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Group Title: The constituents of climate : with special reference to the climate of Florida.
Title: The constituents of climate
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055731/00001
 Material Information
Title: The constituents of climate with special reference to the climate of Florida
Physical Description: 56 p. : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lente, Frederick D ( Frederick Divoux ), 1823-1883
Publisher: Richmond and Louisville medical journal book and steam job print
Place of Publication: Louisville Ky
Publication Date: 1878
 Subjects
Subject: Medical climatology   ( lcsh )
Climate -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: By Frederick D. Lente...
General Note: "From August no. Richmond and Louisville medical journal."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055731
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001672326
oclc - 01648852
notis - AHY4169
lccn - 06001558

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Title Page
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
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    Errata
        Page 57
Full Text





$fl{UENTt OFCI CMATE"


WITH.


SPECIAL REFERENCE


TO THE


SCLITMATE- OF FLORIDA.


BY

S FREDERICK D.IfENTE, A. M., M. D.,

, ifemlter of Board of Managers of. Hudson River State Hospital; of the Council of the
:' University of the City of New York; of the New York County Medical Society; of
the New York Neurological Society; of the New York Medical Journal
s. ociation; Corresponding Member of the New York Medico-
S Legal Society; H onorary Member of the North Carolina
State Medical Society, etc., etc.




P, MM AUGUST NO. RICHMOND AND LOUISVILtE MEDICAL JOURNAL.





S'' LOUISVILLE, KY.:
D A" fewI3Im KBDICAL JOUIAL BOOK AND JOB- rBAm PURNT
e r o '4kw 2d dnorer we# of rP-offd a
^^^*Kzj^^^^' *tate <*^;-p _y e, :'%
AvrS O I~MN N OUBIt EIA ORA,














































KM*


^K.-




4r
N' e;


V
'^'f
. "'* *


t'/ .)


ENTS


CLIM


which


I had


honor of reading


io:Health Association two


to enlighten


years ago, in


public, and


on
onl


subject of the climate of


FoPio ,


as a health resort, and especially to remove c


d ideas and prejudices which have become wide-spr
pl-y-oote4 in northern communities. It is someti
ug that this should be the case with medical men, se
vTi uormationcon the subject has always been a


Siie volumes of the


" Medical


Statistics of the.


Sthe "'Army Medical Reports" and the "Reports f t
Aint-iGneral' Office," embracing statistics covering a 8apao


r jhan forty years, which are, of


course, thoroughly u,:


They are particularly full of information


*otieogy and endemic


influences of Florida.


however, a number of northern physicians have pf


*I,i '*t~


rtions of


ron-ig.


a winter


verdict of


Florida, and


these has


been


number
unifora


,as also that of the various surgeons of the army


w #tationed


there,


some of


them


several


C*bAole war1


N>a 0non- the


The earliest visitors apd


I ,shore of Florida,


f their exprinece and sentiments,


"tg e -hiia"tio terms of her cite
r'oni tb ibjdc t in the present nent


'I


ali madner, and inese4 it(
bS livebrverer winters i t


as ?^-'


befiin


11^^k .L l











4' iqiiries sr
iM7 ao rIeauetsd,


while a log*r'


extensive acquaintance


t climate for several


lt


years, will


oaidence on oertin -topics
if m- first publication.


question


of climate is confeeedse


Ihe amount of definite, practiold
gather on the subject from thb


of them


quite


voluminous,- isvery


one.reads and


the more factor


the more difficult


sine .these


teak


observations


of dolka


are Bo


^i'bt theories o confusing at it se6 welt n4ti
adce any valuable therapeutical concliio 4ifD
addreeeed myself to this tck for the pit-fe
ii.all1 the works on Florida from that-e-of iL


it in 164 .as


latest aocesible
LC^/A lJ r


artist to the


publiesatons,


expeditio


indabdi4


'g u'
tjthe


se ;


jeat in 6aesioo


raten


agt met
a\4 a :


iS* A .A


*wa ti-.


oAjiff


.*7"-


>- ShJ^


Maf


*Goerey


;have


















-the
r"A
ifirift^^ ^^ro


trT


ttein; yet we
cee in thePr


frko


these


effusaions.


i the "Italy of Ameri~a."


climate .f the various


country and.


But thwi


thalian


resort


mst flattering
u will be furt


4 ar V, n pr n
Saretndioationsa a present


sM


Florida.


If spaoe


her alluded to. '* I
that our idea on the it.
fl "--' M ; .


oliqmate are assuming 'a more definite bha
lized, as it were, around one central point,


aven ae good de#l of perplexity and


siX Arked
6oIes wil


climate


by our


which


patients


my ca?"
we may seize


important qt
there 'any


upon as


SAitMea- for


our -purpose


to one


therapeutic 7?


di -Polonary Oobsumption


t. te indication e that tahe biblid r


ee $arrivipg at.
Ui. tli the greatest


.the


condc uipn


that


inducements to invali "t".
, "


which will


.enable


them


breathe itr


it rdang r of chilling the eurfaoe, or, in
hA vurims th Mgetes ambtst'of pje
brM ter0% the ope to bi prewerrid, payic


aOfS tU-lS 0


the air.
39 Pt 1'


Let mebri*
of three diAlAn


.^^it


KiY4 V-


lieous


atbhing
sL-.-A -.. -


r-T.'-L-^"


. ^ '-p-.












SThey hAve revealed to inaeo
Edition. I ar sure no w ,b
tib&t pulmonaary diseases have v rtl
rce, or erotic esOapes,/and amuch jeS


nearly exclusively (if


we except t


ifted from both


tteW-breathing


oried


parents, I say quite exciuive


of 'foul


close


workshops


lnges


w gp I


of all pnae ie


dusty factgribe


fatal


disease,


while


confirmed


passed


their


days


in the


opera


itatory organs intact,
;e on the rest of their a


whatever inroads theit exob
system If I should go i4tn,


undertake to cure a consumptive, I should


into the


Deiser


(a densely


wooded


: uever) and prevent him from entering & house f,

l'b ,drift of the whole article is to prove, as he o
ioMlAnd4 minterestina anecdotes, many of theta familiC


t of my readers, that dwelling as far as
whether cold or warm, and'breathingL
y, -. '. '- -? ^


leeas ,rOF the
|^r or cre of


bug-bear


of "k taking 4
n .
4M, .


consumption,


&b Urt!leoby Dr. Paul Niemeye,


thib he spethk of oertx 9'
r / / i< ,


wq physioimns an r
htlOn;'of impu, i,
-i *,. -* "''t a i ''


Out


Rflt 'e


* I


sw^'!
wlL.r& i \


YI r ~ 1 1 r










*, J 1 "


breiber, 0


.'* V .*.** .f ^ ^ 5,
Sooldnweathr, :wast
Lbq Viebb Ffacrlty, in ,'a:t


Metewookgical


Society,


of Aiken, for the "Rlichm6nd and lio
also calls attention to the same subject


that "the term climatic," whibh h-a bihbE


.i^employed to denote a vague, indefinite specific, Of w
aS ~ *'I.1 -' ,


account could be given,


appears now


as sometb


Clear and


very


simple,


being


in fact nothing "i-oss


uncontaminated


miasma,


with no


anic substances, and one in which meteoric 'prec


unduly


deficient.


shows


that


rt necuesarily, nor cold air, nor dry .a
wanted, but air in abundant quantity.


nor moio


toot mean to say that there is anything particularly


above


ideas.


Individual


efforts in


this direction


st@

nov4 N
haw
R ,I-*
'^ %!
.l
-Wcf''


e for many years.


Several


years ago a physician ai


would not


allow


consumptive


patients to


a tent,


them


to sleep under the trees itp


r of the locality where he resided.


nician of


Dr. MacObrm


note, insisted, many years ago,


sleep with open doors and


windows,


there


Smption


the hyper-ventilation


Handfield 3J


(' Bte. key-note of the climatic core of conspmp
t a11H*d .diseases. It is not; wonderful that
to 0 tial to ae proper treatment of thee e
riai~ o of pure air hae long been reoognaied


t~efr generation.
tais few iflltgrti


It is hardly zioefuy i
ive examples meAy xiot
.. ^. 14 '* L tf


L "A


^^1:^,'


' /I


th'


(I


/ *


k


J
*








$iag only


who


were


invalided


oved from the cause, and were able to r~t 1
one instance, in the Drblin House -of dia


sct fula was so common as to bethought .Consateij.
in one ward, sixty. feet long and sixteen feet breoadr


thirty-eight


beds,


each containing four


aTmoephere was so bad that in the


durable."


morning, the air


In some of the schools examined by Oi


Sfood was excellent


.(1


I AI


, and the only causes for the exoe~aig


lence of phthisis were the foul air and want


exOrciR.


'was


the case also


in the house and school examined


Arnott


in 1832.


"Two


Austrian


prisons,


in which


and mode of life were,
the following contrast:


it is believed, essentially the sam


-"In


prison- of


Leopoldstadt, at


Vienna, which wa


badly ventilated, there died in


years


1834-


1847.38
-.4


opere out of 4,280,


or 86 per 1,000; and of thee no 1uis;
-- ---


SW or 51.4 per 1,@ died from


phthisis.


There


were


than 42 cases of acute military tuberculosis."


" In the well-ventilated House of Correction in the-sa~mj
pre were in five years (1850-1854) 3,037 prisonMa r of '4


t438 died, or 14
ptf phthisie."*
^these instant


. follow


er 1,000, and of these 24 or 7.9 per 1,Oti
It would be useeless to take up ipmoeiin mui


0ce.


But perhaps some of


Niemeyer will say the majority of


my. medical


.oase ofphtk


tuberoular, but inflammatory


i is abuse.


and are therfre flJ


But few cases of oonsumptiop *thiok .


result from cold,


swrlbed


or the


to exposure,


inflammatory
in otherwise


ohef


Ib prediesposition,


which


.5y of faulty hbbita of


-w ,


natri oa, debiity,


liD, relau


dfcient
S'I
St


a


.2
' ~ f /


-,- ^r


I" *'d


Y_


*


given),


w


., p


ramnlt








-' \
I'


aid scrofula&


ivte to the importance of


'The' zpred 1


thorough veatilat


i of inZny


disease,


as the


almost


our recently-constructed


perfection,


hospitals


fully


*elyJ connected with the amou
Si':will get at a winter resort is


mt of out-door air which an


temperature.


first.


turn


our attention


winter and spring


stature of Florida, and compare it,


That of other places.


as well as its equability,.


I have abridged the following table,


Baldwin, published in the Proceedings of the Flor-


lMedical Association


1874-75


ifkci nvilleo.....................
9 Augustine.............. ......
*ks......................R.......
r.S8myrna, Indian River...
lacida,...........e................


70 06
68.54
70.62
71.80
7162


81.82
80.27
83 57
79.14
8051


70.35
71.73
70.20
62.43
71.66


56.33
58 08
57.18
63.22
60.04


69.38
69.81
69.64
69.17
70.96


'RBeferring
wkL -. S -


to the winter and spring months,


a.


lorida may,


in general


terms,


be compared


p ckl May and September in the Northern States,


the temperature


that
with


some


warm and some quite cool variations,


which will again be


serred


There


is a


very


erroneous


idea


prevalent


with


to the


weather


temperature of the month of April,


March is


and the first


to drive invalids off to seek a


ri ohimat9, under the impression that the


. _beoppreesive.
>Y ., -. -


Though


thermometer,


heat must


temperature of


nece-


April,


may be considerably higher,


y a more agreeable month


than


February


ptrwai tie case th
Sfrom the signal


year.


office


kindness


following table wai


at Jacksonville, for


of Mr.


whi .


Gosewisch,


XAPIBauntmm.


teDr A. S.


I _


O~s~r~j-/.


- -. :


__





*aw~
If *-*-T"
%ft''*-


, li heMf a Mt the eun is,* pd
S:i the afternoon, often somewbate ope ,


always a sufficient sea


breeze% oom mefcingg &t


A. M., and lasting until sundoSwn, to render it


' the shade.


This, indeed, is the caae even in th


testimony


whole


year. 1


Northern


people


who


the early morning,


and the evenings are not unpleasantly warm, as a g.e


that is,


when one has


access


easterly


generally prevails as a sea-breeze at pretty regular 1
army records show that the thermometer in t rida


as high as in most of


course


Northern States and


heat is more continuous.


ir -'e


A temperature,:


which would be felt as very oppressive in the


Northai


except on the seacoast, is in Florida quite endurable,


doubt, to the peculiar configuration


as it does


Sta


, in a narrow strip into the ocean, and


other considerable


bodies


water


scattered


ite, jut
within.


liberaly


surface.
Palatka,


isothermal


passes


through


place,


April


through


Orleans, Teneriffe, Alexandria and Canton.


,* 0 ^
Galvptout,4
.iktJ?



E1 K
rf L


Equality of Temperature.-Writers on medical eli
were at one time disposed to regard this as the most I


quality;


as in the case


and other characteristics, it


the degree of


equability.


dryness,


moisture,


riab
1


is now thought advisable to4


Many traveller who bhae a


a abort time in Florida, and who have been led to look
ptual spring, have been surprised at the not fofreqhfale


certain


months, and. have


disseminated


eromn


e ade
4 *Storida
Al~fif<i(
Ae^W"
^WI-^. '*<


th
is


ieir


frequency and severity.


130 to


which


, and


occur


The dii


for Palatka stilt


longer of


modeate limits, so a apt only
np the most delicate 4'vaidBi
i,c'4^ *^ h- Af^..-^.-^^


/1


-C.
r."


--L




__ I









* '* hat


nO provision agAist


ihto brgi- a saUll brasier of oal in the invhi


r4 t btb deprecated.
fot, ad the wood-fire in


Florida


they


the open fire-place within


boarding-houses are well


furnished, are


.iejnfyed


by all


persons, sick


well.


SThe


eventog.


.re so cool throughout most of the winter, and even


t;6pqtlg, that a wood-fire


^c6m to


evidence


ktre, in his report


is commonly seen


army


officers


in the sitting-


Southgate


" Rarely is the change so great as to iha-


Ithe individual in fair health uncomfortably, and the invalid


Eirvariably sufficient


.General


anMeO, says


Lawson,


warning


speaking


guard


from


against


an extended


Bur-


personal


"The climate of Florida is remarkably equar


proverbially agreeable, being subject


to fewer


atmoe-


ivayiations, and its atmospheric ranges are much less than


S^ other part of the United
Oalifornik" /


Jamaee


Cleark,


'"
A r.
t I



-
4
'4

-
-I.


4.
r'


States, except a portion of the


well-known


work


Climate,


i"A longD
ito health,


residence


in a very equable


even with all the advantages


A Booderate range of


climate


ie not


exercise in


temperature and of


atmos-


* Vi
'' t
n; >i

r a i


-a tios ata


necessary for the preservation -f


'Ir to s more recent authority


1877


and one of


Williams,* eferrink to


the invalid's


,ays


herein


their


mistake;


I 5nd a lotis-eater's land
sQ Afternoon,
liuaM airdid nrog,


health would be rather
M #tlTf' an& diarnha


'n la. -4


S *


aa' '.t ~' .-.~,iv^^^
,-v^. j^f *


i'^


^ -

Mar


3 .*'.


j


_111_


cuiw~


r'^ *


"Ad'





r


OO)8'


,t*


explain


effect


elevation.


effect is due mainly to the necessity fdrpreater


obeat in consequence of
*t A


the rarefactionof the air; 4
S1- i i 1


ascribes it to a cause, among othersja t the rever


-nor


ozone,


oxyd izing


thus


requiring less
parative state


power


lessening


air from


amount of air


e presence
necessary,.


expansion, placing the crippled


as it were.


organ,


all the


been disproved by further observations.


strated," says


Schreiber (op.


cit.),


" that


"It was soon i
the altitude at


immunity come


nced varied


with


latitude,


being


the nearer we approach the


equator, which could not be


the above theory were


correct, the law of


diminished prnes


being everywhere


ony, at


same."


expense of


had nothing to do with


"An


inquiry instituted in


government, proved


immunity,


very


high


that elev


localities


Riesengeberge


exhibiting


large


peros


N phthisis as soon as the inhabitants turned their attention


industrial arts, such as mining


manufacture of


while


on the


other


diminished when the


hand


percentage


people were


engaged


in the low
in agriou


cattle-raising.


In other words, that


it was the abundantq


good air and not any peculiar property of it which eff


. good


results.


are the assertions of


writers as to'the b
'


plete immunity of the natives of high altitudes


the world, in


in other m


the Jauja mountains of Peru, for intanoe,


;.' firmed by later observers, although all agree that C>a


.ie rare;*


but so it is in Florida among the white rac;


c -


in the exceptional


cases


bad food and bad habits.


being, as a general rule,
n fact, it is now suof$l


demonstrated that it is to be found everywhere. Rim
lo4tpn, M. D., Senior Physician to the oedebrf~d


ngland, says :t


"And


here


now rapidly dylngo-6i q:


a'lk.


*- q

in
-44 *i


- r, .


vI


' -. .


. ,1LiK


Ttiu






* '1 i '
Ei '.


any --o climate,


wherever


may


the development or even the increase of tubercu


-ViS .consumption
fesre it is, not.


exists everywhere.


There is no favored


There is no promised land


for, our con*-


,tai.ve


sufferers where


bieers."
Medical


fpively.
he, near
bthisis.


strary,
ideamics


-It has


they will


to meet


The valuable statistics which we


Reports


England


been long thought


poles,


instance


But, notwithstanding


the Army


diseases of


demonstrate


that


were


consumptive
get from the


con-


intensely cold coun-


absolutely free


positive


Reports tell us that,


chest


furnish


from


assertion


" with the exception of


the largest


quota


V
.
*'


4*1


tality,"'


mention


that


"consumption


s common."


it in Shetland and Iceland


, according to the excellent author-


wee quot'e(fy 0. T.


says


Parkes


liams


(op. cit.).


(Practical


"The Artny M


Hygiene),


" show


dical


how little


ce can be


placed


on the


cold-immunity


theory,


rs that


mortality in


Bengal


from


phthisis is almost


same


ipeotively).
:ceedingly h(
laign one of
ies where tb


as in Canada


Presidency


region,


the lowest


British


Army


phthisis
army is


(1.70


of Madras,


Reports,


mortalities


stationed


which


says


1,000,
is an


Wilhiams,


of all, the coun-


while


- Aid

1'Ir'ft


among the


poys, the mortality from


cause


is even


less."*


"But,"


In 1870 the detbath from consumption in


000, more than


the United States amounted t9


double the number from any, other cause.


In the'


~a.t &Sates the mortality from consumption, take from Dr. Bizzell'i
S(MidiakJ Association of Alabama), is as follows: In Maine, 1 to every
Math fromaU o5ausee, or 1 to every 315 of population ; New Hampshire,
5, 1 death to 334 of population.; District of Colombia, 1 to 4.6., or 1 to
;: ,dplation. The mortality from phthisis in the States of Vermont,
Island, Connecticut, Delaware, New York, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsyl.
f. ,q every State and Territory of the Union north of the 38th paral-
I4 m 1 in 38.9 in Maine to 1 in 11.9 in Kansas; and in o-State north
$ob in mortality fall so low as 1 in 12, save in thd Territory of-Wy ,
qiy te 4atia ko are too scant to be worth much. In Minnesota it
_l^^ from6rna oal caee; in California, 1 in 7.2; in Arisona itis nlot
^r-^SWS1*7-r" ~~~ i 1 .. A ^ *H f k


ini ei
' : 1


v Mexico, it l 1 to 2W ; cievaaa,t to
16; Louisiana, 1 in 10.3; Georgia, .1 it
in 14.2; Misisaippi, 1 in 18.2; South .
Ss8.6; Virginia,. itS t; .
'|JC *fth f86 nf i *ft 'f. Rimimuifr^
^iint~ttt*tBfti .op* jti' nsiji^


4,i
rJ


4.l
AtW


isely






ir%'r


t*'* 4kys


/ .r A


" the crowning objection alludingg to


,s ture theory)


" appears to cope from AMia,


land.


According to


Maydell,


vagrant


popu


over


a million


in number


quite


exempt


from


although they live,


not in Himalayas or Andes,


on a steppe one hundred feet below the sea level."


or on I
f t ," '/


The iS


facts will


give


some


idea of


the difficulties whioh entfr


this subject of


the effect of


climate on consumption.


TAke


famous health resorts of


south of Europe, for instance


Nice," says Dr. Meryon (" London Lancet," July


1850),


natives die of phthisis than in any town in England of the saM


population." In
so rapidly fatal as


Gazette,
among


no country,


in Genoa


" volume xlvi).


natives.


says


Florence
Madeira,


Australia,


-English resort for the relief


Dr. Pollock


COInsu
to wh


consumption,


, s consnom


Naples (" Medi
mption is frequ*
ich many of tt
it is quite comms&


But, of
for the


course, in all these places we must make due allow


condition


development of


habits


phthisis.


S'


people as a factor in t:I
S. l
*;,


With regard to


written


now


and which


elevated regions, about which so muol.$
h are becoming so fashionable, for


away of fashion is omnipotent and


omnipresent, it is worthy:


note that in almost


not al


of them


diseases of the


piratory organs are very prevalent.


Speaking of the Periw


mountains, where


been


asserted


the, natives are atoi


entirely free from disease,
prevalent are those of the


ryngitis,
marked


pleurisy,


iams writes


" The ldtmae


respiratory organs, 8nch as em


pneumonia


adynamic


pleuro- pneumonia,


type.*


7,


auI
'4,


Diseases


*U It hes been long observed that the inhabitants of elevMli
dipriear to be peculiarly exempt from coobuuqmpti1a% gld,
Mabeen;mfxade of late to turn this obsenwtion to practical PinSj


etch localitits as health resortS for the
i doubtflHf the fact that the hardy y
i, us 4 who.e lives are pase d we


pure adr rad


4e


*:1'


rarely tachitd


nr:~ -,~' -
^ ,


I


w





-^wd~yT~w
i l^X
,_ -:'* 2-


A ooIa common." Similar reports, except &the. f
i, orn, ome to us in the American Atny Mod-
pf rom all the poets situated on these high elevatiobt
1MX to r7.000 feet). Neuralia and rheumatism are v~ry


a-


on in those altitudes, and nervoise diseaese are aggravated


Vt. Dubois,


of San Rafael,


Bays


(" Medical


Record


March,


the same of that region, although it is highly commended


other


affections.


Another


peculiarity


these


elevated


'I

C))
:I c*I^


- V


ions, of all very dry regions generally


iang: e of temperature.


Thus,


is the


Assistant Surgeon J


extraordinary


H. Patzki,


.writing from
daily range <


Fort


Fred.


Steele,


is frequently


Wyoming
observed,


Territory,


of 500


says "a


not rarely,


S'aad of 600


occasionally "


Aug.


1874


max.


860 min.


In these regions there is also a peculiar fever prevalent,


which is serious, and not infrequently fatal. jt is known all
Over the United States, in the mountains, even bt moderate ele-


tatiocs, and
S'.mountain


is called


fever."


by the


people


by the


medical men


It has usually been described as a typhoi


S ifever, but the medical officers of
: o fa that it is a remittent- abd of


Before dismissing the subject of the


which


, by the


on different


individuals


the army have betablishbed


malarious origin.


effect of high altitudes,


effects as


interest


to respiration,


those


send


their patients


to these


places


to know the effect elevation pro-


oed on a medical man and how he treated it.


Assistant Sur.


W.H. Gardner, U


stationed at


Fort


Union, New


eo, thus relates his own case:


Shortly after arriving at the poet, I was attacked with a fullness in the
4. ringing in the ears, mental hebetude, and confusion of ideas, dizzinem
i"lkdabp-e. Thinking these symptoms might be caused by constipation,
fl'ia, or torpidity of the liver, I took. a mercurial purgative, and fol.
StM by a dose of Roehelle salts, which relieved the fullness of oppreuion
or.two, but it at once returned, the dizziness and confusion of idea .
tnd a feeling of numbness and tingling commenced in the fingenodf
bttd, and gradually spread until it involved the whole left side, eypa;
of the tongue being involved in the paralysis, so that I could not'

lof Dqver City, graphioafly deestibe the risk of sending
ed, regionn. Territoril MIedical ooiety, 1878). i
7 i&gutidnP. ore, and- '"if hig diseaut a nt
umntbto Ootordb6;. Without it l ii be
tflTfrhr is i.ke. w ild ,..f .yA


IVnrdiffit;
j.A


if pa


have very different


4"

.4


"r ~


1


:m).*


f etc.





''. ""* ooN STITOEi TS cit .

articulate. There was also oppression of breathing, throbbing '4
and slight dilation of the pupils. The only medicine ..hanady a
my first attack was'a bottle of chloroform; and thinking the ay0mp
be due to spasm of the cerebral or pulmonary veins, I poured a dras
on my handkerchief and inhaled it, when the disagreeable symptonit
subsided. The next day, on my visit'to Dr. Moffat, of odr corpe, I
of my troubles, and he thought they were due to malarial poisoptg,
advised me to commence a course of quinine and arsenic, which 1 tui4
taking twelve grains of quinine and one tenth of again of arseio'e c
But, in the course of five or six days, while under the full influence of
remedies, I had another attack in all respects similar to the first, comio
after a hearty dinner, which was relieved by a prompt emetic. Bhortljy
this second attack, I was sent for to attend a case at Mora (fifteen. aiilef
west of the post, about four hundred feet higher in altitude), and while
alone, I had another attack, more severe and prolonged than the other 1
and upon this occasion I certainly thought there would be another va' t
in the medical corps to fill, for I took emetics, bromide of pota
and chloroform ad nauseam, without the least effect. The symptoms we.t
before morning; but when I got back to the post, I brought the Darwii
theory to bear on the case. Ita: It the environment of an animal be s4
denly changed, and the animal does not change his habits to suit his enuvr$
meat, it will be speedily eliminated. The only radical change in envirw
which I could detect here was decreased atmospheric pressure from incr>
altitude, and consequently deficient oxygenation of the blood. The iud
tion, therefore, was either to supply the deficiency of oxygen to the bloid,
to reduce the volume of blood to the decreased amount of oxygen. ThehI
alternative seemed the easiest and most certain. I therefore decreased
amount of my nitrogenous food, and made up the quantity by laxativve.
tables and fruits, and have been in good health ever since. I haie seen-t!
cases since, in every respect similar to mine, and they have promptly *a,
cumbed to the treatment indicated; that is, decreasing the amount of blo~t~
the decreased amount of oxygen by cathartics and decreased animal food.",' ,


Charteris,


in a clinical


lecture at


Glasgow


Infirmary,


lately remarked


"The


benefits


warm


climax


and of well-known health resorts for phthisis simply consist aiA
this, that out-door exercise can be indulged in those with greater


impunity


with less


chance


in any


way


lowering


vitality."* This is the gist of the whole matter of diiM
Though patients with pulmonary troubles can bear cold ifht


'nti, and do improve and recover in the coldest climates; t
iiey even do better, as a general rule, in a rather large o
okeea, in a moderately cool climate, if not moist; tthoitI
^y -* .' r" ^^


rbeoover in mountain ranges from six to ten tb


se 'level;
d tha the


am confident


that, in ae


majority of. consumptive fing


,:,hoald
i, 4





J





. ,,


W X-A
*41 ^ t


Mly warm


-A om '-
Buifron


otbber


and moist


variety,


climate like


because


moderate degrees of


ent vitality


have


enough


nearly


cold, .and


energy,


that of Plori&


such


even
will,


brave any considerable degree of colJ


iyh must do


benefit


of the climate.


invalids


if they have
or persever-


day and night,


A climate


it not only be such as to render it safe for them to be out at


suitable hours


in-doors.


, but to entice them out, to make them ashamed


A mean winter


temperature of


about


rl'

r,
It
.1



'1 *
A,


spring


temperature


which


is that of


winter


rts immediately north of Florida


course it is far colder


at Aeheville and


similar


stations) is


too low to entice


many of


the feeble invalids out of


-Wt in so
; enhanced
^ by the wi
i" nvalide
*B-- -


Ime of them,


doors


, except on calm,


as at Aiken, this degree of


sun-shiny days.


cold is much


, as far as the sensations of the invalid are concerned,


inds which frequently prevail.*


vill


At such


times


most


, therefore, be found hovering over the comfortable


w
M-Area, just as they do here when one of


our cold transitions


occur, and will be pretty sure to keep all the apertures of


chambers closed at night, thus depriving themselves,


the greater part of the


twenty-four


horse, of


their


during by
principal


means of


cure.


The mean temperature of these


or tables, about 630


six months in Florida is, by


and, during about five-sixths of the days,


sun shines so brightly, the air is"so balmy, the


song


irds so enlivening, and the orange trees, in their delicious bloom
r. laden with their golden fruit, lend such a charm to the out-
46 from the windows, that the most indolent or the most cold-


a.


ded invalid feels little


inclined


to stay in-doors.


4]


Contrast


i a winter with that of the boasted and time-honored resorts


southernn


Bfl^


France


Italy, even


in their most


protected


I will say nothing of their spring, for no one who


or has inquired of


any reliable authority about it,


titliself there


after


the first of March.


Even ia
Err


localities


a uat


Cannee and


pleasant days, from. the atlay .
*1 .* 't '


4.V .4M
,Q9Q difrroo 0?ith


l-'l


w n-
J .* 2


Ft *


9


S?'


*. 4?


i. Lft


a a Aa


S-: .-
.' 4


o -.-.,'


M none,


iim~


IY[


A~ ~ --m i-


I








the shady side of the
ders necessary for an


street,
invalid


often


produces a


an extra covering;*


the resorts of


the Eastern Riviera this is always the


sunset one must rush


home


in-doors for his life;


any prudent man dare to ride out in the afternoon without


wraps


he would


require


in his


northern


home.


hi^U


Such i


case even in Algiers,


which is a superior climate to that of


north
Jenks,


shore


informs


Mediterranean.


me that


while


walking


friend


city,


uncomfortably hot sun,


always carried


a thick overcoat:.


his arm, for the moment he struck the shady side of


one of


narrow


streets, a


shiver


passed


through


body;


and,


riding, he always provided himself


and family with thick wool*


len wraps for the change which was sure to take place near suli
set. "Though the temperature of Hybres in winter, a5 mare


by thermometer


is not low


, the air is sharp and often cold.


misral


is not


infrequently painfully


experienced,


especially in


January, February, and March.


power, and


influence


, altern


In spring, the sun acquires gr%4
eating with the occasional eoid


winds


, produces


very trying to
author says :t


frequent


those


rapid


in health."


" In winter


between the temperature of


north


between


those


in the


there


-changes


Speaking of Ni
is a difference o


places exposed to the s<


shade and


temperatUlr ..
ce, the am
f 120 to 24 1
outh and tkhi


the sun."


during most of the warm and


pleasant days, one may not


,be out at sunset on land, but with


equal


comfort on the w


I have frequently called the attention of persons to this oontai
with the European climates when we were returning from a #fl


at sunset; some of


us in midwinter, in


there been any considerable degree of
would not have been prudent or oomfo;


our shirt-sleevee. .,
dampness in the
rtable. Butoo~t


S. There is a Baying in Rbme that only dogu and atrs
S" Di. Duboia, of San Rafael, says of the imuhidb
eber a number of chilly, windy day, which, wit)^
&lA wa S1aa Jhki -Dk IK 4^


UaW t ) .R5U


Wnrc a


be opinion t
-are mote eXPOWE


-r4" :




ff "
', I


4iampnee on sunshiny days.


:*"'4
'*


S, I
2- ^


CLWMATE.


Those who have n*


and who are shivering in a winter temperature of


300, may think


that


or 55 would


i to insure ability and inclination


but while


a winter


0rk or Boston would
orida, even by sour


temperature


seem


Ld


exercise


of that


summer, it


persons,


be abundantly


in the open


degree


New


considered


as entirely too cool for com-


A person


requires


much warmer clothing


the South


North, at


same


temperature.


The air


here


e greater part of


the winter,


with the exception of


ef. series


days


now


then


when


an almost summer


temperature is reached,


is, in connection with the


pleasant sur'


roundings, exhilarating, not debilitating.


:tb suppose that warmth,


heat is, not warmth


p;quires


keep all


It is a great mistake


per se, is inimical to health or strength;


such a temperature is only such as nature


the organs


in a healthy state of action.


The warm weather of


the spring and autumn at the North, and


AY even the comparatively hot weather of


summer are the healthiest


season.


Persons


make


themselves


uncomfortable


by fuming


'over the thermometer, but they don't get sick, or not sufficiently


"to send for a doctor.


But unusual summer heat or winter cold,


long continued, equally tends
eand the undertakers.


There is a


to swell


remarkable unanimity,


bills


of the doctors


within the last few years,


6 the opinions of


the medical reporters from all sections of


Country


from the Atlantic to the Pacific, from the


level


plains


wj -ma' vW
6~~s^- ^


highest altitudes, from very cold and moderately cold


on this


point,


that


only


cases


incipient


phthisis,


it is, tuberoular phthisis, are likely to


permanently bene-


almost all


of them


warn


against sending


cases


need disease, even when


much enfeebled.


Dr. Gleitzs


, .of the Sanitarium
S-^T- a -


t opinion.


at Asheville
~-


He says ('rans. of


C., seems to be


of a


the Med. and Chir. Fao-


Mt.,


1875,


204)


: "The


patient,


after


returning


houtbern climates),
7' -


o0 an


Mc


" has not acquired that power


prevent a new bronchial sat bb
>n attacking the alveolI d.0!l
CB~txwdse ~ mo h6'(W^^bi^^irli^i


I' k ^'
;I

.'4


A1 T


*'

4,:


: '' ''


^ "


L


sr^' ... ,


MTC


q


i 1>







relapse from


same causes, or is perhaps


'still higher degree, as the warm, humid atmosphere


more


enervate


Madeira as the type


than to invigorate the system.'


of such


southern


climates.


a-i


On ti


trary, the reporters from the cold regions, as in Minneapt,


the less severe regions further south


(see Transactions of`


Medical


Societies


and Army Reports) say that


invalids,


after a residence of several


years, and


a subsidence of all


symptoms, are very apt to relapse on


returning home, and=


quently regain


their


health


on repairing


again


regions


and they strongly urge invalids to remain permanent


or for a long time, at least,


toms.


after the subsidence of


Sometimes these climates


series of years,


and their patients,


to fulfill the expectations of


and from causes not


all bad


a year or mnre. -.


the physicians thue


always fully ex


Thus, in Minnesota, for instance, this was


And


the Committee on


proposed


State.


a question


"The question,"


Climatology


as to the


Epide


cause


says the committee,


,nnd to be the eai
imica, and HygienW
ie physicians of thb
" originated in te.^


belief that the climate of


State, from some cause or other, ;
'y i '


operated less favorably on consumptive patients than formerly.j
The answers were all, except from one who had no phthi


patients, in


affirmative, that


climate had lost its usua '


effect
under


"Dr.


notice, all


Finch
whom


the approach of spring.


several


failed


Some of


with the disease in its early stages


consumptive


patis


with unexpected rapidity ot'
these had come to Minne"as
-mn- t


, and


had been so much


eated
ered."


by a residence


Some


here as to believe themselves quite


inscrutable


agency


work,


influence any climate at times, whether hot or cold.


whieh..
.3- /


tion, that


is, as


failure of all climates to reliets,


e majority of


cases in the later stages of oons


considered


settled.


when


cofidenoe


tilationx


I


system bemes general among
system becomes general amolgtept&A!


eusion, we may reas bly expect a. f:t)4t?
'Oe .treantztt. In he irea p4i *4 4


. 'J 'A,< -* tf


Kf3


V-


-h,'.3


I


1~1






hf ~~~ w r /


is a 'topio which


of all


both


southern


in and


climates.


outlof Florida, and


S'* *


/-


inevitably enters into the


much


been


there have been so


My misrepresentations about it as to render necessary a more


ided notice


than it


received


in my first


paper.


fsjpry has been.done to Florida as a winter resort
9tth by physicians and laymen, who have been a


A great


unwittingly,
accustomed to


.4
;'i


$ .A


-i
-1;
S*.
*-Va


iate the idea of this State with that of swamps,


alligators,


a fevers, and wittingly by those who think it their interest to


misrepresentt facts.*


It is a matter of


the first importance that


physicians


least should


have


correct


ideas


otherwise patients are apt to be debarred from


from the very best season


the year


on this subject,
deriving benefit


here, the spring months.


In the first place, tourists


travel almost always along the water


courses, and seeing


them,


by interminable swamps,


on either
are apt to


side,
form


bounded


apparently


an erroneous idea of


the extent of
a narrow belt


the swamps


along


of Florida.


They usually form only


the river, and immediately behind are the


pine lands,


except when a strip


of hammock


intervenes, often


the tops of the pines being visible over the swamp.f


many


these swamps the tide


ebbs


flows, and they rarely give


Y ice,
o41i0


even


In summer,


any serious


form


fever.


oogqd place, the sickly


of the native Floridians,


complexions and


gaunt forms of


many


who are met with at the landings, are


apt to


suggest


continued


inroads


malaria.


these


appearances are due not so much to the climate as to their pecu-


'3LM mode


their


scanty


clothing,


sufcient


t tiartha of the year,. but not, for the winter months;
^nfafitable habitations, but especially their food and drink.


three-
their
From


C:P .l t is the custom of many persons living at Florida resorts, off the St.
i'd river, to represent, for very obvious reasons, to tourists, that fever pre-
therethe year round, and that it is dangerous to visit it at any time.
Snaner they have excited alarm in the minds of those proposing to
o Florida, and have diverted them to other southern resorts; thus, in
injanrig themselves as well as .others. Hotel runners and the agents
Sline running to other localities all aid more or less in this fraad-
3 to secure custom.


liar distribution of the


different


abMk or rioeet lands and the pine.,
r.ea work in the former by .day. a


where be I. comparativ


fm wn f itt


me ar


-4.N ,'


4*-
J-
Sr


B?-^'
'C
a.1


*; ^-L
,.,


1


t


1







001waiTUEsN or


early childhood they live on sweet potatoes


and t


hominy and
hominy, not
that they do


grease, the
always well


not care


melted fat of pork'stirred ib
boiled. This they become a6


for anything better,


mn


although m1


surround


them


almost


everywhere.


This food, a


drink from


the shallow wells, or the dark-colored water of*


sluggish brooks, begets dyspepsia,


or as


they term it,


"bilio


ness."


then


come


"Tutt's


liver


pills,"


or some


cathartic


which


affords


temporary relief.


people


,l'- i TiI


cities and villages,


water courses,


and the families of


have


brought


northern


up their


men


children


along
there, b


live differently, present


an entirely different


appears


In this village they will


compare favorably


with


those


northern town.


James


Johnson


ascribes the horrible as


the inhabitants of


the fertile but malarious plains of Lomi


mainly to


same


causes.


Their


drink


are eveS


worse


than


Floridians in quality, as are also tbfir


houses.


siderable


James


Clark


prevalence of


, on investigating the cause of a


consumption


in the Island of Madeia


found that it was due almost entirely to the habits of life oflthi


poorest peasantry, among whom


almost all


cases occurts


They are "hard-worked and miserably nourished, bad]


and worse lodged
a foot or so from


year."


their beds consist of pallets of straw
1e ground, tamp during nine months


S'o we infer that a location is not necessarily u


for invalids


because the appearance of the


vorable, or because


a considerable


inhabitants is


amount of disease p


even


the very disease


the alleviation


of which the


deeirea a change.
S:former naner:


quote


following


paragraph


/ As regards liability to disease in Florida, a careful
t'on of the "Medical Statistics of the Army," exnadi. ^"
..'*. *. 1 *'*A ^ k;-.''1 ^


series of years, personal
Medical and .line offloer.


raflrka.1ge. Groin
r ~~ ~ ^ '


obeervat


tion arid


4
* I
9"


~pa~Rlw~nr~.rsff~?~jh~!l;a~~ll~l~i~j~'lY -ym


^'^p!?B~
1ri -


r.%!


-^at


I )


Y P


4 .





*~ ~ ~: -'-I ^*'' '* I Iil
r1l
'4 ;


{. .T 4- '
>~i l d i
* F


amwtli tha


AeTA


'frl3s lower in East
He aseribes this.


- -........


-u---


ly in a state of nature.
neos and Mortality of


table


nees


Lorts, and


oaost
oti t


page


among


embracing,


163,


t


eption of the


northern


Florida than in


division, tl


any other classes of


in a great measure, to "its bping
" In the Statistical Report of the
the U. S. Army" from 1856 to 1860,


which


troops


exhibits


stationed


especially,


unhealthy part of the


year


Where were


died.


They


19,31,2;


but four


could


those


to account


cases


hardly


as regards


peninsula.


death 119,


of congestive


have


mortality
e interior
the former,


number
or 0.61


fever, tone


been


with in other Southern States.


very


unfavorable


circumstances


gulf


cae8s
cent.


of which


severe


char-


we take


surround-


thegmall commands scattered over this area, the bad water,


toor fo d


small


times, hard work, and


percentage of


although the
diseases of


cases


kinds


mortality


continuous


is remarkable,


reported for treatment


were


very


amenable


exposure,


shows


that


are numerous,* the


treatment and


4- 1 857' there has been no yellow fever in East Florida, except two or three
' ,~ses brought to Gainsville a few years ago from Pensacola, where it is apt to
.'. bbi conveyed from Havana, until last summer, at which time all the conditions
:lfor its spread were more, perhaps more, rife than they had ever been. Both
V:- enrandina and Jacksonville were in a most unsanitary condition, when a
Sope, through a careless quarantine, was brought into the former place; so
a period of exemption having naturally caused a great relaxation in
llain ce. The severe lesson which these cities have received will insure strict
j ntipn to quarantine regulations for some years to come. The authorities
of Yrf ksonville have been prompt and liberal in voting a large appropriation,
tyad.have already made extensive sanitary improvements, and the work still
l te on. It is hoped and expected that next winter will find these cities as
-m^ from fevers of all kinds as usual at this season. It is a remarkable fact,
|l indicates how littlee yellow fever is disposed to spread in Florida, that in
s, ,e~avet1 tonthl during which it prevailed in Jacksonville, with unre-
'.ed intercourse (except during a brief period with Palatka), with all
along the river, steamers plying to and fro daily with freight and pae-
bota single case occurred at any point along the St. Johns south of
ile, aad only one case, as far as I am aware, on any boat. This
Si the person of the pilot of the Volusia, while I was on board. He
Io-h residence in JIackonville, and died there. In 1857 a few cases
S,'ti this place, but, though no precautions were observed, it did
la.a other Derson. The recent epidemic did not attack a very


$Jscksonville, and the e
debbaed for soSe time b
W of ie e wae 1i.gst
aa ve been .bletq


iiency of declaring the
e afuthoriS"eo. At Fer-
at 1,200), the mbrtlity
n, indicating 'a compar.-


J--, a -


I ` .


-a jft. /,' i .k .; A *---' A


!t.; "
'N\


^ -


..~. .:li
,t.
- .
2;'

C ,>1
'21

*

pI~
,

4. "Ia,


a
:4t












., i
*\













C,
*'-
'*I'
.4.
'.4




S* S

.4,

-^





A't;
C^


OacnSiTUnriret's P


rapid cure,


as all the


military operations went on


notwithstanding this large amount of sickness.


The'


percentage of


deaths from diseases of


the respiratory


especially noteworthy--only


cases


among the


19,000


diseases


treated.


Notwithstanding


dampness, raifl


exposure, there were only


cases of


plearitis and 25 of p


monia.


have


Lawson (letter


"and have


served


to the


served


Hon.


also with


Florida,"


says


Surgeon-Ga


D. L. Yulee, U. 8. Senate, 18 5.
an army on the northern frontjt


and from


my experiencS of


operations of the


army in the


influence of


field on the


climate and


health of


have no hesitation in expressing the belief


that, had the t:


engaged
of time


n the


in active


Florida war been engaged for the same


operations,


in winter


summer,


frontiers of Ca
less numerous


nada, though the cases of disease might have bee(6^
, the mortality would have been infinitely greatW


than was experienced in Florida."


course there are here


as in other States


, healthy and un'


healthy areas, and


areas where the summer heat is found to bb


more intolerable than in others.


It behooves the settler, thereat:


fore, or the invalid,


if he


proposes


to make the


State


manent residence, to look well to this circumstance.


St. John's river and its
the summer and autumn


Along t4 P
1


vicinity, malarious diseases are, during
, more prevalent in some localities theaat


others


especially where


once, and commence clearing the


numbers of
hammocks


people


locate


and swamps on


large scale, in order to form a village or


" settlement."


which have been reputed healthy have become the reverse,


admitting the sun's rays suddenly and


extensively to a au


previously


shaded


forest


undergrowth,


and1


trying it up with the


plow.


This


is a well-known


remarkable instance of this action over a large etet


a the unusual prevalence of malaria during gh
ane years over a large portion of the nhd .i
Jr A -. A a 4


01 the Wea


S< 1 -4


*4r
I


M S
airy


S


' > -?




M.^~


.t,


4


p^


f kad
: 3





i 0 iOlMATsu


If mrfaoe rains


having occurred,


/* I


but not suffient


o ''


sources


springs


wells,


so that


these


y dried up, and on several occasions farmers were corn-


ldi to take their cattle long distances to brooks to


Ii'Gter. The snows have also
r kuiient to wet the subsoil.


give them


been very deficient in winter, not


Large surfaces,


therefore,


which


been


kept


cool and


moist


in summer by springs,


te dry,


wherever there was an impervious subsoil or


tPo k, there the malaria was generated.


This


been, in


opinion, the most potent if not the only factor in


,Mthe marked increase of fevers in all these areas.
But tourists and the great majority of invalids


the causation


are only con-


"aIrned with the winter climate of Florida


and wh


e it can


be denied that persons may contract ague here in any season


We year


, just as they are doing all over the country, especially of


, yet it is so rare among visitors that it need not, and should


.?asot, enter into


calculations of


those


whose condition


calls


:.for a winter residence in a mild


climate.


No climate on earth


ia perfect.


Persons who have suffered for years from malaria at


the North have recovered from its effects here;


inj curious


influence


a severe


winter


the escape from
i a changeable


spring having improved the tone of


Writer


affords


an illustration


this.


the nervous


Having


system.
suffered


for a


.long time from malarious


fever among the picturesque and for-


Slpeotiy salubrious highlands of
^,J'imed by his medical friends at


Hudson


, he was strongly ad-


North not to remain longer


John's


than


April


He did


, however,


ain until near the middle


in the spring


three


of May, has


years,


continued to remain
s entirely recovered


*011


his malarious


even


torments, though


Saratoga.


failing to get relief


another illustration of the im-


from fever here in the winter, enjoyed by Northern vis-


be worthy qf mention that of


tt hotel in which


the writer


the large number of
boards, and the pro-


.tMduely a ca


stain


he8


of fever has occurred in three


until May, 4d .iOr ^ ^ t "


flM-Wa


.1 th- f rhl


I % fiS'7 L t


tiat


2


I.


r~f~fd-n


mEl


11l11;~








ooriTmrrfist tt


miasm or the emanations from swamps, are capabe?


Sing, and are actually producing


every day


sympto0mj


analogous to those of intermittent fever, and whicfit yI
same treatment; and it is well that visitors to Southei#t


should understand and remember this:


first, that


they


far as possible, avoid these causes


and, secondly, that tlh


not be
under
arising


frightened


away from


their


from


its surroundings,


a pleasant and suitable 1


symptoms are Caused


instead


perhaps,


by inf i


their. o


want of prudence.*


Some


experienced


thoughtful


cians, who have so constantly observed malarious attacks a3


. from causes


which


could


not possibly be connected with 41


miasm, have gone to the extreme of


denying that the I


has anything to do with these attacks.


Dr. Black


of Ohio


read two interesting papers on this subject before the Arcer


Medical
abound


Association;


through


facts,


medical


furnished


literature


by high


which


authority
**r ^ v


tend to so


his views.


But, as usual


in such discussions, the medium ao


safest.


The fact


, however, that


so much


doubt


have been engendered


that, at


in the


least, sometimes,


minds


think


of medical men indi
frequently, intermi


fevers, and


malarious attacks allied to them, occur from caq"


having


no necessary connection with


marsh mniasm;


also, tSA4


when the effects of


miasm


have


long disappeared from the ayi
<..'^


these


causes


re-develop


disease.


Among'


numerous


agencies


may be


mentioned, in


general


terms,-


cause which tends to lower vitality;


want


of proper food,


ous shocks, exposure to wet, or to severe cold, or long-oon


cold, depressing


perature, etc.


emotions, excessive diurnal variations dof


Dr. Black lays great stress on the latter


of these causes will develop malarious symptoms de


aoipe will only re-develop them when


'notable example of the latter the

^.Fta with pulmonary diseatef


they are luab
ar a 4 "-


effects


. t


of cl Iop


*T. 1 V.


, rrrrlVm ^


a-.


Y


, :15


^s^


a





v^W^
S-4
N '\ *


fl 4
'*-C


practice


of the


writer a few year ago.


|': en


a great


inner and autumn, but


prevalence of malarious fever during


cooler weather and finally fro


their


disappearance to a considerable


winter an unusually low temperature


extent.


continued for


a num-


' Qf days,


immediately after


there was a great increase


fever cases.


The effect was precisely what we have wit*


in-summer after


a prolonged


ot space to multiply cases,


hot and dry term.


which might


be done


There


to any ex-


I will only mention one striking instance,


The son of


distinguished practitioner of New


York


City, himself


a physi-


ian


, young and robust, never having suffered from any form of


satlaria, was called to Bloomingdale to assist in a surgical oper-


itmion.


On his way he was caught in a sudden cold shower, and


his. feet and legs got quite wet.


It was necessary that he should


:ait with


patient


hours, but


on his


return


home he


ged his clothes.


On the


following day he was


seized with


a chill followed by fever, and for months he suffered from inter-
mittent fever, and finally, after the failure of drugs to give per-


maaent


Converse of


relief, he went


proposition


Europe, and


is also


recovered there.


true; malarious fever will,


after the failure of


quinine and other supposed specifics against


Smiasma, yield suddenly and permanently to nervous shock


it is to this, I


think, that we


must


attribute


those


recoveries


.which take place after swallowing some huge or some


:' larly disgusting dose, as a pint of
| taken in molasses, in the virtue of


partica-


vinegar, or live earth-worms


which the vulgar


have such


licit belief, and perhaps also in part to the mental impression


ed from this confidence.


medical friend


of the writer,


having suffered more or lees for years from malarious fever,


.-~losing nearly all


SuA~S, who


t^r.. C-


Vi~y .


hair,


was cured


by the


told him to apply a wilted tobacco


He had never used the weed in any form,


SMhe more wilted


that day.


than


advice


eaft' over bis


and in a


the leaf, but bia old enemy


In facts the disease oommenoes


of one kin or another on the ervw
, -


jiih
A mnedic


aot ot.
A \ ^


t


'-

i'<
't





1
'I
I'l


'ft


'94
4ri
h\- ''S
^34-.B


vrt -u \' -


a- a


^*.r^,*.*. -


'*^*^


&'


__




wm i
I."f' -


WY''
Mm


'effect whatever.


cutaneous surface, and


. oolrsmTiras e OF


This morbific influence ia oftw


may be


* .*l' '^N
"*- '^ it
as f TJ


prevented, to a greats


a malarious


region


by wearing woollen


next


the ekiia


fresh


night


morning,


especially when


the diurnal


temperature is unusually great,


which


preventive,


have, can not be


to exert any influence on marsh


Quinine,
reliable


when


one, acts


taken


as a preventive, and


by fortifying


it is a more or1w


nervous system against


pressing influences, and not through


effect on a specific poison circ


malaria,


which


the country of


office;


become
in the


to which


any supposed


ulating in the
an interesting


parlor
writer


as well
regrets


blood.


neutralisi
So much


topic in all partse
as in the doctoaf


having


obliged to devote so much space.


Rain-fall


other


Hygrometric


Conditions.


-Very


space need be devoted to rain-fall, since it is now conceded 't


in the first place,


the mere


amount


rain


year,


the winter, without a statement of its distribution over the moo


and even the days, is of


no value


, in the second place,


a certain


amount of


short


rain,


intervals


falls rapidly, and does not ree A


is beneficial


in various ways, buata


cially as one of


the best purifiers of the atmosphere, diseol


- *A


gases, and carrying down with it dust and animal and vegeta


impurities.


In some localities there is almost no precipitation


moisture (rain-fall), yet the air is constantly loaded with moi


almost to saturation.*


With


regard to


the hygrometrical


edition of the air of Florida, almost as erroneous


ideas exit'f


* "At Cannes,


" says Madden (Health Reports of Europe and AJfriaX


-mount of rain-fall is about five inches more than in London


standing this,


Cannes has incomparably a dryer climate than' 1i


number of rainy days in the former being 52, while in the latin ii


Oftsia, a noted health resort of Sicily, has 78 inoahe in
"ther fe fower rainyuor cloudy days there. than i'n A:. t a
.*Ip or from the fact that otxii afll ts4 ( 4


m oi prd ipititio are


w iwa


but4 q


.


f'i^


9


1 ''^fS


I


' \
;L^'


' 'Msy.i9 frtf -


'
*





?i r~r'
I, AtWM''
1


S1' Bib: ^


,t '


-1


a i


"oene of malaria.


Walton's


information, and indicate how


si to the amount of
kt.ui4whoee reputation


charts


little


give


value


Uflee 6


is to'be


rain-fall as a climatological fact.


is based


Thu


pr.^
If
Ti i %''4
r'\i^
S Ct 1,1


principally on the dryness of


climate, has


nearly one-third


more


ram


in the winter and


months


than


Palatka


while


Alexandria, noted for an


sively moist climate, situated


as it


on a low, sandy


insula


between


the sea


the wet swamp known as Lake


" has lees than


one-third


as much rain as Aiken, and


slightly lees than half as


much


as Palatka.


Men tone also has


more rain than Palatka, and


'tine.


double


The tables of Dr. Baldwin, a


the amount of St. Augus-
most careful observer, give


months


from


November to March


, inclusive, 21.3


hainy days out of 121 days, one


day in sit


i though


it did not


rain all


day on


many of these


days, such


an occurrence being


not very common in


a semi-tropical


climate, even in


summer.


"Whilst on the northern


lakes," says Forry (op.


cit.), the an-


nual ratio of fair days is only


on the coast of Florida it is


,260, and


Fort


King" (now


Ocala),


interior,


B09."


From twenty-five years' observations, says Dr.


Baldwin,


January


29.5;
year,


March,


an average


20.4;


235 clear days.


elative


climate


Humidity


than


rain-fal


April,


20.3
May,


clear
22.1.


days


February,
the whole


This was in Jacksonville.


.-A much more important constituent of
1 is the amount of moisture suspended in


When


air is


saturated with


moisture,


we say it


-o)ntains 100 per cent.


when one-half


or done-quarter saturated,


:0 or 25 per cent.
Holding more or less
a beder to compare tl


But as air at one temperature is capable of


moisture


than


humidity of


at other


temperatures, in


different climates, we must


^m0 into account the temperature also; and when the calcula-
ctE~mis made with reference to this, we call it the relative humid-
hat, like the fain-fall, the tables of relative humidity seem


sging very correct idea of


ZM~N.


climatic humidity; and4


.p $ly ee, it is desirable to take into
i- > 't


,
-f,
~ 4
'.3


tod4Ams.ma aunrtieo
A-*1 -t' -a n1 -* 'a n-


is* r


p .
-I


, ahe air.


. :-7 hg
. 'f


t.^1 -t


1,' ~11111







&* Sv ^,iTums or


^ variety


other


indications.


Thus,


table comparing the relative humidity of


ern health


stations.


a dry climate), 70.10;
to Dr. Baldwin, 69.90.


Aiken


64.04


Jacksonville,


For my


own


A


-


Dr. Geddng
three prone
sheville,-N. O.(4


Florida,


69.72


observations, I


ha4 &


for two winters


Baussure's


prison with those of


was not reliable.


April, 1878, using a


and comparingr


hygrometer, until


others and from other


I found, by
indications, t4
-. 4


During thb months of February, Maroh,


Mason's psychrometer (wet and dry by


my observations with those of the signal


at Jacksonville, the relative humidity for three months in 187AJ
is for that city 66.2; according to Dr. Baldwin's observatioel
for several years, 62.6; while for Palatka it is 61.3. PalathA;


is undoubtedly a dryer


climate


than


stations on the riv


further north


,fogs


frequent and less persistent.


dings also gives a table comparing the


humidity of Aiken


that of


eight


prominent


European


health resorts


from


table it appears that the humidity of Florida for the year ia-lef6
than in five out of eight (including Mentone), while Aiken hbs
lees than six out of the eight. Almost all of our Amerioj
resorts appear to have the advantage over their European oowme4


petitors both as regards relative humidity and rain-fall.


Reagt


niing, however,


the difficulty in forming any correct


j judgment


1
,<*


?'- ;*
**/" ,
M


rt -^

w't *

*).2
.
V~


as to the comparative dryness of


data,


Geddings


proposes


which, it must be conceded,


says,


mean


relative


climates


certain


from


these scien ti


other tested, the most


are pretty reliable


humidity


Aiken


for instant,,


being only


that place, according to Vivenot's classification, would


"moderately dry,


tested


by the


more


popular


which he gives, "it would be considered very dry..
Igpes are, of a moist climate heavy dews, frequent fI ,
t 'salt, apor condensing on wall, steel and it '


formation


AIIfJon ong


*afe-fj? ^-,- -'


of mould,
the skin.


moeae flourish


14* bwzidlty of thbfrV
fi~tyf~p~g
e^5f tta..t MAi -. .


.atE *vp


A
1


-





~rP
*v *"


- "'


ever. artfully packed, from being injured


as well


^~ion," et<
s~~tarad
|B^ !hter avyd
^wtl beavy.


Examining


months in


first


sring g
During


commence
During the


deposit


past


effects


exuberant"
)f moisture


village,


winter


until


near


winters


dews


here,


twelve


byth
tropical
during


are fret


however,


commenced


o'clock


earlier.


'Pogs are infrequent, and when they occur, are almost invariably
*disipated by the sun at an early hour, before invalids have had
their breakfast. Nearer the mouth of the river, they last


longer, and


otuses


-nithters.


are more


frequent.


inconvenience


from


the walls


Salt


never melts, and


dampness.


or stair-rails


I take no precaution against


swntruments in winter or spring,


the spring.


: servedd.


SI.






A;


"We


Mould seldom


must


plead


Spanish


moss


rorms


guilty


which


so much to the solemn grande
mired K much as any of the


here.


Undoubtedly


does


But there seems to be something


conducive to its growth,


dry ground


I have


never


seenI


once in three


ruse ting


of my steel


they are free from rust in


here, so


mosses.


as Dr.


as I


have


TiUlandia


G. remarks,


our Southern forests,"


" adds


s ad-


novelties which a new-comer sees


grow in


more


since a tree


unprotected


than


a dry atmosphere.
moisture which is


standing by itself on high


from


the sun, is


frequently


covered by a more dense growth than many of the same species
standing in a wet swamp, to which the rays of the sun have but


alight access,


i'^- T iJB
^4^
^1^
.'T^ji
T^ i


'I


*^L


ttj
''
,,-,,
A



t f
. 4
*

*I







Vt
-,
'-^


As regards the deficient evaporation from the skin,


afew notice it occasionally,


but the majority do not, probably be-


eiam;e there ia generally more or less breeze.


the popular characteristics of a dry climate;


:mainly the opposites of those


Dr. Geddings than


but, as these


a moist climate, it is only


to sllude to three-the desiccationn of meats and their


.rt4eaomposiition ";


"the certainty


with


which


matcbae


*q inhaiated -roome "; and the friaure of Wom a
*Id a4 A .A retainingf there fort for* _".da.i ,


4t ifst afao.vklcwk h Toafs
tMcufr~st r otik


a.Ub:


*. '
"-' l*^


J-apr condensing on


vsneoides, or


*I B



I;-


'.


"i


^fl


^St~i"s.li


1


W






r


~g
I'
4


Shrthe surface, and


AI
ic'
.1;.
*(r, ,


keep


, I rarely, if


kept in an open


hotel


miss


my office in


New


much


longer than beet


ever, find one of


box on
I have


York.


floor in


trouble with


bave


never


the comnmaonit:


my houseea
a, similar Bati
0B"


heard


any corn


fiom


ladies about their hair


they might -not thi


worth mentioning to a doctor.
oulty in Madeira of keeping mus


Dr. Madden alludes to the i
iical instruments in tune. TM


is a difference


in this


respect


between Florida and some d


climates, especially as regards catgut,


not enough


any very great


inconvenience, and th


ere is very little infl


regards


pianos.


have


observed


dama


clothes packed and left


through


the summer.


The writer


thought it of


sufficient


importance


to notice in detail these


the best we have at present, and be is certain of the oorreo


of his statements


, according to his own observation, and that


others here to whom be has submitted these questions.


Andw


also find that this corresponds


a comparison


relative


with what
humidity as


we should infer front*
taken from different;


records


'with


Vivenot's classification


which is as follows


: Mod-


erately dry, 560


to 70


moderately moist,


to 856;


oesnivo4dy


moist, 860 to 100


68.6 (March,


57.5


lowest


relative


humidity for the


September,


76.8,


year


highest*).


being
This


brings the climate very nearly under the head of


moderately dry.


It lis


hoped


above


facts .will go far towards


rqhfting the wild statements which


have


been indulged in


generally with regard to the exoeeeive


moisture of Florida


tate,


as well as


presence


malaria.


" While


authorities concur," says, Dr.


Williams,t in


moist


air, there


are none


the les


-.^WrfMt, with equal poeitiveness,


the reverse.


c0 on this point is conflicting; and


Miptt othe fact that


this is no doc1$4g^


humidity i. a. elative.


ha not been $stMd or


'2


'%'.^*i-


the second


the 84]


Y


It o, r
I' '*\ '* '






,4
\t


< ecesay to prevent


which


these


^P, rfor instance,
?iiure in the air, and


a fall of 138


probably


r.


same
were


great diurnal


persons
it not f1


a certain


or 140


equally


rangepr te.. of
deprecate. Ina


certain


amount


we should


is 40 in


C


deposit


have


]ry climate


amount


dewy


of 30 or
of Upper


tggypt

'afllato
itade
fr;imea e
fttozwen


ments


in sandy deserts, as Sahara,


radiation


at night


2 F.; the temperature


move 100 F


00 F.


so that


by night.


unrestricted


ranging


On our Western plains,


the body


In Floric


n this paper, the moisture is


beat during


the day by evaporation,


is almost burn


where the dryness is


, the temperature


during the day in the


the range is some-


ed up by day


, as we have seen by previous state-


just sufficient to temper the


by condensation and


(be checking of radiation to limit' the cold at night.
S.


II
C.


B mmer


heat


is in this


steady prevalence


manner


and with


winds, rendered


the aid of


very


Even


a pretty


tolerable, the


evenings and nights even pleasant.
Purity of the Air.-In estimating the climatic advantages of


different health resorts, too


.devoted


to what


may be


the common idea of


odors


yet the gases,


. injurious of


little attention


technically


purity has


which


these


Mrial impurities, and


' o'ntration to do barm.


ibn of his time in his laboratory


called


been freedom


has been heretofore


purity of air.


from


odors indicate, are


unpleasant


least


rarely exist in sufficient con-


The chemist spends a considerable por-


surrounded


by various


gaeas


, m,
II

i,

-l.





I
.4



I

A
,
*-*
* 1^







"-I 3


'4,
,.42


$i a far more concentrated


. astmpophere (if


form


we except a few


than


which


they are met with in the


are never found in the


' atmosphere),


and comes out unscathed.


gases


from a sub


uric-acid factory on the


Hudson


river


have destroyed trees


P long distances, and even on


do examining


the opposite bank of


the workmen in the factory


the river,


I could not:


were much


t4 t w


inconvenienced by them after becom-


to .he irritation of the laryugeal mucous
(oMi$ jg which eajros the feptadton of


B(t rfiyq xiAbove is
afr ttttty,*o t n


t.SSa~w t
$1 ft~ttSa


.7


Si i


F*.


A






annT or
oterivoe;&.lfe


material; for instance, Lake of Geneva, .0439


h

'/
i


'A


A ? I'
I'
k -
r/
,;


sir


Cbhambeisy


.0460;


(Angus Smith's tables).


at night


varied


from


only supposed that


the Black


died


,Hole


deficiency


various parts of London,


air in


.101


different


.320.


out of 300


from


oxygen


CE


thea


prisoners couldf


inhaling carbonic-acid'gas, or i
used by its presence. But 1_


observations, and especially experiments on living animals'
arret and Hammond), indicate that they died as much fro


poisonous effects of organic matter in the air as from the ext


carbonic acid or deprivation of


oxygen.


Ernest


B;a t ^


says


" The captives in the Black Hole in Calcutta did not


ish (or even suffer) for lack


oxygen."


must


then


solids


causes of


disease.


Tyndall


be gases of the atmosphere for'
has lately alluded to the import


fact that equally expert experimenters in treating fluids


ilar methods for the destruction of


these organisms, have


to arrive at the same results


that the air is in one


for which


locality purer


that is,


assigns the re!s"-
less infected with


germs than in others, and that the different fluids experimenWt i
upou were therefore contaminated by them in different degwe~,5k


Pasteur,


says


Tyndall,


found


Glacier


air of the


"Mer


Glace, and equally in the caves under the Observatotiy of PA


free from germs of


putrefaction.


It is


these


germs, and


only, which these scientiate


have demonstrated to b6 the


$pl,


if nofthe only cause, of


ahbetances;


putrefaction and


decay in &rga


and, as we may infer, of the suppuration, gangi


septicw"mia, and


,-tes, and wounds, and


7 ".4jled;


consequently increased


surgical


operations


that is, where patients are more or


reasoning


patient


.vrpen of Glasgow have


mortality of
in oampl and
lee crowded,


experiments of the


almost abolished


by bs


4unroing the vitality of thesegmra. in
jM a viciity of woods and o rtiefl
> t W ui... j- t..^ s tA -'.<.S &


-# 'w,


,q ?:.


I f


t i


I


-T <<


... T y "J $


th^ tre







- Lt tf *'
t:;tii


derived


from


actsR, established


isteur's experiments. These-ver
through the genius and patient ion


the French
epidemics


savant, may yet


now


enable


so destructive


us. to limit


human


.life;


er and


von Dusch


have


found that atmospheric germs


y be
;..


rted


excluded


by a


cotton


filter, and


,and- to a certain extent proved,


it has, long ago, been
that the cause of mala-


is manifestation


, whatever that may be, can also be excluded


a room by a similar


in the open windows.*


contrivance, as


It has


a thin


heretofore


cotton screen
been an unac-


notable fact that diphtheria and


ait greater extent and with


ar diseases prevail to a


greater destructiveness in some


than


in others


not very distant, and whose hygienic


tions are similar or even superior ;t


that cholera and yel-


jtw fever, for instance, sometimes assail and prove more fatal
Si^piortions of a city supposed to be in a superior sanitary con-
th4ition, and assail or only moderately afflict those in such a con-


fition as seemed particularly to


invite disease.


In a wirm and moist climate like that of Florida, we should


pect


to find putrefaction


.and


decay particularly active, but


e -facts are, so


far as my observations


have extended


, tbat i,


village and along the river for some distances, that


milk


|ours and meat putrefiee at


a lower


temperature, or sooner in


S*. A thick belt of trees, and of the sun flower plant will also intercept these
fg t. The eucalyptus has lately become especially the subject of experi-
,SpF tt wherever it will grow. It is not certain whether it acts simply as a
;;iters, like other trees, but morq effectually because its foliage commenoee close
:i tohe earth or whether the effect is jointly due to this and some specific id-
tttnce in virtue of ita remarkable balsamic odor; perhaps, in wet localities
its draining property; its extraordinarily rapid growth necaitating
applyy of moisture from its roots. .


Report of the Boston Board of gqalth states that diphtheria bha pre-
6 areer extent in the better districts of the city.


'I Y.
at


:that tbi atatepesat invalidates fay of tUe omaio$p.
' i.'' .4 -'. -: Ic' d l *.i rf. ^.< a -'


auwrno
4- -


J hpWtWR Kg
1 -,
OH


I.

i



WjKSn


r' r.


A;?
. T*-
-* *-/
A'
1


r- *' t,. i ,7


' .7-t


!f\^.


Pa


I


h






t2 '


OOHW 1BNnag 0o CLt


tbe same temperature in the


northern


sections ot'bd


than


here.


have


already described


the behaviit9


meat when exposed for some time to currents of


the preceding considerations to -these


facts


we must


that


air here, though


moderately warm and damp;


tions which


be notably free


course, give


from


Mnd we should also


those


infer


particular


agents


activity to
decay and


that wounds would


germs,
putrefacti


progress in a


ticularly satisfactory manner


which is a fact


also that dipI t


is unknown


, as is genuine


cholera,


typhoid


fever,


erysipelas rare, and scarlet fever rare and


purity of


the air


here, that


mild.


corn mparative


Whether
freedom I


putrefactive germs, and


its exemption from those diseases,


the relation of


cause and effect


, can not yet be demonstrated,


it may reasonably be


inferred.t


relation is fast establishing

In the year 1876, according


itself


to the


At all
in the


Report


events, a belief in


minds


of the Brooklyn


some of 0


Board


Health, there


deaths.


were, in


that city alone,


2,329


In 1878 this disease, according to the


off 2,393 persons in Paris.
has little if any influence


distinctly concerned in


Besmer


in determining


cases of diphtheria and
" Le Progres M6dCocl," oa


observes that density of poppy


the disease, but poverty is


promoting its development.


This, if so, speaks


for the purity of the air here, for there is poverty enough among the a


inhabbitants.


Bad drainage is thought in this country to have an


influence in promoting the disease, and


there are cities in this State


will afford unusuneally fine examples of this, and yet we see no diphtheria.


t The army surgeons during the


ate war found that a thorough appli


of carbolic acid to the streets, lanes, yards, and houses of districts infCO


Yellow fever


in New Orleans, decidedly


limited the spread of that


and the practice has been continued there ever since.


kyrb tihe
p~inJ Y


"London Lancet,


Burgeon-Major Tuson, Sixteenth


14enmics of cholera in India.
;aiwt be done thoroughly.


Royal Cavalry,


has frequently o1


the beneficial effects of burning fit
But as in the case of the use of ear
The author cites instances in which


apparently speedily succumbed after thorough ftmzigti of
asnd streets. Tbhe piles of wood eree pl4aod att


. UDnor


*t ,,-.


rjR y
* i
V.,,*''*


I*- ." W


.I 7,l


ylinuM~!


-1: '-;


I










,as Nott,


- ansom


, Huxley


Tyndall.


Alished


beyond


doubt,"


says Schrceder


(op. cit.),


se organic substances, be they the gasaeous products Qf


ve processes


in the animal


or vegetable kingdom,


germs, or


microscopical


animalcules


floating in


ua:pbere, do reach the lungs in the current
i-are there capable of doing great mischief."


t of


air inspired,


"The observa-




"are


etiology."


likely to have an important


" The septic condition of


influence on the doctrines


the air, as Dr. Sander-


has termed it, derives importance from the possibility of


concerned


in the


production


some


so-called


inotic diseases."


r:When we know that wounds and sores


on the surface of


y are


10ease,


so injuriously affected


" and that so great a


operations can
aftacee, we m
I


wrought


ay well imagine


by these


change


preventing


germs


result


their


how injurious an


or "seeds of


surgical


access to raw
influence may


produced on ulcerations and


other


diseased


processes going


:.'..eon in



S" Oz
B~~ti; '.
BV!*teapii'

T:." t*e. -


lungs,


whenever these


vhich is constantly brought
ration.


one.


-This agent is supposed


purity of the


of oxygen,


atmosphere, being


bodies


are abundant


in the


in contact with them through


be closely connected with


apparently a


more active


and converting injurious substances floating in


inert compounds.


subject


is, however, in a


other chaotic state as yet.


Within tbe last year or two numer-


a 'observations


in different


Ite ,by medical men


parts


mostly;


' the country have been
is extremely doubtful if


7of these have much


practical


value, from


the fact that we


pot yet in the possession


of any reliable


test, of


one which


ti 4 the reaction of this agent and of no other which might


. 1.tr'r


Schn bein'e


papers


have usually


Otor bo4iee are preeo
U ^ ?.- ---I


%,,
f )


""
P. AlAllE


, i
A?







<* tHx'&tZ' tpOLIM


its
c,
' '
V.,
r

tr ,
S
V"C


dNijection,
Sie Steve


the iodized red-


nD8'


Institute


itmus paper


of Technology,


largelyy with ozone in Hoboken


tains,


ut Profe


bhaue i
AdirondtI
& t ,


informs me that this paper, in an artificial


peroxide of bh
also not asifici


drogen


atmoep


hydrogen, gives the rEoction of ozone, and tb~ft
gently sensitive. He states that peroxide .9?
ately been detected in the atmosphere for th i.i


time


by Struve, a


Russian


chemist.


Schreiber,


in bib


paper (op.


reiterates


assertion


often made before


pine forests are instrumental


in the


production of


ozone.


says


: It has been the custom for quite a


tnend the pine
valid, but th


woods as a place of


' why


residence


process


ong time to reOi
for pulmonary i
only recently be


discovered.


The turpentine exhaled from these forests 1


to a greater degree


than


other bodies the property !of


verting


oxygen


air into


ozone, and


as the 1


destroys organic


matter, the


air of


such


forests


must


be, a


consequently


is, conducive to respiration."


' This was Scbonbein's


, because'the oxydation of t


oil and other essential oils in the


air caused


character


reaction of


this compound
Boo. J [2] xij,


:: peroxide
t point of


ozone on iodide


lately been


511),


of hydrogen,


oil of


turpentine


are permanent.


potassium.
examined


who finds that it cannot


because


"the nature


by Kingzett* (Ohe


be either ozone


destroyed


(160"),


which


Moreover, it


temperature ,o0
resists, to a cer


: extent, the action


of sodium


thiosulphate, and


bolutionA


:-water retains its properties after loog-continued boiling."


Surges, the


inventor


of the


process


wood, found that the introduction of


or i
few


prtme into his bleaohing-rgom would not o
':t formation of ozone, but would even d
'-**J-U .. *A W *e t** t/.*


* I.. <
4.


If 3 Iy i1fly, however,
6 A.^ -~ v -J ;


making pap
drops of i
uly pmiev fl


4-1


'-; .'


aff,


"^~


**?- *'


>d.^L-" .

b







I" '"


4 ~ -
'I.


4 Ja -


'--..
.'


b~#e Brettv maoch all the time in


aracter of the soil and


oae, in


-r


ubhaoil


some parts of the country,


i, than the conditions of the air.
Isorme valuable statistics on thih


imnoture, or a stiff


and


Thoroughly drained, is


midst


almost as i
more importanaqp


Dr. Bowditch has


point.


A soil retentive


clayey subsoil impervious


always


prejudicial


to it,.and


the health of


Abi4abitants.


Parkes* says of soils


" Some soils absorb and


rrx


a water


more


than


others."


passing through rapidly


" Sand


absorbs very little,"


" clay ten or twenty times more;


Shbrmous


or common


surface


more than forty or fifty


as much as sand."


soil, in this respect. In he
able on account of its heat,


" The sands are therefore the healthi-


countries,


unless


it can


sand *is


be covered


objec-


with


The effect of glare on the eyes


0u this becomes a very important point.


tion and with


a white surface, must


is obvious, and


If a spot, bare of
be used for habits-


some good


result may be obtained by coloring the houses


blue or green."


"The amount of


dust given off from soils


a matter


no soil


of slight


better


moment."


capable


With


of fulfilling


regard to permeu-
this requirement


that of Florida, as


sand


the predominating and some-


only ingredient


in the localities where invalids con-


though


is not


always to


judge


a nay more than the other constituents'of her climate by


f.V& P


r'nae.


i$f almost
fl theeoil


In some localities the soil,


pure


which has the appear-


sand, being quite productive.


is permeable.


But every-


Palatka, unlike any other locility


BtAte, is


covered with


a sod


of green


grass, for whioh


s no one has been able to offer any conclusive explana-


I obviates here


ndy surfaces.
a^ -* V. -


many of the objections urged by Dr.


comparative
valid& nuf


exemption -ft
ag from l4
^ *AJ -.*Q:.T


4

I


C~


*f .i S1 i


; IfY


-I
,'


,-!


:fl~r*


. -1




v:^


'tlia cause.


know the


serious


effects


r uange of artisans working at dusty trades.


Another topic deserves


called a constituent of


mention


climate, but


here


it cannot


it has a great deal 'to,


the success


climatic


treatment-the


advantages wh i


particular location may present for occupation and social


meAt, and without


scribed


a space.


crowding
Patients


invalid


must


have


class


some


in too ua
occupat


amusement
are always


more


dangerous


better


inva


Brooding and i fh


Boating, shooting, f


riding,


especially -h orseback,


excursions,


reading


(but


much of it) should
invalid will admit.


terest anywhere,


wh


be encouraged as far as the strength of<
Some will always find occupation al4jI
ile the great majority require to be i.d3


encouraged


course


the more varied the means the


tkr the chance of


especially if
preferable,


success.


Thus


a residence on a river or


they are thoroughfares for commerce and travel


caeteris


paribus,


inland


localities,


since


choice of


sport and recreation is more varied.


Patients


be taught to exert


going


on around


themselves


them


in their


to become


interested


new residence.


in wi
Lanier


poet, who has written a very interesting work on Florida,


an invalid


, forced to resort thither for his own safety


in giving the same advice:


"The field of Florida in these


ters


" (agriculture and products)


yet so


new


eo untri4


the resources of
as fascinating, ii


modern agricultUra


improvement a. to be


one should get one's interest aroused in if"


was in the old days when the Spaniards believed it to be fuj
told and pearls." If the invalid cannot feel satisfied
from home, cannot keep his mind from brooding ovn'he. .t


was


S nd


interests


avoid


family affairs, he


unnecessary sacrifice of


had better returti


money an


In fact, before he leaves home fnall-nte,"


4~


T-^


__


k"~"m






'- < '^|a


or. aO ATt.


/ \


- -A i j^'
'I'^W
if;.


slt b taken


s all, of his


decreed


of the patient's


disposition an,
to those who


happy under the changed


inclinationS,


temperament; andt


are incapabi
conditions


ox


Nl


e of makib
of life, or 4


ntific grounds for a climatic decision may collapee'like a
f cards."


question of


the sources of the


"water


supply of a health


'*
-'* '''^a
I'-
-


ks a most important one, and should always be ascertained,
ilble, by physicians who give advice on the subject of


of air.


More attention is now being devoted to sewage


*iminatio'hon account of the many serious accidents ocourring


!ir then watering-places within the last few years.


other


sourCes


contamination,


But there


especially in southern re-


which should receive more attention than has been accorded


It is.well known that water, contaminated by vegetable
id matter, a4 well as by minerals, as the salts of lime, pro-


S$e dysentery and


diarrhea,


may also


give


is not so generally ad-


rise


malarious


fevers.


JIt is


t that this fact should be generally recognized by those


in malarious localities, since ,water
ease in winter as well as in summer.


allow of allusion to a small number of


R support this theory.


may contain the seeds
Want of space will


arguments and fadts


As a 'general'rule, people consider


which is transparent and has no


unpleasant odor or taste


physicians


scientists


know that


these


are not


tests.


sorts, of


dangerous impurities may lurk in


water, while a comparatively repulsive-looking water may


1iebme to those accustomed
? *! ** -


,. When water


contains


a


it, as


the water


of some


great deal of organic matter,


n .it permeates a rich vegetable soil, it is brown or yellow,


of the Ooklawaha and St. John's rivers, and msy


ae 1t5.oS0 grains


a gallon..


Water


"hI^- r^vt ,-


*i

4 f


5;1 -e
ISF


IIB, rWt


p I


. i


\T~c~.;r


^


fl


gtaina
rr > ''





.Ut,
f '^ *u 'I


-. ,
*'V -~


COOQN8TITrmUEN Of OLMATB'


of the year, while


'':


those who drank pure Wbtqr


: ver during the late summer and autumnal months.


belief is


prevalent in


the south of India, .and in


We.


' deiseb, Canara, Balaghut, and Mysore, and in


the d


aasd district."


"It is notorious," says


Bettin


Madras


Oivil


Service,


" that


water


produces


fe0VOeBt


aifections of


the spleen.


presents conclusive evid


Parkes


adduces


similar


evidence


from


various.


France, and


water."*


from what


happens oi


states


water are more fatal than others.


n ships furnished wilAW4
Fevers produced by hoiplj
It is not improbable ttlJ86


malarious affections which have been so prevalent in the Cit,


New


York, in


older as well as


in the newer districts,


* *1 ,tt.


*^


been caused


by the Oroton water


bringing the malarious g


from


sources


the streams


the severe droughts of ea


mer and very small supply of snow in winter,


last eight or


nine


years,


having


caused


as


characteriziag
has already


stated,


an unusual


development


malarial


fever,


reader


many localities,


which had


been proverbially


healthy,


jualt t1


reverse.


The water of


many wells


Florida


is clear and sweet, a


'4
'1


therefore regarded


as perfectly suitable for drinking and.


'ing, but a proper examination would show it to be en rely uaot
though less so than that from the shallow wells and bro~okt


frequently used by the country people.


It was supposed,


* u"


boring down to or through the coral rock underlying tber


Safe drinking-water would


amll


.be.tiful


amount


be obtained.


of sulphuretted hydrogen


palatable, and


This water, a
Is has pusawd


far better than any wellot


diMtr;- but it gives, on chemical analysis, too large a


.salts and of' organic matter to render it perftcldyo.


a ety fair


asubitute okr ia water- tho t*
a S at ^ I-.^.^.


wAsq. It&$W ia.. st


-


1:;,


L.i~i


111


VW


. '... jM^ &


I





'* .) '-


*bo cannot afbad this, can make oe on for hi


borne in


mind


Itself may become a sour


,however, that, after a tin
ce of contamination, andn t6e


i'should
Wt ~teair.'


occasionally be
h


removed,


spread


out, and' eox


idc-the kind and quality, and the manner of its prepaa


a l a'matter of


o n small importance to an invalid;


However suitable in other respects,
cannot obtain good and decently-cooked


-r -


and no


is proper for him f


food.


Many come


Wlorida with


so little


money that


they must obtain


board


ethe food is such that they


dyspepsia and


cannot eat it, or if they do, it


an aggravation of their already existing


In tbis case I usually advise them to go


home.


Good


can be had anywhere in the State and at reasonable rates;
I oas wines, medicines, and all the comforts of life, which wae
ins me cles an e onr\o


t theacase a few years ago.


otad, for some localities, milk.
"t,-obtainable in larer auantitv


U A1


: only to


fed with'


Perhaps one


article ought to be


But this will probably soon


and


better


nutritious


quality, as coe


give


good


milk;


whether they are in Florida or New


of food, however, should


| temperature


to which


York.


amount and


be adapted to the great


the invalid has been subjected.


change


This


wldom thought of, and when 'nature attempts to prompt him,


. ints are misunderstood


complains


of loess


, and, after


a few weeks'


residence,


of appetite for his accustomed articleld o


; he cannot relish his usual quantity of beefsteak


or roast


I.
,,~
4
A
4
4.


twioe a day


he becomes dissatisfied


d .remember


, and wishes a chaogea
a different kind is re-


& warm


climate;


meat, and


lighter kibda,


W~iL--'.


Se. eggs, vegetables, frbite.


want of observance *


dtie indatcee biliousnese," dyspepsia, and perhaps diav


rooden oiterns, and there is an bhu
SThe bw^hfcias ^ ^te


1
, .*^


ff^'-*


^**
td


r*jll-


i,r


_I





iv


Ac s, and as


cmaeb) all


* -. *^1 **A* .*7 *' -
'* '* **** -* '' t ^ ;
I -*
OONBTTUUNS ow st~


a physician is seldom consulted,


attributed


?' S~rj~


e6l<


to the climate, and p


laia, and Florida has to


bear the


odium


this' as


all the other imprudent acts of


A few words are necessary with


ble for


a Florida winter.


invalids and tourists.


regard to the clot


may be


inferred


_tl .


from w


been said with reference to variations in temperature fi


to time, that a considerable variety of


command of the invalid.


clothing should bW


Thicker clothing is required in


than in New York at the same temperature.


Linen dot


- invalids


at least, are seldom wanted.


That


which


moderate winter or early spring weather


the Norttt,


be best.


One should


have a thick and a thin


overcoat.


or merinoes should


underclothes of


course, be


different weight should


worn


provided so


prepared for all emergencies.
Of the diseases which may ,be benefited


by 'change


and especially by Florida climate, only one


tioned--pulmonary consumption,


yet been me
yet ra


because the question of cht1


of climate arises far mdre frequently with reference to this


any other, and yet this powerful


oeosful in the cure
would be otherwise


therapeutic agent is more


la most any other


I


, however, we


the remedy were resorted


ease, if the climatic change were aided,


should be,


disease


than


this.


re the cases properly eeatis
in the early stages of theig


as all writers urge


by other therapeutic measures, and by judi


advice as to the mode of life suited to each


particular ca i~1


t: the adopted climate.


. t is


aotorious


that


large numbers are annually se ot


S.uth who


aceed state


are entirely unfit


of the


disease


;o leave home on aooo at4
or extreme debility.b


wi, then, or oooditiots of the patient w aq
^x!.K n 7.a *


"a r' T


- 1.


L^ '*/ .?


N. .


* r :


I


A'y:,


1I


vn


I.^


-'
0, "-


*


11'


sia


I


1_


*L-as^


-s./t








extent. their


in*iaatio t. 4*iK,


own caprice, or the notion of their f&ai


who have been benefited perhaps


M^.bid


happened


to suit their


cage.


by some


Some


part
see'


the nerve, the moral courage to announce to the


that


t4obanish


case is hopeless, and


patient


from home


that


thus


woa
an


'A



b.
;lds bir,
,,,,S


ou rmJIJ


ing cases fall into


hands of those of us whose lot it


minister to the last sufferings, mental and physical, of thQoe


away from


the oomforts of home and


31, and thus is the reputation of climatic treatment deprer


A Rood


deal


unnecessary stress


is, it


seems to me,


a on the


of the disease


being


in the


so-called


"third


" as a condition


unsuited


Swarm, sedative climate.


for change, especially a change


It has prevented many from avail-


aemselves


1 much


benefited


advantages
the third


change who


stage,


or stage


might


have


of softening,


often the curative


means which


nature adopts to get rid


gerous deposits in the lungs.


The extent or condition of


or of


the foyer purulent, should


be carefully deter.


A.large cavity, or one not circumscribed


or invading


lung


in different


by a limiting
directions, or


.panied by an unfavorable condition of the general health,


contraindicate change.


the simple fact that soften-


pe oommened, that a cavity exists, or even more than one,
- -


:the third stage has


arrived


, should not, per se, condemn s


All physicians who have made many autopsies, or who


* dissected extensively, must have


met with


not a few in-


of the healing of


cavities in the lung, or in both lungs.


net observed numerous


instances of the


healing of the


the lungs of old women who died at the Salp6tribrq


MM. Frrae


Cruveilhier noticed the same fa4


ib and Bic6tre
# atc.gj- .- S
?nnrF ~ fana hf1


in .the


bodies of both saxe


L57 oq t qi 360 who
iw in~ Uw- WW

F


M in


p
-t
'a


,y.U -








twhen phpical examination reveals bt
S*hwre there is exoeeaive emaciation, a eerio Sa
competitionn of the blood, as indicated by a peculiari


ie of digestion


*:fflx^,


nutrition, diarrhea, hectic feVe


plee,


profuse


expectoration,


exhausting


sweat,


breathing, inability to exercise


to any extent.


It is


sary that all this formidable array of symptoms should


warrant


physician as regards


an unfavorable


change of


opinion
climate.


on the


part


The moet anu


examination is sufficient to enable one to judge of the


.T. -


these


cases .


Numbers


these


invalids


. allowed to go, let us


say are


sent, hundreds of


home.


This is one reason why climatic treatment so oftt-


Another


prominent cause


of failure


is the advice obi


almost universally, given by physicians to trust to toe cn


to "avoid drugs and doctors."


immense number of


have, doubtless, already been found useless, perhaps worimw
I~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~r qJei 4


neelse, and it is natural that the patient should be told 6


them.


But a remedy which, in


one climate, has proveic


*1


less, might be of
circumstances.


decided value


A mere change of


in another and


under


air and scene may, ansd&


does, prove all that is necessary in a few cases of inoipient


ease;


but, as a very general rule, invalids require


QV


moreoor


medication at one time or another during the winter.


cations, some of which may be incident to the change of cli
food, water, etc., and especially to the fatigue and excitemw


Sthe


journey, require attention.


lees and reckless, and require


Invalids are notoriously


have some mne at


S authority to check them.


All writers on


climate have


'gainat this proclivity to trust too much to climate.


lark says


"In


the first place, I would strongly ad


who goes abroad for the recovery of his


his dieae, or


to what


S'.4K-ld


Si2)W -


L J^d


i I


r


m.,







*%1'"


*1. A
I, i ,


a.#w d.Ae remained ins oMwn


requiring attention from the inv


b eauallv attended to abroad.


fIin some


akitde may be allowed, other will demand even a


station.


It is, in


truth, only by


a due


regard


to all


airoumstanoee


i4d
-.4lp


to throw


te,a


that


off, or


th& powers


even


of the constitution


materially


disease of long standing."


mitigate,


"It was, indeed, a


of surprise


me, during my residence abroad, to ob-


the manner in which many invalids seemed to lose sight
e object for which they left their own country-the recovery


AeawU&


"
The mom common and more injurious devi-


that system


.onasist


in errors


of living which
f diet, exposure


an invalid


ought to


to cold, over-fatigue.,


etoitement


in ,what


is called


'sight-seeing,'


frequenting


and over-heated rooms, keeping late hours," etc.
r/Hliams (op. cit.) remarks: Climate is only one portion
Ie system of attack which we organize against the dread
i decimates our population, and would be worth little if
l$*iabined with medicine and hygiene, and a determined will


writle bravely against the home-thrusting enemy."
Bon (Trans. Colorado State Med. Soc.) thus discourses


, as a class, are generally careless, self-willed, and


Many


naturally so;


Sfthem by their physicians
that they will not need


more


made


so by


Dr.T.


"In-


unreal


instructions


East telling them almost inva-
to consult a physician here, but


to the mountains,


'' live out


of doors,


So, with


full of preeoriptions from home, the poor sufferer rushes


this


jii


altitude, and


in his ravee"


without


proper medical


advice;


The following remarks of Forry, than


f4 4 one is better qualified


to give advice in this oounec


Sppppt. that I quote them at length


"Letw n


I.


toomuch to orange of climate


U


It the ^
^nfatw+i
JA w&lH
Ivana~a, Iti


V^T^


4


.L A-


an.T


IC.


I


*i" .1 n


/^^^E


L *^ -
", 't*,~


& s. ^..


Y


__


from


1> *' -


1





a^44 U?A-g^ M!t


nraw


Sar wfitl the oer inty f bhintg hie
hlg.-life shortened, instead of being allows d .


s own family;


while another, who


might deive


:a tage from the change, is sent abroad wholly unit


Agatrd to the selection of


a proper residence or ign


various circumstances by which alone the moet suitable


'an


rendered


beneficial.


It is


of our


mbet


remedial agents, and one, too, which, in many eases, wi


of no


substitute.


much


permanent


benefit


' either from


travelling, nor change of


climate, nor theft


bined influence, unless the invalid adheres strictly to suck-


men


as his


case


may require.


This


remedy--change a


matet-must
means, and


be considered in the light of


insure


all other thera


tieaesary


conditions


- measure, regard


observed.


the change of


climate


patient should,
as merely plaoinj


in a situation more favorable for the operation


demanded by his disease."


Another cause of


failure


patients


of the r


only


with


rate amount of


disease


often


improve so


much


in one


that they, and sometimes also their physicians, yielding W*i


rural deeire of


the invalids


remain


at home, permit


do so during the second


or third winter.


Shat a catarrh, or pneumonia,


Sthe climate and to


overwork, or


or some complication iundi


possibly only the


- :I9


1 influence of a cold and damp winter, causes


a relapse w


tlbirt, or insures a travel over


.a still longer road


of inv


h an


before.


matter


how slight


the evidence -of


in a young person may be, especially if there be heredity
dbpoiition, he should be fully impressed with the id,


iSge of base must


not be for one or two aeasons, b


for several, however flattering may be the


'-1'
'' ~


proper action, it is requisite tbi


devot i


;-/^a


N\


I


wt-


A


eotsesto


r






- 1:


I" ,' /!'


iM limatio csoang
.f*r medical suBapervi ion ad


- ^


fMriea leaving home in a feeble oatiti
t to Florida, not resting, as they should, o th.


noine or le exhausted by the journey, and then,


ptj reat for a day or two at least, and in bed if an


themselves about, and


sometimes


to.


^rdsted for weeks.


Sometimes from a too sudden ohan


A very
a l -


cold


a warm


temperature, gastric


l~' arise, and require treatment.


or h


Some patients wit h&


with a temperature ranging from 1030 to 1040, pursue


itise


mined


proper


course, struggling to


give up,


remedies.


baoed perhaps from


make


when


a show of strength, and


they should


Sometimes


exposure


bed and


a harassing cough,


of their journey,


or. a


6. pleasure


trip, or in


sight-seeing, drives


away their


own


Uand that of their neighbors night after night, yet they arm


I into


asserting


in the


morning that


they have


had a


ty good night," their whole, aspect denying the assertion.
and exhausting sweats are allowed to go on unchecked by
| i or are tampered with as are their other complications,
infrequently by domestic remedies, or the advice of symps-


Ibg acquaintances.


Dyspeptic symptoms


often arise from


dMiou eating, or perhaps as a consequence of their disease,


interfere with


nutrition


during the whole winter perhaps.


1$ appetite, especially during the latter part of the winter


I taoible the invalid.


Diarrhcea is a not infrequent coovt


on, which is generally neglected until it becomes a eeriots


Thiee are


the attention


.Dr.


a few


of a


of the many exigencies which


judicious


Nichols, in


physician, and


recent


of one


pamphlet (B


a


yi,
EL!
An.*fI


North


ManachusettB Medical


"hA toyou have reached Floui&1
/*. ..*- ..- : -J^ -. \- .- '" af- l.fK: ni 'a


5W


I
I
L


V? !

^: ti
I


- -*-


sa.:


S^ '


S -


. m


m


Sthe


Psme


)ypltlys


troon








iotcurrnen


2 of theee various ompliti


advice as to their management, lead to


S.anad


dangerous


habit


perhaps, opposes


of invalids, which,


their


more


efforts and sacrifice i&t


haaper,
f heath.


Experiencing aggravation of some of their sy


ot the advent of


new annoyances, they arrive at the oot~


( jtat they have not


:other, to go through


found the


a similar


proper


location, and


experience, perhaps;


thoy
41 'l '
oA~ir r


go on,


wasting


winter


in experiments, and


finally


home in the spring no


tie judicious


medical


better, probably worse.


advice or


caution, in


Whereas, a^t
- (


aight have put them on the road to
their complaint.


melioration


Among the diseases for which a climate like that of


Particularly suitable may be enumerated


earlier stages;


for, as


worse than useless


bronchial


in the case of


send


affections-these


Bright's


tubercular


the very advanced


usually recover


or "*
t' '


disease in
phthuisis41


cases.


rapidly.


now and then a case of sore throat "


when


there


is tubercular


ulceration


is sent as a curable


of the


epiglottis,


,., .t.2'


; quent on disease of


the lungs, of which the patient has beet


in. ignorance.


These


are, of course,


hopeless, and


very a


damage the reputation of
pumonia,. consolidation,


climatic treatment;
which has survived


cases of u
the usual tMa
f-i..* a


and has left the invalid feeble, short of breath, with oot


of appetite, etc.


i'4ama) says


Dr. Bizzell (Trans. of Med. Amo. of


" Such oases recover almost magically in the


mild air of Florida ";


eAsia, particularly those


skoqping-oough


children of atrumowu


convalescing from


rheumatism


or tubercular


measle, at


neuralgia.


aght singular that the former


should be


Sowing to the amount of moisture sup
But the/fMt is that, without any eadi
,i i .,


- t


rL


I YI


f^ I t


I~ I


..;^


'I; ^


^-Oni


a^Vw'I~


I


4[ m It






" ^J '* -"


ofMa


nTlh*V* V


promptly yields to the I


otiad; many of the nervous and neur&Wi
uterine disease, or surviving its sacoeesMal


ar elooal lesions
g unsatisfactorily,


are concerned), do well.


in a cold climate, from almost.


disease, even


from


malarial affections (witness


own case), will find a change to a temperature whiou
>le them to derive the benefit, through a long winter, Os


it fresh, open air, extremely beneficial.


Very old person


any disease will have their lives prolonged and rended


'ortable by a winter residence in


men


who


suffer


o ida; especially old
kr;- -


the mild, genial


from


A ',
p
4)k'
* ,


bladder


S- -


"
Lastly, Florida ofers a haven


condition


which


of rest and


is unfortunately becoming


t among "the restless, driving denizens of


our Norther


cities, which comes under the comprehensive desig-


of nervous prostration,


what Hand field Jones terms waI


Spare, and which was thus described


1y fifty years ago:


' There is a condition


by James


Johneoat


of body interim.


,^' T,
: n. 32
.3-



.1
1 'I
.I ,


w between sickness and health, but much nearer the former


the latter, to which


am unable


give


a satisfactory


It is daily and hourly felt by tens of


lis (London) and throughout


that


ever


been


p, -though I apprehend
r tiimately, if not for


-fLa of the


described.


it makes


thousands in thi


empire;


I donot


It is not curable by


much work


the undertakers.


living machine, mental


for the de..


that wan


corporeal, which


from over-strenuous labor or exertion of the intellectual


t rather than of the corporeal powers, conducted in ans


imal d and bad air.


this cerebral


consumption, a


.,
'C-I


'-, ,,'t
*

I A
1
V.

:I


iji %ty term it, Florida affords as healing a balm as


varietyy"
rwnn"*


Saetwith every year in increasing n umnb
|i~d~ht^ ^nfl^ And i itirma enet n H <1Imnlif
liff^SBSS~a~ *^/.^ ^?/


ic troubles.


that


4;.,


*tI


, ^ 'I'
<*- *


$


I


r
*
i
*


A ; ,


B^M^~


I


.






-z~f(r~


;v: sum~'4r


^' Vt


applyingg the extravagant want of
V1aupplpying the extravagant wants of


a^


lies;


heads of our


great corporations, railwayq


insurance companies,


management


and responsibility


often at the head of several,


their utmost tension, with very rare


one such


ontent
organic


whose mental powers have


intervals of re


years.
light


Sad it is to witness the wreck


ofthis


experience,


of such


minds.


we are almost disposed to re


invention


of the


graph, which


telegraph,


enables


us and


especially


forces


us to


of the oceaws
compress so .m


business into so small a space of


time, as a very equivooea


The facilities for accomplishing, and


the inducemea


undertaking, increased work and responsibility, thus multip


year by year, it does


require a prophet to predict a


increase of


nervous diseases


cerebral wr6oks if our


generally, our educated


and mercantile classes, are not a


to the necessity for a decided


reform


in their


reckless


,.Dr Nichols says,


in his recent pamphlet (Essay read before


Esser North Mass. Med. Soc.


,May,


1878) :


"Without far


remark, we will say now, that for that class of


ailment. 4


ing upon abnormal
lated to afford relief


nerve
than t


functions,no climate is better c
hat of Florida. The poor, brokhti


down man


of business, the


nervous wife


mother,


and worn with household cares and duties,


will find


in this


lightful air a balm well calculated to restore nerve action to


healthy conditions.


mental


physical


which comes even during a brief residence in Florida is ia '


view, one of the most remarkable


results of its climatic


oene.
door


"The best possible


life in


a climate


medicine for weak nerves is


subject to


violent change;


dimate is afforded by Florida in winter."
These conditions of .the nervous system are not
61a66 of the most serious import, but still mren
|t-~eir hflf i^*tt ^1on


iyt *
V,
V


_


'jM


Sing,






?ryr*V 1>


anxieties which so


often


beset


flrw.


well


-: of organic


s^r iiS


be regarded


diseases,


as mainly inst
and especially


o duty of the physician to be watchful of the develop
Sof such cases, especially in phthisical families. TheB


)ms, of


what has been


termed


|anerally quite obvious-failing


events


the pre-tubercular
health, loss of appet


I .


or surroundings, dyspepsia, lassitude, somes


.anemia, but no


oby change of


climate.


qr. Geddinge (op. cit.),


These are the cases


" The number of


cases like thee,)


If
-'


" is simply enormous, and the phy


who, forgetting that his mission is to avert disease, as well


cure it, sounds no note of warning, is not only


r, but guilt(
ii too ftrsh.


negligence, for which


Year


by year


cases


come


term


derelict in
criminal i.


under the writer's


Str


'V



' I'
* 9.

"4'll


action ,


where neglect on the part of


the physician to give


warning, or its disregard when given,


has caused a sacrifice


Sihman life which might have been prevented."


e have said


that


patients


must


not rely too much on cli-


neither must they expect too much.


f^,' 4 p


lient disappointment and a failure


This also has led to


to appreciate the benefit


tic change.


A decidedly consumptive invalid comes to


loidba, and because he has not regained his health and strength
1 spring, he concludes that the change has done him little
o good. Perhaps he feels little or no better. Yet he does
l iKow how much worse he might have been had he remained


comes


n climate


more


than


would


Florida


have


escape


avoid


exposed


from


dangers to which a
L, and if he gains


these dangers, catarrhal


%*4 pneumonia, pleurisy, bronchitis, etc., he has
b ilE his pacriice.


been well


s-i
* tl


a invalid thus philosophizes on the subject:
tiev in. Florida is $b u a
^'B'iB -^ ^'/^ y '-^"^^ ^'^ 'r --- SW.^


1I .44 '


a r'&~-r'\ .>


- i ,


- --*^y.^


r*-


physical signs.


In-4


. U


1* ,^


FI


*


' fr^ \ *
. 77. L(


-


and


k :


*-


I w


I


V


Ae.








b into winter quarters previous to und


campaign,
fight with


And if life is to be a constant


from


death, this


is a strong


which he may retire, and from which hl may often Met
,&t efiano."


With


regard


proper


time


may go from the first to the middle of


>r going to Fold
November if


-. tion requires so early
however, he has only


a retreat
a limited


from
time


inclement


weatl,


disp


better wait until the first of February.


oranges ~al


in perfection, and the


weather


also.


does


fpend


whole


a long


winter and spring in Florida,


cannot remain


at the North,


or if he


pines


for a


may go up to Aiken,


or he may stop at Aiken in the early


of the winter.


October is delightful there, at


there is


no cold


interfere with an invalid until Christmas, and |


- later.


" This,"


says


Geddings


cit.),


"i undou


the finest portion of the year, the air being just cold


as a tonic without chilling,


eno0


or in any way adding


discomfort of


even the most sensitive invalid."


4iken hbd


one of the finest hotels in the southern country.


When shall one leave Florida on his return north?--ie a


important question.
again by all writers


The warning has been repeated gain


on climate


"Don't


home too:


But still the fatal mistake continues to


fes and benefits of


be made, and the


a whole winter are often thrown away


premature return


in the


and beautiful weather


spring.


Quite


in April, or even


a long spell of
in March, whiok


characterizes our treacherous. northern climate,


'beoomes green and the early flowers


-te birds begin to


when tL.


put forth their


sing, beguiles the invalid or his fri


.. -.


- *


a


-


ag to see him home among them again, into the belij


guvly summer
*-v~'-*


is at


hand, and


a-,sr I&. .


< to be g sr!eeAd, o Chi
rt .1 a.


hastens


a8wq 4


, .V +*


_






LW t
-' am


.-The qietion.whetler j ^!


d4 or by sea naturally presents


the tourist. Rail
woe the dangers of
-


ays are
the sea


usually preferred


*f'a I


the horrors of M?


- S


As regards danger to life, that of the sea is


or, according to statistics, than


advantages


travel


by sea.


land.


fatigue


There
is lea;


Ss usually greater


the danger of taking cold and of ag


X generally is lees, or precautions against it are more ,ad


Control


individual.


ial to the consumptive or


W- the


time


arrested.


voyage


bronchitic


Even


is almost alwag


invalid;


invalid


aces, it is only a temporary suffering, and does


Disease,


If he is so feeble as to


i,'he is unfit to travel at all,


regards sea-sickness,


this may


render


a sea


the ooug


suffers


frow


not inore


voyage


and should remain


dat


at homn


be in many oases entirely


others promptly cured, or greatly mitigated.


W *n
-




II
'p

.4
La.
1P ^^

[--
y^
I t "
I ^1


Elsewhere* written at considerable length of the treatment


tsea and vomiting from


various causes.


of sea-sickness I employ bromide of


doses, half a drachm, three times a day,


the prewve-


potassium or calcium


about three


before the day


sailing,


or enough


system


under the influence of


the drug at that date, as evidenced


a feeling of


pleasant drowsiness.


keep


,:oce, two or three doses a day after sailing,


is high.


this influence up
especially if the


Some persons prevent sickness by wearing Jobard's


lt buckled as tightly around the waist or pit of


be 'borne with comfort.


Ladies


can bear it


the stomach
better than


* fIy
A/
-:


imen.


New


on deck,
BPre,


These can be had at Tiemann & Co.'s, 67 Chatham


York.


The invalid should, if the weather permit,


and, if threat d


take


meals


with sickness, in the reoum-


on deck.


If he


takes hli


aloon, he should not linger a moment after he hab
er$ae e&l wf p9in food, but go in the open
vktn^.'i ^ tj dIK a. *


3 rev--


2 k .


* I 1. -,^^J


4w,-


i. I


* 1 ^


iteel*


. *fc.-,
."


S^W^v:~


Y







'*''


g the numerous


cures,


I know


none


'Ity.


A person can get a small,


inexpensive G


from five to ten dollars, which requires no deetrctt


it, which any


.yery soon.
"


may


learn


to apply mc


A flat sponge moistened well or a wet napkiic
.. I. Ut


ieDmorappea around the


brass cylinder electrodes,


into them


, so as to furnish a large surface.


One of these


be placed on the epigastrium,


the other opposite, over the:


solar


plexus,


the latter, during half the time,


seventh cervical


vertebra.


The electricity


may


for half an hour or an hour in bad cases, only strong e


give a pleasant


sensation.


Apomorphia in


very


minute


(the homoeopathic triturations furnish the most convenient


is well


worthy


trial.


For sleeplessness associated with


sickness,
nausea)


chloral


hydrate may


doses


taken


fifteen


grains.


(in a wafer to pi


A stop-cook


screw may be put into a bottle of


dry champagne


this k


ice, and small


doses


p : debilitated subjects.


taken


every


By strictly


half hour or so, espeoii
observing the above p


P tions and remedial measures, sea-sickness may be proven


cured


in most cases, not in all.


ing in sight of


steamer,


Those who get sick upon


or thinking


voyage,


, better take to the railway.


,I


p S


: '-11


y'^





















E: I: AT A.


Please make


Page 18,


the fo


line 17


lowing corrections before
for misral read mistral.


reading:


Page
Page


line 7


, for begets read beget.


no 4 of foot-note, scratch out more


after


were,


erase the comma after perhaps more.


Page 39,
Page 40,
Page 55,


line.12, for humous read humus.


for Hal


in foot-note read Hallock.


line 21, place a comma after the word day.




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