4 + tI V I"f
I i I I
SJ. J. Drmws,
ALJXAR Dtx KUMHamaAI
. JAsM M. KRAMnB, Chief ]
, Secretary and Treasurer
Engineer, Kisuimmee, Florida
SI, Land Agaet, Kiimme, Florida
a: "b: /
I .- *ej- .
'V /4 **. -. r -
The lands acquired by this Company are offered for sale at graded
the location and
The lands of this Company are within the counties of Orange, Brevard,
Manatee and Monroe.
The greater part of
them are in the region adjacent to the Caloosa-
hatchie and Kissimmee Rivers.
They are accessible and s
adapted to settlement, and the culture of all tropical fruits and crops
of early vegetables for Northern markets.
Along the coast and rivers in Monroe and Manatee counties are many
tracts specially suited to cocoanut and pineapple culture.
There are, also, in the Caloosahatchie and Kissimmee country, many
tracts specially suited for stock pasturage.
For sugar planting, either on large or small scale, this Company owns
thousands of acres that are unsurpassed.
Applications for land should be addressed to the office of the Company,
at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, or to
' r I T
Ir' r I
- P.. JPy *
-"" f i 4 r
*- ^ t (J S4
* if Pj'L
Upon the physical character
of the soil and its chemical
composition depends the question of its suitability or unsuita-
ability for certain crops.
The first essential
the capacity for absorbing an abundance of
at the same
time the friability or porosity of the soil must not be so exces-
sive that no moisture is retained.
Clay soils are objectionable
from the former cause, and
loose, sandy ones from
For sugar culture, toils well fertilized
decayed vegetable matter are esteemed su
perior to all
contain more organic
a more northern
is a common
it is evident from
analyses that such
putting aside soils
is not the
with cane soils.
of-a peaty nature, it is
to meet with
matter has produced sterility in
Java and other cane countries
by causing a want of porosity, of nitrogen, and of carbonic acid.
to be availed of and sugar-cane
forms no exception.
This latter plant thrives to the greatest perfection in a warm,
by refreshing sea breezes.
its greatest development in semi-tropical countries, where cold
is not of
sufficient degree to check its growth.
warm and moist weather for the growing
season, followed by
cool and dry weather for maturing the crop and concentrating
the saccharine juices are the conditions most favorable.
Drained Lands.-In the southern portion of Florida all
have bright sunlight, warm weather-the
rains falling during the growing
season of the cane-and
weather, a condition
most essential, prevailing when
Within this region are vast areas of land, inexhaustible in
their wealth of vegetable mould, which have been permanently
reclaimed by the drainage canal
of the Okeechobee Drainage
The soil of these rich
bottom lands is
are the normal
water, and contains as high as seventy-five per cent. of organic
matter, and in depth
to twenty feet.
surface is unbroken, and naturally supports a luxuriant growth
of saw-grass and aquatic Dlants. which nive lace to doe-
fennel, wild millet and nutritious grasses as
soon as the water
is permanently removed.
found a bed of
Beneath this rich humus is
marine marl, which, in a measure, has
particles, in their slow chemical change, take up and neutralize
acidity due to
vegetation, in one form
aids in the absorption of
gases of decomposing plant-life, thus rendering the soil sweet
and adapted to immediate cultivation as soon as relieved from
This has been repeatedly demonstrated in actual practice;
first, at Southport, at the foot of Lake
a tract of land which had been perma
Tohopekaliga, in 1884,
nently covered with two
feet of water, was placed under a high state of cultivation for
sugar-cane. Upon the same ground a crop of corn was raised
before the sugar-cane commenced to grow, and eighty bushels
of corn to the acre was harvested.
tables attain a high state of perfection
watermelons of large
size and unsurpassed quality were produced.
Upon a much greater scale
year to year until the country adjacent to Kissimmee is gaining
notoriety from the
culture conducted there.
The largest tracts of sugar lands
n contiguous bodies,
are located near the town of
Within a radius of twenty miles of Kissimmee is an area
of at least thirty thousand acres of sugar land,
at present avail-
components of soi
and the natural
the greater majority of them bordering the
Lake Kissimmee, thus a
sites and insuring good drainage
brding pleasant farm and
and abundance of
lands are el
seventy feet above tide-
on its way to
tion on the St.
and New York passes through Kissimmee
The -distance from deep-water
s forty miles, and
seventy-five miles to
tide-water on the Gulf.
most excellent service
The South Florida Railroad affords a
n reaching these points.
heart of the sugar lands, and is one of the best equipped roads
in the State.
just completing into
transit, connecting with other main lines to the north and west.
lakes and river system to the southward.
at the head of Lake
Tohopekaliga, is a most healthy
has grown entirely from the develop-
has a population of
Cost of Cultivation.
-The following extracts
, chemist, stationed at the
are interesting, as
Florida as compared with Louisiana and Cuba:
Although labor is higher here at present than in Louisiana or Cuba,
a comparison with the above places will show a decided difference in
cost of cultivation in fvor of Florida.
As regards Cuba, we quote from
In making these estimates
ditched and ready for plowing.
we suppose the land to be cleared,
Preparation of land
Work of planting .
Value of seed cane
Two weddings ..
.* C .
e * *
. C S C C S S C S S S C S
Total cost of plant cane
S S .3 39 r
From the above we would see that the cost of one acre of stubble
* S . C . .
* C S S S S S I
iii~i~ii: i::ii i'
Cultivatio of one acm of stubble
. i4 o
"The aMbve-nmmd gendesnu remark. that: 'On ood lands in
Cube, that are well ced for, five acpr may be gathered from one
pland, with an sacxge yield of n7 tons, under the .conditions that
the. lands shall be new and the cultivation done with care.'
From other authority we learn that caae will rattoon there from
12 to 14 years.
"The cat of
per acre of
Prepratio of ld . .. .
Value of seed cane. 4 tons per acre, $4.00 per ton
Planting.. .. .
Four powings . . .
Cleaning ditches . . .
Total cost of cultivation one acre plant
. 535 So
Cost of stubble per acre:
Two weeding. . .
One stubble harrowing and digging
Cleaning ditches .....
Cost of cultivation of one acre stubble
* . $ 4 09
* o 00
* *. . 0ySo
* S S 25
. . 3 25
A good yield for plant cane is 22 tons per acre, and stubble 14
tons; thus the average would be 18 tons for plant stubble. Only two
crops can be gathered from one planting.
The cost of cultivation in Florida is as follows:
Preparation of soil
Value of seed cane.
Work of planting
One weeding .
Three plowing .
. . *
tons per acre, 5
* 0. .
. * .
Cultivation of one acre of plant
* 2 50
4.00 per ton. 6 ao
S . . 2 00
* . . 5 0
* . . 25
. . 528 25
" For stubble:
On weeding . . . . . 2oo
Thre plowing . . . . 5
Stubble digging . 25
Cleaning ditches ... .. 25
. 7 .7
Cost of one acre of stubble
iactly how many crops can be gathered from one planting can-
definitely stated just yet; there is, at present on St. Cloud
plantation three-year old stubble,with no appearance whatever of a depre-
ciation in yield; this is the oldest cane on the place."
Seven year old stubble is now growing on Mr. Slavin's plantation
at South Port, on the Kissimmee river, with as much vigor and as large
yield as the year it was planted."
We are informed by different persons that there is a patch of cane
growing on a piece of muck in this vicinity, which was planted fifteen
years ago and is now doing well and has had no cultivation for several
years past, the leaves being stripped, tops cut in winter and thrown on
the ground and thus smothering out the grass."
We can at present safely say, however, that cane willrattoon here
from 9 to to years; how much longer, remains for time to tell.
Much land here, four feet deep, will give an average yield of 30
tons per acre."
Thus, summarizing the foregoing figures,
comparative costs of cultivation in the three coun
Cost of cultivation i acre plant in Cuba.
Cultivation of I acre stubble in Cuba .
iana; then giv
the average cost
places would be
two crops can be gathered from
ing Florida and Cuba ten-yeai
of cultivation one acre of cane in
for a period of ten years:
we have the following
tries in a closer form:
S. . $39 15
. *. 35 So
. 28 50
. . 14 to
. 13 25
. . 7 5
one planting in Louis-
t stubble, we see that
each of these respective
. . . . . 6 s6
. * . 21 27
* S S *. 9 57
The saccharine qualities of Florida cane are none the less good for
its cheap cultivation and extensive yield."
Two stalks of r.
Per cent. solids
Solids not sugar,
,d ribbon cane, South Port, showed
*. * 1t.
S . S 1 0 3
* C . . 18.27
.* * . 83.23
S* .. 7.50
* S C.. S S C S S .25
per cent. .. .52
* . C S . . I r.42
"Another sample from the
several weeks in the Spring,
Beaume . .
Solds per cent.. .
Water. .. . .
Glucose ratio . .
same place, which stood under wakr
and which received no cultivation, gave
. . 84.87
... ..** 1 1 .
. S .
The above serves to show the
cane grows in Southern Florida.
remarkably easy manner in which
The following was taken from the best analysis on St. Cloud this
season: Beaume, 1o.1; Stcrose, 17.i ; Glucose, I. The latter analysis
was made on December Ist, and the two former on December 13th
and 26th respectively.
'' In comparing the mill juices of Louisiana at
month of December, for instance, we would see
contained 13 per cent. Sucrose, the Glucose in Lou
.& to 1.4 per cent., and in Florida from 1.5 to 2.25
ing that cane matures here much more slowly tha
our grinding season would necessarily be later;
id Florida, taking the
that where the juices
isiana would be from
per cent., thus show-
n in Louisiana, and
the weather, climate,
and other conditions permitting us to grind at our leisure, one of the
most important features of sugar making, where the agriculturist is also
From December 5th, the day that this house began grinding, up
to January Ist, there has been an average mill juice of 12.5 per cent.
Sucrose, and we may confidently expect the season's average to be
14 per cent. Sucrose, such as Louisiana has never reached.
"Although Florida possesses all the natural advantages of climate.
weather, soil, etc., yet much remains to be done to place her in that high
position in the ranks of sugar-producing countries, which she will
Sugar-cane has its characteristics peculiar to every country where
it is found, and in this respect Florida is no exception. In the short
time of its intelligent cultivation in this State, many reverses have been
met with, and new obstacles arise, which must be surmounted.
"Thus we have seen that Southern Florida is peculiarly adapted to
sugar culture, and it now remains for a series of experiments to settle
some of the most important points, of which the following are a few':
2d.- Physiological ".
3d.- Varieties best suited to Florida.
sth.--When and how to plant.
6th.-Time for manufacturing.
Manufacturing has not been taken into consideration here, as
that depends entirely on the kind and quantity of machinery, and not
Now we see that Florida can produce more cane at less cost than
either Louisiana or Cuba, and we may add Sandwich Islands; and
certainly it can be manufactured into sugar here as cheaply as elsewhere,
and thus Florida shows the world how to produce mwre sugar at tss
cost; and steps so far toward a solution of that national question which
has long puzzled so many wise statesmen."
PLANTER AND MANUFACTURER" of April, 1890, and is a full
and detailed description of the operation of the Sugar Mills at
St. Cloud, and the results obtained:
REPORT OP MR. D. C. SUTTON, CHEMIST IN CONTROL, OF THE RESULTS OF
THE CROP, SEASON OF 1889 AND 1890.
acres of cane ground .
tons of cane ground .
tonnage per acre .
gallons of juice extracted.
pounds of juice extracted .
gallons of syrup made .
pounds of syrup made .
pounds first sugar made .
pounds second sugar made
pounds third sugar made
Total ugar made .
Number gallons of molasses made.
* . 357 w
* . 8,578
. . 1448,256
* . 3,30462
. . 4o05,132
S. . I*073.74
S. . 315.335
S. . 53,900
. . 47,0
Result Per Cent. of Cae
Juice extracted. .
Syrup made .
Commercial masse cte
*. * *
* S .. *
Resuls Per Ton rf Cam:
Pounds of first sugar .
Pounds of second sugar
Pounds of third sugar.
Molasses . .
Commercial masse cute
* . a 9 .
* a a 9 0 a a a
* a a . .
* 9 a a a
* .a a 9 9 .
a a a a a a
Results Per Acre
Pounds of first sugar .
Pounds of second sugar
Pounds of third sugar.
Total sugar .. .
Pounds molasses. .
Pounds commercial mau
* .. a .
* a a a .
* a a a a
* a 9 .
se cuite . . .
Pblariuatio of Sugars:
Awmeres Comp siioc of Mill Juic :
Specific gravity . . . . .68
BeaumIe 9 * .4
Water . .. .83 39
Sucrose . . . . 379
Im piarities .. . . . .. .2
Gluco ratio. . ............ 12.15
Purity coefficient . . .. . 82.72
Water, per cent.
Glucose ratio, per
Compouitio of Syrup :
S.* * . . 50.86
.* 9 a .*49.32
.. 5 .5*
.* * .. C S S 4.
It * . 13.o2
.* . S 79.93
Compositio of Mn nsses
The foregoing figures show the complete results of the sugar house
of the Florida Sugar Manufacturing Company for the grinding season of
1889 and 189o, which season closed Feb. 27, 1890. Various obstacles
during the season were principally due to the inexperienced cane-cutters'
inability to furnish the mill with cane, consequently the mill did not run
its full capacity, which on one occasion proved to be 372 tons per day.
MILLING.-The juice was extracted by a five roller mill, the first
being 5 feet long and 29% inches in diameter; the second rollers, 7 feet
long and 44 inches in diameter, with 233,234 pounds on first mill and
621,437 pounds on second n'ill-hydraulic pressure; the extraction was
very good, but would undoubtedly have been higher had the motive
power been sufficiently great, so as to permit of lower speed.
Maceration was practiced part of the season, cold water being used,
but not to any great extent, the dilution being only from 1.5 to 2 per
cent of the mill juice.
JuICEs.-The juice, after expression from the cane, was conducted
through a sulphur box, where it was subjected to a thorough saturation of
well washed and cooled fumes, and was next led to a tank on the ground
floor, where milk of lime was added, in order to neutralize any free acid
that might be present in the juice and counteract any tendency to inver-
sion; from this point the juice was pumped to a tank in the top of the
house, thence it passed through the heater of the double effects, where
the juice was heated to a slight degree, varying with the quantity that
passed at the same time; from the heater it passed to the clarifiers,
where it was defecated. At this point the juice showed some uncommon
During the process of
trality, keeping it slightly
deleterious and beneficial in
it also combined with the g
lime, which colored the juica
clarification, lime was
acid; the lime seems
its results; while perfe
lucose at various time.
e to a considerable exte
added to almost neu-
i to have been both
)rming its usual office
s, forming glucate of
The alkaline bases of the juice
displaced, for the lime rendered the
which was not apparent waim; hea
anomalies, but on becoming cooler
readily recognized; there was also a
seem to have been removed or
clarified juice somewhat caustic,
Lted to 20o deg. F. it showed no
a darkening property could be
large quantity of organic coloring
Laboatory experiments showed
agent to produce a beautiful clear jt
A trial was made with this reagent,
to permit of definite conclusions.
during the season, recommends a ph
phosphate of lime or sodium is the
I phosphoric acid to be the necessary
lice, retaining this color all the time.
but was not carried sufficiently far
Dr. H. W. Wiley, who was present
osphate very highly for this purpose;
clarifying agent par excellence for
SYnuP.-The clarified juice was reduced to about 28 deg. Beaume
in the double effects, and then run into the settling tanks, where it was
allowed to remain for about twelve hours; at this stage in the manu-
facture it was still more evident that the clarification was imperfect; the
syrup did not settle well at all; a small quantity of this product placed
in a test-tube showed a heavy line of organic coloring matter resting on
top, with dark streaks passing through the length of the tube; nestling
near the bottom was an imperfect settlement, easily disturbed, and the
greater part of which was carried to the vacuum pan from the tanks.
SvoARs.-All of the four grades made showed a high polarization,
one reason being the great consideration paid to cleanliness in the
manufacture. Only a small proportion
lated, but such as was made was of
showing a remarkably high degree of p1
clarified were made, varying but little fr
A large percentage of seconds was
sugar, principally from causes to be mei
ie first sugars was granu-
quality, the polarization
Various grades of yellow
in proportion to the first
d later; the quality of this
sugar was generally good, and some was as fine as could be produced
by any first-class open kettle house.
THIRDS.-Owing to the incapacity of the hot room a smaller
quantity of thirds was made than could have been produced from the
molasses, as is shown by its analysis; that made was a fair quality of
sugar and tested well.
MoL.Assa.-The molasses of commerce resulting from the second
and third sugars gave rather a high polarization and showed that more
sugar could have been gotten than was obtained; for the greater part of
the season no thirds at all were made.
The molasses showed the same darkening properties as was
exhibited through the process of manufacture, an extraordinary amount
of organic cooling matter being present, which showed all the more
plainly here, and which ought to have been eliminated during the bnt "
stages of manufacture.
FILTER PRnSSss.-As far as the cake was concerned, the prose
did first-class work; almost invariably a good hard cake we made, but
the per cent. of sugar contained therein was high, varying with the
quality of scum passed through; the best results were obtained when
the scum was run through at a high temperature; no means were
resorted to whereby the sugar in the cake could be recovered, lixiviation
being at present the only apparent solution for the question, and even
from that results have not been obtained to warrant its practice.
VARIETIES AND MATURITY OP CANE.-The milling, no doubt, began
too early this past season; as is shown by the weekly reports, thee is a
constant increase in the yield of sugar, from December 5 to the latter
part of February, when we find a decrease from causes involving other
Beginning this early, we find two sources of loss, so to speak, which
results in a considerable amount in the course of a few weeks; the first
loss comes from the fact that a large quantity of sugar, which would
have been secreted at a later date, is not at that time present; and
second immature cane always contains a large per cent. of glucose which
is gummy in its nature; occurring along with the glucose in the green
cane-is a large quantity of other gums, which, together with the glucose
hold a good amount of sugar in solution and prevent its crystallisation,
and otherwise preventing the crystals from growing to any size and firm-
ness in the pan. The masse cuite, in being purged and washed, loses a
large per cent. of such sugar in passing through the meshes of the cen-
trifugals into the molasses, going to make seconds, which crystallizes in
the same manner, and so through the thirds to the last molasses, where
we find a high polarization.
The analysis of the different varieties of cane was carefully watched
in order to ascertain which of the numerous varieties on the plantation
would be the most prodtable for the production of sugar; the red and
red ribbon proved to be decidedly the best where they had been sur-
rounded by anything like fair circumstances of growth. Frequently the
mill juice contained from i1 to 17.5 of sucrose and .25 to of glucose,
a week's wu giving ao6.66 pounds per ton; 4.50o acres of crystalline
cane gave 32. 57 tons per acre, and 6,c090 pounds of sugar, but on accept -
of other circumstances this is not sufficient to.give it the preference over
the red and red ribbon.
As regards green and green ribbon, with the other varieties, they are
very poor sugar producers, slow in growth and delicate. During the
latter part of February a quantity of green cane was ground which
showed a mill juice of 15.5o sucrose and 2 per cent. of glucose; these
canes, with other such varieties, account to a large extent for the high
percentage of seconds, and sugar in the molasses, and filter cake.
It would, no doubt, have been a good idea to have placed the first
masse cuite in the hot room, to remain there several days to assist in the
growth and hardening of smaller grains, had the capacity of the room
INUNDATED CANE.-The general proportional yield was
reduced, owing to the fat that during the early part of the
considerable portion of the field was submerged, which retail
growth of the cane and materially reduced the yield. This w<
to imperfect drainage, which was corrected at a later date, and
now no fear of a repetition of this superabundance of water.
The maximum yields, during the season, were '32.57 tons
6,090 pounds of sugar per acre, and 2o6.66 pounds of sugar per
The above is taken from weekly reports. None of the can
gave the highest tonnage presented a good stand." Had the'
been regular, the yield would have been at least thirty-five ton
about 6,600 pounds of sugar, and, it is reasonable to expect, ev
tons, thus giving a yield of sugar amounting to at least 7,500 p
sugar to oae acre.
s and at
In the following analyses of soils for sugar cultivation,
particular attention is called to the high percentage of Nitro-
gen and organic matter, etc., in the soils reclaimed by the
Okeechobee Drainage Company.
Analysis of Soils.
C. Sample o
,f Saw-grass soils,
' Jamaia.- DeIar. Okm-ehob L. Co.
A. B. C. D.
Moisture . . .
Organic matter and combined water
Silica and insoluble silicates
Oxide of Iron
* . . .
* . .
. .. .
. . a .
* . S .
* S . .
and loss in analysis .
Nitrogen (in organic matter)
The planter in Florida can
a much longer
season for the maturing and
harvesting of his crop
Florida the crop can
about March Ist, whereas in Louisiana
t is important, on account
of liability to freeze, to finish mill-
ing the cane by the first of January.
The Hon. Claus Spreckels, whose great plantation in the
immense sugar refinery at
Philadelphia place him in the
of the world's sugar-growers, in the letter accompanying pays
a high compliment to the richness ard value of the reclaimed
laad for sugar cultivation:
Pm.ILADLPHIA, P-NxA., March 22, 1890.
Ml. HAMILTON DIsrTON.
Sr:-In answer to yours of the aoth instant, in which you
ask my opinion regarding Florida as a sugar-producing State, I take
pleasure in saying that during my recent trip to inspect your sugar
operations my surprise was great at finding such a country for the
growth of sugar-cane.
The soil is as rich as any that I have ever seen,
and with proper cultivation the yield should be equal to that of any
other country on the face of the globe.
I congratulate you upon the bright prospect for the future of the
sugar business in the State of Florida.
rice, under the
is necessary to insure perfect facilities
best conditions it
both drainage and
The rich marsh lands reclaimed within the district named
are fully provided with both of these requisites
and under the
possible to make two crops each
For rice culture the
generally the same as for oats or wheat, the
planting is identical, either in drills or broadcast.
sufficient to get the
rule governing the
ditches can be laid down, it being simply necessary to provide
sufficient to insure drainage.
Fewer ditches will be necessary
than elsewhere, from
drained and elevated above
low levees for flooding
are built to suit the levels of the land
requires about two
bushels of seed
to plant one acre.
The total cost of preparing the land, including planting, culti-
watering, will be
in order, the cost
for the second
about twenty-five dollars per acre.
be about twenty barrels of
worth from three dollars to four-fifty per barrel.
a very handsome profit to the grower.
The rice crop of the United
in 1882 was
barrels of cleaned rice
last year it was about 55o,o00 barrels.
year we im-
Kelly of Burnside, La.,
regarded as amongst the best and most successful rice planters
of Louisiana, have arranged to permanently locate on the rich
reclaimed land near Kissimmee.
They will begin the cultiva-
tion of rice at once
erect a rice mill
having a capacity of
this change after a
careful investigation of the
to produce heavy crops of rice.
years tobacco has been
fully grown on the reclaimed land adjacent to the north shore
the fineness of its fibre
that a demand has been created for the tobacco of this vicinity
extensively carried on in
tobacco, in point of
compares favorably with the best
Straiton & Storm, well-known tobacco manu-
facturers of New York, after a very careful examination of the
soils and tests of tobacco already grown, organized a company
western part ofd the State.
the Calooshatchee river
successfully engaged in
Tobacco of fine grade is grown on
great success attending the growth
,;-. -: &
of lqaf wrappers.
An examination of the soils
in the vicinity
of iuusimmee has proved their
The expensee of
the land and
the crops is about the same as elsewhere.
large yield produced from the tobacco fields
will soon centre attention to the possibilities
The fine flavor and
in this direction.
business of Florida, while
yet in its infancy, has already become one of
tant industries in the State.
the most impor-
There is no month in the year in
may not be
home o- northern markets.
The soil is so easily worked that the
maturity with less labor than attends the same
species of cul-
tivation in the North.
The reclaimed lands in the
Kissimmee afford an inviting field in which to engage in vege-
markets at high prices.
So much depends upon the care
handling from the time the seed is planted until the vegetable
is, marketed North
mistaken methods of marketing the fault should not be charged
to the soil or its capabilities.
After the vegetables
Transportation companies are now giving excellent facili-
ties in this direction with profit both to themselves and
The vegetable business from Florida has gryth 'sitc 'i8Jo
At that time about ,ooo, ,q(tes were, shipped
at present about 600,000oo
are marketed an-
bge, cauliflower, Irish potatoes, egg-plants, and
beets are the
Egg-plant range from $4 to $0o per barrel, beans 5* to
$3 per crate, cucumbers $2 to 4.50o per crate, new potatoes,
etc., in proportion.
A great industry is growing under the
Brothers and others engaged in the vegetable
business near Kissimmee have great faith in the future of
Florida is the first in the market and the best prices
are realized for Florida grown vegetables.
S I .i
i I ;1
' I i,
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