Group Title: Sugar lands of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast Canal and Okeechobee Land Company : Chartered by special act of the Legislature of Florida, 1881 ...
Title: Sugar lands of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast Canal and Okeechobee Land Company
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 Material Information
Title: Sugar lands of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast Canal and Okeechobee Land Company chartered by special act of the Legislature of Florida, 1881 ..
Physical Description: 19 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Atlantic and Gulf Coast Canal and Okeechobee Land Company (Florida)
Publisher: Times Printing House
Place of Publication: <Philadelphia
Publication Date: 189->
 Subjects
Subject: Sugar growing -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Public lands -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055738
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001825124
oclc - 32890340
notis - AJP9167

Full Text
I1 ,:
r Tlir


4 + tI V I"f


Sugar


Lands


OF THE


Atlantic


and


Gulf


Coast


Canal


and


Okeechobee


Land


Company


Chartered


Special


Act


Legislature


Florida,


I88i


OPPICES


313-317


Bullitt


Building


Kissimmee


Philadelphia, Pa.


Florida


OFFICERS


I i I I


I. '


HAKILTON


DISSTON,


President


SJ. J. Drmws,
ALJXAR Dtx KUMHamaAI
. JAsM M. KRAMnB, Chief ]


Vice-President
, Secretary and Treasurer
Engineer, Kisuimmee, Florida


SI, Land Agaet, Kiimme, Florida


Ir ^'V
a: "b: /


I $




I .- *ej- .
S


'V /4 **. -. r -


'tj


333


jf5s


Lands


For


Sale.


The lands acquired by this Company are offered for sale at graded


prices,


from 5i


per acre


upwards,


according to


the location and


quality.
The lands of this Company are within the counties of Orange, Brevard,


Manatee and Monroe.


The greater part of


them are in the region adjacent to the Caloosa-


hatchie and Kissimmee Rivers.


They are accessible and s


pedaU


y well


adapted to settlement, and the culture of all tropical fruits and crops


also,


of early vegetables for Northern markets.


Along the coast and rivers in Monroe and Manatee counties are many
tracts specially suited to cocoanut and pineapple culture.
There are, also, in the Caloosahatchie and Kissimmee country, many
tracts specially suited for stock pasturage.
For sugar planting, either on large or small scale, this Company owns
thousands of acres that are unsurpassed.
Applications for land should be addressed to the office of the Company,
at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, or to

' r I T


Ir' r I


I ,


Land Agent,


Kitsfimme, Florida.
I


SII


Fw'rnrn'
- P.. JPy *
-"" f i 4 r
*- ^ t (J S4


*ywfc


* if Pj'L












Soil


Sugar


Cane.


Upon the physical character


of the soil and its chemical


composition depends the question of its suitability or unsuita-


ability for certain crops.


The first essential


a fertile


soil is


the capacity for absorbing an abundance of


at the same


time the friability or porosity of the soil must not be so exces-


sive that no moisture is retained.


Clay soils are objectionable


from the former cause, and


elevated,


loose, sandy ones from


the latter.


For sugar culture, toils well fertilized
decayed vegetable matter are esteemed su


by a


proportion of


perior to all


others.


That


soils


hot countries,.


especially


in tropical


climates,


contain more organic


matter


than


those in


a more northern


latitude,


is a common


supposition


it is evident from


analyses that such
putting aside soils


is not the


case


with cane soils.


of-a peaty nature, it is


rare


In fact,


to meet with


cane


soils


yielding more


than


from


four


cent.


humus


or vegetable


mould.


The


organic


matter has produced sterility in


Java and other cane countries


by causing a want of porosity, of nitrogen, and of carbonic acid.


Climate.-Climate has


pronounced


effect


upon


commercial


value


of all


plants


whose secretive


products


sought


to be availed of and sugar-cane


forms no exception.


This latter plant thrives to the greatest perfection in a warm,


moist


climate,


with


moderate


intervals


of hot


dry' weather,


tempered


by refreshing sea breezes.


The


sugar-cane


attains


its greatest development in semi-tropical countries, where cold


is not of


sufficient degree to check its growth.


Strong light,


warm and moist weather for the growing


season, followed by


cool and dry weather for maturing the crop and concentrating
the saccharine juices are the conditions most favorable.

3


are










Drained Lands.-In the southern portion of Florida all


of the


requisite


conditions


the cultivation


sugar-cane


prevails.


There we


have bright sunlight, warm weather-the


rains falling during the growing


season of the cane-and


weather, a condition


most essential, prevailing when


the cane


is maturing.
Within this region are vast areas of land, inexhaustible in
their wealth of vegetable mould, which have been permanently


reclaimed by the drainage canal
Company.


of the Okeechobee Drainage


The soil of these rich


does


partake


bottom lands is


character


homogeneous and
the marsh-lands


north,


which


tussocks


deep


holes


adjacent


are the normal


condition.


The


a heavy


loam,


resulting


from


partial


decay


vegetable


matter under


water, and contains as high as seventy-five per cent. of organic


matter, and in depth


varies from


three


to twenty feet.


The


surface is unbroken, and naturally supports a luxuriant growth
of saw-grass and aquatic Dlants. which nive lace to doe-


C -


a


a ,


C


A


S


fennel, wild millet and nutritious grasses as


soon as the water


is permanently removed.


found a bed of
incorporated


Beneath this rich humus is


marine marl, which, in a measure, has


overlaying


stratum.


These


usually
become


limqy


particles, in their slow chemical change, take up and neutralize


acidity due to


decaying


plant-life


besides, a


perennial


vegetation, in one form


or another,


aids in the absorption of


gases of decomposing plant-life, thus rendering the soil sweet
and adapted to immediate cultivation as soon as relieved from
the water.
This has been repeatedly demonstrated in actual practice;


first, at Southport, at the foot of Lake
a tract of land which had been perma


Tohopekaliga, in 1884,
nently covered with two


feet of water, was placed under a high state of cultivation for


sugar-cane. Upon the same ground a crop of corn was raised
before the sugar-cane commenced to grow, and eighty bushels

4









of corn to the acre was harvested.


Potatoes and


other vege-


tables attain a high state of perfection


watermelons of large


size and unsurpassed quality were produced.


Upon a much greater scale


been


repeated from


year to year until the country adjacent to Kissimmee is gaining


notoriety from the


great variety


crops


the rich


agri-


culture conducted there.


Kissimmee


Sugar


Land.


The largest tracts of sugar lands


n contiguous bodies,


present available


cultivation


are located near the town of


Kissimmee.
Within a radius of twenty miles of Kissimmee is an area


of at least thirty thousand acres of sugar land,


at present avail-


able


thousand


cultivation


acres,


in tracts


which


possess


f from
every


hundred


requisite


to two


in elevation


components of soi


and the natural


cultivation.


facilities with


These


sugar


which they


lands


admirably located,


the greater majority of them bordering the


lovely


lakes


region,


extending


from


Lake


Hart


Lake Kissimmee, thus a


sites and insuring good drainage


brding pleasant farm and


and abundance of


plantation
water for


irrigation when


necessary.


These


water,


lands are el
a sufficient


heated about


natural


grade


seventy feet above tide-


exists


to afford


easy


drainage.


Transportation


facilities


are excellent.


The


Cuban


-fast


mail


from


Boston


on its way to
tion on the St.


and New York passes through Kissimmee


Tampa.
John's


The -distance from deep-water


s forty miles, and


navaga-


seventy-five miles to


tide-water on the Gulf.
most excellent service


The South Florida Railroad affords a


n reaching these points.










The St.


Cloud Sugar


Belt


Railroad penetrates


heart of the sugar lands, and is one of the best equipped roads


in the State.
Kissimmee


The


Midland


afford


Railroad


an additional


just completing into


avenue


quick


transit, connecting with other main lines to the north and west.


Ample


steamboat


service


reaches


lands


along


lakes and river system to the southward.


Kissimmee, located


at the head of Lake


Tohopekaliga, is a most healthy


beautiful


desirable town.


has grown entirely from the develop-


ment


of the


country adjacent,


has a population of


over


thousand,


every


facility


way


good


hotels


churches, schools,


Cost of Cultivation.


-The following extracts


from report


of D.
tion,"


C. Sutton


, chemist, stationed at the


are interesting, as


showing


"St. Cloud
preparing


Planta-


land


Florida as compared with Louisiana and Cuba:
Although labor is higher here at present than in Louisiana or Cuba,
a comparison with the above places will show a decided difference in


cost of cultivation in fvor of Florida.


As regards Cuba, we quote from


Mr. Juan
Bulletin:


Bantesta


Romerene,.


the Santa


Clara,


Cuba, Agri/ul


In making these estimates
ditched and ready for plowing.
For Cuba:


we suppose the land to be cleared,


Preparation of land
Work of planting .
Value of seed cane
Two weddings ..


Three plowing.
One thrashing


* .
.* C .


e * *
. C S C C S S C S S S C S


$12 45
9oo

6 oo


Total cost of plant cane


S S .3 39 r


From the above we would see that the cost of one acre of stubble
would be:


Two weeding.
Onethr~mhia.


* S . C . .
* C S S S S S I
iii~i~ii: i::ii i'
~


Cultivatio of one acm of stubble


. i4 o











"The aMbve-nmmd gendesnu remark. that: 'On ood lands in
Cube, that are well ced for, five acpr may be gathered from one
pland, with an sacxge yield of n7 tons, under the .conditions that
the. lands shall be new and the cultivation done with care.'
From other authority we learn that caae will rattoon there from
12 to 14 years.


"The cat of
would be:


cultivation


per acre of


plant


cane


Louisiaba


Prepratio of ld . .. .
Value of seed cane. 4 tons per acre, $4.00 per ton
Planting.. .. .

Four powings . . .
Cleaning ditches . . .


Total cost of cultivation one acre plant


. .5525
16 oo
I So

. 005o
. 25

. 535 So


Cost of stubble per acre:


Two weeding. . .
Fourplowings.... ...
One stubble harrowing and digging
Cleaning ditches .....


Cost of cultivation of one acre stubble


* . $ 4 09
* o 00
* *. . 0ySo
* S S 25


. . 3 25


A good yield for plant cane is 22 tons per acre, and stubble 14
tons; thus the average would be 18 tons for plant stubble. Only two
crops can be gathered from one planting.
The cost of cultivation in Florida is as follows:


Preparation of soil
Value of seed cane.
Work of planting
One weeding .
Three plowing .
Cleaning ditches..


4


. . *
tons per acre, 5
* 0. .
. * .
* .


Cultivation of one acre of plant


* 2 50
4.00 per ton. 6 ao

S . . 2 00
* . . 5 0
* . . 25

. . 528 25


" For stubble:


On weeding . . . . . 2oo
Thre plowing . . . . 5
Stubble digging . 25
Cleaning ditches ... .. 25


"E
not be


. 7 .7


Cost of one acre of stubble


iactly how many crops can be gathered from one planting can-
definitely stated just yet; there is, at present on St. Cloud

7










plantation three-year old stubble,with no appearance whatever of a depre-
ciation in yield; this is the oldest cane on the place."
Seven year old stubble is now growing on Mr. Slavin's plantation
at South Port, on the Kissimmee river, with as much vigor and as large
yield as the year it was planted."
We are informed by different persons that there is a patch of cane
growing on a piece of muck in this vicinity, which was planted fifteen
years ago and is now doing well and has had no cultivation for several
years past, the leaves being stripped, tops cut in winter and thrown on
the ground and thus smothering out the grass."
We can at present safely say, however, that cane willrattoon here
from 9 to to years; how much longer, remains for time to tell.
Much land here, four feet deep, will give an average yield of 30
tons per acre."


Thus, summarizing the foregoing figures,
comparative costs of cultivation in the three coun
Cost of cultivation i acre plant in Cuba.
Louisiana
Florida
Cultivation of I acre stubble in Cuba .
S" Louisiana
"""" Florida


But, only
iana; then giv
the average cost
places would be
Cuba .
Louisiana
Florida


two crops can be gathered from
ing Florida and Cuba ten-yeai
of cultivation one acre of cane in
for a period of ten years:


we have the following
tries in a closer form:
S. . $39 15
. *. 35 So
. 28 50
. . 14 to
. 13 25
. . 7 5
one planting in Louis-
t stubble, we see that
each of these respective


. . . . . 6 s6
. * . 21 27
* S S *. 9 57


The saccharine qualities of Florida cane are none the less good for
its cheap cultivation and extensive yield."


Two stalks of r.
analysis;
Specific gravity
Degrees, Beaume
Per cent. solids
Water ..
Sucroe ..
Glcose .
Solids not sugar,
Purity co-efficien
Glucose ratio


e


,d ribbon cane, South Port, showed


the following


*. * 1t.
S . S 1 0 3
* C . . 18.27
.* * . 83.23
S* .. 7.50
* S C.. S S C S S .25
per cent. .. .52
S* 95.9
* . C S . . I r.42


f


e












"Another sample from the
several weeks in the Spring,
following analysis:
Beaume . .
Solds per cent.. .
Water. .. . .
Sucrose .
Glucose .
Impurities .
Purity co-efficient.
Glucose ratio . .


same place, which stood under wakr
and which received no cultivation, gave

8.$
.5.13
. . 84.87
.....3.37S
... ..** 1 1 .


. .
. S .


. .9
. 88.56
. t1.8


The above serves to show the
cane grows in Southern Florida.


remarkably easy manner in which


The following was taken from the best analysis on St. Cloud this
season: Beaume, 1o.1; Stcrose, 17.i ; Glucose, I. The latter analysis
was made on December Ist, and the two former on December 13th
and 26th respectively.


'' In comparing the mill juices of Louisiana at
month of December, for instance, we would see
contained 13 per cent. Sucrose, the Glucose in Lou
.& to 1.4 per cent., and in Florida from 1.5 to 2.25
ing that cane matures here much more slowly tha
our grinding season would necessarily be later;


id Florida, taking the
that where the juices
isiana would be from
per cent., thus show-
n in Louisiana, and
the weather, climate,


and other conditions permitting us to grind at our leisure, one of the
most important features of sugar making, where the agriculturist is also
the manufacturer.
From December 5th, the day that this house began grinding, up
to January Ist, there has been an average mill juice of 12.5 per cent.
Sucrose, and we may confidently expect the season's average to be
14 per cent. Sucrose, such as Louisiana has never reached.
"Although Florida possesses all the natural advantages of climate.
weather, soil, etc., yet much remains to be done to place her in that high
position in the ranks of sugar-producing countries, which she will
inevitably occupy.
Sugar-cane has its characteristics peculiar to every country where
it is found, and in this respect Florida is no exception. In the short
time of its intelligent cultivation in this State, many reverses have been
met with, and new obstacles arise, which must be surmounted.
"Thus we have seen that Southern Florida is peculiarly adapted to
sugar culture, and it now remains for a series of experiments to settle
some of the most important points, of which the following are a few':












Ist.--Germination questions.
2d.- Physiological ".
3d.- Varieties best suited to Florida.
4th.--Manurial requirements.
sth.--When and how to plant.
6th.-Time for manufacturing.


Manufacturing has not been taken into consideration here, as
that depends entirely on the kind and quantity of machinery, and not
the country.
Now we see that Florida can produce more cane at less cost than
either Louisiana or Cuba, and we may add Sandwich Islands; and
certainly it can be manufactured into sugar here as cheaply as elsewhere,
and thus Florida shows the world how to produce mwre sugar at tss
cost; and steps so far toward a solution of that national question which
has long puzzled so many wise statesmen."


The


following


article


appeared


" LOUISIANA


PLANTER AND MANUFACTURER" of April, 1890, and is a full
and detailed description of the operation of the Sugar Mills at
St. Cloud, and the results obtained:


Florida


Sugar


Manufacturing


Company:


REPORT OP MR. D. C. SUTTON, CHEMIST IN CONTROL, OF THE RESULTS OF
THE CROP, SEASON OF 1889 AND 1890.


Number


Number
Average
Number
Number
Number
Number
Number
Number
Number


acres of cane ground .
tons of cane ground .
tonnage per acre .
gallons of juice extracted.
pounds of juice extracted .
gallons of syrup made .
pounds of syrup made .
pounds first sugar made .
pounds second sugar made
pounds third sugar made


Total ugar made .
Number gallons of molasses made.


* . 357 w
* . 8,578
* 24
. . 1448,256
* . 3,30462
. . 4o05,132
S* 4.1323
S. . I*073.74
S. . 315.335
S. . 53,900
. ,442,
. . 47,0


Result Per Cent. of Cae


Juice extracted. .
Syrup made .
Toal sugars...
Mo,..
Commercial masse cte


*. * *
* .
* *
* S .. *


76.96
24.01o
8.4
3.33
11.74


*











Resuls Per Ton rf Cam:


Pounds of first sugar .
Pounds of second sugar
Pounds of third sugar.

Total s
Molasses . .
Commercial masse cute


* . a 9 .
* a a 9 0 a a a
* a a . .

* 9 a a a
* .a a 9 9 .
a a a a a a


36.76
6.29

268.81
66.6'
234.81


Results Per Acre


Pounds of first sugar .
Pounds of second sugar
Pounds of third sugar.
Total sugar .. .
Pounds molasses. .
Pounds commercial mau


* .. a .
* a a a .
* a a a a
-I


s


* *u
* a 9 .
se cuite . . .


3,.00398
882.27
S50.80
4,o37.o5
1,600.54
5,642.30


Pblariuatio of Sugars:


Granulated
Yellow clarified
Seconds .
Thirds .


Awmeres Comp siioc of Mill Juic :
Specific gravity . . . . .68
BeaumIe 9 * .4
S.. 16.61
Water . .. .83 39
Sucrose . . . . 379
Glucose 1.67
Im piarities .. . . . .. .2
Gluco ratio. . ............ 12.15
Purity coefficient . . .. . 82.72


Bcaume.
Solids .
Water, per cent.
Sucrer ...
Glucose .
Impurities .
Glucose ratio, per
Purity coefficient


Compouitio of Syrup :

S.* * . . 50.86
.* 9 a .*49.32
................4o.51
.. 5 .5*
.* * .. C S S 4.
It * . 13.o2
.* . S 79.93


Compositio of Mn nsses


Beaume .
Solids
Water...


Gluracoseratio.
Purity coefficien


A1***^
78.8
yf 21.
38.r



t 48.35




fI,


The foregoing figures show the complete results of the sugar house
of the Florida Sugar Manufacturing Company for the grinding season of
1889 and 189o, which season closed Feb. 27, 1890. Various obstacles
during the season were principally due to the inexperienced cane-cutters'
inability to furnish the mill with cane, consequently the mill did not run
its full capacity, which on one occasion proved to be 372 tons per day.

MILLING.-The juice was extracted by a five roller mill, the first
being 5 feet long and 29% inches in diameter; the second rollers, 7 feet
long and 44 inches in diameter, with 233,234 pounds on first mill and
621,437 pounds on second n'ill-hydraulic pressure; the extraction was
very good, but would undoubtedly have been higher had the motive
power been sufficiently great, so as to permit of lower speed.
Maceration was practiced part of the season, cold water being used,
but not to any great extent, the dilution being only from 1.5 to 2 per
cent of the mill juice.

JuICEs.-The juice, after expression from the cane, was conducted
through a sulphur box, where it was subjected to a thorough saturation of
well washed and cooled fumes, and was next led to a tank on the ground
floor, where milk of lime was added, in order to neutralize any free acid
that might be present in the juice and counteract any tendency to inver-
sion; from this point the juice was pumped to a tank in the top of the
house, thence it passed through the heater of the double effects, where
the juice was heated to a slight degree, varying with the quantity that
passed at the same time; from the heater it passed to the clarifiers,
where it was defecated. At this point the juice showed some uncommon
features.


During the process of
trality, keeping it slightly
deleterious and beneficial in
it also combined with the g
lime, which colored the juica


clarification, lime was
acid; the lime seems
its results; while perfe
lucose at various time.
e to a considerable exte


added to almost neu-
i to have been both
)rming its usual office
s, forming glucate of


The alkaline bases of the juice
displaced, for the lime rendered the
which was not apparent waim; hea
anomalies, but on becoming cooler
readily recognized; there was also a
matter present.


seem to have been removed or
clarified juice somewhat caustic,
Lted to 20o deg. F. it showed no
a darkening property could be
large quantity of organic coloring




I I
4
I-


Laboatory experiments showed
agent to produce a beautiful clear jt
A trial was made with this reagent,
to permit of definite conclusions.
during the season, recommends a ph
phosphate of lime or sodium is the
this house.


I phosphoric acid to be the necessary
lice, retaining this color all the time.
but was not carried sufficiently far
Dr. H. W. Wiley, who was present
osphate very highly for this purpose;
clarifying agent par excellence for


SYnuP.-The clarified juice was reduced to about 28 deg. Beaume
in the double effects, and then run into the settling tanks, where it was
allowed to remain for about twelve hours; at this stage in the manu-
facture it was still more evident that the clarification was imperfect; the
syrup did not settle well at all; a small quantity of this product placed
in a test-tube showed a heavy line of organic coloring matter resting on
top, with dark streaks passing through the length of the tube; nestling
near the bottom was an imperfect settlement, easily disturbed, and the
greater part of which was carried to the vacuum pan from the tanks.

SvoARs.-All of the four grades made showed a high polarization,
one reason being the great consideration paid to cleanliness in the


manufacture. Only a small proportion
lated, but such as was made was of
showing a remarkably high degree of p1
clarified were made, varying but little fr
A large percentage of seconds was
sugar, principally from causes to be mei


of th
a fine
urity.
om a
imadi
itione


ie first sugars was granu-
quality, the polarization
Various grades of yellow
high standard.
in proportion to the first
d later; the quality of this


sugar was generally good, and some was as fine as could be produced
by any first-class open kettle house.

THIRDS.-Owing to the incapacity of the hot room a smaller
quantity of thirds was made than could have been produced from the
molasses, as is shown by its analysis; that made was a fair quality of
sugar and tested well.


MoL.Assa.-The molasses of commerce resulting from the second
and third sugars gave rather a high polarization and showed that more
sugar could have been gotten than was obtained; for the greater part of
the season no thirds at all were made.
The molasses showed the same darkening properties as was
exhibited through the process of manufacture, an extraordinary amount
of organic cooling matter being present, which showed all the more




-Vmf






plainly here, and which ought to have been eliminated during the bnt "
stages of manufacture.


FILTER PRnSSss.-As far as the cake was concerned, the prose
did first-class work; almost invariably a good hard cake we made, but
the per cent. of sugar contained therein was high, varying with the
quality of scum passed through; the best results were obtained when
the scum was run through at a high temperature; no means were
resorted to whereby the sugar in the cake could be recovered, lixiviation
being at present the only apparent solution for the question, and even
from that results have not been obtained to warrant its practice.


VARIETIES AND MATURITY OP CANE.-The milling, no doubt, began
too early this past season; as is shown by the weekly reports, thee is a
constant increase in the yield of sugar, from December 5 to the latter
part of February, when we find a decrease from causes involving other
things.

Beginning this early, we find two sources of loss, so to speak, which
results in a considerable amount in the course of a few weeks; the first
loss comes from the fact that a large quantity of sugar, which would
have been secreted at a later date, is not at that time present; and
second immature cane always contains a large per cent. of glucose which
is gummy in its nature; occurring along with the glucose in the green
cane-is a large quantity of other gums, which, together with the glucose
hold a good amount of sugar in solution and prevent its crystallisation,
and otherwise preventing the crystals from growing to any size and firm-
ness in the pan. The masse cuite, in being purged and washed, loses a
large per cent. of such sugar in passing through the meshes of the cen-
trifugals into the molasses, going to make seconds, which crystallizes in
the same manner, and so through the thirds to the last molasses, where
we find a high polarization.
The analysis of the different varieties of cane was carefully watched
in order to ascertain which of the numerous varieties on the plantation
would be the most prodtable for the production of sugar; the red and
red ribbon proved to be decidedly the best where they had been sur-
rounded by anything like fair circumstances of growth. Frequently the
mill juice contained from i1 to 17.5 of sucrose and .25 to of glucose,
a week's wu giving ao6.66 pounds per ton; 4.50o acres of crystalline
cane gave 32. 57 tons per acre, and 6,c090 pounds of sugar, but on accept -
t
1
'4*
14










of other circumstances this is not sufficient to.give it the preference over
the red and red ribbon.
As regards green and green ribbon, with the other varieties, they are
very poor sugar producers, slow in growth and delicate. During the
latter part of February a quantity of green cane was ground which
showed a mill juice of 15.5o sucrose and 2 per cent. of glucose; these
canes, with other such varieties, account to a large extent for the high
percentage of seconds, and sugar in the molasses, and filter cake.
It would, no doubt, have been a good idea to have placed the first
masse cuite in the hot room, to remain there several days to assist in the
growth and hardening of smaller grains, had the capacity of the room
permitted it.


INUNDATED CANE.-The general proportional yield was
reduced, owing to the fat that during the early part of the
considerable portion of the field was submerged, which retail
growth of the cane and materially reduced the yield. This w<
to imperfect drainage, which was corrected at a later date, and
now no fear of a repetition of this superabundance of water.
The maximum yields, during the season, were '32.57 tons
6,090 pounds of sugar per acre, and 2o6.66 pounds of sugar per
The above is taken from weekly reports. None of the can
gave the highest tonnage presented a good stand." Had the'
been regular, the yield would have been at least thirty-five ton
about 6,600 pounds of sugar, and, it is reasonable to expect, ev
tons, thus giving a yield of sugar amounting to at least 7,500 p
sugar to oae acre.


greatly
year a
rded the
as owing
there is


of cane,
ton.
ie which
"stand"
s and at
en forty
munds of


In the following analyses of soils for sugar cultivation,
particular attention is called to the high percentage of Nitro-
gen and organic matter, etc., in the soils reclaimed by the
Okeechobee Drainage Company.











Comparative


Analysis of Soils.


New


Estate


Jamaica.


B. Demerara
C. Sample o
D. bee


Plantation


worked fifteen


,f Saw-grass soils,


years.


(sugar lands)


Okeecho-


Land


Frlorida.
' Jamaia.- DeIar. Okm-ehob L. Co.
A. B. C. D.


Moisture . . .
Organic matter and combined water
Silica and insoluble silicates


Alumina .
Oxide of Iron
Lime .


Magnesia
Potash.
Soda .


* . . .
* . .


. .. .
. . a .


Phosphoric acid
Sulphuric acid
Chlorine .


Oxide


* . S .
* S . .


manganese,


and loss in analysis .


carbon


acid,


12.25
15.36
4.45

0.72
0.29
.11
0.70
0.10
0.30
o.51


18.72
6.03
68.89

0.08
o.o8
0.25
0.10
0.09
0.03
0.03
trace

0.68


1595
80.56
38.56


l6.84
75.65
o0.91
1.47
3.'7
o.s8
o.01
O.38
o.r8
o.s1
043
o.15


100.00


100.00


100.00


100.00


Nitrogen (in organic matter)


The planter in Florida can


depend


upon


a much longer


season for the maturing and


cane than


Louisiana.


harvesting of his crop
Florida the crop can


of sugar-
ordinarily


remain standing


until


about March Ist, whereas in Louisiana


t is important, on account


of liability to freeze, to finish mill-


ing the cane by the first of January.

The Hon. Claus Spreckels, whose great plantation in the


Hawaii


Islands,


beet


sugar


fields


California,


immense sugar refinery at


Philadelphia place him in the


lead


of the world's sugar-growers, in the letter accompanying pays
a high compliment to the richness ard value of the reclaimed
laad for sugar cultivation:







Pm.ILADLPHIA, P-NxA., March 22, 1890.


Ml. HAMILTON DIsrTON.


Der


Sr:-In answer to yours of the aoth instant, in which you


ask my opinion regarding Florida as a sugar-producing State, I take
pleasure in saying that during my recent trip to inspect your sugar
operations my surprise was great at finding such a country for the


growth of sugar-cane.


The soil is as rich as any that I have ever seen,


and with proper cultivation the yield should be equal to that of any
other country on the face of the globe.
I congratulate you upon the bright prospect for the future of the
sugar business in the State of Florida.
Yours, truly,

CLAUS SPRECKELS.


Rice.-For


cultivating


rice, under the


is necessary to insure perfect facilities


best conditions it
both drainage and


irrigation.
The rich marsh lands reclaimed within the district named


are fully provided with both of these requisites


and under the


favorable


conditions


long


growing


season


it will


possible to make two crops each


year.


For rice culture the


land


is prepared


generally the same as for oats or wheat, the


planting is identical, either in drills or broadcast.


The drainage


must


particular


sufficient to get the
rule governing the


land


depth,


In proper


width


condition


distance


ditches can be laid down, it being simply necessary to provide


sufficient to insure drainage.


Fewer ditches will be necessary


on these


lands


than elsewhere, from


that they


generally well


drained and elevated above


low levees for flooding


water-level.


The


are built to suit the levels of the land


surface.


requires about two


bushels of seed


to plant one acre.


The total cost of preparing the land, including planting, culti-

'7







vation and
Land being


watering, will be
in order, the cost


about


forty


for the second


dollars


acre.


year would


about twenty-five dollars per acre.


The


yield


would


be about twenty barrels of


rough rice,


worth from three dollars to four-fifty per barrel.
a very handsome profit to the grower.


Which shows


The rice crop of the United


States


in 1882 was


390,000


barrels of cleaned rice


last year it was about 55o,o00 barrels.


In 1882


we imported


150,000


barrels


year we im-


ported


500,000


barrels


showing


a steady


increase


consumption.


Messrs.


Kelly of Burnside, La.,


who


regarded as amongst the best and most successful rice planters
of Louisiana, have arranged to permanently locate on the rich


reclaimed land near Kissimmee.


They will begin the cultiva-


tion of rice at once


erect a rice mill


having a capacity of


I00,000


barrels per


season.


They make


this change after a


careful investigation of the


capabilities of


the reclaimed


land


to produce heavy crops of rice.


Tobacco.


S-For several


years tobacco has been


success-


fully grown on the reclaimed land adjacent to the north shore


of Lake
excellent


Tohopekaliga.


grade in


The


produced


the fineness of its fibre


proved of


such


rich qualities,


that a demand has been created for the tobacco of this vicinity


The


cultivation of


tobacco was


extensively carried on in


western


counties


Florida,


prior


war.


This


tobacco, in point of


quality,


compares favorably with the best


Cuban.


Messrs.


Straiton & Storm, well-known tobacco manu-


facturers of New York, after a very careful examination of the
soils and tests of tobacco already grown, organized a company


with large


capital,


which


western part ofd the State.
the Calooshatchee river


Is now


successfully engaged in


Tobacco of fine grade is grown on
great success attending the growth
'5




,;-. -: &


of lqaf wrappers.


An examination of the soils


in the vicinity


of iuusimmee has proved their


excellence


for this


species of


. cultivation.


The expensee of


prepanng


the land and


making


the crops is about the same as elsewhere.


large yield produced from the tobacco fields
will soon centre attention to the possibilities


The fine flavor and


vicinity


in this direction.


Vegetables.-The


vegetable


business of Florida, while


yet in its infancy, has already become one of


tant industries in the State.


the most impor-


There is no month in the year in


which fresh


vegetables


may not be


produced, either


home o- northern markets.


The soil is so easily worked that the


crop


brought to


maturity with less labor than attends the same


species of cul-


tivation in the North.


The reclaimed lands in the


vicinity


Kissimmee afford an inviting field in which to engage in vege-


table cultivation.


turned garden


Early and


products


neatly


always


prepared


ready


well


sales


nur-


Northern


markets at high prices.


So much depends upon the care


handling from the time the seed is planted until the vegetable


is, marketed North


that


when


losses occasionally


occur from


mistaken methods of marketing the fault should not be charged


to the soil or its capabilities.


After the vegetables


have been


crated,


quick


sure


transportation


most


essential


feature.
Transportation companies are now giving excellent facili-


ties in this direction with profit both to themselves and


to the


producer.
The vegetable business from Florida has gryth 'sitc 'i8Jo
-- ri


very rapidly.


At that time about ,ooo, ,q(tes were, shipped


annually
nually.


at present about 600,000oo


Tomatoes,


cucumbers,


crates


squashes,


are marketed an-


beans,


peas,


cab-


bge, cauliflower, Irish potatoes, egg-plants, and
prnpgMetbles grown.


beets are the




'4'
:4


Egg-plant range from $4 to $0o per barrel, beans 5* to
$3 per crate, cucumbers $2 to 4.50o per crate, new potatoes,
etc., in proportion.


A great industry is growing under the


stimulus given


the cultivation
Messrs. Lupfer


of strawberries


other


small


fruits.


The


Brothers and others engaged in the vegetable


business near Kissimmee have great faith in the future of


industry.


Florida is the first in the market and the best prices


are realized for Florida grown vegetables.



e


V r


S I .i


i I ;1


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i.3 I i


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n'*


H-Pxtad




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