Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Back Cover

Group Title: Florida portrayed : its sections, climate, productions, resources, etc. : with practical hints to intending settlers.
Title: Florida portrayed
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055734/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida portrayed its sections, climate, productions, resources, etc. : with practical hints to intending settlers
Physical Description: 134 p. : ; 21cm.
Language: English
Creator: South Publishing Co
Publisher: "The South" Publishing Co.
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: <1880>
Subject: Description and travel -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Economic conditions -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: Another copy bound with sunny Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055734
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000133505
oclc - 01700656
notis - AAP9543

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front 1
    Front Matter
        Front 2
        Front 3
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Title Page
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Table of Contents
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
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    Back Cover
        Page 135
Full Text

* ^-.A1 '^
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above ma, t1
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* I one. volume,



price 38.

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ii~ hud







Florida Winter (vermes)
Florida Old and New.
Situation, Extent, and Area.
The Everglades.
Minerals, and Mineral
Fauna, Flora, and Sylva.
Soils and Distinctive Land
Climate and Healthfulness
Orange Culture.
Marketing the Orange Crop.
General Agriculture.
Stock Rabing.

Fish and Fisheries.
Lumber and Timber.
.Publd Shools.
RU i Condition.
Land .-
Population and Emigration.
Railways knd' Steam-Ship
State Government.
Trav.J4 guigo..
Hints to Sportuamn.
The Indian River.
Up the Ocklawaha River.
Advantage and Drawbacks
.toS Aetms.

* a.




Sin llu trateb alontblI ZAmerican Joutnal
o( boutbecn Sroget0B.(


Sigse Cofpias i/-

Suwcrnption, io/- per Annum (in advance).

THIS SERIAL, while of popular general interest, is specially intended

to meet the rapidly


demand for reliable


regarding the Southern States of America,-especially of



is at present




advantages these States offer for


Resident oe,




/ nvesfment,

their various sections, climate, soils,

productions, and resources,

their towns and settlements, and their social life and progress, will

Prof table




t N d *l experience.
*^ -i. .^B~y A ^^

- f -

,'; d

Contributions will appear from some of the most intelligent and
practical Southern writers upon the culture of the






and Early Vegetables, of permanent value to all interested in these

attractive and profitable industries.

No sectional or private ends

will be unduly favoured, but the interests of ill parties concerned

will be impadially soQght.

will be avoided.
freely discussed.

Extravagant and onesided statements

Such drawbacks and difficulties as exist will be



A answers


and Reviews of publications relating to the South, will be inserted.
.The Emigrant inquiring where and how t may, under the most
favourable circumstances, establish for himself






the capitalist looking for





and the invalid seeking





as well as the pleasure seeker, will each fiftd suggestions and help

in its pages.

pains will be spared to make the contents at

once attractive, useful, and reliable

and to insure for the Journal,

by dint of real merit, an extensive circulation, constituting it


A advertising






30, Fleet

Street, E.C.



















a numerous


residing or constantly travelling in the Southern States of America.

Pro CRosBY,
and Mr. C. V

the Horticultural





Travelling Manager of the English

Department, both spend the chief portion of their time in Florida,
and are familiar with every section and feature of that attractive

and progressive State. l
England, has also resided

Ir. D.

Webley, the Resident Manager in
a considerable time. They have.






and assistance, and they are desirous

to use them for the benefit

of prospective


Settlers and, Investor,, to

the fullest

measure of their ability.

They wish

to promote emigration

only where it is

wise and




so to give

emigrant such

guidance and help both here and in America as may contribute
to his future welfare and success.


suited to this purpose are kept for sale or reference at the office,
and information is freely given. by the managers on application.
If by letter, stamped envelope should be enclosed for reply.





















Iaesource ,
















Entred at Stationer' Hall.

^o<^ri p*-




















0ooRsB, D.D.
























.. 118
. 181


. t01




LORIDA is, advancing



tions both for residents

these are

and f6r

more rapidly than

It has

many spemi

of the Northern



its delightful climate, and the

pursuit of Orange Culture,

any other
al attrao-
Statef of

which, as has now


abundantly demonstrated, can here

be followed






inquiry for

information has



Many one-sided, extravagant, and untruthfil state-











as by

as much

by the




emigrate is

in most cases a serious step involving weighty imue, and should

be taken


with full knowledge of facts.



plain fer
to fear


It is desirable



to gain

for all


by this

Her progress has been steady, and rests upon the solid


of her real merits.

to give such


In the following pages the

and reliable information as an in-

tending settler seeks to acquire.

The matter has been


from various sources, and free use has been made of the labours

of former writers.

The compilers are, from lengthened residence,

familiarly acquainted with
to, the statements adopted
interests of truth, d as

Florida, and have revised,

or added

as seemed to them neceesry in the

as somewhat

hasty preparation

would allow.

Testimony of General Grant.
Florida a gr at te before it.. A p2ed .ulae dif ow fji
a great continent like ours, afording unlimited demandfor all the various
tropical productions it can supply,-there i wscareely a limit to its resowres.
It i capable of supplying all the orange, lemon, pine-apples, and other
semi-tropical fruits wed in the United Sates, one Andred million dollars
of sugar now imported, material for rope, bagging, oarse matting, etc."

Extract from a Letter by Samuel Plimsoll, .Eea.
"I hawe traslled mch and made observation as I journeyed, and no-
where have Ifound the elements of sre and rapid nccessa as gtat a. they
apear to me to east in Florida; for great as is the prod.otin Rngt
there, the whole quantity is only one-eighth of the nCeo option in the United
ats alone. And then, again, the land that is available, is limited, and
will soo be taken p.
If I wea younger, say under fortg, I would go there with all the ash I
aould get, buy as mewo land as I ould pay for, e io my own At on as
little as ever I eandd, working for my seighbors, Vf se, eV for my
liing, and to eoonomise my means, plating my own eeds, if my means
world not allow me to get a good piece of land and plant it with tres. as
well. Of course miy means were equal to both buying ad planting 3htA
three-year-old trees, I would do to.
waoh settler must judge for ,himse, but with steady industry the road
to wealth in Florida nme to be as plain and straight (ad easy, owing to
the glorious climate) as one of our Aglish tunyihe roads."


State of Florida is divided into tour geographial motions
commonly designated aa Wat, Middle, East, ad South Florida
There is rally no such division legally authorid ; but by its
ditiaens such a subdivison of territory il tacitly reeogniszed, and
the several lr are always spoen of by the above name All
of that portion of the State lying south of the State of Alabam and west of
the Apalachicola River, embracing the counties of Esama, Santa Rosa,
Walton, Holmes, Wahington, Jackon, and Calhoun, is known Wet Florida.
The section of country lying between the Apla hiooa and Suwannee
Rivers, embracing the oountaea of Gadaden, Liberty, Franklin, Leon, Wakulla,
Jefferson, Madison, Taylor, Lafayette, and Hamilton, is known as Middle
portionn of the State situated east of the Suwanee River and north of the
twenty-ninth parallel of latitude, embracing the counties of Suwannee, Columbia,
Baker, Naus, Duval, Clay, St. John's, Putam, Bradford, Alachus, Levy,
Marion, and Volusi, i termed East Florida.
That immense region in the peninmul south of the twenty-ninth parallel,
containing the countide of Henando, Sumter, Orange, H borouh, Polk,
Brevard, Manatee, Dade, sad Monroe, is called South Florida.
The four following article are intended to present a descriptive outline of
thee several ections in the order named :

Outside of the old pasnish town of Peamools, West Florida remained cut of
from the balance of the world until the opening of the Penmaola and Atlantic
Railroad, which wa finished in 1888, from Pmuesola to Chattahoohee on the
Apalachioola River, where, after pa ung through the counties of Santa Rom


Walton, Holmes, Washington, and Jackson, it connects with the western ter-
minus of the Florida Central and Western Railroad, which travese the State
eastwardly to Jacksonville on the St. John's River.
Before the construction of this trunk line, connecting at Penascola with the
Louisville and Nashville system of railways, there wa no means of getting into
or out of this great western territory of the State except by tedious travelling
over heavy roads in private conveyance, or by means of some of the little mail
hacks, often nothing more commodious than an old rickety buggy, that plied
between the widely-eperated country post offices. Notwithnd this ,
very cnrhsabie settlement had been made ba the. western ooonte as ealdy
as 1830, when the population of the seven- counties amounted to 10,678, and,
without any organized plan of inducing immigration, and entirely without any
facilities of transporting people, enough from the outside world had straggled
into that part of Florida to bring its population up to 45,288 in 1880, only
about 9,000 of which are to be credited to the city of Pensao ; so that in a
period of fifty yards, in the first thirty of which it was subjected to all those
embarraaiments that attend the settlement of a new frontier country, and the
last twenty years to those never-to-be-described impediments that attend civil
war, bankruptcy, rfonnructios, and resurrection, this western portion of
Florida has more than doubled her population twin, which s quite a good a
showing as an be made by any part of the south, and perhaps of the Uion,
except those Western State which owe their phenomenal development to the'
great tide of Eopea immigrant daily poured into them, cad.of which sone
has been directed to West Florida.
The settlers of this region have been chiefly from the Southern Stat--
Alabens, Tenneme, Georgia, and the arolin furnishing the greater part
In the Euohee Valley, in Walton County, many years ago, etd a colony of
educated Scotch farmers, who have breda race of Me in thous regions whp
have long been the moving pirit of the county, supplying able me for every
position of trust, useful and responsibility.
The inducements that have brought together this population of 45,000 aem.
upward have been very simple : none of the etrsordnary causes that s
times in a few year, or eve months, throw a great omnmrr of people into a
section of country recently a wildernmes- h as the dovery of gold, the
opening of mine, or the "striking of oil." Nothing aalgous to the orange
grove atd tropical fruit cre, that has done so much ih seeing other part of
the State, has had anything to do with carrying people toWet Florida ; but
gradually, almost one by one, the. people have drifted down from more
Northern State with their fmiie amd houks od ets transported in waggons,
in search of healthful locations where. the l ws file oumgh to be turned
to agricultural pursuit., and the natural vegetation sulioent to sustain their
floks. No country has yet been dmoveaed that poss ed all the advantage
that ovtous men desire, and many o the primn obj ect uoght by imigrart.
in other lan i may be ant ing in tia ieiok; but oeaSti1y, hon or two
puticulaij iiK sauds without a ri vat otrde of h't6 t S i toA it belongs.
A pufet c ste had detrmnd healftMldw WaM
the rttsctios;h -* "' -' *" -- 1>-


The eountryis comparatively high, not, indeed, in oompar4son with Kentucky,
Tennesms, or North Georgia, but so very much higher than Loomna, Mis-
sippl the oast oonlas of Coisandaae a and pteauinsti otc of
Florida, ao be oonddered in tees latitudes quite elevated. Cetah ly the
point of greatest altitude in Flrida is to be found in Walton Conty. The
proximity of the Gulf, and the boundlea extent of forest reaching in every
direotio, tend to equals temperatures and make the climate one of the most
dellghtttl to be found anywhere. We have no data from which to oompile a
table of diurnal temperatures for this part of the State, but from personal
experience an pronounce it almost identical with that of Talare in the
middle motion of the State, where the latitude and other topographical oondi-
tions me very much the same.
Of the healthfulneu of West Florida, as indeed of the balance of the
State, we an speak in the. highest prai There is no longer question of the
established hfact that most of the diselaes prevalent in the United 8tate, when
they occur, as most of them sometimes do, in Florida, are-univermsally of a
milder type than they assume elsewhere.
Penaoola, being a port to which shipping from the West Indies and
South American ports is constantly arriving, has been subject to visitations
of yellow fever, which has several times become epidemic thee and used
many deaths, and it is quite probable that this will continue to be the
case. It, however, never spreads into the country, and the country residents
of Escambi County have never had cause to feel any apprehension oa the
score of yellow fever.



of West Florida are of several varieties of marked difference. The greater
portion of the section i sandy andjnot possessed of any wonderful degree of
fertility, yet it is rarely so poor as not to give very satisfactory return to
labour bestowed upon it.
OGsai portias, however, poses M choice agricultural lands as are to be
found'n the south. Jackson County, for instance is one of the richest
agricultural regions of Florida. In it clay predominant in the soil, a
abundant crops of corn, cotton, cane, potatoes, oats, rye, rie, and hay are made
by its frmehs Since the recent provision of railroad fadlitie, no section of
Florida offers greater inducements to a clam of farmers of moderate means who
desire heap lands of excellent quality, generally cleared, where staple farm
crops ean be profitably handled.
Some excellent farming.lands are to be found in Walton and Holmes Counties
also, and what are known as the Euhee Anna Valley Lands in Walton are the
cene of muokh proumero husbadry. -
lhonm County can boost of much exaoelet hammock land. The re rme
t this ounty have not as yet been developed, but the time is near at hand
he he e saten of immig s will be dirted to the Chipma ounty Ia
ahon County. In it are orange grove, of which no bots have bee made,
would open wide with ltpre the eyes of some of the propriets in the






"orange bel" It is afe to predict a future of wondufalprosperity for
Calhoun County.
One of the attmctons that West Florida offers to imms the adaptive-
nee of mouh of the gater pet of it aeas to pro ible atot r -, prdJ ly
sheep. The country is well watered,'not with 'ponds, oyprm swap, sad,
lagoons; but with lear running streams, having their source in determined
springs. The natural grauaea of the pine woods in this part of Florida are more
diversiied and of a finer character than on the pine lands of other prte of the.
State, and afford very satisfactory food to flocks and herds. Tbh graving
qualities of West Florida do not compare with those of some parts of Texas
and other western States and territorim, where mesquite and other noted grades
abound; but we question whether sheep raining t not raUlly mor profitable in
West Floridathan in any of the western State, where the prams naturally
better, because of the mall percentage ci lon from severeweather and
di&u a Such cold winds, accompanied with rain, as occur in Teos, for
instance, so constantly during the lambing season, and are such prolific sources
of lose to flock owners, are entirely unknown in West Florida, where the
perfect equability of the climate allows the safe dropping of lambs in the
ope fields and woodlands throughout the entire winter. No housing
nor extra winter food is necessary to keep a flock i fair oondiion. The
abundant shade, absence of waxy mud, cacti, burrs, etc., are also items
to be considered. Certain it is that the ownership of looks has tfor some years
been found to be attended with steady and sure profits in West Florida,
and it is practically the only part of t4he State where this industry has assumed
such proportions as to entitle it to be ranked among the available resources of
the section.
The census of 1880 ahows returns of something over 54,000 sheep for the
the seven counties of West Florida, and, as most of those engaged in the
businea had recently become so, it is likely that 1890 will find twenty times.s
many fleeces in Florida west of the Apalaohioola a in 1880. -
The permanent improvement of the open range p urge by the intro-
duction on those lands of the Bermuda and other graum, grown mosuoaeefully
in Middle Florida, u declared to be entirely practicable, and in maay intances
has already been sucoeufully accomplished.
The catle.of this part of Florida are larger and fatter, owing to the better

charter of the pature, than those of the southern portion
There are in West Florida no "cow men" who count their
extensive a sale as some of the "cattle king of the southern


of the State.
horns on so
part of the

State; but neverthele. there are some large and profitable herds in this
section. The eeenmumof 1880 shows upward of 62,000 cattle in the seven
counties of West Flda, Jaokson County alone claiming 11,727 had, and, as
Jackson is an ric r county, having 70,000 acres of land-more than 10
per cent. o its total area-improved and under cultivation, it coaps rs very
wdl in its Sae interest with even Manatee County f the South, which has
S,9,o00 acre, with but 1,998 acres under oultivation, and with 58,000 head
of cattle.
Sinse the completion of the railroad through West Florid a.eat impetus


has been gin ao its cattle trade. Texas i sending numerous buyers to that
section, who are paying the highest prioe. for stock cattle.
In the pat, as probably for ome years in the future, the most extensive
industry ad source of wealth to West Florida has been, and will be, the
handing of her

than which no finer supply, both as to quantity and quality, is to be found in
the south.
The fine harbour of Penasoola has for years attracted the ships of all nations
in quest of the great stores of yellow pine timber and lumber to be obtained
there; and mills for the manufacture of these commodities have been for a
long time operated at Pensacola, at several points on Esoambia Bay, the Black-
water, and the Apllachioola. But as only such parts of the great pine forest
have been invaded as the "logmen found easily accessible to the currents of
the Escambia, Blackwater, Yellow River, Choctawhatchie, Chipola, and Apala-
chioola Rivers, the sawing of lumber in that section of the State is but in its
infancy. The construction of the Pensacola and Atlantic Railroad makes
available the standing timber on millions of acres that heretofore have been
shut out from the world's commerce. Every month now seee the establishing
of additional mills along the line of this great highway, and, as heavy as have
been Pensaoola's exports heretofore, they are likely to be doubled in a year or
two, or as soon as the outside world discovers the opportunities for the safe
investment of capital in the timber lands of these western counties. The
following a statement of the shipment of lumber from Pensacola for the
years ending October 81, 1881 and 1882, respectively :-
For ear ending October 81 1881.
SHewed timb erwedthnber, Lmber,
DU er.o Tonon
n.Mathrin .. .. 346 19,990 8,669,706 5,778,186 15,100,000
OtnMnt d E umme .. 97 66,886 878,844 786,888 17,078000
ria and Amuuai a .. 4,691 6,666 19,69 86,000
W. Indls, 8. Amerio, etc.. 86 88A 8,906 19,84, 1,8,
ooMwi. .. .. .. 180 60,361 29,s80 8,0o,0o
Total .. .. .. 64 8s9,12 S8,hs8 e,748,010 88u18,00e

For ya ending October 813t, 1882.

Gat Bttae .. .. 968 15,477 8,191,417 6,914.678 1996,00
OattMt oa J p .. 184 0,0 1,548,418 1,m47,91 1z, 0,m
A4lO Aw eU, t. .. 6 8,835 4,78 609 1,6,000
W. &Amic, .to. 184 ,66158 67,919 19,568 86,1OO
utue .. .. .. 16 6,716 81,041 87,9;,00oo
T .. .. a66 409,986 48,608678 8,716,698 106,961,00


Life hae but just begun for West Florida.
heretofore, that it has known but little of the
her coundlonr and leghhtos have bad .ag
lathe saddle, rive .te dswim an day. to q

; entirely hs it bun ialted
outside world. For if ty yer
miles of. dAauous&t to tavwer
peni ea rehagddtheOcvWatt

Tallahasee ; and, as few human beings have the push of the w y#ra~ma aqr
of a legislature, it was natural that, under these uninviting conditions, their
constituency should have received but small accessions frem beyond their
borders. But now the most southern of all the great iron highways that
connect the waters of tfe Pacific and the Atlantic pa. east and aest throughli
the heart of this fine territory. A stream of travel has already entered Florida
over it, and. another season will show the section to thousands of ey' tbat will
see more or less to attract them. The population, capital, ald industries of
these wetern counties will undoubtedly double in the next ten year. What
West Florida has to offer is substantial, and shows for itself. .
Middle Florida embraces the oounties.of Gadaden, Liberty, Frankln, Wkufla,
Leon, Jefferso, XMdison, Taylor, Lafayette, and Hamilton, and ~Oupies that
section of the State lying between the Suwannee and Apalachicoa Rivmes.
The northern portion of this area, or so much of .the counties ot Madison,
Jefrson, Leon, and Gadaden as lie north of tyj line of the. FlQds .nttal
and Western Railroad, is a section entirely unlike any other in Florida, The
yellow-pine trees, and level, sandy lands, so conspicuous elsewhere in Florida,
are not found here; but in their stead is a high, rolling country, a frm, layey
sol, and, where not ml and.ander cultivation, magnificent forest of oak
of many varieties, hickory, as, cherry, etdgum, poplar, manoli% id e many
other hard-wood trees.
The general appearaw of thi bill oountry is .uike the grater portion
of a.it.,. that a trwller who for-days before had been gaang into the
gloomy depths of eadles pine woods, wit.ther weird scarcely'
medlit hkis maas when ha glanoem t this beautifully picturesque dgiotrom
tc.nwr windows This aeqa of Middl.3oprid t an. Qau of rioq a
owad y, itpated in thq geat pine wamt of Southern
Fjkdda. I t bran sunmiitable evidaqo o belegng 9 Ah.. gt.p o
of volcanic upheaval that made the Weat India. Sientsts recog b e in this
digMr0tn*M W ttL Ahdn -irtR j tha ti t beforghaneau aytqle It Is
pptable that thisjet df Florida weor ages an Iiiand in Mnajtw
msa, its tropical hillktopQ oh in fo!ept 1ill, ) bngb ore bthe little coral masons
laid the foundation of the rAi on which the seawirves have uin4 raised the

k pgoM.^ a PthMun N~~r fcuihto setf aaiS'tiboete the
ite -of is trriitorial a ital wow ainduoed lartth. be gotf Ma N1gio to
danfddte -. 0^

La- -^, fctl> obd, Ur >
in flrf~r micd~dle rngion iltmtordfd

ct he*lthy patm



and the Crolina, who at once a entering the f ham. s, and
removing to them their fmim of slave.
In awy dew yjs broad mmem of the mighty fombe had Li. before the
busy awr *- b slaye irel4 and the fertil platenaux ad wYey we as
rapidly owruetd into Odds of com4, ( Sand tobooo .t
Thb wo-dwba produotiven.m of this.mi.topid region wee aon a sourme
of iimu m pott to'it fortunate owners The young capital began to grow
and posper and ws oon the home of peple oultivatioc and taute who
conrtrue ed comdortal anid, in smie teau l, m hom, in whioh Lor
many years w expended a bounteous hospitality, that made the Thlehio
country fsaous orithe attraetivenm o its noal smuoundihp. Very mueh
the mne f moera extended into the adjeiin eoarnt of OMddea,
Jeffano, ead Mmdn, and the pretty Ittie tonw of Queay,, Montisllo, esad
Madison gathered around them a population of wealthy men. Thi was then
the Florida. The growing of oranges was never engaged in by there plantation
proprietors for-profit s and, notwithstanding that the great St. John's towed
as mjetiolly then as now, the feet that nowhere on its bamkewaa the land
fertile enough to enourge agricultural pursita forbade the opening of
plantations there.
The Civil War, and its attendant oonseq-uao,- put a end, temporarily,
to the prosperity of this middle region of te State. May an old mio,
onoe the one of gaiety and luxury, now stamd a decaying rin-in the
vicinity of the towns of Middle Florida-amid the splendid trees otmuronding
parka, deserted by its onoe proud but generous inmas, who, in the unettled
state of thing suomeeding the war, removed to the tow s for mutual protiom.
Other grad old home have been on ed byfin' and day. Iong Hlne of
tumble-down negro quarters, dilapidated sugar nd gin houses, d ed'r
orchards eteh the eye frm .1.t enry promi-.hill-top md, sphe the
really beatiful natural- muroindtlng an obsever must feel md at tShemany
evidenoes ofdeparted glory and happinei.
The omntry above described has been called by a brilliat and delightful
writer, The a ee Country,a rPiedmot orida" aid hi d1p
are so trfl ul and pleasant :tt we oanot doitttsa than to quote what he
mya, Helb u. duilbeus the vw westwrd from the high Jil .on whiA the
City of TelL W ea ituated. '
"Towuds. eey di the. hils mweik s' u coloured with 40loi that
suggested frji ad an na -; their rounded brow, their sope., the
valleys etsn thaw.wre full o r wop omafortble homestetds 'nd
farm b.UinP. -epidd i tsnoe ah clasr of ihiaLb&ad 4Wo -
proteteing yto' of oeha eatadfrg about it in the b gnamnttitdam of outw
ln-amr4a*diuus. was ut.lo^ a pYtape^ 4nMoh erdd hkish

with tf:UaS. -,L ai. JVf-^MtoP-' aH^W;l *^ ia g 'katg
agitation0 onupheimk They only us flo*^4t |iblst. utptf^ IasdM
lit. xddus sla stf c tefl rnsmdgdlMw4 ae tit~t q'gfW tW's thbis led hi.asijl bd^ o4t sihle Mtt^ tns
modial 5fe b ir rif.. -


Of the many beautiful lakes the same writer says :
Lake La Fayette-so called from its situation on the eitsa p -ted to the
Marquis de La Fayette by the United State--Lake Jaokmn, Lake Bradford,
Lake Mioooeukie, and Lake lamonia pronouncedd 4ith the I lon and the acent
on the antepenult) [all in Leon County], all form charming objective points
for excursions and offer substantial results of fine fish, as well as lovely views by
way of invitations. Wild duck, brant, and geese are also lound, often in great
numbers. The environment of these lake is varied and beautiful.
The hills surround them with gently receding curves, now with bolder blaub,
now with terraces rising one above another to the height of a hundred feet in
all; many growths of great, glossy-leaved magnolias, of water-oaks and live-
oaks, of hickory, ash, wild cherry, and mock orange, glorify the shores; and
between, around, and over these hang the clematis, the woodbine, and wild
grape vines."
It was in this part of Florida that the very complicated and peculiar political
process, termed reconstruction, most particularly worked itself out. Much of
the former wealth of the people consisted of slaves, who were owned in great
numbers in the counties of Gadsden, Leon, Wakulla, Jefferson, and Madison,
and so outnumbered the white population, that, under the administration of
the carpet-bag regime, which relied upon the support of these newly liberated
people entirely for its hold upon the State government, the social establishment
was more entirely upset, and a more lasting injury was done in this section
than anywhere else in Florida
The coloured race in the South have never shown themselves a vicious
people. On the contrary, history offers no parallel of a people exhibiting more
universal amiability and docility. Such teachers and lemons as the southern
negroes were subjected to, by the very unprincipled and reckless class of
carpet-bag adventurers who became their political leaders after the war, would
have made of any other race of men on earth a hoot of fiends. But it was
a rare exception when the most designing white politician could so far inflaie
the passions of one of these people as to make use of him as an instigator of
riot and disorder ; and when this did. occur, it was generally with some idle
brt nervous individual in whose veins there was more Caucaian tha African
blood. Nevertheless the political turmoil, that was diligently kept up in
Middle Florida by the white leaders of the negro cohorts until 1876, when the
administration of the State government passed into the hands of Floridians
retarded the progress of the middle portion of the State many years. Leagues,
midnight drills, secret societies, politically-religious, or religioualypolitioal
haranguiga and teahings, at which the attendance of every male and female,
was eaded by the political preachers, kept the colourd people in a state of
feverish excitement, and caused them to neglect their farms and crops, "to
abandon the country in large numbers and flock to the towns. .Intemperance
rapidly gained a hold upon them as a people, and all their suspicions and fears
were kept aroused toward the white.
The .majority of the negros, being dle, were soon led o pilfer and steal.
Throu-nds of cattle, hogs, and sheep were stoles and ldetroye. Families,
Who owned thousands of acres of land on which lage herds had been

-sm;ag= -. -rx'

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c. t
rin hw &hed -

. I I d th et
_____.owhta nis tm *- the. .'a

han *.* uuinn Idrgh .dwq toa y

I.hrP.*i' -n dn Timbt. o f wi. .til.a it
i vabnltown of.t'o Rio crrbsIra PC St Ja-! -J--4rs F r-
hmuy tenigshom part 61 th i ewo vsrldW rM samehrI dsrqii wtt
ham bir- -_ = -- t_
~Doq hqM Harbr. kellas wouln r
GTgi tod ead ul BMilnd Ron&t t flU i VT .riTt AR
Aiwhe OIaty to Cl Ton ca' the S-a s^, 4 Unite.ii '*
thouh a kd'M .ofaloraid Lst
tip, amid (bim. am&*Meb r.. 4 a
New and degan ateemers ar plying the w4qe ci t&AS.*:
throc wtbotel. ith .1 moder oo:oTn'l, r u4W ta Tl-
lob pee. A.hotl sw i hth"le Taos m tna

Xmrkeraantledbahav. "both S hoelf.ht.
aqwecdah ld. tard M Strtwadk kTantw -O |d
tuoh ttr lte pan Mns of kTrawl Plao d Ll
indadbia ad .t ad
wear is. dig nt Ytolemar plyinta it ods flct 65,1. 9(ShN*g to N
Cmist ios rabotiag ai. fia Ops. a 0.imio ti br'tb mie Tri- *
Sorot po-w far amotentb Loon ih Mocgm, isv.t buhom.s

loated Iqr the nW w a t. for hoir l 4, 4a
aiwt ift dukdH 4d'M.h Ci taadw b.rrtjcll |

yw'g eDit, aaoe -olI ft abonda Jjylcaa
to -; :d in Mr. t

:nIir'rTI5u "L ^ar diraotoi st ehtuati ed atils'W*ihihnrtnirp
looK~topr^ft ra nwr mtaridUdiriibal>.c .... *..i ..

No A _^^A ^^l^^ ^'^ '^^bi^ k^ -^ fJt^ ^Akk JJa uL'- j', _^^

.*k--rU---a--1B----WFu --
'TH--BP^^^ ^^^^^^^^J^^^P I,^ '^^g- IIIdiIS .J t^^9 ^^
^~dh-, AAW(Iul'i-f'ib nt.kftt **fcatej

,1 w ,
* .T. p "*i., r ,. '-

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' r

i -- i I r
SpdinpJ saouroe w a psit Skiy tinnd iW MieoS ri. Chel

It ,b 400 eand 181 de^
the .mandW tt .a, be eme whupoei its bottom.
The ,-r-o b o th OkL-o,,, S-, Wakule, ,St Mi e t',l
Aadila, Wldbm Upo at Finahalowy, and Steihtebe, are m wvd aad
tropical k iafr A wrpe qhe th moat othuri oa of ouldM di..
Qftiaa fa teonjmt, that tf t quutiomsble whstebr Ins' apart owa be
found -nweM thn in th extNdafe oErn a mong the bige planttions of
Middle and WetmWn Florida, in which quail abound.
The ut enapommdttoty feature of Middle flords, and one thaet will
outweigh all ohr with a large 1ah of priatical man, i tse faot at o large
a part of it b o admlably adapted to mixed farming. The vry .murve
plan in Gadda, WakiBa, Leon, JObnon, a4d atm
Countie o & lU. to w ttl obainiag fmr a of frd 1t0 to
820 or more lredy olwed aed,n which a thae taplel frm
crops can be probably grown, impred brd o le, heep, ad swine,
kept; aad wfth the pest S Wuhta of th latter, tagsth with
the natural tnimgth and durability of tho alyey lam, early vettabe gowin
for northern mark a, at a when thia rego virtually commandd a
monopoly of a make, can be mde a mot prodtabe and. ing
adjumn t to te eguiar olntionm of the farm.
Th.e lo lt of ad a bnd tW thaet fnd a geal climate ad oil in
Middle aid a toSIy maimda qibe a- inviting the oange od other
section. Nor msat it be ovelooked that rougl Mhu ddleM Flrda tplaedid
old olggme ae to be foMnd bearing uao t. t' Perodbhly, at
intearvals usli of teen ya s, ld Mwaveu ha swept over t his nation of
the St ddmg mot or le damge to the ,-'. The lat o orenne
of theulnd wrin Demblr, 1880, and ib aae still to be use, though
on other wa Apal ola vrr and in Lrfete and Taylor oant the
daae doe was very dJtt_
Te ra114st ihroughoct MiW Florida, of oainodtoa ohnuk sad
qboob isa ue.. pa! irt Mtiftfam to itb peope,Uad a deSMdS raftha
tomyfrom .m. Sb.. dBodd the p i of wdk-rgaimsd 4 wtl-
oondtoted pubu a4d purn aehoda in aol teowi and ouatrky mehtr
hod -, lbemi e b*t>aa at 1ta l-hee the Wam t Fioda Emnmaory, with a
male liSM d'fidpurts maid a cprpu of loict'Irtom. Within
the y8r has bara Saippat 'A md bo add the Florda Sidy, o( wbhk
ome .c. (Ek Me dled) ba bee put Upom a frt'bundrg 1*ib S jua t bi

In ostS* mastpltd table it Mo me that, though a peliod c f 1hir4y
mosthi, 4rriri h! mtsl r a irsh fd 1681, 1886, ad 188 te hhtb
ranm ot a mf wu a 1881, 9( i 188a, 1ad 6Zd4u in
l188, & 1bb{Id1brM4S prilr te lowetra o twae moete
n- >l fr ^ *> ht l l IS 'r bu111 in s bitr n it u mi&
ed~~~~~~~~ .~.:~~~~i~6iiub~ril ^J~IP~ CMhl 1


so PL 'P /R
-- .

I *
20 dZ tn aa a'a a aj

* tM t< high degrees ieoS oadM rn^ .s a ', hf roi ^iti ayM
a .*. fl*.ai., n; na
The Ud diLWn etweOL Wh ur;a~f SD caqu i Srpl~e lWUW U*INR3 1
winiW ltefor 181wte ve tdiralftn^ l ^^
the diffrnoe wa GM.t" .
Tothvenge ewsk' daly tempemtms for the flue. Mt nl wkt sbtb
of the $m.psiod, 'a, nqJnurys wFeus ady .ad tl 4 tSvfr A
1888, aL Octobe, Noveimber, sid Do1b681r ai*Af **tet
The fairS mean dafly tempratoe ttwbus'aMta ewi,.,
April, May, and' Juse of 1881, 1882, sad 1888, and July Ag n&
Soptbr o 1881 and 1882, Li 7910.
'ti dnseoe between'the average daily tmporture fc *imir ainfer
beiag e.m'eaj fmnd tMIrte-AuWSd.ra dn .'
'Th faow t growth of the rd lands oi Middle Foaida i f a thiy of
hard-dwoodd, uabrageoua te that aa.n abundant s"dab, a dti a7
lands of the rgio are carpeted with grew. mfany bfalke6 ttma at
mid&day, under theUdht ray. o te ee oiropal) sBu, plaes m sa. be
bud where the hbt is aot adnratble.
ai. Flamida bae just wrird ta period *hm -may MidS esul. are
plaoehtms in th mamy of ta dsr oprt .
afle pat it. ii-urts:iV hae bie ratistad to the produoat c the gna
taple, cotton, and some r sugad atonbco. LIUte we done other than ooldA
b. ...*liahed by th. rod. a that obtuIde enMmra4B Ut.r mMt the
mist lit the 4ppastfou at .1 dae lmab thn ld -ye S; *w w
Nbthtqyong men of the oosunry have tahuc heM d as A'i S a*
plough-baidh awbl. a
DIMeaM tuing k raptdly betie y
m e ar b rated;-f iampoW le H.uto is ag ptotted sbMamsa
Sbad haarte& yearufyr 't ardtes e codi -binbali 'dspd
aad uptatsd with difeact Utrm.d rbtnu air. bdR^ pat t. pm. ad
pat 47 t the aumbec matte mubb -*
Ti tf.ling up of Soudthern Ggefrnhd East and o eth au dbblam d.
at psge who ae turning tbufr atdteioan to fit nsealjnhmtteoaS f
etn'lA has taied to dmdiop IB Ii dbbti pAm S ara ^
gffn;salba;bcll t asad, &.f hafrvwufylsSv doi

<^ ttd Inbprow ldplSig piuem, h pr byptiony ^de ea
:~ ~ b& 4th lacrl~iC;~~ad~t ll~LaerYrs a~bet l

t^ birhte terranObota~t^ '* -*- -^ aa .t._ t
Florida, by firtse ofs eupelarkty ot er ad, flsdrs thMeonad

as e '. i aBtIalotta ai|t 'n MS' Ny'ft ghassk

thelhxtf-city trer~a*Vi^mW q*4SS 'ii~if- r ftii tfb&l ih l
; j ~'.1 !:'Y r~I

i ,
t /


the a*g et Iy iJa. tasouth fe wayits am me~b is wr

oE)ubhg I
b, t i I I I ,, ] IIII--------Jl Ih--- &-IL- "] iS-I f-. I

aqulooas $r e IonrMIpy, JxblIu ia Idraeb aaad upply 4 .. wrter,
the gust diumatpr a., lpemarb tfane si BWA git n I-p to
both gmtI "a

socialnd saoCh( cbritee A tos.qtl Wpag .r1 Seiw rbr,
the id@h ra U I [L1 aine.44 uspdflhe,
and mosq9it ,Ifr ot bud to \2m why KIM. italdci are wa

rThl 4difer ui,, oj ]fidl i p th,- oo*ise tof.
Naun, ..Puw. 3hh. C .um, U -', i MpUa Le- Y, Maam, Yc.-hi

Notbil4tub 4fl Aml -w B7rdI IIa m a J. (srmfl, i the
ostd qdrt^iM --an mq ai b m c Vtk dwrMa why Wv, r*ry Ibti.
toarudr Piedmosab 1 ,ar uate atm. bn aat sa.hel

The dnrMa ( h^ tae o5 srij X uMio %Ahhuirsr, 3t 1e wbirtef
River ad ehd ath- it1

In mS A r p -v .tAhbdyin&e
dodiiG-|irt> the flambMf *3rtSc 4 yn

SIeS a II m fle *4 -

io Jad* dU.e t allriry db Intrhe 3..tlu tacA ai aM be
-prin ,< ,al wiiai. I --
e-- a d- i-'7-t- -, m --
Ime efrfl6SPS be.'
in nlfs"h^^c eeotet-dffeprq r^*rtilydf
. inrl~grd~riHttai~u~a ~relbq*a~oa
shew iyltMlf~ t ytit^faiitiir^ir

.- 7


SpMrU by negro labour wee eaily take up atd spp itud thd
pOdxtiOa o5a, a nott, tubinm ao, d s r. -
The light mandy land of the pine go fthath we.. i a r
by old ve-own worth the darin ad eooaquentl
gained andiag in the market fr twenty o thirty ve ya fltiAs at
from 70 cent to$1tS prae. .
In the eoat od bion and Alahw; in Et Floriddatr m we'di
covered lng ago maie a ma of ounty whee th we T good &p r-et
soil, mtne g oa df, but a few inhe. removed andreenm i te ld
southern planter before the war, with his ave force ; and here w d
a ouiddable dseree of prosperity. In a eomew .s.t k degIeq etn.. fac ts
appl. to Columbi County, where, in the vinity dof ake I' tC om

From th.ta going statement, a nmw-omer to Florida ma aosmt for the
ugret mnmben of negroes now to be found in Marion ad m ah i u oa m-
pared with other oamntai of Eat Fl~id Thoe were the pamm, in thi old
plating day whre laed wash to ta the ownas &
thee people. The prmmee of nrome in number may be eafdy counted
in Florid a an evidence of goodfarm land. A .dthdr Mabes from amaeg
the population of a county is a certain indication that neither on,, aotton,
cne, pain, nor tobacco haa ever been profitably produced there on a olde
large enough to establish character.
It fellow from the above tht there i only a mal o the
terribly of Eat Florida that pormem a mfil mauted to agioulitre If the old
at iopdnt of the dlave-owa wee still to be ooupiedM by u, wea. ahouM fel
constrained to trfet Eut Florida m she was treated for mo nmrS y M.-lM

her to her own Molitude, a ooprmtv-ely unoccupied. wae d Shim wady
lned Bqrlads we no rer now thm they were before the war; t one
budbel more of coam an be md today on he mad than twaW yes qa,
be tho prm who he may; ad if the oomditiome ad umroundfra o
1850-0 r~nmimed the Iame to-day, we abould look in vain tfo any very wide-
spread propmeittiy ie Eat Floridar,
But thoe ooaditionz have very materially changed, and we r rc hoaqe

are in imeedilte p lpeot.
Ba~read.41ve bee. built,

teaaeip ihee atepded, andRmrn FL huidab

virtudly been moved from 00 to 1,200 mile nearer the .e s ef bilts
tm, a,nd the aost ia i. and moneyy of re.ahing thoee Metam reduced to
irr. The. were ottem of verylittle moment to tth. IAL, of
the olda tme. A lale of oeton, cnos made, we .e muck ionayj a
hauling e hundred, or ewm tm h r mo dr m t or a *uapo
wl&athm d lav that would be -. oh rw dlM, wa mot am it of up fe
to t. *Mlod gIlna the er pq ad wheam oae abeas a ship thn we a'
wwte or dtg.. Te. pater ga.ewry de o hi ecrop,L" .ndqpat l
praetedsbbdmreft got i nartbS
DUIWOgWIhperiod ib whihthmee allwqy aMd rtinp 7cift3ie .uiso tdok.
ti d nvd u w4n. M
m .assa,,-od hp th e h .l Yhi aSg d tb



--- -- ... j--.-- -,^ ^ =. ..-
I 0
phopWa M i^t Ut .tKs i inl-
fe$frUi _rrbpdn dad inthe^^
" intdne fa'n *aiuSyyn> i b nr->> er
a ma ted*l OiIlrt -. frw Od mxA wafr .* pQecibto pmF
ductiw -fII ii aBt f' ad< ate mis t4a nr& ad
" mratahing u$S Si i reidw vn tem ha 11mm heu'
The%, two U wElBH>Ma the .oolf'thy t bt; ton .di, cbly aMett of th*ft
remot-mw ftdtt i flr frlwoIwLa ut. hj-rdtioa ithuasm uOPM
tiae that oUt bem long b"hg uhw a rup, aeg. cotta, ad. ial.
-have ww thrwb tbh retlyvA(i..ud na t &niH o mIa wy
facility fal B rth. a- ru brInu of the scS,. rt sl e
HunIdru fade d ae it d St_ &af i wen ty
yesnra go naMni Ehve -ps porfuthd lm bnoread uwa to
produce corna ro a &tag4 hv be f iaumd, s4wr tie an oah di
thion, to m!]tb a.t o ia od ripuSa *Mf 6 W( n oW&I f
thoe who |pnp4 ludMristd tnrda th a. advmtge to amu sm%
dle dat- mtes p goga .lu tUiMale ndI-mmy tx6rihS 'in the
"Fc atr" *inw the pope ter to apply to ia dS S praan
who are makag hem.e in the positT puS dht and both Mlds That
term oxnmeyth Semi i fily, cie FAoitAtci Ltedatart aasbn
the hdlU Ud i5 e -b-, -epidly imp-v oae 6 d b i
conjuastie Mih ali eyed hnubach. it i nsot outbcdo to -ira.rftm
the ide of datbIphqhu mbcllan, n-et tSruuumm o. eIgb% an
bin, hay axmn a oa 44, m iat r b .. i thew Wiagpat em Lbtth
Floridas kWanU gc
The sdab 4 aepwot da tel t o the pgrYwd pa.., acstM* griws
of a nmuidsosaad dlrfdlil cBuur, ad .tneauly a the os goodM
IcstttsnrIhnm*Mfa& 'f ubwktd1 is'cnd*d matt ~* andhg% oesaapolagy
for both, ran ao the mwp' ti -idem minae.nd eam aba tka
a thyj an b.4d ItMM dea iri ib ag sha rbi idat
asptouaua Wb. .Svo*.uidw kebsS. ab, erpiks SybkfrmbMut
s poor Wt'. t beanywie.r i the oid. Bht, t t if to ftftwatr
of thef umiaert tp are maoy people loo..& twawmd -lasrib epjmMa
the EtRnad Mldisattu, wb do caw to "lam"; thy e a .
foame, Wotthiyrtia.s omf the e MheoC, aSd d4 Sd .
finding omru M.ahoiBi 6 a moe gmSal mo. OaErIy T swMou this
people me imtbs wod mn if they dadrd m wtiM tie nld, atheMe ofa
expem% pud~4I *to O9eG was f the gippaudu uga adasLfujtol td
of gMfi :n&La -le pema el th. aeb- y at eqwfg farim
przotflh.tpaRnabuC cftawi-eM ou gmn Iga LO1'. ThqI&isb.- the
meaS torbqrft ieeaj tin that vSM aMae *hn a us &til o y .at eda -o
intr. 1um- 1 *
In the Sifcn abats pass, o< ld Sloa teb Yat ue S** e the

boqd i :..ttr -






to .ar R, ', ik t

:olta .-, -n a, -,, .d. n m d b

isadr toa m isI.
.fntbad a n.pp .,t ca dJ. tJohanmw .T,,l.e

k,-mt... + p+u act.meto 4,th

t.; p .j In lyt.m. i i t a.', -____,_ *_ -l

b---- c--- H~lB K-uS -- ^iH ji/tlMRjBS+jR ut+j.l SH S.^i IH

*t 'dtln l a taqanm k_. 8 I._. -_ +--
"to nihpe,' the ulw cmi It, a h6 *.

A- a -* :,S. *h.abs b.i. nski.

- tooV toith$r i.J riatio ondtitw4 p

+rt t tO"i "+_+'++'+'" ,*.-- '- "


-, +,
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S.-r '
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--they o_. | i-.i. .i.iuW IST.. ia.-- 1da

* nmge ti ofi mo.ltbhhl+.I- ,U> ihdl.iltfJa rih
hFridstitt.... oPlrt. itj.Yirb io t i, M$ir., a r.4 ,A,
Flnd p t hp l.m+ i pl to hIm m..w.a.P te,0d'rgib ftbw .
and pm cmayur "_ zts m-bthmlslllm s4Ssh twtst

Just hbeo Jspt j II Sfct fhSA Ut 'SrMW
c, a -4d b ,wi, wqi, u aSid i..r.
but osdUL4a w u e n 4 bu 280, rM .& nry
much btowr iuetw batd *a6&A husuyd ta p-l'
ability rm a t
As time pqr umrs eopa mun te .it o pnge, md ane .a- me *rildy
to be 1ppr. *d ti.oo wlotempersm.aaydh 1MSiMh.a
.,/ > -. i .. i .
S* i
It can befrta ci4 taMrm htwu tt tbfra i pfttost'iflhdida
where owaerwumn be pupbilygYpw Aa $ l.r oa oe Ma9 ao
appria -t^iriL hae aXdl >e
malp, a i+aelai w tmf lr.Sbao a. mp. t Mbl AorlM
feel diqaeej. dmaswdnwrs caswnuw wosldrb f

We -n s -q 1MbSZM tflmmaPbd u my sr, ceyt
in some pM bK'httlifl, M f4s-h'-UB^ J iArr 4*fs. lg m. 'Ths
ajwrtioa,.b#r cnquri tees qas tar .tabhmdet~b udis

AU the -P h ~rfluJtart pm' 4ibSJIA wt.b -lltM SISP

paid.. aQsRfiste 1 'vuB w hshoh.lo trb 4 uPfs tfuper 4ofa
pady mcii ut a it SBfa*&yt h nab WS&

Iein ylfa 'ptnl -iif i
Thu. qr nbfirMa a -- .... -* S ii.

*' a a
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^^^r -^^^^^r^^^^^^^^y^^^^^^' ^^^^^^^B ^^p ^^^^H^y ^M^^ ^^^^^^~p ^^^^9^w
^^^^^^^^'^II^WpBB^^'^^BI^^ti^K^^^^^^B^^ *'**I^W ^^ "-- ^IB',d'BB^l B
l^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^r^^^^_|_u b_^^^ r^tlr ^kd^a6tt |

tl, k. : .

26 fi ORIDA PO&T*4t4Y

quttrly uninhabitable by xe, be he the turdihet twrseiauau d baahbappwr
that ever a ne out of th pi tfee Bta
Fhlorida would be a jing that would d the xmot daB riing msqm r he
other had, we are dim to bwliee thaty .t% t ahei d ,tI
Eat Florida, and whioh a now b eMn Souariindg ome gamroe aj
vegetable garden for which the owns would not e lrk em of $19,0
per acre, were moved to the northward, and away fm the min belt and n
batha of their prsrent latitude, they wold be utterly v ah-r amy p
pmaame to sprinkle a floor r w pply rude ral r a gknc ssayp
So that the man who i. dhipbeed to turn h& ano p when bs MbMdasounta
these andy land, and hae. them a he thinkL, absurdly aM el Amid," ha
firrt to observe a bit, and consider the eoondiftion before faming too hasty a

About the irat decided setback h. aoptis ai aeountrs wfl e the bland
and matter-of-oure air with which an East Florida land agent will offer him a
ten-ace lot for onx TXousaAC1 DOLLARS.
On hundred dolr per ane for that madblmk i "
YeS ar, and a bargain, I can tell yo, at that. Why, look up the rad
thee a litl way. F1. yards ago I old that'fe-rem tt to the pkmt
owner foa ten dollar p ame. He put out 600 orangtrmees 0 tena moa .i%
at a cat of one dollr ach, and he ha anus retued ome Mommd dalesMap
awm But, Mr, he did not take it; he wold habe n a fool to han it.
Just calculate, in four year mre his 900 treea will bI uli ig. aS he
wll have .600 moe on the other s ae tehat will be in mbeai wyk Afve
yar. Twelve hundred bearing tree wl iveim, my, the int n at 800
a .ge. to the tree, 860,000 orange, worth, at 2j eta apime% $9,00, ad
the next year he may maMy ount on 500 oenea to the tee woth, for wt
entire op $16,000. And the at yar-well, you M how it k."
Thee r &datiom ae perhaps followed up by a quit talk, on ,m om
pia or temmboat deck, with aome metle he mel from hi. own State,
says he came huer twelve yes. ago, aud. u lrta enough to iMd a $ise
of Gverment lad that uaitsd himn which he mt hold o at oet of $1.6
per ame. It wn. rather remote from mwak, sa awy frnm the inrs nd
railway. IBot, it) wa a rather disml outlook; b hiS ir wer iL
and he would not alri to do betae. Hi. wi.e'. health m. tOb he di
anot dartr at winter noeth, o he had to mna the be i. '
Labour wam aoareand the land poor, and it took a 0oo0ddld Mdy megy
fo emliSe, etc., bat ho managed to put out 400 treem thn yeamadIiu
been ding to them every year dnoe. He found ponI bheplig 4. Wa
him--bj -- a -dusoo the rvaaat lad was al sui d., b yiocrt.
he old of tbr ten-sae lots of his entry foe ten dl6. m-pr eq.o.r T1nhdpa
him along aad kept the pot boffina aad .mmbt& C9 tr*go b h^S.
-vept. e brnM M tnhe t rhafln dame ae h. had Stbte. wao
furh Ai inea, atot a m wop eia. tmer fl
mabn ,,H'e .ddkB lhit aoi' a'srp to a Mu who 'took thea elS^ IMB
ad pdeU$*,Of Sa them, aM tod l-be ht ,ir- or will bIn*tobue
that *a '



So theea]yl, t ld lem nd over gall by aa all quarter d the
orid. Th ? i s viit heae mataetlked by .ebody. e
n obiage talk. Th. odi "grow.," beads tm "' "wr
-mp, "4'Mm "" 'ta "i tm "sweet twaty thou-
," 'hih hanmo.k," ."lake atr," 't hetaum pine ad," ,th ty
ousand" all.thi pm iwa a&. revolutio s ci th sterneswhlels, ad
the time he raoh Palatka he ha just the womt of orange fever
And then it i that he fil a emy mnad. wiling vitom to the wily vea dor
oie locations, and is in a dpeate hunrry to emem tract of the vrymend
regarded oa wempteaM y tdo ys be.
We doubt not me such expeaoe a this am aoome to many thOmud
ple within the peat ten yearnsand in moat cases they are to be found tod
pying table home that entwprisa and tate have ouel a topping
like magic in all the ammibl. p- of East Florid.
True itfi and a safuger is soaon struck with the hot that nowhere prhap
n one find a many people reedy to "sell out" to awoom in Emit
brdinarily this might be attributed to mome general cause of dltalt
n among them new tleu, not appant an the nartes; bat, b fat.,
is asttributsbl to & very di~atm ause, or gather combiation a cmes.
Prominent aeag them is the fat tht not oaly lare amant of ral
y pluck ad enterprise a ne amry to able a man roaeeeulll to con-
d with a ttb o nraw woodluad ad oeamvt it into a ftnialmhd,
me, with a bearing orange grove mound it; but Amdable s asm-.
to do this, am during allt ht time a sma t nad of ad ramey,.and
chance o return fo many yams.
The mmint who gu to the& sat Watt may expnd hi entire meas in
himself a the Afrty- m hat th maeond amom ash what
orn ready for mark4 ad ame ot his money coming bek,o, in other
hers in bout a prpnuas e ditian a the beinrig ot hi ,third
a he i hl o he t-the aed of hi tenthor twatieth. His op- ii-
of an annual hauM t, md the rmlt of his effort is rd wm
get as muoh qmadner cultvatim -a he and hi teram an had!.
But the at lodaa pM ower ph or ao mmuh large stk.. If he
hold hih ppir te yem., evma on but Me ae u am gwshk
tickam. Upn an invema mtnemp MyIi ad poay
within the ma.ld am o ay indurtrioum ram, he may urly eqe a
ooame in tea er tw yems th would repremyt the Inteed tr Mdivd
em a' amil hadelrdL- ndodlrm a inavstud in United Stas' heads o ether
Pod usouritle.
The ta ds e oegn. ome t4WIR g. dand edueiwd and.asu 4my
m, and a t.4 to shank m., the II t. pauSing a-nt emqy
pomes -:s, kt the uad m img, but lcikag the stad sourc of
money to enpM tin t ftlcauWet the pe Indeed, handreda '
mdingb ter. amai dsA ,aidh theq plmdr ci the m d to be atthined tlha
hey MI to f, weigh ads .-mddw'th a.... am. st for it a el mtat.


Sdt t true ot al r bMLMa is a gs i Stirqr. i dCm
a ey wm thek. tS u -
abroonuaaM willrahnyj admit oct*ab eOOathalaJB|g < '. ^
It f j it Li a wuolur that s. pgiwg kimjirki
adnmtag. wei arli nay other pmuat a entbr M t
is no msuach h oWo:s edt with the uadi ^ s pwhb~tmftdaklb
A tre an6 petia the ground is r l tmthru ieL a tq e5mo u
s dome. The Arnt yar it grows iome, sad 8 per aet, or 10 p
the tim tht mast elapm bly.. th t in v b wth SOr pe rau m ap a -
A other year rolls by; tI attde's mamma a. psit g .uW hatot hji t
/I lger, and another round per oet. oathi phid fbt i naro

, hets more he
meen hundred to
and is two yara
have bee killed i.
MC 6y that when
whim the golden
rad pltk. But
-rooflia that h

paurhmed two yar beae, in a wisld, r state.
ome thouad youag. tram a it is Ay& 1i c
naure a being peaod. Now the two Me- $. t
SMe f on this n s i He SiMtm lus '
he begn, although Bor rs yet eredmae ha a t
haret shall hi haut and reward hisp -
he that mi ana as oiag to hl oWL.
maderatd the expe d tbo t*. aod* that ha a

pull through. Unlie his stalwart nighbour, he nmmot hr himam on
a a- laboureu, Md i. usa ppt hbmi. tly while hi ,a aw. -q@ ; b
hbqppe to be ka 4m5 am. who. erm to Flod a reowir ea th. bi
nioa his ayatOm a bnrme smim ant Wh mot pow vqshbhue ad thu
- eapport him-elf umUl the beating tm. Oom I
Why,becams it. Ib ready aemy, aMiaotb o( it, to rpw vtmbm, juw
u it does omags tree. a d okma f ae. .khehme a hba .&M .
but me too that eea Mll MIa PisO d b s of aor pmtu -plM; ; m
itrnk or sterner hinp them t1umrJ for a petdealamsiemv.$r u
it h a cat 'hi;. al wit tie pwiMsda ta ia e.., h ad mat
lot of wMd land se hundred milertm down in the hwomb and wi h
ulhgi m aa -adpgieoe, amd the daumtl .1-f1lS twsm|!ernuo
.eb hekha uo,a heaabaaga ti
with Do fear of Mauue. #-1;
K.e f t he piSr*1aa wr hS g aaaba. ka .am
tde siandhim d ipiilelll ltna w.h eJkM ebo l
* with the d.-1 .mi cauge gmu he wm t hr lynmm, wlhbe wkid
.Ma ta eu o b, y- -derinl- ,*a
ct tf Wfr w m -un.et

d~roaaiartaErea k dupqmd oi MB huadmom. yomg pw^ ni in ->4e.M

I-*.^ -t .-* .. 4 *

Mi'rao Qoa IkWhC pbseI~lrva glm jtiw fe lI.rinirti4irfe

w 4


y. This liiDt 'dIaDf pm. muMlt in to1. Imgdag
m* o ptN waoy daq, ad why s mymt ta .m whct em

Ji"gMl;b tueIya yrssd w 1 t ho am ha Ntb -a ,d
yeI aligiils nnmbs d wC th pihoei .ccig Iqnto 1k owXtir,
tb boy ulnriAyi.dy o nalMKrvova
It baa bee qiSW the oateom r fa ir-tk d pinon. to tal rrite
ily c the aby, owrtain, a> immapxiue niiujoda of gtOwi*g drib
wdativiangixgeagrtad .friy y4.gbM ipt -' b'ork. t.S&viwaat* are
ly made that oa sN only to byog r aiok thom otn m4
utivate the *tpoe htaes the I viqsts9h for abigmat north, t hi
certain of a -r eod nm fotrt 1* sup otr tfro the s4e ahis tnr wOrpe
rhile he wnA ,r hs grove to om AIto during. Ifit o' wea an .In
he whole rgeof ita's pmrdub then. I. pehp- aoo midmi with gatM
isks thn the ybotftion d miriMtoJU* vyt^Me Croy^
There he dspaf indurxatuX pwMvmae, nio ,erim&uthi judgaMt,
ride range do obntiom, oMaualutroaMo ai detaiL, nd rndy uiauity
rith nat ure'sm BlmSe.l ad eam's flying nsaewMy to .th miuorml
urusit of tbi highest plue i pa&rilturn, thai -xept6irllw aetetIn.
Lnd their ltao pnnr er .|A yr p:eu, bk oly, wre Ae cuamiwo.
ne mot armemb hI
In htr lo ddfa m*ot siaeo drawbtMk to this inddttry -i the almost
mvirnal pM.vw, of .e soiL O tr hamnl~hb the .mditiama arromBrat.
hut even thde'tot ddsltydlh' g*i t meseia to be ovaamoa ubyjudkoioua
ertiliudng with odameramml maanam
Neverthiab tare r m-a- ir ,l.osa., ua tiMy mo *ot oauoe, who
save met wihfrafr mem at gpoia q 'gpt b' ot pear, sdy l.d. Ths
ua been dam t7 bhem7 ferWi S sa .d4tio oitd a Mmdi .1vigtabae
hat requr tW 1ht 4ra fliMr w ing. aid I ptbI cia i. Co"'ut y
or market a eiy to whuw nrmpet aSd thw -Truimhg fa y

Ir AiMYgthegsab eqleoep^h LAmha. s howm b Lhauled
in Uf heFr .Mnb north, Si raai eeooamln., fIhaabgsmur
-oEo^ i.p ttwhrrfoi
Va^ pMM ifl wei er mii-1y 4spsdkln Ea iudv
cahdhks 0i -]pBSplo -trad wa la o,.r dfrotLay SS&lM l Sb
SM>W i who ginS. frby>Inn^ lirs~bh~w
ma psgrm,:<( X> it lititw iBitIM Iri
rnr~~a- te<*> irtmMa iwfl^ bot~r3h ip<> *ilnl~i-i Mtlroftt.
ablegs o.tIWuniU uses bgMMg flmSaih din~d dng tlweT
~rit~uiunaab dsdSSig arr~iri lr.

++- S
6PdwiravftwW 'n^^Wtyn r~iiil'vflMR.J; i^ 0lllrtiiiS

W^^_ IL^L *L J^ fia^^ ttk l-^teaM*^ .M2i A'fcf *-^-^_


U u

oampe with this eaetrn M on in fte-itiee for &omoi--- at --d
peat tide of restless winta visitors who drift into these i att i
mumh of health.
Femandina, Jaaksonville, St. Augutine Oot, Palatka',ad lsyimedP
Sanford and De Lad, are well provided with oomamod sad well kep
hotels, while at all point. along the St. John's, and at thi mailer nlad t
less pretentious, but'comfortable quarter an be found.
In the matter of railway communication Eat Florida is admiay su
Beside the trunk line of the Florida Railway and Navigaton Opgny' ro
(the TraImt), extending from the Atlantio at Farnahdi n to the arm w
of the Gulf at Cedar Key, thil ame company operate.a ranoh tir mly
long from Fernmandina t Jacksonville. Thi, in addition o t e great oinm
medal advantage relating to eac ple,t ll pay tshe pleodid surf
bathing of the Anelia Island beach at the very doors of the resident
Jakbonville. The Florida Centrai and Western Railway, which tavw ruem
northern portion of the State from eat to west, and extends from Jackonv
to the Chatthkoochee River, is also ooatrodd by the Florida Railway and Navi-
gation Company. Thin important diviso, after levbg Jaile, inter
ecte the Transit Divion at Baldwin, ner the western border of DAval County,
and thenoe extends acos- the southen point of Nassau Count ad thrgh
the pleasant village of Sandenon, the county seat of Bakekr County. It them
amr Columbi County, passing through Lake City, which is located in o
of the best pine land farming districts of the State. The next county m thi
lie Is Suwannee, in which the prinadpel stations at Live O, a place d
rapidly growing businee and much eterprie. He a juoti is made with
the New Br d Branch o the aannah, Florid and Wetmn BRalway,
whkh extend mouth from DupoLt in Georgia the man line to LIke City,
New Branford on the uawmne River, and to Gainevill whea ft connect
with the Florida Soathern B. 'From Live Oak the F. and W.o pa
on to the Buwmane m vr, which it mossem at the busy mill town at Ellavile,
and here the frqmtier of ast Florida is reaeed.
A very important banch of the Savanh, Florid and Wetern Railway,
known ast. Way-Crm division, pas through Bmat FloP~ i ba Way-Cr ,
on the main le in Southern eorgia, to Jacaonville. WOcm ga ahet ad
dir line betne Jacksonvile and Savanah, thiJs weld supports an
i&eu, braff e, and tOm- the favourite a e of appo i to Florida from
the north
The Jaomonuill St. Augutne, and Halifax BRh, BaIway Compamy
bpue s line of rad between Jam&uone ad Stu thtyve mi.
At the lattr place they onaneet with steame for wthe HAII and dIndan
ilver .n ry.
South from Jacksonie the Jaohvib, Tmpa ad Key W-t I iL r
ip te wr4d bah wdM&Aby itera to the eat bktjnd, pa-tg ATsqgh O nre 'Gty ad
a de La, ostuid to fltwpsr ail Beard theadbh ma lat
4W&lm giatow ut rdth ier at tefoot d thbl KOMn. It nub.. ow-
maek1 ti WS 'Neoal wit. ble lhs best frl bteot nad &a bread gugw BSt.


rohi's meiv Ufly. st Augusne; at Ger Covn Sprilag with the Green
Core Sprd ,d R. I, which extends fom the river arom Cay
county to Mfi 1uftua County, though it i only in operation ten mile.
o Sharon; and at Palatka with the Florida Soathemn K R. for Oca, GUins-
ville, and lIsebrg.
From Wldo.in Alaohua County the PeInsular division of the Florida Rail-
way and Nsaigaon Co.'s system l'a the transit division and runs due
south through Osoea Wildwood, sad Pmaao&ee to Plant City in Hillborough
County, where junt is effected wit the South Florida Railroad.
From WIldwood,'Sumtr Con ty, the ILsburg division the ame grt
system extend eusrwd to Ieeaburg aad Tavare in the lake region,'and is
projected to Sa!ford and te Indian WBr.
A very important but very short li of railway extends from the St. John's
River at De Lad Lading to the prosperoua and fourishing city of De and,
five miles awy. This little road, built to aeocimodate thi. model city, which
is doubling it. population with each sumcesive year, will be eventually ez.
tended eastward to New Smyrna on te oast.
Orange City, just south of De Lad, is connected with the St. John's with a
tram road about five miles in length.
By examining this list o railroads it will be seen that there is nota single
county in East Florda that is not traverd by one or more of the ron
So much has ben written on thek'ubjects of the .

that the topic is quite th dbare ; and yet very little has been amid on the
subject that is whonly-tru.
Why enthus-ais people should fel it inmbent a them to exaggea the
admirable qualise. of lorida's climate, and mizeprsect by hiding it obetion-
able fmtun, we are at lar to undenSd. For certainly good features as
many and the bed feature as few a in any esotin of the civilized world. If
everything e m lorida wer e s tisMctory as Itm climate, it would, indeed,
be the moseteagble pat of the earth.
Throughout R Midd thre ae som days every winter, and during pome
winters many days, hen the weather i try eeble and trying to
invalids who have come south forthhe beneftt of the climate alone. Such
people tae p Ceat at t me spd of weather, and after drinks in the
balmy air at grst for wase at a time, out of doors nd the trs, a
change for o a dy o- two that ocmtines the w to e house indues them
often to sa e tl flgpM drudt Iasma ad a sn sh people target
that isrssoaay, or ewe a aw d theay woilsd, if at homs
havefor us't to edur tern imIes disgee M a coadtion aof ti4s,
Tlb Meu 4 .4tf wate4Et 'a mouth ofs Me AtCeo at the
Nodthen 8*m*^ *i wt.r. nm l i t sheof the CoSIns ad the
weter^ erdgeS tbe GuM 5Wa in mb IkgtL veil down the Ataunc oo
of Floridgpjj, aadia a ade to frj cQu Mtram u frown as QpCs
CavZ.rJ. Tbf rtgg f sij A bds an msisy degnes owe is tqoapa-

W W14{D PP^RT#4 KID,

tun than the north-owing w of r of theK Mejw 1 t
wene& the wind is hr th north or da'ti.
toe ia chill y and dump t in t poons of n
fjaeria iIy d*luin- ^ t o
-- A. -V -" '1. "* -J A f-1' '* /* 'f 1 .
N'ot only this, but wien two eurrenta of uch marked diio mpa
ture cooe i ootat, vapour arid4g fraom th e e ooa thIld
air ovehangg the oherand the result w.The noett-
met or eamt ',4d drive in shore great mate. p$ the osen f a sad the
dampness of tw wind msate them the mo e hatefal.
Thea W s do occur. They are the oeptio mi our winter w h; bt
tfal, we they blow, Eat Floridsa owing to' her gegr"pj pei" cannot
eeoape them. They are the same current that ooad fully drip i hore up
the entire Atlantic ooat of the United Stat%, and the oufy difference in them
-between Florida and on Long Island-ik that the soethen sun takes about
75 per cent. of the chill out of them before they reach the ormer.
No other part of the State of Florida i as much expoes to t damp,
chill nort-eausters as the territory north of Cape Canaverad, ad extending
westward or inlnd for perhaps seventy-flve miles.
Thbi is the one real cause of complaint, it such it be, that caw be urged
against the winter climate of East Florid. In summer the period of high
tempertiare lasts pretty evenly from the middle of May to the middle of
September; often a little later.
About the Jealthfulnem of East Florida, or indeed any part of florida, it i
difficult to be authoritative. .
Leavint ot of the problem the matte of .ooadonal even of a gh' t form
during the summer months (and of the more presntly), their i .reuly v y
little to be mid on the moore of dimeae to be apprshepded in y patt of
Florida, and we are tsfied, from twenty year' knowledge size Floaida,
d nrijg two year of which fperd we gemn aslept oR t4h gu4wt.th oee
^bla and no roof other than the toit tes, th t that udtite
i quite as healthful any pet offlorda
XeadaflSdc and di 'there, as tiMy do eveq'whaw elutq nope o th
iforSidable diuuu that exist further oath, and ame eo f, to ehid- life
rp- llv, such an saorlet fever, dipbtheaei% mleolq, and ae wr
of a gsev they are i older k &qda
It is o the raet 4lnrre that anqy thnet or ilug iyipae m
Fliasi, .and 4ue aL ral y d. qit climate Mi o be d b.e& uit w uia or
mWer& wh on, -m er oted ith domie ,
One (of thde mt oast on sac -ir dnid camd4^ yjeri

W. t&i ta t with tbsaxwwtfpitss .Uie MrtCt *eftmiifrlhtd~ aIitt ;t

' -~


be tropiosl and aemltopi.1 latitnudes in mattesk of diet and clothing, they
nil havleli ma to complain of the hot sun.
Our obervation is that most northern people make themsees id. in
hammer when they attempt to work in an August or Septmber sun but we
suld never mthe slightest occasion or profit in working out during thorn
months. The spring rops are hrestd, and it is yet too early to begin the
planting of te fall rops. People of all southern latitudes learned .ages ago
. take matters easily. Along the shores of the Mdite an the same
:astom obtain now with regard to the proper division and employment of
bime that existed in the time of the Caar. The people among whom these
.uthern customs had their origin have pamsed from the face of the earth. A
greatt tide of northern immigrants swept over their land, by whom such
customss were set at defiance and ridiculed. But while the oonquerom and
he conquered, together .with their very languages have pai.d away, their
;ustoms yet remain, and have followed corresponding latitude into the
Western World.
The energetic northern man, migrating to Florida, is a4t to set at defiance
he tropical sun, and wage a relentle war upon night ir. He adheres to his
ecustomed northernm diet, builds a little weat-box of a cottage on a northern
lan, and goes mlubing away at his work as though there were seven months
eason arrive he discovers that he has a liver in him which seems larger and
order than Plymouth Rock.
He begins to talk of the debilitating effects of the southern climate, and
cumes learnedly and bitterly on miasmatic and malarial poisons.
This man Wwrdle with the fever for a year or two; his Yankee pluck
enables him in most cases to hold his own, fever or no fever. Gradually it
wns upon him that every one else in his neighbourhood is not an absolute
now-nothing. Little by little, his aonoeit is evnhangd for. southern habits
d in course of time we id our industrious friend taking thimp coolly on a
y piazza, while B pm or Julius Ca ar" plies the hoe and guides the
ough in the field hard by. For a real oudAers BotUAeM look to a converted
This proessof beooming(aoolimated after one get uth is expeive and
Before the northern leaves home for a southern Jatitude, let him for a
moment consider the ways of people who for hundreds years have adapted
emnelves to out han sus. No man of sense ca omolu-de that the gptians,
SAras, the rks the am, the Moa lortgue Spdnd ri Aad the Asgoef azon had Frenth Creole

teed by othsn phioe y.
SLet him at Uiik why the' amino, Bdliao, or Cugban upedlae
Ll mony bfl6 andbs hmuse, *1wkith beavy walk ad roda dame
Lrradn plh am tn wits ei ie ; whemt the oan, houold
re. a woodn o( the Creole .Aot
w g fruitm t h-m ma lohwqrartm d



pup, instead of beer, tea, quidne, woollen-wer, biAp s Erb% ba4 booJt,
Let northern folk, when they quit their native I atiudea a-,sek to4, m "
home. in the south, come prepared to oberve and iaen, and not deter ie
to tack, in those things relating to climate and mode of life.-t l and am
will ensure them against much neeea inconveni and ferng that fall
to the lot of many a poor fellow who mets out to display his nthern energy.
under a Florida sun.
A very large proportion of the population of East Florida are mttlers from
New England, and the thrift and enterprise of those people has made telf
apparent in a moat marked degree.
The middle and western States also have contributed largely toward building
up the waste places, and quite a number from foreign shores have cast their lot
Every one who has settled there has not been entirely suooessful, any more
than in other parts of the world, and dissatisfied parties are often seen moving
away, some to the southern or western parts of the State, and others back to
the homes from which they originally came.
But the population is steadily increasing.
A larger proportion of the settlers in Florida are people of culture and
moderate means than is ordinarily the case with those moving to new States.
Much brighter days are in store for East Florida than she has yet seen.
The extension of railroads, south and west, will divert part of the tide of
settlers who have heretofore selected East Florida, mainly on account of her
superior facilities for transportation; but so rapid is the increase of immigra-
tion to the State that the number of those who are settling in East Florida is
much greater than that of those who are leaving.

South Florida, comprising the counties of Breva d, Dade, Monroe, Manatee,
Polk, Hillaborough, Hernando, Sumter, and Orange, a territory of 27,500 square
miles in extent, is a region which has" of late years attracted more widespread
and interested attention than any other section of the American Union. Its
peculiar characteristics of climate and productions posses a romantic interest
for the majority of people of colder latitudes, difficult to define, yet substantial
enough to form an important, if unacknowledged, element in the progress
which has marked its recent history. Much of its territory, known aa the
Everglade is an unsurveyed and unexplored region, of which4he pobilitie,
in an agicltural or commercial point of view, are as utterly unknown as thoee
of the iherior of Afria ; white the remaining portion ha become, within a
few ye ps themeat d an actve and prosperous aivilttion. ...
Nearly every known portion of this vast regon olms~ubtntial aa
to th torit, the sportma, ad the e.kerdte health or pleuua, a ll
arbaia im.g.s-t da ldeitg t .apgf in, ommc-rn pu? t%, in thMphe c.
toitd &biM.f am& utoestmb^uu o in. te. moe, aulumin4 but equally lwdbhb,
itop~dt U, aonbo, oobedos trIee% su or. : *
t ae Mtbbao aide of tai.pembaiwui zlo., a da iy

I _l_ _i_ u $ n -.
one hudrenbila, b te India rIter, a beaMtiful sheet of alt water varying
in width frsm e to semn ia, ad aptnted from the wat of the
Atlanticd by a daanuoub anwu trip of land which arsteds wftteUt a kak
from a point athe twesnty-niath paael of latitude southwd to Iddan
River inlet a distaa d. about one hundred and twenty miw. Beow the
inlet, and extending in like manner some forty mila further south, is a qon-
tinuation of this vast salt-water lagoon, known as the St. Luie Sound, which
terminates eatJupite inlet. The country lying along the Indian River, chiefly
in Brevard County, tI famous for the production of the celebrated "India
River orange," which are claimed to be of finer quality than thorn raed in
any other section of the State ; and for pineapple, which are being rmied in
large numbers. This region also pogoesse peculiar attractions for the sports-
man, and its delightful winter climate renders it especially fitted for the enjoy-
ment of camp life. The belt of country immediately adjaeent to the river is
covered with a heavy growth of pine forest, standing on a gently undulating
grass-clad upland, clear of undergrowth, and presenting the appearance of a
vast park. Occasional openngs and dumps of live-o and palmetto tee
add variety to the landscape ; and the rapidly increasing number of olarings
and settlement., orange grove, pineapple fields, and vegetable farms, add to,
rather than detract from, the many natural charms of the oenary.
Westward from this strip of timbered lands and rich; welldrained sol, lie
vast prairies, affording psturage for innumerable cattle. Injurious frosts
seldom visit this region, and the moet tender semi-tropical fruits ae cultivated
with almost universal auoea. Coooanut trees can be grown along the more
southern coast, and the sugar-oane attains here its greatest perfection, ripening
fully, and requiring to be replanted only every seventh or eighth year.
The country lying immediately south of the Indian River region, comprising
Dade Counmty, is, with the exception of a narrow strip along the oast, an
unknown and uninhabited territory, of vast extent, known a- the Eveiglade,
and supposed to. be almost entirely submerged for the greater portion of each
year. This region extends into and occupies a large portion of Monroe Oounty,
which adjoins Dade on the weat and has a coast line on the Gulf of Mexico
of about one hundred and seveaty-five miles, not including the Florida Keys.
Any attempt to describe this terw incogaits would b vaid, aa little is known
of it, save that it consists of a vast swamp, or aw-gra manh, interspersed
with numerous mall islands or hummocks, some of which were visited by the
soldiers, of the Unitead Stata Army during the 8eminole War.
No white man has ever thoroughly explored it. A few of the cowmen "
in South Florida have same aeqaintaneo with portions of its border and a
few of the beaten paths that lead to Indian settlement.
Three yesgo a aigle white ma dr opped a tMay moe into the waters of
the suwans'lehB where it mSO4tby the Flrida Central d Wertet
Railway, aasd.ads hfb way irw. the GtB coast of the peninstlab stared, the
CaJnaom^At& BMrv, aened w% ad *ed isb wqhato the dimaml,

Riwn' TIms batdtermnTnetuer G .L umaro% di Ne* Yaib and*brr6

36 -. .. P f PO: .
t own. *. SM w. L'". r.-
levry mo to believe that he w the -f wito.- t sik.f
mnu d( any od ,' wlo ef took a bb&fiit ObiechdiiM b~

e*~ahs thUpyil ltt eotw
aledtB* ot at only&a ut ow thles year ^. 61sd'-tfctkM it%
fldMsd the gw tke fromb tf~ib it~'laltmiM, ad *XM~t& QaY*y^o
Calooushtohie A gane at tbe map' #ilrd&o rta t'bsit b thi } nfdi.
qtdte on< Ma~ibtdIhtb. lo2, norttthMan moth,' wini Sb SVl*b wi~dtt o6fty
ore whJia yo urn09iu d khain crc .r..ktn t-L adf
whk ul luaisuu c aonjaturd i d ofthe inurittMie
bedd a*(rp Stale y.
rSiA p Mhn* of iaia grlat nsQIah ay av Bct a e hT dtid*
the pivoit thd Bwap and Ovaerawed Ia& Mrt t O'aria, frp 4ke
G(nlet Gorenmment to the State of Plarida; and. It ist lar the ndl
tha tf. purchae c 4,000,000 aore frm athe Stath, by HateDii DIahi of
Phil aipM3a, oubmut. Sno a puream wour hvB bee mhisii-t nay ope
pam d of1 asr money, said executive ability, Can Mr. OIebh; ir to
m ae them anf Msb, or in any way marketable, it- hme, b e, aisarm to
drain tbl, thesocwmpthmsnt of thioab' pheo6 oabgihn&di fairdnM.l the
lovnrnitt OtSblobbVSroa6Bd wurroP mpeist. 1w WNbg *ut *ofa lake
fifty Oba 1o^g 116 h~~cfid rl-e dthl fed by rivni ~a'ad~i reeaii ht e<
jma Sve m thig dys of gjqd&e .InS aeba. ; but Cae
.ah tor aae to
be ti S th ow ati ad they ocrttmg why' Ot
bit of tumitrqaekl teritoey oer which our and' sa a
inadbldiitt-Cmelttt orh an *dto em~deayu^. *'
Wit itio. 'tf &d lf Soat Caal ad OtcMuober
Land and Dn om, Mr. wak; aM t I t
thne yaan tar lob lx d ihucbthe myxtertotU Idhud Ha kyrftite
above toe 'wS% a wI^ .ai 4Sf *4wriar-ay Idit bw& dBe
bna~d&faldB of mMa mad aw'*r;a that tihrpssd dlpetwtt th atoa bd
of telake p .hag.i@ldn o Oo ii
Xu4'ftnBb d eblmdanwJy hav -ierbe ri t
thria- di, bo*i toa odt uud otbo td ahe

T^Talnabh~ohua<^ 1ga
ties na 16*- t

i b io te ltl~~f poruroit n tifi .*UXXDT liud fto

witB *'

a I
S : '7

I *

- i -

n-' F

*"-* ^("WW^^^i '??^^fl if^^^"*^^^!^ *f^^T^^^TT F-m,^~ ij^'^Ir*lIi ;IWH JBkj~lrfCT*

of p'mr ',-nr i -Piwin flrrCr^r r p f z r ', ;
The sqTplq onnt na l dae. IrU f
citron, V-dd; gta pCC9 @135 igno" ^t
totheprodw ln p of t ^
coconut tre, have ban plantid ooand Key Wat fla hos ^ QB
and maimWa qf th xaut gp4thbrp Aati fad eGu oTat ft.9
and more than tiMat numbw $ $tplls& Th 14 p1 ,*O(I9 pia.ppb to an
acre I no frtiSu sqoeawy, no pnou g; oiya *y bw p*Rp If
they are uold cass aspgiis the rPult IL one bundrd ddUar pr are.
But piappleu nuat notbe put t ome aont, or yet fie ate; bat to be
surely within bou*b at e us ap arevn oate apios for 4thei, qid rnooC
acn Undrd dewBr pr o ar crop that on an an bhacdkaqe 1ad.
An ace will rapport 50 ooosanut tree, that require no frtihingW, no
fencing, sad no prge At fropnae to twelve yas .d gp t4em tree
mature from 80 to 160 naut to the tree; suppoe the yo4 t 49 ttk twe
on an arq o 50 treaa, a are s at me W< aio ad.nt
seU fUrone Of aitet at d d abdri xcqM.
the yield r 20^00~ ^10 acr thfl oonrf be litmally pl up in the wL..
No fear of eve glutting a market Stpm; tr whatever 4ybfie other
fruit these are boy. aoghn the oontrto we up Jl t4UEpAu oUS S
ooooanut crop. .
Who e tpt p goQ t g O S the U t a s' asd er wifloon fhom
It iuha brd to rW; the ka in tbi country a olw of people who eqAS
to find in B.t4 Flfa -& one plaoe fited. pr thmn. It the
thoaunds of iu*dsapdd.2M people who oanot omp it the boa world
and its hat p(gre t hat n. Haew may pople in he United sil.
who muat dIe qo0 in tiwhomes they now ooqpy, ad wo ge parmted
from having .Itn boqwea t)q ouot w n the aioltm at irght
find a new of E fe dem4 4rt41q el SoutJL oim i?
There aare pt tt^e r, fro. PSfl~fli? ghi3
in Sou FJardf joar Wmao pd, I P,"
paws*p, yg l ad xm4ly others; but we know ttoo lth disn the,;
Vegetabe gwowin wiI, for the few who shall obtain exaeptiopmD! frtlP
batStim in so Poridq, uotnSrft to quki tnmopwatitbp, be vry prp4a
abe for a'w .ttufeeoiqlly tonaos,, wl whme
(r~~~1 fa gitie. of ge rtg-lpa~ ly OpiOi~ib i
obred early, e4 rabU qqroa baa astathi 4ide o t.e food
.appfly. bft~uM 4tqi4l fpsphted, thd sothen Trf C' h#<^iiaa


t6rpic f gpowing sbrar r inepstible
ql dA Ustu pWut Ih .atb -
a. And thy mtut be msckh mtooku a t be


pq4ttly kppt enoloed. Por tis purpose a miuc bstu -fl .i
Wary tbhan,eist in such pa as will poduce tropimi
,be.dqvopae in this industry, of imag oIny vqegstable; r uilpmanth,
.io south Flwida, when that, aptioc become better supplied' wi b#ppl
Facilities, and the people become by experience more fa$iwr with Bwdn
and economies in ultivation and fertilisin, we are unable to spy; bu at
present aoly ocaional localities. have been able to attempt it Remults of s;
ezpimjng a has been had in those plasoe aftording ready trmnponu
hare b fairly atisfactory-mainly owing to the fact that their .meih ha
given tiem an advantage in the markets. A poor ma who oomar to South
Florida expecting to put the bulk of his capital into ad orange'grove, and rely
upoa supporting himself growing vegetable until his tree mature, is likely to
be sooner or later disappointed, and had better post himself thoroughly before
he undertakes it. -
In the northern part of Monroe County is the Big Cypress Swamp, which
Hli between the Everglades and the Gulf coast, and extends northward nearly
to the Oalooemhatohie River. This stream, which is the outlet to Lake Okee-
chobee, flows into Charlotte Harbour, one of the finest land-lookedhbarboun on
the entire Gulf coast. The river is navigable for its entire length of seventy-
five miles, having a depth of about six feet, at low tide, for a distance of thirty
jma sup from the Gulf. It is two miles wide at its mouth, on the south bank
of whioh is situated Punta RBaa, noted as a port for the shipment of immune
numbers of cattle to Cub, and as ,the terminus of the able of the In-
terastional Ocean Telegraph Company,.extending to Key West and Havana
About twenty miles up the river is Fort Meyer, a town of considerable
Charlotte Harbour extends a considerable distance northward into Manatee
County, and the Myakka River, Peace Creek, and Trouteating Creek flow into
it, through the central part of the county, from the north and north-est
FlsheUting Creek flows through the eastern portion of the qunty into Lake
Okeechobee, which, with the Kiuimmee River, form its eastern boundaries.
Manatee is a very large county, and, like Monroe and Dade, comprime a con-
iderable are of marsh' and swamp lands ; but it also contains a number of
large praiem, which support many cattle. Along the Gulf coast and the
Mandate River, which empties into Tampa Bay, near the north-west corner of
the county, are fine lads, which produce, beides great quantities of Tvge,
tlm, ome of the finest-avoured oranges grwn in the State, rivaling
popularity thoee of the Indian River country. In the region near the mouth
of Manatee River are several of the largest and most probable orange groves
in Florida, and the only co ever raised in the UnitedStates for actual use
wa pro dued in the ame locality.
The oquntry along the Gulf coast from Key Wet to Punta Rasa, o the
~looruhatdd is ibw aMd inahr in oharaqter, being inte ed by sinwe
able streams, ad fringed with counties number of oonr alads wioslan
Sdams growth ( magrove. Nith of Chatlotte Irpo the s p o
ilg .ohuno( isLas tends; but they ar. g, and o Ii- fo
cultair aon while the mainland i itsi i higher, ad supports a heavy growth


of pine fordk Just north of TIbmpa Bay, thiA isthe next large indentation
above Charlotte Harbomfh 4a at he i 'marked by bhb, aloag which
nourishing settlement are springing into existence -Clerter Harbour,
Dunedin,* Yellow -Blu Tarpon Springs o the Anolote Rive, atd'lyport
being already well tablihed.
The coast of Hillaborough and Hermande'Oounties is indented at abhrt in*
tervals with bays, whieh form the months of rivers of crystal claresmr Thee
rivers take their rime a few mile. back in the country in magni t ings
whose waters are lear as crystal, and whose source of supply is never failing.
Tampa Bay lieu wholly in Hillsborough County, and'is a beautiful sheet of
water about twenty-five miles in length, and from eight to twelve miles wide.
At its northern extremity it is divided into two laige arms, known as Old
Tampa Bay and Hillsborough Bay, and at the head of the latter is Tampa, one
of the oldest settlements on the Gulf coast, The peninsula which separates
Old Tampa and Tampa Bay from the Gulf is a heavily timbered section of
country, in which orange groves are beingrapidly set out. Here, too, are
raised many of the very earliest vegetable that find their way to northern
Tampa is the largest and most important city on the Gulf coast of Florida,
and is the base of supply for Hillsborough, Manatee, and 'portions of Polk and
Hernando Counties. It is connected by steamers with New Orlemas, Cedar
Keys, Key West, and Havana, and by the South Florida Railroad with Sanford
and the St. John's River. Since the opening of this railroad early in 1884,
Tampa has increased- in area and prosperity with immense strides. In every
direction the buildings of sleepy old Tamp. are being replaced by the new
hotels, dwelling houses, and blocks of stores of wideswake new Tampa. Two
more railroads are being rapidly pushed from the north toward this important
port, and it bids fair in the near future to be one of the great cities of the
Gulf of Mexico.
Adjoining Hillaborough on the east lies Polk, one of the most progressive
of the upper counties of South Florida. It contains much good farming land,
immense tracts of valuable timber, and is being rapidly settled by a most
excellent class of immigrants from the north and west. One of its chief
attraction is the vast number of clear, jandy-bottomed lakes with which the
whole county is dotted. Thsse not only ofer their banks for beautiful
building sites, and an abundant water supply for domestic uses, buit afford
fine water protection against the injurious frosts, which, at "long intervals,
and for very short periods, find their way even thus far south. Polk County
is traversed from east to west'by the narrow gauge South Florida K R, that
extends froan Sanford to Tampa, and has a branch running south to Bhrtow
the county seat. In the eastern part of the county lie large tracts of the rich
bottom lands that ate being drained and thrown into the market at Govern-
awnt prices by the Disten. Company. So great has been the rush into Polk
0dhty during the pia year, that all the valuable United State' lands have
been pre-empted, thoughjand-khere are still so chep as to ofer tempting
indnoema)nto settlers

* Bo named by t Ift. boh fonders.


a. 4

40 / ^\^ .- .- -
AfHIPr(9 .c9UPt* MWrWtnI Bilhubow~mhtia fl tI i4m6wSslD
me of the rioseth JIAekdhIt uaw
the hapoterMicaf leMd Florida, bhri1g higb hls and dfJ stb'oiL Its
IjFf t414" ^fqlpacwtly vw TAbrec ibmt a M w o it, lWip qnutltigt of pnw 4, q ad caeihq gqWbdina1t powaro M te -rt
p^si*W ^^Bitr fbr rqwsdeq iowpt o.i WihlIe>tr; Bbu a f*a Sdolk,
*rN*tygtp I *4fa aL wigpab^^l teeaff bmhdgm $ ml.
4ffi n1 arf. bWlft4 laM kw.wdtuated iAD -th ssu uP aqs et the
qP^,4uaqpfllu4jWP-l. ittpfglt k MOn- (in ea a MBM.r -w u
t4 yppfu cqate wasra. Snowing wit the GMkif the aothm prSn d0
tp ii, i 9lD~tP -f^wu, befno thb. war ,sa oa. mt mb augpr
plPptatjio in th Souta, that .d Batior u Aid Y.I. At te. head of
Crystal River, ten miles north of HomoeM, is fa oingf a t, enalang
tlI-a&doin storw, i. a na d 4, hboolhwa .
Retb of Ueuedo Copunat hbeWten it and. Omp, liei Seamtr County,
centrally located and po-&e4.of d&satqs-d of doim, O water pdvipy ,
and tralportatioc facidtie unexcelled in the Statb On aepat < the
ftuiie hat as bo3a qred for its de.2ljmi thi county will probably
at~r! a larger tide $ tavela ad mnigratioa tban my ether dormg tb
Fp ty .r .
,F pb .le. te.aA 4 the, Ooklrwaha, indudimg the numeroas mhts a
wbJ*A it the o. uett an e5t r hito the b ount -wth, The
W~q bti.b ##s a it wfem boundary,ia forenOWthk
hal 4. tP The gy'o j iids eth R. R ad the Penifahma DvMr@o of
t-. Flprif,niwayad .NS ^tom 1ompasq's qMa m tram.. the stire


itm extend
to Leabsrg

John'. icr

at.Ajtor; and Isebg, ita lagee towu. i. but men hana' t;d from
J cm vie rb of two syateaof railway. On th &eawt Is in bmnni
cqi wit i up ril, vPlant CyS the SotJhda!L e
&i(B attcth I .x bnytly in the middle the ooyr4, urrounding the
Tlap 9M Cntvre aln the florda .Sothrn. &i ,. a mcion oi rdpIg
lapi ntrpy *oovn w th. lOhbak 1l thM would ltthe heart o
en a W.ra m ner. Here 4Mound mi abntdanae bt ane at ad t.a .
Sea L.ke ApI teb etna boundary f ti" h, M hib
tat attn a hght of tnT hundred faet, Such an ueerati ao rn in
Jioridn that thsa bresy stamits are egerly bought for building sit awd
theya wurll at ei ocPb a auf hfl loo -.
Five -m -or o farm I e^s at an .le-atim-n 4Oa.- bh-dred aend i
'rt a it, b rieA cbain a mci ddlkme lsItts an4d ahe
aeten -tf ito *aris Cout. Th urmi laoathen L oa ili rW
from Iarmb g to Oals, timas its way ap'ig tbq san ate ItAtawteo
aprw'aslo tp a aria of plant sad Soturhhw vtihcl. Asafl than are


legth of the csty. 'The .Lebug didrdon d the later ay
et, .through. the aortm ptri the county, from Wfilwood
and to Tavares in Orae County. By the St. Johas aed labek
Sumter Cumty i! plad in dirnot amnunmiatinto with theSo


Mitoti.frt i baa r

oa uh-jfum awi ks. iSiMtd sL l ,
Sw s *m drm i:" .^ "&iismi lA & .aA l!.
The nenmhiag g cr y; mri .0 them wsp e rvei Apkpb aW umClh u hM
it owint COanuf "tthka iI IIt? (ti
and Dots, w anrt yaou yW i e ott tmltMUlflat iorflidbtq S

of the moar armjifutanDI gsmgIoayIaidlt' MI

are all ocaneoted by a arias of Salmu ftih he OAldwaf r, aad 'ho
them support. aevemki jtJ soaxmes tMkt make *fl)MUt trts bot^dM ltb
y pretty vilag, that dot 'tjir rjnge 4 I
The lake, form a portion of tft ho6uIdf biben S ter Sai'` a rSxkg.
County;, and fe .t- ad Tavsrti tw ofa the mdt enturpri d ted tIitfiwg
inf Oreno noiP ,ArI loMto OB. tis~aa ,a *4k,'
Orange CounT, wMhiohqh B. Mtwscb Saute and VoIiait_ -'k pt
extending southward hetuwn PFolk and BUrn .4,' d an6tIe ktortilkat
betweoen azisoaad Voha M k about uigtty mibl i lgth,' n-flrt .o ttb,
and in it, widert part about fifty milh i bradth. No regio an .T aibd .
te earth ha beean. b4' .kOl' zgltfy,aBe peatt4 nbthS
County ; and far m om nr an- guntydi l;iO Iiau flrtz m&
information ooaem iugiora tlt not o a outade lim Ibta nd t atmn other qrr 0t6 u trf
free from the ebata ooi fr9t. M -- _o t= -- --
to the enthUmam d MY ew'pahiiin fae^ & ,r
thea Mhand'tupewr bathegby the awieit" ]e-i
remain, and M Mthx h airpiWted by tnae Th& nat* ftran
petition fadeliesirffoad d bybehut; John's 1hMe, bdofl the oOs rUItri Eto
railroad. did nmeh tobing OMige County into pre; aM the ely
inanll*ton of th. iad ty of omrag ltfmte br eate t efrM^ limmIamnta sad
frsmecng winter sidlat. .1 apipeman, plied insthe. t pwgit uo
far Sou th Paida wm aowmcint Thme adMtsgs sideda tbiS .U *
of the laims of iumlrat. oontaJtly aetacing isC mmd 'Ipnufcga( 41. ofumtyi,
hate combined to mdntdn the pr&pe wtIc&a narml&fa rtfliflbSy
To the adhtntag .1 tlpaftntkmat erdpd by the 8t. Johm'r 31*t, khich
I eairs the S itfl insy i the oro ty, sae noer iMltldltsta for
rapid taamit nm byro hy *1 St. Joh'. n raiid Like hfir EaDike.4 Mbhw .ltM
from Asto onr tk SBt Jobn's Bive, as haired aod for*t mnues, ftns Jutk
monviue to labugji a Imfbs Nanir, a dirisew of about forty imani to the
e .art of the "labTa uon" ; tho ct noPlad. BElhrOd, from BPhrd to
JH-nnl City i the lowm Par t oftho ouaSty Mmd thanoe to laups ad
IBarto and t Le~rimt~* d ..ro ofge FlorS BaDwaya od Nabig Com-
pat'e qpbte wMhi he |lrpetni the oamtg aS Tmerae ad wft rvtmoisy
eatidbtonmSidwbarn twf wllieet the Uuahv4 and 16dib Rldhibo wich
im nMwbdl~towach the oost*





-L- ,--

.-O r Cw.,, oontshl .w^ -hia, m^ whigh -knfrd anduOriado
sare ardy v4l alt oakn of bud. thr boank -bia tt uppeAs .t
minus of steambot lines from Jacksonville and the startixedoint of steamboat
to the Uppe StB. John's and the Ind anBier 6briy, ad the lttertb h
county eat. Breweo the two, along the line of the South Florida Bailm,
which here sirts a Mris of exquisite lak, i upringlg up a msi f ohuamming
winter reoartM fled with the cottage home of wealthy aorthen er, who here
sped the moths from November to May, in the midst of orange gpms,
Sm.f ml d the other grounding of the emi-tropim. WinterPark, Maitlan,
Longwood, aid half a dosen more, belong to this clm of cottage bitih. Kis
simm City, on the same line of railroad and forty mile fro Sanford, is but
three years old, but is growing rapidly, and is at the head of Kimimmee iver
navigation, and the point of departure for Lake Okeechobee steamers and for
Punts laeas on the Gulf.
Kimimmse City is particularly interesting as being the headquarters of two
of what are known in Florida as the Diaton Companies, the Kisimmee Land
Company, which is merely a sub-division .of the Florida Land and Improvement
Company, and the Okeechobee Land Company, which was forrly the Atlantic
and Gutl Coast Canal and Okeechobee Land Company. Them companies are
the outgrowth of the purchase in 1881, by Mr. Hamilton Diustun, of Phila.
delphia, of 4,000,000 acres of Florida lahda at twenty-five cents per Mre. The
efecting of this great sale, though keenly criticized at the time, has proved of
inclcoulable benefit to the State, and reflects lustre upon the administration
undk. which it was consummated. Up to that date no railroads could be built
because no titles could be obtained to State lands. The State was burdened
with an indebtedneu of one million dollar. for which, the public lands nere
*pledged. A decree has been written, though it was never issued, for a sale of
State lands to satisfy the clamorous creditors. No offen were made in thi
country or Europe that approached a~ solution of .the difficulty until in 1881,
when Mr. Diuston offered the amount of the-entire indebtedness for 4,000,000
acre of land.
At this time Mr. Diseton was treasurer of the Okeechobee Land Company,
which i engaged in lowering the water in Lake Okeeohobee, and draining im-
meme bodies of land known a swamp, and overflowed, that lie adjacent to the
gast lake and its feedrsnand outlets. The 4,000,000 acre purohae was made
hd durage operation were begun about the same time,
Since then the mileage of roads within the State limits ha more then doubled,
and so bha the number of stemers plying on the St. John's River. Immigra.
toa:into the State i increasing 100 pei cent. annually, and the annual increase
d tourist travel is over fifty per oent Above all, a ramlt of these gigantic
scheme, and the vasttamou of advertising that the State receive through
them, the attention of capitalist turned toward Florida more than towSd
9y other State in the UniJon.
Amsn the gpeate pt of the Dimton purchase a ad the drainage oprtiotS
ar wiaf the Ilt. 4 South 1Mrida, it is this pertio ofthe Stat more than
any other that i dWiotly benreite'and it is at Ki*mm City mnor than at
any~other point that their immediate results are apprent. ue. the dredges


e built, and froin hPre they ose o ted. The beautiful lake Tahopkaga,
the northern w ea h KU dmertfty i has been lowred
a feet by the drainage operations; and, at itr lower end, what wasonoe a st
pmmasable swamp, alaent etfre sUlbmergSd, i now a flourishing eld of
Cigar cane. A broad aeal has been oat through Crow Prairie fout minle
at Tahopd agaLake, which heetofore ba had no regular outlets, iad
r means vat trat of landformerly worthlem now await cultivation.
Although much has been doe in this direction, the work is only be
id for many years to oome Kiamimmee City will be an important.point atlb
iadquartere of thee gigt tic undertaking.
While in the interior thee drainage canals are being dug, the eastern oot
the scene of equally important canal operations, and when the Florida Coast
ne Company's Canal is opened from St. Augutine to Biscayne Bay, a
Dnderful change for the better will be effected in the Indian River country.
bin coast canal now very nearly oonnecta the MatenUas and Halifax Rive,
id work upon it is progremmng very atdfaotorily.
People are pouring into the penimmular portion of the State in wonderful
numbers, and the development of this section is equal to anything that has
curred in the history of western civilization. Lands are rapidly enhancing
value, and maturing grove. are commanding fabulous prioe.
How firm the foundation may be upon which this visible property now
set, the future alone can disclose. Everything is so far secondary to orange
wanting that there is little else seen upon which to baae calcolationa
So far the wealth that has developed the section has been carried there from
sewhere and has not been the result of domestic production; but no man
miliar with the conditions there can doubt that thousands of souls are yet
find in South Florida the one place in North America where they an
alise their iddal of a semi-tropical home, where a life of easy comfort can be
ijoyed under laws and political institutions adapted to American genius. It is
land where meet the bet tempered edges of two szoe, and where the most
itrable features of each blend harmoniously ; where the southern palm laily
aves an evergreen welcome to the sturdy northern oak; where the golden
uit of the tropim ripens side by side with the ruddy representative of colde.
times; and where the breath of the South Sea trade winds comes laden with
one from the boundless ocean, calling back the roese to pale cheeks that
'ye blanched under the ruder touch of borean blasts.


r .- ",d sp"r th

r .
-a.j -' ` .

-m, r o t' ric, sua*r, fjS i i

m oftW Thbgron iidmnSt. l~d '
ltwpii math, Metc, ad the most' promiidt M iS Ufl b 'in
Uttsf getltys dotal tiso in Florida, *I*t SS tECrP
whnt, which is suppomd to' be more subject'to ruest in Florias f~iht
nwth. For the mnt o pn e mills for "toverting the grufn h t od, iu
few perim et hrae beemamde in wheat. *
In thi amu of 1880 sm avenge o then oorop o tk. Slltn ord
pr are s. put down aot 9S buaelS, BSo th' rof aM amt O91 tdahf
at 9 b'n mhr, Ida, awefore, is not emtaiern 'ih tM m t '
per tele of the at ar M o Alaalma is put down at 9* tbuAsb atd iida
94 kels.
A lrasr tae i t aordE is maitle to the gr rth o Istle d a a+md ot o,
any other one f the Med Indeed, about h th whole An s y
rMl i this itte,
At the Atlatn E, in 1882, ae b of long thee otta, from l
poast1t rie buk pt9lbfiSpdaad

tapk Mte o te at cp nsab to ita gparowt' tit be tbAd to ft praodaia.
The mnall a im l e rbe foa m to don Iu imn
fro m tey Are ta fid. Moeofe enrelj, eve a dbo rine
whew f "ewpnUi W M y
ane have bo dle m t h.e a amp at wilte ota *ly ft
foe t.i producncac While 'III. graMl fa hmJcdty cis tIb tSis
their ew tI a tf forpr hone.'ad mate. B' t tM i~&i w]l
SpA -be t li carep os te riobsa Iidn whIsr'm us 1
Aor Al tah Wtor bwtind *' the pructt the pcad oi thewjo
*pvoeb A' butfatr iute6. t. be urowa ui n

e now Mfb geB hae eetin th. 6 d
-raa they. avebthat ed en thee b ywsro itt jet -w ahi|
for Atdl sprou radt Wperhe ibi gllta.n upa tao .othe &ijM ad-ed

pofi s i la rp me id i ma dlotd it IIl nbtrii
Wsho nift. eIm aorf tatoe d tyO o bw;
diqlyc lab acr k o a aet 'een Ufr ga wthnt off
barsdrisa Set athie in e Thin apta* adead a d hirjut d4raa p eg

iMPS ;fto Sid dm m n hin wet 7tt twkiSry, urn Y ixtnb, uby W Dr.
erl, who engaged with the Units Stata Govonient ti iatedu and
i j *

RE$QUAo *f 45

tropical plantu&Mai tondwtfdod ot fatowiufp of Ui aouth` o :ir
t-sixth dr~~ml~C)fPibP1Tu^H!.1ii~~~~ER9^^^^ d~
the grant fftibd vifhi it; b6ut romeb~ o~te rs3 piftntiihemroacbd feul~ni b
locality a genl hoe, .toend tillag

pineaprw seBrrh is. iMI* climatoep
in a poor IO8iO I Very &M piwpplw h^ bn erow u fa.>^l
pS, about 1S (4rw north uI4a ad $p1l &lwH..p t9
kitucla btnarn Us W9W,.$ tbp manlan4 a ti' Zn do.
a stapl crop., Indaed,t may be pown prdwtcbl .mgr wbm. uuflca o
north. .
e moant jwrt at premst i atptr. Nogreat 4tetiu is tc nq.
rand Dade. There are trees in 'pq ert *s.pdioUl. bash a liot
as r the notheau bouu4arq.. r yoWe ppr.Om Wth aiMttb rtw
to the plant for the irqt aweravmjse during the opdd mirg* it wild .
asrnortb the Manatm Ritr. t d ts
pdat.plafrn w whi oied the date 14 .mro iamtr
plant than the ooooanat, and will do well further north; date-tpue d
old onele boarhsig at BS Aq uuticead ai Vr^in .Oaqtf, at
eit Ala. Asyet,.thi fruit ha not attracted uu atumta a i a.I-.
ent, as about twenty yet. ar geneally reqdred to obt bir* hin
seed. .
eguara, a ktrm in.ln emand mpanwf qW *iN
h-tree, dona aout aswa.1 in the amotbup etstfe w1us.* u pIr a
whee. Frmta fru ts kfadthfgduaflrfeQ4 I
avourahly kaown over thb world, T1 Ste th Salt, Ait t
mropical fuit.,U aa acumn o, atbtwheu soy*.& Is I
Spenamo fi the fruit upon fizt tmrtbg It, bkt the njqruii y requim-
unet taking b.ee the SavOU beoowrs dededly eemble Tb tfull
ripeM i Auta ^qpkembera, but the thw bws WIow.. and frltE all
ripa hiAugus'ad Phtnotdm
year, and thesr the fruit I ripeoing. Thp pow wth w e atta9Ie
Sthe peach, and .oxmtwet ber the utondp ear boa the used. T i
dinarily about thai. sof the peach, and fully a Tdud i dle andq pg'.
ar eqpemnfe hal trncmurated no othr aeam f cudlBg thlA Snt fo
rket tha by aMnf, or a jelly ead xwlad.
e"mugar-a3sP't 4aoqd byte Upnlwids at or ear w dhl o the
it &fl fIr it. xee In ib asi i t a the ncet Motntet
ats know. eaa froita; but the iat ma uak u a smc of mUrrt
Odwveo woas u a bia rk* atd 1|a t& maqlxnd Mbe iu eq
Mble. It porm' p a a hrybbth* l. if w, aip! thn the upet
Skate, a1d n f amd Dhhr.l te plmn c It de
U os aslim htw 0r" .1^>ot *1nyhsiBr auw
roar eil Rtrvlaaebl fa no~upsirth~ aede '0 eifbib t~Pj
be rmniny' '";::lf|i;~twatf:tf^^afetdir~eaif grow1 fiely~~ *
fo(te ^ Irt fa ttot-aii~dibt pr<>^ Fprup eP91Bda
p f '-.
aV 4
m- ,



46 FLOk f&At POITA ;d-YED.

mIs *amnie delightful, rab d uamn t drink--e d 4ide& btise
ihnvue. 2The en ewit b& rich Iiage ad brIfrlo t tsl kedh *|
hig*'yonianetl 1 f l -ta -
The ooffeeOl.maS hi Siwd mority in the open' a in* but mSO
in the State, or even the United Stateu It omtima atsiaa f bsight c
or twelve feet. .~ ~Imin o4t Xj COo Oty, h sa a puwaC
of ,the qpured pain to W thigo City, and Mored preim tou
ame.. She s engaged mainly, however in "uidingthe pl le.a or s,.
it can be9wn ponitably oA lge Iuoie ad w flgure awoq the a
oraps of Fl rida, is yet to be tarted.
Th mango is another tropical fruit of high flavour, and is now b
abundantly as far north as the twenty-eighth degree of north latitude.
d-e and shape it somewhat ~,semble. -a per, and in flavour bas bee Uk
to the apricot. Thisis marketable fruit-fnd ready sde in Texas
larklTns maaem..r
The apodlqa, after a little familiarity .with it, is a very lusiou s
desirable fruit. The tree attains about the diammeone of the orange, but
not stand the old quite so ,well. A few tem are growing a far north a
Manatee River. They are not yet in bearing, but, as they gfow nel
promiu well ,
The alligator pear, or Lawru Pewa (Umana) is a tree aoaewhat-l
than the orange, resembling in the general apperce Gf itk foliage and
the magnolia. The fruit when matured, is about the shape and oolour (
Slony similariti") of the per; is palatable; flavour peculiar to itself. *P err
by many to any other tropical fruit Is marketable, and bear tanportio
quite as wll a the orange. Attain perfection a far north as 29 de
north latitude. As yet has asttted little attention.
The orange an be more exteavely and profitably grown in Forida
in any other State of the, Union. Louiaana, Tea, and California m&
tuie compete with us in the production of this popular fruit; but from
padyttagee we enjoy In certain ponliaritie of oae ob and m
Florida must ever retain a superiority over any other uc im ot the oountry
its production.
T history at orange-growing in Florida as an industry is very ron
though the primeval forest abound, in ome polite, in native wild povr
With the first .ettlement of St. Augutaie by the Spaniard. it is problem tt
the orange was planted and culrtitaed with aoues. During the pei
of Aperiwn ooupationp from the ,i.*n ih 1819-21 :uapt the clo.e tfth
di .war in 1868, many Floridiapi riplaunted ad matured extsendve rO,
prominet among which ws the renowned Dummit Grove on Indian te,
togthewith o of )eg, if4%it vgurtine and at sueal point.alo
thel LSto^v_ ,lofn' QJ^e $t. fl. benm t;. wWl
pjaori u (bbhpmduor oi; -n~w^ .w lt^i^a

-~~~W V& '^SI'^


northat people in purtit d hedthb The beutoy of td rioh EoAd fidt%
aid its dai gre-, foliear atted the eye, and, m y aof tlhlke ;te
ought and improved homes along the baks of the St. John'a and M other
ble point, they began tm propagation Od the aMge. Or&dtflae&
ilities for its culture and the wonderful profitableness of the bAsiees
oame apparent, anedindd iavestmets in small trats for the 'rpoue.
ear after year, as at various points additia ml'trees and young platiungS eD
to bearing, the greet superiority of the 'lToids fruit over say other made
elf felt in the north. The demand for orida oranges" began to gpew,
ices advanced, improved methods of propagating by budding, pruning, and
ilig obtained; year by year the demand and supply continued to
crease. Soon choice locations adapted to the culture of the fruit began
I cing in value-lots that for fifty years had remained vacant t 61.25 per
,were found to command and redily bring $50 to $100 per asre. And
the enormous profitableness of this industry became noised abroad, and the
orange fever" was fairly established, and not without good came; for,
ever extravagantly the subject has in many instasnes been treated by
e writers, not always without selfish purposes in inducing sale and settle
ent of lands, there is no shadow of doubt as to the really sure and safe
und for the investment of untold thousands of dollars in making .orange
ve. One grove alone, the Harris, yielded its proprietor 168,000 net profit
One thousand dollars per acre per annum has time and again been realized
m this business. Indeed, double that amount per acre has ben frequently
sde; and with proper culture and fertiliation, where the latter is needed,
1,000 per acre is an available crop. Like all exellet things, orange culture
as many and serious obstacles to its suooesful accomplishinent. Being a new
uinees, there is not a vast amount of experlenee to govern and direct the
beginner. Almost a many different theories exist as to the most approved
methods of culture as there are wnen engaged in it.
The natural enemies of the tree and fruit are numerous, and not very well
dertod. An entomologist, recently ant from the Burmu at Washigton,
ports having discovered no lea than thirty-five different insect that are
a greater or less degre damaging to the orange. Judicous selection of
cality, as well as location for grove, are mMt important matters. The
election of stocks, buds, seeds, and the best methods of planting, protecting,
nd cultivating, are all material factors.of ooe Frosts, droughts, gale,
nd other casualtis are to be considmed, and lie is largely of the emenoe
f the undertaking. We believe, from expelenee thus far, that on as rage
t require twelve or fifteen years to make an gvew very piofitable hf
he tiae of planting. True it is that ia some, praype many, instances, where
he enviroamente ware in all rapeota mst vourable, much bette results
mve been obtained.
Tbe witer ha ld, marous Iaas -,ld et him tfrom an parts of the
awntrv ysto the uttdmhbihdyof pew mtie j Sit.e f tat t pipdieof
nPgg in mange oulka He is frequ mtly asked, Howm dha cap$il Is
Qi.d to a aaa to. elSM- in i.th'fmsges ?" "Cens nimarllti

2$ 4 PORWA ti7

~L~#WJt! pains p( qt p ad iamb ai C
wrbeI Pi m g ( t lik'e -m r losa.bS* .Uli41.
ch~~bnrt^ ~itf y P9~ipfft ipqukkrbut qjrtt bsryoodnraoki to aswr The mowat t c-dd roqfIq4plndq 4epu4d a ht
to 1!b-Ake RtPfP *is pUS#PW& 22 Iea4 kt&4*1bow td
aupp *W dftPr e 1^wa <., .4,tp, ,,r a- -.,r,
4%A1 pW~p.q oibAfltqqWt 7ritjSt tmmri ,WhStfmnlu tcin
m~* *P# ~tWrW*ttQlRpMt4ytwbibf4St e6
*"YasA n Vaued. We in Mw
etc. We will attempt uo such table. We have baqtd ua t o
~eareoqcmtbe geft dijiorepaac p euperriwssrm in tuf rt t aoft. 0 bu&1i^Og
a PP intO bepiRg ;,taoo muw4 sty rato, to be aM*dipot.hk-rb
rc1ebi d4ta for the guandson cos rh. aqt.'.he.
'1e. e however, that oi.gs-prwuSg whfle ih.t Oat ow ae I gi
in t a doidad advttap byl w M s amsu to.ioododti ia sm:
ba- d W indepenact of ipw until anw etias ba. rnnraanemu
.uqO~p. does not,*everttheIBM9 p.!i^ d5giirunSUSUatebeAmS*tilb p
% w iA, Aw w.q ai t intw. iabotta tiymd mhme
and i4edmt upon their own labor lo A spport JadeS, iiti Sb w.
le<^,(krf erotw, yof tht Dioruoouafs.u s4to-day ip4woimdpt eq
pTpfonx win!d )xidA pgsbr.thbarim with ao other mvitml tb he ova
]ftog 4eu <.Tp, ldp .1#pne :IPr to overlook. te :dba when.o
&flaf tw a we mdO thrun kiaa
lomg hqgray p. wP9 -w piw wpad mad grove of bsaidr hgeutM.
It tak hard work, plenty dof pluok, aanued hbelth, Ao.wm ad firnsaM
f t1 dwJ ToaI &U c w at *uy, bd bla health dtug inmi-nt,
a piwis. t
Bha? benmp t tt. t ofip ot qfpnne.growimg wspM diai6odYpt

li mM pt i-44Fdn^ -Apib1a-nw~w, r

x'ftft4,j* w ReIAUU Hilts ab o *ew

to ,r^^^ ^~w~rwu(awtsift>elw

^^T^^'S^^* Ina.Ai)Ai
'iifw '^t, k*'*Yt *?! *'Tw ^IRTd r *Tj "R'W rirf ^STrf f9^ ^^- fU'tifa *hlHflBriT' i'4 V'A9 t i4n 3 tr&it jttiofik~iroa

i memuxd of the piy lpliu,. ^Swm.Ir
** u

RflkICRC*S OP FAOlthA. 49

t, and &*Ak~ SStateb .re lue asdknoa wi lle abuet a :*liued ir theuib,
ough not me AuSa 4 a M ad not a tbit t'M So ffi~jte iaflM e Sfl*.
g them, they wll, peftar be & b.n prdth.
The gnpe fr*i oiaty a irger and coUrser atbty of the ortag. I td
ock is a get k rge f some ten o twelve inhe. in diala .'
The citron in a healthy, vigorous gro er at, it d *61f bare1, tbtglB'1km
rdy than the lemonor the onan By a pmitma y etnot tdUtlSbM'1n
orid, fromtbi fruit h Is pnpad,ia the 4f.Othw dSeof smmftat fhiw h
, when aquired here, will develop only antlter uroe of Iundaty La
venue to the 8tat.
The banana is oe of the most popular of tropical productions. It is generally
wished fran the a st; but even this 4t requrs sr little prserai to deelop
full a palatable oense of its riehnme and ddiday. M~aeot, it beloi to
e family- the pl ntai-whieh is ldaied to be the riehet of all the htl in
utritious mtter. It ha a number of varieties. The hadiet of the, aid
e one most widely seMirld over the Stte, ii the Aflron. This variety
eed to be quite ripe to be in Its highest degree palatable. Met of the other
eties as tae-Prach, Fig, Dwa, Red, Caveadisth Lady-ager, ad Apple,
regarded ua more delicate in their favour.
Parties growing for the market are selecting ame one or other of thee
er varietis, even though of more delicate vitality. This plant sprottb 'or
oilers from a ungle root or bulb, each sprout in ita turn becoming the patent
S'another genettian of prouta, which attal their at tfhi abou frteen
oonthf, when the pednt fruit i developed at the after thie rpug of
which the sprout diem and make room for a'youtwa. One urus tr --.
re, is not mufient for the want of the plant. he IS white frot-dlapo s.
its Iv, a a-tdea of the stem also.
With a little p* iUtg the fruit can be ripedM a oer Florida, and e-~r
other north. Let the plant, when it omer up in the spd g, have tlme
ad fertilization (itrequire a rich soft), and At the onmekwmont of oold
their take uprS~dl ter from cold by bmkhg in ath, am in ad'ot
The limarea wili persh, but thui ten w~ll'fri pre itvd th ma
rtanty than th eye of the suu.4a- aIn Ith e' fdl.WIW ijpmi It 'l
-are rtet na bltiratead, ripened frdt dhafrg tbsmmer will be mikf'
his preanutina, hmmw, fr oily neaay d@Mretg w-intes i the a eh
northern c otI the han-SE It is very tiad o'add' la r teirs Pkb
p and remting aljlet Ie an onalo II phlat belcas o t m order of
fra, and is doselylied to the .. Thoiii ar nana hap o the hip
ibe lsa. It fufrndhes Ibse od etm whtklty adM Sur&s tad mmay
i time Oamt to Id.tvely u tla I as bnpfdtidag plant AZtbhee
property of probhaeble 1 poe eusdby this plant ft. jlt, ilda is very
bbnant tin t md h t, 6,.elhlg in qudth a m hh out; ad
ishuan iaSbh 4', whiA eSa be v.il t by'the addition ed otm
Rst~rM d S b 4bprqvews vwih ag T hi fri is tbrth fat m .e it.
ot for both hod sad onmunatieo, aad no Florida hoeles bmPtewit t
SumundIWof te la-L'W-ib-trp foliagr of the banana.



The Japan plum, or loquat, as well 'a the Japanee perimmon, ftour hs
throughout the State; both are excellent fruit, with growing popularity; a
promise to be profitable products for markets beyond the State. ThI per
mimmon is as as an apple, and in some of it. varieties of much the ema
shape. Some speoimens of the fruit are seedlea. The flavour is rich and

The peach, although
farther aorth, yet does
together, the tree will

it grows about as well in the far south of the State u
not fruit as regularly. Sometimes, for several yesa
cast every bloom. In the northern counties, while the

orange-tree grows well, and even better than in the thinner lands of the
southern counties, and for the last half a century have grown full crops for
more than three-fourths of the years, yet are liable occasionally to be killed
down by a severe freeze ; but the peach, in at least its earlier varieties, offer
a high remuneration for its tillage. In North Florida it can be ready for the
earliest market, and command monopolizing prices. The peen-to, or flat peach
of China, begins to ripen in the neighbourhood of Tallahamee, in Leon County,
in the last week in April, and continues for a month. These peaches brought
extravagant prices in New York last spring.
Pears of very many varieties, but especially the Dwarfs, have been for many
years favourite incumbents of the orchards in the northern and middle portions
of the State, and are found to succeed well.
Grape of several varieties grow wild throughout Florida. They rarely if
ever occur in the pine woods; but, in hammock lands, trees are hung and
festooned in every direction with the luxuriant growth of vines.
In many localities considerable attention has been given to the cultivation
of domesticated varieties. The Conoord, Catawba, Ives, Clinton, and other
Amerian'grapes of that family have been found to grow and fruit well wher-
ever the proper attention has been given to pruning, etc. As to the culti
vation of grapes of that character, on a large scale, for making wine, we know
of no very extensive operations, and it is questionable whether the rainy
season, which occurs during vintage in July, will not prove a serious drawback,
until experience and selection have induced a variation in the grape that willin-
du earlier ripening. The Delaware is a determined success in Middle Florida
The soumppeong has been more extensively propagated than any other
Of the production of any varieties of European wine g9ps we are unable to
give any reliable information. Many experiments have been made, and none,
we think, have so far been very favdurable.
Apples, so far as we know, have never been extensively nor satisfactorily
grown in Florida. There are in some of the northern counties small orchards
of considerable age that have borne fruit abundantly for years, but are not of
choice varieties.
Fig of every known variety do well in Florida, but in the most southern
eountia are a little uncertain about fruiting. .When it does bear in those
eot/*pp the fruit is quite as good aM that grown farther north, and it may be
that'pf itakhing in it tiliage will discover a remedy for this irregularity In
the East it is an article of great oommeroial value, and when Florida haa
i 9


xquired skill in preparing her fruit for market, the fig will probably become
prominent among the list.* The tree attains great age, and continues to bear
afinitely. Every home haa its fg-trees of different varieties, and the fruit is
nong the most wholesome articles of diet. The tree and fruit have no known
Plums of many wild varieties are found throughout the State. Little
btention has been bestowed on them. Some of the early southern varieties
ave been found profitable for shipment north. They ripen about the first of
Lpril, and can be put in the northern market at a time when they have no
other fruit to compete with.
The pecan of the west grows finely all over the State. It requires no
village and nursing. Comes into bearing from the plantng'of the nuts in ten
r twelve years. The fruit is abunh.nt, falls when ripe, is easily and cheaply
gathered, bears keeping and rough shipment any distance in any climate,
id is quoted in the New Orleans market to-day at 16) cents per pound,
holefiale, for the best quality of Texas nuts.
The Reverend Charlee Beecher, of Massachusetts, has on his southern home
Newport, on the St. Mark's River, 21. miles south of Tallghasee, a very fine
ve of pecan-trees in fullbearing.
The almond grows well in Fl6rida. Little success has been had in maturing
it of any other variety than the hardshell--which variety is not marketable.
7e know of no drawback to the successful production of other vatletie, save
ie heretofore want of proper care and attention.

e think experienos in Florida discards all except the blackberry, whortleberry,
id strawberry. Currants, gooseberries, raspberries, so far as we know have
ver proved a suoeess in Florida.
Blackberries and dewberries grow wild all over the State in great profusion.
ome attention has been given in Middle Florida, where labour is abundant
pd cheap, to drying the berries for shipment. The dried fruit commands
t to fourteen cents per pound, net.
Whortleberries grow luxuriantly in Hernando County, and ripen in ApriL
.Strawberries are one of the prominent subjects of intent to the fruit
owers and market gardeners. This delightful fruit, so eagerly sought after
every market, grows to great perfection throughout the State of Florida.
he fruit comes into the market too early to find compe tito.from any other
kion, and Florida strawberries enjoy a monopoly in the eastern seaboard
kets for many webe during January, February, and March. The produc-
on and shipment of the berries north is rapidly inremsing, and he now
umed such proportions as to secure the provision by the transportation
ampanies of suitable refrigerating cars" for their proper preservation in

The raising in Florida of early vegetables for shipment to northern markets
I rapidly amuming sataive proportions, and will, in all time to come, prove
most important and profitable feature of her industries.


In Sout4 Florida tomato, oucuambers, and beaa th far lwv.e bes ti
Z,0fa4ole or shaipent. The 'tt.oh be te w )odtAl
vtah b loi of the She. tih frfl ad twiiaf iMb s ian utbwil
vegeble p. it, pea ecarb r patoi, anab n
brown at seuoc wlich command for them niwLcau rie& '"i4
and seven hundrM dullanr per acre hanh been eualtsd, aboth itt cSAhbLs nl
tomatoe.. Bbpe have paid' as mitch tt the paisd ti to' tAer,
grower, aS ble on the wtliat .'e. &aM .ely
mark^ awS~erB hM beeh the want" of ^dy 'Clka Niabt i-nparttic
citi(^ Mtii, however, arb' bpay iYiAli a tiet AM t
v'eg "d ifut trde will Mn'be + i t
for their use all the oommndd fi i t aBM Iaa
induitrj an supply. The State soo os hetod, fra uit
orciad and vegetable arden. .
The aweet potato comes nearer being a unifeal p a IiOldsttn ay"
other the sl rodn ea. It ealy propdgated hom thI roots, sprotin
Tine, and ometimea the seed, though the latter mod& I tmsy use d
iaeaay proRpgton and culealdtioh it lge a, &ad the v aresty
ozcetsbe of te Mdi prepared from it, iuot.e of thie indlmpambe
In te outherO tootiae it iay b plaan aty by alaaa teaa a
ne b not taken from the ground'uitd nedds f. i.,
e ipt& or whmt poabto,"g is-a di wita be a satin 4
dhfiin &Pe'ru, iand ir. Intoduced into Northatbrimea by& SStkcyUoJ
whence I wta i 1Bi car rid by Bir Waltr deigh to Egld,and pap
acquir edI tiishet trish'* from the 6*t'f6t 4 ft I &nI Wnme
and th.exg with which the Irh oil proda it, Tit R f
with tlie a r twe'< ale a veryht. MPcfi s-3to
profitawte ery c in or-id'. 'On the b& osa
bnin getting atiout a average of tbatelj dbt'h Stt i dhtgbg
per.,4 w hi, ein into thi in aiitoak a&bt t a.t oa 3ro,
is iax 'hae eadag, oe lot' of Atptnsbgd udKift.W WbeiN
bu pl, pakngJti fraon 100to 220 py acre, alkd froM baIndI I e
pend 3J1UpI' ,y t 1. "m
Ther ey Afom whi,+ ,.tr ht ., ," ..t-..

a I $ ( -41

e *s -.


i l


1 '

n,.. t


cae~nvrct who ingyat. 4 pat '+to bq
excellent food w41 for *Mpin bhop. They sy tM4,m acn o t$ &jpp ,jII
further w tb rla ofw dpttato 14e R 4 i$t wi
rpagatd by c things rf, rte ms. E. 4 jhrt is pte ta
F commnea. t Moii tiis plant has. bep utilisa ie hR prBwtio of
Iuoo which it 4 I sm to -a j
Tobacco bas beo.und, $ oup $s t u t g e. qb ~ flori4" to b-.
bpted to both the qliam # qpjl, a4ua bqy l diffqr~t 0n4dg d 6it
ifferent locali3iq% At4eS4r lw. .. ,8'r4 4vQ uaa t44~Mi
a chearatr da qnlitysre oonly gnitivat&L ihaq tu Uth
boride tobacco puwue a bes4 and totagam of led theA bdp eb
Sto the use of wrappes to cigar. Before the wa a wide reputation-wab
established by the planters in the County of &daden for the puoduotjon of
'hat was teramd the "Florid Sp.1i4 aJf," which wea the
ery beat for wrappers gPway awh e, and ommended ususwfl7 hilie.
'he lands od that oaouat were f!oun to be peuliarly suited to i. poduatidmn.
)ne thousand pouds w the average yhMlpm aw, aMd ;rwgr handsome

rtunee were amby it. aoltume. A highly fvoured a
tobacco i bag. atma lplmts for h .om uta,
f the State. Thi quite qujk in te emll. of itu kt
Indeed grow ra gres ed. di*ly introdued ~rm tht B
own as I hamos In th County of Wakulj, IPM
deed in mauy othr of d the t*e., an spa v46
Srodutum *b Cbn varetyM u juatmowi tqmi t
or tht p s.
Melons .r ,4pm tU Iam puma ot
bound in Thlah 6o t p wenqei quality, Cd 44 oi6
elon huradsamy additional ng to u4R 11*
are brojmql p.e ao hi. ipt prb4plrd. fnhrlt. .
Five h ar in -wa ,pld in water-mo. i .
8ilk might eqj Sr da nyoptpoofitse 137a11
ucmclis and N. 46 both grow .m ut 1wi
hwiuaataidy 4 (a 55 ovetd Ip p
k t stew i t4 Bw -',"a t, L.
opt cu~r~tCCBP tq
flowed M owI4ioltt ,

ma pports b.;

odai-u ib.iudh
yug gn'mes ifs "PP I tf p.4..dt71dMi*4

-p -l

,aand &tdak

*si'i ta1


than in any other State. I have never ee or own of a' disased cly
bep in the State. The enemies are toads, dragonflies, ant, moth, and
I consider the coast counties south of twenty-ninth parallel umfnjaq4
the industry. Our bees winter perfectly on summer stands and gather hon
or pollen every month in the year. Some of the leading honey and poll
producing trees are the maple, willow, sweet-gum, ay, orange, myrtle, oa
baes-wood, hickory, youpon, mock-olive, saw-palmetto, cabba-phometo, an
mangrove, the last two of which come together in the middle of summer, an
are unequalled as honey-producer' by anything else in the whole vegetable
kingdom known to the writer. They: produce honey in ,abundance, of the
finest quality, and we think it safe to say never fail to produce a good crop.
We also have honey-producing vines and plants too numerous to mention."

Numerous inquiries have been addressed to the writer from different quar.
terms a to the supply and location of different commercial woods to be found in
Besides her boundless aras of yellow pine, whose timber is supplying the
world's markets, there is in Florida, perhaps, a larger supply of gypew timber
than in any other section of the United States. This timber for'the manufac.
ture of staves for syrup and sugar barrels and hogheabds is unsurpaseed, i
being extensively awed and shipped to the prairie State as railroad cross-tie,
and is rapidly coming in demand, especially in Germany, fofra*p-budlding. It
is, too, the shingle timber of the south. Untold fortunes are till trading in
this timber along the numerous rivers, lakes, lagoons, and swamp..
The live-oak, s durable and valuable for ship-knes,,is still abundant along
the coast and rivers, and of the most gigantic size.
Red cedar, of the very best quality, abounds in all the low bamook lands
along the coast d rivers. The c fting of this timber b for years ben a
prominent industry. Large supplies are consumed by oeda-milk at Cedar
Keys and Tampa, where quantities of this wood am sawed to supply the
penil factorie of A. W. Faber and Co.
Whitaoak, suitable for stave timber, is to be found in very considerable
quantities in maa po u of the State-in the ountis of Jao, Calhon,
adsden, Jefferson, and Wakulla, in Middle Florida. EKecialy in the great
.hsmmooks along St. Mark's and Wakula Rivers, in the late county, are to
be found rich supplies of this valuable imber, ready of access rom the stream.
So rapid i its growth, that upon large plantatlo tracts, cultivated up to the
beginning of the late war, amd sne then left idle,. ome.t drwhite oak vel
sprung up, and, in the hort apes of twety-two yars, Stian a powthihat
will square from mte- to twehin. I is a omuit iht -to, rld thmSSh a
bnut of taly tree and mau *t hold cor ridV hart ms-; -
Rd-oak is the principal timber povth over ext-esvat re of higlWramn-
, ioe in a their h efmxntryo NMdda lrida. PM *1*iti o wew atoo
porous and .Weo brah to .be aNd hfa h mlo ci laShzS f iM Ie-.
easr, 5 w3reS adtlrably for SIc rc S ohr .iAr f l^da Ws


most abundant supply of tan-bark, making the manufacture of leather a cheap
d profitable industry in that section.
Many other varieties of oak abound throughout the State.
Hickory is abundant over extensive areas. Trees of the most extraordinary
ze are to be found in all the hammock. The climate of Florida makes
he second growth of this ordinarily slow-growing tree rapid, and inexhaust-
ble supplies of moat excellent hickory can for years be drawn from the ham-
ocks all over Florida. The same is true of the ash in many localities.
Poplar is a common growth along most of the rivers; the 'supply is
Wild cherry and black walnut are not so abundant, but are very rapid
growers and attain great size.
Stinking cedar (Torreya Taifodia Armo#) is an evergreen, belonging to
the yew tribe of conifers, peculiar to Florida, and confined to a rather limited
locality near Aspalaga, on the Apalacicola River. The timber is posussaed of
the most remarkable durability, great lightness, is soft, split straight, can be
rived as thin as cardboard, has elasticity, receives a high polish, and ought to
be valuable for any purposes requiring .these qualities in a high degree. It is
said that the dead trunks of the torey. are to be found imbedded in. the
alluvial drift of the Apalachicola River bottom in a perfect state of prerva-
tion (as to the heart), and that they must, from every indication, have been
exposed to the decomposing influences .of earth and water for centuries.
The lamp-poste in the Capitol Grounds in Tallahamsee are made of this
remarkable wood.
Red bay (Larens Car olienei) is oommonly termed Florida mahogany."
It is very abundant throughout the hammocks and swenps of Florida. Its
dark-coloured, handsomely-veined wood makes it valuable for cabinet work.
It commands ready sale in the markets.
It would be quite an endless task to enumerate the long list of Florida
woods that have been and could be utilized in the arts. Ai yet, except in the
case of pine, 6ypres, cedar, and live-oak, very little has been done in imanu
facturing timber from the many valuable trees in the State. Vat forests of
most valuable wood have been felled and burned. As transportation facilities
are increased, and manufacturing developed, more attention will be directed to
the sawing of hard woods.

as applied in Florida, embraces so many purpose, methods, and degrees of
profitable asoes, that it is quite difficult in the limits of a publication of this
charter to dimss it intelligibly to one totally unfamiliar with it.
Along the ooast, in all the aountes eat of Esambia, are to be found larger
or smallerr hd of ca ettle. These ran at large through the ph.e wood,
swamps, or alt mnh, and thri'v on the oome pasturage in a manr quite
profitable a'ad itory to their owners, who round up" once a year, mark
and band the mw cie, and l itle ether ttmntion. So little eUpne
attends this m rt of: ratook-mdng thai, otwfg the poor oha ctea


i castle produce, they p.grov valuable. Indeed, the bide adtlUokw a
flve-year-old steer would return a good profit on the cost of his kesp. t.hlm
cattle are small, wit .tbid.havy necs and tore'per1 am dawWr oiht
when fat will ctl f$q years old, about 400 to 400 p0odadb whibaMd
ready sale among FoIriianus at from 6 to 10 psent pm pound There are
stoc-mon in all t.he. oat coutis wat of the duwanze,ehoww, who realize
very handsome peyu1$ from the Bale f thee, attle. It is denbtiol whether
the rough postage oytey r *pon will as4it of a ferIy mabrd impwraaamt
in gtf s$ eeq oy pfa qd with imPpzld bprpd. .. ,.
In r irern connutiea of .Middle Florida, on the red Iadj wh.e h iny
varetza. eoaellent pasture greas abound, and wha oreot ae ket under
fence, a very different tone of things exists. Thoroughbreds f the urbam,
Devon, Jersey, Ayrshire, Hereord, and Alderney breds hae 4or ome year
been iptroduocd and liberal used, until a large peeoante of the o.itt in
that section. are grade of one or the other of thee blods. The Bermuda
gras patuigee of theee counties are naturally of a very fne -quaiif, and of
recent years are receiving a degree of attention tending. vey gre to their
rapa improvemetr S toc-4aiing of all kinds is bng fetred by the
farmers as mot profitble adjuacts to their arming op-atis amt oely in the
grpwng f manzrea but the reay sale at good pri of the diry pduas.
an kcrw.. $ar the tPwn Dt Madison, xaotaello, and Talhs ejre ea to
be dvMeprpl herdq thltwgheds that do credit to their owners, a4.s
fast wipif a reppt4ic fr tboee p-a flor eaellent dairy productd- Butter
xblt.dat the .awnl .*hibtoa of the Middle Floaridca Aguiim tum and
M____c___nia oanmpr most faurably with the prouSmaC of amy
dimry ditrn,?s p a rspidly growing industry in thae loualities, ad hide
fair to ttl pou t pla e.
In 0out FloridM cattlsr-iai is a linsg industry. Moe capital has
been eagloyed in it than in the tiller of the oil, until witf~ .the last
few ypa ...
That thii investment pas yell ha this racial proo.; maw many ia
been Fcpb in tlat budine than .in any other, until qbe aueum ly, d4 .
numer~ havr.e as n waltqy..,Tbe sate.e not so larpm the grown
in .bece the natie gam of that pat of loida 1 Mb
nut4~us tpan th4ate ,Tauu d, further, hp, lesa atteM luh tean giena
her itpruw ftJP% qtqa The bqyeS ilaeL.Oi aan ts,
to w5pgahlyet. lb Sdto prr .th lMb Ta b
If tbp South FIhi4 gff bp p n aspaoqtritidop it am tbIapsm a moae
ag( p^4vourto-,41,, a*!i. t4 ;.:-. .A 31 I. A ...- i ..
State, o u likely j tZbt49 e pli ^q pjoqa s r 4q yqs to
horew, #.ri3 be ft'o'rpkArpsM. thtwd.d ,ja pptthten o Ii d
to~.~X~!lle:at pw qP A 4 ^ *eI land sufface Itpphp1 fgese
they ase and what they bar, and the thinking amo e Jc M k4ml, hLee

t*xy alwfc bo9kt Th^ m i^ ^ t-M d hte Mi be.l .b1Mo


change their invtment a soon as it win be bet for them ad.Afr the
Country. -'
As the inquirig immigrant mnt needs pm through the cout, the better
a see if it be suited tothestipply of his wantS, and at A tDIy-settld oiutry
, for that reuoa, lew inviting to the traviller, it nmay be tpetident for hi.
courage st to mention one promintent future in the poAitipn t the
southern counties. I mean the cordial hoepitatj whieh is"met at teir
eartb toe. As in na1tre they are the same with other men we
aly hospitality must reaul from their empldlodm ta and 'arrwou$md
eed frequently the help one of another i her dh tar ,tock ; th 'i the
vood and at the table of some one of thed number, moet of the men of a
pretty wide circle frequently take their meab together. They are thus put in
sympathy one with another. Another tha:eiitti of the ction is to add
ut little to their bill of fare beaue of the compay. The dihe ordinarily
provided for the family are set before the guet.. And as it cota lee trouble
he is the more heartily welcome than in many plecea where there i more
reparation and more petenson in the reepti6n given. From whatever source
his trait of character may have originated, it i now the AtaC of the people,
-d will sometimes eheer the traveller a he journey through a mtfage land.
Sheep have been found to do well in Forida wherever they have begiven
, fair trial. In many portion of the State, where the lad is very thin a
andy, the vegetatioa is omrepaodigy apar. 'and oanem ; and white sbeep
will live on it and iamare. at a fair rate, they of oome under ,snu eircum-
tance produce a inferior quality of both wool and muttba, aad taid very
nuch to become barn of wool on theleg and bdela ; but taes odtnuued
green h been tod to gaduaI ovenoae tve d ad
der their grazing, pine woods, originally very maat etao biV, .a
ew year become enriched ; new auractena weds aad grain have Iti up,
d sheep ad new arop prove of muktal beeit to one another. In some
theirr portions of the State, especially in the counties wet of the Aplachi~ol
iver, the rolling pine woods fuanrsh pterge dof a much bette character, ad
eep have beea feed to do oporty welL There ame to be found
n that pert of tA eate me very efair ea, ad the pioflta t fq, whpua
mal withte o ado their mntne abow -a nt peaiaps bejid
haeti rallied by br of a Mhih clum with ame spdtie urroi tu
heep, ilke goa, Sd4 utpon a greater aity of lanfts &h etti, a4 ae
^uacetibe o jnUsasa ofl cii uce j t haflst tdt ditt ppit aher^d
Onathe la pS d ost tiM bao n rthms r port ok' to Ste.p'
ye always prod ptpdf b. Heretofore the .ztekhn tdtor&Of ctkit dS
other epioultmHlmI carls aMw th mttd to nk eep uU ta ksfll eel. inah ib imtiv
ion ; .bt a the ra,*n a qtuaity td csImnd bour has &dectrsd in that
mecti, mwy la)^rg han been tuied dot. On the old pl ant tMas the
Bennuda gu h bno toaigr the plogh aM hoe tbo contend with, hae
sMra d it apl S4S4 u-v piturne:. pt tatmntrttioM cop nolate thb
Lntroduotjoa w :Icm 4 '
TIe lanenM S meeon ar, ia a rtulb, n intellent and videaoRke
seopqel; are sot jori pRrosethe u4nvataqsa of the nqw opportunity, aid


are beginning to turn attention and money in this new channel. Bustk of
improved strains are being introduced, both of long and medium wools
In the southernmost counties of the State sheep husbandry s rapidly in-
creasing, and is thought to be more profitable than cattle.
Hogs can be raised as cheaply and of a fine quality a anywhere. In ante.
blUum time all planters in Middle Florida were large producers of bacon. The
difficulty of protecting them from theft in that region since the"old plantation
smoke houas ceaed to be a certain source of supply, has done much to limit
the bunmnea. Yet many small farmers in all the northern counties have intro-
duced Berkshire, Poland, China, Essex, and Chester White breeds, and beside
their enre home supply have a surplus of baoon, hams, and lard to dispose of
at good prices. In many other portions of the State this character ofat stock is
allowed to run at large; they gin a living in the woods, and "in one and two
years grow large enough to kill, having cost their owners nothing.
Horses in some parts of the State are being bred profitably, and of a most
excellent quality. The "cow-ponie" in use among the cattlemen of the
South are a breed as peculiar to Florida as is the mustang in Texa They
are amirably suited to the uses made of them. In Madison, Jeffan,
Marion, Alachus, Leon, Gasden, and Jakson Counties, some thoroughbred
stallions have for some years been made use of, and many very stylish
youngsters are to be found in the stables of breeders in those localities. The
pr-enoe of nutritious graem in those counties, together with the firm, smooth
roadways, gives advantage and attraction to the raising of horse and mules
that is wanted elsewhere.
In the annual premium list of the agricultural shows and stock exhibition
in those sections, a prominent place is given native colts. Less attention haa
been directed to the acquirement of speed in' the production of horses in that
part of Florida than to the asoquistion in the colts of style, bottom, and genaal

The great variety and excellence of the fish in Florida is not one of the least
attraction, whether to the sportman or more practical housewife. The lakes
and .stams of the freh waters abound in fish of the finest quality, prominent
among which are the black ban, pike, jack, bream, and many varieties of the
perch family. Along the eoat the Ist of varieties is longer than the flaher
man's list of names for them. Red snapper, black mapper orgrouper, sheep
had, red-fsah, bisok-fsh, pompano, Spanish makrel, rok-fish, mullet, and a
long ist of small "panash" are ah among the marhbta* vaietiea The
pompano regarded as the chice among epine. The mar er md grouper
ar bethdeep-water Ash, and are taken in great number by smack on the
bnMs' oft shore for the Havana, New Orleans, and GaOlveIt makr.W They
an be kept for week in the wellh" of tem shing mat without On
both tiA-itb and Gulf aombs there ma esxtade IAdrM whf the
seaes of the "rn," mullet are taken inv st number t the me p.yd.
so. oi the strilkm made by th. itrtumia Sinakn&u e of
ba s. Ash tke slt quite a. wall a th. matwed of ob nmi


waters, and furnish an abundant supply of heap and wholesome food to the
Along the Gulf coast west of the Suwannee, and especially on the coast line
of Wakulla and Franklin Counties, the revenue derived from this industry is
considerable. The proximity of those points to the southern counties of
Alabama and Georgia enables the small farmers of those sections to reach the
Florida coast in their farm waggons. About the first of October, when the
run of the fish commences, the Georgia and Alabama farmer takes his wife
and children in his waggon and journeys southward. A week of recreation is
spent, after the year's work, on the beach, where these "up-oountry" folk
enjoy the salt air and water, and return home with several barrels of pickled
fish to be eaten during the winter. Last fall it was estimated that more than
three hundred Georgia waggons passed through Tallahnasee alone, on their way
to the fisheries.
Perhaps no waters abound in fish in greater quantity or of better quality
than the waters of the coast of Florida. There was shipped from Cedar Keys,
in 1880, 1,701,000 pounds of barrelled fish, of the value of P68,000. Key West
statistics of two years ago, state that about one dozen schooners of Key West,
aggregating 750 tons, were then engaged in the taking of fish for the Havana
market. Recently the catch of several fisheries along the coast have been
utilized in the manufacture of a fish fertilizer, which is taking a high plaee
among the farmers, and promises to develop into an extensive industry;
Green turtle may be mentioned as another commodity of the Florida oet.
In Key West the beef and turtle markets adjoin. They are both supplied with
about equal regularity, and very many prefer the turtle to the beef, particularly
after the latter has been submitted to the hardships of a voyage from the main-
land. Turtle are shipped alive to the northern markets from Key West, and
sometimes car loads of them pass over the Florida Transit and West India
Railroad from Cedar Keys on their way north. One of the sports of persons
living near the coast is walking the beach in April and May, watching for and
"turning" the turtle that crawl out upon the shore in that mason to lay.
When they find the turtle making her nest or' laying her eggs, a suffient
number Of persons lay hold and turn her upon her back. She is then helpless,
unable to return heelfl, so as to have the us of her feet. Partie are thus
supplied with both the turtle and her eg, and both are praised as savoury food.
Oysters are mo continuous around the coast that, when the railroad and canal
system now in eomus of comtratlon shall have been completed, a supply, at
short notice, will reah my )srt of the interior of the 8tate in a few hours, at
the expense of tthering and short Cfreghtg edar Keys has already oom.
menaced their ahipmen, and for all the distance that ice can make them safe
freightageq hshjmnaed, and in the shell, this oomernmaoe is likely to exted.
The supply seem nexhaustible
4oeufs-Th. pheiBg of g. along the GOlf coast has rapidly become an
indutry of ooenaH important. The principal sponge reefs lie to the
*outh-eaatrd of te pcrt of St. Mark's, lb t that point ad Cedar Keys.
It has bem quite im b lebk to usdltdn dadbtoly the number of veaeb


mgqsed in thb bundaei or.hq of.wda q wIre4
rsady rmerrd .to gve thp aW ber o( veqd f3 m t rhat yt
taking ponge at 1404 9S1tpe vraue o( t4w uaoag tippel
dqrng the p-t yer a, aounwatng .t 9(256^OO(. Sgoe QyCrB
Rio OCrabelle, and AqlabicoloJ are alo w diry qq*eL ii
it wt.l bea to eatp .s 4umbe oad1t on r
tie. tbe above pumner, ad the valu, of te wli a in the yesr ta Mttle abqrt, any, of V'{f,f00. aE T
of tbeM-fab on th r^ to be, rseMaig, a4 there b eiWoto
nae to demrlqp much greater 1foportiona.

Phoaphatie rooks l have he found in Alaobu and Chy Cphti Soce of
these rocks from Clay were asnt to the office of the &ientiFc Am ri s, ,th
inquiry as to whether they wrer of suoh oharster ad fizrpi su cited them
for budindg material. The reply w t should do wall for h uildp
Meial, but much better for raiountwul pepin; that they oontuWad a
large peuatae of the t of Me-that whih giir to the rok er
arleCton, B.C., its ralue M a tertiiur, the miing of which hai prOved mph
a boanma ihoe the war.
;Gem n marl i also found in eome of the oountie in several portiolnf the
ate. Tis green marl of New Jmey, bedes the lime, elay, and aUd of
adioary ad, is hid to on*a gs about pa oat. of phodori add of
the earcemd yet inprtat mnmart of plant food,
Over an extended ara embraced between the Wakulls and f.t Mt's e'n
in WanuB Comnty, mad indled atending far to the weetwatd river, t .here exs arI depot of hophorirook, a.uasdthe1 qaifth
in wUa thi ro& is found give evidMeme in itA forestry owf $et
r-rpid by noe in Horida Nowher oould the utjl tiln orawry
o-r a merdal ftrUimer be macro qly and oonvcidptly 4o w4
the a oount of the tmfpotodlitik njpd bhjar
SAll onrtbe Stats me sulphair qaBpui and an euamiatima ,,, of
ulphur nar the surfae worth woring. Some prepmrtios MUt4iiyn
amd r voting M -lIme depsits of Levy County,

I. I r '} '* .. ^ :.f-'
b -, '
-/--;-'* i .-/ 1 r; :, )v:H ''^ ^^ ^tl~~)n lMli -"! ^ *r/ -^ ^

.1 tD-{ :' ; -1 w n --
Deddfl., ra dninna 27. fix an If

appearanIe -[i au '- r .; *
Te burating of gret rives at bound frto th iit tThle
fatue ofdme of Florida'g tata *
leastf the mum be of imuestaM ^flatio uan lh h Si.ahw
riad ems. toward the ee. In omay place no 4y o if are
obiua uai tbey ri.e to, tli uirS thrSolt gret .rsair i& ni
a. Uma.toi ca 'SOfn o wdeml qgam Ma< penada wu t ia

*' I



Silver Spriogi i. "i County, cd the -amous Waku.ll Spr8ng in the
-fCa ~gjie,~ .lw-a~ib! 4fl~~as &rdt -o!~~rlb; .-iYe of
county of uuaT u o
visitors have a the Silvd Spie updu h ch' bteuba. Sart. h-a '
Wakulla, bIe.fnW Ia & eotSoP lietotok 14 lstr&h*Mb wi t. ,lte dta to
Florida, is not .6 Sniiti kno. Both deds stptio a qeos
will not admit of. fler gret' dm, depth, and t nenay, am there mat
striking feaure. LA on't bt-tom of WaM one hdM at
eighty feet (uso sh'ual'ma temed .) Wow ta:lrhee, a ay
piece can be 'a' a '-the kW bee. an objeCt
is even more plainly di*oeible h as the' 'Se' 'tneett ougl, ti a
the boil of the waters give them the Mtib tibn of a 'lens, and thus tby
acquire manifying properties.
Certainly, no natural object can' be 'mor6:Aueu ful than the appearance of
this great fountin, n a clear day, when no wind disturb th face of its
The Blue Sprhg of VoiadS County, in South forida a little way east frnm
St. John's Ritr, is thus de6tiWd'by a write:
"There is a lis imventy Ieat in diameter, and about forty feet in depth.
A huge bowl, frhit the entire of which a oolhm of blueinted wet prime
upward with such force that the entre fd'the surae' eava to the emta
of perhaps ten inches, and it is impooble to put ao kp a boe o this
summit, such is the toree bf the hydrualio preso apwed d p Mrally.
This utrem, which this gigantide spring fold., I. about ft ut wie, amd a
average depth- t ten feet, with a current aof bout Lw. ae l ahour. ThM
scenery about this locality s bewt ufuld and u squ in t and
worth a long Jodnf t tse."
There are say uch springs to be fod 6 dita pmt Fkla.
They are all sdM rt rivers up to p- who ty brs Lth.
They all atin 1ans enoutla to preapibte Sjf at -sdime or dhcloring
matter, lwi t&d war ph y lel. Pi m mony ats andm are
seen gamkbe i thd sh or slh. abot tho the was seei
their Lood. TI. Wfpph 'o the surfe irbt the a th mm whe at.
the proper a gS ,6 %i tb vaild oolol of bainlabo sad kbd a oot of
enchantmet to Ci'thy.
There am uo minal m*a gal m in av id prs d th.'Rt., whose wtu-as
tested in many. have ourti've propts id ae the rt of invalids.
Of this lam am tb Newport 8pdpyigfrXrk'a mer, in Wakula County,
the Hampt d o the Sualphur Slmpnp of Hamilto, the
Suthwamst Spa 48si '"d'4 .".-
Pesnem tM auih '61 WI& If* hatre
met with Mafi g a in
these -pi .
r -

* *





[From an Addreu delivered at the First Alnnal BeMIon of the So utlw inipticqi
Amocdation of Americ, held at Naahvlle, Marn 11- 1884w, By OGamU
WN.H. S;neo, Florida State Commimioner to New Orlr Wwld's Pair.]

HE capitalist, the sturdy farmer, the akiled mechanic, and day
labourer are not influenced by brilliant bursts of poetic fancy.
Figures, stripped of all their adornment save the. dollars and
cents they may represent, and the means of accumulating
wealth, are the most potent factors in securing immigration A
few statistics will give you an accurate idea of the resources of Florida, and
will recommend to your attention its soil, and climate, and enterprising
Florida has 59,268 square miles and 37,981,520 acres. The State increased
43 per cent. in population from 1870 to 1880-a larger increase than is shown
during that period in any State east of the Mississippi In 1880, our population
was 300,000 ; estimated increase since 1880, 100,000 ; and we expect to show
600,000 in 1890. Our immigration embraces some of the very best people
from all parts of the United States.

No. tfarms in 1870
No, of tarw in 1880
No. of aort of land in
Val a at ..
No. of ire of land in
V lnl r s

farms in 1870

farms in 1880

Si aW .. .. ..* .. *. ..
Estimated increase of value of farm land from 1880
or total of 828,291,885.

S. .. 28,488
.. 2,37,541
9 .$ 7,9 ,9
.. .. 8,,97,894
S. .. .$0,21,89
to 1884, 18,000,;00;

Product from 1880 to 18

Corn, bmuhels .. .. .. .. .. .. 8
Ota, bu .. .. .. .. .
sugar, hogbad .. .. .. .. ..
MliaM, plbam .. .. .. .. .. 1,
Rice, pounds .. .. .. .. .. .. 1,
Tobaooo, pound. .. .. ..
Irah -otto e tbdh..
e pat .. .. .. .. 1,
The raising of Indian jute promises to be one o
tris in the State.
Sea Iland cotton is prinipally raed in the
Levy, Coumbia, Suwanaee, Hamilton, Matuon
The number of bales raned in 1880, 14,000
Short staple cotton raised in 1878, 54,997'; 1881
bale, 38,000,000. The cotton is proidpJly riued
Gadritn, Leon, Jefforon, and Madison.
Oranges are principally raised in the oouate of
Putnam, Marion, Sumter, Hillaborough, Levy,

,174,284 ..
46,11 ..
1,273 ..
,029,868 ..
294,677 ..
21,181 ..
20,ast ..
687,618 ..
f the mot

.. 8,9W,8
.. 48e,, a
.. 1,674
.. 1,70,872
.. r,m,754
.. n,6l1
.. ,141,M21
pra sing Ladus-

xwitiu of Alachue, Marion,
Badord, LBake, and Clay.
; Sa 1888, 17,000; value,

8, 60,00 ; value, at tM0 per
in the ouantiem of Jakeon,

Orange, Volusia, St. Jola
Hernmando, Polk, Alachn)



lumbia, Dural, Prevard, Moroe, Franklin, Calhoun, Liberty, and Manatee.
)f the crop of 1888, number of boxes shipped, 600,000 ; value, 61,800,000.
Of the semi-tropical fruits we have the cocoanut, banana, pineapple, guava,
of which are raised principally in the counties of Monroe, Dade, Brevard,
anatee, Volusif Orange, and killaborough. While we have no statftiat in
ard to this latter industry, we are assured from data in our possession that
t is of growing importance, the acreage in these fruits having greatly inwreaed
the last three or four years.
From the young industry of fisheries, scarce five years old, there has been
alz for the last year, 9498,862. -
From the sponge industry was realized in 1879, the sum of 8200,750, and
n 1888, 8321,460.
Miles of Railroad in Florida.
In operation in the year 1880 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 587
In operation in the year 1882 .. .. .. .. .. 762
In operation in the year 1883 .. ... .. .. .. .. .. 1,224
Showing an increase from March 1880, to March 1888, of 697 miles, being an
increase of more than 100 per cent. in three years. ,We cannot have too many
railroads in Florida, and a few figures will serve to illustrate that an acre of
orange trees in full bearing will produce 200,000 oranges, which, boxed, will
weigh 100,000 pounds, or three car-loads of 33,000 pounds each. Cotton will
not average in the middle of the State over a bale to three acres. "A single car
will carry fifty bales of compressed cotton, or the product of 150 acres. One
acre of full bearing oranges will require three times the car to transport them
-150 acres-that will be required to transport cotton, ,the product of
120,000 acres. The'product of bearing orange trees will require needed
transportation facilities for 6,000,000 bales of cotton, the product of 18,000,000
The steamboat tonnage--inland and local-on the St. John's River, actively
and prosperously engaged in its freight and passage traffic, consists of seventy-
four steamboats of 8,168 tons registered, representing a value of 82,042,000.
This is a greater steamboat tonnage than there was, by the last census reports,
of ocean and inland, in any State south of Maryland on -the Atlantio coast,
with the exception of Georgia ; and more, as it appears by the same reports,
than was then in service for purely local inland traffic upon any river on
the Atlantic coast south of the Hudson, and is an inease since 1880 of 128
per cent.
The number of passengers brought into Florida by railroad from coast line
States was, during 1882, 27,785 ; and carried outward to similar points, 28,184;
an increase over 1880 of 258 per cent.
The shipments of sawed lumber from the port of Jacksonville alone amounted,
during the year 1882, to over 55,000,006 feet. From the port of Penuaola
the shipments of sawed lumber amounted, for the year 1888, to 226,647,976
feet. From the port of Cedar Key the shipments of sawed lumber for the year
1882 amounted to 5,000,000 feet From the port of Fernandina the shipments
of awed lumber for the year 1882 amounted to 12,000,000 feet. Total
of feet, 298,647,976.



Horme an mules rteoed for taentn in 1888, 41,848 NMat Mato
atSle returned fto taatio n 1888, 558,866 atO1 pe heed, Wui8Aee.
Sheep and goats returned for taxat 108,587 ; at a 2 pW rhd, 174,
Hopreturned for taxation, 27,787; at 52 per heed, 65,474. .
The taxable property of the State ws, in 1880, S81,157,8i l The able
property of the Stat in 1888, as shown by the report of the te aomupbdm,
was 55,008,610, showing an increase in three years f ely 100o permit il
the value of the taxable property of the State of Florida.
The Stat' tax, inclusive of school tax, wae, in 1876, .tdve-amd oe-half
milk; in 1884 the State, including school, taxis four milk. The dio tax
referred to here is a tix of one mill provided for by the Co ad
in addition to the school taxes raised by the ooutim. This latter tax
regulated by law, and at present cannot exceed four mills nor be less than two
and one-half miles.
The common school fund is derived from the sale of the siteenth metaon
(640 acres) in every township, donated to the State biy Couesm. Bonds
in fund January 1882, 5250,284; bonds added to this fund in the two yare,
from 1882 to 1884, 6178,700; making a total inestent (the intcreat ipon
which is apportioned according to the population of school' children in the
several canties) of 8428,984. It will be seen-that this fund hassnreamed more
than 75 per eent. The 6250,000 referred to as the amount of bonds in fund in
1882, was the total aooumud aon from the passage of the Act by Congres
donating the land in March, 1845, to the 1st January, 1882.

Florida'. Bonded Debt.
Be x p ot. bod. matu .. ..01
81x pr oat. bo maturing 1908 ..

Bodmb in Singir fund

Boad.s o other State and ouramy bdagiagto sinkinH And

NEt baf Wb t..B

Of trhi debt 68M8,000 i held by the ednestional fur
In the hands ot Indhl akb les than 80l0,000; or, to1
thes oand 688.0. As othe expenditnresfaor eduoa
and cauatim, this statement does not liclude u
smiar es any private shol, brt only the epa
elt .t the Bate aMadountis.
Om nt s8 la.x t- kg b i 1 t M CGapeiUtla
Cant ami rrawait c fe ... .. .
biasti s htmB a10 Xh b .. ..



.. apLm

ida of the State, having
be more oa t, about
Mdoal purpomfl by State
atuiti" paid in te
MpiSre by the goven.-

C. 1eaf
ma. mm
.. 99,W9

thUH'ib 600 -Bario leortii M|>otffriy d ObunrfflE Mi~ TOIMK-".
A.'Aytsrl emaldor p1raI aimu l ai Qjy31 -o ______
Ci~tO, bih n c dowmitat bdodrt in t as wiope kim Sast.*

Ft K r LAtZfS 65

In Florida's hirtyin eaounds tfMe ire over one)andre d nsvroeon.
One od t atrii etrabl e isi Ae sout orrtof
be Sftr *Bakenib hilljB fbro l p b
eeii some of the fine Aldeu anif ery1 to 4i toun4 j ijw'l Tiae
be also ine fatms aid tie PthMoaue, h whoh are I(|d e .o te
mturdist Iaenk in the Union. .
The sugar soil Il a.ttuhrtf g the attention of' Louisiana pant Iead
n our State are found to posss moe valuable #dtr-produoinc quaJtjw tbm
ho.e of Lomins.
Tobaeom is raied in the middle or wet~rn portion of the State. It brings
rom forty to fifty eent per pound, and is as good as Havna tobaooo.
The vegetable interest of the State i. becoming imply immense. Daily in
heir eason long trainsf ears haul away immense quantites of vegtablee for
northern and western markets.

Br R. C. LONG.
NITED 8TATES lands till vacant in Floridq are mbjeot to entry
by land warran,. purchase, and by homestead entry. Such
lands are to be found in almo r tosptfp the twl*
In the older ettnnments, where t r ion flit e have
been long enjoyed, and the lands are of good quality, very little,
any, vrcant land can be found. All inquiries. m 4toUited 8tate' lands
would beadd ed to L. A. Barnes, Register United States Iand Office,
Sinville, Foida.
The Stte Land Office, with Son. P. W. White as Commisioner, l ast TIla-
amee. All inquirlf as to vacant State lands should be made toUBi. H ah a
p as isa sooften asked for, showing the loatIo of al wan d iw the
tate, was neve ptiih MIy any 86t ad toud b4 4gifepniq
One daily emitie Woidd leuire daly rfl tioni the pap ,o a qp i -
te. Indeed, *e *ol&"Mbdime ^t1ding p4.Wto e their.
orional ini*f to 6 %&ocnflb4f
hat enit. you, thi ^ rt<^^ o
vate land, ecuse it by purobs. The State land a to be found ostad
verywhm. Like the United StS huad,' e lad bfM ^b laW or
eirale lty are dt eote of ithe adtrs a gdoo<
tenta old: ua apgiultare haben ptftle &o anytlegth of time.

-- S- ----



Seioed l smd &aidebr land ae suob t to e. tdiq vdaqP
not iss than 1.25 peracre. A large portion cf this lats s her.attl
per ae, but some tuta are valued a high a. I1. Paymnmt a be .
United Sta u' rrenqy or State scrip. I
Internal Inwwwmt lands are generally 61.25 pa ere, none lIa ; rnme
high ua i.50 per acre.
wimp hmda--for forty ares-$1 per we ; for more then forty and nm
exceeding ghty awes, 90 cents per ace; for more ta eighty and Mnl a
ceding two hundred acres, 80 center per acre : for more than two hndr
and not exceeding six hundred and forty ares, 75 oata per acre; for mon
than ix hundred and forty awes, 70 cents pqr lMre.
Inc as of entries of land atles than $1 per sae, the land must not bei
detached pieces, but must lie in a body.
For Internal Improvement and Swamp lands nothing is reoeirable in pay
ment except United States' currency.
Terms of ale in all ones as. -
Lands cannot be reserved from sale for the benefit of any applicant. An
application not accompanied with the full amount of purchase money doa
not give any priority.
But by Act of March 7th, 1881, "actual settlers upon any of the public land
of this State may enter the lands upon. which they reside or have in oultiv
tion, not to exceed 160 agree, to be taken in compact form according to tbi
legal subdivisions, at the price now or hereafter to be established for sud
lada, by paying one 4ird the purchase money at the tnme of the entry, oim
third of the same within two years thereafter, and the remaining one-third
within three years after the date of entry."
By Act of 1lth of February, 187, the right of hometead is given on th
overflowed and swamp lands, as follows : ,.
"8eotion 6. Any person who is the head of a family, or who has arrived at
the age of twenty-one years, and is a citizen of the United States, or who hal
have filed his declaration of an intention to become such, as required by th
laws o the United States, shall, from and after the first da of April, be en.
titled to enter one*quarter section, or a let quantity, of the unsold awmpwand
overflowed lands granted to the State of Florida by Act ft Congrem, approve
28th day of September, 1850. Any person, owning or reading on land may,
under the provisions of section six to thirteep of this chapter, enter other
lands contiguous to his or her said land, which shall not, with the lands
already owned and oupied, exoed in the Agreg late 160 .
*" Section 7. Th peo applying for thebe t ot estalp ix hafllewith
thb Ooamisioner of lands his or her affidavit that h or ee is the esiofta
family, or twenty-on yeams or more of agw, snd Ast BIp aliid n l
made for him or her excludre us and besfit, sad that the mid al. ade
tae t purpou of actal ettlment and oultatin, and not distly or inm
-dlf b the e and st f other p.mw.
of tflo atilr whw t-e 60D)Sto7 :um than t^ ^Wof ^ dol a
where inate Si not of more than aigyb a -earb

i :
tf :


eted to enter sthe suat f land qpiAed, APoWded, eave., that no
leed shall iase therefore until the ezpfeta of five year from thb dat of such
mny; and if at the expiraton of such tane or anytmes within two years
er th peron making much entry, or, if he be dad, h widow, or, in
e of her death, hi hir or devices, or, in ase of a widow making sach
netry, her heirs or devisees, in ae of her death, shall prove by two orpdible
tnees that he, she, or they have reclaimed mid lands by mans of levies
d drains, and aided upon and cultivated the ame for the term of five years
immediately suoceeding the time of fling the affidavit aforeaid, d shall make
Adavit that no part of said land has been alienated; then, in such cea, he,
e, or they shall be entitled to a deed."

As to what lands are best to purchase and as to the relative, merits of pine
md hammock lands, there is a theory that we are dispoed to etertain with
egard to why the greater portion of the State of Florida is covered with pine-
ees, which are evergreen, instead of deciduous and other hard-wood trees,
he growth of which upon land in Florida causes it to be distinguished a
'hammock," a. distinction, so far as the original character of the soil i
neerned, without a different.
From various asuses, frequently from lightning, often from aremea and
bocident, and sometimes purposely by the owners of cattle, the wild lands of
orida are annually burned over.
The stock-men resort to this means of getting rid of the tough, dry gram
nes in early spring, and inducing a fresh and tender growth of gr for their
l-starved cattle that have wintered on ditnot and wire-gra in the open
goods ; but it is also true that theme pracotie was resorted to by the former
Indian inhabitants, whose object was to furnish tender picking for the herds of
eer, to induce these animals to leave the swamp and resort to the dry oowntry.
The pine-tree is ppgated from seeds that fall from the cone late in the
utumn. The meeds are provided with thin membranous'win, upon which
hey are blown by the winds and distributed over the land. The winter rains
,lant hem. Early in the spring the young pine appear a great spike that
hoote up dix or eight inches before its leaves begin.to spread, after whih it
row rapidly for ight-or nine months. The green leaves of this young tree
practically non-oombustible, and the only bud it bears is in the top of the
al stalk, and thoroughly enveped id a green eating.
When it is about tnea or lve month eld, the annual wood-bni takes
lace. Fire sweeps ov the (a thepine rgion; evey sWr sof, e
peed, and every delduoian drab ad te ha ha sp ung up. thne lA t
mual burn, is derutod. AI lle bMhd-wood growths have ther eye ot b$qds
r ibuted reularly along the stal ad stea, etiry nprohed tr o the
and as the growth of ll pa of this harater i alowini eariy stay s
oompmd wir tha. 4eo. ges. rt I mou ad4Maed 6n the
welvemoth to rime abo th l'Ms ; atd so they phih, vhe tine you1g
Kamip l wit a MiSEtq, ,b.Wd'b bi mrotat Thuj cnat, oihe
pt the o esruhd tf the tttmt the bosms mate ci the StOat



and sole proprietor of the woodland. But natural and artiiAal brsr
often offered to the progress of these forest burns.
Natural impedimenta consist of gulliea, creek, rives, or ponds, acro thiid
the fire doe not cross when travelling before some prevailing wind. If thi
rainy seaon, which oomes in the winter before the usual burnings'begin, bu
been a eeptionally wet one, all deprsed plao become filled with wastr
Thee flatsa ometimea extend considerable distant in irregular ooaune
Imagine the woods on fire, and the flames travelling slowly along the surhs
toward the south-west before a gentle north-eat wind, destroying every vestige
of vegetation not too much grown to be within its reach. Suddely it
encounters a slight depression in the surface of the land, where stands an inch
or two of rain-water. This depression reaches perhaps in an irregular couar
for miles either way. It of course puts an end to the '"burn." On the
opposite side of this wet depression the little oaks, hickories, magnolia, and
bays, that have put up since the last burn, are not swept away this year, but
get another year's growth. This first eason ape i enough to give theme
deciduous trees a foothold, and enable them to rear their heads high enough to
escape complete destruction, even should no protecting water interpose the
jaond year.
Here, then, we have an incipient hammock, making its beginning on andy
piney woods land, in no particular different from, or better than, that over
-which the fire has swept, and which remains pine land.
In a very few yar, in this eemi-ropical climate, thisyoung orchard o hard
-wood bush has become a pronounced hammock of spreading hade-trem
whose shadows protect the originally poor and sandy soil from the msmmar's
asun, and whose annual crop of castaway foliage tends yar after yar to add
mould to the ground, which, under the twoJpowerful bertiliuing agaoie
.-gradually changes from the original white sand to a dark, often black, loany
soil, as fetile as fertile an be. It is no uncommon thing to find suoa parel
of land in South Florida of wonderful fertility, an upper mal of
partially deoompoed leaf mould several feet dep.
Thae hammo omm d igh priea. They are seemed a mu'h more
fertile and desirable than adjacent pine lands, and the comprative growth of
-orange-trees while young is so obviously in favour of the hammock land, that
the uninitiated are readily induced to appreciate the greater value attached to
hammock land. .
Now we would offer a word or two of friendly auton on this head to new
settlers in South Florids, or, indeed, in any put of Flddo wee the oil is
andy-espeially to poor men, whoe supply of rady money is more or lei
ppearious. We say be cautious how you give ft s in double, triple, and
quadruple pris for a treat of hammock land when a fair pe of pine land an
belad t very much lower prior.
Bm'mber thrm thin, vi.:
1t. That the mat trouhiaom ad expeaive plrom.that a ttlerin the
woods ha to ement er is the fdlng of treea and daii.h of lnd.
hnd. That in Frida it dOSta from two to tea tues aa muh to earu an
amc of mamook hmd aitdou btoprepr a amardin lad; sad


3rd. Bear in mind that twenty, thirty, or fifty year ago those hammocke
ere identically like the present pine wood ; that any potah, or
itrogenous matter they may now contain n exesa of the adjacent pine land
enireldy owing to the annual supply of foliage deposited and the moisture
ngendered by the shade; and that from the moment you out the first bush
S are reswdop the only wwrew of qpply of thee eential elemanents.
member that the processes of deomnposition of vegetable matter are rapid.;
aso oon as the supply of humus i exhausted in this costly hammock land,
will resolve itself into its original condition, and about the fourth or sixth
ear of cultivation will become a tolerably fair quality of andy land, not a bit
tter than the pine lands proper.
Calculate what advantage the man, paying fancy figures for a piece of
ammock, and exorbitant pries to get it cleared, and then exhauatng it in a
ew year, has over a more frugal person who save his ash by buying pine
and, coating little to dear, and building it up in a few year by judicious
ltivation, and the turning under of fertilizing crops
There is no question that the making of an orange grove on hammock land
a attended with much more satiftory appearances and results during the
rst few years ; but before purchasing land, let the prudent immigrant take a
careful look at two old grove--one on one-dollar-and-a-quarter pine land (or
hands worth $5 to 610 per aore at most, if purchased from individuals), and the
theirr on quondam hammock land, that oost the owner probably 865Yto *100 per
cre, and if he can aee a sufcisnt diferenoe in the character of the treem and
ruit of the latter over the former to justify the great difference in cost, he will
able to do more than we can after twenty year of observation.
A good point for an immigrant to mae a note of is the fact that in the
majority of case the difference between the original cost of puraume and clearing
ine lands in Florida, and hammock lands, if judiciously expended in suitable
ertilirs and tillage, will make of the former better land than the latter.
What is said above with regard to the comparative merits of hammock and
ine lands relates only to hammocks occurring in andy regions, and not to
uch as stand on clay soil, of which latter very extensive ares ocur in some
rt of the State. In South Florida the County of Hernando am boast as
excellent day hammock lands a are to be found in the South. Indeed, but
or the fact that it was only just before the beginning of the late divil war
ha this part of Florida was relieved from the dangers of Indian hostilties,
Uernando County would have developed under the old slave system, as did
arion, Alachu, and the red clay lands of Middle Florida. So that a
fatement heretofore made, to the effect that the preeenoe of negroem
umbers among the population of a county is a certain indication of the
uitablenm of auch place to agricultural .purpose., and their absence is to be
taken as evidence of unfltnes for much ends, doer not apply to Hernmado.
These red clay lands re ood, ad when a ttler i asked to pay his money
liberally for suh property, he need not hesitate to do so, for in them he will
Snd an hrtap L his chhldMn. Thy are not "good just a little bit oa top,"
like a gared but are god all the way through, and when the lsaf
mould and black top isa all worn away fatty years after being cleed



and cultivated, the raw lay that remain will make pto.tab Proqs ci
wAWMgn and that withot trtil.io. 4
The word "hammock is made too general a use of by lanme i dfa l
with new-omer to lorida. There are many dgrpad o hsmsock laed 6
The only two that we think pose such reel arpioc a to Jutify
paying more .money for them than for good pine land-epea-llyjt.th
latter has day mabuoil-are the red olay.ad hilly ae of.m a th
oountiee in Middle Florida, or the splendid belt of hamm k of. lb
character in Hemando, and the blacl soil skd hammooks to be fond in
many partf of the Stte, and especially in several of the eoanSes of South
Florida. The strength and hart of thee lands wa put into them bmg
before any of the free growth now covering them wea in istce. Then
is a wealth of fertility in them that never wear out, and the apbiiti ofi
these lands is simply wonderful. They are scarce and high-priced, and if

the Government of the United State, or the
to entry, which we question, it is somewhere
among the Internal Improvement lands proper,
of which are yet to be had in Henandb and Polk
There is another character of hammock land
the rivers of South Florida, a familiar sample
hbmmock, near the town of Manatee, in Manatee

State, still own an^
in South Florida,
belonging to the Sta
to be found along
of which is the old

r subject
ite, somn

some of

This is not red olay, nor yet the shell and black earth that distingshus the
shell hammocks proper, and is utterly unlike the leaf mould that overlies the
hidden sand of the character of hammock, we first described as being the
result of the exclusion of fire in' the pine woods.
The character of the soil is rather more like the black bottom lands of somm
of the Western rivers. It contains sand, will msour a plough; it is dep,
black, and underlaid with shell and marL Often coral and bones of the
manatee are interspersed in it. But one objection ca ev be urged to
of this character, and that is that they frequently lie low, and an
adjacent to streams that keep them wet, so that drainage i often difficult and
always pensive.




ArTsB AoBmn or o mu NAnIoa. Bfn.l U or AoarOUTN.
E alii te Flor. is pealh r ad he geneous apired
with other yqioc. and countries t rr ii tuwaS by
S.e 1*a8w of thbe Otil 8tre 'ri a4g wea its Gulf and

tads Iripb, whicA mats tibs p, gfpg w I* na nafh
otfl a by the faon and setent 4t thb priMqlp, ..d' by it

** I 4


position in S' warmsest ualds o the temperate. ace.. AlU of4 te
operate in concert tfoem enhe m aica tiamu CW.hIIab Sad dueware
With a angle oxcoapt in th belt aumth ci the thirtieth pralel f may
be divided by pdlel of latitde into climatic belts. The nda an aot
as sharp a ladtadiua line neve in exact parallels; still the nation vaet-
tion, a well tbe- cultivated plants, Indicate division near aevewal dibge
of latitude, and may be denominated: 1t, the North.wet; bd, the
Northern; 8rd, the Nth Central; 4th, the Central; 6th, the South
Central; 8th, the Sbuthern; 7th, the Smi-Tropial ? and the 8th, the
Tropical belt. Each of these belt. posweed of features in climate and
vegetable growths peuliarly characteti of itf

This belt may be generally described a bounded on the east by the Suwannee
River, and on the south by the thirtieth parallel. The natural timber growths
correspond generally, in character and variety, with thoee found in the
adjoining states of Georgia and Alabama Though the foot hills of those
States terminate in this belt, and there is Im elevation in general, there is
a marked modification in climatic warmth. In geological formation, there
is a correspondence slmoet identical. The cretaceous lime rodk are here
sometime, found cropped through the lower tertiary, and there ia often a
heavy deposit of red clay, resembling the washings that might oome from the
mountains and plains towards and around Atlanta, Ga. This deposit haa
given to this portion of Florida a puliar rihne of oil and adaptability
to the growth of many valuable product, particularly cotton, corn,' oats, gram,
tobacco, potatoes, and garden products. Ot fruit the figs, olive, pecans,
European walnuts, pears, peaches, apriot, plums, cherries, and perimmons
will ever hold a prominent place in this belt, and in value equal the orange
products farther south. Not only should varieties already established be used,
but new ones be obtained from meed grown here. The best locations in the
State may here be found for raising grapes, and if any location east of the
Missimippi can compete with California and Europe, that location is found
here. Hitherto the system of one-crop farming has prevailed, and there is
very little diversity found, while the minerals and materials that enter into
the crop. have been exhausted, and much land is worn out.
In healthfulnem this region i supeior to the adjoining States. The winters
are bright with sunshine, and days are rare when fire are needed for comfort
in stores, workshop, or office' Snow seldom whitens the surface of the
ground, and they melt almost as oo as they fall The plough is never stopped
by remas o fret and no weak oocur in which gram and winter grdn doer
not grow. Sto8 k oaie and sheep, may feed in the pasture, only requiring
protection from riOh wiais d ~ins as may oocur in winter, and ooiaUitute
cool 'hede i ammr. Woi oc tdhe frm can be arrived on theqgfaoct the
year, and wit Jdicious'wo &crop& in a year may be pitdcihod on
* t
hhnsim~rbm-cMirMdhfl tj bopok t#I*sL Iale monr nma.


the ame land. Like the balanee of the Stat, the roil nsped to psepm
fertlliues applied to mop, as in few, if indeed in any State ia A h U~b Ui
Much of the soil is admirably fitted for grazing purpose, and wall for
watering the stock may be cheaply obtained on every frm. Nutritious
griaes that grow continuously can be made to cover the snrfae oD meadows
and putures. Cows an be made to yield as good a flow of maik in the cool
as in the warm eaon, and thus- in this region the dairymm an carry on his
business as well and a suuoeesfully at all seasons as he of the noth can in
summer alme, only requiring proper care in the constuction of the milk room
to secure snooes in butter-making.
Lands are cheap. Timber is abundant. Away from the banks of stress
and the swamps flies and mosquito are not troublesome. The nights are
always cool, and sleep is refreshing. The elevation of this belt is too great,
and the atmosphere too pure, for yellow fever ever to make inroads, or to
become endemic, except at or near Pensacola Bay. All the dry lands are
exempt from malarial fevers, and its mild and equable climate and balsamic
atmosphere ensure it against consumption and asthma.
In this belt are the harbours of St. Mark's and Pensmolal; but Appmlahioolh
and Carabelle, though south of the thirtieth parallel, may be considered a
belonging to this section.


The balance of the State not included in the north-west belt, and north of
the thirtieth parallel, constitutes the northern belt of Florida. Along the Gulf
coast and in the eastern portion the climate is sufficiently mild to allow of
the growth of the sweet orange in sheltered locations. The Japan perimmon,
olive, fig, LeConte pear, Peen-To peach, pean and European walnut, and mady
other fruits will thrive on all the dry lands of this belt. The flat woods and
other moist lands, from which the standing water may be drained, are admir-
ably adapted by climate, soil, and moisture to a luxuriant growth of such
grasses as the Bermuda and St. Augustine (ftenotpAlvum), and other evergreen
grasses, for pasture. These and the Johnson, on the same lands, will form
meadows that may be out three and four times each year, making superior hay.
When the dry lands are properly fertilized, and planted with Johnson and
Guinea grasses, they may be cut four to six times in a year, and a many a
dx tons of hay be made to the are. There an rarely be a question inthe
mind of the intelligat but that these pastur, whme well turfed, will spport
a cow throughout the year to each acre. Such land now hla waste, and may
bepurhased cheaply.
The Southern pine form the greater proportion of the timber; the cypre,
cedar, and variety of oaks are found in the wet sales ad swampe, along the
banks of the streams. From them probably msclmct tmber may alHys be
out to supply the wants of the belt for all ti fft prope pteted ad
pre Corn, s and Sea land otton me grown the lands, and
the lids that an be drained from stadig wat wSt wroa t io r mp ca,
and grm. Potatoe, melons, and all Mkind of gardn trua thrive on a1 lads






that have been properly manured. The climate here is sufficiently mild to
permit of contimums cultivatioa and the role here should be mil farms and
continuously growing crops.
In this belt are the two principal seaports of the Atlantic coat, Jackmnville
and Fernandina, the one requiring but a small outlay to equal it to any harbour
in Georgia or the Carolina, and the other having the deepest water aouth'of
* The region is not behind other portions of the State in healthfulness, and the
clear days exceed the cloudy, and here is where most persons firnat see Florida
and form first impresions of it.
This belt lies between the twenty-ninth and thirtieth parallels, and consti-
tutes the base of the peninsula. The effects of the Gulf Stream, very marked in
the east, cannot be observed in the west. The effect of the north-easterly
winds, which have, in reality, made, the difference between the north-west and
northern belts, if lew marked, are very observable in cauing warmer winter, le
cold waves in the ast than in the west. There is, for the same reason, more foggy
mornings in the eastern portion of this belt. The greatest altitude is reached
in Alachua County, which tends further to reduce the temperature in winter.
Except on the immediate Atlantic coast, frosts occur every year, not sufficient
to destroy the hardiet seedling oranges, but suffcient to render it advisable to
pick the fruit early enough to prevent injury by freezing. Easy facilities of
transportation by the St. John's and Ocklawaba Rivers, and by earlier con-
structed railroad, have caused this belt to become better settled and cultivated
than the belts farther south. Its mild winters and healthfulness have also
influenced settlers to locate here; and thus a value has accrued to the lands of
this belt higher than to other lands equally good in a more favourable climate.
The climate here is decidedly Floridian, and here have been constructed
some of the best hotels and stopping places for the accommodation of seekers of
health and plesaure. The oldest orange trees in the State are found in this
belt, thus proving that the cold waves from the north have here lost most of
their destructiveness. More Sea Island cotton is here raised than elsewhere in
the State; the rich hammocks have proved that gardening and trucking are
profitable. The malaria, that at an early day existed in and near these ham-
mocks, hag either eased to exist, or has yielded before the clearing and
drainages incident to the settlement, and better houses, more nutritious food,
and better provision for drinking water have drawn its fangs. Healthfulness
has taken its place, and is how the rule among the people.
This belt produces a greater variety of fruit and cropl than the more
northern. Some they cannot grow, and sle here find their southern limita-
tion ; yet a grater spirit of inquiry is developing an increased variety of
productiams amd better in quality. Euy access to the ocean and gulf and the
many inlad lae, with railroad. and water o nunitions, supply this belt
withaunda l of dh at all sa s. The wet land promme huriant ps-
ture and 'meadoy and an abndane of attle and adoep, with their products,
comforts, and p t A marked improvement in varying the crop and pro-



. -

dos M mik atid!, MM an awaenbg
eop s stem iasee In etrta to grow -u
siL No wonder, herfoe that a price
thab coven such a belt, and that value i
Its seaports are Cedar Key and 8t. Au

front the loa tu ps of th dlqf
me paying wrep omtianudly fro
begir to be med to td b.b
added to it. sandy Md.L

In climate ad production, as the name would imply, th belt i deedi
Floridian. It is located between the twenty-eighth and twenty-ninth pan1eiu
and about midway between the north and south boundaries. The incompdmabl
character of Florida with all else of earth here beoomeu manifest. The aweet
orings here reach the climax of perfection and richne, and to this belt is due
the celebrity of the Florida fruit.
This is the narrowest part of the peninsula; and the northmt Atantic
winds are generally sufficiently powerful to may to cold north-wetern wave;
"Thus far may'st thou go, and no farther." In it liethe oountism of Hemando,
Summer, Orange and Voluia, with a part of Marion, Polk, and Brevard. The
St. John's River has given a highway to Orange and Volua from the finrtaettle
meat of the Stater, and its praise have formed the theme of all writes, ad
been on every tongue. At the cloee of the late war forn memory of thi
remarkable belt revived, and its easy accesg'bility poured the enterprising and
restle pioneers into the river counties, with a loud "oh ifor the orange
grove" ; and has placed there far in advance of all other portion of the State
in orange culture. To Flant, tend, pluck, eat, and ship orange ham become u
much the business of Orange County a to gather gold was once the businem of
the early settlers of California. The mania is not abated, and is very atching,
not only by new comer, but by the old Floridians, andpudng in all directjw,
until everybody everywhere supposed that all the inhabitants are engaged in
planting, tending, or gathering fruit from orange tree. "How big is your
orange grove !" i. the first queetio asked of an inhalitant of this belt.
But this belt will produce other fruits, not less profitably grown.than the
orange; also, crope needed for the support and comfort of the inhabitants. If
now some few resemble the one-crop farmers of other State and regions who
grow corn, wheat, or cotton, the more prudent are lookingforward to a diversity
of fruits and crops that shall keep the soil in good heart and their lads never
idle, or permit their mouroes of gain ever to clos. The year pomaem BO
equable a climate that, in the estimation of the inhabitant, the peemat meon
b always better than the p unmmer and winter vy from eh other rathe
by the month in the almanac than by the marking Sof the th omet. The
warm winds from ocean and gulf make winter delightul, and the mine wihds
in mnmaer eaue the shade to be not kle enjoyable. The temperature bynight
isalway mmred by the exact degree for the met hahf leep The
brw by day or night ar loaded with balmy frasnk! ad th h
k but thy breath d health. No tonde the poeet u e ot tAtg i; pMb.;
tlb a baond in Stt of s.ar, ad must qput it sbt ,b* dSi6
Tmlb Bqh t&theath sa-ba.%l m the.ykd a> 0llt, ir.ort
Thfi flbsifa heave atanSt b. deaohed in the workb of Greek t LrthB



haplody, nor in th t of All the mdt em eu ped
d enchated by what t here d t, relieved only by dreams of a
righter future, a d+Ilitlon and refinement shll adnaea. Nowonder why
he sick linger in the orange grvg, and draw long draughts ot their hsgrmoe
balsamic odoms ; no wonder pleasme-ekeus, like birds, return to such a
climate and feast of all their senses Nor is it strange that the barren sad "
of such a region bring fabulous pries. It is not the richness of th4e oi or
ven the marvellous productions ; it is the ineomprable climate that Is pr-
ehased with the soil that is paid for.

If we were charmed above the twenty-eighth parallel, in this South Ostmral
belt we will be enchanted. The climate here is still more mlubrious, mor
equable; the breewms more balsamic and refreshing; the vdgetaion more
tropical, more luxuriant, more oonstantly growing, blooming, and fruiting; a
summer where the sun doe. not burn by day, and hot winds do not blow by
night, is found in Florida, between the twenty-seventh and twenty-eighth
parallels of latitude, in the counties of Hillsborough (it should be Tampa),
Polk, and Brevard. Here the planting season begins January 1st and ends
December Slst Men with preconceived opinions and notions of cultvation and
kinds of crops, reach here and find everything changed. Old 'methods are
unsuited to the climatic conditions. Because nature will not change men
must change. They must lay aside old thoughts and habits, and adopt new
methods and practice. A new teacher treads the floor to them unknown, and
new orders come from the mouth of the Great Instructor.
Here frosts never frees. the orange, and it may remain on the parent tree
till fully ripe. The grape fruit mellows and ripens in April sunshine, and
sweetens in the warm days of May. The lemon swells in size and fills with its
luscious acid under the dews and bright sun of winter. The limes grow under
the warm breath of spring and mature their medicinal juices in June, when
fevers commence to rage in colder climes. Here grow the melting sugar apple,
the sops and cheramoyas, and mangoes, with the rich guavas that ripen in sum-
mer and autumn, and thus lengthen out the season of the banana and. pine-
apples. Towering over all of these is the alligator pear, half vegetable, half
salad, strange compound fruit of a tropical laurel; Roses bloom eternally, and
all the region is one vast greenhouse, not yet filled with plants, because man
has not been played here to dres and care for it. The way hither has, until
lately, been blocked by msavge, by tangled forests and swamps, by fale reports
of innumerable pests of flie, nakes, alligator, and wild beasts; itis now just
broken by a single railroad, by the Gulf, pad the Indian River. The beacon of
truth begins to shine brightly aloft. The nation's eye is turned thither, and
the tread of the pbneer I heard, and men are making their way their to stay.
In this belt the bokbo ofthe peninsula sinks down towards the flat
woods dsi grumy meadows of southern Manatee and the Everglade. Th
pnrfaig' r e asterly t-d how that the tropics are nar. The dry
lands ate id itW the s tly san pine,- the bet fruit lands of the
ftate only fsig Mthe Md of man to remove the tees and Al ib sady,



wealldrained soil with vegetable matte. Hammocka, a doih a any &i th
8tate, are stretched along its rivers and their branches atd elmwher .. T'E
fat wodsare by nature rich grazing grounds, and can be cheaply coveted
into evergreen meadows and pastures. Sugar-oane matures to teuasWg,
and only requires a fertile soil for its production. Rice on suitable soil will
yield more bushels to the acre than can be produced on the rich, beak lands
of the north-west, of oats and barley. In this belt lia the frotlss Point
Finales, and the lands between the waters of Tampa and Manatee Bays and the
Gulf. Here, too, are located the celebrated orange groves and froslea fruit
lands of Indian River. The sweet potatoes and cassava roots ever lie in the
soil of their growth; Irish potatoes and garden truck are planted and grown
when other regions are bound in fetters of iee ; and water-melon are ripe in
He who shall predict for this region a high rank among the inomparable
belts of Florida will not err. Its seaports are in Tampa Bay.

This belt between the twenty-sixth and twenty-seventh pnrllel, though not
the most southerly, is a fit setting for thoee farther north. In production
another step has been taken towards the tropical. It is or ae dlesee the
grazing belt at present of Florida. Not less than 150,000 cattle ase now feeding

in the one county of
of gram, the number
land adapted to gram
In this belt are the
raised to be found in

Manatee, and with care
might be quadrupled.
than in any areas of equal
largest and richest tracts
the United State, now

in propagating better .areti
There is in that county more
extent in the State.
of land on which ugar my be
awaiting the hand of man to
4 *- j p..f *i ^ ^ _-, -4 -

remove the surplus water from its surnoe. 'ine aryer poimn wil nuiva uW
and the other islands in producing many of the tropical fruits and plants. On
the coastss and keys the cocoanut palms flourish and the pineo pple s a at
home. The guava rime to the digni4 of a tree and is ever blooming and ever
bearing its fruit. All the custurd apples thrive, fearlee of any rost that may
ever oome here. The lemon, lime, and citron bear flowers and fruits oontdpu-
ously. The drainage of the wet lands and opening of cultivated fields will

A. S J

drive off the mosquitoes and gnata Its
rich products will ever be found in the
healthful and equable climate of this belt,
this a portion of Florida to be sought for
and happine.

gprdse will ever bloom, and their
I markets of the north. And the
now almost a wildeerm, must make
by men in searh of health, wealth,

All the balance of the peninsula, with the keys ad islands eat and west are
included in this belt. Much of it is in the Everglade and Big Cypr. The
oast line for most of its length consists of rocky ridge, and many ofd It. luad
are the ame, or are composed of shel lately washed from the oean; and the
grwth upon the partakes of a tropical haracter. ort of the te awe ever
in le, ad vqstation is constantly gotg on; in' bet, this is the regio of
Florid below or mouth of the frost line. When the EtVrgla ad nmMinhe




This consists of our southern keys. Moat of them are barren rocks, or
shell and sand ridges. The vegetation is of the Bahamian and Cuban types.
Cocoanut and date palms thrive and ripen their fruit as well as in the tropics ;
and pineapples loarish in the leaf mould that has gathered in the woods.
Navigation on the outside is dangerous from hidden reefs, and inside from
shoals. Tropical storms occur, and these keys are the home of the wreckers,
who subsist largely upon the harvest of the sea, even the conch taking its
place in their cookery, with fih, clams, and oytera. Drinking water is saved
in cisterns, tanks, and pools, as it falls from the clouds. There is but one
season here, and that is summer, but the trade winds oool the heat of the sun
and make this, like the rest of the State, healthful and the climate plemant,
though the mosquitoes drive the inhabitants behind their nets at night As
soon as fadlitis of communication shall be opened to the moet eligible points
in this belt, it will become the resort of those who, under the protection of the
American ag, would enjoy perpetual summer and refrehing breeee.

The Creator has made but one Florida, made it to differ from all the rest of
His works. That Florida is our inheritance, to squander or to improve and
enjoy. To compare it to any other country or region is but to degrade it. It
has no counterpart, incomparable. The question of the future lies between
ignorance and intelligence, between faithfullykeeping and improving the land
covered by the best imute on earth, and yielding up the ame to the range of
small cattle and miller hog. The question is, hall this land and this climate,
where tean aers i more than enough for the maintenance of a family, be owned
by the ller or held by the few, who, Hil the peat barons of. Europe, reat it
out and thus rule over and ppres a half fd, half-lad peastry i The
answerahoul-be-Ln thorn who will be freeholders in this, the richest, bet,
and brightat d al the Sats.

are drained, and ma walls are constructed that shall shut off the tides, they can
be planted in auga-cane and made as productive mas any tropical region. Two
crops of rice can'be grown on them each year. The tropical textiles, the
bamboos, precous gums and spic, rare fruits, trees and woods of Central
America, Japan, Coohin China, and Siam can be gown here. Its wet lands,
almost without exception, may be redeemed from the waters that cover them,
and experience has determined that this like the balance of the State, is
healthful, because the ocean winds always flow over it. The canals that shall
be required to drain it will form its highways to seaports and bring out the
heavy products of this last redemption from the bed of the ocean. Few cattle
are now feeding here, and it is questionable if this will ever become a stock
region. Punta Resa and Charlotte Harbour are its seaports.

*- --- -- -

[The author of th6 fonwin article, Dr. a. J. KJea Snnb Se a *p-Iaina oll a
Bel aed wo asLtorty on CursrtSlogy. Be wes sNrtqp Tllrk
Hompitil ad phyidoan to Ba3uLum Aiashoas AnfPrlm Hoes Fhqotaa to|
Bdelevaue Hospitl and Home Surgeon to Blaokwdl' IslanNd'Hort i, Ta ork;:
ad Ptamieat of the Florida Medical Aoldadton. He'ha Wa a ddInt i
Flods or many years, and ha made a peas uady r he cham In uraoa |
heth and diame.]

0 the intending immigrant, tourist, invalid or sportman, the
Health and limatio fator of any State or country are import
ant. From time Inmemorial, person have been in mearh d a
perfect climate, but it haa not been dioovered. Southen
Franoe ad Italy suffer from the north wind (the Miatal) a
well a from tle mehing blato from the north.wt ; and, in addition, :the
south-eat wind (riroooo) injuriously sJeots all-Valourt calls it the FVir
mplu par -o." And Florida, the American Italy, suffer from an-
favourable climatic condition, for she i ocoionally vited by the emnanmt
of the fearful blizzards that blight the plain and mount of the wt a
north-west; and even the dreaded northern of Texas affect Florida to a alight
Owing to the peninsular character of Florida, health-giving and invigora g
breem are a oonstant and enduring feature of the summer months, ocouling
with the utmost regularity. During the day a pleasing bree fans the ohee
of the labourer, and he follows his employment without the fear of sunstroke;
aud during the night he will be rfreshed by the es broe, and in the mong
awake invigorated. The summers are long, but the physical power of the
resident are not undermined by the mltry heat of the day or the cloem night
mo common in the north and west. Regarding the climatic dvanMtau the
five cold months in Florida, we need but cite the fact, that nearly fifty tho d
invalids and tourists visit the State each winter in search of health, warmth,
and sunshine.
The great bugber of Florida la malaria Intereate d ignorant part in
other States have maligned Florida by asrting that the State "rtua with
mariaa" ad that viditon are liable to "uter from malriaal diseap 4x g
the winter months." Malaria in Florida "is the key-note which istouhed
by thao. who wi4r to emure patronage for their hotJl, soell ad, oW pk.et
prouioql fein in other Steta. Ars evidaen of ti, the editor of the 4ib
*i4. via, a paper published a Southern Oa niforas, informed hb- ezbr
that Mr. Abbott Kinney, a gentleman who has made three tr wo ao the
world, and spent the pat eight yenr in travelling, haa recently med down
in Sa Gabriel (Calforna), d purohmd fine ract o land at thba.s of the
mountain" Having purohad tact of 1aw" it po mibie that he
may hawve an a to grind, for in his na gudfg Elmate Mr. L y:


"In Florida .I la, spst any, happy djay. Its wild oange groves under
magnolia and many inea ma e a airylad in May. But in the nut month
comes the ring c an unwedom vsimtor fm the dark cypre. rawampn whoee
touch bring on the clammy chill and consuming fev. Summer in Florida
is hot and dangerous."
I have made but one trip "around the world," but have spet ten uOmner
and twenty-one winter in Flrida, ad have travelled over a large portion of
the State, and my eprie and4 obrvation oompels me to quetion.the
correctness of Mr. Kenney's statement. If the cypresss swamps" of this
State are what the travelled Mr. K ney amert, settlers should avoid the
State as they would the fatal Upa tree But thoee who know Florida the
.best, know, likewise, that Mr. Kenney's statements are, to say the lest,
erroneous. Some of the most unhealthy portions of the State are the high
lands where "rotten limetone is found near the surface ; and along the high
pine-covered banks of the moet rapid teams, where "oypress swamped" do not
exist. To disprove but one amrtion of Mr. Kenney's, we shall cite a few
facts. The mainland portion of Monroe County oonteais a portion of the
Everglades, the Thousand ITlanda, the Big Cypress uwmnp, the extensive
marshes south-wat of Lake Okeeohobee, the low lands of the Calooahatohie
and Charlotte Harbour, and innumerable "cypre swamps'." If cypresss
swamps" are a productive of malarious dieaseam a inbereted ad ignorant
parties aasert, the mortality per 1,000 in the motion referred to should greatly
exceed that of New York City, 27 ; Plattsburgh, 25; Wilmington, Delaware,
21, or Baltimore, 22, per 1,000 from all cause. Independent of the dime.e-
inducing- oypgrs swamps," the motion referred to is the mos southern
portion of the mainland, and a large portion of the inhabitants are engaged
summer and winter in the exposed callings of cow-hunting, fishing, coating,
and truck raising. The cenuns of the section referred to was taken with great
care, and the population flmbered 977, and the mortality for the census year
was 2 ; a fraction over 2 per 1,000 from all causes.
The settlement of Chuckaluakee, on the south-west coast, contained, in
1880, forty-three fmilia It ia bounded to the eat and south by the Ever-
glades and the Thousand Islands, and to the north and wat-by the .Big
Cypress swamp and the muashy islands in the rear of Cape Romano. An
intelligent and liable gentleman, who had resided in the locality for eleven
years, amured me that a as of fever of any kind had not occurred in the
settlement during that period. In this connection I cannot raist the tempta-
tion of quoting th language of Surgeon-General Lawon, of the United 8tates
Army, who ays :-
As reApects, iAa, the climate of Florida stands pre-eminent. That the
peninsular climate of' Floridk i much more alubrious than that of another
State in the Unionis olarly etablihed by the medial statitic. of the army.
Indeed, the statists in this bureau demonstrate the fact that the dimsew
which result roa malar are of a much milda type in the peinuula of
Florida than in my other Steit.m, tie .UnnT.. The records show that the
ratio of death to the numb emr s of remittent fever hai been much leM
than amotg the troops rYving'n any other portion of th Unite4 State. In



the Middle Dividion of the United States the proportion is one death to tihrty.
six oases of remittent fever; in the Northern Division one to fifty-two t in the
Southern Division, one to fifty-four,; in Teras, one to -eventy- eght; in Cmi-
fornia, one to one hundred and forty-eight; while in Florida it i but oe to
to hAundred and edAt-sy en. In ahort, it may be asserted, without fer of
refutation, that Florida possess a much more agreeable and salubrious
climate than anmy other State or Territory in the Union."
nt. Dr. Byrme, late surgeon in the United States Army, and long a resident of
Florida, sys :-
"It would seem paradoxical that the malarial diseases of East Florida
(abounding as it does in rich hammock lands, and exposed to a tropical sun)
should generally be of a much milder form than those which pievail in more
northern latitudes. That such, however, is the fact there can be no doubt, for
this fact is proved by an aggregate of evidence (extending over more than
twenty years) which it is impossible to resist. It is suggested in explanation
of this fact, that the luxuriant vegetation, which in the Southern and Middle
States pa.ss through all stages of decomposition, is, in East Florida, generally
dried up before it reaches the putrefactive stages of fermentation, and that,
consequently, the quantity of malaria generated is much les than in climate
more favourable to decomposition. This view is strengthened by the fta
that the oil of Florida is almost.everywhere of no porous a nature and absorb.
agent a character that moisture is seldom long retained on its surface ; that its
atmosphere is in constant motion ; and that thqre is more clear sunshine than
in the more northern States. It i-further suggested that the uniform preva-
lence of sea-breezes and the constant motion of the atmosphere in the peninsula
tend so much to diffuse and attenuate whatever poison generatd, that it
will generally produce but the mildest forms of malarial dIee, such as
intermittent fever."
When discussing the advantages of Florid as a a climatic resort, the eminent
Dr. Fonry pedicted:-
"From a long residence in Florida, attached to the United Stats Army,
that when the period of the red man's departure shall have passed, the climate
of this land of flowers would acquire a celebrity as a winter residence not
inferior to that of Italy, Madeira, or Southern France."
"All know," remarks Dr. Brinton, p. 128, "how terribly arduous must be
crmpaigning among the Everglades of Florida, yet the yearly mortality from
disease of the regular army there, was only 27 per 1,000 men ; the avege of
the army elsewhere was 85 per 1,000; while in Texas it rose to 40, and on the
Lower Mimiippi to 45 per 1,000."
It is a well-known-fact that malaria i spreading its arms over a large poietin
of the United tate, and and fecting loatie where it ha not been hatoiore
known casing much suffering and many deaths. I am preped toadmit that
malarial sass do occur in certain localities and at certain tim in Florida,
but from my obstions extdin from Canda to the Gulf of Mexio, "
maintain th maladal dms. me m t rm cmm er as f in thfitat m i
many portions the north and west. They m a milder form,'and aa
mon urnabe to trvtm' t than in other seath m




The healthy ty of JkaoAnvile has ben maligned by hotel pspeton and
by physician of other states The cry of "malaria in Jokaamvile" meets
the ears of tourists and invalids. During the autumn months a few mild case
of malarial fevea do occur, but during the winter months no danger emjt.
To illustrat the infrequenoy of malarial dieae in this county dui' the odd
months, I some years mine examined the reoorda of the County Hospial under
my superintendence, and found that the following caes of malarial dim ..l
were admitted for the five cold months of 1879 and 1880:

Remittent fever ..
Intermittent fevr
C~oeatie fer ..e
Typho matlralM fever




As an evidence of the salubrity of the city of Jacksonville we shall quote
from the annual health report of the city of Yonkers, showing the vital
statistics of Ameian oitie% to which we shall add the mortality of the city of

Cisa. F'
New York, N.Y. ..
Brooklyn, N.Y.
B lo N.Y. ..
Rochater, N.Y. ..
Yonker, N.Y.
Plattabrg~b, N.Y. ..
Newburgh, N.Y. ..
Boton, Ma..
Woroear, M .n ..
Cambrige, Ma ..
Lynn, Ma. ..
Newbcmypoet, Mae.
Concond, N.H.
Burliton, Vt ..
Hudam County, N.J.
New Ravn, Omn. ..
Hart L~ On..
Proridkl BL ..
Phildtphia, Pa ..
Pitbourgh, Pa. ..


a 1,000.
.. 3498
.. 3'15
.. 14"19
.. 1034
... 1416

.. 1710
.. 21*68
.. 19M 5
.. 19"87
.. .18S
.. 17"11
.. 18-1
.. 10-68
.. 30-0
.. 1799
.. 1617
.. 19*f9
.. 1798

.. I'le
.. a-Is

sia,. m
WIlmington, Del ..
District of CaopnbmA
BRihmond, Va.
Norfolk, Vi... ..
MiwakL, Wi. ..
Oitanntr, O. ..
Cevland, O.
Balmom, Md. .
IEvanslle, Ind.
Chbi I.a ....
t. Louei Mo. .
SMt lak City
San randM, Cal...
New Orlta, a. ..
,Moble ,A...
bavunah, Oa.
Charlin B.C. .
NMrilal, Tenn. .a
Jaokaarll% na. ..


.. 3n61
.. S66
.. 1840

.. 186
.. 7198
.. l16

.. 1956
.. 16650
.. 1S 0
.. 1400
.. 15'
.. 0-17
.. uW
.. 3015
.. 3916
.. 3811
.. is

But the death-rate for Jaouoville u calculated to deceive, and to appear
greater than it really ir; Sor owv omaith of the recorded motality OOaur
among citing valid who leave their hmea in incurable eond ion. If
we could eHm t the deththat are really ot abng e to Jthe ty, the
would be ry low. .
Sooodeic oobm to make large morality in Florida ; a evmdeco
I need but rmak that may of the --dsna. ha cmve to the State ae
; ttm th loed people, a rule, reidde in poorly oontnodl
Stir food to poor, maj of thmm indulge fey in intoustng




liqauos, and when dianase overtakes them they cannot secure proper food,
nursing, medicines, or medical attendance. In the rural district a portion of
the white inhabitants occupy badly constructed homes, their food I not
adapted to a warm climate, and when sickness visits them they are forced to
depend on simple remedies. Annually hundreds of invalid are sent to this
State in the last and incurable stage of heart, lung, and kidney diseases, an
a result many of them die. Dr. Knight, the effiient health officer of the city of
Jacksonville, furnished me with some statistics from which I find that, within
the last five years, the deaths among invalid strangers in the city have been
forty-Afe annually ; and that the number of bodies of strangers that have
pmsed through this city for several years has averaged one hundred and ten.
And these figures do not apply to those who have died in the centad and
western portions of the State. When a census is taken, Florida is charged with
the deaths of residents as well as those who simply came to the.State to die.
But, strange to say, from the most reliable data I have. been able to obtain, the
mortality of Florida is surprisingly low-but 10'2 per 1,000 from all causes;
and if we could eliminate the deaths not chargeable to the State, the actual
mortality would not exceed 8 per 1,000.
To the sufferers from kidney diseases and nervous prostration Florida
offers many climatic advantage. But it is to pulmonary invalids, and those
possasing an hdary tendcy to pucc onacry aactionm that the State offe
many inducements. In evidence of this, I need but refer to the infrequency of
consumption as shown by the United States census in Florida, as compared
with other States.

Motality from Consumption per 1,000 Deaths from aU Cawes.

Maine .. .
New Hampahire
V'maot ..
Mam ohuJeta..
Ddann t ..

M t ..
New Jay ..

New York .
I ..

Pamv3raala ..

.. 968
.. m
.. 903
.. 201
.. 199
.. 10
.. 179
.. 177
.. 174
.. 174
.. 172
.. 171
.. 1S
.. 166
.. M
.. 164
.. 14I

Iow .. ..
Minnua ..
Wioomd ..
North Carolina

lTman ..

Both OutoBa

T ..
Alrid ..
P. ..
S. i O
M ..

.. 188
.. 188
.. 187
.. 188
.. 181
.. 117
.. 108
.. '*7

.. 90
.. W
.. T6
.. 71
.. 70
.. 6
. 68
.. 58

For r of being accused
ure th. kaguags of othas
tS, p.SS1aymy:
v*4p* Ml y
STb.e atanqpurm is g(s
M*briy of it. climate. P

of painting Florid. in top bright 4oaou%, we shall
A writer in th 'Aswi sarno, 'lrur voL

amIly dry and cl, owiq to tb m s and
el4da has long bes a pqlm raot hor v2da,





and especially those afflicted with pulmonary complaints. Of the total deaths
from all causes in Florida in 1870, as reported by the Federal census, only 181
were from consmaption. There were 17*8 deaths from all auses to one of con-
sumption. The advantage dof the climate in this respect are further shown by
a comparison of the statistics relating to oonaumptiea as reported by the census
of 1870, from which it appears that the ratio of deaths from consumption to
those from all causes was less in Florida than in any State except Nevada ;
and this advantage becomes still greater when it is considered that, Florida
being a popular resort for consumptive., a large proportion of those who die
there from tat case come with the dimsefrom other States."
Dr. Charles E. Lee, the learned editor of Copeland's Medical Dictionary,
remarks, "Proceeding south from Caada to Florida, the seasons become
more uniform in proportion as their annual temperature increases, and they
glide imperceptibly into each other, exhibiting no great extremes. Compared
with the other region. of the United State., the peninsula of Florida has a
climate wholly peculiar. The climate is so aceedingly miid and uniform, that
besides the vegetable productions of the northern States generally, many of a
tropical character are produced. We have already spoken of the mildness of
the climate of this region ; it appears to possess an insular temperature not less
equable and alubrious in winter than that afforded by the south of Europe,
and is, therefore, well adapted to those forms of pulmonary disease, as bron-
chitis and incipient phthisis as are benefited by a mild cimate. Mildness
and uniformity are the two distinguishing charaoteristica of the Florida penin-
sula. If we compare the climate of East Florida with the most favoured
situations on the Continent of Europe, and the islands held in the highest
estimation for mildnes and equability of temperature, in regard to the mean
temperature of winter and summer, that of the warmest and coldest months,
and that of suacea ve seasons, we shall find the results generally in favour of
the former." After citing the mean difference of successive months and the
annual range of a number of climatic resorts in comparison with stations in
Florida, he remarks : Thus it is easily demonstrated, that invalids requiring
a mild winter residence have gone to foreign lands in search of what might be
found at home-an evergreen land, in which wild flowers never came to unfold
their petals."
In discussing the moet suitable limates for invalids, Dr. Wilonm, late
Medical Inspetor of Camps and Hospitals, United States Army, remarks :
Neither upon the southern co.mat of France, nor anywhere under the bright
Italian skies, can a winter climate be found s equable and so genial to the
delicate nerves of moat invalids as an be enjoyed in our sanitary stations in
Dr. H. A. Joha sn, of Chicago, st : "I had about fifty patients last
winter in Imrld and Gorg, ad they ame bea better. Even in thoee in
whose lugs emaitstmlted, were better than they would have been had they
stayed i llinti I wlm, therefore, advise patient in the latter tages to go
to Flora"
At pa1e 1' vol. H, of Coapeland' Ditmony of Medie we find the
following:" Dr. Forry and other wrsn of authority, recommend a change'of




climate in this dines, as a remedial agent of great efficacy, and espeeidly the
peninsula of Florida."
Non-residenta, and the who know the least of Florida, denounce the State
as hot and dangerous ; but residents do not suffer from the heat, nor are the
summers "dangeroBs." To illustrate the subject of temperature we will give
the mean for spring, summer, autumn, winter, and year at a few well-knoiA

Stl Auguahne
Palatka .. S
Now Smynia.
Ap Florid* .
Key W-f.c
Kar eqW
Fort Mqa
Tamp. ..







As invalid, tourists, and portme are more specially interested n the
temperature of the five omd months, we will add some data regarding the mean
tempeature a retain points recommended as health resort :




Sthe atmop s an important element in t prevention and
I mat c dimes, m e peoially pulmonary aofi N rp aorre-
x'a partial ntM ted in hotels and altauft wth. o .lo and
]p who n al in IpMaoe. of omato have .ated tt
"4tb aaoqbm o Flodida los de with morbtun" when the oppdt. ik
tsagik Topau them rbjct MMne e Hu idie iaal* M radun-
mlkabbr liht, we uhan give tbe humidity at a few poato. Wha the





atmosphere is saturated with moisture it is said to contain 100 per ent.; if
half or quarter saturated, 50 or 25 per oent.; and when absolutely dry, 0 :

Mean RSdaw Hdeidiy.

From the above data it will be seen that the mean relative humidity of far-
famed Cannes and Mentone, on the Mediterranean, during the five cold
months, exceeds that of Jacksonville by nearly four oent.
It has been claimed by a learned writer on the climate of winnoa that its
" atmosphere is remarkably free from moisture, and that the tmnouphere of
Florida is loaded with moisture If we take the entre year for a perid of
five years we will find but.little difference in thimau n !e huzdidity'of
Minneota and Florid, as the following data, kindly ui niiitby the Chief
Signal Officer of the United States will demonstrate:


Mn r y .. .. ..
Mean far wi ns e ..Ba




67 6





6S s




Fro the above tblMe it will be found that the "atmosphere of Florida,"
although "lOaded with mastue" contains for the year bat 1*6.10 per oat. of



moisture in excess of the "dry and des eating climate of Minneota" ; ad
for the five cold months there is 1'7-10 in favour of the former over the
latter State. The city of Jacksonville, which is condemned for its humidity, is
excelled in this respect by St. Paul by 2*6 per cent. From all the oberva,.
tions taken in Florida, it has been determined that the moisture in the
atmosphere of the city of Jacksonville is less than that of any portion of the
State. And to correct errors so industriously promulgated by interested
parties, I will append a few figures :

Main Rdatin Bwut.~ity

Jaeksonville, Plorida.


1875-6 ..
1876-7 ..
1877-8 .. .
1878-9 .. ..
1879-80 .. ..
Meam for five years



parent. percent. percent.
678 704 003
78t6 69t0 68*
67*8 68-5 O6"4
66-0 660 66'0
77*1 6904 887

As rainfall has much to do with the convalescence of invalids, the pleasummre
of the tourist and the success of the sportsman, we will give the rainfall at a
few points on the Mediterranean as well as in the United States:

Raoiqfal in iAcks end Hundredth..

Nice ..
Motone ..
Nervi .. ..
nxeo ..
AtLmao COty, N..
Al Osa. ..
J Td Ms. .
P~t~to Pa.





Th therapeutic importance of muuhine as an element in the treatment of
d i i unfortunately, too little appreiated by invalids. LombMrd tdk a
that" gt qtimulaste and darkane impede reprado% e d thr srhi -
ton, of, amsal hmat and muscular activity na.M tAo po4d S
fact by experiment up himself, and the sde*M d r d B
nothing that animal a utrub pnoduoad more oarbono aid ia d&ayStit the
it, qualiud th, am ont by dprivi g It o4 t, iuSao 4l' a
jawepfso o wet to Diogens as he waUe his kaI dabOtjpqtE





9 84



what he could do for him. Diogenes replied : "Stand out of my sunshine."
And when a physician advise a patient to spend a winter in a cold and
changeable climate, the latter should exclaim, with Diogenes, Stand out of
my sunshine." Sunlight, in the language of Dr. Chambers, of St. Mary's
Hospital, "is of importance to the invalid." And the invalid should remember
the Italian proverb : "Where the sun doe. not enter, the doctor ~uat." Dr.
Maddon, who has made a special study of pulmonary 'diseases, and climatic
influence in their treatment, tate : That preference should always be given
to thoer winter reaorta which present the greatest inducements and oppor-
tunities for open-air neroei, and no mall part of the benefit desirable from
removal to a southern health resort results from the opportunities afforded in
the latter of being much is the open air, instead of being cooped up within
doors, as the patient would be during the greater part of the winter, had he
remained at home."
Dr. Osgood, of Boston, no mean authority, remarks: "During the winter
season we need every health-giving influence. Deprived of sunshine, we are
less able to meet the stringent strees of cold weather. Anything which
lesens animal vigour, lesens also our ability to oope with the great change in
temperature, and the imperfect hygienic conditions to which winter exposes us.
What sunshine is able to do for all life, may be seen in the joy of the birds,
and increased activity of animals, and the grater vivacity and cheer which we

feel when the sunshine returns
How we mil it when it is gone
Should we not learn the lemon,
sunlem rooms not only injure
the mind. Aboew all, sui ne
the filne, and t& effects ot
favourable" And I will ask if

to ur, after dsay of abeenoe behind the clouda.
I How its shmnoe (if prolonged) deprmeases u !
and insist upon every ray of sunshine t Life in
the bodily health, but moet erioualy depreua
Should be gins to the sick. The program of
remedieu will then be a thousandfold more
invalids can secure the health-giving influence

of sunshine and outdoor exercise in a climate where the thermometer
ofttimma approach ro, and snowstorma, fop, and cutting winds confine him
to an artifalaly-heated room Psons suering from dimes require sun-
shine, a moderate temperature, plenty of fresh and pure air, and an opportunity
to take outdoor xeirde ; and where east of the Rocky Mountains, during the
cold months, but in the "balmy mouth," can these onditions be secured .
I fully ooaoede with Dr. Wilson (" Health and Health Besorts," p. 26), that
"as a summer resort for phthisical patients, and overworked nervous systems,
and p physical frame, our north-western State of Minnesota Wis-
condin, Colorado, Nevada, and Idaho, with their clear, bradng, and tonio
tob will ear a f rarble ompron with either the Alps, Appeoines,
or PFyu ;" ytit i mnble opinion that no eotinea t of the Rocky
M -td gamtr to m' sy thmmometri e attrations and climati advantage
for &t.Nr AMl Ia tb.he wifmr Flek. Ifthe patient rqeuirs a dry, bradng,
ma tmI rfL dhab l tma eaWl ad in this Stat; if ms air, with iB on-
St l it an be secured ;itf an interior oaliate s
lli gim md a a warm and omp tritrvdy

Ifaup-ifj^Ak -I6---k brfige be rapidly ad mL rmad.

* :s- a..


from place to place. When referring to the adaptability of the climate of
Forida to the treatment of pulmonary dius, Professor Lee, of Geeva
Medical College, remarks: "We have already spoken of the mldnss of the
climate of this region of the United States. It appear to posse an insular
climate not les equable and salubrious in winter than that afforded by the
south of Europe, and is, therefore, well adapted to the forms of' pulmonary
diase, as bronchitis and incipient phthisic, as are benefited by a mild linte.
Mltdncm and uniformity are the two ditinguishing charaoteristie of the
climate of the Florida peninsula. It is eaily demonstrated that invalids re-
quiring a mild winter residence have gone to foreign lands in search of what

might have been found at home, an evergreen land, in which. lowers never
cease to unfold their petals."
Although the rainfall may be light in any particular locality, there may be
many unpleasant, drisly days, seriously interfering with out-door eroeis and
qeld sports; and we will add a few figure illustrative o the faot, that Florida
is favoured with sunshine. As we proceed east and south from Jacksonville,
the number of sunny days will be found to be less during the five old
Meteorologaical data from Signal Office, U..A., JachonWesU, Florida.
Baly Dws .
Daae. R em a ro B.

1674-1876 .. .. 14 6 15 10 5
14874- -.1 10 4 4 5 a 8nhi


A4vI l .. ..

I6.-1876 ..
Wre-4f .. ..
RT-8 .. ..
178-1879 ....

6 8 5 9 8
8' 7*4 T 8 8-6 5"8

a8 s 7" "
0 8 S 10 7
10 11 118 9 10
9 1 11 4
8*4 T* 74 5 7 *

874 day. in h, mutl

855 6 dy ta St.
~Jllrdl L~i ~rwr*

Wbhn ad iL marked rainy" by the ipal erio bta iews drops may
hma fallen, and it is no eidenc that the mdti day w Mhy. A Mra.hble
o moanmuble quantity may ftl in a few minutes d mthe i n e
day be ri t ad a, ler.. In Flod. the rds arsrhqmmoty tomruata In
Ibort, n brnt, tollomwd by bWight bad clar waher. 1cr e p
-d oprio wi ll Me. to the number of nalny da duuingS t oe dd
oMtbh ia'hMnKle, Mentoe, ad 8 a Pal.


vwt ee




climate of
of Geneva


ties of the
nvalids ra.
ch of what
'wa never

are may be
erom sad
hat Florida
sb eonvale,
Sive cold

ro~ whiok

* -- y


'drops my

fltsea" in


Jackonvmlle ..
St. Paul





Having visited many lands, being familiar with the climate and disease of
the United States from Canada to the Gulf of Mexioo; having spent twenty-
one winters and ten summers in Florida, ad possemssing a personal and
extended knowledge of the State, I am of the opinion that my views are
entitled to ame onddertion. I have no hesitation in asserting that the
climate and health of Florida have been misepreented. The immigrant may
visit and settle in the State with impunity at any mason of the year. To the
tourist and plemiure4eeker, the State offers an admirable climate and numerous
To the aged, Florida offers a winter retreat in which they ean prolong their
existence. Residents of cold and changeable olimatee are subjected to great
and sudden atmospheric changes, deprived of sunlight, fresh ar, sufficient
exercise, and are daily poisoned by heatumr, the elements resulting from the
combustion of ool-gas and impure air from swers. It is an undisputed fact
that the winter months in cold, as more particularly changeable climate, are
especially dangerous to person between fifty and sevety years of age. The
old Romans had this pregnant esprmdon : "IMuicr isW u Ais "-winter,
the foe of the ages In disonMsng the action of odd on the system, Dr. Oqood,
of Boston, no mean authority, remarks:-" But while the internal heat is
economized, the heart and blood veels are posed to serious dangers which
are due to high pm a If the heart be wek, the sadden allupon it icr
more vigorous amo may paralye it ; the danger specially applies to the aged,
to whom, bedde, the blood,el are liable to be weak and brittle. When,
therefore, cold Weather oome abruptly, sudden deaths among the fragile
and aged ae ommo the ausem being apoplexy, or arret of the heart,
perhaps congestion of the lunge. Another evil eAot of sudden cold, or ven
chill, checking pepiration. The result may be pneumonia, pleuriy,
bronohitis, rhenmatim or kidney trouble, with their train of dangerous and
too often aiortsl aft.eeta "
To the invalid Floid off advantage nowhere else obtainable. From
personal obMsur' m -d a doaful study of the sbjeot in all it. bamigu, we
feel amurmd that the mot msu ble winter resort for the invalid, as a general
rule, im pe g a modrat mprature plenty of sunhine, a dry
atmo phsre ith 4uub olti to take daily exmris and inhale the pure air of
Heave. When n rringto the aoo of hot ad oldimte on e onsamptve
patients, Dr.Fflmb phida to It aeorge's Hoapita, London, remark :-
f ATL- __.t* -t .- 9 _- A t I- ^9 -_ ktA f.. .^ _--^.- At ,9, _-* *** --

-^- n' -I,


ving days (iduding snow).




in the highest degree, and without its aid, medicine and the most carefully
regulated diet are of little avail." When referring to the evils of the winter
season, Dr. Smith remarks:-" The evils of the eoson will, however, be the
tendency to internal congestion and inflammation, the incrsee. of cough fioa
the irritation of the pharynx and air paages, induced by the inhalatjrm of
cold air, the tendency to hiemoptyais from increased cough irritability o the
mucous membrane and congestion of the lungs, and deficiency of temperature
from the cold. If the patient be restricted to an artificially heated atmosphere,
he will have the evils of dryness, stillness, and impurity of the air, and will be
apt to have night sweat from exess of clothing."
Facility of socess of a health resort is a matter of great important. It is
obvious that a patient should be sent to a locality which can be reached ty an
easy journey, and in camm of need, communicate with home and'be reached by
friends. In this respect favoured Florida pommees many advantages.







HE climate of Florida is so well-known throughout the dviliaed

not oold and


d that it is not neoeary to go into detail; we will .brie4y
some facts from official tables, and the opinion of
atists. It is not a hot climate in summer, but mild, an4
subject to great change of temperature. The wints are
ig, but uniformly cool and bracing. Throughout the whole

twelve months the rainy, cloudy, di.agreeable days are t exception; fair,
gkht, umnny days the rule. The thermometer rarely goe below 80 in the
winter, and rarely above 90 in the summer. The official reoor show the
daily avenge for summer 78, for winter 600. The daily omtant oma
bmri s in summer modify the heat (te Gull breed booming with the getting
sun, oools the air at night); a warm or sultry night is almost unknown.
O al ma ittay report., both of ,oisnta c bodies and the ary, show that
JFlohd iods inrt in health, although in the reports ri eoud4 the trsiaet
or rent population, many of whom take refuge here ua ~nld, ormq n te
loist sts of diMeao In the middle and southern potionma of th State frost
. rrs known. The summer i longer, but the het less ppprmsa tha
migdeuw at the north; tdb rmulte from it p_-oulu po-i rm, e.pd he
- _.r .,,ng brnee. which pas ovr the State. For da,. tqsie r M., Yotk,
Bira, and C(Mapo hOlw is a ser a tawpustmuh a lk^ Is 100, tirvwy
fW9 tMt t? uinc that imps. in Florida .np ert a single day, genefpiy
nMdass |ow o0'; not opprsi v; modifid bythe ybt*qrhag air ; met
murmy, due 'bir a; wu ip { inmn and .vu~aw 4wqajs cool qi$ bacs.

the witr -wths f1r diusts.
i *a




We take from Dr. A. 8. Baldwin's tables kept for the Smithsmmian Institute,
as follows:
Jaksonville, latitude 800 15', longtitude 82-mean of there daily ober-
vations, for twenty year, 1847-1867.

January ..
Mariah .
May .,
June .

60o July
58 Augut ..
64 September
70 Octobe ..
76 NovTmber
0 December

.. 82
j. 78
.. 70
.. 62
.. 62

The army records show, for twenty
twenty-three degrees.
Rainfall at Jacksonville, average
quantity in August and September,
Another important question, both
and here Florida stands, strange to
of its atmosphere, as the following ]
Service, show :-
For the five winter months from

Jackonill .. .. .. .. .
St Pat Mn lasa .. ..
Atlano City, N. J. .. .. ..
At Jaobokallle for the month oI March.

y years, variation at St. Augustine, Florida,

for ten year 54*5 inches; the largest
and the least in November.
for comfort and health, is relative humidity,
may, ahead of all other States for the dryness
mean temperatures, taken from the Signal

1875 to 1880 :

.. wo
.. 71.8
.. 78.1
.. 68.9




BI R v. T.




OME time beore the discovery of Amer the so orange-the
bridgsrde-wa itrordued into Italy, and a abort time thereafter
it mwa arriedto Spain. The Spaurda brought tur variety to
Flaorida. The sweeb orange wa the unknown in Europe.
.. e 'ra t distrited the
seed of the bdread.-bnq aet y aold the Bevilie orig- the viaciitie ci
the Spanipi Mte amnd X Aio.. As the fruit multi d the eed wee oat
tetd by te abiba ilougn tbebanb of the rive ner h amine grounds,
usualJ poit4 pvnyftnsg into the river. Then they were 'atend through-
out the phte <4 FPhida
The ~r thee wild onrage gom, tw.mty ad fifty yeas ago, were
found a d oaet a mhothr of ri es and lake and in the
ham Molc l a -mEp lad.to Flrord.1 In dditioa to the pion from


damage by the frost to the young plant afforded by the water, the hamamL
and swamp lands gave protection against fires, which annually swept ore the
pine woods, destroying t slow growing trees. Some of these wild gsres
were, fifty years ago, out down and the land cleared for planting corn, cotton,
and cane. This was repeated as late' as twenty-five year ago, before the
monetary value of the orange was appreciated in this country. -.
One hundred yean after America wau discovered the sweet omnge was iMro-
duced into Europe. Later it was brought to Florida and a few tree wee
planted in St. Augustine, and afterwards in the settlements along the St.John'.
and Indian Rivers. The pollen of the sweet orange fertilizing the flowers of the
sour, produced the hybrid "bitter sweet." At the cose of the Civil War small
plantations of sweet oranges were found throughout the State, oning
usually of a few trees growing around dwellings. There were a few groves of
larger size, ranging from four hundred trees to nine hundred, in the vicinity of
St. Augustine and along the St. John's River. The largest in the State was
planted by Dr. Speer, at Fort Reed, near Mellonvlle, and the Dummit grove
on Indian River.
About the time Dr. Speer planted his grove, quite an interest in rmage
growing sprang up in Florida, and many groves were planted along the bak.
of the St John's But in an evil hour fresh plants of the orange from 6hina
were introduced and planted at Mandarin. They were infected with the Male
insect The tree in the vicinity of Mandarin were the first to be destroyed by
the hnmst. At that time the hundred and one natural enenmi of the ale
insect had not come to the rescue of the orange grower as now ; beidee the
mange grow of that time did not know of modern appliances and nitesm.
Th scale spread from grove to grove, and in a short time sweet and sour oage
trem yielded to the invading host of the foreign enemy. The froh st 1885
having out down the trees, from the eff o of whioh the old tree were bea-
ning to aecover when the male commdened its ravrges, combined to pl dtil
the impreion among the old aettiefs that the orange prospect w far ir.
At the clom of the war many of the old trees, both sweet and wild, had
recovered from the ebob of both insets and fro t,and were bearing liberal
mops of ruch fruit a travellers from all pat of the world had never b1r.
eatn. The f it od at good prims. Sen* of thm who had lately ea Ito
the Stat. tho8V their w a living hi a orags gpov. Iad was bought sad
planted I wild wr tumpa Seed beds wee tplaited fr numay stoMk, nd
mae wm t with yom plants. We wer told that by the time our ksew
w re dy to ber we would be in anothermounty where there would be no
need oi phiatia. We amwed then we would plant for our. 6hildreL We
wer tokl that by th e ime the trms we in full baring e d no be
wmoth paig in Fleida. Though some of us we threatened with the hlasOL
ashta* we .t4i pinkaoed in planting axd oalt~tvng teomu The l
prophecy tl e Ot m pemno oaghtl the orm angs fver, untl *naB the
omd p|keta were ated and e to-day m et eatth a.tb oskge
gtowuen. ?o'4 obmodrs of -botaads of tree n.e gprwiwi, qad te o
twifolb soaet phat. are nady to be i n gpore



The question now coma up will not the business be overdone We answer
No. With the small rea within the United State capable of producing
oranges this will be impoudble. Caiada and the United Stsat are rapidly
increasing in population, and these alone could consume the entire product
from the orange-growing actions of the United State. But the Florida orange
is the finest grown, and will ultimately oommand the market of Europe as well
as America.
Occasionally already a glut in the market has occurred, but this has been
in each instance the result of (mainly) a double fault on the part of the
producers. They have attempted to narrow the marketing season to three
or four months when it should be extended over from eight to twelve months.
Oranges will remain on the trees in good condition six months after they have
turned yellow. Properly handled and cured they will keep several months
after they have ben lipped. The Florida season for marketing, like the
European, should embrace the entire year. The second mistake, to which
allusion is made, was the result of the destructive hurry peculiar to Ameriana
The fruit was pgthered pen, oarelesly handled, pecked without being
properly cased, much' of it infested with fungi and then gathered, picked, and
shipped through all ort of weather. Such fruit rapidly spilled. Careless
handling of transportation companies added to the disaster, and henoe the
merchants bad to anl what sound fruit might reach them at low prices,
or throw it away.
Orange culture will pay byond any other agricultural purit, ve should
the pri fall to 75 cents p bo. When reduced to that prie fifty million
boxes would.not over supply the pRw t population of the United states and
Canada. There e thirty States producing apples and peob., and yet both
these cropa, whioh have to be marketed within a few weks or months, are
grown with profit With sh facts before us we hav no fear as to the over-
produicion of the orange.

To those egaged in the bdness ange-growing truly inin. The
beauty, of the ta, the buty and fragrant of the flower, allege all rivalry
among ornamental tress andm baueul owners. The Aethstoi cltivator
becomes a tree wer dU sweet aed ibeatiful pqt, wMr he looks upon
as a relio and rminad ofe Pmudi. But when t baty is nied
with uaefl, golden and goMld-aing frit, affbrding a living and promising
all other maurial luuis, the the lowve appei s tms his oange grove only
le than he ht wits, who ha bought to him not only the
aoompa et ld ul wated mand, but with herself an
ample fMiA AS though he may have waited along am..Joodd for
his dl, h. doa nt reret thewg e tilwain the reward is ample.

I do tha'iK but that t
not flares Vih sdtout t
trae has been brought to Nd


* toil d a watiag dmand by t. cags doe
be phCir and hinaomr. hs plus rhim once the
K beauty mad hberiag far we loe brn thoes that




need to be courted earnestly in order to be won.
that the bride is the more fully our own.

When thus won we fed

Does the reader wish to know how to win this fair bride dlad in nature'I
richest green, adorned with golden globes, crowned with fragrant orange
blossoms-her own fair crown, so often plucked for other bridal wreaths t Did
space permit, further writing would not be necessary, for are not all tea
things written in the book of the chronicles of many writers on Orage
Culture" ? These have all written you about the seed-bed, the nursery, the
planting, suitable locations, the gathering and the shipping.

The past season was about six hundred thousand boxes ; the present year
the crop may reach a million boxes. The crop of 1868 only reached a
few thousand packages and had so slow a sale it had to be extended to mas late
as May to find buyers. The price prevailing at that time was 67.50 per
thousand. The pries has gone up with the production. During next May
if, they can be found outside of New York the Florida orange will sell for not
less than 4.50 or 5.00 per box.
The excellence of the Florida orange is now so generally known that many
other oranges are sold under that name. The writer knows no way to avoid
this impoation except to stamp each orange grown in Florida with the
inimitable Florida trade mark. No other country has yet produced the rua t.
The brown tinge mats the beautiful golden colour, but it makes the orange
bearing this stamp all the sweeter and, like usar's wife, above supoon.
Nature has thus given us an impost protection against foreign completion
which the Government cannot take of. What goddess or nymph wa it that
covered herself with soil to save herself from violence i She was the sweter
and safer because of her soiled exterior. So with the orange. The dingy
russet is best.

Br Paormiaou J. N. W


or TS Basr AGtromAa L OUJKr.

'hsa matt

oreq iar adco
i' srr

rot pt egpt tou Qmd t. mdmf O -Q
n to yr paursourrm de.-Iba *ll odd by welt
Shu b~r uSl, fthatT wlhiqUly,t poo t1igreqs
t tdB dtrtorcl o unbri^ (^ ur oiw
oInitiald -ny tt^N^ b SbiiiitU opcnttow M~r rmd IMO CIt fMR~-





sable to the sucmem of the market gardener. For the guidane of those who
are unacquainted with the vegetables most profitable to grow for market, I
have prepared a work called Gardening in Florida." This book will furnish
in detail all neommy in"ination'conpaerng the preparation of the aol; sow-
ing of seed; beat variety of vetabl and their proper treatment in this
climate together with complete aalycal tables from which the inxper
may ascertain and safely supply the speoifio fertilizer essential to the growth
and development of each plant.
Market gardening is fast growing into an immense industry, and its acknow-
ledged importance to communities and the commonwealth as well as to indi-
viduals, invets a discussion of the subject in any of its connections with
peculiar interest Already, though scarcely ten year old in Florida, it exerts
an inlumaoe which is sesmbly felt by all clamm, and in every pursuit
For several months each year during the marketing of early vegetable, the
great arteries of trade are quickened into new life. Hundreds of thousands of
barrels and rates filled with products of Florida's genial clime, are steamed
away to far distant markets of the east, north, and weat. In return, hundreds
of thousands of dollar are brought baek and Mattered broadast over the land,
to the joy and material property of almost every inhabitant. This money
comes, too, at a moat opportune time to assist farmers, fruit-growers and mer-
chants in tiding over the otherwise lg, dull season between harvest, and in
effect tends to dispense with the ruinous system of long credits so prevalent a
few years back.
There is no doubt that market gardening has been highly beneficial to the
State, however disastrous it may have proved in some individual ames. And
this fact may serve to. console those who have failed of suoma. But it is
possible to reduce the number of unavoidable failures to a very snall minimum.
To do this, howev&, money must be employed M well as brains. By an intelli-
gent and careful applatonof the mans, which are not difficult to provide nor
expendve, omsidering the end in view, the market gardener may secure un-
varying realts with as much certainty as can be attained in any other business,
and probably more mo. And when the practical working of a system is fully
understood, by which the harvest an with reasonable certainty be determined
at the .eedtme, many now deterred by existing hards will readily embark
in the pursuit, and in conjunction with another important lassm of producers-
the fruitgrowers-will, under these favouring skih, physical, political and
moral, convert may avabkes ame of lad within the borders of our beloved
State into a garden of wealth and beauty.
In the early days of market grd ing the abnoe-of suitable facilities for
transporting tender gsaMb was regarded a the principal drawback to the
suOOe of the ntrpri But with good govenmt ad prp y ami
hota.of imwa anto, ands nu la pind in eight or within hearing of almost
every .se r, other for ilur. w bhonght and variously attributed to
deotga ined,&amur 4ebflhau napmuitow. susama, or dutSavei dement.,
or allt eamimAed. ow, whiZ, suhoo a soi might allowed t th out-
set aof ta6Is fOgf sh Otlcd'heve requtird a w7y fri expeiU to
onvhiasaei Assia| nsotting produor. that all th shbove hindnAem,



width t se Pesa *4pt iai '&dertrttOVe alistbaP mifqda tIli
wrinnhi pow tolnytoorbodr 'matrlmyf.tdiyty i '
No a m'need, Rbtaiht to tie impsfoii' of drt d 'tt a.
Competing seedsmen are too numerous for that. d ft i' d
an hot naeblet bdiLb mscha t, alotghS
glatted witt uhAn 66mmoosd For "o ttipet' iit'4t' rl
prksbly mnat W '4it eM ft the oetM of rahfan, thA iftey
aaiTla, ytt t iot ttniveraflAy 'oeriboled; 1tlljh> d f1t
portano. They inrigMnat anld d iatrM-ne. ge d t its -i
upon tir olUltrsto of the soil in FFworida, 'dtifldfifibeo ise yhy
in vegbie growing, anddrainge, ihere need st'S .M ey atti
It Mo ld be regarded as the hidght o1 pruebamtfia it it ih&det.iff.y
other baimea for a fan te .pect to usiad h tlbuId'ntat ount Ii p<*1ly
provided with the ehlsentMl to m boo ee ar appef otiHea'pta of 0i e
engged in nfrck-garderdng. An inspeo ton of th g iidil e to
signs of that oareMtly stdied preparation and high bidW of maltbt*i i
the podsoe *alue of the products there grown e rdiohly merited.
to the credit of the c a.g, be it amid, honorable eroidtU&dsto, tiis. fiot in
fas too may cafse the old, exploded thorsie oiL f bygone g desatsoTou s tni in
um, and an annual yield of 325 to 3B0 per acbore net, thS the heart of bc4 a
kaL0ewrd ner *ith' aupreme iWantent nuoifsatanding the astuao btlAt ty
sh iipiovr mystm tenfold moreighth iM.
Ernythga about a truck farm Bhould on form to what 1. geamily ui&t-
stood to bea tinly regetable garden, eoaept the dal and rbdl$attb to
mnfl bed. Aid tib ir.a should be limited to the ability of the oeraton to
" beep" Rle' gieden.
After a faromebI loutin 'the next conaMidaton bi diflags. If hWtcom-
petent yormslf. to doade whether or naot yr land nl ufrs Mirafsga ate
one who 6 to do o for you; have the neceHary iitdks 6ui hAld i b
,roIsbIm dsd; have tile of ritablie IL-th osdl a c
probably the be- sh& ath rill the dtaies h n Sdlnc rl. %att I
Few aultvatou of the dl in this Statre have rgi' tithe o if t ttiM
tattaion d tlhb mabjit (Sdd d"tiie) te Wldl it fl t.
sqwiaxify there b art apoanea.i6g 1.ie ndit* pn dal' apprtak te tcraik ble tc n tiai the pr ttAsf '*taadt, E Tal

dWoeght, 'vbs~fl pflJ^ fl :'W** ^. I~ Ef.'iy t Erdbi d hWtBY-.

rbitat Ho rtlbgtW*r*S t*

M mai. w.bj aiwfwrairrii'ai ~ lfhjil '




dry sp4e, L MIeir aMity in porou sol to ape th IMtum buM by sering
a lowe depth. iihi thy radly Tmtli while tew ooa g ma
favoured pgrod are lohd by the ayu of the uun bOau thre arn no
avenue epain pp to th .
Thoau*ghl bw ilg and pulvruiddng o the aoil moat preed. pauag frome
the fa.t that a msubaquent work must be allow to avoid Injur to eadr
rootlet. Fnquet Utraiug of the aurfaoe so ia ernt m l, at to dutrq
gram and wndu, which booald new be paalto how abore ground, bat
to break thwsut whih iap the air hafm .anohig th reta
Manure must be uod judiuonaly ad libeally. Mt what it wMll the lad
must be o to a atd of absolute rtit, wc both. the rli ad
the =iBan d the oegetabli -. Lrgdy depmad ap a onito. t prede.lng
purpose the aol should be .rih enough to prodes Mty to dity bushel of
corn to theatre. Apql the fertilir broadut and hrmr it in Mght3y. If
distributed only in the drill, the root. of the plants woulaRe. to be.boxed

in to g th. fall besOt, bsdo the difficulty, i not the ipbit, a
providUig fo eood crop to mooeed the hin without ainlaotig uerio
injury by a aeoond ppiat of muane. For in prltahogdmfg on,
crop must lap over or into mother, and in acbrdwe with ietabhoed
principles of rottion; that ia, to follow a root cop, muh e abest., oions,
alsify, etc., with oas o oppoiM habta of growth, a- obbqp, pa, and
vice ed. Th ontoas oultition should be arr o, ethe the
second a thrd crop, a the oae msy be, can be makpteed to dvanfe or
must be omd at home. And to do ao uaot ufsotwny, thO ae (or the
second cmp should hb.' wn or traf opa- t masa.I tlbsorw th
growing nap raoes maturity, in ordr that the gual.natUp oL^wiu tr
the fomaation of nset fLbroa o. in tq iwlmntaam r i bou' brthoe
time the better dMMuild -oa oi .te utapproi'ted fertilar, wEi gorut
rapidly, ad by tmL* eml paeudon. th gramMd, iad to thedo
of nowo, a ady to g p and mwa the th d
soil the tu t d thea len
The moC iiaeqf appSUSto tohe a tp gId. on cloprd
for having hi. kdm Idd, t lb o wich whih he moa t dlb to
dispse. It -u-q-etaablp. iaort.,ushtod po- to exped the IAnp. a,
of momy inquired for 'e porohae, hboriu ponpm;6tm, v tif1W b tmon
and oe4 edin usia $O gwpd, id te* p*eut he
proaiug &op tob te ary dftqg6 4y west of ftq pammp6 n.oS*
to a Ily waa er m i* t.Ca, me -d. faSr wahi the cmlehmo.rioth an f a n
.eaawordl& 'Prigt-^ar- itoo et rtr-4q to isnu ab -t *
To emertb. bet ,#eaNl ir.*, hud o* 1.jr a dq, ,Ar
the .111soi fb aei4 1fprlq 9qr pd W re bbdd
hawere. ti tht w MIM)iq pr4.a bw. ia wbeht to
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