten silver lien
'Neath the dazzling UlJht of tropic akies,
'Till a bliMed breath of heaven's own air,
Lik aa sugel's wing, ltan Lake DIema-CO r.
Far In the olden afternoon,
The odorous breath of low'ry June,
Troubles the waters deep ad clear,
RIpplea and dimples them tar and near,
And a strphyr, Sweeft u a lover'. pla)w,
la suftly wafted o'er Lake Beas-Cayr.
In the radiant Wet., the maeic glow,
Ieflectm Itaelf in the lake below
The rainbow cloada hath each shining fold,
Itchly embroidered round with gold.
(I, where oik earth is a scene more fair
Than a MrUnt view on ljake Ben-Uiir.


The time was when an English speaking people could not go to warm countries
id eule or make homes. IJ ls only within a few yeasa that citizens of the
united States had any mild climate where they could tiy from the harsh, wintry
Lst. Texas and Cahfornia belonged to Mexico, and Florida belonged to Spain;
ulsiana belonged to France when our grandfather settled in these cold kbatea
hrre our lot iL now so unfortunately cast.
Men are alive to-day who remember the time when religious persecution held
oh high carnival that Protestanta oould not dare to settle in Catholic countries,
id Catholice met with brutal persecution if they dared to migrate to Protestani

Our New England people and their descendants point to tho Judgment of the
grimes, as an argument iu favor of cold olunates.
If they sho'.ld look the matter up, they would discover that when the May-
'er landed at Plymoath Rock, there wasu not another spoi in America where
my could dare to land. Great Britain did not control the seas am she does now,
d there was no other place where those poor, half-crazy fanatics could get a
hold. If England lhad owned Mexico or New Holland at that time, the Puritaus
mid have had more favorable start. But Spain was then the mistress of the
Sand runaway Englishmen had to be contented .ith a bleak, cold, barren
tlat 8paIn did not want. The Mayflower wild have steered a more
ely owune had she dared to, an4 thi poor staring, Irozen cratdres who
w lauded on the inholItable ooa of Mauachuetts, would have moved further

snow regions, and development in advanoo of the warmer portions of America
wan not in accordance with a law of nature, or a pre[ereaou on the part of the
pioneers, but was after all a provideutial thing, so planned,,that those northern
wilds should not forever remain a howling wilderues. But now that our ane0s-
tors have managed to populate these oold, bleak, worn out hillsides, is it not
about time for ius to look to more geuial climes for homes for our surplus popula-
tion ? The world is nearly all civilized, people aaQ worship as they please under
any government, and own the soil they cultivate without hindrauce.


It is claimed that cold air braces, Invigorates, stimulates, etc. There is no room
for doubt that the effect of cold is stimnultiou, carried out tid the ultimate result
is prostratiou. Cold intoxicatee its subjects to a greater extent than alcohol, and
po ssesac a far more subtle power in deceiving its victims. The slave of alcohol
always knows his danger, and many of them would give all they pose to get out
of the bondage, but the victims of cold hug the deasion, that cold air is Mteoessary
to their health as well as comfort; the mind beotted by breathing cold air beoomes
so carried away in this dangerous species of. Intemperance, that a continuous
winter, with a thermometer always at the freeing point, seems the perfection of
climate, and every means human ingenuity can invent is resorted to, to turn our
short summer into winter. tStores of ice are laid up, so that the infatuated lovers
of winter can keep cool during the short annual visits of the sun. Since the icee
box, refrigerator and ice-house have become common adjuncts of every house-
hold, a great number of deadly maladies have been added to the list, and it ia safe
to say that the intemperate use of cold, slays more violas thau alcohol


We advise those who start to come to West Orange to not allow ihemelves t)
be turned aside or driven back home till they come here and spendd at least onl'
day iu looking at our country." You will be told that our andi aU poor. This
is faule, foi we can show you hundreds of acres of as rich hammocks as the State
aflbrds. Hon. J. i. Bryan's clay hammock, neor Yort Maou, Captain Nonor '
clay hammock near same place, Captain Thomas Blake's high hammock on Buck
Lake, where nearly one thousand acres in a ljody adjoins him; Captain Ualen
Fortson's high hammock on the shores of Prairie Lake; St Claire-Abrama' han-
mock near the town of Euatis and also on the lake shore of usatia, are only a few
of the many we can mention. Also on the north-east side of Great Apopka ar'
a thousand acres of the most productive grado ot'high hickory hammock, in th,
Gooldsby settlement near Zeilwood; yellow hammock, on the suth side of Lake
Dora, and the Deer Island hammock in Lake Dora; Connor's hammock south of
Lake Saunders ; and we have timeabta hammock at Rock Spring, the only plac,
where rotten limestone crops ou t in Orange county. We have buy lahds rasep-
tible of reclamation in detached piioes from an acre tojorty or ffty acres cat
tend all over the county. This class of land is expensive to subdue, bus is ieo-
ha tibly rich, the oil being composed entirely of leaf mould, which fturmie
never failing mines of fertilizer for the high pine land.
Then if you want low hummocks you have to go only to the eastern bounlry
of Weat Orange, far enough away from our ittlmnemot to not affect tie beJth
aai_ aS*a a *...a --. ^ t fl ~n feaj.i... o t- taa Le l&^.as a WLJ... ar.L- .*


oe. Here is rich land enough to gr w corn, sugar and rioo for the present pop.
luton of Florida. But it will not admit of being opened by amail holders at a
rots. A company with a thousand men must take hold of it. The coons ind
ther wild animals would eat up 100 acres of corn. It must be all improved at
ace. Still it is no more ubjectionablo than other large hammocks, such as Gulf
Lammock, Annutaliga Hammock, or others which give their respective counties
me for rich land. Now, all this we can show you, and there is no grade of ham-
iock this State affords that js not to be found in West Orango, and no one need
o farther for rich lad, au they will find people willing to sell part of any ham-
hock we have.
,But we all prefer pine land because we are all fruit growers, and pine land gives
le best results for the least labor.
We have given you facts to our hammocks, but have not mentioned the
usy rich detached garden spots of .,igh, low, and all grades of hammocks scat-
red over our county, not large enough to affect the health of the surrounding
mntry. Now we wil come to our pine lands, which we prize nmre than any
oer, a our homes, our groves, our villages, and all our hopes are on this claas
land, and all the beautiful groves which are now pouring gold into the laps of
e patient owners are on these beautiful pine hills.
West Orange contains the msat extensive unbroken body of high pine land to
found anywhere in Florida southof the 29th degree (or inu the dtrus belt). It ex.
da from Apopka City to Summit, 30 miles, and forms an area 30 miles long and
miles wide, reaching out north of Buck Lake to near Fsmeralda It averages
milue wide, and, with its spurs, is roughly estimated at 200,000 acres. In the
portion of Orange county there are very extensive areas of flat pine woods
d low prairies. Flat pine woods, or fiat woods," is where the scrub palmetto
ws, and although it may lie high apparently, and out by gully creeks, still the
rd pan" underlies it, and we do not clam any laud producing sc ub or saw
metto, having hard pan," or wet in the rainy season, as pine land, it is simply
t woods" or "palmetto glade," and is of no value whatever as present, al-
Dgh by heavy fertilizing and great expense in preparing, annual crops, such
vegetables, give flattering roaults. And the time will certainly come when the
pised flat woods will be covered with gardens, pineapple., strawberries or other
uets that the ard pan n cannot destroy. But for orchards or groves of fruit
it can never be made available. The remainder of Orange county contains
>t 160,000 acres of high pine land. It is the weakness of neatly avery settler
consider his particular homestead of pino innd the best spot of land in the
te; hence, if you talk to a settler from any other county about Orange county,
will tell you that the pine land is "poor." Pine land predominates in our
ty, and lie in two great bodies, united by a broad belt; so that one can travel
r our whole county and oot travel five miles through anything but pine land
Sflit woods (covered with pine also), and a very small portion under cultiva-
Thus strangers from other munties get the impression of poor soil, and
y believe what they say when they tell you that Orange county is poor. All
Salad in Florida is poor; not many seres can be found that will produce eight
heels of ocrn to an acre, or 80 pounds of Sea Ihland cotton. Ow peas grow
l, and potatoes have rodueed fifty bushels to an acre. This is without any
urint whatever, bot with a small amount of fertilizPr the result are aston-
nad eah man who produce a few enormous bunches of bananas, a small
of gigantic gar eoo or orn, or has a few orange tree in his door yard
nat fve or ax year old, without any aytomatie fertilising except the slops
Sboo er tho oaeolnrgs of the a tst astonished at the amazing fertility
ma laad, sad utontl eam that he mwr has fertilsed his land or crops.
that the a, bor, and the slops of a house, will bring
aOre of ad Ian h.e ,i ata 6 fertility in a moid olimat like this.
aWltu ian r -m& i phb 'ta laud, ooagatulate himaf on the
ta he don't tile, of oormne, his neighbor mus
3L4a a~ mlransk hit La .Jem.d La e),. lnl ad aHs..~rr, ta


settlers (Southern) grade pine laud by the growth of pike timber found on the
soil, and other indications, and u they never out down and clear up the woods,
on'r cutting around the trunks of the pine trees, killing them and allowing the
dead trees to stand, they have no hesitancy in settling upon te heaviest pine
The surveyors and planters graded pine land as first, second and third rate, never
taking palmetto land into consideration as land, but classing tl;t as flat woods,"
although it is sometimes on the hill tops or hill side, and oten, as in the EBo-
nockhltcllie country, quite rolling, but the repulsive saw palmetto and gallberry
shows hard t~n (where it predominates\ and it was all called fiat woods.
First-rate pine land is the most heavily timbered, with long, straight pine trees.
It not large they shouldd be standing close together, having thrifty tops, with no other
growth except the wire grass and wild flowers, with a few "runners" or sball
twigs of willow oak." The woods should be clear so that a buggy can be driven
through it. Fire runs over it every year, but does no harm, only keeps down the
undergrowth and leaves the majestic pino trees in sole possession. The sWl is
often quite black on the surface, as we lind in portions of the Orlando country;
sometimes of a dull gray or slate color," often with elay near the surface, is
easily plowed except where there are post oak runner, and then it must be
grubbed if it lies low and flat; an occasional bunch of palmetto may be fount on
drnt.rate pine land. .
But on the best there are only a few crops that will start off and grow the firet
year. There is a "aourness" in the suil that it takes a year to work out.
There is a grade of pine land in the northern counties of Florida quite common,
which might be called half hammock. Post oak trees, some hickory, peirmmoon,
sassafras, Turkey oak, chinquapin and other growth make a dense utderbnrsh
amongst the tall pines, which are large and scattered. This is also "first-rate
pine land," but is very hbrd to clear and break, and this dense growth is due to
tlhe fre not running annually. Such land is found generally in old settlements,
and is no doubt partly due to the planters keeping the flroe out But such land
is found more often on the rotten limestone soils in Marion and Hernando counties,
and Polk, near Bartow. We have some tractof tihesame kind of land in Orange.
some in the neighborhood of Apopka City, and small tracts near Lake Dora. It
does not produce any better crops wherever found than what we first described as
frst-rate pine iand, and, at the present prices of labor, the expense of clearing
and grubbing this land, with its thick undergrowth, makes it the meet valuecesi
land we have. The open, clear pine woods, where a smndl pony can thoroughly
break an acre a day, is the most valuable sort of pine land.
Now we assert, and can prove, that Orangecounty. audmore particularly Wept
Orange, contains more of this firsat-te land than any other county in Florida
$orrento, Seneca Lake, Aeron, Altoona, Umatlla, upper and lower Blaekwater.
Lake Dora, and many other settlement embrnce large areas of such land. For
example: where in Florida will you find more or tllfer trees to an acre than on
Mrs. Donnelly's land at Mount Dura, or on Robert inley's land at Seneca Lnke,
or Mr. Gooldsby's land at North Apopka, Anderson's homestead at "Kerr'
* Cold Spring," on the eastern shores of lake Joanaa, and at Japver Dykea' place


on Blaokwater, the at Umstilla, in many place. near Altooea
And I might s on indefinitely and show you trncta of the heaviest grade mi
bare quality o Bat-rte pine m the whole State, thltis to be fund right hef in
West Ounge. The "mecond-rate" pine land pnedomitsint Neerly of
all our pine lad is what would be graded as eondrte. More than half of o'r
groves are pa eoend.-aat pine land, iad se far it is Inirpo ble for the ooeeM i
aubarer to find a raytdvatge imt the land aulll "flrst- b" ha in poit <
fertility over aeOd eta In fruitFrw g LrtnhShag is indtspuuiabls om rl
land, a4 we ever pa detect any distmne ina te quantity needed. And even
the onop o the country do a weR o- what is aled -seeSdruta,M
an land we have..*
lnd s r land is timbre wiUth adinr growth Iof p, esttsM,


wty oa andegrowth, open 6ogh r driving. *Tt a fifteen dollar pr
n ntm r N, bMW isti.mai" bonkeu, while what i clasaed as lt.rate wH
t from thirty to Mt' dolh an mt r clear off the timber. We regard this
me of lhadu redly moare alnab th the "fitraite,' because it is more
aing. is on the shoar of beautiful lati moru often thau rsat-rate," and lies in
ure favorable aituatio, with few exeptlona, one of which is that of Mount
Dr, whiah is not only tie bet roliaocording to the native' atadard, but is the
at beautiful spot in Florida.
The oelcbrated Gana and Sper grove are on seond-rate pine land; the
ousS 8tewart grove s on saond-rate piue land, and black-jacks grew right
re the enormous orange tram now asotd, aid are growing all around the
pve. Of the noted young groSve of West Orange, Col. Moses Taylor's, Col.
rt McEwen's, Aug. Gotteche's, D. Clifford'u, T. E. Woodward's, C. G.
', ad iue-usatha of our model garm are on either light second-ratw or
rd-te pine and black-jack hads.
ow we eeme to the "third-rte" pi land. This looks poor'enough. Three-
of out'high pite hild of Wat Ortnge ia o th dams. The same grade of
Ssen a prwsemate o the hane of the -&Suth Florida Rdilrond, from the
hl afd r jm ou aw Sand to within two or threo mle of Orlando. It in-
a on the railroad from Pakika to Gaineavile, at Bhlue Pond, and around
y' Lako. The eharaoteritUd are a light yellow or white sandy soil, bare
re gram in ipotas. short flat-topped pine tree, ascatered twenty or thirty on an
with ow and then a large trnuk, and a prepoterase of crooked, gnarly
-jack trees, and blaok-Jak prout, open woods, sparsely timbered, heavy
dy roads where the roads run over this land, and a general aspect of barren-
s. But we havo found that this despised black-Jack and pine land, or third-
Ja capable of growing almost inythitng you plant on it, if cultivated and
dili1 and the difference in the quantity of fortiliaer needed between thi and
other Igrad of pine land has ever been deolted by any reliable and dis-
reted person.
IL Baslley, at Sylvan ake, has his fioeet orange trees on what would be
ed as the pooreJ knob of third-rate pine and black jack. Dr. Bishop' oele-
ed enry*v aLe grove is nearly all on this grale of land. The Belair
of Ge 8sn.fd are on third-rate pin land. The DeForest grove is ou an
So-y hbaren black jack ride. Manyy of the foest groves at Maitland aud on
awd grant, and 8ylvan Lak, are on this grade of soil Whenever. it has
tried add properly cultivated sad fertliaed, third-rate land has given a
ma altm a ny other, and many noble beadng tree attest its permanency.
the fruit of this nuntry awo to delight in a light, warm soil, and the
ieat, ytrongest lands do not do as well with the same expense.
w, it must be remembered that there is no distinct line drawn between thee
of pine land. They gradually deasend, frbm What (ho naeve ettler would
e beat pine laad iu the county to the "'' pooret black jack land will one
tree to an re, and wlat 6nae man (If he owned it) would call Brst rate
might eallpoe. The growth and texture of the soil is the meais of de-
lin the grade, but all do not look at land alike. There are degrees and
beq tb6 fruit grwma who hae intellect and experience, do not look
or tmbr ao kog a it a hi 1abmd dry and there h no hard-pan. They
for bwuty of lotion, moty, e*, aAd leave the old farmers to quarrel over
of ited. But yes mDet not think hum this tlhat any land i. good
h r to it.' We bave ^* fuoMd," palmetto gladea, pmirie. scrub,
will not do for fruit tree, and that we do not chu as land at all, and
we try to ibow haiU Ib thse dno d ree worth taking into eondderation
&*IS Id dDd @ Wia, we ma the diufent grades of hiMgk
S i lkrht em be found play r all who
wi of hand hm nd in any prt of Flor-
t ll At *t oow vtee you when you comea

V V. ~ -

biBM di pVMWdl u pen.e inured by tak.

Not even the most moadacion'wwUry tht Oisogo i not a be~thul county
We have a few apoa wsear mfalai*sa lph ukm er, ibn1 all.the blao of uii
8L John'sa RaBr, the Weklva, and a~er ia wmial Ip$ip ui
swamp', and on the rhotse of Isk LAp,1. "*A ntd. awey fros any of tMe inl
fluence it is ae ae. There are so tbal enM wb in thea larkl Spo t.e Slom'
is the only season when chile apptiaM themp t.
There are other fobehoa ciroolmat dtlr away those who start for We
Orange, which we will refute and peak otfn fbare lhts

Northern people, when they undertake to depend
selecting land, ary as oftn oivrd in the color of th
People who ooma from the W t are certain to,ook

on thr own judgment
e soil as In a other iter
for a black or n ne~

black as can b3 found, and in this they are often .badly deceived. Onrlow ham
mocks and muck beds are black, of oeurso, and rich, being nothing but a d( po,
of leaf mould, but where our high lands are judged from a northern or wster
standpoint, color will deceive nine out of ten.
One of tho richest tracts of land in Florid.a the old Spring Garden hammoci
and the soil is as white as snow when it is turned up and exposed to the sun iLt
rain a few hours. However, a pure white Boil is best avoided, as there are or:
Sfa arnantnn, ha lfil that blehes tayT. or marly whit. is excellent when u

suboil has a slightly yellow tiut, and no hard pan below.
8oil that is pearly black Is the best calculated to Geolsve, if it is flat and hi
pine land, and I have known parties to cart it a mile to apply to the grty fl
when it was only a damage to the land it wan applied to. We hbae oonsidera
areas of this black soil in ad near Orlando, me near Apopka dty, and we tir
that it ti not nearly m good as the gray or yellow. Corn will whib ud,",
black lead, and the young fruit often shrivels up and drops ibfore I ia mature
Orange trees will grow lahuband thrifty, but will not boar or mature ma d fri
and I would adylse uttlmn to avoid black soil or the dark sl gray or s!a

colored tint. The sleat soil is lignt, not fino grand, ddcMedly yselow sabsoi
and yellow, or light gray, surfbae soil
The fine dark soils pck firm and the color 'ork tbhebeuas raym in this wa:
climate, and cause tir '* white bud," a dmise peoulkb to warp, nimy clima
There nram eer twelve to twerty year. old .n th rado Odo eoutry, on the d
laids tbht have nver born.ea crop, while on the bright yellowvol in lheJ
rsion, trees of the an age ht bee bring tll crops for years.
Parties having blac knds for sle fld i easy to nU such ands to town "-
areso i po td Molohing waul perhaps co tim "we bod," or dryingl
tb timlbuds and iruit beki nsswr vby jespis to direct rays of il
as from the ioil. bu!t ii impueba to A sad, sad a grrwe must I

M Unea m ate a t
SrL- poi r gfy ; t .e r
'bIr wwhthisraiul a i- e h^ edori aitt. r
ri^ir51^ ]- lE4~p l


P V 1 WIpW






from all contusion of the city .with its strife;
iron m the roll that the world calls life,
Al alone I rit and listen,
WhLe the moonbeams brightly glisten,
'Mong the pines.
LlIten to the galhing,
Of the beeeao gently dying
'Moag the pines.

Far awi
Only Lu

And th
BLae t

ty from all the bustle nla th
oethmu in the fragrance oi
H'nre I sit n meditatIon
On the beauth of creation
'Mone the pin-.
See the tall trees mtly w
While the brewe s softly I
'Mong the pines.

e race for wealth,
f the amosphere of health,

s cool refreebing breeaes wafted from C
Swhisper in thu tree tops, here's a hi
Tten blood memory comes to greet me,
As it gist I lone to meet mo
'Moong the planes,
And we commune together,
Thi calm October weather
'Mong tIe plus.

"1 6381,
slth to the."

Then the put comes up before me, so ver like a dream,
That oftentimes I wonder, if things are what t ey keum,
Iut memory bids mo liten,
Though the tar-drope fll and glisten
rom my eFe,
For the ipe hei too much madnes,
Ir too ltloe Joy and gladnesa,
That I prits.
Itf noyrr would but oberish only happy boonrs go by,
W e would look upo0 the book of life without a tcarful asgl .
ist wheu with melaeboly
bhe points oat all oar foly -
'Moao the lines,
Oar hearrL sar esd witl Iroaning.
Like the storm wind loodiy maun
'Monu the plun.
But away with ad re ections on the dead, departed past,
" 4 oa athe p the hbebams" while the goldeu boour li
With ope that o the morrow
W\e h meap more Jo than sorrow
Aas U decline,
Then we'll fnd there'A something sweeter
la the slow and dnulvo metre
Or the
Earth Isfa ll od hesml ly ua eS.ld we only bear artght,
Ih woe I too math of aunomjnb In dwelling on the nuht.
(lod's 8n oi evr oherfhi
Theth oar qe oftean toful
While It W
o haw wrUgng,
Wbvole 4t

heroetSoS alloy,
mrUWod means ta nfaw,


dawI -




l k the settlement of South Plorida is now seuaed, and there eaa no
longer be aty b. t-d&h mind of any reasonable or reasoning ma that the
available land of this peninsuls Slltl d'w yam be densely peopled, -neverthe-
less, it was hard work to get this immigration start6do ae influences were
brought to bear against it. Unfortunately for the only really deairaile tion of
Florida, the territorial limits of the State extend too far north. It would have be
better for Florida if the boundary of Georgia had been pushed down as far as a line
drawn from the mouth of Withlacoochie river, oa the Gulf, to the head of the Halifax
river on the Atlantic coast. The Florida climate does not extend north of this
line. A line one degree farther south would be better. There is a" belt acrome
the State of about one hundred miles in width, the southern limit of which is
Lake Munroe and Lake Griffin, which night be called the doubtful belt." The
Florida climate is exp -cted in this belt, and sometimes tor two or three years in
succession the doubtful belt enjoys a Florida tempeature, bu then a severe
"oold spell" oomes, and frost reaches away down to the region between the
twenty.eighth and twenty ninth degrees. There is no "rteS line" in Florida, a'
a gray frost has bwen detected at Cape able. When this eraordinmry phenome-
non happens, three inches of ice o, the ponds and ditchea, and snow, sleet and
frozen ground for several days is the status at Jacksonville. The tender blooms
of the sugar-app!e or mango may be nipped by the cold at Miami, and the same
night the orange trees are badly killed at Jacksonville; the oranges are frozen
ahd spoiled in the latitude of Palaika, and the lemon and lime trees are all killed
to the ground in both parallels; at Charlotte Harbor the Indian rubber tree and
mango are nipped, and so on down, the degree of cold being in exact proportion
to the latitude What might be called exceptions to this role are oftea noted and
laid down as proof that "latitude does not control the temperaturee" but any
meteorologist, or person who will reason for a minug, will -ee that &diCud only
can govern this matter. The whole slope, from the Appmlaobhn range to Cape
Sable, is a level plain, no part of the surface being more than six hundred feet
above the sea and tht altitude is reached nowhere ia Florida exoeot on the

mountains west o
The cold wave'
until it dies away
of cold," that we
is impossible in F
flooeet or separate t
There are no
samn temperature
there, are also loci
but a short distant
I will go over I
the "streak the
On Christmas n
down upon Florid
tha that of Dece

f Lake Apopk, nas
' comes from the
near the Tropic of
hear spoken of by
'lorida, where there
he cold waves.

een from Mount Bora and Mounta View.
north and grows warmer as is mares south,
Cancer. Suoh a phenomenon as "a streak
ignorant, designing or thoughtisM pesona,
are no lofty mountains or great gorge to de-

' streaks of cold" powiblo here, but them mre epots" where the
will do more damage th*n in others on every sade of them, and
al influences which aford more immunity from frost than places
LOOe away, or much farther south.
iome of the history of the phenomena of front which gae rise to
ory, and show that it is more properly "spots," than satrek."
morning, 1868, and Christmas morning, 1870, a oldd watv ome
la older than that of 1876 by aevenl degrees, and much colder
mber 17th, 1880. The frsees ot 8 and '10 were the coldest

since 1835, when all of tlhe sweet abd wild orange trofl of flodd, north& nf Lake
MaWrM, were killed to the ground--(se Willams' Florida written in 1836.) Be-
low the latitude of Lake Munroe the wild trees were not killed ea be n to
this day. On the shores of Lake Jesup ar wilMnes of notm l than a entry's
growth, with straight single bodies, towing up t ieet so the Urn limb, while
north of Lake Munroe they show unalsakabi ersdedT of h]albg beep killed to
the ground, and Ieave ent up aevera audOenm"fra anttd the old root, fqm-
Sat eh place a luaser bf tree abo se me a batg Ute nasia of the
old tre in the centre. In the nelghberhood &QIOt*UL je Mount Boyal, on the
St Joba's, and many other places I the nrire oC. otudhm Imrs, more than

r '

horet Iao had be a t out in esdr stumps moved from the wild
me dllag rmve had been phm ed wou meuanlag; north of laoUtud
degreee every lMee that d beea newad wilhba two years, and every
dtrd eYe of ad bradded whUe it gmwj was killed to the ground, and in some
bltow S degme e su tre wef lo)wed.
few yOug edlogs pa thigh the free safely as far north as latitude
except ia aIpwed st sad when they were kied down they oame out as
Sas er in year. A. few growen then abandoned wild stocks and planted
but nmay we bt knte the onr. tack planting again, and had fune groves
wheu the Isee of 1870 killed'them down as badly as that of 1868. Then
large eedling nurseries of Plorida' were uarted, liberally patronized, and no
wanted any more sour stooks.
he recent Mfwee of 1889 is fresh on the minds of all our setters1 and we
ow that the frui on the trees was all destroyed north of us-the lemon and
es were all killed in Northern Florida, whie in Orange county, and south
it, the frult was uninjured, and brought higher prices on aooount of the great
matite froae la' the "dodbtdul belt" We know that tender plants suffered
in oe pl than in another in the same latitude, but suolc a thing as a
streak or old" eaanot be traded anywhere la Florida. I do not pretend to
aly eounat for thq spots of coldd, which we cannot deny ; but at a risk of be-
dliputed by some, I can asert, and think the history of the freeese will bear
out, that the most destructive frost spots are always found near largo sulphur
ring or neartho bs k1k of rivers fod by them, around and near the margin of
tse oypress swamped, in or near scrubs, in low, levol lands surrounded by hills,
Sner extensive gras, ponds, opeu flrts'or low prairies.
And now I will adl the attention of people who remember, to what happened
1876 and 1880. At the Fletoher grove, around the rest Sulphur spring. the
i sweet trees were ludly nipped; on Ckptuin John Z McoDonald's place
Buckeyo spring, the young trees ner the doose hammock of Soldier Creek
ni pped each reea. Beaton Prairie and at Apopka City the young trees
Inurd eaoh great freeI, wlile a places farther north in this
unty t#ohe efedltnlae dad not more than ehod the levels. I could go on
Smetiorn p whee rt bs do.o Injury to ms"ll tree or young buds, but
have mM. enough to demonstrate my theory, and prove that the cold strikes in
otn std e treakl" and that the injury is not due to a lower temperature,
t to -m _nditi d the soil or atmosphere local caea
Near the reat sprug and cyprm wampe the harm is done by the mist
dng faom the water, which is warmer than the air, and settling on the fuliigo,
aos ometrmting the cold, or driving away the heat from the plant on which it
fles; while a hundred yard away, where the air is imoton, the dew does not
le and the tree apes the frost
Why tree or plam are injured more at Apopka City, tamonte or Maitland
as they are at Orlando or Port Gatlin is hard to explain, but snoh is the case,
ad no one will undertake to deny it. Neler can I give suy inSoient reason
hy.fret doe more harm in or ar an extensive "scmCb" than in high pine
d in theme latitude. The reas why frost strikes harder at Benton Prairie
ka.a pl.oe amnoh. farther aorth, is because it is in arvaley surrounded by
ills, which out off the breea sand the dew falls heavily, while the cold air settles
ownoi the l aud ongeals the moisture on the lve. If the plauts
wly oemd o'the dew cannot fl upon them, as we protect pine-apple, the
oe wold do bdaimae. 8o it is plo tiUt aaythiag which faolliatea the
i aof the edw help the frokt. When the freas injured orange trees
Stbhame pMoeo ed, ne but young or newly planted trees suffered any
MaT hMaever ben a fi Orange otamty that could injure
wte eahftid wt please a me, even b the froty spots, while no
a r, ,Mel stint* am vawe .rWo from some injury, or the fruit from
S. "- eMir lmits. Now, oa tie ather hand. I will give my ex-
eee hepts wham tae rikst than in other place in

On the south shore of aike Apopja in Oange county, the land ireer fro
damnagiog fratro tb ny otbemlpe iaV^ latkie iy YId exttme
the sh ide o lke Dora, oim tu, ldian river,, the out
shore of Lake H- tes, MUate. Munrs .aa Moera ik I h oer other
area. Whr frost is lighter on the aoatk a kw t atdbu..t to .tq itvr modify.
ing the temperature, while the fraity wind puratow Jt sur aoe, but the co
is felt more o the south side than pa the nasld of a lrg bJdy pf water, t1a
the mercury fain as low. So I Uthink hat IntS d m odf jio te mperatu
while it fr(m the abty on the aouth shore is due to the tact that the
carries away the dew.
But bhe is something about a lake shdre not explained and at often noticed:
the frost does less damage even on the tort, ehle turan it dues away from water.
Now we eome to something that, although roue, mere to be "wrappoel in mystery."
At Orlando, where there ca be said to be no uke protection, as all the bodies of
water in that neighborhood are merely pond, few of more tiAn forty sares in
area, and the country excessively at, with g rpgsy d or mmall prtie, and the
other local symptoms of a old locality, the o4 sever toudws a we a at
Apopka City where it is high and rol iog. Orlando suole a- Itt from froet as
some ptloea in the aae latitude on the shore of large lakes.
There la,. however, no other exception tlat I am aware of, where me place is
freer from froet than another in the aomo ladtade, without the proteLion aSlded
by lakes, everything else Wung equal.
The rule is that the farther iou h ylo go the higher the temperature, and if the
free. is hard mough to slightly injure an ora-e bud neam the twenty-ninth de-
gree, it will freeze the fhuoa the thirteth, and kUl the rne to the ground on the
thrty-flrst degree, the surroundilags bing alika
Thoee who made a "frost line made a greot mistake, and no doubt it was some
enthunia -who todnd in Orange ountty tim first evidence of a tropiod elimsate as
he travelled seath in FIorMd. Sometime we have two or three year in su s-
mion witibout frot, and matn years. without a b.. hard ewugh to kill potato
vines, but there is no line below whloh them ia o frost pelB ia Flaida
although there is a belt beiow wkich .al uslt-obq- pla-rta .A^ aa da belh
whero there grown, but not to pertecton, And there blt In which .recal
tres will grow well for a few year and then the eold will rmeA them, while
below *6 twenty-oveth degree of aitude n'ue of the mnetAmnder tropii trees
are Over killed, although it i. sa.medzneeool enough to hecM e Ua growth eaA ohi
the blooa and interfere wiLbtheir bearing for time
JaokioTavlle is the ge to Florida, while Iradina heaa late yarbeoome
a sort $ side entrana. In both of them towM, and along timerou of travel.
theottry is Iutced with a lot of old toelh, and new fraud, who beet the
path ot those who come seeking a mild climata. These fellows are like a mil -
stoan aroant the nock o our State, hae been tied t t oe twns o on;
that tlJiey anot tear theadlvoe away fros tram now, ad they either own er
have some interest in the le of lads in north lorida, while he bee oq.tho
m.rkdot 4ery yma Amoe the acsm of Flaida t the United 8tt and prove
a ftluCe on thee band of every owner. This army of har to. awgemted ever
sow by-the ritil of the year before, who now P the' Md who swindle
theo ttoallly way pto .td their "elephants."
W-K the ttrrend ame rhvry r gronn plantlor was so wger nmnumr -
tivtowrM rrmowia hadda eom ierale aettetios bfor the war, ao I
eai r paotti w~e druasb by thom w ho ha a taes and oWd fruit, k:
ob tauumsrvowrtheta Iv prot win eomNdaed bsush the dipofy
rl6rtw. aeaethe baioes ie en ezteuded. The aeow rme thine
S rthOaig A to oo and ome po1tublbe mdhyu, mal omln
*trw mtuaeld t& Ot.w s ^ arpos o( reih 4aM hiue aw l na cm in
~aulL(thea ui MtaA Ii41a..A iee A hIA anaMSwel


sen brought ito. bouaris a far north Oharewton in the 6peS air. QGobd
were r.sed at Dpria, to bforne the irnee o 1835, and it war believed
mob a.freem would have killed the tee down in the peninsula, bhd there
any smeto .s thbe a wemll as at 8t AjgwJUe, Palathtu Maudarin, or
i artter north,. ai why not go into orng groves in the "northern
eae. Yew knew aaythinr about Moutnh lorida, aud those who. did
na no eoxpwmne that would couviane them of the greater miduess of the
to. The owners of land along the lower St Johno', and Fort George Island,
Into planting groves, and induoed many strangers who ceme to Florida so
orsag to do lkewse. .Frot succeoied froit anddisoouraged them atl*at.
nod then a new settler strayed up the 8t. John's au far as Orange county;
lie magulfloent groves of Gle & dHoldn, and doovered the cret of sue-
il oranaggrowing The northern people who tried the northern part of the
became diguated and left Florida, bringing baek North their history of ,ail-
r joined the band of old settlers who a ggregated at Jacksonvlle or other'.
m on the lower St. John's and developed into .boarding-house keepers, or on-
some other pursuit far removed tram grienultura life. Then this element
et-bitten and disappointed planters beoame an army of grumblers, who made
bir buminem to slander Florida. If they failed to palm off ome of their
out lands on a stranger, they would try at all hazards to keep him from go-
SSouth Florid. They would retail stories of alligators, levers, swamp
ortland of Orange county so often that they all believed it themselves,
our tleir tale of woe into the egrs of all home or health seekers who fell into.
1utohe, till they drove thousands out of the country, and planted others
emselves who soon failed and i~oned the great army of" f..ilure*."
hotel men and their miless had no faith in Florlda exoep as a place for
ra. They would tell a1 they thought they knew, and invent more to keep
from going "up the river." Jaksonvill was the only plnoe, and they
tell how 1U the trees in Florida had ben killed repeatedly by cold; ttfat in
then part of the State it was coldor than at Jackonville, or at least the
ffred more, and they would talk all night to a family of intending settlers
p thoemn over ona day so as to got a few dollars moro for board. But if the
or individual, had determination enough to run the gauntlet of this class of
he would find in the steamboat employee another orowd who would say
till he bought his through ticket to Interprise or Mellonvlle or8anfonl,
n they would do all they could to disoorage t14 settler, so that they
return on the sme boat lest som either line might get a psmenger. Theme
and the laud sharks who had phems to el mewr Jakonville, did wonders
retarding the attiment of Florlda. I do not deny that some of these
k worked hard against the settlement of both Florida, believed what
a, d supposed Uth t they were raSlly doing -.tranghr a favor la driving
out of the tiwe; while others were desning scoundrels, who did it for the
se dlmludnig home seeker to .the extan of another dollar or two.
ItW amd4,ttey unPmoded theory that orange trm are not injured by
sbdly la i rter pan o the katm la time Peninsula, which I have
rufimd #t mad explted, w-s oqe of. the hvoi theories of.the enemies
eora wa a a every opportunity. It is- still ventured
Yk tbeA nod at It has Mbee aseerted that one of
hi thshis the srrky nare of tk. od wave. Bat the theory most
| odv s than sthe es ia N1 orterw Florids stop growing in Septem-
do not fl~ gain till spring. anhavg DO asp, Sowing are harder and
|I 4 ett.era. 1 rt 1i seine platat^ and hw. ausd more men
ssptfoe pop oro l e that any other, argument. *
|k sbl c~po os hr grove tog fit,sad the mom rnit oh-

.t tuma bi a yge tree
$. %- g ao ^he

' The tree in the orange belt grow a much in January a tn Jnne, and thts is
why men who are only ive yeasn hi Orang oamy have made larger tace than
tdos farther north have in tea to fifteen yeft. The development of trees
is not, however, the only adS ntage n being fattler south. But when we warnt
the loss of the erop on the trees each freeze which anaot be prfitaMy gathered
and shipped bdorethe time for fronts, and this four the ot of foarten, ao the
short crope the llowamg year, resultln from thea'oohiDnt the seller branches,
making about half the rope a total failure a the poor bby tresa tb be found
north of asuoemal orange culture, we have tery good maeons for going well
souk to plant orange.. Added to this, the hot hre ornl esnc bofr oraon the
krU, lemon abd lime tree are at the sometime killed to the around.
Then we hav additloHal reasons for going "6p river. The are many other
products of a tropical and a eui-tropeal climate wideh asot be grown at all
whero it emoses hard enough to oongeal an orange. Pine appll are subject to in.
zury from slight frost, but are grown to great perfectio in inra county and be-
low, by merely keeping the dew from falling on the lerve when a hr frost threat.
en. This delicious fritcannot be ripened in thoopenir wherelt ia nd1 enough to
stop orange irsfrom grwoing in whiaer. Where the orange trees grown a the year
round is t.e lunate needed by invalids, and the limato we have all owe to Florida
to find. This climate is not in Northern Florida, and 1880 nod '81 onvinced
many who had not lived here long enough to learn it before. The scorched and
stunted trees, so open and scant of foliage that one could see along the Floridl
railroad or near Jacksonville, when compared with the fine old towering trees in
Orange county, is proof enough that ti tude is the only reli'ble guide to tempera-
ture. The supporters of the streakq ofcold theory are now feeling "treaked
over their flure to koep South Florida from being developed.
If the donate is no milder on the twenty-ninth parallel than on the thirty.fldr
of course the mamo rule Wourld hold good farther north, and it would be no milder
on thi thirty-flrst than on the thirtythnlrd, and consequently the climate of BSavn-
naheo rglis as eqableo as that of lake Dora Florida, and either would be as
equable as Key Wet. Bit Deember of 1880, shows plainly, from the meteorol -
gical record kept at the several statlonn'on the different parallels, that .atrabnalD
the mercury ran down to twelve degree; at Jaekntllea siteen degree; at Lnke
Euatis thirty-four degree; at Punts Rasaa forty-one degrees, and at Key We:
fifty-four degrees above the freeing point, thus showing tha( the farther dor.
you go in Florida the more difference a degree of latitude makes in temperature.
and that a hw miles (when the cold wave goes down near the troia) make
more differneo than a whole degree does rather north. It is resaonale that i;
Should be so when the cold wave reecho away down nmar the region of eerla,
Ing enamrer, it is forced'to fight its way inch by inch against the aoft broemea H
the Wat ludiea, till its dylug struggle b made about the middle of the Floridn
Thoee who vlits4 Florida in the winter of 1880 on4 1881, know ibatthe sl e
broke down the branches of large trees; the ground was frozen iour Icha. deep
the fruitupoathe trem wasfr o-as hardaSbrickbetU In north Florida, ,mdten( .
planS were destroyed. The weather was very disagreeable, and may mlTal
ieking helth went back home, beoaue they did not know that they were or x
near the lower St Johna' and notin Memi-ropical Florida But the narrowly self :
people of Norh lorida wold ratlhr hase stranges go ba e disgauted t
toad th ar enough mouth to find the climate the health or home ker v ^
dbang tyo. Mwed of glvirn them thi tnfratm they aed, strangers are t
a do ef MaylIMhoodas about up river," to work upon their t imf attoa and
Sakee te taitS goa xabo e Paleats, 0 ulne aJa ion l Thedm t
artflht ti on e b the p dl ythe es m o Seth FlorilI
atiP utdle, lwat1wahinSel eb&dW, tblnmn ofNeottbnD lorMa
Sflub nfaduiewentlit .sta d turatrh yq in


and it will be mn that from all points above Jacksonville the freights to New
lTek are be ae, ad it must always be so, as a Unameror a train can better go
right through than. stop here and therv for trelght, at way landings or stations, aud
the time is the s he e, for. they all go by the ame boat. So a fruit or vegetable
grower esn ship his produce as cheaply from &Lnfurd or Bustle to New York as at
any landing abdve or below Jacksonville. So there is no advantage in price and
seldom any in time in being one hundred miles farther north, while the settler is
running the risk of freeze.
It must be pretty cdear that the latitude for the tourist, health seeker or settler,
below the twenty-niuth degree, anul not far enough down to get below the hilly
country; unless he relims to grow adrictly tropical products.
I have discussed the arguments given against settlers going south in Florida,
now I will give some of the reasons why all settlers ought to go as far south
vn Florida as practicable.
Amongst the best reasons, is this: because hundreds of the old settlers of
lorida, who desired to try fruit growing, left their plantations in the .uorthea
t and have moved down to Orange and other southern counties since the war,
find a better climate, and, finding it, settled there; and if Floridians go south
their own State, it Ie the best evidence for a stranger that the climate is not as
able in the northern counties as it is away down in tie peninsula.
Judge Goes, of Alsohus, has land in Marion, but has planted his prove furAer
it Sumier osty. Ho admitted to me a short Lme ago that it is of noUse
plant orsnges north of the twenty.ninth degree, ant hlie as no faith in Marion
r Alcbhua as orange growing counties. Col. B. F. Whitner, of Madison county,
d out a rich plantation in Northeru Florida and came to Orange county in 167,
here he made a large fortune in growing oranges, iatving failed to make a grove
Madison county. Dr. Mason, of Apopka City, tried to make an orange grove
Palatka, and failed, on account of the frost., and has since succeeded well in

)range county.

Dr. McRea tried it in Alchiua county

and had all his work

setroyed by frot. Ho came to Orange county to make an orange grove, where
ost has not interfered with him. Hug,, A. Corley, of Leon county, failed at orange
rowing in Northern Florida. and has made a fine grove on Lake Harris, in
umter county. Bishop Young, of Fernandina, could not grow oranges in Nmasau
>unty' but has succeeded in Sumter. Geaoal Finoegan, an old Floridian, has
toved to Orange connty, wheru he has succeeded in making a in oe orange rmvo;
ad I might go on a4 infaiJum and enumerate the people of Northern Flornda
'ho have moved to Orauge and other southern counties, for health and lor the
usines of orange growing, since the war, and great numbers that are coming
dw, since their friends who came first havo succeeded so well, while they who
wve ben toolinh enough to try too far north have failed ignominiously. We
ave in Orange and Sumter counties threo hundred families who have left North-
in Florida and came down here on account of our superior climate, and not one
*a gone beck, and could not be luduced to go, as they all seem to appreciate
rt superiority of the climate, as much as we from the snow rogions. This is one
Xd remon why South Florida must be better than North Florida.
strangers who come as far as Jacksonville, St. Augustine or PaaLtka are
rten around, and orange trees of fair sizo and loaded with fruit are exhibited to
eim, provided the previous winter has been mild. They are told that these
was are the largest and most proliflo in Florida. Often the man who does this
nows no beUer hm4alf, and boliever that he is showing a full grown orange
e. Mr. Hudnall, of Dural conntr; sheriff Bowden, and Col. Sammia, as well
Sirs. Mitchell, of the same neighborhood, have the best trees anywhere in the
titade oJaeCksoUwlls To A prison unanoosomed to orange grove theme troe
ok rwe, and ia &wabe oasons re loaded with fruit, and are well alcuhatod
Slsh a favoni Impe ioa the intruding ormgs planter, but if the history
m th tre otd be mwd by him, and thy could be at side by side with the
W of Oeburth thrim two hundMrd 'mth farbe oauth, it would not be
Oeal to lapirn pon th nts -eSotr the ihapore of going far enough oluth
bile be iha to do d Tao ImSeLaw am m r siaful rneanp timw in Dmal

county are th
While the trees
or on the north
keeping up his
sive operations
practicable will
I am making
to support wha
The truth is
wrath of the v
have fought th4
I have made. '
twenty thousand
this will be det
bought fguit th
cAhtited that t
county, for two
not find a mark
and reputable c
are so recent th
the "doubtful b
former freeze.

o result of a lifetime of groat are and constat attetIub.
'are young they must be protected by building firee in the grove,
side of the tree. Mr. Hudnall ha oftel spent the whole light
fires to protect a few trees. Orange growing admits of no exte-
where artificial protection from cold is need, and no protection
save the fruit from being frozen when the o61d wave core.
these statements without reserve, so I am fortified with testimony
t I say, and shall not withhold names or ploes.
needed by the new settlers, and some one must draw down the
ampires, and I, as the pioneer of emigration to Orange county,
e hattle for seventeen years, and may as well remain in the'breach
After the freezes of 1888, 1870, 1816 and 1880, there were not
4d sound oranges in all Florida north of Lake George. Of course
nied, so I refer those who read tlia -to the orange dealers who
'oee years: feasrs. Welch A Brandes, e Oharteesto, & C., have
hey bought sound oranges from Doyle & Brantley, of Orange
months or more after each of the Iwo frosts, while they could
able orange north of Lake Munroe. Hundreds of disiuterested
itizons support these statements. The freeaes of 1876 and 1880
it the truth is not yet denied by thuse who advocate plating in
eit; but they tell us that the latter freeze did more injury than any
The effect i;t, not yet been outgrown, it cannot be hidden, but it

is denied that former freezes were equally severe, wi
severe, and all the bearing trees below Palatka on thl
were destroyed entirely, and "adly cut bnck on the
killed below.Jcksouville on both sided of the river,
only killed the branches, destroyed the fruit and ca
leaves, only small trees being killed outright. The

will not undertake to deny that Duval
Orange, and if it is the proper belt for
Colonel ammia' trees, that have been

county has been
growing oranges
growing fbrty yea

killed to the ground in 1836, and on rich land, ar
on Dr. Henry's place at Lake Dora, only eight y
that Dr. Seth French, late Oorumisdoner of Kmi
sold him nine years ago than any grove in all tl
in Florida, no matter of what age? I hop

e gi
re C

ile in fact t
e west aide
east side.
while the
used the ti
people of

bhey were doubly
of the St. John a
Groves were all
last fremas (880)
rees to shed their
Northern Florida

settled much leoger than
and lemons, why is it that
rs, from the woo do trees
large or as prolific as trees
from tim seed Why is it
has a fiuer grove ot lands
ry north pt Lake George,

the reader will bear with me

while I seem prolix on this question of climate,as it is of the greaset important
to the intending settler. If attended to at first, it will save him much disppoint-
ment and loss. If onq is not far enough south, nothing that he can do will
enable him to cope with his more fortunate fellow-citizens who are properly
located. If there were any draw-backs to be avoided farther snuth, that would
in'any degree compensate for exposing himself to greater vidslitudes of climate,
there would bi some common sense in staying, on the threshold of Florida. But
when everything that goes toward completing one's ideal of Florida Is fund
below damaging frosts, then one can see the importance of heeding my warning.
The arguments used by those who advocate orange planting on what they are
pleased to eall the northern limits are contradictory, hollow and puerile. Mr.
Moore, who wrote a bnutirul little treatise on orange ulure, and claimed that
Fruit Cove is far cough south, goes n and in the aame breath advised the planter
to leave a "forest pnseotion." A forest prsUodo g nmt frost! 1 This alone
conviosa him of utter ignorance of the suJecta on which he, attempts to give m-
formation, and is mugh to convioe the order of his book that whee Mr. MINet
lives bfamot fr'eaugh south. No fnrat treoe grow well or mature its fruit
to pfe'eSioa-whIe a mpelkd to do btCk with* or rUn tI,n in their ruse for
lif. Frut Lpeel it the shade of wM i Mtcn Rgtit.. cannot acquire the
exquise flAvor or eo s" that eit4 ripeed 1 rep m a fain. The sup is
the eyolryase plah i oeda m in t Wqa Iu, aii n nerr we get to his


ap off frost, wrapping one's trees up in mroat, or covering with pine boughs,
*oing among Indians away from all transportation at present or in prospect,
from all society, or living among poisonous reptiles, in a swamp, as many
represented, would be the alternative, then it would be well to consider
i Florida. But when it is true that one not only gets entirely away from all
gitg frosts by going far enough south, but finds himself in a higher, healthier
cry, with a better soil, better society, a more progressive people and a coun-
' A 1 ^--* :_ ^ : *


Ivauciug wtll rapiu sBnboo, muau BuD 5rtuI lwauQl- ut uWu5 wuUb L
will become more apparent.
B superority of Soulthern Florida climate can be understood much better by
ew settler if the will investigate the winter gardeuiug business. T'ho recent
frost has so fully demo:satretod tho uncertainty attending early vegetable
in the doubtful bolt, or, rather, the certainty of failure one year with
er in the northern counties, that no other argument w,.uld seem to be needed.
the lrh of December, 1880, all vegetables were killed north of the twenty-'
degre, except on the south side of large Ltkes, and north of the thirtieth
no water protection saved them. In Alachus, Baker, Duvnl, Put-
vy, and at all places north of these counties, frost followed frost during
nter till hiese disasters culminated in a killing frost on the 14th day of
1881, which destroyed all tender plants as far south as the twenty-ninth
The gardeners on the line of the Fernandinaa and Cedar Keys Railroad
pte y bankrupted and gave up in despair. They had met with reverses
ars before, but the winter of 1879 and 1880 was mild over all Florida,
y made considerable money. having no frost to contend with. This led them
rk in'the gardening business on a larger scale, and those having little
found that credit was open to them. so they went into it away beyond
a, and the frost wipud out everything they had, leaving them poorer
hen they first tried gHrdening. Now, if these vegetable growers had known
lzed the fact that aouth of Lakes Harri, Dora or EZitis they would hlavo
fe from frost, they might luhave easily engaged in the business hie. andl
the goldon dreams that weredissipated into thin auir in Alachua and LDuval

r assert beyond
stis, and in this
tomato vines or
prfectly grow
es where the.
iltles is practice
r gardening in
fe efforts that e0
I not wntiug thi
ono locating wr
for all In this I
mistake, and st
>olsteu up a wr

possibility of contradiction that south of Lakes Dora, Har-
lautude no frost reached after December 17th, and that did
gtuwA plants, so that our few gardeners put into New York
1 cucumbers, tomatoes, snap-beans and all the higher priced
y brought the bst market prices. The demand for these
ally unlimited in the season of mid-winter, and if those
Northern Florida were here, they could grow wealthy with
nd so disastrously where they are.
is for now oomers alone, but for persons who have been
ong, also, as they have my sympathy fully. There is room
broad peninsula1 pnd it is far more honorable and safer to
art over againrthan to remain where you have failed and
ong theory, or swindle some other victim. My asMerton

of investigation, and I invite it, knowing tiat I
qr riblo testimony.

can be sustained by in-

luestock and N. L. Whitney, of Chicago, were induced to invest st a
l4l fawty, on the Fernamdiia and Oedar Keys Raulrod, by some ignorant
rincplqd amps, and gave it a fair trial. They read my oomparison of
a witb oulthern Florida; came down to Lake Eustis, eaw and was
ed. They then gave up their puarclaae at Lawty, at what they could get
Sreoo0mading it, and now they will oorroborate my statements. I could
ndtds of suoa oase coming uuder my own observation. and will gladly
) thoa who apply t4 ananot enuaber this paper with too many. The
of .hore who got thi:r eyf oaned in guard to the dIfference in climate
r tooiai t s. the. But e ploree e of these blumers in loating,
S unaT4lR 4 A ve bavJK l bal diqug edi, believing that they have
rlsar trial, Wltt7J)eCr Qn W on 9 what. bqOi properly be


called Florida.

Many such go back and

report a doleful tale of sickness, los

and utter disappointment, deterinug others Irour coming to
why we who live here in the true Florida climate are so sen
and why I denounce all who are instrumental in deceiving I
a few paltry dollars, when if they would use the same euer
tion they could be instrumental in making happy and contei
would bleas their efforts down a dozen generations. They c
make fortunes legitimately in battling colonies, and avoid
their heads the anathemas of their victims. For example
d.,no at Rosewood, near Cedar Key, or Bendict, at Orange
colony, in Putnam county; the Chicago colony at Lawty,

colony at Tallahassee: the Beecher
compare these enterprises with the
Dora settlement, Lake Maitland, Orl
"and one will see what climate can d

out climate cannot De ig
man starts from the sno
fore he reaches a point v
]he started to fnd. It co
who have made mistake
With these arguments
saying, thae year after
roads are pushing their
trunk lines and thie river
land in the true semi-tro
amount of sophistry or
orange belt. I have bofc
written by J. C. L.

I shall not attempt to quote fr
but will simply go tlrrough and
tains, and the reader, if he des
readily to what portions I refer.
districts near the City of Jacks
supposed to be accounted for by

nored with
w regions to
where there i

colony, and other suc
)range City colony, L
mido and many other
* for the settler. It i:
impunity, in making
seek a mild climate,
s every evidence that

ate no more to be afe than to inc
I ought to correct them as soon as
, admonitions and references, I (

>ur State; and that
;sitive on this subj**
settlers for the sake


, se
or 1

n the right dir
communities t!
I in South Flor
uging down u
3 what Dibble i
k; the St. Jolh
Miller's Minnex.
erprises, and th

,uke Eustis cc
r successful n
i possible to n
a location, s
why should
he has arriv
mur any risks,
\ possible.
conclude the

ilony, L
make a s
;o wheel
ho stop
ed at \v
and tli


Fear the matter is becoming better understood.
way down the peninsula, branches run out from
, and have brought into notice a million acres of exce
pical climate, below those "doubtful belt," and soor
hImhuc will induce people to locate north of the

)re me a circular published by one

G-- W-'s circus
tradict such erroneous
, can find the documer
ie backward condition c
ille, when compared wi

of Jacksonvile

lar of February, 1
statements as it <
it, no doubt, and
if the country or r
ith Orange county

No part of Florida has been so persistently obtruded upon the public during
last fifteen years as Duval bounty, but failure after failure has caused it to atis
the abandoned and neglected appearance it now presents, outside of the tow'
Land speculators have bought and advertised property more extensively t
than in any other county. A few people in Jacks ,nville have never ceased to
down the up river country, and hold up Jacksonville and Duval county a"
only part of Florida worth seeing, and have ever shown their jealousy. The g
development forced upon their city should convince them that to South Fl

they must Ic
admitting of
It is false

)ok for

support, the white rand and paltetto f

little agricultural development, except at A loss t
that the most profitable and productive grove inj

ate o
o the

f Dural co.
da are in P

county, or that they have yielded full crops continuously. Eight crops o
sixteen have been almost a total loss. It is true that all the bearing grove
Duval county date back beyond 1835, and it is clear that no bearing groves
been made since, except what grew up from the old roots. Thoy have been


ously injured at least ten times since 1835 by frost. If any one dtaires to k
the truth or falsity of this circular referred to, let him read this sentence and
visit the trese mentioned: "The trees referred to are thirty-five feet Mgh
tops thirty-five feet in diameter, and the trunks, near the ground, average inv
iu circumference; the annual crop will average 3,000 oranges. At the prr
moment seme of thee trees described are bearing 7.000." Now, this is a ti !
falsehood which 0. & W. make C. J. L. shoulder. This is a sampple of what

I= .


-- w


1. '


bore 2,000 oranges. The honesty of thisroal estate firm can be judged when
known that tley are engaged in selling lands in the palmetto flats, north of

3ity of Jacksonville, and representmig such laud as suitab
n the circular referred to has been read over carefully, i
*met and refuted every error in it in some part of this
ved that this matter of respective merits of the climate
Sof Florida shall be fully ventilated.
e lands of the doubtful belt, and of South Georgia,
till America is so densely peopled that it can be fouud
that can be successfully grown in such climates. All w
ture, in the doubtful belt, will find their property de
e and lemon growing becomes fully developed, and the fr
market value, groves in Northern Florida, where half,
t. will no longer be found prodrtable. We can, in


0e pro
a ty y

v at twenty-five cents
I be cut down for fire
mily use. I do not ap
ky, but the prico mu
so as to make the bus
e is not the first shot I
bring out a full dlicu!
nDuvnvl county land at

st be

I contradiction. It was mostly inexperience that caused the first settlers to
nenr the lower St. John's aftr the war, but the amount of gas and humbug
n the effort to get new victims each succeeding year is simply ludicrous.
then Florida may be of value at some future time for some agricultural pur-
ut now it is like lower Georgia, valuable for timber and turpentine only, ex-
t the middle and western counties, where cotton and corn farming is depended
r I have put all of this under the head of "Climate," and discuss it as one
I drawbacks to the settlement of Florida, is for two reasons. All erroneous
ents and falsehoods I have mentioned in regard to climate were advanced,
I I have asserted has been denied, and thousands were either driven away
Imized by the rapacious andi unprincipled frauds who deny that l;ttitnlde con-
bmperature. A .Jerseyman qnce disposed of t'y matter in a very laconic
r by saying to one of these fellows in my presence : '" If the climate is no
at Lake Dora. in Orange county, than- it is at Jacksonville, then it is no
at Jacksonville than at Savannah, and this being trne, why should it be any
at Ravannahl than at Cape May. 8o I guess I will plant my orange grove
ey." They try to hoodwink their auditors by dwelling on the great advan-
f being near Jark.onville, which, to any one posted about life in Floridi
e really a great drawback.
and ice are often seen at the gates to Florida, and the false information
)y some inhabitants of Northern Florida, that the climate is no better farther
as I contend, drives thousands away who come seeking a warmer and
climate, so now I will go further and give my experience in travelling from
nm of the State to the other, north and south, after each of te three great
Three weeks after the great freeze of 1869. I started on atnor of invest.
from FornAndina to Cape able, a distance of nearly four hundred miles in
ne, and over four hundred miles by the shortest possible route. If the
will look at the map of the cost States. he will see that the distance is
e same as from Fernandona to Norfolk, Virginia, or at least Pamlico Sound,
rolina, by measufng on the map on nearly a straight line from Cape Sable,
to Qoebec. the northern line of agriculture; it rill be seen that the north-
dary of Florida is one-fourth of the distance from Cape Sable; Pamlico
me-half tlw distance, and Hartford. Oonnectlet. about three.fourth. 'Thus

hundred for oranges.

le for orange culture.
t can bt seen that [
papur. I am tirmly
of the different lati-

vill be of no market
useful for some pro-
ho Invent now, or in
ipreciated, and when
fruit reaches its mini-
at least, of the crops
South Florida, make

At that price the trees

in Duvwl county, except wlint would be needed
end, however, ttmt the fruit will be so chesp in
materially redueed at some future timo, and so
unprofitable in Duval county.
o sent into tile ranks of the sharks, and I hope
of this most important question. We can over-
with a mnas of testimony that will tind no sue.

has no protection of any kind from oold except what it gained
South Florida is almost insulated and washed by warm seas
edition to being in the region of the warm tropical winds, which
land in winter, then the great difference in the climates of N
Florida will not surprise those who investigate the matter.
an objection to my theory, that the parallel drawn between Qi
city and the country intervening between the extremities ol
Quebec being inland and New York on the coast So we wil
showing What the difereuce in temperature is in six degrees o

and Painlico Sound, two places on the sea coast, aud
each other except what latitude alone can bestow, and
ence is as great nearly, as between Quebec and New Y
Pamliho Sound to Fernandimn, and the difference, is
difference between FernAudioa and Cape Sable is a st
frozen ground, from the trees of a snow region, into a
tropical country, and almost~ at the Tropic of C.ancor;

we sha
ork. T

by latitude, and tl:
on three sides' in a
never reach the manl
orthero and Souther
It may be raised a
,ebee aud New Yor
i Florida, isto not finl
i1 take, as a merns i
i latitude, New Yor
no advantage o\v
.1 see that the differ
[he next step is from
y marked, while 'i.I

top from frequent and
it Ith characteristics o
with the warm waters

the Gulf of Mexico on the northwest, where all chilly blasts are modified in pass
over its broad and balmy bosom, or mot on its glassy waters by the warm bree

of the est Indies.a.
But, say the advocates of
wink strangers and make th
as any place south of it, is
through the Straits of Florida
phere, parting with caloric as

Northern Florida, what we depend upon to ho<
em believe that Jacksonvile has as good a clin.
the Gulf Stream." This, they contend, reaches n
, and flowing along our coast warms up the atniui
it travels northward, thus making al Florida ali

in temperature. Now, there never was an argument in regard to climate na
easily upset by a close observer than this Gulf Stream humbug. The Gulf Strv.
runs along not far from the south-eastern coast of Floridd, between le lower p:
of the Peninsula and the Bahama Islands; at Cape Canaveral it strikes off :i
tangent. leaving Jacksonville and all Northern Florida "out in the aold," be
farther from Jacksonville or Fernandina than it is from New York, as will
seen on any chart showing its course and the outlilues of our coast The C'
Stream seems to exert no ollmatic influence whatever on Florida, nor doe it se,
to anywhere have any efifet except in countries where the polar waves awo it i
fore reaching them. It give to the Bermedas a tropical climate because it 6I
between them and the cold winds; it also makts the Bahama Islands strictly tr
ical in temperature in the. titude of Jupiter Inlet, while the hitter is subject
frosts, but it lias no effect whatever on the climate of Northern Florida, frst, i
cause it is too far away, and secondly, becnsae our fr oty winds all come over
from the north and north-west, and never come in ontaet with the Gulf 8tr
until long after they have passed over Northern Florida and expended their
stroying power. The Gulf Stream theory will not help the lost cause of Nor
cmrn Florida. although it may still be used to convince the credulous that J C
aonvillo has as mild a climate as any other purt of llorida" I hope my rea m
will pardon me for such a lengthened discussion of this subW)ef but it is of '
greatest importance that every fallacious argument should be met, lest the h',
seeker might not be posted, and be led to follow the advice of them pnlaue
scoundrels, who might as well argue black is white, as to contend that lati"N
hab no control over temperature. I do not know what line of motion they ml
take with those who may be fortified by reading what I hvqd, d but let me
to the reader, no matter how good a fce they my put On it, do not stouj
you have examined far enough to stisfy yourself who is right. *
Ujt speaking of my trip down the eoat of Mlorida after the free of 188,
what I sa my object in this chapter is orly toprov that temperamit ad sa
tro frost depb patUrely upn latud6, with she moetion of light local
teeaop beo re ferred to, or in other words, everything el being equal, a
slle of 1itilde wul make agr different lb the da of odd.
At kernani Mti pe blat bam never gro to nbe w han a t b
wa Willi A s th pwi*jl A s mrnn hnn hnaul' at B 'hnr t nss au L


a down to the ground.

At Fort George Island the effects were nearly as die.

DU, there being no material diffdreuoe, and down as far as
m tre, lime trees and bananas were killed to the ground
iba in the gardens were killed, but the west aud sour ora
r leaves aud tender branches injured, and looked like our 1
1. The black mangrove trees along the salt lagoons were ki
Ee ground, and here they grow larger than at Fcruaudiuna
attempt to assume even the dignity of shrubs. So 1a differ
d the orange trees from being killed outright; this is a gr
the orange trees of St. Augustine, although never large, i
beauty and only two crops weru lost.
Effects of the freeze glow lighter a. we travelled down,
ax river, and there, at the Sutton place,, we saw the fin
*d the cold, but the limes were killed down, the guava
und the black mangrovo with its limbs only scorched
St Augustiue saved the lemonu, and tho sweet orange
buds, having lust only oneuo crop. that on the trees at the
re was a great advantage over St. Augub-tno. On down
and observing closely every indication, noung what twen
found at Mitclhell's place loss damage from froeet haun at S
a we found ourselves in a now climate altogether. Here
and sweet oranges were not injured, either the frui
on which the fruit was destroyed, and blooms of
er tree had any fruit formed (the lime and guava are ev
checked by cadd, having fruit in adl stages, from blooms

St Augubtine the
,. all semi-tropical
nge trees had only
Nqrthorn deciduous
killed down,'but not
where they make a
ence of one degree
eat gain, for nu one
lad recovered their

ti.l we reached the
it lemon trL tr tht


also killed.
one degree

trees were full of
time of the freeze.
we went, stopping
ty miles would do,
utton's. At Dum-
the lemons, limes,
t or trees, except
the limes, so that
'er bearing except
to ripe fruit). 80o

in lea than two degrees below St. Augustine, we found ourselves in the
range belt, where the climate is sub-tropical. Hero we found, however,
young coooanus trees that had been growing several years. and mango trees,
e as tamarb si all strictly topical, were annihilated. We idlwayi took
muouidernton the local water protection, the forest protection, and everything
aight aeem to modify theo ffocts of the cold, and we found on what is known as
beach nide," a mile of water aeenmigly amounted to as good as twenty miles
ithde, aud tender plants might be killed oni the main land and escape on the
side of the river, but an additional degree ef intitude showed the same
enc in temperature compared with a placo similarly protected, as would be
I between two places without water protection.
Ssafe latitude for the orange and lemon we found at 29 degrees, and for
as well, at 283) degrees. On a broad expanse of water, as at Merritt's
d, we found the climatic indications much better titan any other place in the
latitude near the coast, and plants suffered more on the main land, near
is now Titusvillo, than at Duamett's, where some water protection was
L .Bolor tids point we could investigate only the wild growth, as there were
itlemmeo made, till we came to Fort Capron. On the black mangrove, low-
we could tr a the eoeCis of the frost very satisfactorily. On Indian river
lack mangrove assumes the dimensions of a respectable shrub (on the upper
Sthei river), and at the imrrows, adegreo below, they run up to trees twenty.
eet in height. Then trees did not seem to have suffered any injury except
rdoing of the foliage, but about the narrows the white mangrove is found as a
,. This is atroplcal tree ad here was killed to the ground. At Fort
a, in Captaid ayne's garden, we founl a number of tropical plants from
h we were oaled to make some valuablOe oteI Here we found a mango
a tropical fruit) which had been groviog for eight years, and it was killed
to tie maiu .trunk, but was putting out mew IprnUs all over the sound wood,
, at Ihumaett with a otiderablewater pmsetlup, ths tree was killed root
mane Here Wsq a vast gli in a degree ad a hltl At Fort Pierce, four
bdow Cmpc, 'A e found two large coosnut tres that lhad been growing

success north of Fort Capron; these trees were killed. On the beach side it
possible to obtain fruit as far north as Cape Canaveral, but the tree will in
prove renmuerative even at Caprou, as it does not oscape for more than L doze
to twenty years at a time.
At the narrows we found a few India rubber trees or vines on the beach sil
and all had been killed. The tropical cactus was also destroyed. But below u
St. Lucie Sound, twenty miles from Capron, we found India rubber trees wi
the branches only killed on the east side of the river; on the west side all Inl
rubber trees were killed down. In Jupiter narrows we found excellent opport
nities to make observations, and noted that the black mangrove became a nuU
forest tree, and the most wonderful of all plants, to which I shall devote a clh
ter. We also found that the white mangrove grew quite large, but had 1b<
nipped where exposed on the margin of the river. The evidences of frost gre
lighter as we advanced, till we came out in Jupiter Inlet, which was then Ci1
Here tihe cocoanlt trees were not killed, the leaves were touched, and the 8emn;

branches of the India rubber tree were nipped
killed and showed very little evidence of frost.

back. No tropical plants we
So now we were in nOn ham

young f
had bee
now foi
ical clin
of even

climate. At Boca
it trees growing wil
ruit to the matured ;
n made in the bearing
r the first time we
ate, and only four
semi-tropical pl;nt

Ratones, less than a degree below, we found ,
Id, and found the fruit in various stages, from :
the cold had chilled the blooms, and tan intermis-i
g. We enjoyed the green coomanuta very much, n:
found ourselves in a place enjoying a strictly tr
degrees south of Fernandina, when the last veOL;
a had been killed, and where strictly tropical pl:t

could not exist through the mildest winter. Four degrees of latitude made a
ference of nearly twenty degrees in temperature when the cold waves come,
secures a uniform temperature at times when fur degrees farther north a chi
of fifty degrees is possible in twenty-four hours, Now we felt that we w
in Florida, and travelled on down two degrees, finding cocoanuts, mangoes, san
dillos, avocadoea, sugnr apples, indi: rubber, tig, coffee, and tamarinds, and 1.
dreds of tropical trees and plants of which we had no previous knowledge.
I came back over nearly the same route as far as Orange county, where I ft
south of Lake Munro that orange or lemons had suffered no damage either
the tree or fruit, and this was all the fruits we cared to cultivate for profit:
there we remained.
In 1870, on Christmas morning alo, we had another freeze of equal sevc
and I made then another journey through the State, and Iound the aamo re,
only that this freeso followed that of 1868 so soon that some plants injure
the first were killed outright by the second freeze, having not had tirme.t

cupetate between the freezes. I found the o
killed at Fort Pierce, had since our first visit mi
leaves, and the second freeze killed them altog
in Capt. Payne's garden also killed, but it was
that had ever bornoo fruit ao far north. The 4
two freezes was -not perceptible, but following
trees out of their latitude were killed. Down
found no harm done, and all the tropical plants
I came home by way of the Gulf coast, an

ocoanut trees, w
ade a feeble effort


We foiun

I tup to that time
difference in tern
' each other so


hlloc we iho'
t to put out
d the mango
the only mi
perature ina t
soont the trnl

where the climate is tropical.
were safe.
d found that the rule which

good on tihe Atlantic could also be relied on, on the Gulf; on? that we obeIc
that there was nearly half a degree in favor of the Atlantiq d, we found
equable at 27 degrees on the Atlantic as at 27 degrees on the Gulf We f
the northern limit of cocoanute at the Caloosahatchee River.
After the great freeze of 1876, I travelled down through the middle of
peninsula, and found the same general rules, based on former expeditions, apl
equally as well to tie interior. I found tropical trees growing at Fort Ogden.
larn Poinciana shrubs at Cast. Albritton's at Horse Creek. This shrub was k


1 I


ad, bat was also carried into the interior of eyery county and important settle-
t, with sufficient care to satisfy myself that there were no '' streaks of eqld,"
that every freeze came wt.h a cold wave extending across tile peninsula,
Lug from the northwest, and hence forms an oblique hue across the great
usula, of equal temperature, and losing its power for harm as it moves south.
mgerine trees were killed to the ground at Mrs. McNab's place, and lemon
i were killed at Palacka, during each freeze. But if any further proof is re-
ed to satisfy settlers that latitude controls temperature, I will admit tlat it is
old in Key West as at Quebec, in preforehee to saying any more on the
fore we leave climate, I have another part of the subject, which, to the in-
and tourist classes, is of very great importance, ad., in my opinion, ranking
to temperature. I refer to sunshine. 1Humidity has not so much to do with
mfort of invalids as cloudy skies. A climate may be rnaiy and be pleasant
alubrious, but if a climate is cool, foggy, rainy and cloudy, then invalids
pass it by, and tourists will find little pleasure there. We find the same
of fogs, humidity and clouds in Florida that is so very marked ou our
l coast as far north as Oregon, only lacking the wind ind low lemperaturo.
o winters of 1875 and 187i, at the mouth of theo Colunbia Rtivr, there
ninety-four cloudy, foggy and rainy days out of one hundred and twenty,
bree hundred miles soulh, on the coast of Californin, there were eighteeol
y (little rain) days in the same time, and at Sanla Barbtrjn only seven cloudy

and three showers. So t
fishing d fferenco in the cli
Ituriat in Oregon, but vast
ring the same winter it wan
y, Florida, and my headq
e looking for homes. At n
hangton, kept a record of
mber and January there
t one timo twenty seven
and out into the "Hill
days were all that we fou
south of the peninsula,
in two months.
a advantage in having plen
when added to thle dvan

will be seen that four hutn
imate. The difference would
ly against the invalid or pleas
s my privilege to be engaged i
larters were in Jacksonville
ny tfiBcc, Capt Gory, now of 1
the cloudy or rainy days, an
we'e forty-two days that the
daya in See,-saion. I nraaie

region of West Orange," an
nd in the hill region, while three cloudy

ty of minshine is of in
tugo in temperature b

everything to him. Whero it is cold and cloudy as
ist chills to the bones, and tlohe invalid is compellei
stovo or fire, breathing an artificially heated atmi
name in New York or Canada. But if the sun
re, cheering up the landscape and vitalizing eve
d can spend his days in the open air, and derive i
e here to seek.
the pleasure seeker, fair eunshiny weather in win
hunting, boating, sailing, and all tilo healthful a
ted wlhn he met out to spend a month or two in F
ry degree south is a great gain in this respect, at
who come ttseek health or pleasure, should no~
pt the d athcal Influences infesting their path.
ere as far south as people who sought a mild
a & few years ago, and now the majority remain on
rids is a very rainy climate; the rainfall is greater
Sand the greatest humidity is at the neck of the
nearest the main land. In summer the rains are vi
b, with the ocoaloual exception of long simmer di

days and

t1 miles made 1ar
o in favor of the
a seeker.
;,lonizing Orange
where I met the
Pension Bureau,
tlring the months
u was not visible.

,t Miami
one sah

'y being fat
Well as ]lu
d to remain
omllere, an
shines ant
1ry breath
he benefit i

up the St.
cloudy and
Sin tlto.ex-
ower were

value to
r enough
mid, the
d might
I diaaipa

the in-
as well
tes the

lie breathes, the
from the climate

ter means out-door sports,
iid enjoyabre things he an-
nd thero is no reason why
go far enough south to find
S.Savanuah and Charlos-
climate were permitted to
thel lower St. John's.
than in any other Atlantic
Peninsula or on the upper
ery heavy all over the Pen-
rouths iu the southern por-


Tho great rainfall in winter is between the thirtieth and thirty.frst degres,
where the witm' Uulftbresee waft their mnoiure onlorh, till it comes in contact
with the dying Artic waves, and the two atmamphert ourrents meeting, oaus oon.
contration of the clouds over this region, the cold sir condensing the moisture.
laden tropic breezes and precipitating it in fogs and rain, causing, during a great
part of the winter, cloudy and gloomy skim, which do not exist further south.
We have. however, climatologists" in Jacksonville who use an immense
amount of printers' ink, gotten up to convince those who are seeking a good climate,
that it is as dry nnd cloudless in Jacksonville, St. Augustine and Palatka, as "any
where else in Florida."


Another great cauce of the slow settlement of Florida has been the many in-

Atauces where northern people came
if they attempted i to make permanent
many complaints brought on by sudden
them back home to disoourage others
Florida in regard to the healthfulness
county and the banks of the St. John's
They do not assert (except some of tl

healthy, but is as

hlteWy as

to what they believed w&a Florid.s" aI
I home, chills and fever, poeumonia an
L change asnd a damp, foggy climate, dro%
. If one seeks information in Norther
of Florida, he is told at onco that Duv
river are as healthy as any part of Florida
ie moat consummate scoundrels) that it

ay other part.

" This leads the immigrant or

valid to suppose that Florida is all alike in the matter of health, which i'-themos
dangerous falsehood ever circulated to the detriment of our State. Florida show
a better health report then any other State, but it is far from being healthy i
every part. The old settlers aud planters always avoid exposing themselves t
mrlArrid influences, except a few of the fossilized dwcllors on the St. John's, w
have passed through the greater part of a lifetime there, and become accusaton
to mIlaria so well that that they can live where an alligator would shake to deadt
These few spocimous will a.sert thuIt it is as healthy on the river blinks or in til
hammocks "' as it is anywhere else in Florida," and point to themselves a a pro
A stranger is asked to take this as evidence that he can live comfortably in the,
locations.. He is not told thnt for each one of these old settlers" who have lI:i
the iron will and elastio constitution to stand thirty or forty years of malaria, o'i
hundred have either succumbed to its attacks or left the country disgusted. "It
as healthy here is anywhere tilse," is the most contemptible and malicious phr; -
used by the enemies of Florida. Tl.o settler hears it, believes it, expects ti.a
they mean by it, that anywhere he may plant himself, he will find the pro.-
bitlly healthy climate of Florida. The summer comes; if lie is in a sickly locally
his family take the lever, he is sick himself, and his neighbors who have becoan
anocustomed to it assert that "it is as hIalthy as anywhere else," and the p4
swindled settler sees the meaning of the phase and believes that it is perfect:
healthy notohere in Florida; ho concludes that stitiatcs have lied, and tliat i1i
Iatsted health of the country is like all the other lies he has saen exploded si: a'
lie came. He was told that he could grow tropical plants in Florida before !:
came; he was told tiat there was no frost in .Florida. liut he has seen ice a'
snow and sleet, and all hii tender plants frozen. .Still his neighbors toldhim t'.
* it i. as warm in the winter here as anywhere in Florida; there is not'
ing gained by going further jouth." So he sees now the boast healthfuloeps I
the country vanish before hs eyes, and his family raving in turning fever, a
his bright visions of a terrestrial paradise have fled, and he is d by the peopi
of Duval county," or 1hofs who are gjeasd to cll themselves the people 0
some other northern count, that it i as healthy here as anywhere else in 1i
State." His wife and children are disgusted, or die, and ninety-nine out of
hundred go tack to discourage others, belleviup all this time that they have bWt
I,. fla~e& s a ..Allr i t It~l a- a~ ara fsa ur lr, .nhaA h


me of Col. Pearson, who died also of malignant malarial fever on the lower St.
Jhu's, are only a few of the dozens who have fallen victims to the wiles of the
id shark and their own infatuation for the river or town. The simple assertion
at there are healthy and unhealthy places in Florida would be of very little use
advice to my reader, but I will do better and point out rules that can be relied
on to guide any one in making a iome free from aue and fever. Few would
poso themselves to fevOer after they learn the difference, were it not for the
vantages in theo matter of transportation or travel which are found at many un-
lthy places. I kuow of many hotel, store, or boarding-house keepers, steam-
tt men, wood cutters and others, who can ply their cullings to better advan-
re near" the St. John's or soeo large town, who are willing to take the chauoes
fevers in preference to going beyond its reach, where trade would not be so
tablel. Those parties use t'ae expressions quoted, and console themselves by be-
rng that it is as health where they live as it is anywhere else." I was
d this by a hotel man at Volusia last summer, when I ventured to remonstrate
kh him for exposing himself and family at such a notoriously sickly place, but
no doubt believed what he said or had considerable brass, for he winked in a'
y knowkig manner, as much as to say: We understand each other; it is sickly
n yonder, but perfectly healthy here," we know all about that talk, but among
ves "it is as healthy here as anywhere else;" and to prove to me that he
eved it, he begasi to tell about the natives who came in from the sand hills, as
root not exactly that it was as healthyat Volusia "as anywhere else." but tlat
as sickly everywhere else as at Volusia. This is where this diabolical obser-
eon ends, and this is the rule deduced by those who are laboring under the
rsed delusion that the healthfulness of all parts is alike, and of course that
tions of Florida are subject to dangerous fevers. Now I will do all I can to
ode this error, by incontestable proof to those who wish to follow up
suggestion that Florida is proverbially healthy, and well deserves her reput-
as the healthiest State in our Union; bit it is unhellthy in some places, and
all fevers and a'ies oan be and ought to be entirely avoided by the new set-
or the invalid who seeks to build no his health.
f course thie unhealthy localities are not nil in Northern Florida, but although
have some very sickly places where the climate is as good as need be, still,
*n settlers or invalids come inr enough south, they find plenty of people ready
el them that an unhealthy spot will not do, and tlwy find nearly all the pop-
ion out among the hills and away from malaria. The only strangers who are
cited to suffer to any great extent, are tliose who settle on or near the lower
ohn's, on some part of the Ochlawaha, and on the railroad in the limmtone
hie old settlers who are familiar with the indications of fever or health of a
ity, have arrived at rules which can be invariably relied upon. First, avoid
and where the lime-stone crops out, or where the well water is impregnated
i rotten lime-stone. On such lands there is no means by which fevers can be
ded, and lime-stone brings fevers of a very malignant type. Gainesville was
ly depopulated by fevers some ten years ago, and every year there are a num-
of deaths from fever in the town and vicinity. No northern person should
mpt to live where fever is liable to visit Archer, Arredondo, Brnwnson, and
laos on the Codar Keys and Pernandina R. R., below Waldo are often sub-
to hv'er in mmmer. *
t Waldo a. above, there is no limestone or bodies of rich land, and the
try is scoidered very healthy; but al4 the country in this latitude is too far
All Hernando county is underlaid with limestone, and it crops out in
y place, and fevers prevail every summer. The Western slope of Sumter
tyis also limetone and sickly, but not so much so as some other places.
Is an infallible test.
next in importance is the voinity of bracklsh water. When the fresh
of rirs and crWeekq mo and mingle with the alt water, much decayed

riously unhealthy, from Salt Lake to its mouth, except a few miles where the water
is quite suit, there it is healthy again. Brackish water and fever and ague are, in
some manner, so closely associated that wherever you tind brackish water there
you always find the chills in tie summer season.
The next indication which may be positively relied upon is rich hammock land.
Not one family in ten can exist on rich land, and escape chills and fever; this rule
is good all over Florida. Now and then you tind a family living on hammock
land, apparently with impunity, but you will find that they either have not been
there long enough for the poison to take hold, or they have been there so long
that they have become hardened to it," and live on quinine.
The next infallible indication of malaria is the presuene of largo springs. They
are of several kinds, but all come from a great depth and boil up with prodigious
force and volume. There are hundreds of these springs in Florida, down as far
as twenty-eight degrees on the Atlantic slope, and down to the latitude of Man-

atee on the Gull slope.
enormous "springs," wlh
ere. In the regions of t
all along the Santafe Riv
agant antics, bursting u
country i lime-stone, an
the earth, and for several

Various theories have been advanced to account for these
ich are more properly the outbursts of subterranean riv-
he Suwannee River there are great numbers of them. and
'er, a branch of the 8uwannee, they play thu most extrav-
p and disappearing In every conceivable manner. The
d all at once the Santaf6 River plunges into the bowels of
1 miles no river or indication of a river is to be seen there.

Suddenly it emerges from its hiding place, and comes forth with increased volume,
portions disappearing again, and at several places along its banks a circular open-
ing will appear with a whirling, boiling basin of puro transparent bluish tinted
wapr, greatly agitated and trying to escape, as if rushing away from some uti-
derground monster, but suddenly dashing away on the other side, and disappear
inagg diu as mysteriously as it came in sight. A study of this truly wonderfully
Santn'B region will, I think, enable any scientiflo man to fully explain the origin of
these wonderful springs all over Northern and Central Florida, and also why theiy
do not appear in such shape in the extreme Southern portion, where the land is of
a more recent formation. The Santat f is like all the surface streams of Florilda.
simply the rain water which falls on the surface ol its water shed. It is not fed at
its source by greo springs. But the water is collected in the flat country tribi-
tary to it, into several lakes, where it again runs off into the rver and is.carr i1
alonr for miles, a very uninteresting and common creek or small river. Tihe
water has the slight tint of iron or decaying vegetable matter found in nearly Ia
surface creeks, is wholesome, and the country traversed by it is considered
healthy till it reaches the limo-stone region, where it rusfies away down amo
these lime-stone caverns, anld in four miles after passing under the naturer .
bridge." it appears again, having undergone an entire transformation, coming oI
as diaphanous as the atmosphere, and impregnated with sulphuretted ihydrogt
ps. It must travel countless miles and hhyrinthine passages in making the-
four miles on its way to thio sea, to be so complete ly altered in its characteristic-
and from where it comes up again to the sea, it carries foyer and ague on i'
bosom and spreads it all along its shores. It has been suggested that our gre it

springs of Florida have their source in the mount tins of Georgia and Tennesse
or in the valleys of the Alppalachian ranges, but there are no great rivers disa
peering in those regions, and the distance being so great and the geological f1
motion of the interior being of such a nature as to render this impossible, ti
wild theory must be discarded; we have no other source of water supply for the
springs than our own inland lakes and sinks. The volume of water discharge
by the countless sulphur springs is so enormous that it would seem to be suffcic
to drain all our lakes in a short time during the dry season, although our rainf:
one season with another, is more than enough to supply the vast drain. I
querists ask why it is that when it didn't rain for several months, and our pon
and lake are down to their lowest ebb, and little brooks are dry, that these gr,
springs go on forever, never fluctuating or seenidng to vary in force or volun;




mnt that when the lakes are high'aad all our low country is flooded, that the
rce of the discharge from these springs is, to the close observer, perceptibly aug-
euted. As an example, I will call attention to the great rain storni of 1811,
hen the whole flat country was flooded. It will be remembered that at Cloud's
reek on the Sanford Grant, a large sulphur spring burst forth with great power,
Id discharged immense quantities of very disagreeably scented water, where be-
,re there was only ia small spring of not more than a barrel an hour. After the
waters subsided the spring fell away till it settled down to a small volume again,
it ten times as great as originally. When this spring burst out it came with so
uch violence, that in a few hours it. made an excavation ten feet deep by forty
et iu diameter, and carried the earth away, depositing it in the valley of tile
leek. We were in hopes that another spring like Waukulla or Silver Spring had
ken born on the Bhore of Lake Mooroe, but were somewhat disappointed when it
)baided. This is not the only instance coming under my own observation, where
rings have been enlarged or originated when the presence of water was'great-
It, and heuce we can see a direct connection between our lakes and other surface
water and these springs; this being proven and admitted, we can easily account
ir all ths other phenomena attending these wonderful freaks of nature.
IThere undoubtedly is an intricate and extensive system of underground water-
urses in the country, near these springs, with great reservoirs for water, and
openings where the water escapes in the rock not capable of admitting but a
ed volume, so that when the rainy season comes, the discharge is very little
water than during tile dry season, and only as much greater as the higheior water
uld accelerate the velocity of the discharge, and tlis inot being noticeable to

e unpracticed ey
opposed mystery
In Leon county,
byette, with no
Bion we find inn
bile many stream
middle Florida, i

Along these
D easily be t
stern Florida
,.John's and
lion. Small
batine, do no
undou btedly
rnge Spring

e, tht se springs are supposed to never fluctuate; hence, the
of their source.
not far from Tallahaase, we find Lake Jackson and Lake La

visible ou
s of consi
ying betw

river bottoms
raced to Lake

ilet, both large bodies of water; and in the same
sinksl where small rivulets disappear underground,
durable size sink and are lost in tllo country known
een the 8uwanes river and the Appalachicola; and
we find great sulplhur springs. Tlhe Waukulla Spring
Jnckson by any observing investigator. In north-

there are no largo springs except what rise near the banks of th
Ocklawaha rivers, and a few miles from each will be found a lak

ponds or flat country, as we find in
t seem to cause large springs. Green
due to tile lakes in Clay and Baker
can be traced to the great sink nu P

ndred square miles is drained into a vortex, where
the earth. This is the most wonderful sink in F

Duval, St. John's or Nassau
Cove Spring, although small,
counties. Silver Spring anti
ayne's prairie, where several
it disappears into tile bowels
'lorida, and although nothing

fantastic appertains to it as the freaks of the Santafe river, still it is a sublmo
hject of contemplation.
The normal condition of Payne's Prairie of late years seems to be a lake, as it
overflowed more years than it is dry. I have seen it when dry and partly in
tivation, and nowhere in the Union havo I ever seen a more fertile valley.
*e Lockloona creek flows into the prairie and coursing through it, suddenly
ma toward the wdodod shore, or margin of the parirlo (when dry), and pours
eolf into a perfect maelstrom. Trunks of trees, brush, vines, and all debris
ting on the stream, are whirled into this chasm and disappear, never to bu
sn again. The opening is sufficient to drain the whole region tributary to it,
toept during protracted rainy seasons, when it seems that the amount of foreign
hater carried in with the stream obstructs the subterranean passages, and the
sat natural drain falk to perform its functions. Then the water backs up over
runty thousand acres of land. It is plain that this must come up again some-
hers, and no doubt it feeds the great Silver Spring near the Ocklawaha river.
range Spring can also be accounted for in other smaller sinks and isolated lakes.
Irer 8prlng, on Lake George, is fed by the reall lakes and sinks around Lakes


Spring, Seminole Spring, and others in Opango county, find their water sujiply in
the iauumerable lak~s a few miles in the rear, Laving uo viable outlet. Mr.
Fuller, at Altamoute, in digging a well struck ooquiua rock about forty feet from
the surface, and going through a thin stratum, struck a runuuig stream of sulphur
water in the rock. About eighty roaIs from the house is a large sulphur spring,
and near his house is one of those remarkable fua.el-slaped sinks which we tind
iu the hilly region of Florida. It is clear that this subterranean creek causes thu
spring and .also the sink. The stream finds its channel between the straw of
olitic lime rock, and where an opening is made in the crust above, the soil sifts
down and is carried away by the stream below lill considerable cavity is Ibormed,
thle the roof drops in andl this sil is again scrried away slowly till a fuunel-
shaped opening appears on the surface, which is sometimes attributed to some
sudden convulsiou of nature, and gave rise to the "land sink" scare, which was
at one time so ludustriously circulated by the enemies of Florada. The sinks con-

tinue to grow if the stream below is lr
season walhiug down soil from the a
they are sometimes severnd square rods
the limestone country in Alachua, Lev
termed "natural wells," and well der
rock forty foot deep, with sides as smc
poles and buckets used in them by tlhe
not pretend to account for fully on theo
found them in Western Alachua^ as smi

ge and the orifice remains open, eacl.rainy
sides slowly aud almost imperceptibly, till
in extent, in'the clay hill country. qdut in
y and other gulf slope counties, they are
re the title. T" have seen holes in the lime
ioth as if cut by hand, and have seen well
naives. The unaturl wells, however, I do
theory of subterranean currents. as I have
all as a man's arm to several feet in diameter,

circular and perpendicular generally, with wat r in them, but alwa
white lime rock came to the surface, and invariably in very unhea
While the sinks may be fouud in places several miles from spring
lauds, aund where the sublhur water does not make its appearance
in those cases the vicinity may be healthy. But I have failed to
Florida where it is safe from chills or fever within a mile or two of
springs. Some of these springs are so slightly tainted with sulphur
that t i. claimed they are pure, but the unmistakable characteristics
wholesome waters are their freedom from all surface impurities, a ml
action, sometimes bluish, often m lky, but generally iown by its
transparency. The well known Salver Spring is of a great depth, yi
can be seen on the bottom, and the water hare wonderful refraddon
water not appearing more than wading depth to the eye of one not

,y where the
dthy districts.
rs in the clay
at the surface,
find a apot in
these sulphur
,tted hydrogen
s of these 1I1n-
ineral discolor-
Bt As nall coin
i, forty feet of
accustomed to

tis singular water. The seeming absence of sulphur taint is no evidence of health-
fulness, as all these springs are alike in their effects.
Winter visitors are sometimes so completely infatuated with these springs that

they believe those humbugs who claim great curative properties for thu water
awl sanitariums are established near many of tlese noisome plaooe. Some thiu
that the more disagreeable water can taste or smell. the more valuable its medic
nal qualities. Invalids are induced to stay around them till summer comes, whu
malaria ripens, and the victims of the "' Springs become another set of disappointU
growler, sick of fever, or go back north telling others that Florida is a gre
yard. But the hotel man, the board iung-house man, and the store man, as well
the vagrants who hang around, will tell the disappointed invaW or settler, "O
this i s ias healy as anywhere else in Florida," and thie victim goe sway belie
ing that everywhere else Is as sickly as where he was delceived.
The "springs at prominent points on or ner the routes of travel are obtrud
upon the strangers, and theme wonders are held up to him as attractions. TI
people who do this were deceived themselves; they cannot get out of it, aad th<
want ,boarders, or trade, or want to sell. The temperature of some of the
springs is about sevenay-five degree, and they afford ktming in winter M well
in summer; the climate invariably relieves oold climate maladil with or witho
bathing in springs, the patient ouly requiring a good L thawing out," The spin





ring is i kept up, but the settlement of Florida is retardod. Invalids from the
orth need a uniform mdild temperature her. The trouble at the North is that
ere ls one winter upon the heels of another in such rapid succcssiou that the
sds of diseu planted by cold weather do not have tune to die out during the
lort rummer, except in the most robust constitutious, before another horrible
inter comes to add fuel to tile fire; such persons are better away from water-
urses, on some Inland Ildke in the high, sheltered pine forest, at some cosy home
ere the full benetflt ofr our South Florida climate can be obtained. Drinking
Sfoul hnd disagreeable waters of the springs, or dosing themselves with
aminable drugs, will do no good whatever, neither should they stay in hotels or
Ibhic boarding houses, but seek quiet and warmth in the open air, and, if poi.
le. some interesting pursuit to occupy their minds, and give them healthful
t-door uzercise; avoid sudden changes and observe common sense sanitary rules.
must also mention the great springs of the Gulf toast, in Levy and ilernando
anties. These are led by the chain of ponds in western Alachua, which ex
d north and south some forty miles, and have no visible outlet, but undoubtedly
Sthe many small rivers rising in springs and flowing into the Gulf above the
buth of the Witiacoochee River and the Charley Apopka Lake. as well as many
ahler bodies of water in Hernando, which give rise to the greit Homosassa,
ustal river, and several other immense springs along the coast down below

y Port; below Tampa Bay, large springs are I
low Manatee. Below this latitude the county
tough to force the water out in that way, and it
e springs along the Gull are very interesting;
fsh frequent dtem, and rare sport an be had
s, transparent water, 6dmiw of seeing the ishe
pths, turning about as Lf within reach of the
action of the water.
Florida Is probably based upon a solid oral re

iot fou
ry back
runny of
on the
of all

nd, and but few small ones
from tho set is not high
the surface or evaporates
so near salt water, millions
so waters. The clear, sky-
shapes and species at great
owning to the deceptive res

ef built up from the bottom of the

and before the present soil was deposited upon It surface a stratum of
rine shells and mollusks accumulated on this reeL This has now become con-
to or coquina rock, deposits of mud and sand lying between this upper stratum
the uneven surface of the coral, coutracted from decay, leaving dtsures and
ties under the oolite; and when the present soil Was deposited 1 the accumulate I
n water could find openings, through which, with greot pressure above, it
its way to a lower level, breaking out on the margin of tids upper crust
r the sea shore and river basins, which were once salt lagoons; the tanks of
and sand heaped up parallel to the coasts prevented the surface water from
Ibg a surface outle% and where it was higher than the sea it found its way
ground, on the same principle that a mill-d:,m is undermined by a head of
r above, and the stratum under which the water runs being solid shell con-
te, the subterraanean passages become permanent, and admit of no washlrtg
aybxcept in places where an opening occurs in the upper stratum, as explained
ore, where a sink is formed. Bus some deny that the springs are fed by our
face water, be use the spring water is so wonderfully transparent, while our
ea water is more or less impregnated with and disolored by the decaying
taton, and I msay places quite red or tes-colored by the tannie in the leaves
ing In contact with the sulphate of iron or red oride of Iron in the low lands,
re maybe f uthd quasntdtles of bog iron ore. They say, him can it be that
In water tl z discolored, and containing nothing at all deleterious to health, can,
the short dfliane tnarfled.'be~ome so clear and so cn awtinated as to breed
rt, and s l! so horrlblr.o hnsive? But I have hinted how this may happen
ore, and how I will explain 'fully. It is my opinion that them are vast areas
ethe Cavitia between the amt of trock ani amongst the spongy oolite and
rM whewe this wat r is stored away, and that no c'trrent of any great speed
ms anywhere e cpt near the inlets to the cavities or near the springs, and
dapesm to be supported by tle Wh that dry sinks are found only near springs
naf wh@et tin Waters center unI thelr nmdema.nrd t1nnmonarv t the Inar.

and becomes transparent by being deprive
thatt cuild cause discoloration, uund comiJ
limestone, it partake of its wbiteuoes and
of decaying remains of marine animals s
river is low on the banks of the St. John
in the form of sulphuretted hydrogen gas.
emerges from the springs, and, when let st

1 of afl impurities of a vegetable nature
ig in cousaunt contact with tho white
btrilliancy, while it pusses over deposits
uch as we find cropping out when the
's, imparting to it the sulphurous smell
This gas escapes as soon aIs the water
and a few hour, it is as pure as filtered

rain water, with the exception of a slight trace of lime.
The water when carried away from the spring, does not seem to carry malaria
with it, but is perfectly harmless, and the gas escaping irom tJhe springs is the
only real cause of its unwholesome effects. This extends ai mile or two, and no
precautions will save those from chills asd fever, who live within reach of such
emanations. Many have tried cistern water, and diet, but all was of no avail;
quinine and calomel are the only remedies.
Near the banks of the large rivers there is more fog and dew than out among
the hills, and for invalids jhis is very objectionable. No one who has not tried i
cad conceive how much difference there is between the air in the low lant coun-
try, and particularly near the river banks atnd the highlands. The foul gaes. aris-

ing from the dccayil
pulsive to those who

ig marsh gr asses and other vegetation, are exceedingly re-
are accustomed to the pure, dry atmosphere of the high pine

woods. For comfort, no one should settle on laud where the water is at any time
nearer than thirty feet from the surface, although in the extreme south, the coun-
try ii nowhere over twenty feet above the water, and at most seasons the whole
country is almost inundated, and I have seen in Brevard, Manatee, Dade, and
Monroe counties, some families living for years and enjoying perfect health,
where they could at all seawous dip water out of their wells with a dipper; in such
cases there was no tamt of marl, and the well contained simply the surface (rain)
water; while on the other hand I have seen in Levy, Marion, AlaclhA, Sumter
and Hernaudo Counties, wells forty or fifty feet deep. where the water came
through limestone, and fever was as sure to come as the return of summer; hut
I do not refer to the oa/er as the cause of sickness, but merely to call attention
to the fact that altitude alone will not secure exemption from levers, and in fact
thie highest counties are the sickliest: Jackson, i.evy, Gadeden, and Marion,
are among the highest, and are decidedly the most subject to levers.
Altitude will not prevent malaria, but is desirable a4 a matter of comfort. On
a hill one has gooi drainage, a drier air, dry roads, and altnagtheer more ploaaanr

surroundings; beside, hills are more fertile and leiq subject to
speaking of frosts, I have just noticed (18S0) a communication
in regard to the eucalyptus tree, in which the writer admits that
killed down in Northern Florida. People who try to live in the sick
Duval and other northern counties, expected a great deal from the su

of the K
healthful, 1

ucalyptus Globulus,"
but now after three

to absorb miasma, and thus render

or four years, they

frosts. A nt.
in the TYme.,
they are a]
ly portions oi
opposed power
these places

have been forced to abindon

this hope, for the eucalyptus has been destroyed by cold, and will be every three
or four years. But here below theo twenty-ninth degree, the trees have never bee;
injured, and we find trees flourishing which were planted here when first intro
duced in 1871. They grow rapidly, and many trees in Orang(county are now
forty-five.or fifty feet high and a foot in diameter at the ground, so if there is any-
thing in the eucalyptus .we can use it on all the unhealthy spots in South Florida.
while in northern counties this even is denied them, because they are not far
enough south; And it would be well here to cell the reader's attention to the
eucalyptus as a good criterion of temperature. Where the eucalyptus is killed is
not sraeciently safe for the citrus family; a lemon tree is killed by the same tem-
perature that kills the eucalyptus, although the eucalyptus will stand three or
lour degrees lower than a lemon and five or six degrees lower than a lime wil
bear. Where the eucalyptus is killed, the oranges are frozen and spoiled also, and
if a stranger will take pains to inquire guardedly, he will find that the eucaly;ptar
was killed as far south as twenty-nine and a half degrees or in that neighborhood.

thoso who wish to entrap the str
mceal every evidence of this kind, s
req t car altlr this is published. Ai
pny that the eucalyptus was killed
lurida as well; but when they found
wea of advanced age and size, they
ees and deny that they ever trial d to
arks account fur the woe-begone
en they assert that no one over calle
well as they, that more lies. chin
rred on in Jackaonvillo, thnl all I
wing eucalyptus trees, latitude is t

singer into settling
o tlie information
t first the people in
, as they suppose
that it was not kill
will have removed
grow them, in the
appearance of tl.e

in the doubtful belt, will
must be draw out witii
northern Florida did not
d it was killed in South
ed here, and that' we have
every vestige of the dead
same mauner that land
rural districts of Duval,

4d attention to tht county; whleo we all know
music," and humbug land harking has been
;he rest of Florida put together. But like
he only thing that controls temperature, and

ui-tropical plants will not succeed out of the proper temperature. Settlers nmay
cnjoled and operated upon till they part with their money; but the freeze will
nme and other drive them south lor send them back disgusted; and the Hat woods
d white sand of Duval county languishes; but I digress, and we must return to

r proper heading.
Having described
B causes, I will no
ose known to be c
To save time I w
'enLy-ninth degree
'lorida northern
Ing entrapped into

the indications of unhealthy localities, and tried to explain
w mention a few of the sickly Dlaces and districts, as well as

ill in f
as mu


ree &
free from malaria.

ch as

i "doubtful boAl" and nort
5nson, Archer, Arredonda,


tice banks of the


confine my remnur

possible, as ti
; to seek, and t
?ir time trying
>f it, whero it
ayne's Prairie,
er Santafe, the

ie Co
Is c

towns near them, Tallahassee, Monticello, Ocal
er settlements, Dunn's Inko bank, and many or
aco I would mention Baldwin, Starko, Trail Br
wtlhorne, the interior of Fnritland peninsula, two
nn's lake, the western portions of Putnam county,
it of the Ocklawaha, and a mile away from the C
John's, Lake Bryant, Lake Kerr, Lake Ware,
ero we find none of the five indications before
>rida I intend to devote a chapter; but here I wi
evidence on the salt water or salt lapDons is un

uths of rivers or crocks of fresh water, and in tl
idulterated, seems to be free from any malarial t
in the ports of entry. St Augustine, Fernandi
ye, St Mark's, Apalachicola, and Pensacola, altl
y free from fevers, at intervals of a few years the

rer or something as fatal.
m an infected port, but w
t1l for the short season it

It is always suppose

ksa to the district south of the
,untrv north of that is not'the
is little danger of many more
But I will name a few places in
onsiderod sickly. Gainesville,
If hammock, tlie bank of the
ks of the St. John's, including
a, Orange lake region, Halifax
Iher settlements. As healthy
idgo. Lawtrr. Kingfley Lake,
) miles away from the river ,,n
,the eastern portion of Marion,
)cklawaha, two miles from the
and many other settlements
3 described. To the cnaut of
11 say that in regard to hoastl',
iformly healthy, except at the
he seaport towns Sea water
hint at all points on our coasts
ins, Key West. Tampa. Cedar
hough at most times remark-
*se places are visited by yellow
1 to be traced to some vessel

wherever it may have its origin tlhe effects are dreadfully
lasts. When this malignant visitor comes, alil who

e never had it leave if possible, and remain out in the country till froat, which
ariably destropa the poison. And it is something wonderful how safe from the
ease one can be at a distance of a mile or two in the pine woods, it seems to be
bible to make it epidemic in the country or shy where away from the town*.
Lenta may come out to the pine woods and die by dozens, but no one out of the
n will become infected or stand in any danger.
hen the yellow fever visited Peamcols in 1874, the strangers nearly all left
b town and went to Molino; the old imttlera who were used to it remained and
t of those who were not accilarted and did not leave, died. The collector of
Sport, ol. Potter, moved his family ouat of town, and none of the stranRers who
re ant foolhardy enough to remain in town suffered, except the inconvenience
leaving their business for a time. but there was little business done during the
ie, and it was livelier when the fever was Checked by frost
While oa the way to the Cettuotsl with my family ih the latter part of the


summer of 1876, we were compelled to travel over the Macon and Brunawick
R. R., at the time the yellow fever was very bad at Bruuswick, Ga.. the trains all
had yellow fever patients aboard, but the traveller feared no contagion and we
were assured that the fever could not be taken by contact with the patients
aboard the train, and we found this to be true, as a great many left Brunswick
too late, and died in the towns along the railroad; but in no instance did the inhabi-
tants anywhere away from Brunswick catch the infection. To those in the
Peninsula of Florida away from the seaport towns. the yellow fever never causes
any more apprehension: than it does to the inhabitants of Western New York
when it is at quarantine In New York Bay. But this is nevertheless a sufficient
reason for avoiding the seaport towns of Florida as a place of residence, for I have
known a number of persons who foolishly threw away their lives by trying to
live in the different towns inentioned, during a yellow over epidemic.
Thleso visitations of yellow fever have consequently hindered many from coming
to our State. Hearing of the mortality at Cedar Keys, Fernandinza or Pensacola,
St. Augustine or Jacksonville, they will not take into consideration the great area
of Florida, and it is enough for many that it is in '" Florida," to cause them to
believe that the whole State is subject to yellow fever. Yellow fever is imported
from the West Indies and is never epidemic in rural districts, could not exist in
the pine woods of Florida. and with a good system of quarantine, which our sea-
port towns must have ere many years, they can be kept as free from yellow fever

as the seaports of the Northern States. It is a well known
fifty years ago or more, yellow fever was often imported into
Philadelphia. and Baltimore, and often becimo epidemic
results; Philadelphia being at one time nearly depopulated by
antine did away with this, as it will on all our coasts in time.
not originate in Florida any more than it does in Maine ; it is
our seaports as it would be anywhere else under loose qui
The great obstacle in'the way of a rigid quarantine in our a
settler" who "hsa had it" during some former visitation at
are not susceptible again. They are anxious to see it come, a
it as much as they do a bad cold; it is only the people wih
through it" that are in danger, and they nearly all leave or
while of the few who remain the greater part die. This clei
trades-people and gives the old settlers a monopoly of the pnl

ness of the place for a number of years again, till
fever. So it seems true that the old residents of the a
fever as a godsend; the ranks of the acclimated are
through the ordeal, and a sort of maaonry exists amo
ship is reported, the old settlers will ridicule the idea,
they will ridicule those who run away, while they a
they slip into the fat position in the custom house or

historical fact that
New York, Boston,
with terribly fatal
1i but better quar-
Yellow fever does
merely imported at
ran tine regulations
seaports is the old
the same'place, and
is they do not dread
o have never been
n its first approach,
ins out the surplus
,lie oflces and busi-

strangers forget the yellow
eaports look upon the yellow
increased by a few who/go
ng them. If a yellow fever
and when fever is epidemic
ire laughing in their sleeve,
other sinecures

I have stated- that yellow fever has' never been epidemic in the interior of
Florida, and as I expect to rouse considerable feeling by publishing my papers, any
seeming inconsistenoy will be greedily taken hold of by my opponents. It will be
stated that such is not true, and the fever which decimated the population of
Galpesville some ten years ago will be mentioned perhaps to Show that I am in
error. But I will now strite that I believe just what I say, and am firmly of the
opinion that the Gaineuville fever was only the same malarial fever which prevails
more or less every year in the limestone region, only of a more malignant form,
and owing to some condition of the water or atmosphere at the time, asulmed all
the alarming fatality of yellow fever, but the symptoms were entirely dWdrent :
and I believe also that the fever whiho raged with so much violent in Jackson-
ville seven years ago was no morethan an aggravated form of the fever common tk
the river banks every year, although it was published to the world as yellow@
over. At the tme the yellow fever was epidemio at boih ends of the Florida Bail


itry subject to fatal malarial fevers, it was easy to create a panic and declare
)w fever epidemic at Uainvsviie. On the wlole it is not wise tbr any nordi-
;family to settle or consider the propriety of. making a home within one
pred miles of any of these place, because apart from any danger from yellow
r they are tou far north.
py West is also visited very often by yellow fever, but the town of Key West
rather removed from us than Chicago; the quickest way to get there from
Pge county is to go by way of New York city and take the Havana stearfierf.
re is DO overland communication between this part of Florida and either Key
t or PeoBacola, without travelling over a thousand miles; the latter place is
bed by way of Jacksonvlle, so wu never worry ove: yellow fever in any of
report towns, ouly for the sufferers and the injury it will do immigration to
with the exception of occasional epidemics at the seaports, our coast country
oeeedingly healthful. Ague was very prevalent at the Halifax river at Datolu
New Britain in 1879. and they have some every year; it has also been
blesome at and about Titusville on Indian river, but this it due to the presence
[tensive bodies of very rich low hammock lands. The places in South Florida
known to be more or less subject to fevers, are Sanford, Lake Jessup, Lake
pka shores, the banks of the St. John's, Wekiva, Alafla, Hillsboro (near
pa), the Big Manatee, the mouth of Peace creek near Fort Ogdenpthe banks
he Ocklawaha, Clay Spring, Blue Spring, Seminole Springs, Rock Springs,
iter Spring, Volusia, Spring Garden, a few points on Lake Harris and Lake
In, and at Yalaha chills have prevailed this season, and although reported
wise, I-believe ;t Yalath chills are liable to como every summer.
;hen I undertake to edumerate the loc cities free from chills and fever, it is
ult to mention them all, 'as the whole peninsula is healthful, with very
piong the old settlements which have stood the test of thirty to forty years,
rover have exhibited any indications of malarial disease, Orlando and Fort
pe stand at the head. Orlando is in Orange and Fort Meade in Polk county.
Reed, only two miles from Sanford, the latter being on the lake shore and the
er out in the pine woods, is also one of tho proverbially healthy spots; all
country from two miles north of Orlando to seven miles below at Lake Con-
was in old times called the Fort Gatlin hills, and is perfectly free from
rit, and so is all the country below to Capa Sable. But seven miles below
Ddo the flat woods besin, and in a duo o.trth line or anywhere east of such
there are not two thouund acres of land high enough to lie on in the whole

moog the newly settled places which have been tried ten years or more, and
d entirely free from malaria, are Sorrento, Lako Euctii, Lake Dorn, Apopka
8tarke Lake, Aeron, Umatill, Altoona, SenecaD Lake, Zellwood, Merrimac,
an InLk. and several other places in Orange county ; while ninety-nine hun-
the of the Peninsula of Florida can be relied upon for perfect healthfulness,
if the known unhealthy plaes are avoided and the rules I have laid down
wed, there isa not much danger j ever leaving a chill In Florida
Iliough I regard Polk, a pnrk of uenatee, way from the coat). Eastern
ter and part of Hllsborougb-that is, the high pine lands and lake region, an
i dedrNe, and all that I an say of Orange county that is favorable, will
r with equal fore to the good portions of thee counties, (which makes up a
!extenalve region), with the exception of a slight advantage in present facili-
tra porta iom ad belnty of scenery on the part of West Orange.
great ,arerow with many who come to our State is the woe-begone,
look and tow oomplealona of the native population they meet with along
treof tnyl, and the aromly less sickly-looking new settlers, no matter
hey am tar who awbihe new comers at the river landings or along the
la and Oidp rap nrod. When the fCll and early winter comes, the
aMd tarwt corne don, and at every boat landing will be seen a
of 1oomnutv invaiids from tho North and a majority of this

pale-faood, ague
times out of te
"'little fever alou
broke it up," or w
asked if it is healL
as anywhere else,
a sallow complex
if the truth c>ophl
portion of the pop

stamped population. If asked if they have had chills, nine
n they will tay **no;" may admit thit they have had a
ng in the summer; Iothing serious," "took some quinine and
ill treat the matter in some other light or careless way. When
hy where they live, they will invariably answer "yes, as healthy
" or some other remark which leads the stranger to decide tiat
ion and a cadaverous frame are unavoidable in Florida. When,
be fully brought to their notice, these ague victims'form a smaili
ulation of Florida, and are either deceiving themselves and farn-

ilies with the reflection that it is as healthy wh
or their means of livelihood is a sort of easy dog
away from the easy pickings along the routes
colonization are inseparable from high land. and
penetrated the southern interior, hence the tra
come in contact with our Florida population, a
our native population by the unfortunate people
to live in the rich lands or near the banks of the

's l

they are "as anywhere else.'
ifo which could not be enjoyed
travel. Health and successful
to this time few railroads have
ler by rail or steamer has not
has been too apt to judge of
o believe themselves compelled
John's river.

There are many old families here whose children and grand-children hare bee
born in South Florida, and who, brought up on the high pine woods, can show a
tine specimens of manhood and womnnbood as are to be found on this cotineni
and as ngild and perfect, physically, as any Americans. Healthy and fair girls ;
can be found in' the whole Union are the rule among the well-to-do classes iu ia
the high, rolling lands of Orange, Sumter, Polk, and other southern counties, atl
in west Florida there are extensive settlements of Highland Scotch-North C rolhI
inns, whose children and grand-childreu, born in Milton, Uchee Arma, Holme
valley, an other healthy portions, show tho fine, noble physique and munsle '

their warlike
in South Flo
inhabitants ii
who grew up
the Do Rary s
tho Bryant fta
of Orange; tit
and thousand
and were not i
of our State,
remember the
tor centuries

ancestors. I can show as many fair skins and as florid c>mplexionr
rids, among the people born here, as among the same number If
n iny new country inl our Union. As flue specimens of youug men
in South Florida, I would mention, Capt. William Watson, agent ,f
Leamors; the Hart brothers, of Orange; the Speer brothers, of Orang,.

e l
s (
it t


out of a hundred

disease over which c
consumptive families
Florida, to seek the
going on ever since ti
die during infancy in
try where statistics an

tho Stewarts (Jua. Stewart being nearly 7 ft.); the Bass family,
ell family; the sons of Capt. A bner Johnsou, of South Florida.
he families whose parents wereof robust Celtic or British bloWi.
da when they camo here. The average physique in some portion
not be expected to come up lo a very high standard, when we
mild and healthful climate of the country hns been reported t
ie victims of cold climate diseases, and there is not one family
ilho wero not first forced to come here to wet relief from sonme

climate alone could exe
have moved from tl
soft southern breezes
he cession from Spain.

re kept.

rt a hsaliog Influence. Thousands
we Carolinas, Georgia, and northern
of the Peninsula, and this has be<
It is also proverbial that less children

even in the sickly localities, than in any other ou -
In Orange county not more than three in one tho'e-

sand die before the age of fifteen, and where nearly all the children born grow :p
to maturity, it is wonderful that there are so few deformed or with constitution
disorders. The mild, salubrious climate seems to wholly eradicate the hereditary
diseases, and the only danger is from malarial fevero, and this is confined to very
circumscribed limits.
The entire absence of cholera Infantum, scarlet fever, diphtheria, croup, and we
might say all the dreadful enemies of children in the snow regions, gives the little
ones .great immunity from the fell destroyer. Added to this. the sickly, weak ,r
aonatitutionally defective children that one winter would carry away at the north h.
here can play in the open a aoy day in the yer, and being exp d to e1




although it would reduce the percentage of our invalids, it would be cruel to
them dead while we have plenty of room fbr all
e hare talked so long on the subject ot' climate, that the reader may find it
>tonous, and a little diversion may not be amiss, so now we shall say some-
r about the surface and configuration of Florida.


orida is simply a ;
i region of North

mbraciug the vast
) it south, covering
sorgia. Alabama, M
immense territory
rntic, aud as the se
* the foot hills of t
ned of salt water tha
ding the pine wood
ida, have been som
eot slpw such inm!
,r, which is nearly 1

prolongedd continuation of the "low country" or "pine
America; beginning in the coast counties of New Jersey
territory south for a thousand miles, and widening as you
part of Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, the Caroliuas, half
iasissippi, Louisiana, a portion of Texas, and all of FSlrida.
was, at some very remote period, at the bottom of the
a receded, was gradually left bare; the higher portions
he Appalachian ranges being more elevated and longer
mn the lower and flatter region near the present coast line,

Is of lower Carolina, lower Georgia, the Gulf States, and
iewhat tranafortned by natural processes, and do not at
Istakable evidences of having risen out of the sea, as the


, and must have been laid baro at the same time by

e mighty upheaval or great convulsion of nature.
orida and the contiguous territory of the same altitude was undoubtedly a
desert of drifting sand and sediment for a long time after it was laid bare, and
oubt was a barren waste, treeless and rainless, for an immensely protracted
d of time. It is a well known and settled meteorological law tliat vegetation
ces rain, and rain produces vegetation, so that the process of clothing this
naive desert of sea sand and .dry mud was exceedingly slow; baked, dried and
erized by a tropical nun, in the region of perpetual breezes, it was drifted and
d, leaving the sind in one spot und the lighter substances, which afterwards
me clay, in another, here and there till it was heaped up into the graceful
ulations of surface which now has become the permanent surface of Florid ,.
it pits were dug out where the mass offered the least resistance to the wild
ke of the trade wind<," and these now form the basins of our innumerab e
* and valleys. Grradudly the vegt-ation crept down from the wooded slopes
he mountains and bnroached upon the desert, the foliage attractingl and pre.
Rating the refreshing showers, till the whole region became mantled wilI a
Sof green, and the continent was finished. No doubt the saw palmetto w't
first plant that obtained a footing, and then followed the coarse grasses and
ly nhruba. The pine trees followed next, grew into a vast forest, and Florida,
former desert, became a rainy climate, then the low lands became moist, the
ier basins were filled with fresh water, the salt was leached out of the soils,
excess of water made its way towards the sea, where openings existed,
rding the alt water out of the lagoons and creating our fresh water rivers and
Eish estuariewlike the St. John's.
rpiota of sma shells and mollusks, so enormous that it puzzles the human mind
)m *ny conception of how they could have been deposited where they are,
)rie all the day and sand cropping out in places, as along the banks of the
john's river,'whore the depot is visible at low water nnd is several feet In
ke. .In this tbstratum all the sea shells of the present period are found,
noed with dcay. .ren l and art, and the vmanalnt .f marine animal life.
each, wl is now the titAple shall tAh of Bicsyune Bay, forms a large
ion o thlMaa. the abbll le perfect in shape and ise, and when the
Swa awjay the taler 'lt. leanv one of the great conch shells

1 _



dlighteet touch, and crushed into.a mass of dust in the hands of the investigator.
When applied to the soil this deposit is of about equal value with Jersey green
sand marl.
On close scrutiny our sand soils are found to contain dust which is composed of
theso disintegrated tea shells, hence the fertility of the soils here, whioh to at north-
ern eye seems a mass of sand. It would seem that it required several upheavals
and submeraions of this region to complete the land, as we find marine deposits
which show geological evidence of having been formed at different periods. In'
the interior, on the slope of the Gulf, we find the limestone formation composed
entirely of the same constituents as the soft mass of animal remains now existing
at a considerable depth below the surface of the half nearest the Atlantic. This
would indicate an older formation, but it is not profitable to speculate too much
on the mysteries of nature unless one is devoted to science, and how the land was
made is not of so rouch interest to us, as what wo can do with it now. .Agasis
did not arrive at a satisfactory solution of the problem; no .theory that has been
ndvauced will apply without some error, and perhaps it is as well to adhere to

the old fashioned story
thousand years, for the
perhaps all these depos
never to be understood
it would have taken court

of the creation, which dates our planet back only a few
Creator could make shells as well as sand or rock, and
its of sea shells are only played there to mystify us, and
any more than the mystery of our own being, otherwiso
hitless millions of aaes to rrow the shells on which Florida

is based. while each great bed seems
Where such enormous deposits could co
those things that must over remain a sul

to have been deposited simultaneously.
me from, or how brought here,-is one of

bject for speculation.

We shall now go back to the surface, which, before vegetation took poMession,
was moulded into a gently uudulating plain, no portion being more than a few
hundred feet above the sea; large areas being quite flat. In some districts clay
predominates, but as a rule the Peninsula, the only portion worthy of unotie by a
northern reader, is sandy, with a slight admixture of dust or clay.
When the land became bare, by a transition understood br scientists, bog iron
oro formed in places, and there are decided traces of iron la all our soils; this with
the flue dust mentioned, forms a red "gritty" clay, which underlies mmet of our
pine woods. In many spots, however, in digging wells, we do not find clay, and it
sa ems that the wind, in drifting the soil while a dry desert, separated the oarse
sand from the finer, and in some spots drifted the dust which has since become

clay, into soprarte beds and mounds.
For a long timo the soil was strumgly impregnated with malt, and the higher
and drier liud had this washed out of it first; in the soil thus purified the long
leafed pine first grew. omne of theme high spot. were eompnu.d of a more
spongy mass, and, being more thirsty, the pi2o would not grow, and in them the
scrub otk (an evergreen) grows. As th.j pine trees increased iu sin the grass grew
also. and fresh annually ran over the face of those whole region. Among the pine.
tie fire burned the surface more frequently and thoroughly; the pines alone could
live through the heats, and all other trees and shrubs were annihilated or kept
under, allowing only one season's growth above thie ground. On the more
thirty and barren tracts, where the grass could not thrive and pine trees refued
to grow, the scrme oak took possession and covered the land; these tretact
escaped the fires, and all the deciduous trees came in, as th' leaves of the
chapparal sago bush and other shrubs, fell on the ground and decayed, armed a
leaf mould. It as a fact, well known, that the Manual tires run only whe "pine
straw" or leaves oontaining a large per uot of resin fall in coasiderable
quantities, and when the Bfre does not rno over the ground, the oaks gow up and
ih course of time will form what is called hammock land. We ha, targe areas of
lad known as crub, whlih Is of a dr7 and apmgy nature, on wie h the yow
pine does not gnrow, but a variety of mall pw,c all ed' ipro pr e" take kn
- ...^. l -- _- l -^ __. .. -.1 A t. t f^^ ^ L.l- A.. t*A^.. ...L...L1. ^ -

this scrub will never burn over again, and in & few years
mock." Evidenoe of this can be seen where the spruce pin
by fire and did nuot grow up again, and scrub hammock is
In the low lands, where the moisture is permanent, we

would be "high ham-
ea hlavo been destroyed
formed in a few years.
tind swamps and low

hamumoks formed by the slow and gradual deoomposition of vegetable itatter,
through the many centuries since vegetation and rains commenced. The
moisture of course caused a more luxuriant growth, and $reea of a different
character from those of the high ildads took holly at first, produced more vegetable
mutter, and consequently more humus, till the boil became exceedingly fertile.
The swamps and low hammo-ka of Florida are rich in vegetable mould, but have
no other basis cf fertility except the moisture, and, when cultivated a few year.,
this surface fertility, caused by the decayed leaves, entirely disappears, and the
excessive moisture then becomes detrimental to cultivated plants, causing a cold-
ness and acidity which renders such land not worth cultivutiqn. Such land not
only is exhausted soon, but is exceedingly difficult to recuperate. It becomes a
packed, cold, sour mass of clay or sand, as the case may be, and is generally
abandoned after a few crops. Asampleo of this swamp land, or low hammock of

the sandy variety, ui the old Hull liammock, which was at
ered with a growth of enormous live oak-, poplars, magnolia an
a few crops, take off before the war, cxlhnuated the soil entire
lies bare and barren of everything except some coarse sedge grass
desert of bihte sand. A hammock ot a lower grade, and richer
low shell hammocks along the St. J*hn's. where they have b1
formerly, and the old cabbage hammock fields near Mt. Augusti
instance that Ihas come under my notice in all parts of Florida, whe
low hammock has been cultuvated a few yraras. i has become po
unprofitable for tillage, while now lands are chdlpt. No doubt t
will all be very value ble some day, and at & date not far in the fi
sugar and vegetable fields. The poverty of the few spots that are
be of no consequence, as the fertility can be readily retored by ji
ing and fertilizing. The quautiry of fertilizer needed is but a tithe
of such valuable crop as can be produced in this climate.
We find in low clay, marl, or sandy lands, a small crustacean call
fish," the same in appearance as the crab of our rocky streams
This animal burrows in the wet soil, bringing up bWlls of earth anc
heaps all over the surface of the ground. This earth, spread
decaying laves, buries them and thie rotten wood, thus building u
mixing this humus with the soil till it becomes very rich, and no

one time cov-
4d water oaks;
,ly, and now it

at f
ro a
or a

irat, is the
In every
swamp or
nd will be
low lands

future, as rice,
exhausted will
idicious drain-
of the profits

ed the "craw
q the north.
I making little
thus over the
p the land and
doubt much of

our low hammock has been raised several feet by thi process since the waters of
the ocean receded and vegetation arrested the work of the winds But, although
this craw fish land is often very rich, a few years exhausts it Jike all other
hammocks, and it becomes extremely sterile. See the Hull old field in four mile
branch hammock near Sanford; the old fields in Lake Jessup hammock, and
many pleo near the St John's, as well as the Gulf slope. Wo have bodies of
low rich hammock and swamp lands that contain mo much ast that no cultivated
crops wil thrive on them. A large proportion of the low lAds in the Turnbull
ihmmock, near Mosquito Lagoon and Indian River, are cdiled "Salt Hammock,"
and also lmg flat tracts near the SL John's--for example, the cabbae lhanmmcks
near Sakla kIk, Lake Jeiuup, Like Harey, the Gulf Hamodck near Ceodar Keys,
and many other spot- The timber is large, the soil may be dark and contain
appa tle y all the elkmnta of fertility; and, when it is cleared at a great cost
corn will whitess bud" or die back when it is a few inches high. Sugar came
alone wil gtow, hat the Juice will contain so much alt that M Will not grannate,
and the myrmp a too much impregnated with chloride of sodiam to be palatble
eough for au.


cabbage hammocks are aloalated to inspire great confidence ia their fertility, and
certainly to ramble .around amogst the ponderous trunks of the live oaks
.maguulh, sweet gum, hickory, poplar, black gum, and, in the lower place border*
ing on the irrechimablo swamps the huge cypress, one would not for a moment
doubt that the soil which produces such vegetation is inexhaustibly rich. It is
rich now while the forest growth remains, which made it rich by depositing its
crops of leaves, seeds and decaying trees for couutless centuries on the surface,
but, at the dawning of verdure on this peninsula, the place where this dense
forest growth now stands was as barren as any other portion of this vast
peninsula. The wet low ground grew up with plants; the fires could not nm
over it, and the vegetation became more dense, leaf mould was formed, and trees, of
the families mentioned, grew up instead of pines, the surface became rich-pro-
duced these giants of the forest.
Cypress trees can easily bo found in the Lake Jessup hammock twenty feet in

diameter and on0 hundred feet to tho tires li
gin of a clearing made in the clay hammock
one branch of which extends one hundred
where it starts from the main trunk is five i
tree iR forty-seven feet in circumference t
take the area embraced by the radius of 1

one acre of land. A grapevine climbs up an
jn diameter. Under and among the branches
of hammock trees are growing. Cabbage pair
ing a truuk of uniform size their entire len
ornament of these tropical jungles, and the
shed from it has much to do with making the
iu the soil these lands will produce from two
slgar per acre, or sixty bushels of rico.
will grow rapidly until the roots penetrate to
reach the salt and oxide of iron which the n

fatal to the tree. This is why all
five years from planting. A panic
mock groves, sincu they find that in
are exhausted, and when the root
liard pan or salt, the tees are dying
trust it was supposed that poverty
eould be cured by liberal fertilizing,

not 0o

the d

ta thi


is now a
a few yi


A lve-oak tree stands at the mar.
r'y years ago by Judge J. G. Speer,
I -teu feet from the tree, the branch
in diameter, the main trunk of the
feet from the ground, and if we
largest limb, it would cover nearly

nong its branches nearly eight inches
s of this cyclopean monster, all kinds
nettos, eighty feet in height, and hav-
gth. This beautiful endogen is the
large quantities of leaves and stems
soil so rich: Where no salt exists
thousand so four thousand pounds of
Heavy crops of cor and orange trees
)o deep iuto th6 soil, and then they
tins have leached down, and this is
ck grove. fail in from ten to tweonty-
preading among thles who own ham-
aers even the richest hammock wsils

a of the orange tree reach the substratum of
beyond any possible hope of redemption. At
was the only trouble and that the die-back
but it has been discovered that mafxure will

the trees, and no hope remains but to either remove the trees from the
c into the piue land, or got what fruit they will produce and atbudao

order to cual the attention of those who are investigating this subject, to
that bear out this statement, I will mention a few instances embracing all
different varties of hammock, high aud low, where the groves have either
or are now going back. Tins Eaton grove, the Speer (river) grove, the Itarke
. the old Jake Smith grove,the Thu'sby grove, Oarr grove, Rope's grove,
hundred othAnear the upptr St. John's are on shell hammock, and are
r dead or dying. Tho Batosn grove was thie bet, and it dikd out entirely
rty years. The Spoer greve on the banks$ the river, died in about the
time. The Enerprisa grove has, like the CoL Hart grove near PalaJIk,
kept alive by efforts too costly to be proetalde, were it not for the extrava-
prioe rmalied from bhe fruit. *
old- Fort Mello there were a few old sweet trees at the oose of the war,

and every etige of them h disappeared. The dead twigs mad braeche ia the
mouag grovea plated sine the war, show nmniastkable aia of die-beck," and
is a few more years will be dead. It may be maid that these groe were sitSa



'in the adjacent swamps and marshes and all we know is that these shells have
been coliuvted into heaps from a few inches deep to mounds and beds twenty feet
and more in thickneu, and are found in the most extensive deposits on and neat
the St. John's river and its different lagoons above Lake George and below Lake
Monroe. We find shell mounud on the upper St. John's, in the neighborhood of
Lake Harney and Salt Lake; small tracts also exist in the Ocklawaha country.

The shell deposits at Fort George Island, at Cedar Keys,
the east coast, are asl sea shells (chietdy oysters), and of a
collected into heaps by the same agency no doubt.
The shell mounds under consideration are very intel
nature and pu rlimg to the most astute thinkers.
At Volu*s landing is one of the most extensive deposi

and at shell mound on
different class, although

testingg to the student of

its, and so situated that

it cnn easily be found, aud the mystery of this phenomeuou studied to good

The river is encroaching
cave in and lay open to vie
nenro of tie deposit, and nc
it is a solid mnas of shelled
white snail shells, as hard
abodes but a week ago w

on the lai
w a sectio
early twen
and fresh
while if we

od and washing away the bank, causing it to
n of the deposit. Here we tind ten acres or
ty feet in thickness. From bottom to surface
it mixed with soil, but chietly clean, snowy
as if the former inhabitants had vacated their
calculate a minute, bmaing our figures upon

the number of shells to the acre now alive in a radius of half way to the nearest
mounds of the same nature, it would take at least one hundred thousand years to
m ike this moundI, provided every snail that could find a living on the surrouuding.
area was scrupulously gathered and deposited in the mound.
We' have numerous water fowls ol the present day, wading and flshing for snails,
and it may be that they have collected these mounds. The wild fowls of these
days do not carry the shells very far after capture, but extract the snail and drop
the shell on the first dry spot, never accumulating more than a hlat full at
a place. Then if we speculate on what the waves could do towards forming
these deposits, we are no nearer a solution, as there are no rapid fresh water cur-
rents and the snaill w( nld not exist in tide water, beside, the mounds are heaped
up so abruptly that rno flivlnl action could cause them. Could it be that some ex-

tinct awImidr or birds

performed this herculean lI:bor? If not, then we must

come back to ourselves and attribute it to human ageucy, and I think this is the
only solution.
Away back in the remote prehistoric ages, when this peninsula was new and
the land h1nd not been stocked wilh game or the waters with fish or alligalors,

the edible snail was perhaps the flrs
cured by the wild race of savages who
immense marshes and the lower swat
water lakes, and on the sandy bottom
Gradually the floating water-lea toe can
above, carried by the swift current of
reach still water, and decaying, settled

mud that hasa filled up the
Monroe. till the great river
the muck tilled the basin to
the rich mass, and moon the
plants decayed, and century
grew tp. Latterly the fo
enough for thboir roos, wh
burning over every year kei

t und most abundant animal food to be pro-
were the only human inhabitants. The
nps of the St. John's liver were then fresh
ns millions of these snails could subei.t.
ie down from the sulphur spring tributtaries
the Wekiva or Blackwater, till the plants
I to the bottom to form the vast deposits of

1 bnsin on the St John's above Aftor and below TAke
became conttned to its present nafrow channel. When
the surface of the low water, vegetation took root on
Sfl waa cnverod with verdure. Them semi-aquatic
After century the soil became firmer, and larger plants



est. treE
ile in pb
it out th

and marshes or prairies of the loweu
asording to any cemputution baed
plants, which undoubtedly filled up
m01ia yens. Vegetable mokil is
tt A. *. -

s peculiar to our swamps, found a soil firm
icee the care grass took full possession, and
e forest growth, and there we find the swamps
r St. John's. The time required to do all this
upon the present production of the aquatio
this extensive lagoon, would be at least one
not of volanic origin, and there is no other


- ftt


L d I


through what was formerly a lake, in the Lake Dexter region, and spread out over
the surface of IAke Gerge to rot and dink to the bottom, so that if.we shoUld
live and this process continues a million years more, we shall have another vast
morass and swamp where the beautiful Lake 9orge, framed in her snowy white
sandy shores, now shines forth the delight of all who cross her heaving boemn.
We shall speak of the water lettuce in bother Ehapter, and examine into this
wonderful plant, which, in Florida., has transformed vast territory in its quiet
way, as much as could be done by the mightiest foroeq of nature-earthquakes or

When these vast feeding places for snalls became filled with this mud or muck,
the snail eating race disappeared and gave place to the mound butders," sa we
can plainly see that the shell deposits have been remodeled long s ubequst fl
the date of the cessation of the deposit. In an obscure island ou the east ude Of
Lake Dexter, there is a large area of shell land, and some portion of it Ims bee
heaped up into remarkable mounds. In one place there is a mound with a circu-
lar bae of about half an acre and a height of about thirty feet. bouth of this esa
smaller mound of similar form; both having sharp, conical apexes. The larger
mound is nearly embraced by a crescent shared embankment, tapering down to
t hlors mad about twenty feet high in the middle. The side sloping towads
the large'mound has a seating deadty for several thousand people, and the first
thought ad the student would be that tlhe mounds were' so onstructed for reli-
gious pu rpiMt the large one for the performances of the rites and the creeoeat
shaped a-is-bemere for the worshippers or spectators. 0
These s.i hammocks have played an important in the prehistoric times,
and in our i are simply useful as rich spots of land.
On and nea the surface these shells have become disintegrated to some extent
from the actkm of thie amphere, and soil has been formed or carried there, and
almost invariably a wi orange grove covers them under the live oaks and ma;-

The early settlers supposed that where the wild orange grew naturally would
a not only the proper place to plant, but long contem.ded that orange tm could
nitstumed where they were not found planted by nature.

no more
The pecul
lary attra

-W been tested, and it has also been proved beyond roota bfr debt, that
wrillnot do to depend upon for a pe, ment oralre grove. The oil is
[ the decayed leaves and a small per cent. of lime evolved from the ox-
Rlka the surface, the subsoil is mainly shell, the almost indestructible
which leaves ebch shell almost as sound and perfect as ever. so that al-
e shells contain a large per cent. of the elements of plant focal, if burnt or
by chemical process, still they give up none of these properties, ind add
to the soil thian If the mass wan composed of a ilenp of broken glass.
iarity of shell hammock is that each shell becomes a receptacle for water
by the ground, and thus no matter how heavy the rwins may be, the
oes not descend far into the enrth. and is soon drawn off again by capil-
otion and evaporation from the surface or from the foliage drawing upon

the supply stored away in the shells.


i no longer doubted that the shells wers subected to some pr of cook-

ing, and the tMal extracted before they were deposited in these beds, arod th
fragments ot~eokem pottery found amofgst the mi from bottom to surface, con-
Arms the t t which I have advanced. Thee shell hammocks are thirty at
all time except during the rainy weaher, and when cultivated a few years are
extremely poor. Orange trees planted on such lad or wild grove budded on
t)ge, are short-lived and often not of much vaneh The most sueassful omego
tree o0 shell hammock was the big tree in the htep ptve, at the oatnis of tak
Monro, aa4 now any traveller en aee from the der of t* team ermom in hia
the lake, the remains of this oneo Amh tree. It d the hard pat. tid
._* S.. j t_ .._t. ... .~ aI I a .--a a ta aj. mm


All the other old trees in the same grove are now dead or dyig. These fats,
wheastudel, an fully and plainly show that shell hammock groves are not per-
maneos, although many ine groves are found on suck land, and a great deal of
moejy ha beea made in raising them to ell.
8hklU land, however, is not common, being confined to the spots or banks as de-
aribed and ot very limited extent, so that we do not class them ae "hmnmock
lands" proper, and have no oharactertics in common with the hammocks, except
tbe gmwth e timber, the bell land having beeh built up by human agency, may
be founded on a hard pan with only a few feet of shells; ad as in the case of the
Katon grove, the orange trees may die when the roots reah down through the
mas of shell and touch the brsckish water of the St. John's swamps or the hard
pan. or the shells may be heaped up into a high, dry mound, and the orange trees
wll die bock and fail when teny send out so many roots aad branches that there
Isa not a soient moisture in the mass to keep up the iroulation and evaporation.
In tids came there being nothing hurtful to the plant in the aoil the deficiency of
water could be supplied by artiflcihl meas, the exhaustd fertility could be re-
stored, ad by keeping this up there isno reason why a grove on a high shell
mound canot be kept in a produdive condition for an indefinite period as
weUl a on piM lad. However, there is no lahm of orange grves located more
untalIly dtab shell land groves. They are all found on the borders of these
vast ioone ot.marshes of recent formation, where the water is udwholesome and
bad. Mona of tame sletl deposits are so far away from. ny other aryjlable lands
that they a rdeteted, and except for the charm of the river would never be
thought oleM ls for homes or grovee.
We lhee .ed from our subject; now I have tried to answer the quee-
t11 wbo c a6onW being asked every day; "what is the matter with the mhm-
msok goeor This properly homes under the head of ol or surface. It is plain
to naturalist or very dose observer, that the soil on which high hammock
grows Aseeentially didans from that on which the long-leafed pine. willow oak
ad toMk oa grows. The growth of the pine land is never found in the ham-
amook but often we find hickory and sweet bay in the pine land, and when planted
In the pine land, all trees of the hammock will flourish; thin is strong evidence
that the meahanicl texture of the soil and subsoil of these kinds of land are dif.
feb i hin many repee, and that the hammock soil j defectire or deficient in
ome me or more dements essential to the sucaes of certain plauts.

The writer of this has been in the business of selecting lands for himself and
oebrs, In new countries, for nearly twenty-five years, and always a agent fur
the purchasers or homn~wekre only, until the last year or two, when ho has acted
for the tmers, in a few instances. There is a vast difrenee between thee two
maniaes of land business. As agent for the purchaser, one has no interest to
look out for but that of his deost who deaires to make a home or an investment
The agent for the owner who desires to sell, has a tto-fold work to do if he is
aithfnl to hbis tlt it bqg hnh duty to sell and arn his eoommssion, and to mee
that those who buy do not purchase somethlrg they ought not to have.
The public domain oers the inest field for the frst class landmen, where they
an go out ioto the maple and oak forests of tlhe northern woods in Canada or
our Wete n Stte. ad eaemt homesteads of timber lnds, 'on the great prairies
of- te Waet or the vast uhomenied territory of the South.
To be a sooueefl and valuhmb lad aat requires no ordinary amount of kill
and emery. Theb are get teptatoes placed before the noviti ; his path is
M stae. with mess; if he mike mistake, or does ronm, everybody knows
H; and4 be. is msaive, and all hboes men- re, he is eatinnally harmed by
oie H ort tbstih,thhat per os irenias concerning him. A #ocem al
taodme t oasO be deviteMd is a -day. A S-an from te aouater, the shop the

plow, or the di
pie on howe i
to py tseir pr
in real estate,,
returned to pri
ouly two who
commission in
much genius tl
try to answer.
ueS requires i

esk, will fnd it an uphill business when he undortakerettliag .po-
u uarida. Many hundreds have tried it and failed to natke enough
interM' bill. Duriug each new boom or aein do uaumm activity:
ever siune the war, a new crop of uauoosfdu land .agents are.
vate life. I could enumerate a hundred lamentable failures, .and
have been auoeeesful, out of all who ever tried selling luad on
Ormpge county. One would my, why is this 7 does it require so
hat so few can succeed in a field of so much usefulness? We will
Those who go into the laud business do not know what the busi-
n Florida. They are too apt to think that all that is needed is a

hoseo and buggy to go to the train, or a hotel, and invite .aome stranger out to
take a ride, and come home with a thousand dollar cheek- as a forfeit on a por-
chase. Now let me, as a veteran, give yotanr laud agents a little advice.
Florida is very different in her soil, climate, people and productions from any
other State in our Union.. To settle people in the northern new countries one
needs to be a land surveyor and to have a knowledge of the lands he offers, to
speak the language of the persons he tries to locate ; show them good soil and

they will recogusou it; i
log solely on their own j
ductions so entireTy differ
do uot know what to do
To bo successful in se

f they come to settle they will buy or preempt depend.
judgment. In Florida they find a soil, aellmto and pro-
rent from what they have been accustomed to, that they
till they find some one whose judgment they man trust


people on

homes here,

one met first become

thoroughly acquainted with all parts of Florida. o that he can naswer almat any
quation asked about any part of the State. The homeseeker coming here read
all they can find in regard to the State before they come. The grat majority
want to go to the sea-coast, and have pictured in their minds the eate with which
they can live on "fish and oysters." Some want to raiso coooanuts and a hun-
dred other impractiieble and foolish schemes conceived from reading trashy wr-
reapoudense of people inexperienced themselves. All this fdly mut be met ausd
upset before the homeseeker can be settled on a decent pine land home. Tae
agent tho does not know all these place cannot tell the new-comer what be
want to know, and cannot convince him of the superiority of the region he
recommends, unlen he knows well all the other sections inquired about.
The agent ought to havo lived in the country fifteen or-twenty years, so that he
can tell about the freees of 1868, 1870. 1876 and 1880, and givo truthful teid-
mony from ins own experience of how much Injury was done and where the least
was dome, and remove any fears that may be lingering in the mind of the home-
seeker as to the droughts or other disaster.
The land agent must be an old and thoroughly experienced woodsman and land
surveyor, so that he may drive over the country in any direction and know at all
times what tract of land he is on and wimt the boundaries are. No novice an
posibly do this, and it will take years to learn it It ia true a man may, in a few
week or months, become familiar with a limited area of the country, bet that is
pot the kind of a land agent the homeseeker wants to And; they demand of him
Knowledge of all parts of the country, or they lose oofidenoe in him at
The land agent should know the people as welLas the lands of Florida. He
ought also'bo a lawyer to understand the liws governing boundaries, titles. etc.,
and be competent to describe any shaped tract of land, and that the titles of the
land he doea in are good.
He must be n an omplished draughtsman, so that be an map out and delineate
his lands and the region be represent. T is i diqpeawl, -and no better tek of
a land agts omystr and truatwornlneas can p'sibly be madq than to require him
to draw aa wap imatelj correct diagram from memory of the rgion he is tfing

Be should also hi
other industrie of
of ll varieties of
be able to give ad
must not only have
suceeaful. But it
elaohe beoomeo a
homeaeekern what

roe had extended orpealene in all the leading agrviaw al'ad
the country, and uudtr ul the poible dfteront ciruntmauoum
oils, and made experiments of a aindy nature, so that he uay
itica that will sve his patrols from making mirtakee. He
failed in various way,, but he must also have been afterwards
is unly too often the caeoo that when a man fails at everything
land agent; and it is not enough that he may be able to tell
they must avoad, but he ought to tell them how heoy can

One of the most important elements of success is to be able to give his cus-
tomers invariably the assurance that they hre not held to any bargain they may
mako, itf after mature deliberation they decide to 'iot complete it Even after
purchase he should be able to refund every ceat the property cost them on a
reasonable notice.
When a land agent sells a piece of property to a stranger who depends on the
agent's repreentations, and trusts to his judgment, the budineis descends to
"laud'hsbarking," if the agent does not place his customer buck where he fbund
him, without lose; and it a deposit is made to biud the bargain, the agent is a
"land harkk" pure and simple, if he does not refund at once if the homeseeker
changes his mind, or find he has bsrgiuled for something he does not want; it
is not success to stick" a homeeeeker, and nothing wil ruiu an agent's reputation
so quickly as sharp practice.
There is one pitfall into vhich thousands of young land agents fall, none more
diMoult for the inexperienced to avoid, and that is-trying to get more for a piece
of property than the owner is willug to take. No more uubtusneslike proposi-
tion can be made than to go to a laud agent with your propertymnd say: "get
for me" so much outside your commission." This pernicious and often dishonest
way of putting property in market arises out of the prevailing notion that land
agents are unscrupulous, and that they are really entitled to no pay for their
services; but the landowner Is ofteniwilliug that the agent should wroogfuOy
obtain mooey from the purchaser. If a man goew to a bank to get-money the
brak discounts his paper and for tho accommodation he seemingly loses a certain

percentage; it is
saves more from
use of the money
If a loan has la
the least price lie
self if the custom

gone, but i must console )imtlf with the reflection that he
an averted temporary embarramment, or by making prodltbio

bud to sell he oulht to put it down at.the lowest poalible price,
would uuder any eoro.umstanes a'OOpt if hie should sell it him-
ier came to him without the intervention of an agent, and then

if he must have assistance to sell it, let him pay thie agent for hid indispeusable
envies out of the net price. He shonid have no price lower than the pries he
give to the rent, but if tihe agent sells it he ought to have a commileion put of
the lowest price the owner oould he iducaed to take. Au experienced land man
has much to contend with in this matter-he has property offered to him to dsell
every day of his life at a net price and get as much more as he oao. It arises
out of a lack of eorrece business ideas on the pmtot the general public as a rule.
but of n out of the lax hquwty of those who wish to sell. In Florida nothing
can injure an honest land.nma or stop tim settlement of a neighborhood quicker
than this despicable manner of dom Imminem.
A wholesale merchant will not sell tuo memer at a less pri* .than they oan
buy from the rtalers, and tbs is almed honey in the commercial world; tl if
a purnhaer of land finds that he has paid the agent more than the owner's net
pnoe he feels that he has been swindled.
Whltn a pie of propertyi ored at m unusually low price an agot is put
to th oroa test He finds a man willing prchae, an meay "vidm," sad if
be utr o sell is for more than the owMr' price, he is ist. He may succeed in
iskMn a grand spseubtika; he may nil a ten thouand doiRw property for f-

mat industry aftrwards and reaps hi reward. He has made two enomiw at
one stroke; the owner fen d that his property wa worth all that any one wr
willing to pay for it. and that he was defrauded out of all the aget pocketed.
The pudhuer knows he was swindled, because he was induced to pay aowe than
* the owner war willing to aooept Everybody knows all about it in a we.k, aind
the disbonest agent must aeek.pastures new.
* Another rook ou which would-be land agents split, is taking worthless property
for sale;, the lowest class of dishooest dealing on the .part of any one is to aeli to
a'stranger a tract of valueless land.
' know a man who stands fair ass a business man, not one hundred mile from
Lake tustia, who asked me to s all a plaoe that ho k6ew was a failure, and with a
knowing wink, a mich as to say, "we understand each other," added, I will
pay you well." Of course I declined, without telling him the reawou, as no per-
son of any breeding will tell another that he looks ill, or that has property is
The next Lime I met the gentleman I tried to avoid him, but he ame up chuck-
ling and told me Ieo had sold at last, and what was even meaner than stliug at
tll, he soid to lhi owit cousin, who was a new-conlr, and rusted to the judgbhent
and honor of the owner.
If a man lias those arvo to do it. it is better to openly tell such people that their
lands are valnele'a, and to publish it a > thub all who come may know; and let me
say for the benefit of prospective settlers that many of tie most unhappy selections
in the &8cae have been made by depending upon the heor and Judgment of friends
who have preceded the soLtler. Any man who is located in this climateanywher,
and lhas his'al1 Invested, is, ine tmea out or ten, enthusiastic. I can point out
families who are perfectly c intent with situations which, to an experienced per-
son, sem preposterous, and in a country aO extensive, and where the most fs-
tidious could ak nature to do no more, it aem peculiarly unfortunate that people
do not find a decent spot before they settle. But no matter how uninviting the
apperance, how wortlil s the soil, how remote from soinety or transportation, or
lhot unwholeom e ,i locality may be, if a new aomer becomes esablihed or inter-
ested in property, he is willing and often anxious to get as many as poribie,
friends o stage, in the me place. 8o here the eperieno of an honet land
agent should always be ltJed in, ad if he is not the right stamp of laadman, his
advice may be worse than Ub advice at all.
I have eumeted may of the accomplishments required to make a sucoesful
1ind agent, ad tli, do iot include but a fraction of them. for in fact a man who
pretudsi to give information to suanger in Florida ought to know everything.
H mas meo and women of' every class, from the newly arrived foreign emigrant
laborer, up to the maet cultured and wealthy people of the world. He ouuht to
speak several of the learned modern languages, and indeed the knowledge, attain-
mon, and virtue, which Don Qnixote claimed fos the true knight errant would
not be mail an a man who attempts to settle families on homes in Florida. But.
,my the streapra, "'how can I tell who to trust? Every land agent ays ihe
kows adl about it" And in rely to this let me say, it i easy enouh to de-
qper how mtuch any ldividual may know, and wh e has does, by asking him
Ir the name of thoee whom he ham atUld upon Ama, aad it h esannot give
you a good of hu clieota who depended alely on his judgmMt and who have
been Uvag e upon 14a homes le slec ad for them long enough to have thom ghly
eead the meudaees of iis advioa, tia pea him by-you may sat ud he to
a newly fledged ad ent who is trying to dip in ad reap the mrewad t ooe
bonsap aw0t fY' d labor.
Thb a es who adStyi listed pwperty ad ttere h all prta
OlhrId, amd se willing to bke fir *ae any peoprtj oderd, ouay quadty or
wri l~a kind nd wd$ otlist of humdrmds of place tMMr mal, twM t a
today. ad Mold Mato, t ai tbhe emsmooy eq thae d, te *

thee mnm it li.the greatest misfortune that could ball them to stumble on a sale,
and ak*' a codmiasaom hlbkely, or otherwn, as it w bluy incapcitats them for
uay l*tldmate'n sfterwards.
I do not e it to be uodertood that I am twrtlp this with a view to di-
courage people frm gong into the buainea--ltr from it-cow that I have spent
the beet ymar of my oe in writing up, mapping, exploring and peopling this fa-
vored country, nothing would please me better than to ee hundreds of wen do
the same that I have done. There la room for them-there are fortunes for onq
thousand smart, capable land agents in South Florida, for. young men or middle
aged men, who will go at it right. Select a desirable region, buy a thousand acres
or more of land, write for periodicals, get all tas onrrespondenoe ponaible, travel
north, buth, east, west-spend money as they make it-become acquainted in
every town and city in the Union and in other oonntries-deml so that none oan
say they hare derived them in land matters. The agent may have financial re
verses, he may be poor at times, he need not be if careful, but so long as these
who take his advice in settling make money, he can extend his business and make
sure of ultimate success.
There is no more honorable or luejative business than land dealing, if it is en-
gaged in with an honest purpose and backed by intelligence. But it is a mistake
to think that there is a fo:tune in commisions ;" the money is made in purchase
ing land cheap, and then making it valuable by influencing goo4 people to settle

noar it.
When a man makes a success
and builds up a paying business,
country will swarm with new
homyseekers in their impatience
ono will make a commission till
way to success. One out of a
add a new member to the moet
It is strange tlat people will
ators," but they are, and people
It is a asttled maxim amongst

in turning a tide of emigration in any direction
one season i s sskng as it will last; then the
"land ageltts," aind they will pull and haul the
to sell, so that few sales will be made, and no
the frauds starve out and others learn the proper
hundred may develop the capacity needed, and
useful class of eisisen for a new country.
oceCsionally be deived by "confidence oper.
sufpr at the hands of "land sharks" once in a
people of culture, and who know anything about

the world, that when a stranger accosts another and trip to thrust some gate,
scheme, or bargain before him, that it is a confidence operation, and not to ho no-
iood. If people coming to Florida would pas all who. without letters of intro-
duction or other acqualntanoe, urge and solicit them to buy property, none feed
be deeidved.
The umitakahle e.arparks of a land shark are Ila self4itrodnction and urgent
solidtatian of 'the patronage of a stranger, and only the moet unsophistlcated
ought to be dulled by them. .
Wlen you find a man of leisure loafing at a hotel on a train or steamboat, or
in any public place trying to sell property to people who know nothing of him,
yo an saby aet him.down as new at the bdne~ w and nine time out of ten a
"land shark" ao the worst deriptlon. An experlme aod reliable agspt has
ourrespondentu, Heods, sad their trend. enough w ocapy his time.
A land aent owes his clients everything. Their suass in wiat gives him a
foundation for b uiuml and thelr reeot ad approval is his stock in trade, as
agent can oolonla people In ndeghl9rhood if any considerable portion of the
pIope are oppwoed to him, and every hour he. must call in the aid of his former
* e rs In order to oevlnce a new settler that his Judgment is sound and his deal
lnq boora b, l
Noq ae mt m e esed who will give any o, his olitq trouble; It i better to
1 a sule or a9siSd eta to fake an .ay or g- zp a controversy that
eodS 4n. ae f l1 nodlaltM Lelsh and dsholnst me n an hom-
ma iti who wil try to l their own property to people whom an IndtliMi-
aos jadsuan will .bring to e plae, thee we have o to oeraste.,
f- L ..a *lx a k a- a0 ala- .m.d4l -a mn 'h *k haahk AeteAnet np In.


valuable advice and assistance, wm th
agent's contract to expire, so that th
shown them by the agent, and thus, iu
cheat the ageut out of his commiidob.
for the successful land agent to have a
such dishonesty by making a purchase

There might
kinly true, the

them, will do
the homeseek
because they
A landman
lifetJme, and
body of good ]
sons, apd mak
in proportion
facilities, can 1

bea great d
ill to help hi
a, for there a
,re no land sa
he lihs a traLd
is facilities fi

pine land in any
e money for all
to the number
buy one section

till he colonizes one hundred


io long
t. "

en botrd at a hotel long enough for the
ey can buy direct from the owner, lqud
oullusion with an equally dishonest owner,
These classes of men render it advisable
bank account, so that lie may drcumvent
himself before the contract expires.
Sald on this subject, but one thing is oer-
who have a good land salesman amongst
as he deals honestly with them and with
beautiful pots in Florida very quiet now

e, built up by hard work extending through half a
r bringing people wherever he may go, can select a
good locality, and make money rapidly in good sea-
his customers, by concentration, as land is valuable
of people on a given nrea. Any one who lias the
of lnna, 640 acres, sell or give it away in small lots,
good families on it; reserve 140 acres, and it will

asll readily at $100 per acre; this gives him $14,000 or $10,000 clear.



The question is asked
lauds worth ?"

d me by hundreds of correspondents,

" What are improved

In South Florida we have no such property as you call "improved lands at
the north. Improved laud means land that is cleared, or broken, fenced, and with
necessary buildings all ready for fanning operations. u'ch land at the North may
sell at from ten dollars, in places remote from markets, to a hundred dollars per
acre in fertile and populous regions. These prices will remain stationary, and land
sold at $100 per acre forty years ago is worth about the same price to-day, and
ihas never paid a good interest onI the investment. Of course, there are exceptional
cases, where high farming has done bettor, but the farmers of the North and West
are not addicted to falsehood, and in all their speeches in Congress and Stae Legis.
latures, they insist that the farmer barely gets pay for his labor. In other words,
" improved lands, as a rule, stand still at the North; a larger percentage is liable
to depmcdae in value tithan is liable to appreciate. This rule applha to the South
as wl, and oe oan bay in the cotton retil.n of North Florida, at $5 to $10, lands
that twenty-five years agowere supposed to be worth $100 per acrd
Large ares of improved lands arn found in our northern counties, and even in
Marks, Levy, and Alachus counties, where cotton, corn, and aaegroe are te t r,
uch land, a short time since, could be bought for a mere song-le.s than one-
Iborth the oat of clearing. Recently, however, in these counties, these old plants
tioa have taken a rebound, and now are held at fair prices. Several com-
praUtvely mtld winter coming in tioccession, has been the 'means or inducing
tranpers to believe these county sumlcently free from frost to make them fruit
and winrte vgotabTe lands. This, we apprehend, will be exploded again, as the
sae fIlaty wa by the frees of 186 and 1870 and such I improved land
ill be egiln trhmd over to ctton and orn ailnd to the e6lord popi nation, so that
r Is so o b thing a improved lands" as the phraae is une.teod at fie
1t4 th MAiopeal frut mid widter vegetable region df dida, with the
ex b of % ionb dout un 'j*i 'thAt oua&ty .hatm MfZ df th6 requsults for
1440 lr b$ eortphe p nd,! writ for thecy Eo fl SOt

Thbe is o laIod'i T uMt *SVtjy of ode mahbt's 66tnttaM !by *tiur
M6oi neotD the ''Hir talihfr bfl lads'" ofr smith 'EMl ThAnh tLSbi an

s~lcultmIal prodrreta of the country without fertilizer, but, with Judielous fertlisa*
taa, wir prodnra the most enormous crops, and of the most valuable products.
SiThe pine Ihtub were not cultivated extensively before emancipation, because
negroes cuuld be compelled to' clear the dense, rich hammocks, ad when these
were worn out new h1ftooks could be cleared, so the planters kept on from year
to year, olaring hammook to mike ootton, to bay rdigers to dear hammocks, to
make morn cotton to buy more ntigers, till the surrender came, and away goes the
ntiger. Ten we find the pine lands first coming into notice. When the white
men were oompelled t- take hold of farming they did not dare to live in the hum-
mocks; they had their residenes on the pine lands only as a sanitary preeamtion,
and they f .und that around their houses where the land was manured, that every-
thing grew even better than in the hammocks, and that on Black-Jack ridges
of the lightest grade, if the sub-soil was yellow, even sugar-cane grew better
When fertilized, than in the richest hammock.
The hammocks were neglected for years after the war in the southern counties,
but in thle northern counties were rented out to neqroes, and, as a rule, exhAsted;
and where hammock is "' run a few years. it is the most barren and worthless of
our tillable lands. To Orange county, being the most picturesque, healthful, and
aoceasible lands that were far enough ponth, the tide of immigration was very
early attracted: the few who had hammock planted it in orange trees, or sold it
to noshern people. The whole pine land region is now in private hands, and as
fast as cleared is planted in orange, lemon, lime, guavws, pineapple, bananas,
etc. So when I say that there are no "improved lands" to let for gardening or
farming, or to sell, I mean farming lands under cnltvatioc. and used from year
to year for annual crop. When we clear a piece of pine land in Orange county,
it is immediately planted in frnli except in Isolated and out of the way sections,
where we still find a few Southern families who depend upon cotton and aorn
fanning for a living, and even these have small orange groves on aome portion of
their clearing, which, ti' sold, would run up the price of the whole to high
SA tract of first rate pine land, we will eay, is bought this winter at $10 per
acre; it is cleared at an expense of $1 ; fenced for $10; broken up at $ (two
plowiuga); it is planted in orange tress at, say, $50 per acre, and oared for brat
year, aa total oot of less than (100 per acre. 1Much depends, of oore, on the
price of land, size of are size of timber, etc.; it can be done at $50, in some
instances, and idi the way to $200 per acre. Some planters will spend $26 per
aere in the eare and manuring each year, while $100 per acre opuld be advan-
taeoualy expended, but none have ever gone above thirty. Augustus Gotteche's
celebrated grave in the town of unttis had about the latter amount, sad this is
undoubtedly the mot adna ed of any grove of its age in the whole 8tme of
Florida. Now we an e that In five years a grove will cost from $200 to
$300 per mee, with the bet care ever given by our most auceful planters,
and at this time thb property is salable at $1,000 per acre, and two or three more
years, when every toe ought, with ordinary are, bear 1,)000 to 2.000 oranges, the
Crop each yar ia well worth $1,000 per Lcr ChOarles T. Smith, Esq., one of our
mot reliable merchants, will testify that he has contracted to pay $2 per box for
Captain Davi Stewards aunge (they en twelve milew fro the railroad), and pay
all expenses of packing, boxing, freight, ret. This will gift COptain Stewart over
$1.000 pr ae from his -arge tree. Thee tre hav nevefailed toproduce
full orop. in tweaty-ve yara, or einoe they Anrst ame.ntobnaring.
SCepia Stewart ha improved land." August Ootabo. baa improved ad;"
Saorsof Captain Steart'e is worth la the market $10,00, whilW heh maeve
hundred ama umesaed ot worth $10 per acre and ad .plowed ad edutivated
that ie .an worth ovwr $8 per are. Mr. Gotamsoe' young .g veiae worth at
ha $t,WO permae and in the boda of a d mater wll, in ve year, be
wni amo asOspaua 8wtwara'.-4OMo per anr-t $100 pe ac per aunmm
*I &--~ sraa...-a IA. I La LAS a -- a >Ak aL- --_ -^ -, ^--.S -,

value of sihnmilar land adjoining, add the' cot of improving, the interest on the
tusjy, yo., ecsc, then dnuet that from the melng pcea of uod ,ubulery when
in thedirnt satpee of progress, and you ea mae thb proftt ue in improve
in~g to sell, and the value of such property to keep. '
These magnitioent result are obtained on pine land," md not what Is known
as first rate." Our merchants poesively decliD n purcha g onngee grown on
" hammock lands," except at the growers' risk.
It is a common thing for a stranger here to ask the price per acre oa property
with a bearing orange grove, or one well advanced. In eam whame thee are
otlhe lands unplanted, say of O00 acres coniguous, and whep told thathe price
in 10,000 for the property, they figure the whole at $100 per This is not
the proper way to compute the price per acre of the purchase. This rule will do
at the North, where the improved and unimproved portions of a farm are pert of
the whole, and the average prie per acre is the only price. But here one acre
may be worth $10,000, while the other ninety-ninale are dear at Government price,
and ar*ot iu any way connected with the "grove," ad in all out of the way
places this is the rule now, and was until recently hi West Orange, wheru now nil
good lands are being sought after for the purpose of planting more grove.
If you want to buy an improved property, tirst ascertain what the unimproved.
part of the land is worth, or what similar lands are selling for per ace; then find
bow many sore are unimproved; then deduct this from the whole price, and you
will.know what your grove cots; but never blunder lntq averaging the price of
your land per acre by dividing the sum by the number of acres.
The buaioum of renting lands for gardening purpoee is aoarcely known here ;
any one who hae any energy has land of his own, and it ib folly to work and fer-
tihle the land of another, when the best of land cn be had as chp No one
needs more than ten acre to make a handsome competency, and a laboring man
can pay for te amers with two maoths wages if he is atfied to go a few mile.
from town, ad if he will go out into the new, uoeUled potioa, be caa get
I1e acres free.
From a Northern standpoint, we have no "improved farms" for smle in Orango
county. We have poperthe with.ornge groves and plamttimsof other fruit for
asle, in all stages of progress, from the newly-planted omhards to full bearing
tree, at from $i00 to $10,000 per acre, plaee worth ftom l600 to $100.004 and
all on ten to twenty-ive acre lot, and many place that oould not be bought at
any price.
In auy county web you find improved farms n for 8aie yo mayireet a tlsd
thasit it ia uo fruit county. Wherever our fruits are safe from celd, an6 the
white inhaitante are free from fever and malark, no improved lad" wemaiu
unpiaued is mmi.tropia fruts. .No one cler land in Orange Oty.(e4dfptt-
few nadve) or any other purposes tha fruit planting, and all IpWrO es for uae
nldu morn or les orange tree, and in th a ru, g t value of
property couaia&,


A lf I man alid at my e a fei y o, a ma who
ha ben t oof the to*t era mind for many yTa, a h he bh e tbe-
fouse r of e thf bea t pgriculttual per In Amerl, and it for
neayttla In*I e O.otnrtie lonrrad he es d: "PoSao n eoe

i O 'Wet: Ma.f jeep 0i o aMYnmm' d tla, allh
AtUiIE uEu M u ol'to a ilH.atamot US there a In Whifh ath

- ~ _________________ E s S



twp as nahaa dJy. Tihee is nofou ad t or the thery. Thure s mt eve
a dtl of truth init, nor (with the. n of a low eettlem o Now
agsemdrs in the Wree) is tuere ou mnui a single LrMt, coueowd wit the
SppQtih of the humans rue that will give.oolor to such a fase and dwgerous
doeatI. The praihum igonoraon of climetology in our Northern Stte a n be.
traced hietly to this mistake.
I i.ustooihiang to what length our American people can go in their adhesion
to an absurdity. We are not a cosmopolian people, like the educated people in
Europe; moot of our people are amtiatted with one language, while sa educated
Eumopean will spesk half a dunen. We have a euperdrial way of viewing ihinug,
and we see half a down of our neighbors emigratiug from northern Connoticut
to wetem N)ew York, and next generate a few tamiies from western New
York go to Mchigso, and, each time they move, they manage to secure, for
wlter ume about tae same depth of snow that they enjoyed where they were
born; and then and there they set it down ae a law of nature that all people
maus migrate on parallel of latitude. Our Amarica newspaper tell them o,
and they look no further.
As a further ilutramton of how a abeurd belief ean become general, I never
saw a New Bglander who, when he maw the St. John's River In Florlid, did not
expea. hie unkr astonishment th't a river should so disregard the laws of nature
ma to fow from south to north. A dweller on the Hudson thinks it strange that
suoh an anomaly should exist, and, in 6aCt, nin.etenths of the people in the United
State are under tie impression that all rivers run south.. But you ay, If they
look at a geography they will see the contrary.". There is the trouble. They for-
get what they see in the geography and only remember what they ee and
hear every day. The Nile, the moe renowned of all rivers, flows north.'
The Geneae in New York, the McKenie iu the British Poasssions, and,
when you oome to look it all up, titere are as mny flowing north as in
any other direction, but until you point it out on the maps of the world the
average American won't believe it.
Soit is with emigration; the average mind in the United States believe that people
muss, ad do, move along parallels of latitude, and cannot suecesufully move from
north to south, or wri ma. In the matter of river eooor, there some
ezosu tor error, but, in regard to emil-atieo, history give no ground for any such
decisoo. All emigrations havo been from north to south, or fr-om south to north;
and we have noteoe amolitry instance of where any onusiderable emigration fol-
lowedi leof latitude-exospt-in the. United Stast, where they have
beea diov to it by lhad speulators and blundering editor. Odin and his follow-
ers stalled Sadinavia fiom the region of the Caspian Se, crying several
prllam their progenitor cam the ic The Dans went north to
Iland asd reenland. The Northmen settd in Pranoe and nvalded the British
Islaads. Bome was occupied by an emigration of northern barberian. China
ha.s retedly been invaded by the Tarnrs from the north, conquered and occu.
pied. The Maors s ttld Spain. The Goth, Visigoths, Vandata Northmen anw
artar, as well as hundreds of other grmt emllration set the bad exampe of
quierng and "uarpet.bagi lads many- degr sth of where they were
*b The Jws emigr ted north warm Shre degrees of iltitnde, from Kgypt,
and later, emigrated as far north a Rmslia. Il modern tmes, slee the discovery
of the Ine World, it i true a long Journey to the west had to be made before it
Whobedt the is not a solitary inste where the emigrants settled in
(e l~itDe tipy bailed from. Nor 4id they sem to pay sany asttatim to
the Tke.r m thi ms. find the ame aoaet of snow ad ion in the IMd
of t. h ever paid uch attention to the
mAw ay seale ph4ft ily where the Home Govwn
-t l rt. aodw s sar wt them. IA otldr
In Qat l a m a alak wanest athoe atld.
--'U maths .dat matted.

placs being (p the latildie of nglndt or bearing Any climatic n.rbnbabmoi t he
Britih alnmd. A colony of Duteh tted at New York, andf a Alooy t fW'4s
in Delaware. Later a colony of Dutch seled in South Africa, tnd another In
Java. both crossing the equator* and the Portaguey 'moved tt h at ol, their
empire across the equator to Brasl, after making extudoatf oht Movement S to
South Africa. The Spenirds all crosed from ten to lorty dgrees o huftiqde in
emigrating to the new world, anud their gre:tet c lonied wre In the BodJhern
Hemisphere, in Montevideo, Buenos Ayr, Peru aod Chill.
And when we loot at the aovenents of the great rae whlech now controls the
destinies of all nations, the Aagto-OeltlO or English speaking pe0p6, we ind that
they pay no' attention to parallels of latitude, but have taken posaeienu of more
than one-half of the entire globe, and have founded empire Jo Aals, Afrlea,
America and Onoaia. There is no part of the tropical world you may o to
where you will not fnd an Irishman, an Baglishman, a Scotchman or an Ameroim.
Away in 8outh Africa, .John Dunn, an Irishman. is a king. When the
Peruvian ironclad was destroyed some years ago by the Ohilia fleet an Irishman
turned up as chief engineer of the sinking man-of.war. A S8otchman is prime
minister to the king of the Sandwich Islands. And, in fra, the British have a
firm foothold in Anatralia, the South Sea Islands, Sandwich Island~ few Zealand,
Tasmania; South, Kast, West, and even North Afric; all India, Ttrkey in Aqa,

Cyprus, Oeylon, Bouth America, Central America, t
every little tropical or otherwise valuable- island,
stronghold in warm countries all over the world
new tropical possessions every year, and now are
Afglhanistn, Persias. Arabia, Morocco and Egypt,
8 rmoal I[sands. All this, added to the testimony
remarkable success in the hottest climate, as well i
and the Northern States, must convince any reas
should have no hesitation in croueiug a few degse

;he Wast Indies, Couael, and
good harbor, trading post, or
hbey are buying or conquerfg
plotting for the occupation of
as well as Zuulland and dthe
adduced by their marked end
as in the coldest, like Canada
onable man that a white man
ee of lattude to seek a climate

congenial to his constuti'on.
The theory that people must follow parallels of latitude in the'r mfgrtory
movements may be very convenient to railroad land agents when they want rmn
New nglanoders and persns from our Middle State into the cold, bleak prdrie
of Minnesota, Iowa or Kansas, but it will not stand the test of history or common
The white race and .il human knowledge originated in warm oentriee. Our
frst parone and their immune lite deecendants were driven out of the garden of
Eden, where they could bask in the ghdde of the orange and palm, and live without
labor. To pnonish them for a great trangression, they were sent to. a old and
inbosgttble land, where they were forced to toil for a subusetenuo. and ever since
we fnd the race migrating back and forth from north to armth and from south to
north, making warsnnd ermdes, and sinse civilsiaion has mreched out her arms,
making psMesble'invasions in the mnth. Those natherm enmigrUtions have been
voluntary, while their movements north have almost invariably been the result of
coOquets and forced upon them.
If the lorease of portality from conmnmption aloae should entlnne in the same
ratiotor another century as it has for twentvr-flo .ars sin the Nnrthem 8tae
would be popollated. and it would seem that a kind Provdeac has now awlmuted
us to a senle of our danger, and in giving is light on the abject of limjat, so
that there may e an venue of escape from thin terrile destmyer. Te ne
might be written on this rnbect, and it is to be held that mn t umr Able
Amerltetr fll take up the fibject and help to e hten us aM to the es
eliate os the dilaso'of the'white rnee Thre moast be the leatt doubt that
the Ood who wtely' pyoviden fotrsi gmnet emObms do meo ht ag ted4tL
whin th:wite i rw bsom e so iadermat phymiat mnd maw l' ma i asty
Mn e ainA Wt Shwarul th ad ad v ddeNw la at slan t a


wars of famine to battle with the cold and obtain a living by the mo4 laborious
methds. This toll and struggle in turn gives a robust constitution to such .as
survive tbo myriad diseases, and in a long period builds up a csalwart.rae. We
lose more thn a million lives annually in America alone from the diseases peculiar
to our cold climate-lives that might be saved by judicious emigration to a warm


A..most remarkable and instructive less
the popuiatou of AmericA at the time of
of North America a race of savages were
to the extreme limits of the suow line;
sway over this vast and fertile region for

that t
a time
any k
that a


on is to be learned from the condition of

the discovery.
in possession
they seemed
centuries, and

In the northern portion
of the whole region down
to have held undisputed
had not raised one stoue

another; they were a distinct race, and although ic is by some supposed
hey are of Asiatic origin, their emigration from the Eastern continent was at
e so immensely remote that they became so greatly altered in language and
cal development that the resemblsnoo to kMongolians is not clear enough to
any relationship. Evidently they lihad made no progress in knowledge of
imd, but on the contrary, evidence exists which would lead us to surmise
it a time perhaps many thousand years before the white man found this
ry, they iad more energy and skill (Judging from the mounds and excava-
fo)und scattered in all parts of the continent), than at the advent of Colum.

bus and his immediate followers; for then they had lapsed into a state of hope-
less barbarism sand degradation, and with four centuries of Caucasian rule and ex-
ample, we find no improvement whatever in the colder sections. In Mexico, Cen-
tral America and South America ari entirely different state of affaire existed.
There infant civilizations were found by Pizarro, Cbrtez and their contemporary
They had regular monarchial government and a simple religion founded on the
universal instinct of man to acknowledge a Supremo Being. They had buildings
and gardens, a donse population, vast areas of cultivated soil, and had invented
or developed a means of conveying their thoughts and language to each other and
to posterity by a species of hieroglyphlic'or picture writing. They were a happy,
industrious and peaceable race, knowing no origin except th ththey were the chil-
dren of the sun, and tracing thib origin back into the milts of remote antiquity,
claiming that all the knowledge they possessed was the natural result of ages of
thought and experiment; and it was undoubtedly wholly original, and unlike any
other civilization on the face of the earth. In Peru, a nation still more advanced
than Mexico was found, and having no connection or intercourse with the Monte-
ziumas, bearing no marks which would indicate an identical origin, and evidently.
the result of a similar gradual development from the mere primitive savage state.
In addition to an equal degree of improvement, though in a wholly dhisimilar way,
the Peruvians possessed a nlost wonderful means of recording historical events
and astronomical observations by means of knotted ode and other instruments,
in curious combinations, perfectly intelligible t& them, bnt the key to which was
never discovered by the conqurors.
There cannot be the slightest doubt In the mind of the impartial investigator
that bothof these nations had developed all the knowledge they posessed, more
than their vage neighbors, of their own rae, by their own unaided effort, and
the theory that they were taught what they knew by seme mysterious personage,
whom they rer rea a god, and as some use.athss ade a white man, beoms Its
own a t t on Is faoe-it would iollow that if a iaed Europan or Asiatic
hadl Ma1 e* ftha. mame ha wranlbl n w with him anfa a im t waMD rmn

and that the vivifying warmth of the sun quickening the energies, both maptal
and physical, of the primitive man, brought i into existence; the generous climate
gave man time to think, by making his uec~asities few, aud bestowing upon him
bountilully the natural products of the soil, while hlia kinsman of the cold ooun-
tries, whose brain was kept in hopeless captivity by the rigors of his climate,
wont on from age to age, obtaining a scanty livelihood from the chase. These
reflections are instructive to us children of the frozen north, as it teaches us that
a great degree of physical and intellectual development is not only practicable in
warm climates, but that in warm climates all human progress began and haq ever
reached its highest degree of improvement.
What would be the result of the progress mzde by the aboriginal Americans in
the tropics if Europeans had postponed their discovery for a lew thousand years,
can only be a matter of speculation, but that all they had accomplished when in-
terrupted in their march of improvement was the spontaneous growth of a tropical
clime, cannot be disputed.
It has very often been said that civilization languishes in warm ountries, and
that a great degree of cold is necessary to give vigor and energy to the white race.
This fallacy is more adhered to by Americans than any other people, and we are
referred to our own Southern States, South America and the West Indiesa as a
proof that this theory is correct. Such a belief is founded in ignorance in many
instances, but is more directly traceable to prevailing prejudice and a stubborn love
of the land where we have grown up to maturity ; like the Esquimaux we cannot
appreciate things we are not accustomed to, or thioee habits or surroundings which
we do not understand. The American i have long been a moving people on the
parallels of latitude in which they were born, but since steam has practically
' annihilated distance," the Americans are becoming great travellers, and the "pro-
judice "-whirh formerly was mistaken for "patriotism "-must give way to com-
mon sense. If we take a retrospective view of civilization, we find that in Egypt,
on the banks of the Nile, are to be found traces of the earliest civilization of
which any positive evidence has descended to us. There, where the mercury

never fell below forty degrees Fahrenheit,
in a state of semi-decay the most stupendo


our d

produced in any age or climate. Ther
f Egypt, a grand civilization budded, b
for a period extending through th
ed the highest degree of perfection; a
understood, and labors accomplished a
ay are mere toys and children's play.
in Egypt, shed its seeds over the ad
of the Mediterranean, and it no doubt
and glory of the world. The next distii
e, Catrthage. Rome, and no doubt, the
iar system of enlightenment; all of these

ad frost has never been seen, we find
work& of humau hands that has ever
o, in a tropical land, under the warm
)lossomed, ripened and foil; it flour-
lousands of years; science and art
II the most important laws of nature
Alongside of which the great works of
This tree of knowledge, thus origin-
joining countries; in Assyria, on the
travelled as far as India, and was the
act civilizations we find are in Persia,
I Chinese were far advanced in their
e were in decidedly tarm dimaesi. We

have not a scintilla of evidence that there was anything like civilization up to the
time of the fall ofthe Roman empire in any country where snow fell on the ground,
vFcept what was carried there by victorious Southern armnle. All the grand cul-
ture ef ages was utterly destroyed or buried, when the countless hordes orf bar-
barians of the north devastated 'and overran the semi-tropical lands of Europe.
The mournful ages of bloodshed and anarchy which followed the overthrow of
knowledge, brooded like a funeral pall over the western world till the few sparks
or germs of enlightenment preserved by the monks in their cloisters warmed into
life by the suns of southern Europe, and we find that Constantinople, Venioe,
Rome, and afterwards Genoa and other cities advanced with rapid strides all of
this revival was found in warm countries, where the glorious orange tree ashd Its
fragrance, and snowy bloeoms-the most exalted emblem of parity-end no evi-
dance exists to show that at anr period has the mroIress of the human race emanated

buried" atatusry, no enchanting paintings or entrancing poems werq found in
regions of snow and ice; no lterature, not even any meaus of making any witrhe-
mnemsal slculauions ever originated iu the fros~n north. The only religion of tilhe
northern was oonhsmedly of southern importation, for Odin, the god of the north,
wa a tropical product Homer, the father of poetry, Alexander, the greatest of
eooquers. Moses, the founder of the code of morals which guide us to-day, Solo-

nqon, the wiet of king, all flourished in th
of advantages we poases oome in an unbr
of the south. When God placed the first
a beautiful garden, and everything they
was in a climate where clothing was not n
neas he sent His only son on earth to save
religion ever embraced by man, did he corn
clad hills of Siberia? No, this latest aud
festatioue of God's glory, was made in tho s
few centuries, only, has any appearance of
in cold climates, and even now there is i

the greatest and most ehlighteued

e summer lands, and all the knowledge
oken chain from the great civilizatioiLs
man and woman on earth, he prepared
needed for a happy existence; all this
seded. And when in His divine kind-
mankind, and gave us the most benign
e to the snows of Lapland or the ice-
greatest, as well as all the other mani.
unny land of Palestine. Within the last
religion, morals or programs appeared
not much to be said in faror of cold.
of all nations, is not as cold as Virginia,

and the
and Italy
him, and
in Brazil,

greatest parts of her empire are in the warmest climates; ]
are all warm countries. Egypt is reviving, and the indicate
are that the white man is gravitating back to the land where
he is building cities and empires in the glorious tropics.
Melbourne and Sydney in Australia, New Orleana and San
the innumerable colonies of British people in India, Cl

Francc, Spain
ions in every
,God created
Rio Janeiro
Francisco in
lina, Ceylon,

Africa, the South Sea Islands and West Indies all basking under a tropical sun,
and many of them flourishing amazingly, show that snow and ice are not essential
to human development; there is no other civilized nation on the globe as cold as
our Northern States-Russia not excepted-and it is very much to be regretted
that such a fine raue is located in a climate the moet inclement and capricious.
These and a thou-and other arguments might be adduced to show that white
people can live and flourish in a mild climate. The wealthy classes of Europe
have resorted to the warm climates of the Mediterranean for age., and now any
merchant prince or noble, who has no chateau in the south, has no standing in

Ialy is the place most resorted to, although a large part of Spain and Greece
is quite as warm, and the wealth flowing in from all the colder countries is fast
building up the shattered fortunes of this ancient, eat of advanced civilization.
If a native of a warm climate should by any misfortune find himself amongst
the hideously disgusting Indians of the West or North-the Esquimaux, of Lab-
radpr; the Yakoots, of Siberia; the Greenlanders, or the Caucasian Ieelanders-
he would have a poor opinion of the power of cold climates as a civilizer.
When we remember that the alphabet-without which human knowledge could
not bo transmitted from generation togeneration, and our race would be left in hope-
less barbrism-tbatthleArabic numerals, qthoutwhich nomathematical computa-
tie could be made and science or mechanics would be impomible--tlmt algebra, the
most wonderful product of the human mind-and geometry, the science so perfect
that it would seem impoaible fir a human bran to produce i-yes, when we
remember that all thee and all laws capable of universal applistaon, came to us
from the tropical climates, bow can any sensible person ask the question: Do
not white people degenerate morally, mentally and physically in warmer cli-
mates .
That they do not deteriorate mentally I think history will show to be true. Of
ooq- p we @anuot be so postire as to the eftect of a mild or warm climate upon
the moral o our race; bUt if we compare Chicago with New Orleans, New York
with Rio Janeiri Quebec with Sydney. or St Petersburg with Naples, it would
seem that the advantage is greatly in favor of the cities situated in the warm
alful laaa rsenrthine that lAnd.* In makta man raTmt tAnd fIwfl1 nr nliyhtAnpTd

from a place where snow never fell. So it would seem that we need have no far
that our American people will lose in these respect by a settlement in a decent
climate. "Society," as it is called in there modem times, has more influence in
the welfare-in this world at least-of mankind, than either government or rehrton,
for it is not to be denied that people may be governed rigidly, punished for rime,
and rewarded for heroism, without what we call civilization, and people may have
all the blessings of the Christian religion and still remain in utter ignorance of the
arts or sciences, or the advantages that enlightenment brings. So that, although
knowledge may exist and religion may flourish, still the question may be asked,
--till i..- -.. ---i k.. I.. i l

will Socie
chivalry, anm
colonies all
service, brin
each other.

r' iinve ZU I U UU U It
society" rules the world, it has taken the plaoe of medieval
I s the result of the wonderful power of the British Islands and taeir
over the world. .tenamsMps, railroads, telgraphs and the postal
( people dose together, and enable them to become acquainted with
Without social intercourse, society would languish. In odd cllate.
wealth is indispensable to the success of society. An Individual or

a family in a cold climate, who may be compelled to labor lor a living in any field,
cannot figure in "society." Tha hod carrier' and the book maker are alike
laborers, and only those who have leisure and are above the ordinary plodding or
industrial class, have time to cultivate and perfect "' society."
It is true that the busy workers build the fabric and support "*society," and
"society" looks down on them in pity or contempt, and pays them for the pro-
ducts of their brains or hands.
In all countries exceptour own, there are privileged classes or nobility nod roy.
alty, sand the superficial observer would suppose that it is unfair to make the
workers support such apparent drones, but the workers have no time to obtain
culture, and the cultured classes make a market for tim product of the industrial
In" the olden -times the sturdy yeomanry tilled the ground and tended the


while the nobles studied the art of war and defended the land from the
a of northern barbarians. In modern times the industrial oelme do the
while the nobles and royalty keep "society together, and pay ua for our
This is society; our own country soems like au exception, but it is not
different from the rest. except that our wealthy claOes, instead of being
in their possesiotm, and devoting themselves to society and political diplo-
excloively, are watching what money they have, and trying to. make
and readly are analogous to the upper middle or money making chlas of

Culture comes through leisure, and leisure from wealth, or the freedom from
daily toil to keep body and soul together. In cold latiudta, me must be rich
before they can be learned or polite; they must labor iomeesautly to provide ftr
winter, and only a few of the shrewdest can hoard enough of this word'e gpod
to do anything for society" till, all of our American workers a oly a part of
the world's hie, and a great part of our work goea to Reed ad pamper the
societyy": of Britain and urompe. Next to rmat wealth aud eoouqma&
ldsure in cold climates, comes the leisure afforded by a mild oaima. A mild oi-
mats poduoed a Euelld, a Demmthenes, an Arohlmed, a Moaes ad
a Paul. without wealth. B611, these children of poverty sad the soony oMel
gave us the lever with which modern society" Iu oivilied the world.
In warm climates, wealth is not necessary to-make people polite, hoe.

pitable, or to give them lime to think or develop trasaendemt gealns. The
making of a stem engine Is the wnrk of a Watta, who was a buoy worker, who
lihad to toil for bread, but the diam y of the atwaction of grmvitatIm weti
work of a man whom want wer pro id for, aS wbdid Mot'haeto n g
from day to by for his matauboe. -,



O.L M -.J. Tay., mw a ld of twts livod Jin
lIten l rne tn cantes, as LNab s.ea4d ta.ed we be tridto wemi.
flme o p edli hbut foud that every winer wp ooli erpougi to`LUI the
yo7d0c sI im the ground. Sore time slcw thea Fseof I81s-'t,.whn al the
woge tbUms i Montiodlo woet .itb# killed to ground or badly mutilated.
Odoael lorim mow d to Wauhiugto, 0., but. n th autumn of 1881, he re-
turted to lbM, with, view to Sluage a god bod of land and eng iag inu
frmit .uoa. By Inviton, he vtised Colonel Dulmy' plwo at Buem Vit, neor
Orange Mdill, on the eas mt de of the & Jobn'i.rlver, aid to hve tbe bet warter
proceed o. the lower k. Jdtoa' rirer. (oloa Danr showed him a lime Ireo
tha we kiled to te groun4Jsh winter premdiu (1880), widoh be oa the free
pid him 810,00 for rop, and had grown up saum the free of 1816, and just
arrived at aood.bri wieu iwas killed again.
Coeal ftoy vioted oleL A. Barnes, at Gainerville, where be had ben
two year before on d short visit, and there e. fouud that everything of the
dtu hfatly bad be exp Lhe orange, byhe afre be of 1880. Th1s dis-
oreed hisaeomwhab but he was ataed by repeotaMle premna, that the eame
thing happened farther aou, and tha &bere. in florind where lemons,
lim, and ae moe rar iUe of thee dL t u family escaped.
Having d.idd to grow orame and forego the pleasure of making lemonade
from ie own fruit, he pmurciaw an inoret in one of the flet hammock proper-
ties. n .aohus oaunty, Situated oo the shore of Pa 'e's Prairie (now a lake).
JA.. Mara, o Orage oontsy, hlrd of oloel Taylor slntention to egago
largely airui. eulturm and being an old aoquainwaneo, made a spoedal trip to
Gaibesyi? ith a vbw of idsudng viet Orage county. fie wis ansocee-
d, Olood taylor had decided to one and Madouald and his ao-
omy. rw, ad when ha eaw Wet Orange, ia whole plans wire a onoe
"pur, Hae pmd ameed valuable tract of land and orange groves for
- ad his frod and took step atr oe to ell his property In Alachu t
CMa y. lehu mnely douledM his money on hie "Orangp invutments, while he
r a amled to aell his property to Alaohus ounty at ust what it cost him.
Wby did e hanmge.his loation w promptly t Beoau he found that in West
Oange the hEm, lemon and oatra. tea re not injured In the slightest degre
brsee 18 IM, and that Uoe Ua, four ye ars &d frop the used. had pid
that upwado( ten dolara o the tro, aud that where tmes and lemons
thrive tri erap lW grow father, and are a large at twelve ory fieaen yarfrom
theu d ma b lars es in the oeuLt grove i North Floridp No rop of
-e ma r be hos where lime bluweoa are not injured. Bere he also
-,- the- pirapple -ntmi-y euliravted in the open air, and during his ran
heae the aaor pfat .I icnda, he had neer mea pineapple
CeM. thyw ie plammg one hundred amr of omape ad a large gave of
IkQea~hldmueao4 nidm had h a afl gr of akinad of topia fruii
msjad his ham
Now, gertlsaen o North Florida, this ie the history one Motter. We Will
giv yeo the tStmony of hundreds of re able men bee we got through with
the ub)eot.
...I A l --I- -

ftt~tb 6 taMd 0 .0.ia aof the regio o IadtP hS rrui MU *d
.'Q,9W Us faqassily iitetL by thou teed. :ut fl disertmos,
aM. 'a hiinahus ltUWtMs ot elurvr a T the am the


awe, and the superrtitious portlo w
of very rare occurrenoo in Florida, e
ing over the Blase, done not happen,
oast a gale o wind may be expect
October. It many strike Oedar eys,
placs at thie same time, or it may
prices asSt. Auguatlie, Cape Caoar
nearly equal violence aloug the whole
generally these gale, are loal, a4t
over a limited extent of eoas The
the interior only hears of them after
A list of the disasters attending tl
able, but the fact that they are confli
being very extensive shows that the
intervals--ometimea years between-
much apprehensioo by the inhabitant
rally forgotten before another oome

Ath >Br^ s ,A role, high wids are
xceptnuer the emashore. Ahurrase, exsmnd-
on an average, ooe in Mty yag, but Oc t3.
d at M eamon, and pretty oua sto w min
Pemoola, or Caurlodr Harb or, Q a~. of Ae
,eome from he est and blowje$tin.. to
nal, ow Biwayue Bay, or ist 'ay wtelitd iL
te coast froa Key West to Ferna$i a BuEt
seldom exhibit any destructive oroe, exeps
r force is entirely spent on the seuore, and
all is over.
oe gaiea would at Art right apple Jo .ld.
*ed to narrow liaite, U 'lh as dt. oa ot
iy do not visit tohe ase sapot, Cept at long
-and hlwies are aot looked forward, to woth
;, tho dreudlul elects of a -gal being g.e-

About twelve years ago a Boeton man was induced to undertako.hulldiug a hotel
on a knoll at Cedar Keys I think his nme was Dvia. The buildlug wua up,
enclosed, and an extenleve wing nearly completed; the houae was intended for
winter visitors, sad ourtainly would have been one of the moat oomjqoaious and
beutifully situated in Florida. Everybody'. bops were high at Cedar eys, when
along came a gale and blew it flat on the ground in five minutes. It never was
"recantruceed." A short time aftawarda Dr. Hunter, of St. Louis, built a great
maanarium on Ban Ibel Ialin'l, ln OharlotUe Hatbor. The building was pearly
reader for guetsa and being so far south, where the dlimum i nearly tropical at
would have been a boon t> the invalid. I met Dr. Hunter on aiso way from 2tew
York to the anitarium in great gleover his stuc a. and bringing *bh him the
materials for the finishing touches ns his beautiful iavalid'a retreat," .J engaged
in comvresatioo with him, and vented to sugealt thait uatsual.precartioma woen
neeeary on the Florida coaet to .gard against the hurricane. He lug hed at
my fears, sPd asured me that his hbuiding could not be affected by a wind that
ever blew. The debtor went on down the ooasat to his hotel, aud. the ,ae day we
heard that they had a gale at Oedar Ke.L A revenue cutter,.a weq of eibhty
tons, war blown up into the middle of te main street, eight feet shore high wtot
mark: Dr. Hunter had suffered shipwreek, and hia hotel,was cater. along
eighty miles .ofthe eoast Nothing daunted, the doctor gqtheaqd, up ome o
the fragments and sried again at BflahoUt Bay, and afalo hi. pmrer s ras-
terd to the wiads The light-keeper's house near Cdaqr a is ahored d
guyed in every diremto with iron rode and cable., or it would neverqa' 4s.
terrific force of the wind. The cite of Indianola and Oalvastpo, Texsa an
of ten vsited and amnetUme nearly detroyed, by thee galea, bpt the aMtwes
and villages on the Gulf cost of Florida have more thnn onoe been blqwn down
and inutdsted by the hurrioanee and attendant tidal waew. I hare aey bead
of load ya l in the interior, .ex ep one which- vIls4 OGaitevIle.a. Aw. yars
ago, and caused some loss of life as well as deutruocon of property.

Of all the ridiculous peronun f 4oa f lida, the hotel, or boarding houee
grublea is the mDot woomumpibld Vdd'6'gftaUt enemy of o'r Stam. We
a PedI c thsa, M d faeia, oad they an b fo..d as .p
rr~~~0d~~jpa,~ teoe ~~ier~ i

* ,

they d uad knowing BRodds bettr than- they do. poaer tiMa. They
Sus of the beautiful reds a Illinois or Ohio. where lat wimtr the
bad maud U tohe hubs r five months blahk, satoky, .aboalsable mdud an
ow th wpgooS all over the Mroen. mud ba$t hoae row at niht at
Sihe tokagh under the wages in the mornirnu-md that would bi a deep
I the lhrways o thdir hoem if .they hadoo scrapen at ho .4va pM.4 tq ronp
It ,slhk *tsa that wils.dat to the sho wax, and, whenA as wal.k
tlalek through it it will work its way up to his koeen mo toot peas over
t*uMo r, e.a stop brings it a ltSle higher;till it Inadefs the region of his trouers
parteea Oh! suoh delightful mud; in weo ploe. it is blek, iin oshera blue, but
hMeys ant. In Jllibois iM blocks up navigation by wagon, and ar it don't snow
enaehqbthme to Hw ledghs, their roads re olen impossible.
In temmas ad WMaro the mud is so sticky ihat i would pull U man's boot
o. If he wes so indisoreet as to strempt to tfs up his foot before diggiug it out
wnh a sUik. The writer once st on a feuoe three hour before he dare try to
walk mile, after shower.
But for vile.oe. unuUeraoe give me the city mud of any FNorthern city, say
New York. I have eeua it a foot deep ou Third avenue above Harlem iiver,
while the reet ws being pmpaed for pavement. Wagons and drays by the
hadred-churning tand splashing throughk.l it day and oiglt; every ioch of side.
walk was besmmred with it, every step ws covered with it, every stairway in
buadnes bulUiiua wAe daubed with it. Then a shower of snow hill and old at
men aod big Uerana ladies slip up on the mud boulders, and scatter their beakeo
fal or(nmoerea ormee are oftn killed by falling on It. Then It thaws again,
and eltoh change only mroke it worm till it dries, then good Lord deliver us from
t Then you wish for the mud, or snow, for any form .of oold oiPtse p lgue in
plam the duas-dty d~s iI wuras thau ooutry dutus but any dsmt f the snow
region bsd enough. The native there do no dare to think what their dust is
made of, bus a stranger in that laud, or a voe who has been soudt of theUnow
liae a few yoer, doee Io like to have the vie mud of las weak turned into sea.
muag br his food of this week. The deas pemtrate anmi peres everything;
the window sme will show a quarter of an inch deep of it la a if nos
eumMd dally. The mw. chilly euatmptive b edioir wind drim-it in clouds into
yew e. aond ome, sad all ove your clothes. Yw breat e L(the dust) into
Soar luwg, you swallow it into your tomab, you aborb i into yor porem.
flbeh peoupls rush to heir doon wbym an avalanche of thi veoo pound ie
mee moiag alott she s rtcan bus to prmuden will savo omo ifr it To make
thbt'ompuund tba Ume of oar NorLermU tieton at frst me to miss so mueh
whia the one to Ie oida I will -hr youa toip. Tnk of Jsey pain mud
a thooan d art Iode; slope drown intocao hnbdud tbhoiaud ash bsnels over.
night, wieh as bb .ge leare, a he, eloders, old clothes, wast paper aod every.
thing rile enough to be thrown away and too oolid for the sewer; then lit ten
thousand hoses grind it on paving Mtones for a few w.eku, until they have added
about the amount of fertilizer that, ee ale clsmed out of tie Auguma stables;
hia with what dust is ground from thi'ptdgMstonee, wll be namly a bad a
Northbe oty dt m Pmpaq enough of this to make it see om Ioliko to our
gowkan, but levo it at the North where it belong, and let those who like stay
thbm with it. Then r-y miss thl snow-the betltiful snow. Fl idea fI bad
doUtse for snow, It would not keep haere we ate sorry for quy one who mnoot
get along without t. The rural tpopan, a it emingily enjofable. The
4t4 afortIu f.aniin ueuing up bi4t dylhqt'in a whnate wbm tho da
w Ma morde mwbq .(ng lkaur loq, uJ wltng oat to to ti n.' am e
tnepj. 9|5 mePt a41ot14 t-oo ql prho 4 aM t .Br tit0O f hoI in
rqr .a in In mouao twro yw taord ih.'- It
wi nqth Utmile rtb tte ehey to, s $y
t1| 1S8B? IlW ^ bffm^^S?^^ *CtW^W 46wn*rl~u: L
*>** B^^C^l a-k *laA ^ba ^---"^ *"^- -- 'Aira ^ "^ Jt BA l'1 i fc-- f 11 *^ *^ ^M a -J--a

grnmblen evor left the ow for a- hk tsad tMir e -wc e w ar wh th
would not es- M eaHouta too.lM haurk the.
The we have the Leow. who isy our lad k to high ptrdi, thay
think of paying one hundred dolnm pr mr whr ititoagbh aqhi i al
it is outrapoudy bi1ht Why, .they a g bck te b'ih l
buy the beat farmie lund in the world fur oe huudrMd 'kda l S
buidlngs and everything complex rdy for irad bth
of people have been wor enst la leg-Mnd thuatrs hebe tltb a
up one hundred dollars sa oaar aEd ii' W p daes te.
them what they an do with it; they will uauwe, ra 1
wheat; wheat is worth 6ne dollar a batheL Tbh 8fawelmb
times before aowing eut, haul to market; Ift y get twea4 kdeU
per acre for the erop it is a good average; take out the sedad ptaq. tfor *ar.
and the farim of tbe best State in the Union do not py five pr taeuti,
per annual, s interest on the one hundred dollanM per are inveasd thn Wf.
It is folly to show them a five year old budded orange try'p om L 'tid. a
place py ten dollars on a rod aqsare; or thirteen year old tree a Dr. owarys
place paying eighty dollars per aunum on a squre red of laud; or he big -..
in the Stewamr grove, ptyiung one hundred dolar per annum o04 t ~ imSe O
they will forge it before they will et bak to supper, and pine for t,he A
of their native snows, or the snows of their native mud.
They object to the price, but if they e shbewu land as fodsa IWod atr
at oae dolhr and twenty-five at per ore, it is too far way: they want
sloo, earches, good ooiecy, daily mails, t.lraph and iji waldk, ad land
at ovenmenit price; if this is not furnished tiem they growl.
They look for board at Ave dollars per wek, .and then growl if they doet
get boad worth four dollars per day. They growl ft the beds. tMy growl t
thp hash, they grnumhle at the sandy road and are too stingy to hire a lose
to take a drive. They claim to ee no good ia our eouatry. Some of tle are
invalids, but thee we pity ; they have left the climate whee tbo Leautful mow
planted the deadly omnumption i their bresa, but they growl beoI., the
anoot find here he very things that they kad to run away from at home,. We
have been odded with these hmmeiek people ever aiooe the war. Tiny *hve
driven mtay prOspeMtve ettler. away from our S8ate, but msedible msa ouht
to py ay !attfUoa to them. They were here aventeen yeps ,qo wim I
flrt one, they eodi not be indeed to take iam oered them fri, dtr I now
worth oeu hLu6bl ddlar per aero. They are hers now, nd like the poor ar
always with t It so one be dseouraged by them, they ot s.t al ie ;
many of twa grmb to hear themaver talk and ber what me b mid ,wt1.
tor of the oumry; it they raua awhile, they wit be as eshudasio a au
of us.


it Li bita h. parti ted at other polu tSM prU V e
-Lra'ie Bb^ ptw Lie Dora tsela lg that hbk I hMl S aiy y t $i
In atr to tAhM we umurs tht thersie i l a idtla I yraalh drel
te WtiJb' la ia the heart of 'the :eumr roea butfe- aS tmapy
wIai fadamkalan rha ce~the adl whatg sa.fw
oayUtea f amount tasrsr pitr i*l, IAft
*fttftM~Iimne lere M lt ar iaba ali kfe Onm a
v4^ ^ai^^lai ir4L d ^qrcrrd dow to d T W o- p*
w^4P^aw;6 ^ ^ ^fi^ 'as


fr6 &

Sr.y Sfw lots hsve ben sold IShger thau fiy ddol per are, _id Gas am very
deammbs sub a. a nnot be duplicaed In another part o Floid The moa
beautiful lake fromu dc lost leaI can be had .m, the heart of the neighbor.
hood at fem O50 to *I00 per sea. The lad'is Mber, and in every way moede-
strabi than te 300 lead at Fort Ieid, land without lake front, but beautiful
lake v newsa be had ast $ per sare, and if the setter wBl go out a sw miles get adht as good as any in the eoutty at from $10 up, depmdhinfgoo the
number of attlers near it. 8ooiety dls laend in Flonda, and s aoon as all West
OnU uas thekly meuled, all the land will be worth $100 mad upwards per mcre.
Theae is a bpCts opportunity here now to ben i by the rim 11 vahle than thee
hiaq been heretofore, for land will enhtano as muda in the next twelve mocthe ms
it has in the hst six years, or sinac this reginu was frat aostlxl by Northern

Hon. N. K. Hnbbard, Vice-Presideut of Pirst National Bank, at Fargo. Dakota.
ays : I war induced by J. A. Macdolald lo atop over a d e he euuutry sar
Lakes Eusti and Dora, and must admit that it .i much more beautiful and
pleant tian many other part of Florida I have see in a tour of the whole State.
No one wonid tf prepared to find anything so good after the trip acre from As-
tor. I abUil not iveast in onda, bu did, it f dd t would be at Dora."
Hon. Jame M. Wdloox, of Glenn Mills, Peunaylvania, Iuys: -tJ bhas largely in property near Orlando and Maitland. but I consider my beautiful lill at
Mount Dora, the mot valuable tract I own. Here I shall make my florid home

and build a saunitarium and church."
Seorgo Barbour ay: "I hare
paring the manerisl for miy work on
pletos, but I confess I did not Bied
aesnory, for altitude or healthfulnse.
beautiful in this Stat."

visited every county in,th State when pre-
'Florida,' now beiug published by thu Ap*
auy pIrt of the State approacluiog thi for
I did not think there was auythiog so

Cokeel T. Ilwoeei l'esays: "This rolling oubtry amongst r lakes is the
moat beautiful in FlPis and h I' whle) te hotels must evon tlly be. The
omnut1 between Lake Eustia and Dora is plotureque ndl uniqu'~kd entirely un-
like the remarmder of Plorida."-Zd_'s eSmy tpra, PhiladelpMa, Pa.
Dr. Oeky, York, Miohigan, mays: is the moat 1eMutiful outabtry in Flor
Mr. H. II. Wheeler, Troy, Esneaa, wa dioorMd with the 8t. John's Tfier
cooMury on amaus of Ita flatnessM. and was b o return without making a s-
leedsa, sad when he mw this region he at oaee to make a home here.
8 A. Mead, New York, ays: "I Camo with my wlf and son to od a de-
rale. location fo a home in Florida and examined to Orlando and MaJdtlnd
country, tad AnMr other sectioe smanbt the po'ds which msny are plenasd to
ca *lake,' bat hers on the shore ofako Eut, i the spot I have beea lookig
for. (b Bh febt hiplgh.
0. &'Joae, 5 DBod staet, New fYr, t pent editor of tle
tmwe, amys: I have be. atS Mdded, Onmaio, and send piece. eam
the Si. ohn'e BiMr, and re to wmhS protMt near Maidead. They told
metit that nthe aMt botirut part of Utb te, t irs e r,
Sand the menrho told me havj either tried to deoite mo oar hve never ';e
to seonar."
J. W. Tai 40 WsVa' Btaren t. Cbhlmgo, amy: 1 have beet a Si-
lM rMkeh bs It it nt & emdueh'ath. IaMld na bs aduM dto


Luke G. Johnson, Wiutervile, Oglethorpe County G., ays "I lhae t.
veiled over a great portion of Florida iu a buggy, and by stsuan and raileha.
My son has traveled over nearly the whole Btto, iackudig Inadian Hiver and ihe
St. John's region, ha s pent nearly two years looking for. a pise to suit him,
and we both have at last decided to settle in West Orange amongst the people
settled by John A. Macdonald, as we find moat respeot the moat desirable
part of Florida. Had we met Macdonald at first, and taken his Avioe, it would
have saved us much time and expense."
Dr. Hutchings, of Toledo. Ohio, says: "I lived on Indian River and travelled
over Florida a great deal, and when I saw the country around Lake Dora, said that
this is the only really fino country I have seen in the State."

A gray froot, which killed tcndpr garden vegetables, visited all of Northern
Floridaon the 17th of Novulwber, 1880, and another on the 9th of March, 1881.
Snap beans, tomatoes, egg-plants. squashes and melons were all destroyed, as far
south as the thirtieth degree. These are the vegetables which command highest
prices. Cucumber were actually sold last season at twenty dollars per three
peck crate .in March. To produce these tender and high-prioed vegetables in
winter, one must go south of the twenty-nixth degree.
Mr. Hogan, at Astatula, planted an acre inx tomatoes last winter. Wlhen the
plants were well started, he sold the crop for peventy-five dollars. The purchaser
took Oharge, and when the fruit was marketed it netted him a trifle more than
four hundred dollars.
Capt Woford, near Fort Mason, d'd quite aa well on tomatoes, cuumbers ad
snap beans. But this was south of the twenty-ninth degree.
All statements tthis nature are susceptible of proof, and we publish no henr-
msy. We give nate of known honorable men only, with whom inquirers can

Florida posse no advntage over any other State In the Union except its
latitude, and bence its CLtMAlT. Give Maino your Florida climate and it would be a
paradise. Climate is the whole object we seek in coming here, and we extract
from ** Barbour's Florida" a few hints of value to the home-seekers.
Page 17--" It posesMes a variety of soil, CLIMATE and products."
Page 21-"For the truth is, there are three kinde of Florida. Three Florida,
so to speak--each distinct in soil, CirAr and productions, and it ia became of Miis
that the people of other sections, as they read about this State ia pamphlets pub-
lishedin the interest of tome locality, are apt to draw erroneous inforeoea. For
instance, the winter of 1890 and 1881 was exceptionally severe everywhere. The
ITorthern reader learning that fruits were destroyed, garden crops hopelesaly
ruined, orange frozen on the trees by thousands, oame to the opnolusion that
Florida wa not much of a tropical State after alL Yt the ce I that the seo-
tion thuyrsited included but a mall portion of the State, only Northern Florida
A larp portion of thee Sae waotu answer Cweivde kibyfatk Is may
be clased aa northern or temperate, the semi-tropial and the tropiL"- also
pge *
Page t4--" Though of oonro the farther south the more surely an the tropl
el products he ooMted un." ..
tPsa4pekue Eustis n4e Lake Nkmw: "Tt.Ree .iya roedr

Twdve months af ronrds be writes :
"*.i prndicuoun has buen veriiwdr much asoib than I ooid then have su-
pected. I nJ 1881, I wa struck with astoumwlseua at the prunrem that hld
be made. Owing to the skilful and well direwuwd esorts of John A. Maudon-
aid. editor b6f te Florida New-Yorker, attention has ben attracted to the advan-
tages e the locality, and in no portion of the Stato have I observed more healthy
and pleasing signs of progresb-such as neat aud tauteful i Moes, substantial
houses, and bunds thoroughly cleaned and oarefuly cultivated. The orange grove,
too, look ezxqptionally well, and remarkably early returns have been obtained.
Moreover, as I saw moreof the country,1 was impressed much more strikingly
with its scenic attractiveness. oiling lulls and undulating lopes are the charasc
teristie features of this region. Bld bluffs front the lakes on almost every side,
and from certain points on the northern shore of Jake Dora, views are obtained
Ltha are asi. anything else seen eeaswwre is F orida. The lake itself nestles at
the foot of wooded bluffs over a hundred feet in height, on the opposite shore;
still higher hills lidt boldly from the water, while further away still, beyond Lake
Harris and Grert Apopka, at a distance of twenty-eight miles, a misty line of
heights rinse almost mountainonuly against the horizon.
This is the most beautiful passage in the book, and was written after two tours
of the entire State, and added as a nota before publication. Mr. Barbour owus
no land here, and had no selfish motive in writing this beautiful tribute to the
most lovely spot in Florida. He gives great praise to other sections .before he
waw this from the best points, but the following note may be considered his flnl
judgment on the matter.
Pages 118 and 119-" Astor, the river terminus of the St. John's and Lake Ens-
tis Ralroad, a narrow gauge nud leading to EUSTIS (twenty-six miles dis-
tant) where it opens up the famous Lake E:nstis and Lake Dort region, lWthe equia!
-BVEN TBS sL'UPEROR-of any region in Florida for superb rcswry, excellent soil,
rapid growth and healthy enterprise."
This Jb saying for our region all that could be said, when it is the superior it
has no equal #
Page 134-" Just south of Lke Entib, and connected by a channel, (now
open) liw Lake Doura, another large lake, whose high and bluff like shores remind
one rather of the lake region of Western New York, than of the low and sandy
levels that usually characterize Florida. From the summits of several of the
head lands on the northern side may be obtaied views far and near, that will
prove memorable in their loveliness-thac will haunt the mind toug after the vision
of them has vanabed."
Page 142-Speaking of Lakes Harris, Eusta, Griffin and Dors: These lakew,
from the head waters of tho Ocklawaha river, are surrounded by the rict lands of
the most fertile region of Florida"
Many visitors and settlers go into ecstasies over the small lakes'of Eastern Or.
ange county, and they are in a certain way very attractive indeed when one has
nos aee the hills and large lake region. Any one can Ms the contrast they ex.
hibited when compared with Dora, as you read what Barbour says of Ma04da
which is said, by thee who have not seen the true "take region," to be a ery

beautiful lake.
Page 144--" From a certain stand-point in Maitland nine lakes are in sight, all
small, and in a radius of half a mle, the surface s mostly flat aud not very at-
traeetive to the eye nor very fertile in productive quality, except by fertlhdIng."
One an Judq. how attrective West Orange must be when Mahland is caed
"not very attractive."
Page 242-Speaking of the "fot linee" (old is the greatest aeemy of the
orange grower, and a feor controvenr has bem raging for several years between
di rent sections o the 8tate a to wlia L lld 'roet llne,' above which, so i
is sid, orange culture annot be purmePt ~th any caadense In the returns, while
1. am U4 the JAnu ma lmimi t o In m alDn o h k. UhA -4 ntaln -*- am fAe

1876-77 and 1880-1, orasns in north FteriJdawer irremediably spolel tad lost
On thie other band, theL e living north of the line, call attlnt.oo th tM undeiable
fact that a large muJority of the old and productive groves are located Above the lh&."
Mr. Barbour now gies judgment on this much argued question aoutioosly.
" My own private opinion is, that it Is, to say the least, prudent to get as tw south
as possible. There can be no doubt that killing frosts are rarer hin the more
southern portiod4o the penlnsuls, and it is well to avoid as many risk as poa-
sibe, even if it be admired that no portion of the 8mte Is vo/hly exempt from
frost. Moreover, tJsre are other tropical and semi-tropieal frnits, the cultOer of
which may be profitably combined with that of the orange, and the C ean be
grow with prosi north of e Geosre."
Page 243-'* There are two or three points, however, that may be regarded as

settled. The industry
alinLy in the nortleru
valuable groves in the
of the St. John's river,
We have given them
tihe most impartial and

(orange growing) cannot be entered upon
or northwestern portions of the State. M
upper division (north Florida) are located on
and have a water protection."
) extracts vrbatim from Mr. Barbour'a book
valuable work on Florida ever written for

with any ear-
[oat of the old
the east side

Sbeause it is
the benefit of

home or health seekers. Mr. Barbour speaks highly of the Orlando region, and
in glowing terms of Hernando county, but West Orange the laurels in
most emphatic and unmistakable language. Now, as this matter of the relative
advantages in regard to climate of the different latitudes in Florida has given rise
to heated discusion, and the people who live in the coolest latitude have exhibited
all the heat and acrimony, we intend to ventilate the whole subject thoroughly.
Mr. Barbour strikes the key note in his '" private opinion' above. No one denies
that the northe.n counties, when protected by water, and where the only settle-
mentse were made in the early days, can show fair orange trees, and that the
"doubtful belt'"prodaos even to this day more sweet orange than where we
consider the best orange growing region. Why T Simply because, for various
oeams, no orange tires worth mentionming were planted about! of th twenty-ninth
degree before the par, and the few old and small patches of trees in Northern
Florida. nursed along for a century 6r more, killed down repeatedly, and nured
up again from the old roots, were the only bearing trees, one might ay, I Florida.
But we daim that in a latitude where the crops were spoiled'by freedog i 'the
winters of 1876-76 and 1680-81, and elsewhere, we will prove that the wbple
crop was destroyed in the wintrrd of 1868-49 and in 1870-71, and at iaterveas of
three or four yearn ever since the settlement of the country; and that ht the year
following the hardest freeas, tle crop was out off from the damage done the
ten not to mention the killing of the trees; that wien the protlm oan ornate
growing is reduced to the minimum, the business will not be very profitable, and
that now, with the good price., although it pays to grow sweet oranges in the
doubtful belt, till a tors of at least twenty-five per cent makes it considerably
lem profitable than where no loas ha ever been sustained from cold.
And as Mr. Barbour wisely remarks: There are other tropical and semi-taroi-
oma products whih cannot be growh north of Lake George." Who will produce a
bearing lemon or lime tree in the doubtful belt? No lime tree can be found that
was not killed tn the ground by each great freeze, and no lemon tree escaped ex-
.ups where arddoallly protected, and a pine apple never bore north of the twenty-
ainth dpes. Then we have the guavas, and many other fruits which nsawed
prfeitlyin Orange, and will not msocead in Marion or Putnam, half a degree
northh of us. In twenty miles of latitude the limit of pine apple is marked beyod


- .- A -' a -1 -

or m Staes u b the M dret route. Cap W. B. Wato; maciiagCof
D&riy seider Ju mvlle, Fp., will mer Ia oqukiosM m to trnI b-

Wtmn you rrivo in Jackmuville, go to the olee of the DoBary steamers, and
buy a ticket to Astor via St. Johiu' River. You ill p y your fare on the ta~ai
ua Rustis.
if any tied agor or er peru wy or dw aaytliAg ed to 1Mt, rm
freoa wa.yg a Wa Orage via Astor, we will reward y a l ffor proof ./daa
may b wiad or don, and the name of the party.
But you erf for Astor. if you rflrt for this place, beoaao you cannot as
conveniently como hero from Sanoford or Orlando:










LAKr ECan, Sept. 6, 1879.
At a regular meeting of the lAke Buatis Local Developcaen; Amociation," the
fotlowng reolutionu were unanimously pa sd :
Wherema, Having as a community watched with much Interest the effort of
Mr. Jo A. cdonald, and his earnest odeavor to secure homes for invalids and
the suffering from climatic ufluenoe., in ponions of the country thla are suiled
to their eespecial wants and conditions, whoao life that is now almost unbearable
may be rendered pleasant, happy and prosperous;
And whcerm, We have been acquainted with Mr. Macdonald for a number of
year, and become thoroughly acq uy id with his manner of solrctig lands de-
signed for opocial purpoa and his long experience as a surveyor, and his ex-
treme good judgment in selecting lands and locating homes for th6so who are
Iosperiomced, as ovidenced in the beautiful location now occupied by our thriv-
leg ommunlty;
A d keras, We feel as a community that some exprosion our mutisfoton
and thorough con8dence in his ability and good intent to those seeking heathful
hoamee due him;
)heebore bek rebdol, Thet is considemtion of his eminent abdiy for the work
In which he in now engaged, that this Assoiation tender him in unqualified sap-
pon and edorsment -'
Bf a/la rthr ;M That in eonmidmetUo of the intearst he has masnisted in
all Mbers tending to the advanoemeot Of those he ls booe infllential in settling
Sanew homes, that this Association tender .him a roto orf since thanks for the
ame. neIpecfully,
duA. '. inn,
Avaownt us Oorudn, b.
A. 8. 1'snDRr,

Omcvr FL.oDA vImuronrrun Co.,
rsw You, Da 1, 1819.

CUS Tom l. JaeduM.,
Data n: We take plams in Mas Uu yTm selected or uas in Florida oer
tkoot Mu d la,. foer whieh we Pd yor *7@0, orr tsqkota Tkelrs e-
I 1MiC!.. We ahadtbs mmf qerhiis agent to vrmry yowr

deas in your notes. Many of the tracts then losatd for us amr now the site of
flourishing settlements anud villages. We would further state, that if we wished
to make first class selections of land in Florida, we know of no one more compe-
tent and reliable than you, to trust in the matter of locating. We believe that
Florida owes you a debt of gratitude for your thirteen' years' untiring efforts and
successful work, Sat ome and abroad, in the causm of immigration to that favored
State. 0. W. GODAD, P)sdenut.
S3 Park Row.

In the gigantic works of antiquity we have the results of an enorma concen-
tration of Ihuman labor. With regard to some of them, as in the great obelisk and
sphinxes or Egypt, the highly conventionalized art of the times has preserved a
record of the mode in which this labor was applied. With regard to others, as i,
the case of the megalithic walls of Tirnyus or of Mycene, the question has evs
been raised whether they must not have been renred by races tf greater strngt*
and stature than any now existing on earth. But tihe most wonderful of all thea
evidences of mighty toil, as shown in the mIze and position of tihe enormous mrues
of stone reared in the air at Baalbec, have been the work of known tri-es of men
within historic times. The great muster of mankind in Egypt, in Greece, and in
Syria, executed an amount of sheer human toil to which modern labor can show
no parallel.
Solomon's temple, the immense dimensions and superb finish of which, perhaps,
surpassed all other structures within historic times, was built by the voluntary
labor of a well grverned and free people. All these gremt adievements prove be-
yond a doubt, that warm olimates did not make men indolent. In the apes when
thpse great temples were planned and built, all snow regions wer either uninhab
Ibed, or tho homes of savagos.

This little book is compiled from


writings of John A.

years, and



r species



Macdonald during t

be followed


by a work





in Florida,

r details
Id for
mad for

sablect "Fleridaz



e tlat elshteen




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs