• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Copyright
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Letter I
 Letter II
 Letter III
 Letter IV
 Letter V
 Letter VI
 Letter VI
 Advertising














Title: Letters from Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055732/00001
 Material Information
Title: Letters from Florida
Physical Description: 85 p. : ill. ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Beecher, Henry Ward, 1813-1897
William and Sue Goza Collection
Publisher: D. Appleton and company
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1879
 Subjects
Subject: Description and travel -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Mrs. H.W. Beecher.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055732
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000586797
oclc - 01626212
notis - ADB5483
lccn - 01006882

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 3
    Copyright
        Page 4
    Preface
        Page 5
    Table of Contents
        Page 6
    Letter I
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Letter II
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Letter III
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Letter IV
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Letter V
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Letter VI
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Letter VI
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Advertising
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
Full Text
':"'`------s~


}~? ~


LETTERS




FROM


. BEECHER,


AUTHOR OF
"MOTHIRL TA&LK," "ALL ABOUND THE HOUSB," WO.


NEW


YORK


D. APPLETON


AND


COMPANY,


549 AND


551 BROADWAY.


1879.


/


* ,~ ~.
~vr>w ~p*~s'rJ >~trw
~lt~ *~<.4'


MRs




































0OIPTmGHT B

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,

1879.




I


I



,. '
I 1
r













PREFACE.



THESE Letters from Florida, by request of many
friends, are offered to the public in a simple, con-


venient form.


They do


not claim to


be a history


of Florida, but only the impressions left on a prac-


tical mind after several


years of close observation,


which have been growing stronger each year.


I firmly
aggerate the
country. If


believe


wonderful


these


letters


capabilities of


do 1
this


lovely


some of my readers have the privilege


spending


a few months


years in succession, I


there, for two or three


am confident that


my "im-


pressions "


be so strongly confirmed as to


accepted as trustworthy authority.
















CONTENTS.


PAGB


LETTER I.


A HOME AND


WORK FOR ALL


CAsLES IN SPAIN
LIFT UP THE HANDS THAT HANG DOWN AND


STRENGTHEN THE FEEBLE KNEES


WHAT HAS BEEN DONE, AND OAN BE DONE


AGAIN


WHAT HAVE YOU TO SAY ABOUT MALARIAL


FEVTE?


SEEK THE


TBUTH IN


PRIVATE HOMES, NOT


m HOTEL LIFE


APPENDIX


S80


S54


S 79






LETTERS


FROM


FLORIDA.


steamer which was to bear
me from the coming snows of the
North to the soft, balmy air of our
Southern shores, you requested me to
send you some letters from Florida. The request,
on recalling it, strikes me as somewhat indefinite. If
you look for something sensational or romantic, you
are doomed to a grievous disappointment. That is
not my vocation-more's the pity I For never was
there a more ample field for the imagination to revel
in uncontrolled, or richer opportunities for blending





8 LETTERS FOM FLORIDA.

romance and reality, than this land of flowers offers to
the gifted ; but, to do it justice, to develop half the
wonderful beauties of these bewildering regions calls
for a more skillful artist. I can but look witE long-
ing on this promised land, this storehouse of poetry
and romance ; I may not unlock the gates and enter in.


Right here, close by where I now write, from
amohg the beautiful palmettoes, and under the grand
old oaks, one still hears the whispers of a wild and
terrible tragedy, as full of strange and thrilling inci-
dents from which to weave a story as the most sensa-
tional writer can desire-one abundantly able to satisfy
those who'areonly content with graphic or startling
narratives, or who most delight to "sup on horrors."
We refer to the Mandarin massacre of 1841, which
left this lovely village desolate. The Indians de-


stroyed every living soul save some of th
who were absent on a hunting expedite
little boy who escaped their fiendish tor
ing in a dense grove of palmettoes. Th


e inhabitants
ion, and one
tures by hid-
at same boy,


now a middle-aged man, still resides here, occupying
a house built on the spot where all his friends were
murdered.
St. Augustine is one vast reservoir of infinite
suggestions and rich material, that have come down
from all the prominent nations of the earth as a legacy
-a bountiful supply for some future genius of our
own land, who, as Walter Scott did for his country,
will collect and weave into story or song the many
strange, wild scenes, the romantic incidents and thrill-
ing adventures in which this region .abounds. Such





A HOME AND

a one will win immortal
of. this fair land from "
oblivion."
Until within a comp


was
6ver
her
was
their


WORK FOR ALL. 9

fame by saving the history
sinking into the darkness of


aratively few years Florida


a bone of. contention, or the foot-ball of which-
nation had the skill or craft to gain posseion of
and keep her the longest. For a year or t*o it
in the hands of the French; then wrested frem
grasp by the Spaniards, only to be snatched


from both by the strong ar
The French coveted th
they saw in its profusion
brilliant and sweet-singing
.the promise of a life of ease
Sand hoped to find among its


m of England.
is lovely country because
of fruits and flowers, its
birds, and loft4 balmy air,
and perpetual enjoyment,
* wonderful mineral springs


the legendary "fountain of life and perpetual youth."
SThe Spaniards reached out after it, hoping, with ar-
rogant and despotic power, to wring from the toil
of natives, through merciless taskmasters, fabulous
wealth, which they imagined was hid in its bosom.
The English, more practical, discovered at once that
its great wealth lay in the rich fruits and productions
of its soil, which through well-directed labor would-
give to them a rich possession. They sought to de-
velop the resources of the land by suitable cultiva-
tion and organizing manufactories for such work as
-promised to bring forward the best that Florida could
yield in the most remunerative manner.
But neither held this goodly land long enough
under their rule to enjoy much of that which each
most dired. Yet the very strife and misrule that





10 LETfERS FROM FlORIDA.
prevailed until a recent period have made Florida rich
in wild and fanciful lore; and ere long, under wise
and more permanent government, this now sparsely
settled region will become populous. Then .towns
and villages lovely as any New England can boast-
and where can.you find any more lovely?-will look
out from these graceful palms and palmettoes, or find
grateful shade under the lofty magnolia and gigantic
live oak, gray with moss, that stand like giant sen-
tinels all along the shores of the grand and beautiful
St. John's.
Amid such surroundings some one will rise up
whose fertile* imagination can combine and skillfully
weave together the many romantic incidents to be
found imong the curious legends of Florida. But,
that is a work upon which I may not venture. Truth
unvarnished is, however, full of elements possessing
more abiding attractions than the most brilliant story;
and to that I shall most strictly adhere.
Finding it necessary to spend the spring months
of the last few years in Florida, the impressions, made
by these visits have greatly strengthened and become
more of a fixed belief with each year's experience
This seems to me strong evidence that these impres-
sions are worthy of credence, and may have more sub-
stantial value than should be conceded to simple nov-
elty or a passing fancy.
There are not many ladies so situated that they
are obliged to witness or understand so much of the
sufferings and deprivations among the poor as is daily
brought to our door; and the utter impossibility of





A HOME AND WORK FOR ALL.


giving substantial relief to any appreciable extent is
a source of acute distress.
Some assistance is needed every morning, and, to
be effective, must often be renewed every evening,
and for an indefinite period. The sick, the wicked,
te Aufortunate, and those ready to perish, are "le-
gion." They come from all nations and from' every
class of people. Who shall feed,this great multitude ?
But who can turn a deaf ear to their complaints, or
send them away empty, without a grievous heartache ?
There is no end to their calls-for help. No permanent
relief for those who suffer.
That much of this destitution is the, result of in-
providence, carelessness, or actual wrong-doing, no
one can deny. But when the curse has fallen, and
want and suffering take hold of them, it is too late to
speak of the sad mistakes. At least, let the past sleep
if.you can, while looking for present help, and by
sympathy and kindness endeavor to build up a better
life. How can this bd done ?
It is a well-established fact that giving to the poor
and unfortunate is a bad policy, and usually, except in


extreme cases,
perpetual tax
kindness to the
and self-respect
Give work,


trailing, which
earn even the
table.
Ah l yq.


demoralizing to the recipient. It is a
on the benevolent, as well as a cruel
poor, destroying eventually all energy


p.


Find something, however


each applicant for charity muat do, to
crumbs that fall from the rich man's

This may be wise and most excellent


not alms.






12a L mETT ERS. to nt fOo

advice ; but tell me where to find employment fot the


hundreds
one indiv
advice to
these tim
sands are
Theh
.tried son
and now


who besiege our doors day after day. No
idual can do this. Then how is this sage.
be followed ? That is the true question for
es-a question for which hundreds and thou-
anxiously waiting an answer.
ard times of the last few years have cruel
le of our most valued and refined citizens,
they who were once the foremost in every


good word and work are suffering, with tl
cately nurtured families, for the common ne
of life, which the severity of our Northern
renders truly indispensable. But, unlike th
are always roaming from street to street, no
claiming their wants, these ask no alms,-
"For God's sake give z work, that we may
families from freezing and starvation I "
How often have I been met by such pite


cations from
assistance
scarce even
peals that I


people wel
But-work
than true
turn with


ieir deli-
cemsaries
. winters
tose who
isily pro-
but only
save our


)us appli-


l known, and most worthy
I1 It i hard to find--m
charity. It is from such i
an aching heart, poweries


comfort, but earnestly coveting the power to trans-
port such applicants to a climate so genial, for a large
part of the year, that the most destitute if.willing to
make an effort in their own behalf, have a chance for


some relief, and
can not have in
How I long
weary, seeking
FoMida where


often may secure comforts which
our Northern winter..
to see those who at the NoaW
work and finding- none, down he
for fifty dollars forty acmo of


they


ane
e in
lknd


m m


---





A HOM AND WORK FOB ALL.


can be


pu baseda,


P -.


around


lovely


inland


p -- 1p.. *


or reaay access oy ran; or zor fourteen 0011
sixty cents a quarter section of Government 1
be "entered" free from taxes for five years,
enough to bring the land into a state of cul


lakes,


ars and
and can
or long
tivation


that will yield a very comfortable support till an
orange grove is well established, and the trees almost
old enough to give fair promise of remuneration.
When a section is entered, with any just hope of fu-
ture success, it should be done by those who are pre-
pared to rough it," who are not afraid of hard work
and simple food for a few years.
It is useless for any to attempt to build up an in-
dependent home here, or anywhere, if they begin the
operation under the impression that, having "entered
the land, they are to live henceforth on a bed of roses.
With that class of the poor we have no sympathy;
but with those who are not afraid to work, even though
subjected to some rough fare before they master the
situation, we have unlimited earnest sympathy.
Those who "enter" land, or "take up" a quar-


ter s
ploy,
find
their
week
save,
for a
99


section, may not find steady and profitable em-
nent with others all the time; but they will
abundant need of all their energies in improving
own land, cheered by the thought that every
's work, and all their efforts to economize and
though at first hard, are but preparing the way
comfortable home for their later years.
Well," say you, "this sounds plausible; but-if


too poor to provide for their families at the North,
how are they to get to Florida, and buy the forty
2 I*





LtmTTus FM iflktnIA.


acres or the quarter section of land& That's an
important question; and if you can't p$ih ct t the
way'to effect this, the whole idea is simply vidsatry"Y
Ah I but I only said I coveted the power t briag
the industrious poor out to Florida, and see them well
started in this mode of supporting themselves and
families. That power unfortunately I do not posse,
and am not so foolish as to imagine destitute people
can come unaided. But, stop a moment, and honestly
make a business-like calculation, and then tll me if
you think my idea so wild or visionary afterward.
On the contrary, do you not see, after a few mo-


ments' reflection, that such a


plan might be a good


and economical investment for the benevolent, a well
as for the suffering and unfortunate
Fairly estimated, how much do you imagine the
reasonably kind-hearted and benevolent peoph It the
North, in comfortably prosperous circumstances, usu-
ally give every winter in charity ? In this estimate,
bear in mind also how much is as good as thrown
away, because often given thoughtlessly-not so much.
to help the poor, or honor God, as "lest by their oon-
tinual coming they weary me."
Alms recklessly or inconsiderately given are often
worse than wasted. How, would not a large propor-
tion of the truly charitably dispbsed feel that. one
hundred dollars a year was a cheap release from per-
petual solicitation ? Judgig from expeienee, it
seems a low estimate-and many better able would,
I doubt not, gladly pu~a t this freedom by Aive
times that sum. And reflect, wh one is thu beset,
11


If





A HONE AND


WORK 1FO ALL.


how very mall the summust be which is given to any
one, at our doors. Even if only divided among a few
of these claimants it will be hardly sufficient to have
an appreciable value, distributed as it must be in ho-
meopathio quantities; and by to-morrow each will be
as mach in need of assistance as before.
Besides greatly diminishing one's own trouble,
would not the amount of actual good accomplished be


vastly inmeased, if there were s
substantial benefit ? Would it
charity, first to understand the
wants of those most needing assist
fully to estimate how much one
giving toward supplying one pers
immediate food and daily work,


)me hopes of lasting,
not be a truer, nobler
character and actual
tanoe, and then care-
may feel justified .in
on or one family with
until you can make


suitable arrangements for their independent support ?
Select those you.are confident are the most deserv-
ing and most anxious t work With part of the
money buy a "land, warrant," or a homestead, in
Florida, giving the recipient choice of location. With


the remainder of the money supply as far as possible
a common outfit. Try your own talent for begging
for once, at least, so far as to secure a passage on some
of the Southern steamers, and a little money for farm-
ing implements, to start at least one family a y'ar in a
new home in Florida
If these bentiari esare wisely selected, and have
that natural energy and love of indepedence that
will make them accept such hardships and acrifices
pa mst of neoeemty mark the first steps of any new
o00o, one o -may rest satidfed that, by thus on-





16 LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.

centrating their charities, one family at least a year
may be placed in a fair way for independent support.
This can fever be done for those who go begging from
door to door, losing each day more and more of their
self-respect.. But if a family thus placed have courage
to accept with cheerfulness the early hardships for
the joy that is set before them, they have a prospect
of building up, slowly but surely, a respectable and
independent home.
You are talking wildly I Suppose the land war-
rant, or homestead, secured-the log-house erected;
how is it to be furnished ? How provide their daily
food while clearing off the woods, preparing their land,
and waiting for their crops to grow, even with the
hundred dollars you speak of? You acknowledge
they may not always be able to find sufficient employ-
ment to help them to a trifle, weekly. How will you
answer this ?" W
Well, a homestead of one hundred and fifty acres
will cost fourteen dollars and sixty cents. With the
sum named they will have eighty-six dollars left for
indispensable articles, even if many cast-off articles of
household stuff should not be given them when start-
ing. Then, if some neighbors would club together
and send several families of the worthy poor at the
ssme time-a kind of colony, but not on the communi-
ty plan-their money united would, by purchasing ar-
ticles at wholesale, provide better for the whole than
could be done for one family alone. If each of these
charitably disposed persons should, about the time this
oolony is starting, have "a clearing-up day," and empty






A BOM AND


WORK FOR ALL


their attics of clothes and furniture that do no good,
but an always in the way, they would be surprised to
learn how useful "such rubbish" jan be made, and
how thankfully it would be received.
But as to the furnishing of that log-house, you
have no conception of the very little furniture that is
really absolutely necessary here-or indeed anywhere
-to make a family reasonably comfortable. Pros-
perity and wealth multiply the things we must have
in a marvelous manner, and increase the work that
must be done in the same proportion. In some leisure
hour take paper and pencil, and, beginning with your
own room, put down the articles in that one spot tbat
you could do without, and be none the less happy or
comfortable.
When people go into the wilderness, and are inde-


pendent of any
lutely necessary
rapidity. I, fI
ment than to c


"hired help," their w
equipment diminish
r one, would like no
some here with some


yourself, will think I
you how all I have pi
good stock of patience,
without wfich no one is
fear the experiment.


un talking


ants and abso-
with surprising
better amuse-
few who, like
dly, and show


Planned can be done. With a
fortitude, and good nature-
of much value-I should not
A healthful amount of hard


work and self-denial may be expected for a few years;
but that, in itself, brings genuine enjoyment to an in-
dependent spirit, especially when a home lies just be-
yond. And with all this-I could promise, as the chil-
den say, "lots of fun" besides.
If, in some of those emergencies which will often





18 LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.

occur in he early days of any new work, it Aould
now and then be found necessary to live f6oi few
days on good brad and water," what then? We
have tried it quite close enough to understand just
what that means; and we also know how a brave and
cheerful spirit can bring light into the darkest hour,
and a good hearty laugh can give even to such mnonas-


tic fare a piquancy and relish
bles loaded with the choicest
life to which we long to brin
are destitute and suffering,


1 not always found at ta-
viands. But in this new
g those at the North who
there is little fear of any


"bread and water" diet, while the rivers and forests
abound with food, to' be had without money and
without price.
The number of dishes required by those who de-
manded three or four courses or more for their daily
dinner will not be needed here; and the cooking uten-
sils and furniture which we think so important in our
Northern homes can be easily dispensed with in a
pioneer's first efforts. Many things can be manufac-
tured by one's own self or by some of the family with-
out going to the very extreme of retrenchment, or
losing sight of neatness and respectability. And thus
in every department one soon learns how very little is
actually required to insure a&good she of comfort
and enjoyment.
I know of those who, losing all at the North but
theii patience, energy, and industry, have managed to
get down to Florida and enter a homestead." Erect-
ing a rough but comfortable shelter, and furnishing it
with what they would once have thought were worth-





A OMkE AND


WORK FOR ALL.


less y~aps that remained out of former abundance,
and A articles as their skill or ingenuty could
manufacture, they prepared a neat and pleasant abode.
In this work the women of the family employed every
leisure moment to increase their comforts, or make the
place attractive, while they were ever ready to help
their husbands and sons in putting in the needed crops
as fast as the land was cleared. While waiting for
these crops to ripen, the men take an hour when needed
to keep a plentiful supply of food by hunting and fish-
ing. Whenever opportunity offered, a few days' work
for neighbors now and then supplied comforts which


they could not raise
sirable. And in this
already see promise
A little self-denial f<
tiers may look with
will have every com
life requires, and ma
tant future when th<
property, with all t]
desirable.
I am only speak
there are difficulties


from their land, or which were de-
primitive, impromptu home, they
of a bright and peaceful future.
or a few years, and ihese new set-
confidence to the time when they
fort that a healthy, independent
y safely look forward to a not dis-
ey will be the owners of valuable
he luxuries that may be thought


ing of wht I have seen. That
and discouragements between the


first steps, of -auchan undertaking and the day which
will put the %et oh firm foundations, I do not deny.
But tell me of any important enterprise which ever
begins smoothly, and marches on to full consumma-
tion without a ripple of trouble or anxiety-without
many mistakes, and perhaps some serious disasters!
I think there is less to fear in seeking to build up a
I





20 LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.

home in Florida-bearing in mind to the fullest extent
all the difficulties one is liable to encounter-ti* when
entering a new and untried feld elsewhere. This de-
lightful climate, the rapid growth of vegetation, the
comparatively short time that must intervene before
one begins to reap the fruit of well-directed industry,
all conspire to cheer the spirits, to keep the courage
alive, and to lighten burdens which but for such en-
couragement might become oppressive.
I have many Castles in Spain," built when, mier-
ably sick and feeble, we first came to Florida, and
which ever since, as we see more of this charming
country, have been rising on firmer foundations than
such castles can usually boast. Some of these I will
show you; but, having already lingered too long, I
will close ndw, reserving them for the next letter.
My "Castles" are sufficiently stable to keep another
week.








4%.




>A






aM


Lkc


-,(~7~


LETTER


CASTLES


IN SPAIN.


ON my first visit to
this land


." Of birds and bowers,
Where at once upon the
orange-tree
Hang her fruitage and her
flowers,"


was


more than


realize the


luxury, of breathing easily


with


daily increasing


comfort, and therefore did little but


quietly indulge ip day dreams.


Will


you visit with me presently some of





22 LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.

the "castles" so often built and filled with happy ten-
ants ?
The first visit to Florida seldom awakens much


enthusiasm. It requires
to the great dissimilarity


country and
green fields,
and harvests
broader civil
at the North


primitive,


the colder
the ripening
i, the marks
ization, which
SWe forge


uncultured


time to become accustomed
between. this section of our
regions. One pines for the
grass, the merry haymaking
of more rapid progress and
h form a prominent feature
t the olden times, when, in its
ate, it was as a country far


more wild and dreary than anything seen in Florida.
But now it shows what labor and skill, united, can do.
It has made our cold and rocky North bud and blos-,
som like the rose. Spread over Florida the same skill
and energetic labor that for the last century has grad-
ually, clothed and beautified the North, and in less
than one third of that time this State will Jbe like
the garden of Eden, and all traces of the ruin and
desolation which war has left will be for ever oblit-
erated.
The first visits to this part of our land are more
frequently made for health than for pleasure; and,
not realizing how many things indispensable at the
North are unnecessary here, it is not strange that
for a while one longs for "the flesh-pots of Egypt."
With little or no expectation that it may be necessary


to repeat
cial inve
sure, or
dence in


the visit,
stigation
profit of
Florida.


there is no inducement for any spe-
as to the prudence, comfort, plUa-
securing a permanent winer resi-


, *





CASTLES IN


SPAIN.


Then, again, those who can be content and happy
only in the excitements and enjoyments of fashion-
able life will never be attracted here, unless for a fly-
ing visit; and then, instead of learning anything of
the country, they will be disposed to pass their time
in a round of frivolous pleasures which can be easily
found in many of the attractive and fashionable ho-
tels. These are not the best places in which to learn
all about the resources of Florida, and form a correct
estimate of her wonderful capabilities. Unless such a
life is the height of their desires and ambition, few
will spend a second winter here-breathe this soft and


balmy air, enjoy the brilliant
Sand partake of the delicious
to form some estimate of
and vast resources-without
strong attachment has been
a great desire to secure at
here.


flowers and lovely birds,
s fruits, and just begin
its natural advantages
being conscious that a
formed, and by and by
least a winter residence


At present, however, while so much
was once most beautiful lies desolate in m
this country through the devastations of
much money and labor will be needed to
waste places and revive the original lo
growth of interest, mostly through transi
must of necessity be much too slow fo


of all


lany parts of
war, and so
restore the
veliness, the
ent visitors,
r our impa-


tience. Yet it is impossible to doubt that, with intel-
ligently directed labor, it will be no herculean task to
make the future of this fair land far transcend its
former beauty and productiveness. So confident am I
that great results are possible, it is difficult to "pos-





LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.


sees my soul in patience till this work of rejuvenation
begins to advance more rapidly.
But, while there is no spot on earth where the poor,'
if willing to work industriously (and they deserve
little sympathy if they are not), can be made so com-
fortable, and with reasonable hopes of increasing pros-
perity with each coming year, still it is the young
-those who are in search of some desirable spot on


which to erect tl
"wedded love's
any other class t(
try all that the 1
this class before
dreaming during
ness, in my first
assuredly believe


heir alti
first he
make
laker p
my mi
all the
visit to


ars,
>me


and build and consecrate
"-who can do more than


this now sparsely settled coun-
repared it to be. It was with
ind that I was planning and
long hours and days of weak-
Florida; and these dreams, I


5, will be in some degree realized and


at no very distant day.
Oh I the many neat and comfortable homes that
those who are just beginning their new and indepen-
dent life could establish here, and with comparatively
little expenditure of money Ah the homes with


the promise of future independence
but unfortunate poor, who are now


North,
during
friends
winds
castles
again,
many


which I have planned in
these long winter nights,


are trying to forget snow
in most unprofitable slum
do vanish in the morning ?
and nothing can rob me o
ears hence,, in God's good


my
wh<
and
ber
Is
f th


for the
suffering
wakeful
en my No
Since and
I What
hall build


Le


honest
at the
hours
rthern
sleety
if my
them


faith that, not


time, a way will be


provided by which my structures shall have firm and





CASTLES IN SPAIN.

abiding foundations, and these visions
no longer fade before the brightness
sun;
To restore that which war has laid
establish communications through which
tions of these regions will be sure of
and amicable exchange become easy to a
land, we must 'be largely indebted, no
good and wise action of those in powe
principled politicians, both North and


25

of the night
of the. rising


in ruins, and
h the piroduc-
good markets,
ll parts of our
doubt, to the
r. When un-


South,


shall


have become entangled in the nets they have spread
for the unwary, and, reaping the fruits of their own
selfish follies, shall have been put aside for honest
men to fill their places (for surely there are more
than ten righteous men left to save our country)-men
who will labor earnestly to establish good institutions
of every kind, and secure every facility for rapid
transportation and communication all over our land-
then we may confidently hope to see developed the
best moral elements as well as the full natural re-
sources of this whole united country.
But while recognizing the great importance of co-
operation and aid from our Government to secure the
most speedy development of this and all other States
in our Union, we also know that much can and must
*be done, by individual effort, while waiting for the
tardy assistance of those in high places.
On my first visit to Florida I spent several weeks
in a part of the State where I had the best opportuni-
ties of constantly observing what ignorance, neglect,
and misfortune had done, and, by the contrast which
3
It \L


& W k





LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.


lay ever before me, realizing
taste, and industry, with but ve


It was on the St. Mark's.
the Saratoga of Florida, bi
almost entirely destroyed.


visit i
could
neatly
ing th
newly
many


The
at d
T


what education, good
ry little money, can do.
place was once deemed
ring the war had been
three years before my


t was waste and barren; but from my wind
then see a large track of land well plowed,
fenced, where grain and potatoes were co
e broad fields with. rich green, and where
planted cotton and sugar-cane would be:
days spring up with promise of abundant


w I
and


remunerative harvest.
What had wrought this change ? What had
this oasis in the desert ? Three years before a fe
gray-haired man, over whom the doctors had
nounced sentence of death, resolved to make one
effort for life, and try what Florida, instead of
sicians. could do for him. He purchased the


orange-grove of any size
eral desolation-an old grc
and covered with lichens,
rejuvenation. The fences


0
6


that had survived the
,ve, whose trees, moss-b
gave but faint promi
all around the place


a
made
seble,
pro-
more
phy-
only
gen-
ound
se of
were


/I
A, r


tumbling down, gates off the hinges, and everything
telling of neglect, desertion, and decay.
In the middle of the grove stood a long, rambling,
one-story house, with many dilapidated out-buildings.
It was evidently once among the aristocratic resi-
dences of the place, but, like the grove and surround-
ing property, was fast tending to ruin.
Here, sick and very feeble, the new owner began
the work of rejuvenating both the property and him-
" If / /'
k b I


I (I 0


I


I





CASTLES IN


SPAIN.


self-not by waiting for strength to come to him, but
by crawling-for at first it was literally nothing more
-out after it; beginning by sitting in an easy-chair
in the fields and giving directions to his hired men;
then, as fast as strength was gathered in, working
with his own hands, at first only a few moments at a
time, then stopping to rest.
So the first year sped by. Believing that strength
is given for use, and, if employed with judgment, will
take unto itself a double quantity, he daily "traded"
with his small capital of strength, and found that it
surely increased and multiplied with wonderful ra-
pidity.
Three years later, at the time of our visit, we found


this m
dustry
stand
his un
dustry
more
rather


an vigorous and full of energy and resolute in-
The colored men in his employ would often
in open-mouthed amazement when witnessing
tiring resolution, thus receiving a lesson in in-
they sadly needed. Such lessons are by far
forcible and effective when taught by deeds
than words. True. that race is slow to learn


such lessons,
the growth if
and neatness
gardens; bu
velop lasting
Now, six


but little by little they take root, and
s perhaps first seen in the increased care
about their own humble homes and small
t in time this mode of teaching will de-
and effective industry.
years from the time when this gray-haired


man with feeble steps began his work on a place
which, like himself, seemed past renovating, you will
not find anywhere a happier, more energetic man, or
one who can easily accomplish so much labor; or a


w ------ -v





LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.


more flourishing orange-grove, or more neatly fenced
and productive fields. The moss and lichens, the
scale-insects, and other evils that were killing the
groves, are all destroyed under this skillful manage-
ment and wise administration; the trees, grown young
and vigorous, are repaying their, owner for his care by
yielding the largest and most perfect fruit that can be
seen anywhere.
But this man, whose life has been prolonged and
strengthened for many years ol usefulness by this
wonderful climate, has not given his attention solely
to orange-culture. He is testing the fertility and re-
sources of Florida in every way that promises success
and remuneration. He is raising sugar-cane, and mak-
ing sugar and molasses from it, himself. Irish and sweet
potatoes, and all kinds of vegetables and luxuries that
belong to a well-kept farm, or plantation, receive the


amount of attention
plentiful harvest.
In the next lett4
trast between this ea


that best promises or secures a


er I desire to show you the con-
rnest, systematic, intelligent kind


of labor, and
produces half
yield, and als(
youth, strength


that careless
that this soil
> bring to yc
h, and firmer


building up a comfortable
of ease and competency, f
and their parents' declining
This one village, and th
ing it till it shall far outshine
the war, is only a sample


surface work which never
can so readily be made to
>ur notice the work which
health have done toward
home, with every promise
or their mature manhood
years.
Opportunities of improv-
le its best condition before
of many others. Under-






CASTLES IN SPAIN.


stand that I make no pretense of


of Florida, but only, at your request,


giving you a history


send


impressions, and such positive knowledge as I gather


from good authority, careful


cal oversight of


observation, and practi-


a few acres.
















Swz~j


4100


Yo,


LETTER III.

LIFT UP THE HANDS THAT HANG
DOWN AND STRENGTHEN THE
FEEBLE KNEES.

u have not forgotten the state-


ment I gave of
done in one of
calities in this
who came here


what can and has been
the least encouraging lo-
country by a feeble man
with seemingly no chance


here-i


for life; you can now understand how,
with slowly returning health, under the
recuperating influences of this delightful
climate, aided by resolute, energetic, and
practical labor, he. has changed the wil-
4 derness into the fertile garden which I
see before me from the windows where
1 I now write. But you must be told of
Florida as you would find it were you
the good and the bad-if you would gain a cor-


rect impression of this strangely beautiful country.
I have told you of my window-view. Now step
out into the moonlight, as I have often done, from


9!;y-





LWwT


UP THE HANDS THAT HANG DOWN.


among the orange-trees, or under the China-tree which
overhangs the gate. Right before us lies the saddest
thing that can be imagined, next to a desolate heart


-a deserted village. Roofless cl
houses, all that fire and fierce
standing, rapidly falling to pieces
tilled fields, groves of orange-tree
perfumed blossoms, or golden with


moss-grown,


covered with lichens


churches,


tenantless


bombardment left
; fenceless and un-
s, once white with
luscious fruit, now
and other destruc-


tive parasites-the dead limbs more abundant than the
living.
How often from such moonlight scenes have I re-
turned to my room to spend many sleepless hours in
trying to devise some practical scheme by which hun-
dreds of the skillful and intelligent men and women,
.suffering for food and the bitter cold at the North,
could be transplanted to this or many similar spots
in FIbrida I Put some of our Northern sufferers, who
are now walking our streets half starved or freezing,
down here, set them to work, and they would show
better than tongue or pen can describe what a few
months of intelligent industry and skill can effect,


even in a place which on I
and past reclaiming.
But bringing this land
and redeeming it from the
part of the good which


Think of the incomparably
which would result from such
women, and children saved fro
beggary, which so soon dwarfs


first sight seems worthless

under proper cultivation,
wilderness, is only a small
might be accomplished.


more important good
divine charity. Men,
m that cruel want and
and wellnigh destroys





32 LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.
a human being-eating away courage, energy, self-
reliance, and independence I To lift up and purify,
to encourage and ennoble any portion of the human
race-is not that even a more blessed work than to
repair the waste places of earth, and make "the wil-
derness bud and blossom like the rose" ?
But think what it would be to unite the two la
bors I What nobler work can any one desire than to
strengthen the weak, heal the sick, feed the hungry,
find homes for the homeless, and transform into self-
supportihg men and women those who now overtax
our sympathies and drain our purses, without securing
any permanent relief. And add to all this that, by
the very act of relieving these unfortunate people, the
ruined villages are rebuilt, and the beauty and pro-
ductiveness which God has given to this country are
in a promising way to be richly developed.
But while such visions rise before one of *what
this land, now crippled and defaced by the ravages of
war and the neglect that must follow it, might be
made in a few years with proper care and resolute in-
dustry, and the hosts of sufferers that might be trans-
formed into useful, happy citizens, one must not
make the common mistake of supposing that this
transformation can be effected without hard work-
without much fatigue and some discouragements.
Such drawbacks are met with in every pursuit, in
every undertaking. Often many days of hard- work
are lost through inexperience; but such losses should
teach lessons that seldom need to be repeated, and
therefore such experience is not dearly purchased,





LIFT UP THE HANDS THAT HANG DOWN. 33

How small a proportion of what is given every
month in careless or injudicious charity, or wasted
in frivolous and unsatisfying pleasures, would sup-
port a whole family here, and, best of all, give them
the first fair start toward independent, useful citi-
zenship I
But something even better often springs from
such wise investments. It is not simply finding food
and shelter for the miserable; but, without some kind
hand stretched out to save by securing a self-sup-
porting position, many a family-buffeted and tossed
about, gleaning a precarious living in the hardest pos-
sible way-has through want and discouragement sunk
into a listless apathetic state, which leaves them an
easy prey to the yery worst temptations. Who will
be obliged to pay the taxes which vice and crime im-
pose on a community? Is it not a better economy
to aid the poor and suffering to gain a foothold on a
spot where, by industry, they can support themselves,
and through such industry be redeemed, if helped in
time, from a life of want and wretchedness, that may
tempt to sin, that sooner or later will destroy both
body and soul?
By raising up and repairing the doors of some of the
half-destroyed houses in the waste places which war
has left in Florida-by mending broken windows and
neatly curtaining them-no longer allowing the blinds
to swing on one hinge at the mercy of every wind
that blows-how soon might one see a neat white-
washed cottage peeping out from under the well-
trimmed orange or shade trees I Why, a smart active





LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.


woman would not rest long uutil-alone, if itnmust be
-she had brought some order out of this confusion,
some beauty out of this decay! I know I should for-
get fatigue and suffering in the great pleasure of
working'out such transformation.
Do not think that Florida is full of deserted vil-
lages and moss-grown orange-groves. Some of the old
villages still remain unoccupied, and are rapidly losing
all semblance of anything that was probably once the
homes of refined and wealthy people; but Northern
enterprise and activity are improving and' building
up most of these waste places, and it will not be many
years before these will become habitable, comfortable
dwellings-if not stately mansions-and well-culti-
vated and productive orange-grove.
"But an effort to reclaim such old, half-dead trees
as you have told, of seems preposterous. I should pre-
fer to grub up such unsightly objects, plant a young
grove, and possess my soul in patience till they came
to maturity."
That, begging your pardon,.proves your ignorance


as regards orange-culture.
only one year's skillful la
have jumped to the same
when I first saw some of
gnarled and unsightly, wit
old age"; but since then I
unpromising, rejuvenated.
tured, grows more and mor
after it first commences bh


You have been told how
bor was repaid. I should
conclusion that you have
the long-neglected groves,
;h no promise of "a green
have seen trees much more
The orange, when well nur-
e remunerative every year
caring, quite down to old


age; and even when neglected and abused for several





LIFT UP. THE HANDS THAT HANG DOWN.


years, it, quickly and gFtefully responds to the first


touch of kindness
Scrape off the
all dead branches,
fully all through


and proper care.
moss, remove the lichens, cut away
wash and scrub the bark, plow care-


grove, a
a


with muck from the swamps
having this muck properly m
leaves, etc., and leaving it to b4
for a time, some bone meal s]
and plowed in; and in a year
cayed grove will amply repay
bright and healthy fruit. If


nnd e
and
mixed
e well
spread
or tw
the o'
this c


nrich the ground
river banks-first
with ashes, lime,
combined-with,
over the ground
ro an old half-de-
wner by a crop of
;are is continued,


each year will increase the products of the trees; and.
your grandchildren'may find this grove, once appar-
ently so near death, a handsome legacy.
Bring down our Northern men who are begging for
work, but finding none, and, as if by magic, not only
will the work of re-creation go marching on, but new
land will be broken up, young groves will be planted,
and, where is now the wilderness, neatly fenced and
well-tilled fields, rich in cane and cotton, will obliter-


ate the intrenchments and earthworks, sad
the war. Encroaching on the haunts of the


other wild animals, little hamlets w:
with broad streets, shaded by the
trees that make these forests so love
to, magnolia, liquid-amber or gum-tr
pine, and a countless variety of trees,
pass quickly from infancy to mature


ill soon
rapidly
ly. Thu
ee-the


tokens of
deer and
grow up,
growing
B palmet-
oak, elm,


which in Florida
and vigorous age


-would in a marvelously short time canopy the streets
of these young villages With a grateful shade, that a





LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.


Northern


settlement


would willingly work fears


secure.
Pretty settlements are springing up, not only along


the banks of the St.


John's, but around the beautiful


inland lakes, where one family-and sometimes two or


three-five or six years ago, felled


broke the ground in


the midst of


the first trees and
the forest, where


never before had


there


been an acre of


Some of these, when I first went South,


cleared land.
were isolated,


and to an inexperienced eye gave little promise of any


great comfort or success.


rantly


I judged, as you did, igno-


for now orange-groves, just coming into bear-


ing, are plenty all along the


tages and neatly


banks, and


clad women


pleasant cot-


children indicate


that they have passed out of pioneer life into organized
townships or pleasant villages, making steady progress
year by year toward elegant and refined homes.


Many of these


new settlements have been started


by two


or three


brothers,


leaving


home


to select


family


homestead


and after clearing and fenc-


acres,


getting in their first


planting


vegetables, planting the seedlings or sour stumps"


for the young
nuity to erect


orange-groves,


neat,


they


comfortable


exert their inge-
shelter for their


parents


the younger portion of the family,


will join them when all this rough preliminary work
has prepared the way for them.
Ah if you could realize how very truthful all this


is, which-shivering over your


Northern coal fires-


may possibly appear


like exaggeration


or rhapsody,


you could better understand how very small a portion





LIFT UP THE


HANDS THAT HANG


DOWN.


that wealth


which


so idly


squandered


every


week for that which satisfieth not, could make hun-


dreds happy and self-supporting,


who now go hungry


wretched to


untimely


graves, for


lack of


little assistance.


How often


I have


looked


out on such


places as


have


just been described-so full of promise if right-


ly entered upon-and in imagination appropriated (by
permission) a part of the large sum a fashionable lady
will spend on one party or ball-or, perhaps, a dinner


honor


some


distinguished


person


who,


in his


heart, would gladly give


from


infliction


then


half the sum


imagined


to be excused
e comfortable


homes such


sums would


unfortunate families.


provide
How


for some deserving
those families need


just this which Florida holds,


waiting for them


ah I how Florida needs that class of people whom we
would so gladly send to her shores!
True, that which we build in the night watches of
comfort and beauty i demolished by the rising sun.


But what more


substantial can


fashionable lady


show after expending so large a sum on her fancies ?


Indeed, such


dreamings as mine give a higher enjoy-


ment, free from any of the inconvenience, fatigue, or
heart-burnings which molest and irritate the fashiona-


ble lady.


We are up with the sun, feeling hopeful that


a good time will surely come, by which some of those


dreams may be worked out into realities.


She, jaded


wellnigh


exhausted-her


gold


spent


which satisfieth not--drags her


aching


limbs to


chamber just as night gives place
4


to morning,





LETTERS FROM


FLORIDA.


haps secures a few hours of most unsatisfying slum-


rises


discontented,


envious,


For the time being there may be one sort of


unhappy.
pleasure


these


large,


suffocating, and


expensive entertain-


ments


but on retrospection, both for host and guests,


the taste is too often like Jeremiah's figs-exceedingly
bitter.
Please remember, this is not all idle dreaming. I
have seen these transformations and improvements in


places and


persons


here,


they


are not extreme


cases.


can justly call


visionary is


supposition that those who are joined to


their idols-


who live only for their own selfish gratification-will


ever be dispo
to help feed


sed


to deny themselves one extra ribbon


the hungry, clothe the naked, or provide


a home for the unsheltered wanderer.
Our hope rests chiefly with those who find pleasure
and comfort in helping the weary and heavy-laden-


who only


wait


to see the open


door, to step to


front in all acts of kindness.


excellent incentive
on new land ; for t
gin at the beginni


For the young it is an


to secure a homestead and begin
;hey can afford to take time-to be-
ng, and have what would be to me


the great satisfaction of feeling that they had wrested


a home


from


out of


wilderness, and


built it


from the foundation by perseverance, energy, and solid


labor.
places


But for the feeble and aged


there are many


in some of the deserted villages where,


for a


small sum, they can at once secure some old planta-


tion,


or a few


acres,


that,


although neglected and


tending


to decay, can very soon be made sufficiently





LIFT UP. THE HANDS THAT HANG DOWN.


comfortable to shelter them at once, and by their own
skill, little by little, be made a neat and pleasant
home.
Newport, on the St. Mark's, the west side of Flori-
da, is one of these .spots-given up by those of its
former inhabitants who still live ; and yet the tenant-
less, dilapidated houses, and fields run to waste, could
soon be rejuvenated and be made productive, if there
was any one with intelligence and industry to occupy
and improve. To prove that my statement rests on
more substantial foundations than a woman's imagina-
tion, listen while I give you one example. In that one
place alone there are many others of the same general
character, but one will suffice.
Just across the street from the plantation described
in my first letter, there are two small cottages, better
preserved than most of those lying vacant in that
vicinity. The owners being scattered or dead, and
the heirs making homes or in business elsewhere, both
places, since the war, have stood empty and neglected.
Each cottage has four good-sized rooms, with spacious
fireplaces in each; for, wood being abundant, there
is no need of close economy in fuel. A latticed ver-
anda separates the kitchen, store-roo'ms, and servants'
rooms from the main building. A cemented cistern
or reservoir of ample size is in the rear. A good barn,
hen-house, and yard, all pertain to each place. There
are a few young orange-trees just coming into bearing,
pecan-trees, peaches, figs, grapes, and a few young
apple-trees in good condition. Cape jessamine, crape
myrtle, roses, and many other flowers made the places





LETTERS FROM


FLORIDA.


bright


attractive,


even


with


marks of


neglect which they could not entirely conceaL
The land on which these two cottages stand occu-
pies one large square-I do not recollect the measure
in rods or acres-each house owning half of the land.
The heir of one of these places not being of age, it can


not yet be sold


vent its


but the other was purchased, to pre-


being occupied by tramps or rovers, to the


detriment of a friend.


dred dollars /


The price given was one hun-


The purchaser, having other property in


Florida, was ready to sell it whenever an active, ener-


getic person should


be found,


who would be public-


spirited enough


to help reclaim and build up this vil-


lage.


In less than a


year it was sold again for three


hundred dollars!


Now it


is a pretty


home


and,


though
active,


small,


new


owner proves intelligent,


enterprising, the cotton,


cane, and sweet


potatoes which


could be raised on the place will in a


short time return the sum he gave for the whole


then


he will


be in a condition


to extend his land to


any extent at a simple nominal price.


This is but one case.


Only men and money to cul-


tivate and improve the land are wanted


to make this


region rich in productiveness.and as lovely as fairy land.
Men begging only for work are scattered all over the


North.


Is there none among those who are annoyed


and oppressed


the continued importunity


of the


destitute, who, even if they


man,


" fear not God nor regard


" will give of their abundance even so liberally as


to send these claimants where work can


be obtained,


if only to free themselves from their importunity?





LIFT UP THE HANDS THAT


HANG


DOWN.


you complain


that this gives you little infor-


mation about Florida?


a history that


Well, be patient.


requested-only the


that yearly visits to a land


dearly


It was not
impressions


loved have made


on my own mind-impressions which I feel confident
do not differ materially from well-authenticated facts,


although


alone


am responsible


for what


write.


Three or four years steady efforts of earnest laborers


have
tales.


shown


results


that are almost


fairy-land


I write con more, and therefore "hasten slow-


ly," making perhaps the common mistake of thinking


what


interests


one most deeply must have the


same attractions for all.





























ts~ 'Ar

ve.


LETTER


tt;
K


WHAT


BEEN


HAS
DONE,


AND CAN BE
DONE AGAIN.


THERE


some


marriage step at once into


elegant


homes, and


with-


out exertion on their part are provided with an ample


income and, as far as wealth and social


position can


1
I,:


r





WHAT


HAS BEEN DONE.


secure it, have every prospect of gliding through life
"on the smooth surface of a summer sea." These are
not likely to find any great attractions in Florida, or
only those which tourists and pleasure-seekers are ex-
pected to find in any new scenes. To be sure, some,
with all that wealth can give, may be compelled to
make this country their residence, or die. "All that
a man hath will he give for his life." But if for this
cause they settle here, their riches will cheat them
out of half the true enjoyment those will find who
come ready to work and build up-not to be waited
upon and lead useless, self-indulgent lives.
We do not look to this class with any hope that
they willdevelop the wonderful, unlimited resources
of Florida. To be sure, their money, if liberally
used, will greatly assist others to open up all that now
lies dormant here. But we look most hopefully to
those who, having less of this world's goods, are


forced to begin life
tions but such as the
insure. And this clE
ness, and courage, wi
where to choose," w


in


earnest,
own enerl
if they
"all the
need no


nd with no expecta-
gy and industry will
have vigor, earnest-
world before them
pity. They will be


none the less happy for the.lack of ready-me
if they are sensible enough to understand
was not given to be all play and romance,
various duties, to be gradually unfolded and
in God's own good time.
If, when young people come to years of
and are ready to make a home of their own
begin this new life with the full determine


ide money,
1 that life
but full of
developed


maturity,
, they will
tion to ac-




LETTERS FROM FLORIDA


these duties as they rise, and, confident in their


Father's


wisdom,


endeavor


to perform


them


faith-


fully, they will soon learn how full of choicest bless-


wings,


waiting to be garnered all along the unknown,


untried way, is a life of diligent courageous effort.


young are often


perplexed


with


unforeseen


obstacles and


discouragements at the


very threshold


of their new and independent life.


Their perplexities


frequently spring from the attempt to


build


up their


own future on the old foundations which their fathers


laid.
adapte
work:


These were doubtless wisely planned,


d


to the


and well


period when their ancestors began the


and, under the then existing circumstances, no


doubt the best that could have been devised*


But, as


years


on, many


changes


incident


a rapidly


growing population


unfolded better ways, and gradu-


ally made the old ways distasteful and irksome.


This


becoming


more and


more evident, and


growing


discontent and loss of


faith in the old-time methods


becoming


burdensome,


it would


be wise for young


people to relinquish the idea of settling close by large
towns and cities, unless their bank accounts are heavy


and their prospects of


success are past a doubt.


It is


ruinous to remain in familiar localities, hampered by
the old methods, endeavoring to force their way, till


they possess


is wasted in


useless


struggle to


find a firm and permanent foothold.


young


folks,


therefore,


have


little


but their own strong


hands and well-cultured brains


to depend
can keep


on, leave the old


places that only rich men


productive condition, and


go forth





WHAT HAS BEEN DONE.


create a home in newer lands,
stanch integrity, and the uns


where intelligent labor,
elfish desire to do good


to all around them will make their presence a blessing,


sure


themselves


honorable


position


influence.


acting


under


such


incentives,


their


good influence may remain to comfort and strengthen


others


long after these pioneers have gone to receive


the joyful "Well


done, good


and faithful


servant.


For all who are ready thus to


life, and


begin an independent


establish their future from the foundations,


there


can


is no place
e so easily,


within I
rapidly,


knowledge


successfully


where this


accom-


polished as in this State.


I prontsed


been


some


done here, and


examples of what
can be done again.


know
I have


what


improvements a sick and


feeble old


man had wrought in a few years on an old and miser-
ably dilapidated plantation, and will now attempt to ex-
plain what younger and more robust men can do in new


lands,


when undaunted by such hardships as must in-


evitably be met by pioneers in every new undertaking.


About seven


years since


three brothers


eft their


Northern home on a prospecting tour through Florida,


intending, if suited, to


' enter a homestead and pre-


pare a comfortable home for their, parents and sister


as rapidly as possible.


they selected


After visiting many localities,


a quarter section of Government land


near Little Lake George, through which the St. John's


River runs.


These


young men had not


been accus-


tomed


to farming or the use of carpenter's tools, nor


were they familiar with any of those kinds of labor





LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.


necessary to


carry


out their plans.


they took


with them a chest of tools, well stocked with all that
might be needed, and a good supply of farming uten-
sils. All this shows that they were smart, intelligent,


hopeful,


courageous


young


men.


None


other


should or would venture on such an experiment.


After the


locality


was


decided


upon,


their first


work was to build a lo
This was easily done.


g house for their own shelter.
[hen several acres were cleared,


fenced in, and a large number of sour-orange stumps
set out to be ready for grafting the next spring, or
when the roots were well established : and beside these


a large quantity of


sweet-orange seeds were


planted,


to start a seedling grove.


This is an impOrtant con-


sideration for all new-comers, as these young groves


should


growing while


and attention


the owners are giving


to immediately necessary


work.


time
The


grass started, corn, sweet and Irish potatoes, and other


important crops


were


then


planted,


to be ready for


early use when


those anxiously waiting at the North


should come to them.
Having labored to get all these things safely under
way, and in a prosperous condition, the next step was
to build a more comfortable and commodious dwelling,
and make everything about thd place as home-like and
attractive as possible for the parents 'and sister. Um
deterred by lack of mechanical knowledge, and deter-


mined as far as possible to supply this


want


by good


common sense, and


that skill which is


born of


vering efforts, they prepared a plan of a house,
they developed with most encouraging success


perse-
which
:and





WHAT


rapidly,


HAS BEEN


under their united


DONE.


efforts, rose as neat and


convenient a cottage as could


be desired.


broad


hall the whole length of the house, a


pleasant parlor,


a comfortable diaing-room, and six bedrooms gave am-
ple accommodations for the whole family and a gener-
ous provision for guests.


In accordance


with


the Southern custom (a most


sensible arrangement, and one which* would add great-


ly to


the comfort of


any family),


the kitchen, store-


rooms, and servants' room were built separate from the
house, but connected by a latticed veranda, with a roof


to protect from


sun and rain


thus all cooking


fumes were kept away from the house.


The molding


fine work, it is true,


were not finished


by an ac-


complished carpenter


time since,


but I spent some days, a short


with this most kind and hospitable family,


and could be well content to spend my days in as neat
and comfortable a dwelling.


When


was


arranged,


rest of the


family


joined


those


so speedily and


energetically


prepared a home for them in the midst of the forest.


Before leaving the North,


the sister sold


her piano,


and invested


and on reaching
that had been th


the money in


dry goods and groceries


Southern home,


brothers'


abode


house


was enlarged


suitably fitted up for a store, of which the young lady
had the sole charge.
Now, at the close of seven years, this family have


a pretty


property


a comfortable


home,


which


they are constantly improving.


A large part of their


orange-trees are mostly sweet seedlings, which,


until





48 LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.

within a short time, it was supposed could never come


bearing


eight


or ten


years


they


thought to be safer in case of frost than the grafted
sour stump. Later experience, however, proves that,
by grafting the sweet seedlings, they can be brought


into bearing almost
stump-that is to I


not quite as early as the sour


when


between


four and


years old.


This enterprising family have now a large


number of orange, lemon, guava, and fig trees, as well
as a choice collection of grapes, and raise successfully


cotton, sugar, corn,


melons,


potatoes,


and all needed


vegetables for their own use as well as for sale.
In all these years they have not paid one penny for
hired help, but have done many days' work for others.


Two


sons, in addition


to their


home


labor,


superintend and do a large share of


work on two


or three neighboring plantations, where they are con-


sidered


invaluable.


With


this amount


hard


labor


thought


breaking up


new


unhealthy, they have


land,
been


which
blessed


is usually
with per-


health,


have


never


employed


a physician.


Does any one need a
ness of Florida ?


better warrant for the healthi-


This


is only one example out of


very many that


have come under my own immediate observation, and


is given


to illustrate how liberally this beautiful lanJ


will recompense honest and intelligent labor, and what


pleasant


comfortable homes


she gives


to those


who trust her generosity.


" But


while


waiting


newly planted


orange-


groves, and fruit-trees


every


variety,


to become





WHAT


profitable,


HAS BEEN


DONE.


what are the prospects of


support for the


new settler during these five or six years ?"


Ample.


If one settles near some plantation owned


by those whose


on it, and


business will


can secure


not allow them


the superintendence of


to live
such a


place, he is fortunate


for the pioneer, who intends to


live on his own land, can take charge of the stranger's
plantation, and be paid in money, or half the crops he


can raise on it,.and at the


same time push


work forward.


secure


his own
a good


support for
grounds are


family


such


cleared and planted.


time


as his


own


If no such place is


near of


access, he will not starve


or suffer any


hard


deprivation.
Every one on coming out should take such canned
meats and vegetables as he cab and flour and vegeta-


bles will be


found within


marketing distance to help


through


the crops are well under way, and some


ready for use.


All kinds of vegetables


desired are easily raised.


Florida beef


that
and t


can be
)ork are


proverbially poor, but it should not be so.


A North-


ern farmer would soon prove that good pork and beef


are as


possible


here


as at


North.


But it takes


time to bring about any desirable change, and till then


our new-comers


can easily


content with


a poor


quality.


The experiment of using this a


year or so


only make


them more determined to introduce a


better quality as-soon as they can.


But there


is no necessity of


suffering from want,


even with poor beef and pork, so long as the beautiful


rivers and


lakes abound with fish, and the woods are





LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.


full of game.


There was never a spot at the


North


where one can have chickens, ducks, and turkeys, and


abundance
tifully as i
to arrange


1


eggs,


with very trifling effort, so plen-


country.


And


until


there


is time


a poultry house and yard on a large scale,


what


better food


can any one desire


than


the deli-


cious wild turkey, duck, partridges, quail, and any va-.


riety


small


easily trapped
the danger is


but most tempting birds,
or snared ? And the .ve


n


which are so
ison / Here


that the excellence of the wild meats


will tempt those who are in haste


into good
beef and


to bring their land


condition, to delay the work of improving


pork,


or, except


for the luxury of having


milk in plenty, forgetting to care for their cows.
Do you think-although there may and must


some


hardships


to be encountered in taking the pre-


liminary


steps


a home


here-do you think any


need suffer from hunger, unless too lazy to open their
mouths and receive the good things a bountiful Provi-
dence provides ?"


There are many fruits also
earlier than the orange. The


that come to maturity
fig is a rapid grower,


and as easily propagated as the currant, and begins to


bear as early after well started.


The fresh fruit will


not bear transportation to the North, but it is a great


comfort for those who raise it.
house, for black or white, has


nothing more.


very healthy and


When freshly


nourishing, and


Almost every hut or


s fig-trees, if
gathered, the


none


it have


fruit


need


what a luxury it is when properly dried or preserved.
The guava is also a rapid grower, and the fresh fruit,


I





WHAT HAS BEEN DONE.


I am told, is very fine.


The jelly and marmalade made


from the guava needs no endorsement.
Strawberries, if well cared for, are to be had


from


early winter till late spring, or, indeed, into summer.
Blackberries (wild) are abundant, and so fine that to


cultivate them would be a waste of time.


I saw acres


of ripening, wild blackberries in a neighboring planta-


tion, and heard the


proprietor give orders


to an


*colored
lady to


"auntie "


preserve


to pick


the next


one hundred


day.


When


quarts for a
the hundred


quarts were gathered, none could tell by the looks of
the bushes that any had been taken. The huckleberry
abounds in the woods in every direction. The cassava


root is easily raised, and is


used boiled like a


potato,


or made into starch or in
kinds of cakes are made.
raised and profitable crop.


to flour, from which various
The peanut is also an easily
And in the extreme south-


ern part of Florida almost any kind of


fruit that can


be found in the tropics can be cultivated and made re-
munerative.


Time would fail


to enumerate all the fruits, vege-


tables, nuts, etc., that Florida will yield bountifully to


those who accept her favors, and are
them forward with skill and industry


ready to


bring


but she has no


promises for those who will not help themselves.


"entering


a homestead," it is not wise


to at-


tempt to clear a large amount of land at first, or in


clearing to cut down all the forest trees.


Some of the


forest trees should


preserved in clusters of


six or


eight, according to the character of the tree, both for


beauty and to protect the


young


orange groves from





LETTERS FROM


FLORIDA.


wind,


from


danger


frost.


There is


seldom


any frost, but occasionally a cold snap warns


the orange-grower to be careful, and the experience of


those who have groves


advanced


that those


lands where all the trees are cut off


from frost and winds.


suffer most, both


The land being thus exposed,


the sun
growth


sucks
needs,


all the


and injures if


moisture


the young


not quite destroys it.


It is sad to see large tracts of land, like a desert, with-'


out any shade-trees


when


the fields and crops


would be so much benefited by them, aside from the
great pleasure one derives from the grand and beauti-


ful trees.


The eagerness to get the land in a


produc-


state


in the


blinds the judgment.


shortest


possible


time


True, the growth of


sometimes
all things


here is


soon


so rapid,


that new trees


from


cover a cleared field if allowed to


the old roots
; but nothing


can replace


giant


trees


for centuries


have


been the patriarchs of


forest.


And added to the


regret for their


is also the


thought


that, if


little


judgment


is used


in destroying the forests,


will not


be long before the fuel now so plentiful will


be greatly needed.
A sensible man will clear only so much land as can
be properly cultivated, set out as many oranges as the
working force which he has on hand can bud or graft,


give


all needed


care


then


start


a nursery


planting seeds.


This


done,


the vegetables or other


varieties of fruits will claim his care.


But,


as a homestead


embraces


one hundred and


sixty acre, and only a small part of it should be under





WHAT HAS BEEN DONE.


cultivation-say


fifteen


twenty


acres-all


these


other acres must not be left profitless.
SGeorgian cattle are a good investment.


If one has


a little
promise


These
head.


money that


returning


cattle


can be spared,


it fourfold in


are bought


When brought


gives


good


a few months.
d six dollars a


to the homestead they may be


fed for a day or two, and then "branded" and turned


loose to range


if they


please,


the woods
in miles


belonging to
)f uncleared


the place, or,


land.


Bring


them home at night a few times, throw a little corn


into the inclosure, and


they will soon


learn to return


from


their wanderings every night of their own will.


This is called cow-penning them


and, after


orange-


trees


attain


a good


growth,


" pen"


should


around
are of


the trees, for cattle thus penned


every night


great benefit in enriching the ground, and will


bring forward
of fertilizing ;
the fall these


trees faster than any other mode


no harm to the


cattle,


trees.


having become quite fat on the


wild grass in the woods,
thirty dollars a head.


can be


sold for


twenty


You


have


given


me an exhaustin


theme,


where to find a stopping-place it is difficult to tell.


meant to have finished


in this letter, and to have told


you of


this old settlement at


Rollestown, and of


sev-


eral other places, of the Medicinal


Springs, etc., etc.,


but will


try and


bring all


wish


say-no,


would not


be possible-but all


that I can


not refrain


from saying, into my next letter.






















LETTER V.

AT HAVE YOU TO SAY
MALARIAL FEVERS ?

LAST year, on my way to
by the good steamer City
Dallas. I was as much


interested in one of the lady


passengers as
sage and a full


a rough pas-
allowance of


ABOUT



Flor-





genu-


me seasickness would


permit.


lover,
some


a sensible


months


before


man


preceded


to select land in Florida, and


the best provision


make


for his bride that


- -


could be expected in the early days


a pioneer s


When


he had so far progressed


in his


work as


to secure a comfortable


shelter,


lady, equally


sensible,


did not require


to waste


time


and money to


come for


her, but, sure of


good


WH




ida


------~


--- - -


--





MALARIAL FEVERS.


care and all needed


attentions from


Captain


Hines,


and every comfort that he had power to provide, she


came


without


any escort to meet her lover at Jack-


sonville.


Here


was married


in a simple,


quiet


manner, and left that same evening for her new home.


Some few months since


I received a


letter from


this lady, from which I had intended to copy largely,
as an excellent corroboration of my own ideas of what


willing hands a
if they are led


courageous hearts may


to make a home


hope for,


Florida.


have lost the letter, and regret it all


the more, as I


had
able


planned


to visit this


to compare a


pioneer


lady, a
's life


s


requested, and


in Florida with my


own
recall


experience o
neither her


earl3
new


Western


name


nor her


can now


location


somewhere not


very far above


Little


Lake George,


she found a comfortable log cabin, or house, ready for


her.


She told me the


number


acres


husband


already cleared and. planted.


lings were just starting, and
ing were set out and thrivinE


pleasures of
brought from


simple


The orange seed-


" sour stumps ", for graft-
. She spoke of the quiet


housekeeping-the


the North, that were viewing in


flowers
beauty


with


the wild plants and vines


she had


transplanted


to brighten


beautify


rustic


home,


with an


earnestness that proved her a fit wife for an enterpris-
ing pioneer.
Her chickens and other poultry were also a source


of great pride to her, and


deservedly, as she had been


very successful in rearing them, and even in this short


time


quite


a flock.


Chickens,


eggs,





56 LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.

canned meats and fruits she brought from.the North,


were an important item n6w,


while everything was in


a formative state.


To be sure, her


husband occasion-


ally brought


in game, but had little time for hunting


while his trees and crops were needing constant care.


But this
girlhood


good
There
but tl
edge


wife


was strong


had learned


thing


every


to handle


young


may come a time when


hat of


many others, may
s accomplishment.


fearless, and in


the oars


lady


early


expertly-a
understand.


not only her own life,


depend on
After th


her knowl-
e morning


work was over indoors, this lady either worked in the


garden near


her husband, or, before the sun was too


powerful, launched her boat and went alone on to the


beautiful


lake, to


provide


a fine


fish, fresh. from the


water, for their dinner.
Before leaving the


North


she had furnished her-


self bountifully with a good supply of choice reading,


and,


when needing rest, enjoyed them while swinging


in her hammock


under the grand old


trees that sur-


round the little house, now fast blossoming into beauty ;
while several well-cleared fields near by already mani-


tested


the marvelous


power of industry intelligently


applied.


In the evenings her


husband'read


to her,


when she was busy with her needle.


letter


was


so fresh


evidently truthful,


that I longed


to roll back the wheels of time and be-


anew, in a land so


rich in resources, and so


bountiful in repaying the labor bestowed upon it.
Another lady, bound for Florida, was also with us


during this same voyage-a


married lady,


with two





MATIARIAT FEVERS.


little children, one a babe in


or se1
from
where
band
the la
ceive


ven years old.


She had


beyond Chicago, I
near Smyrna, on t
and son had been
nd and building th
her and her weary


a,


the arms, the other six
come, with no escort,


think, and
he Indian
there some
e house thi
little ones.


was going some-
River. Her hus-
months, clearing
at was soon to re-
She talked as if


she was well posted in all the hardships and many in-
conveniences she would probably encounter. A slight,
pale woman, but in nowise disheartened after the
storm and seasickness were over. Her husband had
wisely kept her thoroughly informed of all he had ex-
perienced, and what she might expect, and his descrip-
tion of the country and climate disarmed the new life
of all terrors.
These are the right kind of men and women to
make Florida all she can and should be.
But what about the sickly summers, the malarial
fevers ? Is there nothing to be feared from this
source ? "
Certainly. Where will you find a spot in which
one can not conjure up all sorts of terrors, if he pre-
fers to live in perpetual fear of what may happen?
There is almost as much to feed such weakness as
may be found in any country. But why not inquire
about the chills," congestive, typhoid, and the other
varieties of fever-of the acute diseases, pleurisy,
pneumonia, diphtheria, and a multitude of ailments,
seldom if ever known in Florida, but of daily occur-
rence in New York and Brooklyn-all along the banks
of the lovely Hudson and Connecticut, and other riv-





LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.


ers-or wherever a new railroad is


being built, or a


public


park


the first


stages


construction


excavation-even


up among


the frosts and snows of


White Mountains ?


currency throughout our


These afflictions, of 'daily oc-
country, are not supposed to


be sufficient to deter people from settling North, East,


or West, any more than


the record


of fearful crimes


constantly


committed


in all


large


cities,


or the re-


preaches, insinuations,


temper,


violence,


common with both parties in times of political excite-
ment, scare people from seeking a home in our cities.
But if Florida, or the South generally, catches the


echo of political recr
the same unchristian


elimination, and


tone, that


answers


"is awful


back in


wicked


Yes, it is wicked, North or


South.


But we have not


seen or heard.half as much here of political or climatic
malaria as is transpiring weekly at the North. The
Ibause or remedy of the first it is not our business to give,
but there are a few.things to be said of the latter.


Those


who


careless


about


unprotected


exposure


the early morning air before eating, or


before the sun is fully up, almost anywhere, and espe-


cially where


find a


many of


fever of


there are river fogs,


some


kind


close


the present generation in our


I be likely to
I don't think
cities will suf-


fer much from any exposure before sunrise.


But our


new settlers can not allow the sun to find them napping.
If a cup of hot tea or coffee, or a little bread and but-


ter, is taken before going out, then we


fear of


should feel no


any harm from the morning air anywhere.


Careless exposure to night air-tempted by a beau-





MALARIAL FEVERS.


tiful moon


pleasant


company, a moonlight sail,


night-hunting or fshing-is not safe, unless well pro-
tected with extra wraps, even on a summer's evening,
in any country or clime that I know of.
The greatest danger will be found while the for-


ests are cleared from new


lands, and the


new fields


plowed for the first time after warm summer weather


sets in,


This,


also, holds


good anywhere, North


South, wherever woodland


broken


for cultiva-


tion.


Do we not find chills, malarial fevers, etc., follow


closely after every new railroad or park that is made ?


For this reason it is much


better to


have


land


cleared and exposed
cool or cold weather.


to the


sun early in


the fall,


If possible, a temporary dwell-


ing should


obtained


at some


little distance from


where


clearing


is going on,


until


sun and


air dispel


the unhealthy dampness that


must rise for


some weeks, while the newly-turned earth is becoming


"ripe" and


sweet, and


bogs and morasses have been


well


prepare


drained.


this is done, it


the dwelling


If there are no


commence


buildings


near


is perfectly safe to


true home


to take shelter in,


the new-comers must run the risk, but take every pre-


caution
changes


possible, and


both


in the


protect tj
morning


body with


evening.


suitable
Keep


on hand always some light brushwood, and start an


open fire
ing (only


the moment one is out of bed in the morn-


a bright, quick blaze), and


great protection
and this should


from malaria in


done


there


it will
or nev
is any


prove a
Island:





LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.


dampness,


even in


Florida alone,


the hottest days <
everywhere, in old


f July, not in
or new settle-


ments.


In short,


don't


believe


there is any more


danger from malarial fevers in Florida (and


about all


the sickness that there


is ever here)


than


in any State in the


Union


where


woodland is being


cleared, or old pastures and mowing-lots ripped up by


the plow


under-earth


brought


to the


ear-


face, or where muck is drawn from swamps or river-
beds and piled near dwellings, to ripen for compost.
I know, in the wonderful healthy town of Peekskill,
New York State, muck was dug out of a swamp some


years ago, and piled


up to drain and sweeten before


hauling up to


the farm


the family nearest to


the swamp complained


they


had,


or were


threatened with, chills and fever in


consequence.


eost the owner of the swamp one hundred


stop that malaria.


dollars to


Strange what medicinal power can,


when


convenient, be


found in


one hundred


dollars


And all along the lowlands on the banks of the Hudson,
or wherever a new railroad is begun, chills and fever are


prevalent, and to be


expected as a matter of


course.


But this does not necessarily make that State or coun-
try where they occur unsafe or dangerously unhealthy.


Chills and fevers are not desirable companions


had a thorough knowledge of them


I have


but they are not


half so unsafe as many diseases that are very common
at the North.
"Well, you don't seem willing to give Florida all
the fevers and malarial troubles, but you will not deny





ATLARTIA FEVERS.


that poisonous snakes a
there ?"
Oh, no, I will not
lorida (abound is rath
must remind you that
things everywhere, until
drains the swamps, and
tion to. his skill. It is


dangerous animals abound


deny that


they are found


er too strong a word); but I
this is the natural order of
il man cuts down the forests,
brings the earth into subjec-
not peculiar to one State or


country, but to all that are densely wooded and sparse-
ly settled.
The moccasin and rattlesnake are not so attractive
and amiable that one would desire them for household
pets, but they are no more deadly in Florida than else-
where; and you know they are found occasionally in
almost all localities. I knew and heard very little
about them when here. It was only after returning
home that the fearful dangers I had escaped were re-
vealed. I have seen but one moccasin, and not one-
rattlesnake, except in a cage. The colored people,
who would be the most likely to know the worst that
is to be told of them, appear to give themselves no
uneasiness about the serpents or animals that are sup-
posed to make traveling, or walking in the forest, unsafe.
"Aunt Kitty," who for years has done the family


washing where I am, walks two


(


woods every Monday to come here,
returns alone, but says she has never
and has no fears. She would not like


s through the
and after dark
been molested,
to come upon a


rattlesnake unawares, but thinks a little caution is all
that is needed.
The first year I was in Florida, on the St. Mark's,
6





62 LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.

an opossum was caught in the night, making trouble


in the hen-house.


eyed colored


boy,


The next morning a little, bright-
of eight or nine years, lay on his


back


watching


animal,


was


confined


to t


stake in the yard.
"Well, Smart, did you everbsee a 'possum before ?"


"Oh,


es 'em.


"What do you do when you find them?


"I'ze


em.


"Did you ever see a coon ? "


"Oh,


'es 'em."


"Well, what do you do with them? "


"I'ze
"Did


leaves / "


ever


come


across


a moccasin


in the


woods ?"
"'Es em."
"What do you do then ?"


"I'ze kills


em," said he, with a merry laugh.


"Did you ever meet a rattlesnake ?
"'Es 'em."
"What do you do then, my boy ?"


" I'ze


leaves quick /"


Mosquitoes are no worse


North, but


here than in large cities


we are told they are more troublesome still


farther South.


It may be so.


I have


been annoyed


by the


black or sand fly here, but no more than I am


every fall when at the


White Mountains.


They are


very provoking and


annoying, however, and we have


not one word to say in their behalf.


They are a nui-


sance wherever found, but
time is short.


comfort is that


their





MALARIAL FEVERS.


Do not think I am only giving you one-sided state-


ments.


I would not have


you think that I imagine


Florida the very Garden of Eden before the fall,


with


the serpent and all other disagreeable things left out.


Not so at all.


I only wish you to see it as it is,


with


many


faults, many


drawbacks,


prevent perfec-


tion; but none of them in a worse or more aggravated
form than is common to all lands, and very few that
skill and labor cannot remove entirely.
Please to bear this in mind, and remember also that
there are, for the sick, the feeble, and the poor, hopes
and comforts that our dear but less genial North can


not offer.


Here is cheaper land, no frost or cold at any


season of the year to prevent outdoor labor, and the


soil and


seasons both able to give two or three remu-


negative crops a year, aside from the luxury of almost


every variety


must
will


of tropical fruits.


annoying to every


necessity


The obstacles


new settler are such as


be found in every spot where man


begins to reclaim primeval forests, and turn them into
productive fields and comfortable homes.
No sensible persons will come to enter new lands


here,
home,


with


intention


of making it


a permanent


without being prepared to feel the loss of many


of the comforts and


privileges that they


have


been


accustomed


to from childhood-the circle of friends


that have grown up with them, the church relations,


and,


they have


children, the lack


schools and


seminaries.


counting the cost, all these must


added to the amount, and the legitimate effect of this


important calculation


should


to strengthen


their





LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.


determination to give time and thought toward build-
ing up and sustaining everything that tends toward
moral and religious strength, as well as to cultivate
and improve the soil.
But one who settles here must remember that there
will naturally be more discomforts and perplexities
the first year than in succeeding years. The promise


is surer here than in many
wilderness can be made to
rose; but, as I have some
"this can not be done in a
under your own vine and fi
or make you afraid; but t
first be planted, matured, ai


In tl
Florida,
North a
interest


I
nd
b,


other new places, that the
bud and blossom like the
where heard the remark,
lay or a year. You can sit
g-tree, with none to molest
;he vine and the fig must
nd tended."


united labor of improving and cultivating
believe that the old prejudices between the
i the South will wear away, and a common
e established, by which each will employ


their best faculties to accomplish the
Each will bring to the work their own
provements and excellences, until the
ously laboring for the same end, will ha
tice the best, most. rapid, and reliable


desired work.
individual im-
two, harmoni-
ve put in prac-
modes of de-


veloping the naturally rich and wonderful resources
of this State.
Many vegetables and greens that hitherto have not
been thought capable of culture will yet be success-
fully raised here; and implements that it has been
thought could not be used in Southern culture will be
found, on trial, of invaluable service.
There is one other comfort that I would be glad to





MALARIAL FEVERS.


see more extensively used, and which those who come
here in straitened circumstances should be sure to in-


troduce
tensively.


I would like to see the goat raised more ex-
The stock of cattle is for the present very


inferior, and


"poor


Florida


beef" is


a common ex-


pression.


course, this being true, a sufficient sup-


ply of milk will also be very difficult to secure at first,


from


poor cows.


It will soon be seen that there are


many kinds of


grass that can by cultivation be raised


here, and a better food be given to the cattle.


turn, they will give


In re-


better and more abundant milk.


But it will take some years to succeed in this, and, till
accomplished, the goat will be an excellent substitute.
This animal can be raised in Florida with no care


or trouble, or so little as not to


noticed.


Goats


are easily kept


the waste from


the kitchens will


much more pleasantly and serviceably used for them,


than


in raising swine.


Their milk is the richest and


most nutritious of any animal, and, if tethered, so as
not to browse on every coarse and disagreeable shrub,


it can be had
is so offensive


entirely free from the strong flavor that


poor man should attempt to tide


0.


over the two or three first years in Florida without a


small herd


goats, or


two or three at least.


flesh


of the


kid is said to be very


delicate.


A few


goats can


bought for a small


price, and will add


greatly to the comfort of a pioneer's family.


The milk and flesh is o
No hotel in Florida should


who come


here for health;


f great value for invalids.
be without them for those
and aside from that, with


a little care and skill, they may be made exceedingly






LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.


remunerat
goats can


ive


for the finest of the Thibet and Asiatic


be raised here, and their long silken fleeces


sell for a high price.
You have, I fear, had


more of Florida


than


will find interest in


but I will trouble you with only


one more letter, if I can help it.


The theme is to- me


of great


interest


longer


think of it,


broader it stretches out before me and tempts me on.


I would like to tell


you a little of


one place where


I have lately visited, and where I expect to be when I


write next, and will then
haps.


trouble


you no further, per-








LETTER


SEEK THE TRUTH IN PRIVATE HOMES, NOT
LIFE.


FROM public docu-
ments and through cur-
rent reports I have
gathered many inter-
esting items which ap-
pear reliable, and had
hoped to add to my
stock of information
something that would
have pleased you from the
interior parts of Florida. We
had planned a little excur-
sion, taking the Transit Rail-
road from Fernandina to Ce-
dar Keys. The lakes
on either side of this Af


road are said


very


IN HOTEL


VAii.


to be


beautiful,


-
-.


I,
Rtz,
,r
it)
CI


&tz


I. of


,~~n





68 LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.

the surrounding country around Lake Santa F6, Samp-


son, and Kingsley, is high land, or


"bluffs "-fertile,


not foggy and damp, and very salubrious and delight-
ful. Having dreamed over these pleasant descriptions,
I was quite eager to see with my own eyes, and test the


truth of what I had heard.


" the best-laid schemes


mice and men gang


aft agley


" and


on reaching


Baldwin, the morning trains had just been discontinued
for the season, and by this change I should be subject


to many delays and inconveniences.


So that pleasure


must


be laid


aside for another winter


and, before


speaking


of Rollestown,


permit a few words which


should have been added to the last letter.
Letters requesting more minute particulars about


Florida are received daily


and I am therefore more


than


ever anxious to


give no false impressions,


would avoid


sient visits, publish


the injury done by those who, on tran-


"overwrought, visionary letters.


In their enthusiasm they are tempted to paint only the


brightest


picture,


overlooking the


real,


practical, stubborn facts in the case,


which those who


come every winter, or have become residents, see and
fully understand.
I have endeavored not to err in that direction, and


honestly do not think I have.


It is not


Florida as


she now is, but what I truly believe she can be made,


that I have endeavored to show


and, with her natu-


ral advantages of soil and climate, this change can be
effected much more readily than in most new lands.


course, I take it for granted


good sense will teach them


that the readers'


that the work which must





SEEK


THE TRUTH IN PRIVATE HOMES.


be done to secure good results can not be accomplished


without some hardship and


much


self-denial.


How


severely either of these may press upon the new settler
will depend largely on the strength, energy, and natu-


ral capacity
labor.


those


who


undertake


initiative


Florida is most truly a


" new State," because, after


incredible rebuffs


disasters,


is once


again


struggling to rise above the many obstacles that have


so often well-nigh destroyed her.


She has been tossed


about from one nation to another like a foot-ball


her history we will speak presently.


desire


to make it plain


here, as


Just now we
elsewhere, first


steps are always surrounded with hardships, and often
-like a little child learning to walk-one rises for a
moment, but to fall again, and so on, till the way be-


comes familiar and


easy.


"The hardy pioneer,


who forces his way into


wilds of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, and


other parts of


our Western States, will tell you that when one decides


to locate


in new or wild lands and


begins to reclaim


them, he must make up his mind that for two or three
years a rough life, with many inconveniences and hard-
ships, chill or ague, and other ailments, are before him;
that it is a close fight, a sturdy determination to grap-


pie with


subdue the wilderness


bear in mind and


take courage from


" but he must
the knowledge


that, having conquered, the reward


is close at hand.


It is strange that so many people who are really sensi-
ble in most things, making the attempt to settle here


or elsewhere, are entirely ignorant of this.


They come





LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.


expecting to find Florida


"one vast flower-garden or


orange-grove
tion," and th


by nature, needing n4
at, without a Joshua


3 labor or cultiva-
to lead, they have


but to pass over and possess the promised land, and at


once,


without any


exertion


on their


part, sit down


under their own vine and fig-tree, with none to molest


or make them afraid.


land is


But "the truth is, this lovely


but a wilderness as yet, and those who would


have the garden and the grove, must come and make
them."


"Is Florida a healthy State ?
tion.


"The sanitary reports of


is a frequent ques-


the army show a much


greater degree of health among the soldiers in Florida


during the late war, and


previously among the troops


stationed here, than in any other section of the Union
and the prevailing disease, intermittent fever, is of


much less virulent type than


in most new countries.


This does not prove, however, that there is no sickness


here.


There certainly is


but it is also perfectly true


that the healthfulness of Florida is fully equal to that
of any other State in our Union."


I have quoted from the best authority


but there


is one point not mentioned, so far as I have been able
to learn, in any report, but which I think it but com-


mon justice to refer to


for it touches on an objection


often made against coming here for health or with any
hope of retaining and securing what one has.
I can better illustrate my meaning by putting into
shape conversations that one often hears when going
up and down the St. John's River, or crossing over to





SEEK THE TRUTH IN PRIVATE HOMES.


Jacksonville,


where


friends


acquaintances


have


met unexpectedly.


Now and then one finds some dis-


satisfied or discontented mortals, who


have


been


a very short time in Florida, hurrying back North as


some


pestilence were behind them.


In such cases


something


following


conversation


may


heard:
"Why, my dear sir, you are wild to return North


so early.


Your family, if not yourself, will suffer in


consequence if


you go


North before the 1st of May.


The cold, raw days, of which we always have so many


at the North


after the 20th-of May, will be very


injurious."
Oh, I've made up my mind that coming to Florida
for health is all nonsense."


" But,"


interrupts his friend,


here long enough to
try or climate."


haven't


know anything about this


been
coun-


"Well, I


think


by spending


a day or two


in each of the best hotels, or


a week or two traveling


in steamer or railroad, one can form a


pretty correct


idea of


the country and


I, for one, have had all


the character of the climate.
the experience I care for. If


this is considered a climate to grow strong and sound
in, or the people one meets are specimens of the effect
of the climate upon the constitution, then Heaven help
us! I never saw so many miserable, sallow, sickly,


consumptive-looking


people


in the


same


length


time in my life as I have in the short time I have been


in Florida.


I am sick of the sights I see here.


the beauty-and I concede that there is a great deal-





72 LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.

can not compensate for the suffering which such for-
lorn-looking people must have endured. I feel as if I
was in a vast lazaretto-feeble steps, hectic flushes,
coughs that rack the body and seem to threaten in-
stant death, rheumatism that cripples and distorts. I
tell you I am sick of it all, and shall hurry back and
risk the inclemency of the North, rather than remain
another week."
"Why, my friend, you are getting excited. Re-


fleet for one m
mistake. Hav
belong here, or
who have settle
Oh, no ; I
seen only those
or are met with
I think that is


tell you I
"And
friends an
"Oh,
West-an


moment, and you will understand your
e you seen much of the people who
of those from the North and West
d here and make Florida their home? "
have made no acquaintances, and have
who board for the winter at the hotels,
in excursions up and down the river.
quite sufficient to judge from, and I


am disappointed and disgusted.


fr
d
fr
d


om what section of the country have these
acquaintances come ? "
om everywhere, I think North, East,


to


the Old Count
"So, then,
East, and the
have poured
health. It is


my surprise
ry wandering
it seems it
countries fr
ill their sick
not the sick


blind, halt, and maimed fr
land-those half dying in c


a last resort-that


physician to


whom


make
they


I have found many from
about here."
is the North, West, and
om beyond the sea, that
into Florida to seek for
of Florida at all, but the
Dom other portions of *the
,older regions, sent here as
rou so bitter against the


come for relief-often





SEEK THE TRUTH IN PRIVATE HOMES.


late-when all others have failed, and they know not
what else to do."
No estimate that has the first semblance of truth
-or justice can possibly be made of the character of
a people or the healthfulness of the climate of any
state or country, if such knowledge is only gained
from watching the transient occupants of fashionable
hotels, or the multitudes who rush over the land from
all parts of the world by steamer or railroad.
To form a just estimate, one should endeavor to find
board in some neat and pleasant family (and such can


be found without difficulty in many portions
State), who have built up a home here. Select ,
if possible, who have been long enough here to
fortably, but not luxuriously, settled. See wl
have accomplished. Learn what brought them
what state of health they or some members of tt
ily were when they came, and compare it wi
present condition. This is the only honest anc


of this
a family,
Sbe com-
hat they
here, in
ieir fam-
th their
I correct


way of learning


the truth.


But let no one go back


North to spread a report-honestly believed, no doubt


-that Flori
they explore
to understand
tel life, all
worst phase
character or
transient guc
business or


la is a lazar-house,
in that direction
d the country and
over our land or
from which to fi
climate. Hotels
ests, flitting hithei
pleasure, or, as in


until, leaving hotel life,


which shall teach th
its climate better. ]
in any country, is
orm a just estimate
are usually occupied
Sand thither, either


eem
Ho-
the
of
by
for


valids, imperfectly try-


ing all things, but holding fast to none.
I have dwelt on this longer than I intended, but
7





LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.


feel it important, as well as just, that Florida should
not be compelled to own all the invalids that visit her


shores. When
Florida, before y
from what section
came, or if they
Colton's tow
smaller towns or
the banks of the
find Rollestown,
two from San M
and capable of


About five thous
two brothers, an


you bear of sickness and death in
ou make out the estimate, just inquire
)n of the country these unfortunates
claim this State as their home.
nship map of Florida locates all the
villages which are springing up along
St. John's; and among them you will
about three miles from Palatka and
ateo. It is on a bluff, or high land,
being made exceedingly beautiful.
iand acres of this point is owned by
i on the bank of the river they are


cultivating the orange-tree with unusual promise of
success. .
"In 1765 Denis Rolle, Esq., father of Lord Rolle
of England, obtained from the King a grant of forty
thousand acres, and embarked with one hundred fami-
lies, intending to settle in Middle Florida, near the
St. Mark's River, but was driven by stress of weather
into the St. John's River, and, wearied with a long
voyage, decided to remain, and selected his location,
from about three miles above Palatka, nearly up to
Denis Lake."
Here he built his own mansion and tenements for
the people he brought over to cultivate his land, in-
tending to raise corn, cotton, and indigo, the last be-
ing a very profitable article of merchandise.
This place has natural advantages surpassed by
very few on the St. John's. On September 1, 1766,


r





SEEK


Rolle writes of


TRUTH IN PRIVATE HOMES.


"Everything in nature seems to


correspond toward the cultivation of


the productions


the whole


world,


in some


or other


of this


happy province-the most precious jewel in his Mqa-
esty's American dominions."


"The


exports of this province of East Florida in-


creased rapidly, the Florida indigo bringing the high-
est price in England, and everything indicated increas-


ing prosperity and much


pleasure


but then began a


troublous time.


The Spanish force got possession, but


were surprised and routed a short


time after


then


the Indians


became aggressive.


Spanish army


again succeeded in gaining possession of


a large part


of Florida, giving the English people eighteen months


either to


remove


their effects,


lic faith."


with


or accept


"Upon


their property, or
Spanish rule and


these homes,


dispose of
the Catho-


embowered among


the orange-groves and made pleasant by the fragrant
blossoms of the honeysuckle, the rose and acacia, in a
land where Nature had lavished her choicest beauties
and created a perpetual summer, the unfortunate resi-
dents of Florida were obliged to turn their backs f&


ever."


But since that period Florida has changed hands


many times-ceded


by the


English


to Spain in part,


then again under English rule, then in part to France


back
fair


once more to Spain.


land


of Florida


At length,


1821,


became a part of these United


States.


rivers relics


along th
he olden


banks


times


may


beautiful


found


almost every settlement.






LETTERS FROM FLORIDA.


Rollestown,


part of


foundations


Rolle's mansion were used only a few weeks since as
the foundation of the present cottage where I now


write, and
were used
The old e
them from
But, as
intended to


I
in
ar
th
y<
sp


in almost ever
of great inter
must be a st
well be here.
more interest


ted to the wri
genius can de
it were worth


have picked up the glazed bricks that
building the houses for his tenantry.
thworks and rifle-pits built to protect
e Indians are still to be seen here.
ou see, this is an endless theme. I had
)eak of the medicinal springs that abound
ry portion of Florida, and other objects
est-at least, I find them so; but there
opping-place somewhere, and it may as
I would gladly have made these letters
ng; all that is lacking must be attribu-
ter. The theme has all that the greatest
sire but what is writ. is writ. Would


ier I"


J

P


t




















6J605





















































S








C



S























S

'I












APPENDIX.


ORANGE-GRO WING


IN FLORIDA.


A CORRESPONDENT Of the Louisville "Courier-
Journal" says:
There are many errors afloat about Florida. Some
suppose the orange belt covers the State. Orange cul-
ture is not safe north of the twenty-ninth parallel,


better south of


orange-tree will
the apple-tree.
wet locations, a
stock on which
as the sour tree
the sweet graft


weight.
sweet ti
blooms
times d
ties are


N
trees


twenty


not grow in wet
The sour one is
nd may be used
the sweet orange
is a much slower
or perish beneath


o one who desires a p
would ever use a sour


-eighth. The sweet
land any more than
sometimes found in
in such places as a
can be worked. But
grower, it must dwarf
the superincumbent
permanent orchard of
stock. The orange


in January and February, and a freeze at such
estroys fruit and trees. The northern coun-
subject to such frosts, and hence experience


has taught the old settlers that orange-culture can not
succeed in such a climate. Cold continued long enough
to form ice of half an inch must destroy the unpro-
*





APPENDIX.


tected trees, and smaller ones succumb to a less de-
gree of cold. The lemon and lime succumb to still
less cold, and the guava is destroyed at tht freezing
point, if continued for a few hours. The whole class
of the custard apples.are equally tender. The banana
and pineapple fail near the same point. A multitude
of other fruits and trees fall with these last.
"Another error one sees going the rounds of the
papers is, that the orange will thrive under the native


forest trees, and that it requ
rect rays of the sun during
the tree will not thrive in th
it be the palmetto, which s
a short distance. Few trees


gree of s
sofne of t
naguato i
'die-back
want of
summer.
get as far
find dry
may be."


I


ires protection from the di-


summer.


le
1e


lnshine than the o
ie hottest portions


shade
nds its
can en
range,
of the


of any
feedin
dure a
and it
world,


. know that
Street unless
g roots but
greater de-
is used in
, as at Gua-


n Mexico, to shade the coffee plants. The
'is the effect of cold, not of sunshine-of
proper nutriment, not of heat of the sun in
Our advice to the fruit-grower, then, is to
south on the peninsula of Florida as he can
land, and as near water communication as


REMARKABLE


FOUNTAIN


IN FLORIDA.


TAKING a narrow path, I crossed through some
dense underwood, and all at once I stood on the banks
of Wakulla Spring. There was a basin of water one





APPENDIX.


hundred yards in diameter, almost circular. The thick
bushes were growing almost to the water's edge, and


bowing their heads
stepped into a skiff
fishes attracted my
strike them. The


under its unrippled


surface.


and pushed off. Some immense
attention, and I seized a spear to
boatman laughed, and asked me


hbw far below the surface I supposed they were. I
answered, about four feet. He assured me that they
were at least twenty feet from me, and it was so. The
water is of the most marvelous transparency. I dropped
an ordinary pin in the water, forty feet deep, and saw
its head with perfect distinctness as it lay on the bot-
tom. As we approached the center, I noticed a jagged,
grayish limestone rock beneath us, pierced with holes;
through these holes one seemed to look into unfathom-
able depths. The boat moved slowly on, and now we
hung trembling over the edge of the sunken cliff, and
far below it lies a dark, yawning unfathomable abyss.


From its
velocity,
mouth, I
which is
it shining
think the
confident
from the


gorge comes
a living river.
dropped a te
there 190 feet
on the bottom
water possesses
that the piece


top of a tower


]


toward the north side, al


pouring forth, with immense
Pushing on just below its
n-cent piece into the water,
in depth, and I clearly saw
a. This seems incredible. I
s a magnifying power. I am
could not be so plainly seen
190 feet high. We rowed on
nd suddenly we perceived the


water, the fish which were darting hither and thither,
the long flexible roots, and the wide, luxuriant grasses
on the bottom, all arrayed in the most brilliant pris-
matic hues. The gentle swell occasioned by the boat


1





APPENDIX.


gave to the whole an undulating motion.


Death-like


stillness reigned around, and a more fairy-like scene I


never before beheld.


So great is the quantity of water


here poured forth, that it forms a river of itself large


enough to float flatboats laden with cotton.


The plant-


er who lives here has


thus


transported his cotton to


St. Mark's.
remains of


Near the fountain we saw some of the
a mastodon which had been taken from it.


The triangular bone below the knee measured six inches


on each side.
kulla, means


The Indian name of


" The Mystery.


the fountain,


Wa-


" It is said that the Span-


ish discoverers sprang into it with almost frantic joy,
supposing they had discovered the long-sought Foun-


tain of Youth,


which should rejuvenate them.- Cor-


respondence of the New York Evening Post.


PRODUCTS


OF WESTERN


FLORIDA.


EDITORS


WESTERN


RURAL


We


promised


something of the productions of Florida.


Let us be-


gin by saying that oranges are not a product of West-


ern Florida.


All that region lying north of the Gulf


Mexico


produces


very


little


fruit


kind.


Peaches, plums, and
care and cultivation.


near the


bay.


Scuppernong grapes


grow with


The peach does not thrive very
There are no wild fruits except


blackberries, and these are


generally found in unap-


proachable


places.


Grass is a universal product, and





APPENDIX.


yet grass for pasturage after


swales or marshes.


as manilla.
pasturage


Fenced


to be


July is only found in


The upland wire grass is as tough
pastures are not known, for the


sought.


who


discovers


grass which will sward those
eatable through the summer,


sandy lands and remain
will confer a boon upon


the Southern


States.


The leaves of the cane afford


the chief


support for cattle during a large part of the


year.


other words, cattle


by "browsing"


goodly portion of the year in the piney woods.


Corn


is only grown


upon prepared land, and then


the crop


is light-fifteen bushels to the acre being a good yield.


Even sweet potatoes, although


"to the manor born,"


require that


the ground


be fertilized.


The same is


true of


all the vegetables.


The land is


stron


prepared in the following


g fence is placed around a plot of


ing not unlike our "cattle


corrals,


manner


ground, look-


" and the stock are


penned in
"treading


these


inclosures


land,"


at night.


called


the soil is probably bene-


fited by the treading as well as fertilized.


perceived at once that


can thus b
duced here


prepared.


if short.


most any season of
had every month


It will be


but a limited quantity of land
The list of vegetables pro-


Irish potatoes are grown at al-
the year, and new ones could be


our


Western straw piles


were


only at


hand for a


top dressing.


Cabbages, such as


usually sell in


Chicago for forty cents per dozen, sell


there for seventy-five cents each.


Perhaps I


can not better convey an


idea of the


country and its production than to describe the mar-





APPENDIX.


keting


done


at Millview


July, and August ot
vehicles are mainly
horse (poor one), or
produce offered for
milk, Irish potatoes,
the same, with now
tuce. In June the
peas, plums, okra, co


July gave us ws


to the
After s
to the
their w
co, etc.
by the
above


above lists.
selling their


during


April,


May,


f the past summer. The m
carts drawn by a single
dilapidated market wagons.
sale was, in April, milk, b
greens, etc. In May it was
and then a few cabbages an
products were increased by


rn, st


iterme
Butt
" stuff,


ring beans, etc. The month
Ions and peaches in addition
ermilk finds a ready market.
" the producers would repair


store and lay in corn (grown i
working animals, meal for their f:
An astonishing amount of the
natives of the South. If you d
is a meager list of marketable


n Illinois) for
families, tobac-
latter is used
decide that the
products, we


have only to add that it is a true one, as we saw what
we have described with our own eyes during those
months.
The natural products of Florida and the piney
wood generally through the Southern States are con-
siderably diversified. The list of valuable woods is
varied. The magnolia looks somewhat like our bass-


wood. The blossom buds
much like goose eggs on th
are exceedingly beautiful.
tiful and as white, and more
er. There are inany other


chief,


the master of


look just before flowering
le limb ends. The flowers
The bay flower is as beau-
fragrant, but much small-
varieties of wood, but the
situation, the great source


of wealth and Southern


industry, the source of the


June,
market
ox or
The
utter-
much
d let-
green


t





APPENDIX.


pitch,


turpentine,


lumber, spars,


square


timber,


etc.. the chief


Southern
yellow.


pme.


article of
There


Gulf export, is


are two


varieties


the glorious
;, pitch and


These stand like goblin sentries in thousands


square miles along the rivers entering the Atlantic


anti the Gulf westward


to the Mississippi.


paying industry of the South is


The best


its lumbering.


It is


the surest and quickest in returns.


Reference to the


census reports evidences that lumber is the great arti-
cle of export, finding a market in Cuba and Europe,
New York and Philadelphia.


THE END.






HISTORY OF OPINIONS


SCRIPTURAL DOCTRINE OF RETRIBUTION.
By EDWARD BEECHEO, D. D.,
Author'of "The Conflict of Ageps"
1 vol., 12mo. - Cloth, $1.5.

The momentous question of future retribution is here historically
discussed with an earnestness and deliberation due to Its transcen-
dent importance. The main interest of the inquiry naturally centers
in the doom of the wicked. Will it be annihilation ? ultimate rento.
ration to holiness and happiness ? endless punishment ? or is it out
of our power to decide which of these views is the truth ? The dis-
uension is intensited by being narrowed to the meaning of a single
word, aiidoe. The opinions of those to whom Christ spoke, and
bow they understood him, are vital questions4n the argument; and,
to solve them, the opinions and modes of speech of preceding ages
must be attentively weighed, for each age is known to have molded
the opinions and use of words of its successor. Hence, Ir. Beecher
bas found himself compelled to "trace the development of thought
and language from the outset to the days of Christ, then to inqure
into the import of his words, In the light of all preceding ages and.
lastly, to trace the development of opinion downward through the
Christian ages."

STUDIES IN THE CREATIVE WEEK.
By Rev. GEORGE D. BOARDXAN, D. D.
1 vol., 19mo. Cloth, $1.5.

The Lectures, fourteen in number, embrace the following topics: 1. I-
Tnonvuerox; 2. GzOzrss or Txn Unrvzss; 8. Or OnDEn; 4. Or Lrean; I
0. Or Tnu BS ; 6. Or Tn LADS; 7. Or PLArs; 8. Or Tam LxMt-
xarsm; 9. Or AxmnAX; 10. Or MAN; 11. Or ED s; 12. Or WOMm;
I. Or THs ABBAT; 14. PALIuxemo s.
"We see in the Lectures more than tl)e sensation of the hour.
They will have a marked effect in defining the position of the believer
of to-day, in certifying both to disciple and to skeptic Just what is to
be bed against all attack; and the statement of the case will be 'I
many eases the strongest argument They will tend to broaden the
minds ofbelievers, and to lift them above the letter to the plane of
the spt rf They will show that truth and religion are capable of be-
ing defended without violence, without denunciation, without mls-
repreentatlon, without the impugning of motives."-NationalBW hit.
revelation and Science can not really conflict because truth ca
not be contrary to truth;' but so persistent have been the attach of
scientists on time-honored orthodoxy. that the believer in Revelation
has long demanded an exhaustive work on the first chapter of Gete-
Ma. In response t this widespread feeling, the Rev. George Dana
Boardman D. D., the learned pastor of the First Baptist Church,
PhiladelpMa, wa requested to deliver a course of lectures covering
this debatable ground.", P 1 B
D. APPLBTON A 00., Puuzusmus, s4 & 551 BEOADWAY, N. Y.






THE


LIFE


AND


WORDS


CHRIST.


By CUNNINGHAM GEIKIE, D. D.


WiU Twelve Engravings on Steel.


In Two Yolumes, 8o.


re, $8.00.


A work of the highest rank, breathing the spirit of true faith in
Christ"-Dr. Deliteach, the Commentator.


"A
D. D.,


most valuable addition to sacred literature."-A. N. Littlohn,
Bishop of Long Island.


I have never seen any life of our Lord which approached so near
my ideal of such a work."-Autin Phelps, D. D., author of Te Stll
Hour," etc.
A great and noble work, rich in information, eloquent add schol-
arly in style, earnestly devout.in feeling."-London Literary World.
S"Without disparaging In any sense the noble labors of his prede-
cessors, we think Dr. Gelkie has caught a new ray from the Mountain
of Light,' and has add d a new page to our Christology which many
will delight to read. These volumes are full of exquisite word-paint-
ing, from which an artist might reproduce innumerable life-like pic-
tures."-S-vangelist.


TENT-WORK


PALESTINE.


RECORD


OF DISCOVERY


AND


ADVENTURE.


By CLAUDE REIGNIER CONDER, R. E.,
Officer in Command of the Survey Expedition. Published.for the
Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
With Thirty-three Illustrations by J. W. Wymper.


Two vols., 8vo.


Cloth, $6.00.


The account of Lieutenant ConderV labors is not merely the in-
teresting record of a great work, it has the additional charm of being
excepdlinly well written; and it will always remain one of the most
valuable contributions to the literature on Palestine."-Pfrl Mall
Gazette.


THE


EPISTLE


THE


HEBREWS;


With


Notes,


Critical,


Explanatory,


and Practical.


By the Rev. HENRY COWLES, D. D,
Author of The Minor Prophets," "Ezekiel and Daniel,
Revelation of John," Hebrew Hiatty," etc.


" The


1 vol., 12mo.


Cloth.


Price, $1.50.


D. APPLETON & CO., PuVLxsmas, 549 & 551 BRoaDwAY, N. Y.






THE


BOOK


OF


JOB:


ESSAYS.


AND


A METRICAL PARAPHRASE.


By BOBSITE W. BAYmOND, Ph. D.


With an Inbtductory


the Rev.


Conant,


D. D.


19mo.


- Cloth, $1.26.


The book is in iambic tetrameter rhyming verse with three-lined
ftanzse. Of course it does not follow the original word for word,
though it keeps remarkably close to the literal translation; and where
it departs from the literal it often brings out the meaning of the origi-
nal more clearly than a word-for-word rendering can do. But as a re-
production of the spirit and tone of the original, as a translation-
a carrying over-into English, not otlts words and phrases, but of the
poem as a whole, the writer has done with his paraphrase what it
woald be perhaps Impossible to do in a literal translation. Regarded
merely as an attempt to create on the mind of the English reader some-
thing of the impression which the Hebrew poem made on the minds
of those to whom it was first rehearsed Mr. Raymond's paraphrase is
perhaps the best EHglish translation of Job that has yet been made.
The rendering is printed in parallel columns with Conant's trans-
lation, and is accompanied with copious introduction and notes."-
. 7. Independent.


THE


COMPREHENSIVE


CAristian Unity and
the Protestant


Ecclesiastical


Episcopal


CHURCH;


Union


By thb Right Rev. THOMAS H. VAIL, D. D., LL. D., Bishop of Kansas.


limo.


- Cloth, $1.25.


As far as it goes it is the best book of the kind we have ever seen,
and it goes far enough, considering the object which the author had in
view.. It le just the thing to put into the hands of those who are igno-
rant concerning the principles and customs.of the Church. A general
and hearty welcome, we are sure, awaits lt."-N. Churchman.
"An able and excellent teacher of the true position of the Church."
-N. Y. 4pwaopal ReitEr.
"Bishop Vail presents his views with an impressive sincerity,
which will not only commend the volume to those who share his be-
lief, but also to all thoughtful readers."-Providence Journal.

D. APPLETON & CO., PULm sN, 549 & 51 BnoAnwAT, N. T.


Church.







AMERICAN


PAINTERS:


Biographical Sketches of Fifty American
Artists,


WITH


EIGHTY-THREE


EXAMPLES


OF THEIR


WORKS,


ENGRAVED ON WOOD IN A PEIrOCT MAfNIB.


Quarto; cloth, extra gilt...............Price, $7.00: uli morocco, $13.00.


The painter representd in tis work


are aetfolows:


CHURCH,
INNES,
HUNTINGTON,
PAGE,
8ANFOBD GIFFORD,
SWAIN GIFFORD,
DURAND,
B. W. WEIR,
W. T. RICHARDS,
T. MORAN,
P. MORAN,
PERRY,
BELLOWS,
SHATTUCK,
MILLER,
J. F. WEIR,
HOPKINBON


HUNT,
WHITTREDGE,
W. HART,
J. M. HART,
MoENTEE,
COLMAN,
HICKS,
WINSLOW HOMER,
DE HAA8,
J. G. BROWN,
WANT,
WOOD,
BRISTOL,
REINHART,
BRIDGMAN,
BIERSTADT,
SMITH, Mi


J. H. BEARD,
W. H. BEARD,
PORTER,
G. L. BROWN,
APPLETON BROWN,
CROPSEY,
CABILEAR,
E. JOHNSON,
8HIRLAW,
CHASE,
BRIOHEB,
ROBBINS,
WrLMARTH,
EATON,
GUY,
QUARTLEY,
:EKER.


The publishers feel justfled.in saying that the contemporaneous art of
no country has ever been so adequately represented in a single volume as
our American Painters are in this work, while the engravings are equal in
execution to the finest examples of wood-engraving produced here or
abroad.






OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.



The richest and in many ways the most notable of fine art books
is American Painters,' Just published, with unstinted liberality in
the making. Eighty-three examples of the work of American artists,
reproduced in the very best style of wood-engraving, and printed with
rare skill, constitute the chief purpose of the book while the text
which accompanies them, the work of Mr. George W. Sheldon, is a
series of bright and entertaining biographical sketches of the artists,
with a running commentary-critical, but not too critical-upon the
peculiarities of their several methods, purposes, and conceptions."-
Netw York EvenIng fst.
"The volume gives good evidence of the progress of American art.
It shows that we have deft hands and Imaginative brains among pain-
ters of the country, and it shows, moreover, that we have publishers
who.are liberal and cultured enough to present their works in a hand-
some and luxurious form that willmake them acceptable. 'American
Painters' will adorn the table of many a drawing-room where art is
loved, and where it is made still dearer from the fact that it is native."
-Newt York Azpress.
"It is at once a biographical dictionary of artists, a gallery of pen
portraits and of beautiful scenes, sketched by the painters and mul-
tiplied by the engraver. It is in all respects a work of art, and will
meet the wants of a large class whose tastes are in that direction."-
Nao York Oserver.
One of the most delightful volumes issued from the press of this
country."-Newt York Daly Graphic.
Outside and inside it is a thing of beauty. The text is in large,
clear type, the paper is of the finest, the margins broad, and the il-
lustrations printed with artistic care. The volume contains brief
sketches of fifty prominent American artists, with examples from
their works. Some idea of the time and labor expended in bringing
out the work may be gathered from the fact that to bring it before the
public in its present form cost the publishers over $12,000."-Boston
Evening Transcript
This book is a notable one, and among the many fine art books it
will rank as one of the choicest, and one of the most elegant, con-
sidered as an ornament or parlor decoration. The engravings are in
the highest style known to art. Mr. Sheldon has accompanied the illus-
trations with a series of very entertaining biographical sketches. As
far as possible, he has made the artists their own interpreters, giving .
their own commentaries upon art and upon their purposes in its prac-
tice instead of hth own."-Bofston Pot.
"'American Painters' consists of biographical sketches of fifty
leading AmericAn artists, with eighty-three examples of tjieir work
engraved on wood with consummate skill, delicacy of touch, and
appreciation of distinctive manner. It is a gallery of contemporary
American art."--Phiadelphia Pres.
"This work is one of surpassing interest, and of marvelous typo-
graphical and illustrative beauty."-Philadelphia Item.
"The whole undertaking is a noble one, illustrative of the best
period of American art, and as such deserves the attention and sup-
port of the public."-ACicago Trbune.


D. APPLETON & CO..; PuBLmu Bs, 549 & 551 BBaoADT, N. Y








SOCIAL ETIQUETTE OF NEW YORK

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Parties, Balls, and Germans-Dinner-giving and Dining out-
Breakfasts, Luncheons, and Suppers-Opera and Theatre Parties,
Private Theatricals, and Musicales-Etiquette of Weddings-
Christenings and Birthdays Marriage Anniversaries New-
Year's-Day in New York-Funeral Customs and Seasons of
Mourning.

18mo. Cloth, filt edge, prioe, $1.00.


"This little volume contains numerous hints and suggestions,
which are specially serviceable to strangers, and which even people
to the.manner born will find interesting and useful. Perhaps the best
part of it is in what it does not say. the indefinable suggestion of
good-breeding and refinement which its well-written pages make."-
New York B~vening Apreas..
A sensible and brief treatise, which young persons may profitably
read."-N w York mining 1it.
"Everything which redness the habits of a people ennobles It, and
hence the importance of tirnishing to the public all possible aids to
superior manners. This book will undoubtedly meet the needs of a
large class."--Baton evening Trancript.
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the first city of America. It admits the existence and need .of certain
rules of social behavior, and then in a kindly and decorous manner
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ume. It gives the rules that are observed in the metropolis. These
sometimes seem artificial, but they are usually founded on reason."-
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habits of the older nations. In this young republic it can not he ex-
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complete, and is easily carried in the pocket to read at odd intervals.
-Abmay Sunday Pres.
The statements are exact and simple, and cover all that any reader
is likely to desire. The work will convey positively useful and rella-
ble instruction that can not always be reached otherwise."-PJtddo-
pAia North American.

D. APPLETON & CO., Puunwans, 549 & 551 BBOAnwAr, N. Y.








HEAL


TH


PRIMERS.


EDITED BY
J. LANGDON DOWN, M. D., F. R. C. P.
HENRY POWER, M. B., F. R. C. S.
J. MORTIMER-GRANVILLE, M. D.
JOHA TWEEDY, F. R. C. S.
THOUGH it is of the greatest importance that books upon health
should be in the highest degree trustworthy, it is notorious that
most of the cheap and popular kind are mere crude compilations of
incompetent persons, and are often misleading and injurious. Im-
pressed by these considerations, several eminent medical and scien-
tific men of London have combined to prepare a series of HEALTH
PmixM s of a character that shall be entitled to the fullest confidence.
They are to be brief, simple, and elementary in statement, filled with
substantial and useful information suitable for the guidance of grown-
up people. Each primer will be written by a gentleman specially
competent to treat his subject, while the critical supervision of the
books is in the hands of a committee who will act as editors.
SAs .these little books are produced by English authors, they are
naturally based very mich upon English experience, but it matters
little whence illustrations upon such subjects are drawn, because the
essential conditions of avoiding disease and preserving health are to
a great degree everywhere the same.


VOLUMES OF


THE


SERIES.


Eeroise and Training. (Illus
treated )
Alcohol: It UsIe and Abuse.
The House and its Surround.
inga.
Premature Death: Its Promo-
Stion or Prevention.
Personal Appearancee in
Health and Disease. (I1-
lustrated.)
Bathi and Bathing.


The Heart and its Functions.
The Head
Clothing and Dress.
Water.
The Skin and its Troubles.
Fatigue and Pain.
The Ear and I hearing.
The Eye and Vision.
Temperature in Health and
Disease.


In square 16mo volumes, cloth, price, 40 cents each.
Por sale by ai boobsll. Any volume maoed, pospaid, to any
address in the 1United Stats, on receit of price
D. APPLETON & CO., Publishrs,
49 & 551 BBOADWAY, Nzw YOx.







ALL AROUND THE HOUSE;

on,

HOW TO MAKE HOMES HAPPY.

BT
S .
Mrs. HENRY WARD BEEOHEB,
Author of "Motherly Talks," etc.
*


1 vol., I0mo. Clot.


Prce $io.


This volume consists of the reprint of those social chats with
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and hAronidle.
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no woman can read without benefit. It can not fail to be t help to
many untaught housekeepers while the more experienced may find
suggestions of value. The volume would be a blessing if it could go
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of worldly wisdom, and bequeathed it in such attractive form to those
who come after her. treading the dangerous quicksands that beset do-
mestic life in this nervous and electrical age."--Sa Franciso ven-
ing Post.
"Every house which has Mrs. Beecher's book will be the happier
for it."-W-E (Pa.) Sunday Morning Gasme.
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house."- Wo7do Sunday JounaL.
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hold which combines so many excellences for the promotion of do,
mestic well-being." -New York Baptit Wkeey.
SNo housekeeper can read the book without advantage."--jAJlaf
Journal.
This is an invaluable book; its pates contain a liberal education
in household mattes."--Narhll DaUy American.
"Mrs. Bhecher has produced a book which should find a resting,
place in every housewife's library."-Ph"a' Rpa Bword.


D. APPLETON & CO., 549 & 581 BsoADwr, Niw You.


4
S


a $ 0






ENGLISH


San


RIC


LITERAL


URE,


Forming the Second Volume 6f Literature Primers,"

XDITaD BY


R. GREEN


,M. A.,


Examiner in the School of Modem History at Oxford,

AND CONTAINING


ENGLISH LITERATURE.


By STOPFORD BROOKE, M. A.


AMERICAN


LITERATURE.


HARRIS


PArroN.


In one volume.


Flexible cloth, 45 cents.


From the New York Observer.


"D. Appleton & Co. have published (in their series of


erature Primers') a new edition of Stopford Brooke's


Literature,


'English


with a valuable addition on American Literature.


Into about twenty pages Mr. Patton has condensed a summary
of the principal American writers on the several departments of
letters, with a brief indication of the character of their works,


but without attempting a catalogue.
of the two centvjies are omitted. Th(
as a text-book, and also for reference.


Few of the leading writers
e book will be very useful
For schools its value is


much increased by the series of suggestive questions appended.


D. APPLETON & CO., Pu Imu, 549 & 61 BBOIAnAT, N. Y.





iTHE


EXPIRIMENTAZL SCIENCE SERIES.


In neat 12mo volumes, bound in cloth, fully
illustrated. Price per volume, $1.00.


A Tins series of scientific books fbr boys, sria, and students of every age,
was designed by Prof. Alfred M. Mayer, Ph.D., of the Stevens Institute
of Technology, oboken. New Jersey. Every book is addressed directly
to the young student, and he is taught to construct his own apparatus out
of the cheapest and most common materials to be found. Should the
reader make all the apparatus described in the first book of this series, he
will spend only $12.40.

NOW READY:

I.-LIGHT:
A Series of Simple, Entertaining, and Inexpensive Experiments in the Phe-
nomena of Light, or Students of every Age.
By ALFRED M. MAY B and CHARLES BABNARD.

II.-SOUND:
A Aedes of Simple, Entertaining, and Inexpensive Experiments in the Pe-
nomena of Bound, for the Use of Students ot every Age.
By ALPFRD MA'RHALL MA YER,
Professor of Physics In the Stevens Institute of Technology; Member of
the National Academy of Selences; of the American Philoeophical
Society, Philadelphia; of the American Academy of Arts and
Sciences, Boston; of the New York Academy of .81-
ences; of the German Astronomimal Society; of
the American Otologcal Society; and Hon.
rary Member of the New York
Ophthalmologlal Society.

IN AonIa PXUPARAWowe
hI. Vision and the Nature of Light. *
IV. Electricity and Magnetism.
V. Heat.
VI. Meohanios.
VII. Chemistry.
VIII. The Art of experimenting with Cheap and Sim.
ple Instruments.
Z APPLETON & d0., PuAkW e, 49 6 551 Broadway, N. F




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