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 Title Page
 Introduction
 Main
 Index














Group Title: Orange insects : a treatise on the injurious and beneficial insects found on the orange trees of Florida.
Title: Orange insects
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055735/00001
 Material Information
Title: Orange insects a treatise on the injurious and beneficial insects found on the orange trees of Florida
Physical Description: xv, 78 p., iv plates : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ashmead, William H ( William Harris ), 1855-1908
Publisher: Ashmead Bros.
Place of Publication: Jacksonville Fla
Publication Date: 1880
 Subjects
Subject: Oranges -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Insect pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Beneficial insects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by William H. Ashmead.
General Note: Includes index.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055735
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000355318
oclc - 01635279
notis - ABZ3528
lccn - 12027055

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Introduction
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 14a
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25a
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Index
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
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INTRODUCTORY.


To him who, in the love of Natore, holds
(ommunion with her r'ltble flarm-, e qpoak
SA various lauk e.--BaXn.


IN NOrmAl
triem, whi
"-Birds of


*


ology there are certain birds okad in tropical coun-
ch on amount of their gorgeous plumage, are called


Paradise i 'and


frtiticulture,


orange,


lemq, and the citrpn,


with


U TLruits ofd Ptadise."
ruit.^ : -4 "


equal


propriety,


might


Among the vafted fruits


termed
own or


ny 'ime,


what equals them in beauty, in form, or


Ittee ilf, with its symmetrical shape, its evngreen
syxnq ^,na
frk a- Li


*
Z h *m wri*
Kin dom-wth
o .


its&


its golden


the


mild


neing In fragrance the whole Flora
n fruit hanging in the bright sunlight,
silvery rays of 'the moon, excels an2


came


delectable


r-t,
fruit,


in and history i


t. fruit for ae gods ?
stolen, by tome myth-


Galled


En Elysium, like the fire by Prometheus
bis celebrated work on The Citrun a Faily,


(page


4ive the following long but otenNely interesting seeount of
tIbgative country, origiti and in tc.tion into Europe, which I
, ., -
(p4Jemgth: 4.
A'eaan0Lf .ad lemon trees were uoDn to the BEcizEm ai,'ir tLI
a -. -- .k. .. *- -


d. WaUgenow la xn

Lgm I /~p' P1 b, '.r .t


wem Uths gnrt
i euzpr, yet
o~tal bofd.a


BRoma,


jr'4 a,


-St^^b


4'*

a'c


Ba4
N >1L


t..-tii Ja ,


aan


iM Mie
drrJifi


* >...


~I


L'II


olqio al


s^ttillabT
,j 'mtpj i


^ ifl"


B n






1NTBODU


to ui tat It wra no naturalized there tUUill long water, ke u ortain tbatwa
etiryunkown there as well as in wpe It o t, at the the
dtcover of. the Cape of Good Hopm. the Portugee foud many droama tli-
garea upon the eaterm no of *frWqa, -n t*Qbi j of UtbiopLa wkret Ro
m haSd jverpetrated; but they foud time trm only in garden, d In a
statee &of lomueaity, and we do not know but that the Arabs, who had cMtivate
them in Egpt, in Syria, and in Bxbmy, bad puett d iuo.thWes countries In
the first years of their conqueU. Thre nu ., 'tblU, or ut 'only to se: the
native country of the orange in Southern ua4a s-ha- to ay, in those vaa con-
trle. known under the geperul name of EaMt Ine Rut th.we P l 44
pat known to the Rom who, sine the discovery of themi aT, a4de by
ppduu, carried their aritim e oosa ar a MAro, (Iamf im; tithda
off the southeat coat of Ara4 -TnuA.) byway d*e )6 pk
tion of which employed a great number of vo l, ad whoee
1g to Pliny, should have been valued at ty million stec T.)
per SanUm. Their fle had pdwt-ted even toPtum e
pears to have been the present Ceylon; anl, altho uh th e hVOlh o m
fve yn of fatigue and danger. neMve, ths thira
Rome bhad multiplied to the lut degree th vtals eoml
mut believe, then, that the lemon and ora l did o
o ray d of this die a Iof the ls, sad
that rS e ad the Qao ; otiMri
Roaa meraat-wre the mtroe cI
at lewne at ltion made or them in at
fro thoaeent tmem It wn x).tbl
jkn the river Indmn to the Expbrate, we ve
e o Aa capins; th Tr,

ohre^ ^dMertpbofan of P a i
hfe b~dthuohby a IU of/a
^ Ae 1^~S~t~n~i~t~on M*^ < thu O oT. tr oa ; y^e 8
Iu the panMt1 Indto his a phm, my*i
bei at girtlly of all the tre o pholie.
rugyoaa t t-a ratio o ra arfl the
fysi in public *od
brd aaw In ttt unknown ite iag o vbe
ai that we reWgDb.e maize, whiaM bee istrdebd : 5


qoo bgj. .)P~~ ~ 1C ~? -~
7' 4? ^ ''C *'^^^VTT^Tt T~ r ^y ^~7^
1# *k .
t, MT9bs OuMbto4.
4B p
PTl.Bt


*.


row*d






INTRODUOTOBY.


the sdi of India, as far as it was ever carried during- the empire; the power of
Rome instead of increasing, only becaml'6weaker from this period; and the fall
of the Western portion was accompanied in Europe by the decay of letters, arts;
agriculture and commerce. In this general overturn, the Greeks preserved, it is
true, with a taSte for arts and luxury, some relations with India, but trade with
those countries had never taken other cotife than by way of the' Red Sea, and
this was closed from the seventh century by the Arabian invasion of Egypt, which
soon followed the invasion'of Arabia by the Batbarians of the west. (Ethiopians T.)
The commerce of these rich lands must then have taken a much longer and
more dangers routq. The traders were obliged, after going down the Indus, to
reascend that stream, and by the Bactrea (Bolkh) to reach the Oxus-'and final-
ly, by the last pass into the Caspean Sea, from whence they went into the Black
Sea by the river Ddn. But thislong and dangerous' voyage was never underta-
ken by the traders of Constantinople; they would not have been able to trav-
erse with safety such an extent of country partly a desert, and in part inhabited
by wandering tribes, most of them nations with whom they were nearly always
at war, who were destined in the end to swallow the Greek Empire.
They therefore limited themaelvies to receiving upon the borders of the CGa-
pew Sea, the merchandise of India, brought to them by intermediate people.
One can scuarely realize that in such a state of affairs the orange tree could pars
into Europe, for this beautiful pmrt tf the world had never been in so general dt-
order aor had so little intercourse with India. Her luxury and commerce ire
nealy annihilated, and the Araians, whom the new religion of Mahdmetren-
deoed fanatics and ,conqueres, menaced on one side the tottering empire of the
Greeku, and os the other threatened to plunge into barbarism the ett, jut b
ginning to bQivilized. Yet it was precisely at this point of time, andby th4e
conquering spiritof this people that the great changes were prepared thien uhdtiid
revive and extend further than ever before the commercial relatiofl of Eurt
with b Aa to of Asia herself with the more distant regions of her own "tn ent.
The Aed in a country which binds togethbrthree grand divisk of the
globe, have;ittoded their conquests into Asia and Africa much fartherui n' any
people befom them. Masters of the Red Sea, and Mediterranean, they hSliUMadhd
all the African coast this side of Atlas, and penetrated beyond to the teglon of the
Troglodytes, (Ethiopianslivi6g in caves-Trans.,) theancient limit of the Roman
establishments on the east .ooeftf this continent; they had made settlements there,
and acIording to the testimony of a historian of the country, cited by Barros, they .
had populated in the fourth century of the Hegira, (A. D. 944,) theotowns of
Brave, Mombas and Quiloa, whence they extended themselves to Sofulo, Melinda
and ~be islands of Bemba, Zanzibar, Monfra, Comoro and 'Bt. Laurent. On
the sQi of -sia they had carried their conquests in the third century of the Hegi-
ra, to the extremities of the Relnahar, and towards the middle of the fourth oen-
te, under the Selucide. they lad established a colony at Kashgar, the usual
r cf aravans to Torolanr a to China, and which, according to Albufeda,
(<4i per mad hitoriAi of Damascus, Trans.,) I situated ia lol tude 87 deg.
(6rdeg., B7 mIn. Trans..) mnquently they had penetrated vwy far'Into Ada.
Neve rld then been in Ada an empire s vPY aind never had the commeror
r ons so near Europe been pushed so Ni tnto India.
rt "tbna thus advahtageoua Ad favorable to the commercial spirit and love






Vr U~;c~f-


ms thqigr had ooumend, oa to th edjob ag ooauelta Ftod of nadite
se rgiourJ, il which they hbrve ipealy excelled, ad < the pleam t the
Wp orumt, La whkchth M hrve lweu dih they ontued to pltwith
iFn, r from t| adractgu fusd by their stemIs, ad the lo cenm s
wa tbaqaed. kIndad, Is dto a9w wa e n onweae edw g f emr
plnt pem n aad OMriemal wwuh u aM, nuatl, nW mmd

It wM the Arabs who turlld I Bpi wurdlni, ed Nd I. the oUe.
hr oaf ( oAMc aed the ugar-ane of IndLa: Md n tbeir amdsl we fr tom tf t
toi hw t of te hemiial ohage known a- dNelation, yhi sli U n to bkw
maibted in the duitre to atsJ from ntran tle petp of Pewmr el 1

4 b them .ot eurprdog h we ae a idebtd to thbs for the cAS dthn i Sr
the ogse ad lew on teeypi, Africa ed ome Europem dl. It M
wtrman hat the ange was known to their phyritoa from the a4oehaua of
the firth oe tuy o th Hegi The gen la h I ANtSii ,
the recipe for mang l with orange, end their eed (ozUm -m a asa,
rossux na ouzaoumzau sammaeu. MAT Bay., 68,) d Avdloomi fno
died laSO4 ef the gira, ((10) baa added the juice of the o de qq Tmp'
( auao r an Oa ciaorm~~Am onIT (atrodj,) n or Eonns se*maM
eqaa(uumdgu)." Tbhe two atbiea -a e tob. ftsmpl ithn
I have x a med with ca the authuistb arom who paod
inno other tle ht t relatin totheeoe, evewho sea artbe dt
roaany, otawordo oraoge o lemoa. Ilmn obeeruvd, oathe tomy, titAviL
aen, tlils rep fori Ui glm p rile( wIt i Pt mei rne
tblpl., anmowince. it-an oepoud of isown Invt. TI~cl6mtMea.
wumM m U thas tbi rit hadbees wan but asinw btanito
SM#wae i r vd thae to prv&rtatIt migit, at on, pe into (they,
IWkrbp ID Atlao Turtq, ooi.irin Bagda Taam.) ad bia e
~ eeapu which Je welo owneetd by pOslio i* hi
at.e pwmumoatue, aad sheir ivabitat were moe dM.eedm, thea b,
t, or ridm. ML pauoby Miod nport by the lKtaed M.kta t
wWte to b tr bd f a writer d te telh rotdr a w atoCI,
aeems to ooar a r deerp tais no jot 4 to deterumi e lbeiir i thim
ev.t It aoore with al the data JSt gi/tra, d with hbtoieito t he
.alced He U.pr Ms a mtleet "Te r'd oul n ctrodj ridawn
bouSbt from Indt aeso the ywo a of the Hegir. It wau rnt owd b hOma
(pot d a, T) from tooeomwrild tofi, (ps t OI Pri, s)
d 8yrSa becoming very oomnon in the hboe of Taum d ot.er be .
oCs c Byria, at Antcbh, upon the oo of Syria, in Pautin ad li Ibrp6.
On bkMw It not beaorq but it lot iuch dof theswt odor ad oie coa rt. I
laM i. ITi. beoame it had not the maslit o, Sand ab thS ia p sb
lar to that country" T sm perd ltle a
.tevt ooea, tor e no meomtQoof either in the Drm mor iwjL-
oeo, bt e dMruuIpti Umets our eyeIn alla tb wore oi rana wmt dea.
tu-b osturye, ecily b-Btar,w b a to it i
wy o tmpe reedi u.e PlJt i thiis tin of thte atiSe na pUfa^
Pwktn# Ba;r~3kdesBahe The Imperl liJJ-t th Mb'w suCte uern





!NToDVUwOUT 91


tbe ntth a havi MM in a a toty of India and Chn, ded Ot tM
Hegira, (A. PT .O T.)odwhItsh 1a' M-lt war printd Pint PIa 1fg
th wrlte ha4poekeha of ti laefmk a. fit dmndin Oha. tM .lflaw
wbo enwkne e brei rI, i.raned tha w end huams nP lamwiid y a
nuuor e. As b a te m d tM o m Jb mi nwf
merely cfioi 'Terefore this history, far from proving that the Arabs knw a
mon te M Pth imsiod, rovs qult, tha e amt wmm- at nel t Wath
century our em ~ ths e warlike people enrlchmd with whne tram the gaen
of Oman, (.a SO tl Arabia, Tnd ) whet they wl .r.. ad .5pt t. wa tMee oastrime thy patd inW htu y ad4pSa,
rhp who lnto 9icil.
Leon of Otla, tells us that 100% a pctie of S b lmapmwmmL tln. qpl
(poa c aswA) tthe Nanr pales who had sold MA m athe &Iaa L
Th eflou prclo o0rfat aeed by t(i author appeve to mo he ignP
truM like Rth dSa tb se th e c dtraon it, ithe n mm zmder s ua of
rrITI, or Of MALA MEDIOA.
It i thue tI e aould fooagni t(he omap la the tem n-m m epa of by
)iM oudi in a pMeg already quced. Ths oonJectue aa moid ith -no W
events ad dat Tb Arbts invaded' dly about the begnlg d l natn
century, (888,) the orange was taken from India to ArbnI sr Ptu UM 1 S f
the Bhcgfb4 be to esy, ebty in the ninth entmy of aur nt. '1e uae
apple it leaM d' Ofz d from 18at, an d ns ag ad objet mt ne ad
pwsonu esugh to be offend gift- to pjrluc Tau w bha baetwem H a
tndUetiot into Arbia, and prop again in icl n te tnt i mdy sUfl7 .
dsr to coatonn ta tomKof Mamrofld, l et M a ppo U ir me
tug wmbrreak from b aUa oe thhity or fotim- year M-r-ay abtet 0
Hgira, If we .UoW r gaty yea5 ior ia tppagtloa I paaie, fptap Bubu,
madrally twat ,yeaM for Us atmnfaUoml In in oly, we mi prlry t tate.u
Tal bween oe poh ad the mwr.
A pesle in he Io of Blly, by NitoolUaim a wrMttt in thle
teeth oent, gre aill men probbhlty to thl apinioa.
eThe m rit la r by theYt of he Dt n tuke olCml
in lD ia, t tvlat Mitof Pamn Pant a didt aos m emema tan
qpuP, (btiMu. add,) oaled by the pepie among, whi hiad Sund dan Mold
tha, tshe waX pea. of 00hb. (Nieolae Ip k. 7, e. 19.)
Tb. aa 0 ibis given to thin royac pi anor ape, mNOto r tr to the fIl
of the Arabic rule, it L probably derived hom the AM i rord eS'obth, Santh
1.3U o arh, phrgp some gpad dom upoa thim oonmyhoeoe fi thepl -e
its aane
Thee da, however, do t appear to mn seat m ety Strog to ambet the
stht otda way relabbe hMriodz, who mays expab, tha theo lem the
aong trem Wie nnot kwn in Ihy or Prana at in othlr part of ChdtatfrUE.
rope la th th ceotry. SBch are the word oa Jaoque de Vitry, in peak-
ing c Syrian treeinhis hIoy i Jerumalo. Te testluxmy o thiS bt aop, whn
oght to an known tlme acuftri, would ppar to have ano w~d t than
isag mtecwn. baud upon neoningo from aogy. Wh aver be the is
rMbd ofr tanped with thepia pd ompatk4 idand by u with
nm 0 i b w1 always be deaive 'mpMis Lake Grda mad CU S
of Lla aSd PAbna






VmI INTKODUOYOBY.


were nbimown, not only in the tenth but even in the eleventh century. fut ao
etraordinary event, destined to chnge the fae of Eutope, ws to o n anew to
the pople'of.the West the etranmce to Syria ad Paline.: Thb4s also the
time whe :the:sOwadea which began at the cloe of the eleventh century (1096,
r.), sgawakened among Europeans he sprit of commerce and atamte for art and
hlmy. .
i tfThbe ( naders entered Asia Minor as onquerors, and thence read themselves
aM rader into all parts of Adk.. They were not mere soldiers, but brave men
d3swn from their fpmiliee by religious enthiulasm, and who, in conequenee, would
oi fast to thek country end their homes. They could not see without coveting
these charming trees which embellished the vicinity of Jerusalem, with whose ex-
quiite frita Nature has favored theeHmates of Asia.
It-was, indeed, at this time that Etrope enriched its orchards by many of these
kree. and that the French prince. canied into their country the damson, the St.
Catharine (a pair, Tr.), the apricot, from Alexandria and other specieslndigenous
to thoae regions.
S- ilians, Genoeae andProvincals transported to bSlermo, St. Remo and Hyeres
the lemon and orange trees. Hear what a historian of the thirteenth century says
to uo on thi subject; he had been in Palestine with the Cresdes, ad his word
should have great weight-,
Jaequm de Vitry expremed himself thueo--"Bedde many tree eaItated in
Italy, Qonos France, and other part of urpe, we Bad here (in Palmse) spe-
di peeular to the country, and of which some e sterile and odn bear fruit.
HBe are trees being very beautiful apple-the color ot the httro-upon which
is distinctly en the mark of a man's tooth. This has given them .the common
name of poame d' Adam (Adm's appl)-othes, produce sour frlt, of a din-
geMab e taste (pontci), which are called limous. Their uice i Med for mseaon-
ing too* bamse it is cool, pricks the palate, and provokes appetite.. We sho
see eedas of Lebanon, very fine and tall, but srile. There. is a species of cedar,
called cedre maritime, whose plant lb mail but productive, giving very fine fruits
-as large as a man's head. Some call them ctr or pommes citrneas. These
frtsemi e formed of a triple ubstanoe, ad have three different tate. The first
le.wamm, .the second is emperate, the last is oold. Same my that this is tefruit
of wich b Godommaded in Leviticus--Take you the first day of thl year the
fruit of the finest tree," We see in this country mothbe' species ofB ctrine apples,
bor by mall trees aad of which the cool pat is lem and of a digreeable and
adcd tute-tha the& native call "reng."
8ehold.th.e te Adsm's apple, the lemon, dte itron, and the bigarde found
in Palestine by.the Crusaders, and regarded a new trees foreign to Europe.
This p gdoss at ood ai far a the citron concerned, with what Pal-
ladiu says. He telkus that this plant wa in his time, cultivated in ardinia
sad in Sdly. But. wes m, by Jacques de Vhry, that the citron of Palstne wm
dbtla piishis by the etracdinauy se of Its fruit, equal to a man's head. ad it
mist bkebl thi lamt w a variety unknown to Europe.
I a4, 'tna~ed, only, sine t~h epoch that we and in European histians and
wkae upoc agrsiouture any matio. of thus tram. Doutlem the Aaian had
d n tated them in Africa ad Spain, where the tpratre favcod s
ama thiIr prout DoubtlI Lip. I Ia dse put of Italy tesr the cte ol






INTRODUCTORY.


work of a doctor of medicine of Mantu, writing near the middle century. He uay-
"The lemon Il one of the species of Qltrine apples, which are four in number.
First, citron. Secondly, range, (citrangulum,) 6f which we have apbken before.
Thirdly, the lemon. Fourthly, the fruit vugarly dcal~lhna. These four specdi
are very well known, principally in Ligurls. The legion is a hsdiote friit, of
fine odor. Its form is more oblong than that of the orange, and, like the orange,
it's full of a sharp, acid Juice, very proper for seasoning meats. They mAkel o
its flower odoriferous waters, ft for the use of the luxuriou.
"The tiees of these four species are very similar add all are thorned. The


* U


leaves of the citron and lime are larger and less deeply colored than thomseof the
orange or lemon. The lemon is composed 4 fur dierent substanes, well a
the citron, lime and orange. It has an outer skin, not as deep hi color s that of
the orange, but which has more of the white. It is hot and bit n, thuB it shows
Its bitter taste. The second skin or pith, between the outr skin mid the e, it
white, cold, and difficult to gest. The third substance is its juioe, which it
sharp, and of a strong adcid, which will expel worms, and Is very cold. The
fourth Is the seed, which, likp that'bf the orange, is warm, dry and bitter."' (Se6
Mat. SilV., Pandecta Medicin, fol. 125.)
This testimony of Bilvaticus is strengthened by all the author who have written
upon the dcitrus. Tre is not one but Is convinced that these trees were for a long
time very rare in Itmt qnd in France, and that Liguria alone ha traded tha
sine they were fM known there. Sicily and the kingdom of Naples cultivated1
perhaps before the LIjuana, the citron and orange trees; but in spite e ad-
vantage of climate, itWs only, as objects of curioity, limited to some delightful
spots. This fact i es tablished by the manner in which moqt writersof the twelfth
century exprem themnibves on this subject. Hugo Falandus, who wrote of the
exploits of the Nprmans in Sicily, from 1145 to 1109, saw there lume and oran-
ges, and points them out as singular plants, whose culture was still very tare.
(Hugo Falcadu See Muratori, Rerum Itallcarm crIptores.)
Ebn-AI-Awam, an Arabian writer upon agriculture it Seville, near the end of
the twelfth century, and whose work, translated into Spanish, was published at
Madrid in 1809, bpeks as if the culture were very much extended in 0pdn. Abd-
Allatlf, Oo was cotemporay with the las-named author, ephimelf in


like manner, and decribs also a nunm
Egypt-a dIrcumutanoe howling that -t
protem wa slower in Italy and France
firs nto them parts s a variety of dt
rope wri ter under the generic name a
of Prhane the people had known it front
limon-a name which has come down t
In fact, we find it in botanical works
sometime citrus media. The last w


er ofat varieties cultivated In his tme in
hee trees had greatly multiple. Ther
. It appears that hi lemon tree, brought
on, was for a long time designated by Eu-
of dtrus, although in Ttaly and the South
the beginning nder the'proper name of
o us without m bmitting to any change
called dtrd itmon, or mala ona, and
as indefinitely used to degnate' lemon,


citron and orange, and very often the genus citrus.
The orange appeared in Italy under the name of orenges, which the people
modiied according to the pronunciations of the different sections, into aranglo,
mar o, aram, rmano, citrone, cetrangolo, melaruado, melangolo, aranelo.
One meet mas ceslvely all these names in works of the thirteenth, fourteenth and
fMa na, rmniwlm manh sA thma anf nun Wplane lnan 1a le Anmnial&t 'RIondua






INTRODUOTORY,


Leandro AlbertI, and several others. The Provencals also received this tree un-
der the name of orenges, and have changed it from time to.tims in different pro-
vince, into arrange, sirange, orange and finally orange. (See Glomry of the
Roman language, by Roquefort.)
During several centuries the Latin authors found themselves embarrassed in dee-
ignating this fruit, which had no name in that language. The first who spoke of
it used a phrase indicating its characteristic, accompanying it with the popular
name of arangi, latinized into orenges, arangi, asantiumn.
Thus, Jacques de Vitry, who calls the orange poma citrina, adds, "The Arabs
call them orenges." And Nicolas 8pedall designated them as pommes aigre
(acripomorum arbore, observing tiht the people call them arangius. These have
been followed by Blondus Flavius and many others. Matheus Silvatlcus first
gave to the orange the name of citrangulum, and this denomination seems to have
been followed for a long time by physicians and translators of Arabic works, who
have very generally adopted it for rendering the Arabic word, arindj.
Thus, citrangulum was received for more than a century in the language of
science. Finally, little by little, were adopted the vulgar Latinized name in use
among other writers, such as authors of chronicles, etc., and they have written
successively, arangium, arandum, arantium, anarantium, nerantium, aurantunm,
pomen aureum. The Greeks followed in the same step. They have either Gre-
clanied the name of narenge, which was in use among Syrian Arab, or they re-
ceived it from the Crusaders from the Holy Land, and have adopted it in their
language, calling it nerantzion. These have, however, always 'been considered
vulgar names, and, in general, the better Latin writers have made me of the ge-
neric name, citrus, for designating the Agrumi.
This usage, followed by moat of the writers on history and choreography, often
occasions uncertainty and difficulty in researches concerning the beginning of this
culture in the different countries where these trees have been introduced. The
use of it as eamoning for food, brought from Palestine to Liguria, to Provnce, and
to Sidly, penetrated to the interior of Italy and France. The taste for confections
was propagated in Europe with the introduction of sugar, and this delicate food
became at once a necemry article to men in easy 'drcunmtance, anw a luxury
upon all table. It was, above all, as confections, that the Agrumi entered into
commerce, and we see by the records of Savona that they were meat into cold
parts of Italy, where people were very greedy for them.
After having cultivated these specie for the use made of their fruits, they soon
cultivated them as ornaments for the gardens. The monks began to fill witi these
trees the courts of their monasteries, in climates suited to their continual growth,
and soon one found no convent not surrounded by them. Indeed, the courts and
gardens of these houses show us now trees of great age, and it 1i said that the old
tree, of which we see now a rejeton in the court of the convent of St. Sabina, at
Rome, was planted by St. Dominic, about the year 1i00. This fact has no other
foundation than tradition, but this tradition, preserved for many centuries, not
only among the monks of the convent, buateso among the clergy of Rome, t re-
ported by Augustin Gallo, who, in 1IO, speaks of this orange as a tree


since time Immemorial.
must at at refer it to
century, at the la et


If we refuse to attribute its planting to St. I
a period son after, that is, to the end of the


. t .- a -- _* 3 ._* t^ -- L-----






TIThODUTTO RY.


ges, or tra of our apples (pommet alpe.), which he regards a rare plants,
embellishing the 'pleasure-home df Cubba.
Blondus Flavius, a writer of the middle of the following century, speaks of the


orange on the coast of Amalfl (a city of Naples, '
yet had no name in mdentifc language, (Blond.Flav.
extols the valleys of Rapallo and Ban Remo, In L
dtruu, a rare tree in, Italy. Cugue ager (Ban Remo,)
palmanqu, arborum n Italia ariair un, ferax. (1
296.) Lastly, Herre de Cremcenui, senator of Bol
treatise on agriculture, speaks only of the citron tree.


kr.) a a new plant, which as
SItal. Illu., p. 420), and he
igurla, for the culture of the
these are hbis words, et dtri,
Blond. Favy., Ital. Illust., p.
logna, who wrote in 1800 a
We find in his expreions


no hint of lemon a orange. The culture oS these trees, then, had been begun in
the fourteenth century only in a few places, but was extended in proportion as
arts and luxury advanced the civilization of Europe.
The onge was from the first valued not alone for the beauty of Its foliage and
quality of Its fruit, of which the juice was used in medicine, but also for the
aroma of its flowers, of which esences were made. Pharmacists have employed
with success the juice of the lemoi-in making medicines.
The orange tree must have been taken to Provence about the time it entered
Liguria. It is to be presumed that the city of Hyeras, so celebrated for the soft.
neo of its climate and the fertility of its soil, received it from the Crusaders, be-
care from this port the expeditions to the Holy Land took their departure. We
see, indeed, that it was greatly multiplied there, and in 1566 the plantations of
oranges within its territory were so extensive and well-grown as to present the a-
pect of a forest.
The territory of Nice, so advantageously placed between Ligurlaand Provence,
would necesmrily receive from its neighbors a tree sosuited to the aoftnes of its
climate, sheltered by the Alps, and to the nature of its soil, fertilized by abundant
waters. It appear that the culture had already greatly extended towards the
middle of the fourteenth century, as we find in the history of Dauphiny that the
Dauphin Humbert, returning from Naples in 1386, bought at Nice twenty plants
of orange trees. (Hist. of Dauphiny, bk. 2, p. 271.)
From Napls and Sicily the orange and lemon trees must have been carried into
the loman States into Sardinia and Corsica and to Malta. The islands of the
Archipelago perhaps first received them, because, belonging in great part to the
Genoaee and Venetiane, it is probable they were'the interhedlate points whence
the Cruader of Genoa and Venice transported the plants to their homes. From
thee miles the tree have afterwards spread into the delightful coast of Salo on the
shores of Lake Garde, where, in Gallo's time (1589,) they were regarded as accli-
mated from time immemorial. Finally, the orange and the lemon penetrated into
the older latitudes, and perhaps, one owes to the desire of enjoying their flowers
and fruit the invention of hot-houses, afterwards called orangeries. (The name


of arangere is a modern word in the
use it-he oalls this kind of inclosure
has no wrd sponing precisely to c
equivalent wads, such a arancier,
nrtuoc bk. 1, p. 74. But the ancen
ths tress by the 'phrme, Stansone
tats thy call thsm rimeme. In o
of nre (Incure). Matioll says, thi


French language. Olivier de Berre does not
orange-houses, p. 688. The Italian language
,rangery. We find in some modern authors,
cedroniera, citronera. Fontana, Dilzonario
t writers styled these places for preserving
per i cedri. In Tascany and the Roman
other places they are known under the name
st in his time they cultivated the angels in
* Ct S SW .






XII INTRODUCTORY.

dens of the interior, but he says nothing of the.placew for aefterflg them. Gallo
speaks of rnoomsde ne to reelve th boxes of oeage. ^h'were wery
numerous at Breids, but he does not'designae them by rin'ltL r non
The Lat write also ued a periphdm. Ferrl-s =its 4, hi-
bernum. Others call it ells citrria.)
This agricultural luxury wrs unknown in Euore bfor the introduction of the
citron-tree, We Afid not theleast trace of It ettb&hti ieek or tIJIt writers.
It Is true that from the tine of the Empa t Tfhevtat Ba, they endcomd
melons in ceftn portable bores of wood, w*ih wfte eXpoaed to the tm In winter
to make the 'fruit grow out of season. These loures were cunred from the
effects of cold by she's or fram, and received the dun's rays thlrtgiapdl ha-
nous stones, (specularia,) which hel the placef of r glass. But it seems they
used no fire for heating them, and that they merely enclosed taus indgenous
plants, of which they wished to force te fruiting out of eason, it bete a specu-
lation of the cultivtor rather than a luxihrio ornament for embelldtng the gar-
dens. (Pi~ny, bk. 19, chap 5, p. 886, and Oolumell, bk. 9, ohap. 8, p. 41) It
is after the introduction of the citron tree into Europe that we begin to find among
the ancients examples of artificldd coverings and shelters against Cold. Pallclius
Is the first who speaks of these coverings, but only a appropriate for the citron,
and gives no description of them. Florentin, who wrote probably after him, de-
cribes them at more length, and it seems by his expresdonu that in hit time the
citron was covered in the bad meaaon by wooden roofs, which could be withdrawn
when there was no occasion to defend them from cold, and which, also, could be
arranged to secure for them the rays of the sun. (Florent. bk. 10, chap. 7, p. 219.)
This agricultural luxury, which began to appear about the time of Palladius
and otenttin, .must have been entirely destroyed in Italy by the Ivadion of the
barbarians. I have remarked that Pierre de Creseoati, whp wrote a treatise on
agriculture in 1300, while treating of the citon, speaks only of walls to defend it
froni the north, and of aome covers of straw. Brunsdus and Antonina, quoted by
1yirengel, have thought to find in the Statutes of Charlemagne indications of a hot-
house. I have closely examined the artlci) cited by those writers, (it Comment.
de reb. Franc. orient, bk. %, p. 902, etc.,) but have not fobld* a word that could
make me believe this means of preserving delicate plants was employed at that
period. I have even remarked that in these ordinance many pllmts sre named
which Charlemagne ed to have in h fields, but no word to be construedinto
ordering a shelter for aiy, unless the fig ad almond. It is atonishing that hav-
hng spoken in detail of all the parts of the house, of laboring utend s the mos
ordinary-and even of those of housekeeping-he forgot an object of sadch gret
luxury s a hot-house. But in proportion as dcviliutlon and commerce Incresed


I
i
J


riches and extravagance, the fruit of this tree became more sought for, sand at the
hme time, more common; whilst, above a, the properties of the new spaes
just Introduced extended its use in me&noe, in reesble drinks, and a
a luxury of the table. At first they were in cold countries only a foreign pro-
duction procured from the South, but afterwards the people began to covet from
the more happy climates the ornament of these trees, and to wish, above all, to
embellish with them their gardens. In temperate climes they beqn to eutis
them in vases, depositing them during winter In caves; and in the caid.s
the neceilty of struggling against nature, gave the idea of onstnrcttg
mun.. whioh nmnl ha hA tAr at nlAnanm h flnr. 'an'd which' WOld shabtet re





INTRODUTORY. XIII


It la difficult to fix the date at which they began to build edi0ces for protection
of oranges. The oldest trace of it that I have been able to And, is furnished by a
passage In the history of Dauphiny, dated 1886, (we find in this history, printed
at Geneva in 1792, an extract from an account of expenses made by Humbert, the
Dauphin, In his voyage of Naples in 1886. In the expenses for the return we se
the sum of ten tarins-the tarin was the thirtieth part of an ounce of Naples-for
the purchase of twenty orange plants. Item pro arboribus viginti de plants aran-
giounm ad plantandum taren. X. Sit. of Daup., bk 2, p. 276.) This, it is true,
offers few circumstantial details for fixing the fact that the princes of Dauphiny
had really, at that time, an orangery; but as this historian tells us that Humbert
bought at Nice twenty roots of rangers for a plantation, (ad plantandum,) it is
to be supposed that he had in his palace at Vienna a place designed to preserve
them in the winter; for, without this precaution, they certainly would have
perished in the rigorous climate of Dauphiny. (In southwest part of France. Tr.)
This luxury must have passed immediately into the capital of France, and
though I have not yet found in history indications of these establishments before
1500, it is very probable that they were known there about the middle of the four-
teenth century.
The celebrated tree, preserved still in the orangery at Versailles, under the name
of Francis First, or Grand Bourbon, was taken from the Constable of Bourbon, in
the seizure made of his goods in 1528. And this prince, who, it is said, possessed
it for eighty years, could not have kept it except in an orangery. (The orange
tree at Vermslles, known as Francis Premier, is the most beautiful tree that I have
sen in a box. It is twenty feet high, and extends its branches to a circumference
of forty feet Spite of that I scarcely believe that this fine stalk dates from the
fourteenth century. It is too vigorous, and the skin is too smooth, to be able to
count so many years. It is probable that in so long a course of time it has been
cut, and that the present tree is a sprout from the old root. This might have oc-
curred after the frost of 1709, which penetrated even into sheltered places. One
circumstance gives foundation to this conjecture. This tree is composed of two
stalks, which both come out of the earth, and have a common stock. This is
never the way the tree grows by nature, still less in a state of culture, and from
rooted held in vases. I have mostly remarked it in the greater-number of trees
growing upon a stump which had been razeed at the level of the ground. In such
case one is forced to leave two suckers, because the s being very abundant,
could hot develop itself in one shoot. It would experience a sort of reaction
which would suuocate the stump and make it perish. This is a well-knowa fact
in the South, where we cultivate largely the orange, and where the trees of
double stems are generally recognized as rejetons, or suckers from old roots.)
After all these data, we are authorized to think that in the fourteenth century
they .had begun already to erect buildiap designed to create for exotic plants an
artificial climate. But at the beginning dof the fifteenth century orangerie passed
from king gardens to those of the people, chiefly in countries where they were
not compelled to heat them by fire, as in Brescia, Rmagna and Tuscany. (See
Matioll, who ays that in his day the orange was cultivated in Italy, in all the
wtdeqs of the interior, where certainly it could not live, unless in orangeries.
DMo c. 18. We also find in 8prengPl's History of Botany, that in this country
tbes wee at that time many botanical gardens where they cultivated exotic
plen-. circumstance which presupposes the necessity of hom-bows)






XIV


INTBODUOTORY.


About the middle of the seventeenth century this luxury was very general, and
we see distinguished by their magnificence and grandeur, the orangeries of the
Farnese family at Parma, of the Cardinal Xantes, Aldobrandini and Plo, at
Rome, of the Elector Palatin at Heidelberg, (Olv. de Ser., p. 688,) of Louis
Thirteenth, in France; and even at Ghent, in Belgium, that of M. de Hellibuul,
who imported plants from Genoa, and carried his tabllahment to the last degree
of magnificence. (See Ferraris, p. 150, wherj he describes the orangery of M. de
Hellibusi at Ghent, and that of Louis Thirtedhth at Part. The latter has been
replaced by that of Versailles, of which the magnificence renders it perhaps the
finest monument of this kind to be found in Europe.)
We now see orangeries in all the civilized parts of Europe, it being an embel-
lishment necessary to all country-eats and houses of pleasure.
I


THE ORANGE IN FLORIDA.


From all accounts the orange is not in
although vast groves of wild orange trees e
of the State. It was nevertheless brought i
probably in the beginning of their conquest
of the sixteenth century.
The wild orange has a bitter, acrid tas
some, agrees with that grown in modern di
as thb "Seville Orange." Whatever its
cultivation, budding and importation, it
changed, and the "Florida Orange" for its
vor, has gained a reputation second to none
- On coming to Florida for the first time i
I found orange culture the great industry
where I would, orange groves and their cull
theme of conversation. Indeed, -the "orani
gious, and very few visitors to the "Land
without imbibing some of its contagion.
gation, I found there was good cause for th


digenous to Florida,
exist in different parts
here by the Spaniards
ts, in the early part


te, and
ays in
origin i
a a


according, to
Spain, known
n Florida by


has become greatly
size, beauty and fla-
in existence.
n the winter of 1876,
y of the State. Go
ture was the principal
ge fever" was conta-
of flowers" escaped
However, on inveuti-
Le enthusiasm.


When it is known that a small
an acre of land, in full bearing
come of from a thousand to two


L
a


ten acres, an inomoe of ten thous
wondered at, that people beoome


their culture?
nually twelve


Th


grove of c
audition, y
thousand d
and dollars
so wild s


ere is a tree near


Palatk a


ne hundred trees on
fields annually an in-
ollars, or a grove of
or more--is it to be
nd enthusiastic


that prod ue.'f.
I-


thousand oranges.'
Ai -s A at







INTEODUOTORY.


apple, peach, pear, &c.,
that


had different kinds of insect enemies,


"Myriads on myriads
Keen in the poiaon'd breeze would wasteful eat
Through bud and bark into the blackened core."


which lived on the foliage, fed on the sap,


or otherwise proved


destructive.


I also learnedthat they in their turn


were preyed


upon by others.
Among the most injurious of these were various kinds of Bark-
Lice or Scale I iects, (Coceida,) which frequently killed the tree
or damaged it to such an extent as to cause whole branches to die


back, and otherwise retarded the growth and


vigor of


tree.


The majority of these I found had been


imported from foreign


shores, and had been taken up
"On the wing of the heavy gales
Through the boundless arch of heaven."
to lodge again on trees in other groves, until they were distribu-
ted to all parts of the State.


dollars are annually lost to orange-growers from


the depredations of these pests.


Having always had a "hobby"


for bugs and


"curious creatures


every kind,


immediately


set to worlc reading


up, studying and


investigating their habits.


Within the past two years, I


have


received


so many commum-


cations from parties


over


State, requesting information


in regard to these insects, and feeling that the publication of my
studies and researches would fill a want long needed by the orange-


grower, I have concluded to


publish them


book-form, laying


no claim to literary merit, but only desiring that they may prove


valuable to


the fruit-grower, by enabling


him to discern friends


from foes, and after


vestigate and


learning their


habits, stimulate


methods for


to in-


their de-


struction.
Having thus briefly given my reasons for bringing myself be-
fore the public, after having given a short account of the orange-
tree, I will now proceed to treat of its insect inhabitants-friends
an4 foes


Thousands of


experiment for successful











THE


LONG, OR


MUSSEL-SHELL


SCALE.


(Mytitsapi


[Atpidiotuw]


Oloverii,


Packard.)


[Ord., HaoIP A.


Fam., Cocoma.]


BIBLIOGdRAPIdAL.
Aepidietu O!verii, Packard, Guide to Study of InPMOt.
jL


The first of the


many


scale


insects of the orange tree to be


treated of, is


Long Scale,


or Muasel-Shell


Scale, named


Prof.


Packard,


A piditue


(GloVwrii,


after


Townend


Glover,


recently of the Agricultural


Department at


According to the latest revision of the


Washington, D. 0.


Signoret,


of Fiance, it belongs properly to the genus


Mytilapie, but as it


. generally known


in Florida


under the name of ABpidiota ,


iave still, in brackets, retained that name for it.


ITS IMPORTATION


AND 8pBeAD.


In the year 1885,


making itt


(date given


on some orange
appearance in th


me,) it


trees


imported


first brought into
from China, first


grove of Dr. Robinson, at


lannr


a small


town


on the


Johns


River,


about


'tiWe


niles frm


Jacksonville.


a few years, it had spread to the


wres throughout Florida, carrying devastation and


ver it went.


wher-


So great was the damage that orange growers be-


same


discourage, and


orange


culture


was nearly annihilated.


any grove


that


been


yielding


handsome


incomes,


wre


totally destroyed.


ultuoi


Happily,


lom numerous,
revived, and tl


however, in a few years


orange trees


result


were.


is seen


the eales


planted,


in the


their


rapidly growing


datSy


Florida, today, produces between fifty and sixty mil-


pa f ared


or three


years will


double that num.


n mN DODUOMO N


Ime O


rLOw)DA.


Cocidc by KM.


again


I I







ORANGE IN8UmWi


"This insect first


made


its appearate in


Florida, in Robin-


son's grove, at Mandarin, on


St. John's, in


1888, (this date


is evidently a mistake,) on i
which had been procured in


;ome
New


trees of the
SYork. In


Mandarin orange,
the course of three


or four years'they had spread to the nf
the distance of tpn miles, and were the


neighboring plantations, to


most


rapid


their mi-


grations


'direction


of the


prevailing


winds,- which


evi-


dently


aided


them in


their


movements.


1840,


Smith, of
I 11*i


St. Augunhe, obtained some orange .trees from Man-
t ~ r 'r j^ / v 1, I r *n j l m


darin and had them planted in his front yard.


Firom these eo


the insects went to others in the same enclosure, and rapidly ex-


tended themselves to the trees and
and westerly parts of that city and


plantations to


northerly


/vicinity, obvioumy aided


their


there


migrations


almost


daily


by the
during


southeast trade winds, which


summer;


what


blow


is remarkable,


these'insects were occupied nearly three


yeas in reaching trees


in the southeast


side of


city, only about


half a mile from


their


original


point


attack.


They have sin.e, however


tended themselves to all the trees in and alout the city, but have


not yet traveled in any directti beyond two miles.
in their dispersion by birds and other natural cau


Being aided
se, impossible


to guard against, they must eventually attack most i. oti


trees in Florida


for the wild orange groves suffer


which have been


cultivated, and


no difference


ceivtidn their ravages between old and young trees, nor
vigorous and decayed ones.


"Various remedies have been
such,as fumigating the trees with


with lime, potash,


tried to


arrest theirproun


tobacco-smoke, covering them


sulphur, shellac, glue, and other visoidand4.e


nacious


substances


mired with


clay


quick-lime, salt,


etc.; bt


all have failed, partially .or entirely, and


it appears


notto be in
inqignifioant


, the power of man to


prevent


the ravages of -the


insidious


destroyers.


Most


cultvated


oranges


Florida


have


already


been


branches having been.mostl1
it is true, remain alive, and


injured.


their'


Destroyed. Th rbostems,
annually send forth a rop 9 yopgg


shoots, only to share the fate of their p ed.cuor.


The
. 4


if


t


i 1I


I


the,


type






ORANGwe


mn-.


the means which nature has provided to check their increase, are


various species


of birds that devour inconceivable numbers of


them, and the ooccidc are invariably accompanied by considera-
ble numbers of yellow lady-bugs, (cocinella.) which, it has been


conjectured, have been appointed to keep them down."


Many other


insects


are found


preying


upon


them,


which


shall describe further on.


METHOD OF SPREADING.

Various, theories in regardto the manner in which these insects


spread from tree to


gated


published


tree and grove to grove, have been
i in different .journals, particularly


promul-
y in the


Florida papery. In m
ways of transportation


opinion,
First, on


there are but three principal
nursery stock; second, by the


wind; third, on the fruit itself.


ON NUSEBTY IYMOK.


From reliable authorities we


learn


that the specie


under con-


sideration, was imported into Florida in this way, and in like man-
ner distributed to other groves, until to-day, it is, I believe, found
in the United States wherever the orange is cultivated.


BY THE


WINDS.


In
the i


extended
*


early. aed
aided in.tl
blow there
able, these
ing trees ii
mil from
and fall, j
numerous
h ur iow
I e.bom.
fL- >I: Tflft


pport


this,


went to


Mr.


Browyn


others


themselves to


westerly


says,


"From


these


same enclosure, and


the trees and plantations in


parts of the city


eir migrations


almost
insects


daily
were


s by the
during
occupied


southeast side


their original


ast when


ti


we have (
blowing at


e y
hur
the


point of


trees,
rapidly
north-


vicinity, obviously


southeast trade winds,


summer;
d nearly


of the


and
three


city,


attack."


young insects


heaviest
rate of


which


what is remark-
years in reach-


only


about half


Now, in the spring


are hatching,


storpns,


! forty,


meet


sometimes


fifty,


or more miles


During one of these storms, I have often een leaves,


ea n^Ln^ !tnaaUatil


1


regular


s~h~a


__ ^fria


kkwunjki*AA


vqJrb







ohrxes


8fow
but a


eaMy,


then,


would it


few atome


weight,


teede and pollen of plant


borne


ho i eda


lad
mile


,be for tame


to e narnied
flowers, twa
through the


to 4ies.


&I be
I~h~a.


The
arei


.. ri


original strtizg point.


Woold it then


cm
be Wv


for these small iasects to be carrid in like


'aes


O TH FrUIT rr1 nm.


Townenq Glover, in his


scale,


some lemons from Bermuda.
other on.)


Citrico


Report for 1855, st. th 4tb L


was


imported


Ser oa4


(See facowt of Oval


Scale; for-


If any one will take the trouble to
or lemons brought into the northerza


find icales on some of them.


dealers


a -. --


These


every part of. the covanbr, sad in


of the different


eNsamine izorted oran se
market, he cannot fail to
ranges -,are sent by fruit-


species of inaect are distributed.


mahner many


ITS NaTITAL


IsOrBY.


The elongated, dark brown scale, (Fig.


1, twig f.ted,)Y oon-


sadting of a series of successive waxy meretion., (


-t


L


)

co ncak l


Je*rfnl


be my


Aspidiotus


a.


p


1 I








OBRAGE


-IB;WB .


They crawl


for three or


four days over


the leaves and twige, then finding a suitable


place, insert tbeir


beaks, become


stationa-


ry-never afterwards moving.


days


waxy


covering,


or shell,


a few
begins


to form over them;


legs, as


they have


no more


cause for


them,


drop off, and


insect, by -a retrograde development, chang-


es into a legless


larval


form, of


a pinkish


Fig, .


(After Glover.)


or flesh color.


S(Plate 1, fg.


This species differs very much from all others I have examined


It is
men.


very


elongated,


Underneath


with


well-defined


abdomen,


thorax, head,


different


abdo-


segments corn-


uprising it


are ihrnished


with


claws, which


enables


it to erawl


backwards and forwards in its long scale.


view, greatly.


enlarged) gives


a good


idea


Plate 1 (Fig. 7, pide
of these. When it


has reached this stage it is fully


matured, and


soon


afteiwads


lays its eggs.


The male, (Fig. 2,) unlike the female, is furnished


with two wings, which enables it to


It is of


a reddish


color,


with


lpng,


migrate wherever it pleases.
hairy, ten-jointed antenna


und black eyes; abdomen paler, and furnished with a long, curved
>enis; it has no beak; the place where it should be indicated


by two or three


black


dots;


consequently it


never feeds,


oon after performing the


duties for which


it was create


V


,r r ,.';'
- f-
4 ,'


V1"^


i':. w -- fl i
' ;,' '
/ '~- t* .- '
* *^


* ~


*


I, ^-
I -
f t'-


* :
* v^l
*- ..^t .t-A
N..
?k ,


* ,


-:


I ,
* .
A -,-*. ^


- ,.'


aqr;


A ''


- 4#.


)


*'1


* *1


Vic.
-, H
. "* ..* "''


V f-


1 .







OBLNGE


EXPLANA


rxasfoT'.


PLATE .


'Figs.


1 and


2.-Female


winged


individual


SpAonid


phora cienfol .


AsBHnEa.


Fig. 8.-Wings of same, showing venation.
Fig. 6.-Beak of same.


Fig. 4.- Female 2ihogramma .farSw.
Fig. 5.-Hind legs and 'coee of same.


Asmwn.
*


Fig.


7.--idae


view


larval


form


aMytapis Glowrii,


showing claws on segments.


Fig. 8.-Lartval
moved.


form


same,


as it


appeal with


scale


Fig. 9.-Larval form of ABpidiotus lemonii f


Fig. 10.-Larval


form


Lcanium


Aweridu'n,


legs gone, and showing transparent spot with viscera in
In life the round dot palpitatee up and down.


With hind


centre.


Fig. 11.--Egg of


emonii.


Fig. 12.-Scale of L. perwwum.
Figs. 18 and 14.-Showing nervops and
Aeeperiumn after Lubbock.


digestive systems of


14.-gg, hepatic
, pyriform gland,


glands; t
crop -o'


oesophagues,


stomach,


' .1


(long and nar-


-with 'remarkable


oelluir contorted internal gland;


d, ilium, short in


open-


into


rectum, (c;)


6, narrow tube leading into rectum;


UA, recurrent intestine, two
stomach, (f;) e, coeum, swel


ends of which are attached


at its


base, and is perhaps the


equivalent of the sucking stomach.


Fig. 18.-Ganglionic column;


c, large nervous column, with


two divisions, each
plexus o% nerves to


of which again
posterior part of


od an inker nerveNI.)


enbdivide, $dpg a


body;


i nare, throwing


i I.


*












































-
X


.i-
t
*J


?V


F .
-.
r


*,
S:' /. ,




- 1 '
. '" '


.* a '
*1
**A,


r-^^t


:Mr


S 5


S ?. .


u

r
i
~3k~i~







ORANGE


ImSUOf.


rTf NATURAL SNm -


One cause


of its


rapid spread


soon


after


introduction, is


probably due to the fact that its natural enemies (species of chal-
cid flies) were not imported with it; consequently it Lad full sway,
and nothing to prevent its prolific breeding. *


In time, some of


our own


native


insects


began preying upon


it, and to these is probably due


fact of their ceasing to


so destructive as they were the first few years of their importa-
tion.


The following are the principal ones


so far discovered, an ac-


count of


which


given


regular


ct der,


according


to their importance:


TmI


OBRaN SO8ALE APHELnUS


Aphelinus


aspidioticola, Ash-


mead.


TnE Twxou-STaBBD L
THE Mxmrr Sormxvne:


AJDY


Buo


Chilocorus


bivunaerus,


Hyperaspidius coccidivora, N


Mule.


THn RED MIrrE O TH OoANOE:


THE ORANGE COBYBOPA


Oribates Gloverii, Ashmead.


Chrysopa citri, N4


THE


ORAN GE


SCALE


APHELINUS.
Ashmead.)


[Ord.,


HYMENOPTEBA.


Fam.


, CALOIDIaj


'" 4


BaILIOOGBAPHIOAl


Aphelines a pidtio a, Canadian Entomologist,


Aphelinue capidtico,
1879.


Florida Agriculturis4,


Vol. XI.
Vol. II, No. 17,


"A Iend in need ie a friend Indeed.


It wa but a few years after the orange groves of Florida had
been 'bIted ad rained by scale insects, that this wonderful and


wlanuaa FAA $n tAh


n, n.;ma n Ma i ml ifi Anmwawnnna


(Aphldinu apidioticola.


. a.


1






ORANGE IN BOer.


son, the numerous scales
terly destroy all orange


would


trees, and


so increase in numbers as to ut-


another panic_ in


orange cul-


ture would ensue as disastrous and uncontrollable as the one Mt-


neseed in


years


from


1835 to 1840.


How important, then


is it for us to study the life-histories of thsee destructive insectse-


to seek


out their


habits, find


their


likes


dislikes, discover


their foes, and thus


by their means, if by no other, control and


keep them in subjection


to our will.


What a glorious science,


then, is Entomology to the fruit-grower, agriculturist, and florist I


ITB FIRST APPBANON.


The first account we have of


our little friend is that given by


Glover, in his


Report on


Orange


Insects, in the United States


Agricultural Report for the year 1855.


enopterous fly came but of


He says,


the dead scales,


which


other hynm-
o measured


about the twentieth


part of


an inch


length, the


thorax


first segment of the body being light brown,


abdomen blackish and hairy;


with the rest of the


head was furnished with three


ocelli;


four wings were' transparent, and


jointed, and hairy."


Entomologist,


-(IEge 119.)


Vol. XI, under the r


anteinne long,


I described it in the Canadian
lame of Apheinus aEpidiot-


co&-4. e., inhabitant of the a pidiotue.

SITS NATURAL HISTORY.
It is about .02 of an inch in length; of a light brownish color,
with four wings, ciliated, and agrees very much with the descrip-
tion of the Aphelinus of the apple-tree A. mytfiaepis, found prey-


ing upon the apple


scale-insect, My


but d offers in the following respects:


spis pomiorticis, (Biley,)
it i smaller, the abdomen


is considerably longer than
from just before the apex;


thorax, with


the wing. ciliated


antenna, too, is different.


(Plate 2,


gives a good


under each scale,


ing, the larva, whie


beins feeding upon th
trot ha reMahed full


idea of it.) It lays its eggsa ingle one,
hong the eggs of the scade inset On batch-
is a white, fleshy, foot~ grub, ip meditely


iem. After it ha destrji1d klt*e egs,
growth, it changes inta. pupai ^1tt 2,


ig. 1;) uurining in this condition for .a awi


it tihe


tnam


*r -. a as a -Y a .


fig. 1,


_






OBANGEB aimas.


Groves badly infeted with scales, in which these flies do not
appear, I would recommend the transportation of Aphelini into


btem. Le
transported
to apple
essful but
rig branohe
haloidiaed,


Baron, State Entomol
the Aphelinus of th
orchards, and the exp
beneficial. It can ea
* infested with scales,
and tying them on the


ogiat ol
le apple
eriment
irily be
that are
infested


! Illinois, scoemflUy
scale, A. mytilaspis,
proved not only 0nvt
acoomplished by tak-
known to have been


trees.


L


DBMoEIPTIVB.


APHBriu .AAPDpnonoo.A FsUL Leingth about .0 of an inch. Head
rider than thoax, both light reddish brown-bead nearly mame width asthorax,
hree ocelli forming a triangle-compound eyes, prominent, dark-antemnn eight-
ointed, seaceous first Joint longer than 2, 3, 4 and 8, second Joint round, nearly
wice sa wide as third, other joints gradually inrasg in d, somewhat trn-
ate anteiorly, 14W or apical Joint large and clb-aped-legs, yellowish, long and
etaceotu,-with a tiblI spur, tarsi long, five Jointed-wings, hyaline, ciliated from
tigma--with numerous anall shbrt bristles on the surface-abdomen longer than
horax, upper surface of segment more or les dusky, blackish towards apex,
rith several hairs surrounding ovipositor.
MA-l-Arees very-much with above descrMption, excepting t is lightly smaller
nd scape r first Joint of antenna is shorter and broader, the other joints more
wounded than in the female, with red spot on thorax at base of each wing, with
pper surface of abdominal segments dark brownish.
O0


TWICE-STABBED


LADY


BUG.


(Chilocore bitulneria, Mules,)


(Ord., OOLOPrBRA.


Fam., CoofBrmeum.]


This important
plant lice is quite
enefactions to thf
lced and recorded


factor in
widely spi
e agriculti
Sby many


the destruction of scale insects and
read over the United States, and its
irist and fruit-grower haW been no-
obervers.


iS NATURaAL NSTOWY.


Bprly in the season, from February t<
ley sad their dark slateoolored larva,
-,. 3pineO, may be men ortwling


o November, in Florida,
which are .covered with
up apd down the trulh






OBANGE INm ow.


fall,


early


lays


eggs


spring the


wherever


small


spiny


scales


are thickest


larvae hatch,


imme-


diately begin feeding upon' them.


On reahing maturity they


Scrawl


twig,


off to
and c


a retired


change


into


place, suspend themselves from a leaf or
pnpe, transforming in a few days into


beetles, which make their exit from. the ppsa-skin by a longitudi-


nal slit down the back.


(Fig. 8.)


On emerg-


ing, the beetle is soft and of a pale color, with-


out signs of spots, but


within a


shirt


time


the elytra harden, color darkens to black, two


spots


on wing-covers


appear,


perfect


insect (fig.


4) is


before


Should


there be any Spanies moss


(Jcmclandewa e


oidE)


on the


tree, the larva will


invariably


congregate, and transform attached to it.


they


-are


very


important


deetroyiug


scale insects, every


care should


taken


Figs.


increase hair umbers..
I wPud sio recommend transporting the
larva into rfos where they do not exist, sa


Fl&a.


it could
trouble, s


be done without mueh expense,


nd


prove


more, could be sent in


of incalculable value.


a small tin


box by


with


but little


dozen, or
for twp or


I rther cents.
8Sveral instances of the


lartme


being


insects have been brought to my notice;


for such mistakes, as


mistake for injurious
there is nbw no excuse


the admirable cuts will acquaint any one


with its various forms.


'THE


MINUTE


SOy


N.US.


(Hj pew ie wc N. 8.)


[Ord.,


LUOPTA.


Fam., OooaIjnuD


hismasmel bbeetle, on aooount of its. diminuti
bdbor been noticed by the orangPsegrower. I


fiI (


.hb never
iLoeod it


*witk it lar in &gl, 18iss78 .1 g -wi th Sdo. omviC'wn






ORAiGE


Incp'S-


sonville.
GO. H.
ported it
scAbe it


I sent
Hoar,
Snew t
under t


specimens of it, with c
of Philadelphia, for del
to science. I shall, their
he name H. coccidivra.


theirr oleoptera, to Dr.
termination, and he re-
efore, designate and de-


ITrr NATURAL HISTORY.


4-


By looking carefully in April and .
easily be distinguished on the trunks
larva, which is flattened and of a uni
Although so small and insignific
a great deal in the destruction of. t
larvae, hatching in the spring, at the
scale insects, immediate begin their
they continue even after they 'have tr
It would be difficult to estimate the
little beetles. After May and June,


denly disappear, and we do no
fall brood of scales hatch.
Though the kindness of Dr
give the following description:


t se


e t


May, the beetle
of the trees,
form brownish
ant, it accomj
ie scale insect


S(fig. 6) can
with its


color.
plishee
. The
I i. _


same ime wim me
warfare upon them,
ansformed into beetle
benefit derived front
the majgriy of the
;hem again until thd


. Go. H. Hons, I


Fig.


young
which
8e.
t these
m ad-
grat


am enabled


HBrmaAmim cooorivona, N. S.-Bro y oval, onvex, piceo, hidag,
eahyo .a large, dly-delnd rutfo ics, which Kmti diabes
.the ad- ma f and Tru p, pe. Ely mae
coaely pnmctred. Body beneath, nd leg pioous, shining. Length, .04 ih.
Th Inset resembles om of or rmallser Symnus, but it ib entirely wi toi
pubaemoge/ It iflot larger than Pxurnn Pouuza, and from tts remunblaoe6t
that tnmet, except in olor, would have been referred to that geas, but there
are dx abdominal segment.


THE


LARGE


SCYMI US.


(Bcymnua servialie, Muls.)


[Ord., OoxoLaoP.


This is a hemispherical beetle,
very dark bue elytim, and from
It it etO numerous as the previ
ab sb man rare. It evidently


- v -,, .m...ktL t- I


Fam., OooommnhnaD.]
, of a reddish brown color, with
.08 to .10 of an inch in length.
oualy described spoeieoalthoughlh
helps the others in destroying


__


I
__lltL T


i
r


__I_


J


ImLb






ORANGE


SMeTS.


longer, elenderer, and narrower
bulck, round head;* the legs are
in OociaULa.. The rings are
above, though provided with a
long."


than in
long
rather
fewh


SCoooinolla,
and slender,
convex, not
airs. It is .1


with mall,
more so than
tdberofa bd
B of an ideh


THE


RED


ORANGE-MITE.


({Qriate a.pidigi, Aihmxnp,)


This mite was first described by me in "Canadian Entomolo-
gist," for May, 1879, and I have not since met with it. It was
found feeding upon the eggs of the long scale, (Aspidio tu
Gloverii,) infesting an orange branch, brought to me by Mr.
AuLL~ H. OueIss, who resides about five miles from Jackson-
ville. It is, therefore, not so widely Qpread as Tyroglyphk
Oloveri, to b'eafter treated of. That it may be known
when seen, I quote the original description.
"OqBuTM AslpnwTL-Elo.htep 4~tteupd, narrowing tpwad* bql, dark
reddaih brown color-bdomen, pubeuuem with two ov! puta PoOiu the
flrinn entire, Jut bca of ephat am the -ood lit belw mJddle of M Od o-
mqp, fotle *Lmte-opte r e.4. dtty arw* d-4nu hp, SuM nd with bpt
ope mlw c d iw4r1 wit U&tb or w ibm. hatn.L~ngtL~ ift ,r loPh.
Pote % NI. 11, r,.pw erprtotim $0bnt(l< ^.(Hli) t ff incU
tbJi4 i W piuatured ton Q< tbe ebon at flm, it 4L s tnddIh (ad emd au to
Cl darktowr, (md vis yer4d And tpgti. Tbeim'rst i~o other stai of a Pe
olsple *, 901 7noy the bdMoqmen l ruudx Tbus, tooA(ek fxwlgusaup is.
C


THE


ORANGE


OHRYSOPA.


(Cyepa citri, N. 8p.)


trd., NBOPTrrEA.


Fam., CHOYSnP.s]


Another beneficial insect to the orange
culturist, is a lace- d fly, which 1 de-
teoted preying upon the saeinsemts two
years ago; and -or whioh I puypo.d the
name of OCrApap cit, at the idt meetg


r


1




jAi'ltij'


-uum


ITS NATAL HISTORY.


The eggs of
thread, nearly I


this species are suspended upon a delicate silver


talf


an inch long upon


to the under part e ,a' orange


he upper and frequently
VplyyJe elongate oval,


about :06 of an inch in length, and are either greenish yellow or


purplib is iolor, aeoordipg to age.


(Fig. 10, plte 2.)


larva,


dried leaves 'and


the common


on hatching, covers


other
lion.


particles;
(Plate S


itself it


when g grown
fir. i4.) It ies


tiieo of


it rnamitblee
dpinkih; And


beautifully


mottled with brownish spots:


The ipiralei .of the


thoracic


segments


are very


long,


gowih g


*ith


larva And


to suit the


of


rubbish on its
the spiracle


back, smaller air-vemels ramify frbm


tube


,through


toney


mass.


Plate


, fig.


gives a


mosesy


insects


good


covering has
I plant-lice,


representation
been removed.


particularly


thime


spiraele after


foods on.


latter,


Secarihg


the iale


thbm


by its.)png curved pincor-like mandible. It
noss-like cocoon on the upper part of the leaf,'


;ransforms into


the pafeot fly, (fig. 6,) with


tforedm' aa ial
tnra bet days
long anhisat net-


winged, and bright golden eyes, shining in thb dark likd coats f


n-sOBPnTRm


CRYeSOPA orITE, N. Sp.-B.dgt yeflow*Srl Mh. At eziA, t WItwAIL
onger than wing, and finely annulated, dark reddlih rom n at bme, Pl t


o odethird the length.


Head, genish yellow, three dark apot on occiput, two


lust ba on neck.


Winp, hyaline, Iri


Length of body from had to eA of at


length to tip, .67 Ino--ve-u,
omen, .88of aninch.


We have also found two other chrym ie upon th orange tree--. nPo-
&BanUA, mad the other is an undetermined spede of BenerobM.


cdeien


leaf.


mimite





cOA(Ian


EXPLANATION


omm -


PLATE


Figure 1.--Female of AphAlimu a iotiola, AhWeM.
Fig, &.-Fore wing of same.
Fig. 7.-Antenna of same.
Fig. 9.-Hind leg.
Fig. 18.-Antenna of male.
Fig.. .-SiAnpkora flavopaliatus, Aahmead.
Fig. 8.-.Antenna.%


Figs. 6 and 8.-


Wings of same.


Fig. 19.-Fore leg, showing om...
Fig. .-Hind leg, showing appendage .
Fig. 11.- Pupa of a chalcid fly found under oval sale.


Fig. I.-Larn of


CAirye citri,


with


moasy


covering


moved, showing spiracles.
Fig. 1-Cocoon of same on orange l, showing method of
oap of perfect fly. *
fig. 17.-Bed mite of orange, auppoesd to be a more matured


fonm of


OrMb at pidioi, Ashmead.


,I4gA8.;.Pytoptua droture, Ashmead.







































.rl

A







t
'-K

.. V
* ;:
,\ v~td


ak



I
*.^


I
, .,
I.
* *


*:- ^
*I
i^^

I.


* a" --
*
*^

;1<




OwAnIQ maomI


Many washes have been


denied and


recommended .as a sure


dostoyer of theee pests, tAe majority of which I believe are effi-
cacious, if they reach the inest., which they frequently never do.


The great difficulty is


apply the wash at the


proper time,


when the youngare soft and just hatched.
It is just here where the Entomologist steps in, and proves the


usefulness of his bug-investigatin' propensities.


posed to


by many the


insect


proper, is mere


The scale, sup-
ly a waxyelike


covering, forming a


protection


first for


insect, and


after


wards


its eggs, and, like a good


roof, &i impervious


external substances.
of their existence are


Consequently, washes applied at this stage


worthless, expensive, and


labor


lost.


particular


scale, as


I have shown, there are


three distinct


broods in a season ; hence there must


three


seasons in which


to apply the


washes-i. e.,


just after each


brood


has hatched.


Knowing when these hatch, the time varying but slightly from


given


under


head


of its


natural history, in


parts of


Florida, from difference in climate, moisture, or backwardness in


seasons, one can have no difficulty in exterminating and
them under control.


keeping


For trees badly affected I would recommend opting the smaller


limbo off
the balani


and burning, as the most rapid method of destroying;


the tree should


then


receive an applidtion


le of the washes', as soon as the young scale insects hatch.


The


text rainy spell wouldsoon- replace the limbs removed, and after-


ds one would have


no trouble in keeping his trees free from


'cales.


ASUHX


L-A wash made from


whale-oil soap, and


syringed


a decootion


upon


of tobacco leaves


parts infested with


;he young lice,
)adly aeeted,


always kill them.


it would


be advisable


trunks


to apply the wash


of trees


W


ended by Dr. Harris, in his celebrated work on Insects Injdii-


usto


which' is as follows:


made


two parts of soft soap and eight of water,


1t if k ito be mixed lime enough to bring it to the consists


,:t whiwah. This is to
Jnb ti. the toee. with a brush, and


q-.


;-'s *v-*


e put upon


the trnks


u high as practicable,


the whole surface and il all the emcks in the bak.









THE


WHITE


SCAL5,


(cropl rawoi, Linn)


[Ord., H:


. Fym.,


OOWOD^-]


BIBIUOOlAPmoAL.


4wcnw rwci, Linn., Sys. Nat.-Fab. Syst. Ent., 1175
Idu, Spec., Ins., 1781. Id., Mitie Ins., 1787.


r4., Ent. Sya., 1794
Mfodeer, Act. Goth.,


1


jiv., Eocyc. Meth., 1


Id., Sys. Ryng, 1808.
778. Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1701.
791. .eurica, Fab. Ent. 8yt., 1794.


14., Syst.,


yiig.,


Aoad., 1775.
Boieduval, Ent.,


1804.


Bernard, Mem.


Hist.


Nat.,


et Mem.


Fronkcol, Ann.' Stc. Ent., 18*4.
Short 1867. Lopus teulata, Klein, 1784.


Calypnt.u teetudinesa
line.


Oosta,


1887


Faun. Begm., Nap.,


Gal-


Clurmnna tetudinata, Targioni, 1866.


- Atti del, deorg6f.


Id., Studi Sulle COocinig, Ext. Soe. Ital. Scien., Milan., et Catal,


1868.


(Signoret.)


This species, as the bibliographical account


shows, has been renamed


by various authors,


thqs creating for it many synonyms. '
It was frst described by Lian"eu, pader the
name of C7 rwCi, and although bioue'tly
redescribed by various authors, it must Still


retain the original name given by him.
a A


Trs DmTrIBToDN
It is widely distributed bethg fiEi in Ea-


"pe,,


Australia, and


America.


Like


the,
long


SBtothbttn bpt


fawrii4 it bes probably been izpbl ml


AridubKa


this country; as I


can find


no rtdo itob


having


been found


ossid. *tarf


back, and it .i now'jtM


* j-enr a


w


W





9P^^ale


S\ rdb i' ^I





O344GB
,-*.1' .* I


xNnBr^.


ITS FOOD PLAuTS.
, i \ i


M. Siporet Eussai sr lea Cpocbinelj gives its foqd


Europe ye


myrtle, ommopn


hpl1y,


plants


wormwqe4.


Florid, I hpye found it on the myrtle, orage, fig, and olepder.


Prof. J


E, Comstpqn in his tour through Florida la$t spring,


told me he found it in abundance on the gallberry, (Iska glabr.)

IT8 NATURAL HISTORY.


The
myrtle,
from .1


scale, (-Plate 8,
showing scales


0 to


fig. 1, greatly enlarged; fig.


attached,) when


.14 of an inch in length,


7, branch


fully matured, averages


by from


.06 to .08 of an inch


in breadth, and is


highly arched.


tessellated


with


seven


well-defined


, oval, elevated


checkers,


three


on each


side, nearly round, the
triangular.


seventh


at posterior, being more or less


At first the color is whitish, resembling wax, with which it is
similar in consistency, being soft and pliable. As it reaches ma-


turity, it becomes pinkish,


with a slight yellowish tint in depres-


sions.
and t


Just


before


top changes


young


to a dark


hatch, !
brown.


takes a globular form
The summer brood of


young hatch from sixteen to twenty days after the egg has been


laid.


The female (Plate 8, fig. 4) is flattened, oval, resembling,


when highly magnified, a wood-louse, only not so convex.


It is


pale


yellow in


color,


with


light


brownish


lateral


dorsal


stripes, probably caused by the viscera.


the posterior end s.


a deep


triangular indentation, from


centre


of which


prQ-


trades a fleshy tubercle, reaching to outer


edge


from


each cor-


ner of the notch, on either side of the tubercles, is a long caudal


filament, nearly


as long


as the


body.


(Plate 3, figs. 3 and 4.)


On each side of these


filaments are


short


hairs.


The eyes are


round and black, at
tenna, moderately


can be seen from


long, six-jointed,


below an'


d a ove.


(not easily made


An-


out,) with


three long hairs on inner side, and three at apex, the inner being


the longest.


They


crawl around


or three


days


after


hatching, then


insert their


beaks, and


become


attached


surface of the leaf or bark;


the waxy secretion frnms over them


in small globules, and in a few days is plainly visible in the form
of small,. white, round, elevated' soots astoundinr the insect,


nut above


the i


I


As it


adenirl
Dmr__eularlv


(breathinn-holm.1


|






ORANGE


INBEWTrs.


increases in size, the limbs,


which are of


no more use, gradually


disappear, (Fig.


2, plate 8,) and on reaching maturity it forms a


brownish oval pupa, (Plate* fig.
one hundred in number. In one


6,) which encloses-its eggs, over
I counted one hundred and five I


These


are elliptical, and


of a


pale


yellow


color.


(Sbe


plate 3.)


NUMBER OF BROOD8.


During the year there are three broods


the first brood hatches


in April
third, last


and May; s
of August


second,


middle of July to


to second


first of


August


week in September.


Some idea of their prolificness can be
that nothing prevents the hundred eggs of


formed


flrs


by supposing
t brood from


hatching out in April, and each egg being allowed to mature; in


July,


each


insect


again


produces


a hundred,


making just


thousand


now, suppose these, too, hatch, each producing its hun-


dred, this would give a grand total of one million.


the offspring of


a single insect


in one


season


One million,
; this rate, it


would


take


long


every


orange,


or quince


Florida to be filled with them.


Thanks, however, to that immu-


table law which governs the universe, they have their enemies to
prey upon and keep them under.
ITS NATURAL ENEMIES..


The


Twice-Stabbed


Blood-Red Lady-Bug,


are its chief


enemies.


Lady-Bug, Chiloc
Cyloneda sanguine
The latter, I have


orne


bivulnerws;
id a chalcid


as vet been unable to


procure specimens of, although I have found many of the scales
perforated with a hole in the top, through which it made its exit.
I hope, in time, to secure these and determine the species.
I have also discovered a very small, active, minute mite, (Plate
3, fig 12,) about 300ths of an inch in length, with eight legs, two


pair thrust


forward


parr


backwards,


crawling about


among the eggs and old scales.


Whether it is an


I cannot say, as I have failed to detect


am inclined to think it merely preys


it doinj


upon


enemy or not,


Sandy injury. I
decaying matter


of the old scales.
DUBSIPTIVE.







ORANGE IN8EOTB. 1

first whitish, changing to a pale yellow' before hbtching, and promiscuously en-
closed in dried-up body walls of the female.
Latis, oz FPa-AU-Length about 4.1 of an inch, flattened, pale yellow, nearly
three times long a broad, and with two pale brownish, longitudinal dorsal
Mands, one on each aide of the middle, probably cased by the viscea Antenmn
six joint, third and last joint longest, other joint thick and irregular, the last
ending in three or four hairs, two of which are.long, interior one being the longer.
Also two long inner hairs, with other shorter hairs below these. Legs, normal,
ending in a feeble claw, surrounded by three or four short hairs and one digitulL
Abdomen costs of seven segments, and deeply trangulrly notched at the
end, with a fleshy tubercle protruding from the centre, reaching to outer edge,
two long anal mset, nearly the length of body, with a short hair on either side, a
few short hairs surrounding outer edge.
SeaL.--Oval, highly arched when matured, from .16 to .14 of an inch in
length by from .06 to .08 of an inch in width, and nearly the same in height,
teUsellated on top with seven well-defined checkers, lateral three roundish, the
seventh more or les triangular. Color whitish or pinkish, tinted in depreedons
with yellow, losing most of the checkers and becoming globular and brownish
with age.


et
4






9*






9<






oaeu zxSEmw .


EXP44AA4TSN TIO


Pigurp .-Showing taiow on le 4of e rr4 .
Pig. 8.-Showing insect nnder scale,aer losing one pair o le .
Fig. t.-Under surface of Scale fully matured.
FrP. 4.- -emale, soon after hatching.
Fig. 5.-Same viewed from beneath.
Fig. 6.-Matured female, having lost items limbs, and with piece
of body wall removed so as to show eggs enclosed. -
Fig..7.-Egg, highly magnified.


Fig. 8-Egg,


with insect hatching.


Fig. 9.-Egg Shell after escape of


insect.


Fig. 10.-Antenna.
Fig. 11.-Foot, showing digituli.
Fig. 12.-Mite, found crawling under the old scale.

S


PLATE






















~4
V


'- V
* *


' 1w#,-'' *
yr




4f3


-./ .t! .

- -V


F .,v* *



A .I~ ?-
i,- ^ .

>i ~ r. ^


- 4


I A l.

-
i '


.- -
'V0


*i '.


f .


* .

4




".- A'


* s
-V


-4


-


I '


-,


1' A I
i;l
j w ..V.,


4; k


-4



ad' l
' *


.--. *-


S,-
., -*^ r


*'
1 .1,
a f
..'\^
S' .J'-


*;/.


,zt E. .


* -


1'-


t


k


) I


. -'.


53 Af


* '1


3F :Id
'.*


/I IW


I









THE


RED,


aR


CIRCULAR


SCALE.


(Cryagmphalue jc, Riley.)


[Ord., HBM.PTeA.


Fam., COCaIDa.]


BIBLIOGeOAPHIAL.
Chryaompacaluseuwa, Riley, Manuscript Notes.


Chrysompkalue lcuw, Ashmead, Fla.


Agriculturist, 1879.


C7ryysomphalue uu, Ashmead, Pacific Rural Preee,


1880.


ITS FIRST APPEARANOE INr FLORIDA.


InSeptember, 1879,


I received


following communication,


with specimens of infested leaves, from Mr. G. M.


Holmes


ORANDO, Oiange County, Sept. 20,
"W. H. H. As H.D-


"Dear Sit:-Enclosed


send


a leaf of


an orange tree


infested with what appears to be a species of


scale insect,


which


is new to us down here.


It spreads from tree to tree very rapidly,


is not


confined to the leaf, but appears upon


tender


stems


and thorns.


Tou


can see it turns the


yellow


wherever


16catese


itself.


I should


much to be dreaded, and if


to know


whether it is an


enemy


you have had experience with it and


the cure.


Although


a stranger to


you,


see by


Florida


Agriculturist, you have made the insects on orange trees a study,


thought you might give


particular insect.


The scale being new to


me some


information about this


Yours, respectfully,
G. M. Honms."


immediately forwarded spedi-


means to Prof. O.


R. iley,


lowing:
"The Circular, Dark


from


Brown


long been in my cabinet, and


Scale,


I have


reply I quote the fol-


with a golden centre, has
found is quite injurious to


ce nitida.


I have


designated


C~Oorymphaiue foL, but have


not published


manuscript name,
any dewriptioi of


it, asM


the mere description


of the


scale,


tqirng tbI kn4et that ntere it, in both


without


fully


charac-


sexes, is imperfect ento-






ORANGE


MINBeaT.


ITS IMPORTATION AND SPREAD.


Angeles,


San Jose,


California, and indeed, in


various


parts of the State, it is


quite


numerous


on the


orange, and


there known as


the "Red


&cale."
The orange tree has but
lately been introduced and


grow
this


n


in California,. and


particular


species


therefore,


Flg. 8.


introduced


into the State


not indigenous


* there.
SWhere, therefore, did it
come from, and how 1as it
Theee are two very important ques-


tions.


Now,


commercial


relations


existing between the CalifOr-


nians with the


people


China,


Japan


Australia, point to


either one of these countries


as the


original


home, Or


starting


point from


which


.has spread.


Indeed,


many


oranges


have


been imported from all these places, and. it would not be surpris-


ing if, like our own Long Scal the


Red Scale hdd been impor-


ted in the same manner-i. e., on the leaves, branches or twigs of
an imported tree. .


rrI FOOD PLANT.


Prof. 0.


. Riley


states


he first found it on the .Fkus i ida.


This, I presume, is an exotic species of fig.


I see by the Pacific


Rural Press, that this, or an 4lUied specie,'had been found on the


apple trees in San


Jose,


Cal.


SWith


the orange, it attacks


fruit, leaves and twigs, seeming to
other.


like one about as well as the


rmw NATURAL mBTOBTI.


I have


been


'able to


work


up this


insect


thoroughly for


want of specimens.


What little I have done, is due to the kind-


nee of Mr. G. M. Holmes, who has kindly


sent


from which my cuts and figures have been made.
senate part of an orange leaf with scale attached.


me specimens
Figbre 8 repre-


From


specimens received at ditfre


at 'l| ast tkpal


1.taaAa IS


n_ ad t_


|-a 1


a a


,I know there are
.4 '- ^ -





OANGE INSEarB8.


week in August;


and the.


third


, last of September to first week


in October;


these two last broods


sent me by -Mr.Holmes.
The young (Plate 4, figs. 4 and 6


I have raised from specimens

) are less than .01 of an inch


long, nearly twice as long as broad, and of a bright yellow color;


antenna, six-jointed, ending at tip into two


long hairs, the inner


being the


longer,


with


three


inner


two outer


hairs


lower


down


the abdomen has no indentation or notches like the other


species, and the two anal filaments


are very short.


The


figures


n Plate 4, give an excellent


idea of the


different parts, and no


one can fail to recognize them after studying the figures.


The egg (Plate 4, fig.


7) is


than


.01 of


an inch long, and


is of
takes


a blight yellow color, not


quite


twice as long, as wide.


from five to six weeks for this to mature


this time, if


we examine one of the scales, we will find a f Zltlesslarva, (Plate 4,


underneath it of a golden


color.


This soon dies, enclos-


ing its eggs in its own body.


The young, on hatching, force their


out after


remaining


or three


days under the scale.


Sometimes they attach themselves to the leaf under the old scale,


all huddled in a heap together.


but two or three,


When


as there is not enough


the case, all


sustenance to keep all


alive, and the weaker must succumb to the stronger.
4


ITS NATURAL -sNmcsE.


Being so far from


vicinity where this species is found, I


im unable


give


a list of its foes, but know that the Twice-


Stabbed Lady Bug, axd one or two other insects belonging to the


Coccinellida, are found
it to a certain extent.


where


it occurs,


must prey upon


B mm.EDB.


Mr. G. M. Holmes


writes me from Orlando, Fla., under date


of August 6th, as follows: "As you request, I forward you by
this mail a box containing specimens of the Ckhryomphalus fcue,


rhich I hope may reach you in good order.


They have not done


ne any material


damage as yet, but


I keep my


trees in a very


healthy condition and thrifty growth, as I have a large drove of


battle, and can cow-pen't hm.


In my experiments for their re-


oval, I have been most successful in the use of a strong brine


I







ORANGEx


INBErT .


is heroic treatment, a
with them, and if do,
send' out a luxuriant
before I think if po
be an improvement,
have my beet wishes
Dlv a want much felt


The
tried.


washes recomi


nd takes
ne just p
new gro
'tash was


rior
wth
Smix


and I am g
for success w
by intelligei
ended for t


leaves off, but the scale comes
to a growing season, they soon
and seem more healthy than
ed with salt .and water it would
going to use it that way. Yon
ith your book, which will sup-
It orange growers."
he other species might also be


DEOSCRIfPIVE.
Eeos.-From 18 to 80 under each scale, less than .01 of an inch in length,
ovoid, smooth, not quite as long as broad, of a bright yellow, promiscuously en-
closed in body walls of dead female.
LavBa, ou FPMAL..-Length of body less than .01 of an inch, nearly twice a
long as wide, bright yellow, ovoid, much wider towards bead, being tbb widest
at thoracic segments; tyv very short anal setse, hinder margin rough from nu-
merous small fleshy tuflercles, with afew short hairs around margin, no indenta-
tion like C. rusco, &o. Amrams, six-jointed, (not easily made out with my
microscoe which 1l of a low power,) basil joint short and stnt, nearly as wide
as long, joints two and three smaller in width and of equal size, joints four and
five about equal, longer and thicker than two and three, joint sx' mch thinner,
ending at tip into two long hairs, inner being longest, an inner and outer hair on
bMll Joint, with two inner hairs and two outer above these; Las, with single
Jointed tared, ending in feeble claw and four digitull, the two upper being longest,


femora thickly swollen, with a distinct lobe near bae, from
lae, (Plate 4, fig. 9.)
SoLu..-Form round or circular, flattened, liglitly riin
from a reddih to blackish yrown color, paler at margin, me
. 12 of an inch in diameter; in the centre is a slight circular
pemens .08 to .08 of an inch in diameter, andof a bright
a small brown cap.


which a sharp spine


g towards centre, of
mauring from .04 to
depr.iom, in large
olden yellow, with









tI






ORANGE INSECTS.
S


EXPLANATION


Figure 1.-Scale of


Fig. 2.-Sm, bowing larval form


Fig. 3.-Immature larval form.
Fig. 5.-Fully matured laval for.t,


golden centre in top of


PLATE


beneath.


depression caused by


scale.


Ejg. 4 and 6.-Insect soon after hatching.
U Fig. .- Eg.


Fig. 8.-Form of
Fig. 9.-Hind leg,


Egg-shell just after the insect
showing lobe with hair.


hatched.


Fig. 10.-Right anteanna.


N-


6Orysomrphalw fcus, enlarged.











THE


OVAL


SCALE.


(Aspidiotus citricola, Packard.)


[Ord.,


HaEMwrrn.


Fam., OooOIDJ).


Bib I *IOdL
Aepidiotue citricola, Packard, Guide to Study of Insects.
Prof. Packard, in his Guide to the Study of Insects, page 1678


states this insect as having


been


found


on the orange


tree


Florida by Townend Glover, and gives it the name of itricola,


stating


at the same


time the possibility of its proving identical


with Boisduval's A .itri,


which


was found damaging the orange


crops


Maritime


Alps of


Northern


Italy.


belongs


properly to the genus Aspidiotus.


In my opinion, it is probably


identical


with Signoret's limonii; but from


my present


knowl-


edge of the Coccidm, I do not feel warranted in positively stating


it to


be so.


I3T IMPORTATION AND SBPEAD.


Thb only account of its


introduction is that


in the Agricultural Report for the year 1855.


given by Glover
He.says: "While


on the subject of


Orange


Scale insects, it may be well


men-


tion that some time last year (1855) another ocus was imported
into Jacksonville, Florida, on some lemons sent from Bermuda;


and as they may,
to draw attention


perhaps, spread in the vicinity, it would be well
to the insect, and describe it as far as known.


The length of the fully grown female scale is rather more thtn


the twentieth of an inch;
brown color; the grub is of


it is somewhat pear-shaped, and of a
a reddish-yellew, and furnished with


a piercer from its breast, like the coccus first described; the young


have two antenna, six legs and two long


hairs or bristle, at the


end of the body.
and is formed of


The male scale is ndt so large as


a white


cottony or


parohment-fike


female,


substance ,


pxasttituting a case, with an. elevated ad r
p415.%-,- .^


wounded ridge in the






OBALNGN IXBITS.


,ast skin of the larva.


male larva is reddish in color, and


measures not more than the fortieth


an inch in length.


The


perfect fly ii. 0 red, and is furnished with two hairy antennae,
iix lees, and h : the.Athorax very larre. The two wins are


U C


C


;rasparent, and t eind of the body
lard projectioL As it is very probe


is furnished with a curved
able that this insect will in-


grease, it would be well to note any progress it may make during


;he ensuing year, and to use


remedies


suggested in the first


article on the coccus on the orange."
This well timed warning was not heeded, and the consequences
Allowed.


ITB DISTRIBUTION.


now


pretty


carried from place


widely
place


distributed


through


winds,


Florida, being


on fruit, &c.,


but is


Itill found much more abundantly in


ville.


It is also found in Louisiana, the


surrounding


West


Indies,


Jackson-
Southern


Europe,


Australia,


probably wherever the


orange is culti-


Fated.


ITS NATURAL HISTORY.


Unlike the long scale, which


is generally


found


on the twigs


md branches, these species seem to be confined to thet fruit and
leaves, disfiguring the former to such an extent as to'damage the


In an injurious point of view,


it does


not compare


with


the others; still,


it injures the appearance of the fruft, asd every


possible means should


employed


pread.
The ovoid or pyriform scale,


eight yellowish brown,
n length, with a very
Formed female (Plate


to prevent its increase and


sometimes


nearly round, is of


averages from .03 to .05 of


thin lighter margin.


1,fig.


is encased


an inch


Under it, the pupa-
in a white cottony


substance.


is purplish,


with numerous small fleshy tubercles


frrounding hinder, edge, with a yellow anus.


eggs (Plate 1,


Jig. 11)


are of


a pearly


white color,


ess than .01 of


an inch in length,


and somewhat pointed at one


They


number


from


eighteen


twenty-five


under each


eale.


The young are broadly oval, .01 of


inch long, some-


bo4t sAfawnkiiwfr.. *Lr inns ala ownnrnhnnr thra


h av


twn ,andli





OSAWn ma.


ITS NATURAL ENUMS. .
Besides the Orange Aphelinus, Twiee-Stabbed Lady Bug, and
its larva, the Minute Scymnus and the Large Scymnus, there are


three


other insects


prey


upon


it-a Mite, the Blood Bed


Lady Bug, and a hymenopterous


parasite


belonging to the- lal


cidide family.


These are all of


the greatest importance in the


destruction of this scale.


The Mite may be known as "Glover's,


or the


Yellow Orange Mite,"


the Lady Bug as


above,


hymenopterous fly as "the Blue


Yellow-Cloaked Ohalcid" of the


orange.


above-mentioned


enemies,


excepting


the last


three, have been described under the Long Scale; we have, thd


fore


but the habits of these three to treat of and describe.


GLOVER'S


THE


YELLOW


ORANGE


MITE.


(TyroglyphAus (tmeri, Ashmead.


[Ord, ABOHNOIDEA.


Famn., TYBOGLYPHIDA.]


BIBLrOGnERAPIAL.


T. Gloer, UIT


S. Agricultural Report for 1856.


Acarus Gloverii,


Ashmead


, The Florida Agriculturist,


Vol.


No. 6T, 1879.


Acarue ? Gloverii,


Ashmead,


Canadian Entomologist,


Vol.


1879.


TIBRST NOTION OF THe Mx'.


In the U


8. Agricultural


Report for 1855, I find the follow


of this mite by Townend Glovrw.


S'Thdre are asbo found on


orange treee numbers of smuDl


mites which have frequently been mistaken for the ymtung


hot they may be very easily distinguished by their activity fron


the young sele iheecte,


which
leg,


crawl


abotit


very slowly.


mites


have


eight


hairy


somewhat


those


minute


spiders, and are mostly of
also found of a delicate


running


a yellowish


pink


among the stationary


hue.
CODCCI


colot,


They


although some ari
are generally seer


may


often


be fount


eoooeaed under the old scales;


int whether they


do any


to tLmr, o merely feed up.. th dad or dyig ,oc*' has n


aww






OBAiG


InaEtre.


Although the
characterize this
honor, Glovrsii.


first discoverer,


mite, I


Glover did


name or


therefore described agd named it in his.


rru LI HIwOTBY.


During the winter and spring of


1879-80, finding these mites


very numerous,


studied


up their life history, (on orange trees


in my yard,) an account of which was published in the American
Entomologist for April, 1880, and is as follows:


mite


belongs to the genus Tyroglyphus.


tween two and three hundred,


der part of


are laid


an orange leaf, generally close


mary vein, and frequently alongside of


The eggs,


December on the un.


a midrib or a pri-
They are ellip-


a scale


tical,


a reddish-yellow


color,


nearly


-twice as long as broad,


and very finely granulated.


Length about 1-500ths of


an inch.


From the middle of
hatches a six-legged


January


mite,


until


a bright


four oval black spots on hinder part


middle


blood-red,
abdomen.


March, there
with three or


sparsely


covered with long hairs, six of these, (two anterior, two posterior,


lateral,)


are much


longer


than


others.


from


three to four weeks, these curl up their legs and form


a sort of


pupa, which, in a few days,


changes


an eight-legged mite,


having nearly the shape as before, only larger, broader and more
flattened; with two short hairs protruding from the head, and of


a lighter shade of red.


these


stages they are gregarious, all


living hudd
again chan|
in Canadial
mites are a]
grower.



THE


[
This isa
September,


lied together close to midrib.


The eight-legged


mite


ges its skin and becomes the active little mite described


n Entomologist.


Scales on the same


wiith these


Ways empty, proving they are beneficial to toe orange


BLUE


YELLOW-OLOAKED


(Sigipsora oravopalliatue, N


Ord., HrEMNOPTERA.


very


anomaouBa


OHALOID.
Sp.)


Fam., CHALOIDZ.]


chalcid fly,


discovered


me in


running over the leaves of orange trees infested with


I






OBrIAON mEBw..

r8l NATUBAL HISTORY.


Its habits are gmilar to the orange aphelinos.


I have watched


several


through my pocket


lens,


They would run up to a scale, tap
not satisfied with their inspection,


as they
it with


are not


timid.


their antenna, and if


would run off to another, end


so on until they were suited,


then


backing


arftnd they seemed


to insert ;their ovipositor, probably


at the


same


time depositing


an egg into the scale.


' The fly is a beautiful, little creature, less


than .02 of


an inch long, robust,


with


head wider than 'thorax,


three ocelli, three-jointed antenna, first joint


being long, second'


small and round, third' long and


wide,


dlub-shaped ;


abdti-


men is somewhat sharply pointed


with


a rather long- ovipositor


in the end;


head


abdomen


are bluish-black,


while


thorax


is orange-yellow


wings are clear,


iridescent,


strongly fringed or ciliated with


long hairs, with shorter ones on


their surface


legs are


pale yellow, and


furnished with an anomalous five-lobed appendage,


hinder pair is
where usually


is the tibial spur.
little friend.


Plate 2, fig. 2 gives an


Sinoe writing the above,


have


excellent idea of our


raised specimens from scales


put in a glass tumbler, and find that it is parasitic on this species.


Owing to the anomalous character of this fly


to which it belongs.


can find no genus


I therefore, propose a new one, under the


name of ,Signiphora, (the token bearer.)
BIGNIPHORA NOV. GEBN.


Form


robust,


polished,


or shining ;


head


much


wider than


thorax, 4ree


jointed;
close to
small ai
thorax 1


ocelli,


antennae


triangularly


inserted


gether, three-jointed


round


broad


third


, nob quite


large


front
first
and


as long


arranged,


between


joint


labial
Sthe


or scape


fusiform,


as abdomen;


palpi
eyes,


three-
rather


long, second


(Plate 2, fg. 8;)
legs setaceous,


with five-jointed tarsi, first joint longest; Aid tia in place of
the ual spine, finished witi an anomalosa fi -lobed ape-


dae, (Plato 2, fig.


respect,


differing


from


known
inog in


chalcid.
rather a


Abdbmen


somewhat sharply pointed


ovipositor, (Plhe 9, fig;


and end-


Wing. well


J.. Al a .4= ,,dm.,,a,,.1 .dl


(PIlh Q


AL RLAr BA


flra


1


long


dI*A






OAnFM InsBO.

DEfOBIPlPIVB.


SleIarPoBA rLvo-PAnnTUO N. .--Female.-Length .09 of aninch, Ro-
bust, polished; mAn bluish-black, much wider than thorax, three ocelli, black,
two rauied curved line, ooe on each ide of anteoams 'm imminent, numerous
facets; ArnTama three jointed, first joint shorter thanthird, wider and rounded
st apex, second joint very small and round; apical, or third joint, longer than
frst, six or seven times longer than second, and widening very much, clavtform;
rnomx stout, nearly as wide along, ad of an orange-yellow, excepting a m.-e
ent shaped space collagee) next to the head, which is bluish-black;a namo
longer than thorax, bluish-black, and decreasing sharply to a point, ending in
father a long ovipositoa; mitin seatTor unifotr blush-black, with a few haih
n the different segmeatS; wises hyaline, rlduoent and strongly ihad, well
wounded at apex, with short set. on the surface; Luse pale yellow, with five
pointed tar, status, femora, amewhat woolen. Instead of a tibial spur on
inder legs, there is a singular anomalous apical five-lobed appendage, (See Plate
f, fg. 15,) alo two exterior spiny processes-oa not quite touehting eoh
other. Male not yt discovered. Inhabits Florida. Described from numeroS
specimens


THE


BLOOD-RED


LADY


BUG.


(Cycloneda eanguinea, Linn.)


[Ord., COLEOP ERA.


Fam.,


COOINELmzrm.]


This well known species is widely distributed over the
United States. In Florida it is particularly numerous on
>ak shrubs, evidently attracted there by a species of aphis.


Fig.*.


ITS NATURAL HISTORY.


The larva of this species is entirely different from that of the
?wice-8tabbed Lady Bug, being devoid of spines, flattened, with
ransverse yellow bands' and spotted with black. It is most
abundant in the spring, and is exceedingly active and voracious,
inning about in search of scale insects or aphides; on seizing one,
t stops and immediately begins to devour it, then starts off in
earch of others, seemingly unable to appease its appetite. On
teaching maturity, it fastens itself to a leaf by secreting a gummy
ubetance, and gradually tnasforms into a naked pupa, changing
- a few days to a perfect beetle, which is red, without spots or


i


I
1


t
t
I






OANGEM INOUTSe.


THE


BROAD


SCALE.


(Lecanium rid, Linn.)


[Ord., HBrumiaA.


Faim., Cocomoo.]


BIBLIOGRAPHIOAL.


Coccus


eaperidurm,, Linn,


Sye. Nat., 1735.


ld. Fann. Sne.,


1746.


La Hire et


Sedilean


1692.


Coccus


Aeeeridum,


Hist


Acad. Sciences et Mem.


Acad, Sciences, 1704.


Reaumur Frist.


Ins., 1736.


Geoffroy Ins., 1762.


Sulzer Ins., 1861.


Schaefer


Element
Nat., 1,


Meth.,
Shrank


1766.


r88


i7Tr.
1791.
Emon.


Modeer


DeVillier's


Fabrieius
Anst., 1


Act.
Sys.
Ent.


L783.


Gothend


Nat.,


Syst.,


1778.


1789.


1794,


Fonscolombe,


Gmelin,


Olivier,


et
Ann.


Encytlo.


lyst.
Soc.


Ryng.
Ent.,


1834.
1840.


Burm, Handb. Ent.,


Calymnatue


1835.


Blanchard, Hist. Nat.


Costa


Nuev.


Observa,


1835.


Costa Faun. Ins. Nap.


Gallinsects, 1837


. Lubbock, Proc. Roy.


Soc., IX, 1848, and Ann. Nat. Hist, 1839.


Beck, Trans. Micros.


Soc.,


London, new


series,


1861.


Boisduval' Ent. Hortic.


1867.


Targioni,


Catal.


1868.


(Signoret.)


This is another scale insect found on the leaves of the orange,
and is by far less numerous and less to be feared than any of the
others.
SITS IMPORTATION AND SPREAD.


Like the Long Scale, the


Mealy Bug,


Oval


Scale and the


Red Scale, it has been imported, but in what year or about wh:
time, it is impossible to find out.


IT DISTRIBUTION.


It and cocms ciri, are


only


two scales mentioned as inju


rious to


orange trees


in Rieso


Poiteau's


elaborate


work on Lthistoire des Oranges," both of which are qui


widely spread throughout


Southern Europe.


Although


known for many years to infest the orange trees of Florn


da, it has confined its attacks chiefly


to the leaves,


has not spread rapidly,


nor done


munch


mischief.


seldom seen, except early in tie spring and sometimes i1


I -


the fall.


Why


.it hab not increased nore .rapidly, is


Aespgeridum,






OBANGA II

IT NATURAL


SDCrOS.


HISTORY.


This scale (Fig. 10, after Glover, Plate 1, fig.


largest found on the orange.


12) is one of the


It is oval, somewhat elongated, aver-


aging from .08 to


.14 of


an inch long, and but slightly wider at


end.


It is of


a greenish brown color, highly convex,


with


wide flat margin surrounding the convex part, a -posterior inden-
tation withtwo lateral ones on each side, caused by the anus and


legs.


($ee Plate 1,


t. 0 )


SThe onsae part is arlo pauatrod


with lrge, irregpler r~e indentations, whioh, asthe insect meaches


maturity, .disappear, and the .seale becomes dark brownish.


The


larva is elongated, oemi-transpa~ent, ,(8ee,
the vxecer Qatjnqt)y seenn wd$r the sca


Plat


e 1, g.10) with
Thbe 7yang, wh


rit ba~tched,


(Fig. 3A,) are little woer .01 of an indh in length.


They are -yellowish,


with


long


anal


filaments,


resembling


very much thosQ previously deacribd.


Tkoy


may, how ever, be


readily


4 rijt nJed?


from


tbem by their having aeen-jointed


antennae instead of six.
ON THE DIGESTIVE AND NERVOUS SYSTEM.


Sir John Lubbock, in


Vol. XI of the Microscopical Society of


London,


gives


a very


nervous system of


deal of


interesting
insect. H


account of the


:e shows that there


digestive and


is


variation in the intestines of different specimens.


a great
(Plate


, figs. 13 and 14, represents the usual form.)


Plate


, fig.


14.--,


!hep tic


glands.


esophagus,


long and narrow, or stomach.


pyriform crop bag or stomach,


with a remarkable cellular contorted


internal gland.


ilium,


short


intestine


opening


rectum


narrow tube


leading into rectum,


which opens into vent on upper side of body


, recurrent intestines,


ends of


which


are attached


tihe stomach, F


cecum


swoolen


its base,


and probably


the equivalent of the sucking stomach.


THE


YELLOW


OHALOID


THE


ORANGE.


(lWchogramma lavu, N


Sp.)


[Ord,, HTrEOPnEBA.


Fim.


, CHaMeIDDa.]


This litti


n-aln.. a


' ma first dmteuted


noon the


leaves of


some






ORANGE INSEOT8.


lar to the others. I cannot state positively to which scale its
attacks are confined, but as I found one under Lecanium heeperi-
dum, I presume it preys upon it, and may account for the scarcity
of this scale.
DMSOBrIPnVE.
TIzxoenOB MMA nLAvue, N. Sp. -Female. -Length .04of an inch. Head wider
than thorax, brownish, three ocelli triangularly arranged, with two smaller red
ones back of these. Eyes reddish, excepting dark spot on side nearest ocelli.
Antenne, fiAve-ointed, yellowish red, first Jbint longer than two and three com-
bined and narrows than joint two. Joint two not as long as fit, but wider-n
long a joints three and four together. Joints three and four equal, narrower
than second, Fifth, or apical joint, s long as second, third and fourth combined
and much wider, claviform. Thorax and abdomen a bright yellow, reddish along
hinder prt of thrax, where it joins abdomen. Abdomen brownish on segments
one to five around the spiracles, also a few hairs issuing, therefrom. Ovipostor
long, mrrounded at bese with short hairs. Wipg hyaline, fore wings rather long
and well rounded, with fringing of short fine cili. Hind.wings narrow, curving
into a sharp point from the middle, also ciliated. Under surface uniform yellow.
Legs thin; paler but uniform in color, sparsely covered with hair, a short tibial
spur, tam five jointed. (Plate 1, Pig. 4.) Described fma tour iqpemens.


THE


MEALY


BUG.


(Dact ylopiue adonidum, Linn.)


[Ord, HEMIPTA .


Faro., Cooo0D].


BIBLIOGRAFHIOAL.


Coccus adonidum, Linm
Geoff. Ins., 1764. Fab. SJ
Id. Syst. Byng., 1801.
Goth., 1778. Gmelin, 1781
Paris, 1785. Oliv. Encyc.


., Syst.
rst. Ent.,
Id. Ent.
8. DeV
Meth., 1


Nat.,
1775.
Syst.,
illiers,
791.


1767.
Id. 8S
1794.


C. adonidum;
pee. Ins., 1781.
Modeer Act.


1791. Foureroy Ent.
Haworth, Ent. Trans.,


1812. Diaprotetfut
Bouche Gart. Ins., 1
Blanchard, Hist. Nat
Nat. article QochenD
Hem., 1848. TareJ
Chron., 1848. Coc
C. qdonidum, Mitner
1881. Boijduval E


adonidu .,Costa, 1828. C7.
833. B ester; Handb. der I
t. Ins., 1840. id., 1848. Dict. I
ille. Amyot. et Serville Hist.
ocwrys adEnidum, Onuster Rur
us Zumias, Lucas, Ann. Soc. Ent.
SIns. nufsiblee anX plants de Cafe
nt. Hist.,. 1867. Dacrtyoph


idonidum,
Snt., 1835.
Iniv. Hist.
Nat. Ins.
ic, Gard.
Fr., 1855.
a Ceylon,
zdonidum,





ORANGE INBEOT8.


This insect, aa the above


bibliographical


account


shows,


been known to the entomologist for over a century.
ITS IMPORTATION AND SPREAD.


Having


been


imported


various


hot-house


plants,


spread so rapidly as to


found abundantly on different plants,


shrubs and trees in nearly every part of the United States.
ITS FOOD PLANTS AND INOREASE.


In Europe, it has


long


been known


to in-


fest certain plants and shrubs, and is particu-


Larly destructive to the
In Florida, besides t


Pine-apple.
Le Pine apple,


lately attacked the orange, guava


and grape-


e.
So numerous has it' become and so difficult'


to exterminate,
)range trees, w


that there


are now very few


ith the exception of


groves in


bouth


escaped


Florida
*j


its


oon check


interior,


ravages.
d. it will


)vgr the State,


If its


which have


progress


ultimately


prove


is not


spread
among


all Fig. U


After Packard.


the worst of the many


njurious insects found


In the beginning


d on the orange.

ITS NATURAL ENEMIES.


studies, I unfortunately took it to be


new species, and gave it the


name


Leaf


Scale


Coccus,


Ahylloccue, an account of which was published in the Canadian


entomologist and Florida


Agriculturist


searches have proved my error.


This particular species


an anomalous


row


character


under


among


1878.


consideration


Coccida.


Subsequent


I find to be


Unlike


thers, it forms no scale for
ot stationary, having power


protection of its eggs,


) move


wherever it pleases.


ggs, instead of being laid under


a scale,


are played


beneath a


ottony-like substance,


secreted by. the


female.


They


are of


ale yellow, elliptical in shape, and about .08 of an inch in length.


I from twelve to sixteen


en of


days


a yellolth qolor, .02 of


a -


these


hatch, and


an inch
-


the young


in length oval,


with





ORANGE INBWIl.
/


covered with a few short hairs;


also two short anal sete
) '


(Pig. 10, after Packard,)
mealy substance has been i
are also short hairs.' The
ing or feeding on the tend


substance


begins


hence the name i
.14 of an inph in
form, and lays its
often become so
the hairs serroun
above the sniracle


L


[ealy B
length,
eggs as
thick' a
ding th


a
U


gives a very
removed. Su
young soon
er leaves and
secreted from
Q. When ft


having
describe
i to form
e body;


good idea
Frrounding
begin to ra
shoots, and
pores all


dllyv row


V 0
a round; aspheri
d above. The
scales, which
particularly do


of it after th


t


0


he outer edge
l al)bot, sune
theine meal
ver the body


n, this insect il
cal or globular
mealy Bsuistnla
are attached to
es it accumulate


s or breathing holes.


THE MALE.


For the past two
species. This fall,
succeeded in finding
tree badly infested
large as the males
book, it is therefore
long undiscovered.
caudal appendage i
filaments issuing fr
head is separated f


) years I have failed to dete
however, I have been more
g him caught in a spider's
with the Mealy Bug. Beie
of the other scale insects
e surprising that i should
It is brownish in color, an
like the male of 4. Olover
om the sixth segment of tih
rom the thorax by a well de
DEBOBIPTIVE.


ct the male ol
fortunate, ha
web on an or
ng nearly twi
treated of in
have remain
Id instead of a
ii, he has two
B abdomen, an
fined neck.


f this
.ving
inge
ce as
this
ed so
long
long
d his


leha-D. ADnomnDv.-Length not quite .04 of an inch. Ala Expanse .08 of
wfl Brownish. Heed parated from thorax. Eye black, prominent, no
^ ernlemible. No beak-in place are two large black'smooth ocelli. An-
ten-jointed, fist joint thick and stat second as thick a fArs and
- ding at top, third longer, much narrower than firs and second, four
five and dzx, about equal, seventh greatly sollen, eighth about Iurns lwnth but
much thinner, 'ninth Slighty longer; tenth greatly swollen, thorax fithtly longer
and muc wider than abdomen wider anteriorly tha rounded I
front. ng hy ptulate, thte vein, coal parallel with outer edge,
thickening at -qtfer and at plcal uargia, 6&ud ven tartiang at quarter of
wing and ingagonally to hinder edg e third i 1 r nlt ju
neath it. Abdm pale yedowlsh, aght ugments dsoMinible, zixth Widest and
with long lamenppendge a prirging out, one from each ids, longer hq ab
domie, av.th mnall-blackih ben rnh, ninth almost a knob. Lgple yel-
low th, eu taSpsnt, with very m lon rrow tilta, hinder taUni joint rodlen
S'.9


]


i






ORANGE


INBEOT8.


ITS NATURAL ENEMIES AND REMEDY.


enemies


have


been


detected


preying


although three or four times 1 caught a large


upon
black


this species,
ichneumon


fly in close proximity to a cluster


of them.


They increase very


rapidly, breeding all through the year, and severe methods should


be used for their destruction.


The


usual


method seem to have


no effect.


I would, therefore, recommend kerosene, diluted with


three


parts


water.


This


should


syringed


over


them.


Great care should be taken to shake the wash well before apply-
ing it, for unless this is done, the oil rises to the top of the water,


and wherever pure kerosene


is ejected


upon the tree, the leaves


and twigs are sure to die.


This is obviated to'


certain


extent


by having the wash properly mixed; for then what few leaves do
die are soon replaced and the trees left free from bugs.


THE


ORANGE


PSOCUS.


(Psocue citricola, Ashmead.)


[Ord., NzaaoPTrzA.


Fam., Peoeorm .]


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL.


Psocua citricla, Ashmead,


Canadian


The Florida Agriculturist,


Vol.


Entomologist,
II, 1879.


Vol. XI,


ITS NATURAL HISTORY.


These
>range


active


trees


thought thej


little


badly a
r might


insects


ffeoted with
possibly be


found


very


the Mealy
beneficial 1


plentifully


Bng.


first,


preying on the


ggs of the latter, but careful observation fails to show any such


disposition on their part. They
feeding upon the excrementitious


ire, however, not injurious, only


particles


caused by the Mealy


g. Their eggs, of a pearls pinkish white, are rval, about
an inch in length and are laid in oval masses, from seven


n, on the under, and sometimes


on the


upper


part of


a leaf,


protected by a closely woven web, through which
)oty particles.


are sprinkled


The young,


when first watched, are exceedingly active,


aphis-


ke looking creature, and are fond of


clustering together under







ORANGE INSECTS.


small wingless ones to those fully developed.
them, they disperse with surprising rapidity.


disturbing


DESCRIPTIVE.
P. crroITIo -Elongate, pale yellowish. Head large, as wide a long, outer
edge from eye to eye forming a perect half circle. Eyes are large and very
prominent. Maxillary palpi four-jointed, thq bhal joint little longer than either
of the others, but narrower-the others about even in length but gradually in-
creasing in thickness, the lapt being the thickest. Antennae three-Jointed, frt
two short, same size, as wide as long. The last joint is long and fliform, reach-
ing nearly to the end of the abdomen and covered with Idng fine hair. Thorax
narrower than head, slightly longer than wide,, rounded at edges, with a tram
verse suture dividing it into two parts (impmature specimen). Abdomen longer
than head and thorax together, eight segments, the largest being nearly as wide
thorax. Legs six, rather long, tarsi two-jointed, ending in two minute clawa
The abdomen and legs have small short hairs springing out all over them. Wings
hyaline, with coastal. subcostal, median and submedian veins. In fore wings the


subcoctal runs parallel with coetal until
and then curves upwards, ending at ten
cell which is opaque. It also sends a v
and curve around upwards until near
lower ending in outer edge. The other


before reaching apex it bends downwards
mrination of coastal vein, forming a itigmal
einlet from before middle that descends
the third of the wing, when it divides, the
runs to below apex, near the edge, where


it divide into two abort veinlets, terminating at outer edge. Medium vein curves
slightly downwards until near the middle of wing, it then divides into two, the
lower descending till near apex of inner.edge, when it suddenly curve upwards,
terminating at outer edge, the cell thus formed being opaque. The other veinlet
ascends, coming the branch of the subostal till just before reaching the apex it
breaks into two veinleti, forming a small. triangular cell at apex. Hind wbogs
contain one coastal, three subcostal, two submedlan, and one internal cell. Length
6f matured specimens from .10 to .12 of an inch.


THE


LEAF


FOOTED


PLANT


BUG.


(Leptogloseus phyllpus, Linn.)


[Ord., HEXIPTERA.


Sub-Fam., AIoaosoLMDNA.]


SmBIBLIOGBAPHIOAL.
Cmi phyU8yst. Nat. ed. i. 781, No. 118.
Lygmaus phyl pz Fab. Ent. Syst., iv, 139.
Anisedii acicincdu, Say. Heteropt, New Harmony, 12, No. 2;
Wolff, Icenes Cin., 196, fig. 190.
Anis eeis con ea, Dallas, Brit. Mus. List Hemipt, ii, 458;,o. 4.






ORANGE INSECTS.


Anisoscelis


phyllopus,


Barns, Handb., ii, 322, No. 5 ;


Westw.,


in Hope Catal. ii, 16.


This


is a curious


shaped, reddish-


brown bug,


and
band
when


tithl a long


a transverse


across
raised,


sharp


yellowish


its wing covers.


show


beak,
white
These,


back


hollowed
red color,


flattehed, of


a bright


with transverse black spots.


The shanks of the hind legs are


tened
(Fig.


out into


leaf-like appendages,


first,


young are


Fig. 12. After Glover.


a bright yellowish


red,


without the flattened


appendages


to the


hind


legs.


(See


lower


figure in cut.)


These only


appear


before


casting


skin.


ITr DESTRUCTIVENE8.


It has not only


sucking .the sap


proved


from


very


tender


destructive to the orange tree by


shoots and terminal branches,


thus killing them,


but I have also observed it thrusting its sharp


beak into plums and sucking their contents


to such an extent as


to rende:
0oore's
the sumi
them in
'ice, just
tages of
ne that
nanner..

The o
satch the


r them unfit either for eating or selling.


place, at Fruit Cove, they


ner of


1879


were


On Mr. T


unusually abundant


, and in August of the same year, I observed


countless numbers, settling upon the heads of the young


before ripening, from six to ten on a blade,


growth,


sucking the "


nearly all his


rloe


milky kernel."


crop was


REMEDY.


nly method of


destruction I


destroyed


in various


Mr. M. informed


them


can at present suggest is to


em in a butterfly net and scald them.


THE


TREE


PLANT


BUG.


(Brockymena 'arborea, Say.)


[Ord,


HFl -- .r ^


Sub-Fam., HUL.YDmA.]


BIBLIOGRAPHIOAL.


S






ORANGE INS8~Ts.


Complete


writing, ii,


239.


Dallas, Brit.


Mue.


List,


Hemip. i,


188, No. 1.


This


as the
oval f


is a large
other, and


orm,


speckled


grey plant


a different


.64 of


shape.


an inch


bug,


not so numerous


It is of a flattened,
length, sides of thorax


being armed with seven small spines


the antenna thin and five-


jointed, reaching to end


of first


ventral


segment;


beak


long and slender, and when


under part of the body,


use lies folded close


reaching to second


to the


ventral segment.


have often caught it on the trunks of, orange trees infested with
scale insect, and think it probably feeds on them, as I have never


detected it feeding upon the young shoots.
tionable whether it is beneficial or injurious.


It is therefore ques-


THE


RUST


MITE


OF THE


OBAN GE.


(PAytoptus oleiwru, Ashmead.)


[Ord., AoAmm&A.


Fam., PHnrrorrm.]


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL.


7Ty lodromus
Vol. XI, 1879.


leiwvoru,


Ashmead,


Florida Agriculturist,


Canadian


Entomologist,


Vol. II, 1879.


Some of the four-legged mites that are
family name of Pkytoptidca, or popularly
known to entomologists for two centuries


now known under the


Gall-Mites, have


been


, and their life history,


up to the


present


time,


remains unravelled.


Tlhe late Andrew


Murray, in his work entitled "Aptera," gives a succinct account
of all known species, and to those desiring fuller information on
these interesting mites, I would recommend his work.


IT DIUOOVlBT.


In the latter part of


called


attention


August,
this in


1879,


tereeting


SRev.


miti, at the same


Moore


time


stating his belief


that it was


cause of the


orange


rust.


immediately began to study it, and


soon


after


wrote him that I


had discovered what it was, and forwarded a description oi it for
m a -, m- -t ,a. at a~ a SS






OnAwoE mnEB.


feed on the essential oil of the


orange.


replied as follows


. E. AsnMaA:


Dear Sir:--Your


favor


of yesterday


hand.


You


mistaken in mentioning me as the discoverer of the insect.


The


opinion has long been ,entertained


by an insect, but we had


that


no certain


rust was


knowledge of th


occasioned
ie fact till


a few months since.


Mr. J


H. Gates, from


near


Palatka,


covered something, and placing it under the microscope, found it


to be an insect.


. 0.


Hargrove was the first to mention


the subject to me.
I am still at work studying the habits and


looking for the de-


stroyer of the


insect,


think


am making


some


progress,


though some of


my experiments have been rather expensive.


There is one form of


rust which I think is not caused by this


insect, as evidently the oil flows out without the assistance of the


puncture of
I am


the insect, simply from its superabundance.


, my dear sir, yours truly,


Mooa.


FRurr Covn, August 27.

The article was as follows:


My attention has been drawn by the Rev.


. Moore


strange insect on his orange trees and on the trees of Mr. Byron


Oak,


and I have also


noticed


on the fruit of several


others


n and surrounding Jacksonville.


It is one of the most interest-


ng insects I ever saw.
nens off Mr. Oak's trees,


rith a powerful microscope,


ro-day, August


have


25th, I obtained speci-


examined them thoroughly


six or seven


hundred diameter.


They


are not apparent


naked


I found


them


great numbers on all rusty fruit


examined;


they are almost sta-


lionary, seldom


moving,


vhich they pdnctare with


and a
their


attach themselves to the oil cells,
beaks, probably, feeding on the


>il. Mr. Moore attributes to them the cause of the orange rust,
n which opinion I concur.


The puncture causes the oil


exude,


the chemical action of


he atmosphere causes it to oxidize, and the result is a hard,


rusty


On all orange that had begun


to rust,


we found the in-


ects in great numbers;


nor could we


them anywhere


elke,


. W






OBAk-QX


had been picked, no insect could be found; they had all fallen of


and disappeared. This
never detect any insect,


is the reason why the microscopist could
and as a dernier reeat attributed the


result to a fungoid.
It is a four-legged'mite, belonging to the genum Typhlodromus,
and is probably the first speciesoaf the genusdiscovered in Atmeri-
ca. It may be termed the oil-eating mite of the orange.


Thus the long vexed question xof


what canoes the orange rest


is solved, and proves not to be a fungoid, as many supposed,


an infinitesimal creature,


that could never have been


discovered


except with the aid of


a microscope.


Florida


Agriculturist,


the following


communication


appeared:


I see that


Ashmead


classified


named the small


insect that I believe to be the cause of the
will give a short history of its discovery.


Some time in May, Mr. J


on oranges.


H. (3ites called my attention


small insect upon an orange he was just ending the pieroscopist
f o the A ricultural Department atWashnagton. Ifeltthiswas


Wa uA -I a -r ---


---.


a valuable discovery, and that the insect was the cause, of the rust,


once commenced


investigating


little


"chap."


Gates' reply


from


Washington did not, in my


opinion, describe


the insect as I saw it with my gla
means of the insect and 'oranges,
insect, to Mr. Thomas Taylor, W
reply was misdirected and did no


fI


immediately


sent speci-


together with a drawing of the


rashington.
t reach m


Unfortunately, his
In a subsequent


letter asking that I send some leaves from the same tree, he says:


"1 think that the insect you describe


disease in this case."


which is due to Mr. Gates.
L Early in June, Rev. Mr.


is the cause of the orange


This much for the discovery of the insect,


oore, of Fruit Cove, was in Palatka,


and I gave him a description of the inseet; it being night, I could


not show him


a specimen.


few weeks after, Mr. Hargrove


showed Mr. Moore the insects in his own grove -Md he has devo-
ted much time and attention to them since.


In my investigation I was aided by Mr.


. O. Hargrove, who


is a -ose o-berver, and has ban much interested in the cause of


-. Ab Aa


bran


' u m nh


#AAVL


D#II^^^^^-f^^^^


Eaalu4m


rkntrx


M~ldM






iflari.


He said at once,


oranges,


as aon ibe


d84cribed


that Mehr ydar hi 'oranges


thb appearance of the


'that


appearance at the


comtrfenleaneiOt obf tA osdth.


I considered this'good testimony


and vahabit if6rmattnm.
At rit the orb 'hgI dustys ppear~ne to the unaided 'eye,


and althotg th'e t mre 'e"tet,"


after


a liftlt


practice ron


can detect


them at


onde.


Under


a glaus, the ortge appearA


covered with thousands.


I haVe exaliwied orngit fr-one


differ-


cet groves, and in every case have found


the insect where there


were rusty oranges.


They remain upon the orange


about


four


weeks-that is, when there is a


large number upon one orange.


By that time they have punctured all the oil
the oil to exude, and with the excretion froin


cells, which allows
the insect become


oxidized, and they, no longer able to obtain food, leave.


'I find


he oranges attacked early in the season are more uniformly rosty


and darker than those late in


the Beason, which may be owing


to two cause---iot so many insects; or the
developed.
They prefer the oranges on the outside of


oranges


more


fully


most


exposed to be seen.


I have asked


How do you account for


nany turning dark immediately after a rain I


I account


n this way


The insect has been doing


work,


the rain


coming in contact with the oil and


resinous matter, causes it


e precipitated at once, which hardens, and


aa soon


as the


shines


bright,


turns


dark


oxidizatioin.


By taking


)range, before it had tutni dark, but had that peculiar dust-like
appearance and plenty of insects, dipping it into water, the resin-


)us matter


was


precipitated


once, and could be removed by


he thumb-nail quits readily,
md harden td the oratige.


done


before it had


time to dry


About


three


weeks


ago they


made


range tree -that had fine bright fruit.


ruit is of


a bronze


color, not very dari


their s
Today
r, but


appearance on as
over half of the


so much


so that


heir price will be materially lessened.


PAL xT FLA., Sept. 11.
Credit is therefore due Mr. J.
overer, which' Mr. GOrll Aays waB
Inch an inhMicnti AImanwatrw a 1


Gates


as the


S. CRIaL.
original d


last 6f May,


1879.


khfa ainnlhA hlaa hin nuhliahed


olA'roit






ORANGE INxsrui

WHAT Is THE OAlEOB BUST ?


For the past ten or fifteen


years


there


appeared on


numbers
variously


)f the fruit,
attributed t<


a reddish
a fungus,


brownish rust,


moisture,


which


wet swampy


proximity to pines, or to an insect,


All these theories were pro


mulgated from time to time, but no facts given to eupportthem.


I consider this


question


now


definitely


settled


beyond


contro-


very as the work of the Phytoptut.
TS ORIGIN AND BPREAD.


As far as I can learn,


the rust first made


appearance soon


after the war on fruit from Mandarin,


sinme


spread


nearly


over the whole of


Florida,


some


years appearing


more


plentiful in


one


place


than


another, and without regard to


soil, swampy land, proximity to pine trees, or anything else.
DAMAGE DONE TO THE FRUIT.


The r dish or brownish
fruit or tree, excepting in


does


appearance,


not materially injure the


which


damage the sale.


In fact, for shipping purposes, it is rather beneficial, as the hard
rusty skin prevents the air from reaching the interior part of the
fruit, thus causing it to keep much better and longer.
ITS NATUt AL HIBTOBY.
As I have previously stated, nothing, so far, is known of the


life-history of


any of these four-legged mites.


While


"The garden glows and lb the liberal air
With lavish fragrane; while the promined fruit
Lie yet f little embryo uapeslted
Within its crimon tlde,"
the little pkytoptuw begins its work of destruction.


Last


orange


April,
leaves,


I noticed


numerous gall-like prominnces on the


it immediately


ooourred


me that these


might probably prove
began investigating b
dissecting others. 1


to be


the work of the little phytopti.


placing some under the microscope; and


found


that they were caused by an insect,


whether by the phytoptus or not I


I left Jacksonville the last of


cannot positively say, as


April, and could not continue my


researches.


My opinion is


Ihah1 4m0,+ ftVau h.ck, ak-,n+. tha dirn+ -


were the cause.


haofna


It is pro-


n


TlnUt


W. if| I






OSAmeS INTSwf


and plate 4, fig. 11, highly
of the little fellow.


magnified,


will give one a good idea


Nf DY*.


It is


probable


that


early application of on
Mr. Moore informs me


"rustv fruit"


ie of the washes


could be prevented by an


used


for scale


insects.


has had no difficulty in killing them


with a wash made from tobacco leaves and soap sads.


DMEIOBIPIV.


PaYTOPTUs oL rVOUS.


Whitish fleh color, elgated, cy lldrcdually


incre g in ie near the hed it


beom r


twie u thick m poi


abdo


men finely and transverely triate, apparently o of numarery thin


aegmenta;
to the oran


in thorax


at the extremity Is a biped appendage that e-vk-ntly quiJt- In clingng


ge


; Ju above it protude two caudal


ent;


head amot hidden


; four leg rather ort with one claw, a long lair springrom knee.


THE


ORANGE


BUTTERFLY


AND


ORANGE


DOG.


(PApilo crapkontee, Oramer.)


[Ord.,


LEPIDOPTLa.


Fam., PAPIxomDoa.]


SBDIumaomAIAL.


Papilio thoa,


Fab.,


Spec.


Mantis


Id. Etom.


Syst.
Meth.


Papilio replkotes, Hubst.


PapiliU thoae, God.


Enc.


Pcpilio thoe, Boisduval et Leconte, Lepidopteres


de 1'Amerique Septentrionale, 1883.


val, Specjee General


Synopsis
Morris.
pelten V


des Lepidopteree,


described


Papilio


oorkomende in de drie,


Papilio
1836.


Lepidoptera of North


Oramer,


Waereld Dulen


thoas,


Boisdu-


Palpio tJoae,
America, by
ttandsohe Ka-
, Asia Africa


en America, Plate CLXVI, fig. B., 1779.


SOne of the most beautiful and abundant butterflies to be seen


n Florida


from


early


spring


until


in winter,


is a


large


)lack butterfly with two yellow bands extending aeroes the wings,


ormed by a series of large yellow spots, (Fig.


anuary and February, it may sometimes


be seen


As early as
flying up the


principall
middle of
L a--


1I


business


street,
i .9


thoroughfare


*Inow
j>


Jacksonville;


on the4tidewalk,


I


*


now


bobbing


in the


here and


AqI I I 1 1


flr 'Tn-* --- a Sl a aL a* U a -~r a a ewr nC -r a Aq a an -


crsphontes,


A
*







OalNN rWmam.


that


Few
that


curitos


gay,


active


exorementitious


known to orange growers, under the
Dog.


butterfly is the parent of


looking o
common


aterpillar,
name of


sO well
Orange


rti DTrIBlUTION.


This


Ora


bernfy


was


first


, haindted and


described by a Dutch Entomologist,
Dveaitsgo, (1779) under the name


- .a


4 a


are
ugly,


*


*. 9,_ _* t__






atsbnm.


States, and extending Northward as far
in which' place it is rare.


as Ontario


40C


anada,


II WPOOD PLANTr.


Its original


food


plant


was


probably the Prickly


Ash, Zan-


thozylum Americanum, or an allied species.


feedi
ly.


It is


here


found


ng upon X. Cainianum and all species of the citrus fami-
On the FloridfKeys, I found its food pleatsllbe Zanthtkoy-


lum Pterota,


a small


species of


In Kanas, Prof.


Snow


reports it feeding on Prickly
fop Tree, Pelea trifoliatq.


Ash


, Znthrtytum


Amricauntm,


In Ontario, Canada, Wm..Murray,


anadian Entomologist,


Vol. XI,


states having found it feeding


)n Dictamnue frawinel.a-uba .

rrF SATyR
The female butterfly, when.
ready to oviporate, fies.here
ud there through the groye,
epositing from one. to two 4
found eggs on a leaf. From
these, in a few days, hatch out
caterpillar, without sign of th
ack : this dnos not annal nl


-. .-


"rp-


moult the hair disappears,


nee.


It feeds


I
AL HISTORY.


ig. 14.


a small
e 4eam


atil


hairy,
colored


the third'


browI
band


moult.


cored


over


After this


it has a slimy nauseating appear-


on the orange leaves, and after several moultings


f its skin, teaches maturity, measuring from two to three inches


1 length.


(Fig. 14.)


On disturbing, it protrudes


long


filaments fronr the


3gments above the head, and at the same time secreting
isagreeable odor, which is supposed to be a. pro-


a very


nation against its


enemies.


When ready to pu


5, it secretes a small silky web to a twig or thi


ody of the tree,


attaches


itself by its


nd a


silken


thread across its back, then changes


to a chrysalis, (Fig. 15.)
In from eight to sixteen


days, the back of the


rysalia splits


butterfly


t, the wings are wet and durmbli,


LV. maltino nn fhk th.M I


emerges.


U -


but the bnuh
Pna*IMn P


w twima


otfLrttk


&


wilt*







ORANGoE ImNSn.


formed kplpking wings, and as the veses
pand. ri continues slowly flapping them


fill with air, they ex-


down,


until


they are entirely expanded and strong, when it is ready for flight.


The fall


brood


caterpillars remain


the chrysalis all


winter, transforming into butterflies early. in the spring.


The caterpilhr of this


butterfly,


unlike


many others, hps no


parasite to prey upon it, or at least none so far discovered.


Even


birds, on account of its


ugly,


unpalatable appearance,


eat it.


The question is how to keep them in subjection and prevent


them from defoliating the young orange trees, of which they are


particularly fond.


The only remedy I know of, is hand-picking,


a tedious


spring


process,
I fall,


biu a


rhen


very


they


necessary one, especially


are most


numerous.


The


modt


opemwtcis to provide


keep th


terpillars in;


yourself with


a bucket


Go carefully over yor


or something to
ir trees, pick off


all to be found


put them


bucket,


then kill


scalding


them.


Repeat


his every two or three weeks and your trees will


be kept comparatively free from them.
4 1


LANOE


(Agrotis Ypi
(Ord., LBPIDOPTEfA.


RUSTIC


MOTH.


niloA, Hufn.)

FPa., NOO'tUIa ]


BBLIOGBAPmOAL.


.Esn.


Suffusa


Den.


piess TdrM, Harris, Insects Inj. to


February,


1880,


Robert 8.


Turnqr,


Scheit.
Vegetati<
of Fort


Wiener
3n.


IsldM, Florida, brought me
fro:t the rotsof his orange


pups of a nocturnal moth, du


tree.


These, I put


a breeding


bo, ftd by the first


week


March, there


hatched out several


the with


which


was


unacquainted.


sent


specimens


Profesor hiey, who replied as follows


iaB Sm


The moth' y


sendpj a lark spoierpe of Agrotis


- -


THE


YpTilon,


Aye
Ve


qw


*I





z. m .


III





Aln inLn.


descted i
euhfr, ab
deifra, by


Wine


1 again by
whieb anme-


Verseicia under the specib name


Harrie,


under
*


I haw given am


First Report on Ineeots of Missouri, p. 80.


specific


name


.mwont of ft i my
ft may popilarly be


known as. the Lance Rustic, and is the parent of one of our com-


ragnest
cited.


'ca worms,'


illnustated


plate


of port


This worm does great injury by chatting of tender plants


early in Spring.


It comes


growth


the latitude of St.


Louis, during May, the moth making its appearance two or three


months later.


It is sch a general feeder that I am not surprised


at yovr finding it on the' leaves of an orange tree."


ITS NATURAL HBTORY..


Professor Riley


describe~


larva under


name of


" Large


Black


Cut-Worm.


It is an inch


a half in length


when crawling, and its


general Aolor above is dull, d


ek bownw,


with a faint trace of yellowish white along the bok.
dorsal line is more distinct, and Letween it and re s


two other indistinct lines.


The sub-


bagmatic are


There are eight black shining, pilifer-


onu spots


on each


segment;


near


eabdorsal


line, the


smaller a little above it


The other two are placed each side of,


;he stigmata, the one anteriorly a little above the other


just be-


dind in the same line with them, and having a white shade above


(Fig.


16, upper figure.)


This caterpillar feeds only at night,


crawling
n the ,
,round (


dqwn from


morning


,r under rubbish


the orange tree
hiding in the


durin he


The eggs of


this species are of


flattened spheroid shape, purplish in


with longitudinal


ribs, and re-


embles


very


otton moth.


era on
range
halhid


under


much


They are
or upper


leaf, :and ari


which,


eggs


of the


laid in clus-


part


subjected
as I have


to the attacks of


never


bred,


ni.u


cannot


a parsite
d dserbe.


ve frequently found the eg after the fly had escaped.


Aese


g appear to be laid- in early spring,
LalVs hidrl ela ElA rA Mn ,, A 4a dA 4LA,,


asth


the only idqne
ti'


I A i ..


m









ree 40*'


S1i .,WRpt


u, pfh d ed


The fe wwipgs


d*b liuu mnd bea o)f (a dark brpwn;


ohwrn. na dp umd.4 the
row frmup ot dono.
MW^^'^


heor 0
kfs reabdi


with a es-


did.ro txdin


S.m


TER Wooltt BEAR OR. STInGWG CATLA


(Ord., LEuDOra


Fam, BourOmea.),


Toward, the latter pet of August, until oldd weather sets in,
one frequesny oeem aerem a curios looking caterpillar crawl-


ing on a rostamh, orange, or plum tree, about an ineb in


ad thiok


eowred tith


long7ellowlhh


brown


Vain.


length
Under


the lag had are eoten mdip ard barbed, wMhic, should one


tappa to eom
.evs .U


Pin eoetact itBh, are eapible of inflicting a very
An sBte wase created to me of a boy tho was


evenrrly stahg by one of these Wotma and o powerful and poison-
one wt the Woind, that it was thought to be the bite-of a snake,


antii tvatipation
erpillam.


proved it to b one of


these


smaDl


Woolly


ITS NATUT&


wth, this caterpillar makes a thin, tough,


over, dark brown eose the inside of which is white td smooth,


while on the outside are a few silken hairs.


part of boardd, &.l. c


This is attached to


In this it changes to a pupa, and


i M^ ^a


count of belag eooend with
Bear!'


yellowish


brown


fine hairs, t


moth, whih, on sc
remdthe "Whej


rFl WOOD PLATh .


The caterpillar, in .Floride, has


been f


d feeding on


ves of t]e orange, the quine, and other tre9s; alSo on the.rose


MOe ENam.S


a a -- a d -*- -


a a-. SI


-An


wip .i^t> ^^^^^^y^


d he


ia bM~b>


hrtM


L-'..


L,,


h J






-IIR


THE


BASKET


WOR


OF THE


ORANGE.


( "
J~Ocic w tvirii, Packard.)


fOrd., LuwIDaPna.


Fam., BonBoaOa]


Packard, Guide 'to the tdy of Insect, page
8. AgritUM eport,


391.


Glove, I


1 WrTUORAL WRIOBY.


This curious bombycid


onee


worm was ndmbd


*Professor


Packard after


its discoverer, Townend Glover, who published a


description.


of its habits in


the Agripultural Report for


1858


mnd from which I ihall qdote.


H6 rys


S" A hall hang or drop


worm


(oikoticu)


is very


prevalent


found moet frequently suspended


upon


from


orange leaves, and is
n leaf, entirely envel-


)ped in a brotih, oblong, oval egte, of a paper-like substance,


pan by the worm


within


and interwoven


with dried scrape of


he leaf itself, or


any other material


over which ithe worm may


Wander."


The male case is about


0.5 of


an inch in length.


Within it


ves the worm,


which is 0.8 of an inch in length, and qif brown-


h color, clouded or spotted with darker brown on th&


wo first
nent wh


emgtndnta,


Len


feeding


case, which


chrysalis of a dark


protruding
or moving


is spun
brown c


only
from


from


tolor,


unshes itself nearly out of the O


)


head


place
worm


place.


itself,


With-


is found


which, when about 4 qbnge,
.wint in the lower eetiy,


rhen the back fIpits and a ii mh of about 0.5 f fmh.in
readth across the expanded wigs of black color and hiflg


feather-like antenna, comes out.
The female case is much larger, measuring 0.7


length, and is formed


of 'the


same materials as the


of an inch


male


cae.


-he femnleM however, nev<
change, fatem the a to


er acquires
the leaf w


wings, but when ready to
ith silk, lays its eggs and


lies in the Oae whieh it had eonstruoted as a shelter for its sot
ad flhy bodyr.


The e e likewise laid
atoheA, from the no


the case, and


young, When


fla at thei lower and .and disperse





first


1






OBRAGE


mI"rBon.


I have also'found this inseet


feeding


and have also detected it, or a similar


r on the leaves of the fig,
species, preying upon the


scale


insects.


It is


by no


mean. common,


nor do


I ..


I apprehend


ever


becoming so.


Should it be.proven to be identical with the


species


detected


preying


ioale inb


aig. 17.


sects, it nust be considered beneficial. Fig.
17, (after Packard,) gives a good idea of its


different forms.


, moth;


B, caterpillar;


0, pupa;


D, case in


which caterpillar lives.


THE


A NGULAR-WINGED


KATY-DID.


(Microcentre retinervi, Burm.)


[Ord., OwTHorrTBA.


Fam., LoousnTDA.]


This large, green


Katy-did,


or Grasshopper, as it is variously


called


, is among. the commonest we have.


During


daytime


it is seldom seen


, being hidden away


among the thick foliage of


trees and shrubs;


towards


dusk,


as the


shadows of


night


begin. to fall, it comes forth from its hiding place


and begins its


song of


"Katy-did


Katy-did'nt,"


so familiar to every


This song is not produced by its mouth, as nearly every one sup-
poses, but by slightly opening its wings and rubbing them against
its ,thighs.


- it (Afsr Besy.)
H NAYUTULL LMMNWTY.


Early


fall,


dung the


winter and in


tiay often observe on the outer edge of


the sp


the orange


kl


parallel rows of:lsrge muM-s6haped eggs of a greylth s


hee


are the eggs of the Katy-did.


Prof. O.


' obqesred it lonely and bred.it id eoldlnement, gives an


ring, one
aves two
ate oolor.
, who hn
excellent


.Riley,


__





".The female aommewee to oviposit early in September,


continues to lay


at intervals until


"the


sere


frot.


The


eggs are occasionally deposited during the day, bt the operation


usually takes place at night


of a common


reception


Selecting a twig of about the ize


goose-quill, this provident' moth. preae t for
of her eggs .by biting and roughening the bark


with her jaws for a distance of two or three


is not gradual; like that


made


when


feeding,


inches.


This


bite


but i sudden and


vigorous, the insect chewing and pressing the .twig each side, so
as to form an edme This operation is accomplished by a sud-
den nervous shake of the body from side to side, and Ints some-


times
When


9 three


operation


minutes,


sometimes


is accomplished


more


than


her satisfaction,


clutches, with her front feet 'the stem to be used, and anchors the


middle


hindmost feet


for .the


most part upon


contiguous


eaves or branches,


often


quite


wide


apart.


Then,


if she


ias her head in an upward


direction,


(for it


seems to be imma-


erial to


her whether the


eggs


are placed


from


below,


ap, or


ice era,) she begin


;ion of the twig,


and,


at the


lower end


after fitting it


of the


anew


witt


roughened por-
i her jaws and


measuring and feeling it over again


and again with her palpi, as


f to assure herself that all is as it should lie,


nuch apparent effort, and


slowly-with


not without letting it partly fall sev-


pral timese-curls the abdomen under until the lower edge of the
:urled ovipositor is brought between the jaws and palpi, by which
t is grasped and guided to the right position.


is then


ix minute&-l


worked
ll the


slightly


time


guided


down


by the


tor from


four to


jaws-eAft a shiny


iscid fluid is. given out apparently from the ovipositor.


Finally,


fer a 'few


seconds,


or suspension


work,


the egz


dually rises, and, as it passe


'between


the ovipositor, runs so


iat the one end


appear almost simultaneously from between


xe convex .d4e with the other from the lower tip of tlh blade.


he egg tdhenrm


to the roughned


bark rin a obaliqu podion.


uis t blt Mad highly rarhedbat it aoq in formal


within


"Afte the


S -


lgh or toiep hor. -
kphwd, the abdomen is InigrUed oattnd


N= a -


eolor


9_


I







OXllTA ar


cept that


the second egg is placed


on the opposite side of the


twig and a little above the.fsnt one. The third, egg is punched
in betwae the top of the fiat one and the twig, the fourth be-
twee top of the seond,,and o on, one each aide, alternately.
Th" tee egp are not laid, a we might ntay imply,
one over the tbher, but rather, oe unde the other; i. e., each


oc pair having their nd thrt in between the tops of
the preceding pair, the teeth at the end of the oviutor~ helping
to crowd teinto pla,


"The lentb o time required from the commencement of the
ing of the wi to the Droper placing of the eng rarie all


way from


q a-aU


minutes.


Sometimes, as


instance,


where a bod cone in the way, the


preparation of the twig will


a comparatively


long time, and


after the ovipositor is


brought up and a futile attempt made to place the egg, it will be


let down again and the work of preparing the


twig more vigor


only proseeuted


second


one time varies from two to


time.
thirty, 1


The number of eggs laid at


the


first


more than those deposited later in the' season.


batches containing
Each female pro-


dnoep from


one hundred and fifty to


two hundred, or perhaj


more, and I have known them to lay on the edge of a leaf, or o


a pianocover, or along a piece of cord.
remarked, are rather fiat when laid, bi


These eggs, as already


become more


swol


so that they have a narrower look as they approach the hatching


period in the spring.
During the early part of May, the embryo
stgbt in its egg-completely filling it-with


larva, which lie
the eap bent U


as in pupa, and the long antenna curling around them, attain


ite fsal development sand after


hour of tedious contracting


expanding movements, manage to burst the egg open at its to


or exped end along the narow edge, and gerally about ha
*ay down. Through t. opening young Katy slowly emergE
undergoig a moult unng the procm, and leaving it ak in
crpledM white ma attached to the empty biralrular egshe
Incluj lP q and anem i WS ae, tth timee rath
more than macin in lemngh, ,e body ae be.oge-eith I


a


* V '- -


fttl


the


vy


require





-IMS.


pressed


into


comparatively


small skin


which


we see it


clinging.
"In from ten


twenty minutes after


bathing,


these


beings essay their first leaps, and soon begin to eat with avi!


They


feed


with


'almost


4


foliage, but I have found


leaves, such as lettuce, cabbage, ptralain and
less hardy, and do not attain so great an age


upon more lignec


"The
weeks.


the like, they are
as when nourished


towards the end


of June, the rudiments of the wings and of


sexual organs may be distinguished.


In the pupa state they


quite


pretty,


their fael have a


every motion is invested with a sort of
to amuse the observer.


" Including the moult in leaving the egg,


omically wild look, add
dignity that cannot fat


they cast their siid


five times, becoming pupa at the fourth and acquiring wings at


the fifth.


In each case the palpi are


adroitly used to help the


long antenna out of the old usins, and a description of the last,
which is more easily watched, will convey a correct idea of all.
In changing from a ptpa to the perfect form, the insect stations
itself firmly upon a large stem or a couple of twigs, which branch
in such a manner as to afford a convenient support, and, after a


short period of inactvity, a rupture appears in


the head and gradually extends


of the thorax.


the covering of


backward to the potetrior


neck, and by a few upward


and downward


slide off in front, the long thradlike


antennte


motions, is


being drawn out


of their sheathed with treat are in constantly lengthening loops,
the palpi tftrd ihg much' alistance in puhidng the old skit donta-


ward.


SAfter the head and


antenna are entirely freed, the in-


sect remains for a short time motionle, a' if to recover from
its exertions. Very soon, however, it renews its effort in a sertW.
of rapid jers a4d ttr6i~ y w ii the body is
forward while the ct ro i akin i Mld Sirmly in pplace by .
elaWS of the middle a por ile which remain fixed in the
wood. dThe tnqt s dielult part of the. whole poeeas seems to be


l


equal relish upon a great variety i
that when reared upon very succulent


larval i
Shortly


us food, as the leaves of oak, apple otfcher.
fe of these insects lasts from seven to e ;h
before the change to pupe, which takes $lan


The armor of the head is next detached


i 4







56 omni weaO .

Katy-did has something to grasp with, anS experiences no further
trouble in withdrawing the body and the remaining legs rtotz the
old integument, often leaving the latter as an almost transparent


shell in perfect shape upon the twig..


It is not allowed


to r.


main long, however, as an object of enriosity, for almost the 'first
efforts of the transformed insect are. dirted .to the, task of eat.
h


ing up tl
out of its


his, its out-grown


pupal


covering, the w


out-worn garment.
rings of the nature


When firt
insect hang


dbwn on each side as flexible and shapeless as strips of dampened


lace; but, they


soon begin to dry and harden, and


are, by de-


greens, drawn


up into


place.


anterior pair, which


were at


first


transparent, become


gradually


green and opaque, and


play the characteristic leaf-like veinings; while the broad under-


wings, formed


of transparent membrane


intersected


by an ex-


quisite net-work of green veins, are folded fan-like beneath them,


with only the tips for about a third of


an inch


visible, this por-


tion being green and thickened like the wing-covers.
operation of moulting is performed within an hour."


The whole


ITS NATURAnL En


Two birds ai4 materially in destroying the


The


Mocking


Bird


(M'am potly yottu,)


young Katy-dide.
1 the Loggerhead


Shrike


or Butcher


Bird, (ollurio


their nests in the orange tree or in


have


young


ApriL


have-


lu-oi cimnuse.)
live-oaks close


fund


Katy-dide


.Both


build


by, and both
impaled on


ge thons by the Shrike.


I once saw a four-footed


enemy,


line. Lizard, (Ameia d-lineata,) .with a full-grown one
outkh; At first it bad great difficulty in swallowing. such a


large morsel, .t finally .ucoeeded.


The most important enemy,


however, is .a


Professor


small


Riley,


Ohalid


Fly, just


also ,bred


bred


myself.


from


He calks


eggs uy
it The


Black Rolling


Wonder."


THE


BLAOLK.ROL


WPNDpg


(AeuMpdw usMu6i0b


WSNMA1U*ALJ ILtpM


# d4)


V .


*.I






.anmau maWrt.


conseque:
numbers.


is of the greatest


importance


din


e female wam fiiset diseo veted by WVlsh.


finishing its
See Vol. 2


of the" American XEntomologist," pages 868470, but the


and its life-history remained unknown until 1874, when Prof. O.


.Riley published a description


his 'Sifth


Annual


Report


on the Noxious, Benecial and ether InseeTs of the te of Mi.-
souri," page tO6, from which I doall quote:


"The ammadous


habit


little


aonsiata in the habit


possessed by the female of rolling up inte a ball backward, aad


in the very great dissimilarity of the male.


SMany other imeects


roll up downward,


with


a convex back,


while some few,


a the


Rove-beetee, (&eaphdyen d.,)


when disturbed


curl


more


or lee


backward,


but ao other species is so curiously constrrted


for rolling backward into perfect


ball, unless


some


longing to the very closely allied genus Euplmte.
These little parasites have always issued in the spring of the
year, just about the time the young Katy-dids would have issued


if they had not been molested; but
specimens in Aunkst, the insect mswt


as Mr.
either


Walsh captured hi
be doubfrbrooded,


or the female must survive during the summer mpntha."


As I have bred it from


correct hypotheia.
The larva of this little anomaly


sphinx eggs, the firt is doubtless the


I have not yet met with, but


the pupa is


characteristically


flattened


and straightened to suit its narrow egg-


bode.


When


*mature, and


wings are expanded and all its parts are


hardened,


gnaws


rough an irregular, but
h *


way


usually


round


he egg.
een by


le anterior or exposed end of
The male, (Fig. 19,) as willAe


glancing


at the figures,


Ft. .


A


approaches much


nr Riley,
nearer


chalidildan


owbody, and is of a
he female, (1ig.' o ,) f
hast had 1not bre both


nore


form.


brilliax
which,


sexes front


hold ry believe them to be at


It.


Shas clear wings, a nar.
metallic green color than


indeed,
ithe a


he dffers
ne batch of


o much
ess !


spedfally connted.


. T. r a a


common


male


at tt


om


r r*


1 .


g







OBISAG INBIWIT

therefore, when, the first wee& in April,


OD opening


these


the
-


box, I. found


small liea


a lot of


examining


Katy-did egge a small romnd hole wns
plainly visible in the top oteach, through


which


the parasite


some'


after its


long winter feast.


come


foith


enPoy


awakening


the sunshine,


beauties


regale
sprg,


marry


and perpetuate its kind.


Fig. e, Ae Riley.

In the fall, when the Katy-did lays her egs, the female ehalcid,


ever on the


watch, inserts her ovipositor into each one, at the


same time depositing an egg. These, on hatching, begin to feed
npon the albuminoas esubtanee contained therein, and like- other
ichneumon or chalcid flies, on arriving at maturity, change into


pups


transform


fliee,


freeing


round holes through their prison walls.


themselves


I hasn


raised


r eating
these in


the spring and fall, proving them to be double brooded.

UBMNDt.
The beat method of destroying the Kqtyrdids is to go over the
trees in winter and spring, lbok for the eggs, and destroy them.

4-
.1?*


THE


LUBBER


GRASSHOPPER.


(Rhwma Mic Mrops~, Berm.)


[Ord.,


OrmTB OPTm


For some unaccountab]


Fam., LoooLrraa.]


are in America


the term "OGran


hopper"


been


given to an


inet, which, in


Earope, Asi


and Afria is knowuas the Locat; while th
is generally pplied,or rather misapplied, to


eie ot Cicadw.


latter


term her


the different oe


A mistake which, in Amerieca, i universdu a


win probably never .b reoitied.
Locus, (grahshw8eu) in Eastern sad tropical eoawtrfes ha
S -


1) ; a a


a & e
*
A A e &Mill






OnAeJOX


INB OnB.


tentots and Kaffir tribes of Central Africa, the Indians of South
America, and some few of the Indian tribes of North America,


il enjoy the delectable dish of "fried


grasshoppers."


Even


;he Bible, in the days of


Christ, we read


that John the Baptist


on "Locust


and


wild


honey."


Centuries


before,


when


Babylon and Nineveh were in their glory, wre rd that at feast.
Locusts were considered a great delicacy.


Austin


Layard, in


"Discoveries among the ruins of


Nineveh and Babylon,"


interesting


account


published in
a sculptured


1853, gives


slab;


the following


on whiob is


reproe-


rented servants carrying fruits, Locusts, pomegranates, &c., to a
feast in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar:


"During


my absence


desert, the excavations at Kon-


yunjik had been actually


carried on


under


the superintendence


of Toma Shishman.


On my arrival he described many interest-


ing discov,&ies, and I hastened to


ruins, crossing in


a rude


ferry-boat


river, now


swollen


by the spring rains to more


than double its usual size.
"The earth had been completely removed from the sides of the


gallery, on the walls of which had been portrayed


the transport


of the large stone and the winged bulls.


An outlet


was discov-


ered near its


western


end,


opening


into


a narrow, descending


passage;


an opening, it would


appear, into the


palace from the


river side.


Its length was ninety-six feet, its


breadth


not more


than


thirteen.


The


about six feet high.
sent a procession of


walls


were


Those to


paneled w
a right, in


ith sculptured slabs


descending,


repre-


servants carrying fruit, flowers, game, and


supplies~aor


a banquet, preceded


mace


bearers.


The


first


servant following the guard bore an object which I should not
hesitate to identify with the pine-apple, unless there were every


reason
that


fruit'


believe
The


that


leaves sprouting


were
m the


unacquainted with
top proved that it


was not


oone of


a pine


tree or


After all, the sacred


symbols held by the


winged figures in


the Assyrian


seulptureb


may be the same fruit, snd not, as I have conjectured, that ote
coniferous tree. The attendants who followed carried olustind


rpe datu and flat


arto. iamlj


baskets


h.n.a hAA o


oaier-work, filled, with pomegran-
9


flw'nfl


ThlFw


0 *IIIU l sll t I JlIt IIls Ier ts -l'


rs asiA


in nmA hand


C






OBANGU MiamiS.


ing hares, partridges and drid lou
locust has ever been an article of fo
sold in the market of many towns in
in this bae-rdef amongst the choice
wasprol* A4iA4 prisd by he A
H. and Bro.., S.


it fastened an
od in the Eat,
Arabia. Beng
delicacies of a
syruia. (Page


rode. Th.
and is still
introduced
banquet, it
289, 3. .


He
taken
which
ancient
food,
deal o:
out an


also gives an account of the mode of preparing the
from Bun khardtes Notes on the Bedouins, p. 369/,'
I shall quote for the benefit of those who desire to try t
6t dish: "The Arabs, in preparing locusts as an article
threw them alive into boiling water, with which a gc
f salt has been mixed; after a few moments they are tal
d dried in the snn. The head, feet and wings are ti


'm,

his
of
iod
:en
Ien


-a -


torn off; the bodies are cleansed from the salt a]
dritd, after which process, whole sacks are filled
the Bedonins. They are sometimes eaten boiled in
they often constitute materials fbr a breakfast, when
unleavened bread mixed with butter "
It has been conjectured thm the locust eoten b
Baptist in the wilderness, was 'the fit of a tree; b
probable that the prophet used a common article of f
inm even in the desert. /


'SF


nd perfectly
rith them by
h(utter, and
spread over


y John the
ut it is more
ood abound-


IrIm tIiATUAL HISTOrY.


As the name microptra indicate, it has very short wings,
reaching only half way to the abdomen, and rendering but slight
assistance in flight. It is very sluggish in its habits, and can
easily be captured. "When full grown, it measures two and a
half inches ih length, and is of a yellowish color, barred and
spotted with black. The wing covers are yellowish, shaded with
rosy pink, and barred and spotted with black. The larvae are
shaped like thb mature insects, but have not the rudiments of
wings. They are of a black color, beautifully striped andbanded
with orange yellow. The pupae have very small rudimentary
wings, black, shaded and bordered on the thorax with yellow;
the abdomen and hind thighs banded with same olor,. Thee
insets destroy many garden vegetables and plants, and may e
seen crawling slggishly over the ground or upon shrab, and
-u -* a,1 n,,,, a, -, aarA A aat ..i St


E.


U


1





WmatM Ima


easily be destroyed, by rushing with the foot, in every stage ot


their existence."


(Glover.)


The eggs are laid in the ground during October and


, generally at the oot of


4


an orange tree or cloee to a


Novem-
ahamb,


that, on watching,


the young


hatch in the spring from the 4
may often be seen congregated


mpay


,have


st to the
round


abundant
middle c
a small b


,f


food.
April,


unsh


They
and


or young


orange tree.


On first hatching, they


are dark brownish, nearly


black, with a broad reddish


ridge of the


back.


Almost


or orange colored
immediately after


strip


down


hatching,


the
they


climb to a green bush or ap to the leaves of a yoang orange tree


add begin to feed.


They are'vigorous


omnivorous feeders,


being fond of nearly every green


thing, particularly tender suc-


culent leaves of young orange trees, which they frequently strip
of all foliage.


3 3nyDe.


The best time for killing them


they are clustered


together


just after


before


hatching


they separate.


, while
At this


time they are small, frail, soft features, and can be easily killed.
No enemies to them have yet been discovered.


THE


LARGE


BLUISH-WHITE


WEEVIL


(Pachlwus opaue, Olivier.)


[Ord., OoLforran.


Fani., OnonarzIomnD.]


BIBLIOGRPHImoAL.


Pachrns
345.
This
caused 1
an inch
longitud
men bln


'This
Florida,


us opalm, Oliv. (Oucutis) Ent.


i


Boh. Bch. Gen. Cure.
s a large, oblong, oval


minute


in


v. 88, p. 889, pt. 4, fig.


vi 1, p. 425.
weevil, of a


bluish-white


color,


powdery scales, averaging from .85 to .42 of


length, having a


moderately


long snout with twelve


final rows of slight punctures in the wing-covers.


ish-white.


weevil


on the
on


Abdo-


The males are always the smallest.
rrIS flOD PLANTS.


we caught


by me


Keys, feeding on


great quantities in


Leaves


a -


South


of the Lime Tree,


k






a- Ge 'an.ihd


ifoia and BOriCAMfrUKW)en, whih I think are ft fral o
plants.

Foat etqr awl, dmmely ocered with pale blue aoaeS with fab it oPi.oa
lurtn. Body wiugedt Head &muaid$ panttrsd, Taihos tenx
broader t ba. iam lbug, lnior rDt, d m odriy c ,p,
faintly lobed, binuate, di mod onvex, media line bly m-
praeed, eprfoae densely pcaly, median line and lida paler. Elytra demey
rrod, with etve Tow f moerte punnctr' the nalfh somewhat cointfed,
kaler ilp Jadi.tpctly bbMraely punktlate Bedy bmesth dmenwly edy WlWae.
larger and paler than above. Logs densely ealy, ttbM, with hat hdb th.
inner dSf. Lengthin, 10 cmi.
OcnM in Plra and is not rae. The ba bf the elyfra i not only bilnuatq
but thee f*is small dei fYorui paomzie ootiguoa to tlerthrdc Mlnd
angle. Lprood) umeatiow this *harmter for two Odbm pSat, ta t fr
our own. (LeConte and Horn the Rhynchaphoim, of Amrca, north V Mexco,
pageT).


THE


SMALL


BLUISH-WUITE


WEEVIL.


(A[tipwj
[Ord., CoLorn-AA.


This is
the other,
in length.
longitudix
ten, and t
much large


, Horn.)
I., O'roTarrtt.])


another weevil, somewhat similar in form and color to
but inch smaller, averaging but .24- to .26 of an inch
The thorax is unevenly punctured; instead of tWelve
nal lines of puncture on thewlag-eovers, there are but
hese very unevenly deeper puwtured, and punctures
rer than in the other species.


WI1 FOOD P~ANB'.


It was 1
Florida, w
i al forn
torinv,

to the oth
abundant


Bra
rbo


t sent to me
rqportd it


by Mr. H.
eath the


ed it in my reaent fip to ti
of the Lime Tw, Oilru
frutawm. It habBa od
er Uulik. the otr. q
on B. .frdacn.


W. William of Bookledge,
slevt ef Ib orange tree.
iFlorida Wey, feeding on

food ar, tbwe for uitirlar
miaw. bown.r i 'w nroe


Ihd *if'e 4AMfi


i Sn


r




o-M. aBR .


weevils, on disturbing, they. loose their hold
drop to the ground, -seeking safety by hiding
under the tree.


and immediately
beneath rubbish


Farm 6bdong, uudaoe densely lothed ith white .ale, virying to
ah blue, thag-'csqs Mse. HWa tte hjrah Hf bt jtng b thelg
parsely punted and deM aaiy Thoraxu m wd 4 kg, diVd,
slightly narrower in front, ideas very slightly aracu, pex and bm truncate,
disc moderately convex, median line moderately impreied, interrpted, .lqcse
aenel scaly. Elytra nemrty twlo as wide be long, bro-liet bhithe mifde.
dae Aebly auate, bar tmb-tuneate, di iodal cdne f
arise with moderie but very unequal pictures pot very cloI $l aed4 itW
rals nearly fiat, each with two rows of Asort ile-like bhair, uOe deaeui
caly, the lower puncte surrounded by a dark area. aody beneath an& leg.
densely scaly and sprtuel harfr. Length 24 indiei, 6 mm.
On examxng the anterior tibiae with rather high power, minute denttiltl
may be detected. This pedee resembles one from Cuba, (meat by Proijoey,
without name,) which has the elytrd interals more convex, the puncturel of the
itria larger, more regular and closer, ans he thorax mor densely punctured.
Several specimens froA Ble4 Wet. tib te ad BHra, the Phynchopera of
America, north of Mexico.) .


SUPPOSED


SN6E


BORER.


(Platypus ompnitu, Say.)


[Ord., COLOPTr.BA.


Fam., PLATYPOD ID.]


BIBLIOGOAPHBiAL.


FIatypus compoiw 8Say, Joura.


vol. iii, 3394
Er. Wiegm.
163, f. 75.
pardilleueg


Vq Am, Entom.
rc ., 1380 vol.
P. parcUlulq Ohs
Fab. Syst. El., vol.


Acdd.
,Ed. b
ii, 66.
p. ibid
ii. 384.


rAt. Sci.,
Ledonte
Ohapuis
L64, f. 76
PA rwi


Philadelphia,
,; vol. ii 189 :
Mon. Plait.;
. Bowtidtue
gerus; Ohap.


in. Plat., 174, f. 85. P, ptefoev, Chap. ibid; 1768 f; 88.
rugomce, Ohaps ibid, 176, f, l (Leonte, Hornx Bhyaelid-


phora, Ui S.)
This is an elongated, cylindrical, reddish
14 to .18 of an inmh long, with lBs wing
md ending $B t^vrpu teeth at tip.


brown be~tle,
cover deeply s


front


Nfl nf oh SuB.mf
RM~ of ffleri4," Dr. Ltbltf e 14.tt lifi
Uhiio UtoA 4 L?6dI Sarb,
PA1IfrPMt* SS a^iwf BffIWIM.f


-T -.1


Mc
P.


i*

.- 'f'


|






arOm.


ra oaSmaL FOOD PLANT.


The insect


always,


I believe,


confined it attalkm to t


Pine tree, into which it bores and lays its egg, the larva boring


wood.


by 1 0. J. Kenworthy from ir
been found boring into orange t.e
authentically, to establish this fact.


Speimens were brought me
e St. Johns liver, said to have
s, but i have never been abl
I hate frequently heard of


a borer in the orange tree, but have beed unable to secure


taiens in order to find out what it is.


'U.


I am inclined to th


little beetle has been unjustly accused of doing the damage.
stray beetle might now and then, during its flight at night,


tie upon an orange tree,


at daylight,


naturally -hide in any


crevice.


- TITHE


ORANGE


SPIDER.


(Epira, Sp. )


Moore's "Orange


Culture," under the


head


Insets, page 59, is the following account of this spider:


" One is a spider with a long slender body.


fore-legs


extend forward


the hind-legs


When at rest, its
backwards, and all


parallel with the body, which clings closely to the branch or leaf


on whioh the insect rests.


In this .position


wuid


be mistaken for


a piece of moes or


a rust:


lade on the bark


It is so very timid that it at once attemptfr


this crouching position


on -the


approaoe of'


position not only enables it often to elude observation, but gen-


rally to escape
years, and was


suspicion.


very


slow


thing could have done the
enoe. But I am fully sati
forms .of the diseases kno
Early in the morning


have watched


relieve that so innocent looking a
universally found in its pree-
.that it is the cause of one of the
Sdie-back.


sect is


usually found on the ten-


dermet shoots of the orange, andwherever f


are the same.


If the shoot i


ve. yoUrg


at onee to lose its frehnem and ceoes to


mamem a marnatV anMnnttm mrad flnallr .dim _


feeding upon


a. -


.. 1


r






oiLah mBl.


, whom I sent specimens, states that it is a species of Epira, a


enus, the specie, of which
abits but little known.


are difficult


determine, and its


Careful


observations


have


failed


detect it d


range tree; it is also contrary


he known habits of spid


eed on vegetable jnices.


It is


ell known


that die-back trees


r'e constantly


exuding


sap from


tender, succulent shots,


rhich, in time, hardens.


This sap attracts numerous small bugs


ad $es.


TI is therefore my opinion that these spiders collet in


rder to feed on' these insects.
rent species oh orange trees.
rhite eggs on the under part of


cts by weaving


over


them


I have caught eight or nine dii
The female lays numerous peAly


an orange


a fine


silken


S<;
4.13.


leaf, which she pro-
web, straddling it in


der to guard'it from all enemies.


She also shows solicited


>ndness


eggs.


These


spiders


are very timid, and


sing disturbed,


try to


escape, by dropping from the twig


r leaf to which they are suspended by a silken thread.


THE


ORANGE APHIS.


(Siphonophora citrifolii, N.


JOFd., HMam.


Sp.)


Early in the |
dl, brownish or
.ay be seen com


ring and


during


; plant-lice, as


the summer, until late in the


they


are familiarly


called,


in various stages of development in the


under shoots and brane


of the oranges.


These are the famed


ilch cows of the ants. If you watch them carefully, you will
he that their beaks are inserted into the leaves or the tender suc-


Ient shoots, from, which


otion of the body.


they ex


The ants, el


the juices by a pumping
ng over them in evowds,


refully and gently touch the honej-tubae on the hinder part of


'e aphis with their antenna. Tbhe
small 4rop oozing out at a time


with


,<'The matured


L


pdhis yield up their honey-
whiceh the ants eagerly lap
aphids are Wack, with long


ad full, round, black abdomens.


Fige.4 and S2


Phe Wringed specimens are also black.


(Plate


r-Head black, tubercleB of antefnle stont


Fam., AnPHIDmI.]


I


1


WMl d








men black, shiing; antenn not quite renhia to ad of dMo.


men, variabe, marked aoneMat like


e, stigma


Scurved


rather


nimlg to
darply


fprome femalee


broad, narrowing tawrdme -m ob
omat eoer edge toardr peS atigtal


re o e iqe


reins,


tbe third


Wing,


forked; hindg wi with two obliqe vein;a r 6a.w.
two in m wng and dan in tAe otsr.
mwa.n, u. .,li .


The


Iarnm of


two or three Syrphu and Tachina Flie


'the Blood-red Lady Bug, Twice.tabbed Lady
Ohysopa, Weeping Golden Eye, (Chrytopa


Bug, the Orange
jorabun4a, and a


Freekled hrysopa,(femrew~w,)prey upon this species, destroy-


ense quantities.


I have also bred two internal parasites,


Sa c


Iid fly and


an ichneumon


fly, and from


feeding upon them .on the leaf, a curious fly.


sribe farther on


a larva I found
These I shall de-


Thia species is remarkable for its prolifcness,


and besides laying eggs and


producing


producing


save, it is agamie, i. e.,


young without the intervention


males.


these eauss help to swell their number and render them difficult
to exterminate.


wm m auTos.


In all countries the Aphidida are known in the vegetable gar-


den, on shrubbery, fruit trees and other plants,
in 1868, ennmeated sixty-two rd3erent speides ;


in 1i8, forty-


e species, west of the


Thomas, in his report as entomologist
hundred and ity as ocning in the


As 'In Ad no description that will


Benj. D.Walsh,
tiley & Monell,
i; Prof. Cyru4
enumerates one


United States.


the species under


eosiderstion, I propose the name of Crtniol for it.


,of an th, .6 to Iwidthb. El


black


DM bwmr aw


Anvz.
A-


.Fass-Isgt Alt


tthr blak and sbfhtldor dark brow'


Anam .


ur *md a hr m 4in1 iB inrn,


bffsW% eBd otci ttnd


p lpl dot
-$ft ilagad


' l


MPCI




tIh&. mHfc


1






oa>aO isre.


strong oap-ends, a wabh mads from tobacco !eaves, or any strong


lye wash may be used.
Professor Thomas says:


"The most effective remedy, where


it can be applied, .is tobacco


omoke or the fumes


of burning to-


bacco, sulphur, &ao.


But .to


ider thee sueoeuful, the plants


must be c


*ere in some way, so as to onfine the smoke or fume.


and cause them to penetrate to all parts.


A frame n. the shape


abox


or bell,


covered


with heap cloth


answer very well for the flower or vegetable
be used also for small bushes."


of any kind, will
parden, and might


THE


OHALOID


FLY


OF THE


ORANGE APHIp.


(Stnomesuiwt aphwla, N


[Ord. YmonNOIMR.3


This


Sp.)


Pam., Onatm ms.]


BePab~ee I dstrminsd to out what pttiselar ape-


cies of internal


pauraste


ft wa


that


preyed


upon


Orage


Plant Lice, or Aphides.


been


M~ilTif


I put several of


d ito spQaKt


aftrwmd, on examinkg my boas


boxa


those that 1 perceived.


About two


. mverMd


week.
very


minute lack foar-wTh ed ififes, (Pig. 1,3


different frtm


r.,xrz.


had -r Ma o rea t


Oh .b jeoiq


o iBaro p
i riflmi


wMtlW


V






OBAnoN Snmf.


tenne, males 7 jointed, lege, excepting thighs, pale yellowish;
thorax raised; abdomen of male long and slender; that of female
broader and rounded; wings fo6r, clear and reinlesa, fringed


with short hairs, the fringing on hinder pair


than on fore wings. This,
orange grower, with habits
upon the scale insects. It
female, instead of laying a
the body of a single aphis.
of these little flies.
As t is entirely different
provisionally placed it into
I can consult authorities. -


then, as a
similar to
differs, ho'
single egg
From a


another
those
ever,


being s
little
of th
in thi


, deposits two
single aphis


lightly longer
friend of the
3 fies preying
s respect, the
to three into
I raised three


from any species known to
Westwood's genus Stenomef
[t is probably a new type of


LI have
As, until
a genus.


D ESGUBTIV E.


nronmom s? asmDooLa.-Female.-Length, .05 to .06 of a- Ich. Color,
a deep black. Head wider than thwax, three ocelli Antenn, nine-Jolnted,
etaceom inserted in front and dce together. Scope abort and narrow, ond
joint longer than third. Third, round, fourth, mn-haped, joints 8 and 7 mb.
equal in length, 6th wideMt, 7th narrow, 8th mall, 9th twice a lng a 8th.
Abdomen long butnarmwer than thorax, somewhat rounded, ending In ovipod-
toa. Wing hyaline, oell-lem, shortly cillated, dilation longern minder than on
fee tn Leg., pale'yellowlsh, femeor and.ooxz blacLiu or browiuh .black,
tMi Afve-jointed. Male.--Deription the mmne a above, e~Peptia dighUy
smaller, antenna but even-Jointed, wad not much longer than head breod,
while the abdomen is long, slender and pointed.


Sm


THE


BLACK


YELLOW-LEGGED ICOHNEUMON
< -


FLY.


(7.ooys testa pe.i Oreemoni)
[Ot*d., HT oPnBB. Fam., IVHnNaMONIDS.]


Prof..J. HeDfy Oom46ck, in his BJeport a.' Entomologist to
the United States A grmltura Department for 1879, describes
the discovery f 'another, parasitic four winged 4, belonging to
the ichneumonids'faMilyj.. He says: ': .. .
"The leaves of the terminal twigs of orange tiMs-ai fequent-
ly infested, especi in- the easing, by numerous dark-
green plant-lice, which do considerable injury by checking the
growth of the young .thpokt. At locldedg., F, I foundthat
them nlantHli w wAam dtmvsa in onat,. nnmhAn hv wam lhAaiLnk


Sr







OBtrMEu meWTo.


published, I bred the same species from plantlice infesting the
cotton plant,nd from the common grain plant-louse,(ApAhi asna.)
The specimens were referred to Mr. 3. T, Oresson, who prepared *
the following characterization of the species:"


blak, ys oth
black, smooth


pale


antenna


tand
an'd


Oresson.-Female.-


polished, impunctured;


brownish-black, sometimes


-Piteons or shining
mandibles and palpi
more or less pale be-


neath, thirteen-jointed,' the


last one longest and


joints


thickest;


faintly


wings


fluted or grooved, the


hyaline, iridescent, stigma


pale;
pair g<


legs, including coxea, yellowish,


'n


lly more or less


testaceous,


fuscous or blackish;


posfrior


abdomen 'often


brown or pale piceous with the first, an
second' segment, niore or less teetaceous.


Hab.--Rocklege,


Fla.,


Selma,


Ala.,


id sometimes, part of the


Length ,07
Pocomoke


of an inch.
City, .Md.


Parasitic upon an aphid


infesting twigs of


orange, an aphid on


the cotton-plant and Aphis avemn, Fabr.


I have also


raisetl


a great


many


interesting


species


from parasitized aphis found on


orange trees in my garden, and


have had no difficulty in distinguishing it from Dr. Oroeson's de-


scription.


This not only proves


it to be widely spread through-


out Florida, but numerous, and therefore of the greatest import-
ance in the destruction of the Aphidide.
As Prof. Oomstock and Dr. Cresson do not mention or describe


the male, and as it differs
the following description:


somewhat from


the female, I submit


DCSORIPTIVB.


MuAL-Length .06 of an inh.


tam


, reddl-brown, twelve-jointed, lamt


joint as long a ten and eleven combined, this Joint being much longer in the male


than it iin the female.


Abdomen brownimh, excepting rLt, moa d and third


segments and the under surfae, which are pale tataceona


THE


FOUR SPOTTED


APHIS


FLY


(Onwp qwuadrimaculaa N


[Ord., Drrina.


This curious looking fly as raised


Fam., CONOPID.]


by me froln a larva found


w




1


OGANOW WMI .
'I t '
J


along the back, with a reddish narrow ban
centre. This changed into a piparinm, (
white, with brownish at the .
short hairy tuercen g out front
In about ten days, there sued from tbh
kfe y, (fig. 2,) with a blieh black head a
ed, elub-ls'aped antenna, apical joint f
spine; the wings lear, stigma re
Four yellowish white spots, two 01
=. thiid segments of abdomen. The
are long and of a milky white color.
three or mniore eggs in the midst'of the plant
from eight to ten days,'and the larvo begin t
aphis. They destroy countless nimbers of
seasdn, frequently ridding the orange trees c


Sununipg do9 ,
4g. 89,) of a d'
, sand very minute
i different uem9nt
,' *' -~~~i,, '. 3r


nd short, trei -
niahed wit a
gion jigh1y momky;
n eoid and two aon
y*e(iea 4
rhe fly de dpots two,
lice; theibatol in
o feed on the young
Aphide dAing the
)f these pests.


DWlUI~PTIyE.
Cosors? QUADMMCnuarTA, N. Sr.-Length .40 a n Ih&. Hed much wider
than thorax, blua-black pea, aning, there oll uan a d and
ao a abed prt of rtexs. Atemrne darate, iuot, three-jrted, browunh,
dacktr ttip, a l pointt alonC t a d two.and mmlrdbd wItha dsgle
aLt faoe 6r a ntenos down lo Mdda popa.., w4h two oblon white downy
S theeye. extdg frm labrum and terminatig ju bam oh te.-
, tas vwry narrow line white gy hair aLMM sk eyesa etemdlg rfinm
half the eye downward. Thorax logs than head i.rlnod, black, Iney ponc-
tard, wnaed with extremely rborv ine hair. Mar yellowlhi, browuilt
on top. Abdomen brown, w -e, dante, moar tae twic e length of
thorax and covered like thorax with hair. Flr joint loog and marw, jodam two
and three about equal with two oblique yellowish whtb potW extuir d from bru,
not Jofingg o top, and running obliqly downward nt quite to half of the au-
meat, fourth ngment onthird the length o third, oamen r l ort, al mot hid-
don in sach other. Under miaeh muit pe. pl ting hyatie htl ddfIt,
more perceptble about tgail region. P reddidi, astioC and iadde pair
daxkers t baaeeoff femo and firS, posterior .jmir, beaIy the whd oas fewik ex-
ceptiug jut before junc mewth d btr wk n ei ij na
dark lfowhlb.


THE

S


L


APHIDIUS


(A4p$idiw?
[Ord,'IloNNmUMOnD


THE


ORANGE


APHIS.


citiapkie, N. 8p.)
iM. Fain,, BuAwouma. ,
-t


*


r






o0q'g


Bna-.


'The 4A di4i" of the Orange Apbis.".
species, and its dtcription is as follows


It proves


a new


APHIUSro.OCTBAPH, N; ^.-ttt (a|B
shining. Madblem pi o
first two joint eq ,
joined asd iUghty derewizg in Srma, Iit Joint bul
line, veidQ Cac4f SipsU1 YE .t I CUbJ lyW owYi
honey yellno,!d dyker. loAoblro
teriored. UnderypMoffltmdiro txo
MAI -Lengthf.bi nm tfo l fitaen-jdntMt
of po-tei lbba k. Mnr, foad m4d hMiw
ments of adoAn, !yoliI Zn oher up peqC
female.


ftlofqm lnch. Blfat olmopih,

it&e 1jh longer, lorlt
ogthen mmML Wiahy-



IoGoe pdadfamo
Mis u( tthir-d o
Ltare with daotiono
( '~p9


THE


COMMON


P800 8.


(Pocue venowas, Burm.)


[Ord., NuimoPrrAn.
Fin -.


Fam., Peooms.]
A


a O
Psocu wn gpm Burro., 11-7'
magisq, Walk. Oat., 4
Ramb. Nenr. 821-6. PMo
of de Selys Longchamps.
(Hagen Synqpeis, 40-5.)
These interesting insects
to .32 of an inch in length.
head brassy, with long thin an


GNAPHIOA4,
r8-l0 Walk. .O.,
84-10. P904 '
cue acisa. Fitch 3


hocus


grgari


484-P. c

MB., Collection
sa, Harris Oat.


when full grown, average from .90
They ae of a dark brownish black,
itennae covered with short fine hair;
4- .


the fore
ish, with
and neai
pale yell
numerous
congrega


wingu are black, the three' large principal
a triangular yellowish white spot beyond
r the margin .towards the apex of anterior
ow. 'Towards the winter months, these I
a. It is both interesting and amusing to
ited in Slocks, from fifteen to forty, in all I


reins yellow-
the middle

come qufe
watch. them
itagee of de-


velopment, with and without wings, crawling on fenoen, oW a
and down the trunks of tree, those with wings generally taking
the lead.


ITf D


m~pTUaII


-, ar a -


W W S f*


I


.


w







oBhAGU IxeOlb.


widely


distributed,


being found


New


York,


Ohio, Mexico, Cuba and Maryland.


1I 'NATBAL HISTORY.


Like the Orange Pst


number, ander a


web.


lays
unab


its eggs from eight to ten in


le


state


how


many


female depoeite in a season, but judging from one Which I killed


and examined,


should


say from seventy-five


one hundred.


The eggs of


and


take abo


this species.are larger than the eggs of
t u two weeks to hatch. Toward night


C


other,


, these little


creatures all huddle together in a sheltered


spot on the trunk of


the tree, and here they remain until the sun comes out bright and


warm the next .day


through


cold,


I hye often found them remaining together
-a a


damp;


cloudy


days.


They


may


found


throughout the


whole tinter


living


in sheltered


situations on


trees, &c.


The female hibernates


during the winter, beginning


to lay her eggs in March.


DXROBIPTIVR.


P. wrosus Buzu.-Fsocous.--Heed


Antemsn blacklah, fuo,


(in the male thicker, pilom,) tb1 two b l articulato l.uteh.


with yellow.


The feet lut ,


fuosem.


Thorax mr.


Anterior wings tusrout


blakbh fuacous, ptertlgma triangular, yellowish, basil veins yellk b, apical


one fst
Ihnetn


s


Posterior wing. umoky, hyaline.


BEtxpaae of matador wings 19145 miline


Length to tip of win3g86 mil-
est. (HeI' S)nop)


THE


ORANGE


(TAripe,


(Ord.,


Hm an PaA,


Fam., TannDJw.)


In the flowers of the orange trees during February and March,


are found numerous small


insects which,


presnt the following appearance:
Elongated and narrow, from .0d


to .06


under the microscope,

of an inch in length;


beak, short and sharp; eyes large and prominent;


antenna


long


and covered with short hairs; the wings, four in number, (some-
time, the hinder ones are aborted) clear, marrow and bristly,
placed wide apart, the front pair bMeig much I than hinder


'ons, and slightly widening abtip, whish is rosnded:


thi ,se,


ait
Sam


m"Y


__ r_


I


bury .


glued






otIYGEo~ IKgtOS.


(.(Myrmelsan Sp. ?)


[Ordt NnuBoPrra.


In the soil under every orange tree,


verted shapj
the doodle


, holes, made by what
or "ant-lion." These'


HnEMEnOBs.]
.e dften notices.conicalin-
ip popularly known hete as
| caused by the'larvee of


a large nerved winged
bottom dS each hole.


insect, one of which lies concealed in the
They have long curved jaws or mandibles,


and ttfe bod4 discovered with'long hair.


Should an


ant, bug, or


other insect, fall into this pit, the strong curved jaws immediate-


ly close onit and the ,ant-lion then devours it at leisure.


Some-


times a large


happens,


species of


a fierce


ant fall


trap


battle ensues,, the antTrequently


whenever this


coming


South


victorious.


This


insect is


beneficial in


ways-by


destroying all


jurious insects falling from the tree into the pit, and by burrow-


ing in the soil around the
air and moisture.


roots, thus enabling the


to gain


4i*flc:


THE


ANT-LION.


4b




1./47


IND


EX*


S4t


PAO6.
I-XV

56


Aphidit of th Orange Aphis
Angular-Winged Katy-did .
&nt Lion .
phis or Orange Plant-Louse ..
phelinus, The Orange .
Aphein u aspidio*ticola .
rttipu Floridanue
spidiotu citrioda .
Apkidis citraphie, N. Sp.,
Agti ypson ,
basket Worm, The
lack-rolling Wonder
Blood-red Lady Bug
luish-white Weevil, The Large
LSmall
Brer, Suppod pnge .
road Scale .
rock y rena arbor .
ug, The Leaf-Footed Plant
The Tfe Plant4y
Thealy .
tterly, the Orange
ue Yellow-Cloaked Ohalcid
ack ellow~-Legged Ichneumon Fly


oe .. 4 pbm


, d4


a.


.


Y1


I I




* WA '1 ,


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M&~~4W -vp-fl ';;
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IKtx .


CAryaomphalwue fios
Chilooortsbimbru


Common


Peocrtd


Cyhclneda sanguinea
Chalcid, The Blue-Yello


Cowpet


SYellow
zculata, N


Dactylopidus adonidum
Ep.ira, Sp
Explanation to Plates


,14,


Four-Spo


d Aphis Fly


Gloder's, or


White Orange'Mite


- 28


Grasshopper, The Short-Winged$


Hyperapidius coccidiWvora,


NSp


Lance Rustic


a opercutaris,


jarge Bluish


White


Weevil


Leoanium hetperidum
Leptogloesue phylop
Long, or Munse-Shelj!
Leaf Foote4 PlIt Bdg
Lubber Grasshopper .

Miibcentrue retinervis


MXoaspie Gloweii
Midste sarnusq .
Mit, Glover's, or tie
Mila The Red
Mit4 The Rust.


Mit-The


White


White Scale


Moti The Lance, Rustic
Mot; Tl Woolly Bear
MeaB .
JyBp. .A


U


a &kle Auhelinas


* 50

S ,1 '"
1 T


- V


p


*.


-* V. ,


" .


.






i-fl.


- t n
* 4A, g: ^
4
9'r ^
1 *f.


i ,, *
I s -'

' P44 ;t
ft .''y


.4*


* ~' ,, ,' : i.
* -
;^ ;* -
* **tA-; *-


S",


P*oCu c$ricota


Pevcps Orange
Sone sOommon


Snachnw ac pask


-s7
71
&q


'.
I' ^T


Mite


'4

mcroptnra


*Stipgis Oa.erpillar .
Scale,kT Broad .
Scale, The Bed or Circular
Scale, The Lo. .

Seae, The Qeral
1.eThe White .


.
* ^


.a~
-' a *
*^: .'


. ": *
,'CL
4~


Mealy Bug

JawpaUiatvs, N 8p


ifii, N Sp
N Sp


08 ,,*% tj~^
I s
I4s:


bLge Borer


:I


iWeevil


+-


St
. 1


14
..Rf l


5'
&^~~~


1. tq


.4


-.
N
it.'


^ I ^


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