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REPRESENTATIVE FROM FLORIDA
MEDICAL COMMISSION ; MEMBER
OP BOARD OF MANAGERS
OF WOMEN AND CHIL
ON THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE CENTENNIAL
R Or THE AMERICAN PUBLIC-HEALTH ASSOCIATION;
OP HUDSON RIVER STATE HOSPITAL ; OF THE
L ASSOCIATION; LATE PROFESBOR OF DISEASES
DREN IN THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK;
R OF NORTH CAROLINA STATE MEDICAL
IBPONDING MEMBER O NEW YORK
L SOCIETY; VICE-PRESIDENT NEW
YORK NEUROLOGICAL SOCIETY, ETC.
[REPRINTED FROM THE NEW YORK MEDICAL JOtURNAL, NOV., 1876.]
, M. D.,
A s .*. '
(: .a s *"
I *:t '.
t' -' -
;'. *9 .,j
( ( ;'
t, i '' i n '
* < Ip
'*~ ~ ~ ~ 1 '^.'.i''i
**"-~~ l~ *^
the question, Where sha
II I spend the winter ?
Winter resorts, some of
them entirely dissimilar in the characteristics of their climate,
have risen or fallen in the estimation of the public, and, to
some extent, among medical men, according to the prevalence
or decline of a theory, or apparently even a fashion; and we
are still, to a great extent, at sea as to what is the most favor-
change is desirable.
The cold and dry regions,
e. g., Minnesota; the elevated regions, with their rarefied air,
e. g., the Engadine in Europe, the mountains of Peru in South
America, Laramie and Colorado in this country, have had their
pilgrims, and neither theory nor fashion seems to sustain their
reputation. The til
many years, absorb
lately fallen greatly
me-honored resorts of Italy, which, for so
the entire ii
invalid travel, have
who could not fail, after the charm of novelty and the haze of
romance had been dispelled, to see on how unstable a founda-
tion, in a climatic and hygienic point of view, her reputation
forts of Bennett,
Even Mentone, to
which the name and ef-
years, gave a fictitious
< a' ^ 't -E '
r^ IF '
< ~ ~ ~ f A' ^ '
prominence as a health-resort, and rendered it, for the English
least, a medical Mecca, has failed to respond satis-
factorily to the test of time and experience.
One who wishes
to get a thorough eypoeb of the peculiarities of Italian climate,
from a responsible source, should consult the entertaining book
James Johnson on Change of Air."
The climate of
have remained there for a few weeks have been more in-
made the voyage,
and remained but a week or two, have seemed to be somewhat
improved in health.
known among our people concerning
climate of Florida.
Many causes conspired to this
affairs for many
years after; the impossibility of securing any decent accommo-
dation for invalids
then the civil war checked travel and immi-
gration, and rendered the State still a terra incognita.
paid a visit
John's River region, for three or
four years, it is as if the magician's wand had been waved over
seeking health, but settlers, in the shape
of farmers, of men of means, even of wealth, of education, and
, have been pouring in along the river counties;
estimated as the influx
Orange County alone
Orange-groves have taken their places.
churches have sprung up, and refined and agreeable soci-
be found over a large extent of country,
t years ago a howling wilderness existed.
here but a
of invalid travel having been diverted from its usual channels
spot, the attention of
the medical profession
been attracted there also, and a growing desire
has been manifested to secure reliable and definite information
in place of the various conflicting reports which are constantly
and magazines of
a large amount of valuable infarmtiom
naudjalIw nnnanAAu Rae n.AlUabba ab
the suggestion of friends and physicians, a somewhat elaborate
account of the climate, remarkable objects of interest, and re-
sources of Florida,- especially as a health-resort, when he found
that he was overtaxing his available time and health, and now
offers, as a
remarks and suggestions as
or serviceable to the profes-
for which he may be able to find room in the some-
what restricted compass of a medical journal.
The discussion of the broad question of
climate, in its va-
aspects and bearings, has always been a perplexing one.
It is especially so when we, as physicians, come to consider it
in its relations
to any particular individual,
or even any par-
we are confronted
, to scrutinize the various conflicting
statements of equally
a definite and
to deduce any-
to any particular
difficulty. To th
or country, is a matter of no small
dressed himself for the past two years, in the case of Florida;
and indeed, for the most part, only to a small portion of the
which is most accessible to invalids.
proper facilities for easy travel and proper accommodation
are provided for those
lying along the Indian
along the Gulf
coast, south of Tampa,
supposed by many to present attractions superior to the more
portions, their relative merits may profitably be left
out of the
The great bulk of tourists and invalids
themselves along the St.
at St. Augustine.
A few go into the pine-regions
of the interior to get away from the river.
will in Florida, it
tion of the count
bodies of water.
But, go where one
s diMcult, owing to the peculiar conforma-
;ry, to escape
With reference to Florida,
a metaphor," says "Chambers's Encyclopaedia," "it may be de-
scribed as. amphibious." T
disadvantage, constitutes, to
his, however, so far from being a
extent, its charm, and
the future, constitute a
great source 'of
L. -- -t-_ t- --- --.- A.L ____ _- ... -1- A.. .-.
A study of most of the works on Florida,
that of Le
visited the territory as artist to
visited it as naturalists
in 1564, and the
1772, to the latest
pers; access to all the records bearing upon the subject in the
possession of the War Department, the library of the Surgeon-
General, and other .depositories in
a careful col-
the various meteorological and other tables included
in these records
personal interviews with distinguished medi-
cal officers of the army,
who have served in all parts of
many of the scientific and medical residents of
with some of 'her representatives in Congress; and,
lastly, the opportunity for consulting a considerable
passed through, or located for the season at the writer's winter
residence, have afforded
the intricacies of the
him unusual facilities for unraveling
The last source of information, as regards
merits of various climates, he considers of more
value than all the others, more so than even an extended
For invalids are by far the best judges of
climate; they are living barometers and hygroneters.
to question and cross-question the
reporters, and not only
thus to arrive at the truth, but,
All of these indi-
were intelligent and
people, most of them
invalids who had traveled the world over in search of health,
and tested its renowned sanitary resorts, some of them winter
after winter. Few of them had any *particular prejudice for
or against any special locality, save from its actual effect, but
were, from self-interest, in search of
The evidence of those who have tested the climate of Flor-
ida by sufficient personal
nation of the data furnish
favortble character. The
a few aeke to roamning from one
I AI -- -
observation, or by a careful exami-
ed by others, has been of the most
opinion of those who have devoted
locality to oanber, or who
_ A-% u l..- ...
may be profitably neglected. .From the very earliest discovery
of the continent, the remarkable salubrity of the climate, and
the extraordinary transparency and purity of the springs, gave
somewhere within the borders of the territory, and led to the
expedition of the romantic and chivalric De Leon in search of
it. The first impression of a visitor, who has been led to form
perhaps, by a
longer acquaintance almost always leads to a revulsion of sen-
timent, and a succession of visits to something of the enthusi-
asm of the earlier historians.
able data with
A reasonable amount of valu-
meteorology of Florida is sup-
plied by the volumes of the "Medical Statistics of the United
a sanitary point
but if one undertakes to judge of a climate, in
country or district for invalids, by mere
latitude or tempera-
ture, or its variability or invariability, its dryness or humidity,
he will fail to comprehend the philosophy of the subject. Its
geography, especially its physical geography, must be studied,
its position with regard to surrounding or neighboring seas or
bodies of water, to great currents both of air and water, to its
storms, to mountain-
its own borders, but. sometimes at a
distance from them.
Thus Florida has often been
runs through the so
Italy of America," yet the parallel which
nthern extremity of the peninsula is 25,
while the southern extremity of Italy is 380. The
440, and the Isle of Wight and Torquay nearly 51
,; yet the
winter climate of the latter is very pleasant, and highly recom-
mended in England for consumptives.
While one can usually
live in perfect comfort in Florida, even away from
if at rest in the shade, under a temperature of 95
a like temperature
probably be in a state of mental and
It is the insular position*of Florida, withbthe proximity
d.the Gulf Stream flowing north, and the cold arctic current
flowing south, the comparatively narrow strip of country Mq-
rating the Atlantid and
the Gulf, and
the .numerous snfalter
over its surface, the
always sweeping over water
temperature, which modifies the heat of summer and the cold
of winter. The peculiar character of the climate,"' says br.
Robert Southgate (" United States Army Medical Report"),
"consists less in the mean annual tern neramtnr than in thA
manner of its distribution
an insular clin
47 73' colder t
place is only 80
- II- .
- -. r K V..
nugh the winter at Fort
v flbu a -
Selling, Minnesota, is
t summer at the latter
-In the summer season, the mer-
in any portion of
even in Can
along the coast of Florida."
six years," says Forry,
at Key West was never known to rise higher than 900 Fabr., or
lower than 44 Fahr." The variabiity of the winter tempera-
ture has frequently been noticed, and has been often alluded
to, by those who have not had personal experience of the actual
effects of these
system, or with
modifying influence on these changes of the peculiar constitu-
tion and surroundings of the State, many of which have al-
ready been pointed out, as greatly detracting fiom its value as
A change in twelve hours, for instance, from
70 to 60 or 50, has a very different effect on the sick from
a change of
a like number of degrees in Boston, New York,
Practically, these variations are of actual benefit
to those invalids who are
and who take the
precaution to change clothing with the change of temperature.
A continuous temperature of from 75 to 800 at mid-day, for
a number of consecutive days, is generally felt as a serious in-
bonvenience, especially by the more advanced and debilitated
6eange, knowing by ex
the .ed4 heat of some
dv'ev hbih. and very am ble
troppal regions, though not oexs-
moat unmnn_ t aienrlv
these variations of temperature, Dr.
"Rarely is the change seo
great as to imi-
prees the individual in fair health, uncomfortably, and the in-
invariably sufficient warning to guard
Surgeon-General Lawson, United States Army, speaking from
an extended personal experience,
ida is remarkably equable, and
"The climate of Flor-
proverbially agreeable, being
atmospheric variations, and its atmospheric
ranges much less, than
any other part of
except a portion of the coast of California."
faults it may have, the climate of Florida, in
most others, stands
I have watched
advanced stages of
when the diurnal
as it did
last winter, from December 5th to December 16th,
780, 820, 82, 83, 840, 81
, 820, 810, 81
, as I heard them
manner and appearance.
This was an
on the 16th, to hear
their entire change of
unusual series of days
for Florida.in winter;
tion is quite common,
but a high temperature of shorter dnra-
the cool, sometimes
which succeeds, so far from causing colds and pneumonic com-
generally acts like a cold
shower-bath, and braces up the sys-
The occasional *wood- fires, around
so cozily congregate on the cool days, are
as a pleasant change, and
uniform and debilitating heat and monotony of more tropical
Nothing, in fact,
is so distasteful
most invalids as monotony.
The writer has always believed
in the traditional
idea that when
had arrived at
stage of softening, a removal to a warm climate is not a bene-
fioial change, that a sudden and rapid
increase of the trouble
is pretty sure
A study of
has not tended to establish the correctness of this idea.
the contrary, the progress of the disease wa slower, if not en-
. t a J
*^ ^- I *
*I ___ J
-* A ,
~: ^.^S- '; ^
r'f' "' S
, -- .
" ^ '
they sometimes are) on
their arrival, even with the dieadvan-
tage of being deprived of the comforts of home, which they so
Every village and
ably furnish its examples of people who have come there years
ago, only, in the opinion of their friends, to die, and who are
noDw doing well,
some of them
apparently in full
is impossible, of course, to say, without a physical examination,
how many'of these were cases of
chronic bronokitis, or other
they would almost certainly have died except for their change
This little village, in which I have taken up my
winter abode, can furnish several
that the more uniform heat of ti
It is very likely
climates may furnish
stronger evidence of the correctness of this commonly-received
opinion among medical men.
a typical May or
John's, for January, February, and March, 62
at St. Angus-
, it was, last winter, for
January, February, March, and April, at 12 x., 680 50'
average temperature, taken during these
months every hour,
from 12 at night until 6 A. M.,
was 570 40'
A slight film of
ice is oc asionally seen during the winter, and slight frosts are
not rare north of the 25th parallel, but not often injurious to
history of Florida, speaks of a
snow-storm which appeared in 1774, and
speak of it as an extraordinary white rain.'"
As regards hygrometric conditions, it is necessary to say a
The "dampness" of the climate has beep much
about by those who
aspect of tl
of the air.
any knowledge of the
The air is, during
summer, very damp.
Mam, rain lls durinr this memos than all the othem ammbinLd;
* E, *i- ,^ ^
special precautions necessary to preserve my instruments from
rust, and boots and. shoes, long neglected, showed
At some of the prominent reports in Florida the invalid is con-
ecious of an unpleasant dampness after sunset, when out-of-doors
and not in active motion.
As a rule, these places are usually
ments of Spanish moss,
which may, in some measure,
for this. At Pilatka, and at other points farther up the river,
it is not so. This village, with an elevation of twenty-five feet,
has a natural drainage on three sides, a
peculiar soil, and
large trees, only the wild-orange, and other tropical
slight elevation, simply for ornament.
when the air is
too cool, one
night with comfort, though
is not advisable for invalids to
dews, usually heavy, do
o fall, and
Until 11 P. M., or
swept over the grass-which is here, unlike other localities in
the State, as green as in a Northern village in summer-with-
the day, there
mercury rises to 75"
, as they commence
midnight, or later, and are diesi-
by the sun
A great deal
has been said, by those interested in other winter resorts, about
the fogs and dampness along the river;
but there is really no
more dampness than is useful, indeed necessary, to prevent too
radiation of heat from
surface of the
earth, and a
consequent too rapid tall of temperature.
Were it not for this
provision of the climate, instead of a fall of ten or twelve de-
agrees, we should, perhaps, have one of thirty to forty.
desert of Sahara, for example,
where the dryness
and radiation at night unrestricted, the temperature falls to
the freeoing-point; and on bur Western Plains the difference
between the diurnal and nocturnal temperature is sometimes
Here while the evaporation of moisture during the day
the heat, the condensation at night limits the cold.
At Fr Xinr. in th. sume
the State as
"* 4t*~ 1t
-- ^ :. .- I ',.
1 1 *w ,
I 2' 1.'
-- ^ .'
Forry gives the annual number of fair days as 809 for a ied
of years, and
on the Northern Lakes 117.
'On the oM d of
Florida the number is 250.
A moist climate is not neceuarily
bad for consumptives, though it is generally so.
On the Nile,
cases do welr at
Cairo, others do
better at Alexandria.
The climate of Lipna is very dry,
consumption is very common, while on the mountains back- of
Lima the air is always damp and
rain common, yet consump-
tion is rare.
moisture are always bad, but warmthi
may or may not be so.
The question as to the
influence of large bodies of water on the production and prog-
ress of phthisis
important, especially to those physicians
adoption of Florida
for their patients, that, at the
as a winter residence
extending' the limits of
this paper unduly, I quote a very instructive table from Forry,'
with an abstract of his remarks on the same, and his
. United States, on the same parallels of latitude,
teams of climate very diverse in character, viz.-1.
r that the
are contracted, thus
the extreme range of the
thermometer as connected with the
so far as regards the
the results of the quarterly
sick-reports of forty-five perma-
nent ports, arranged
The Climate of the United State, and its Endemic Influeau, besd
bhidy on the Reoords of the Medieal Department and A4Jutut-Genuaus.
Ofao United State Army. 1849."
SYSTEMS OF CLIMATE.
1Ft Cma.-Poetaon cot ofN. England.
ld Cs.--Poete on N. chain of lakes..
8d ClMf.-Post remote from the ocean
sed intend eMa.. ......................
1st Ciaw.-Prom DeL Bay to Savannah.
d (OCm-B-outhwestern stations......
SIst caue.-Posta on Lower MI.i lppl.
I d Claa.-Posts in pelnhnla of lorida.
l AIO atrani aTD
"This table cc
stations, those of 1
ratios of each sysl
relations and seqi
etiology of catarrt
ologi6al laws esta
England coast, as
ature, the annual
as low as 233; oni
influence is in ope
acterized by the
ratio of 5562. Bn
and isocheimal li
summer and wini
ame space, press
elimae. As these
nutains, besides the results of the permanent
the thiity-one temporary ports in Florida."
tem of climate
ng ot the 1
the annual and quarterly
and serves to elncidate their
beautiful illustration of the
Ionnected with the meteor-
for example, the Noathern
ed per 1,00 wl
Lakes, where t
,ration, it is 800; wlifle
extreme range of thi
t let us follow more i
inee representingg the i
her), which describe fAo
nting alternately a
e lines, on the coast of'
. ..-^ ?~1 :^ -
^ -. ^ *
the line of
equal summer rises, and that of winter sinkl, and
the ratio increases proportionally ;
proceeding into the region
of the Lakes, the lines again converge beneath the controlling
power of the waters, and the ratio of
modified accordingly; again advance
yond these ocean-lakes, the average
catarrh and influenza is
1ing into the interior be-
rises in proportion as the
isocheimal lines tend to opposite directions.
coast, between the Delaware and Savannah Rivers, the annual
average of the
posts of the
their south than
, notwithstanding this class lies somewhat far-
the former, is 290.
As most of the
the first class of the Southern Division are on the Lower Mis-
eissippi, and are much
under the influence of large
ratio is as low as 218
which comprises the mild,
insular climate of East Flor-
an average of
bodies of water modify climate
that the ratio
of pulmonary disease increases with the increase of the mean
ranges of temperature as regards the seasons, rater
prevalence of sudden
that the injurious effects of moisture, even in cold climates, are
more than counterbalanced by the modification of the temper-
nature of the air induced by the warmth of the water
beneficial effect in limiting the diurnal vicissitudes.
As regards liability to disease in
Florida, a careful
Statistics of the
through a long series of
observation, and con-
versation with medical officers engaged in the Seminole
indicate a remarkable exemption, throughout the State,
"the mortality is lower in East Florida than in any other elam
He ascribes this, in a great measure, to "itt being
a state of
hLanged since then,o of oure, and the oleariug of the Anert,
especially the hammock, ha developed in the sunear w n
a n-naiAamnhla In n an nU fwv
N MelthaahhfVf r Mti
sive exposure and fatigue endured by onr troops in the Indian
wars, in penetrating the swamps and Everglades in pursuit of
the savages, the
'amount of serious
developed was re-
markably small, and the ratio of mortality, as Forry has shown,
correspondingly so-only twenty-six per 1,000;
while in other
Barnes, our present Surgeon-General,
on one occasion he accompanied a boat-expedition
constantly wet, t
alarming the en
emy, no severe cases of fever or rheumatism
Crane, the AA-
gives similar testimony from his own
In the "Statistical
Report of the Sickness and
United States Army," from 1855 to 1860, is a table, at
page 163, which exhibits the sickness and mortality among the
especially as regards the
former, the most
unhealthy part of
19,312, the deaths 119, or 0.61 per cent. There were but four
cases of congestive fever, none of which died. It could there-
character which is met
with in other parts of the country.
If we take into considera-
tion-the very unfavorable circumstances surrounding the small
commands scattered over this area, the
bad water, poor food,
hard work, and continuous exposure of all kinds, the small per-
centage of mortality is remarkable, and shows that, although
for treatment are very numerous, the dis-
eases of all kinds were very amenable to treatment and rapid
cure; as all the military operations went on successfully
withstanding this very
large amount of
percentage of deaths from
of the respiratory'
organs is especially noteworthy--only thirteen
the 19,000 of all diseases treated.
Notwithstanding the damp-
'ne, rait, and exposure, there were olily.thirty-three case of
twenty-five of Dneumonia.
"I have served in
D. 8. Yulee, United Statee Senate, October, 1866M
also with an army on the Northern frontier, and, from
my experience of the
tions in the field on the health of soldiers, I have no hesitation
in expressing the belief that, had the troops engaged in the
Florida War been engaged for the same length of time in ac-
tive operations, in winter and summer, on the frontiers of Can-
ada, though the cases of
disease might have
been less numer-
oue, the mortality would
infinitely- greater, than
was experienced in Florida."
Tourists are industriously warned, by persons interested in
other localities in Florida, against the malaria of the St.
from it during the winter season.
except to those who
But it rarely gives trouble
are unusually careless in exposing them-
selves, or in drinking well instead of
The State abounds in springs of
excellent water, but
are not always accessible.
Rain-water, however, may always
be had, even in the driest seasons, by providing
through the calcareous crust to the depth of sixty feet or more,
and the water, when filtered, is pleasant to the taste.
one of these wells in the yard of the Put-
nam House, made by my friend Prof. Witthaus, gives the fol-
Lime (carbonate and sulphate); magnesia (car-
ammonia, soda, chlorine, carbonic acid, sulphuric acid-
(traces); silicic acid
organic matter; the latter in small quan-
This water ought not to take the place of rain-water for
The cases of intermittent fever which do
the winter, generally among those who are visiting
different points of interest up and down the river, and more
or less exposed at night, are very manageable. It is not fair,
however, to attribute every case of fever, which occurs among
Northern visitors, to the Florida climate, since the disease has
been so very prevalent, almost over the whole of the Northern
States during the last five years, both in winter and summer,
that it would
attribute the outbreak to
latent disease contracted at home, and developed, as ia ohL-
X'i ',i **** .
offered from it for 'moe than eighteen months, had
get relief from a hammer's residence in Saratoga Springs, and
have never had an attack since my arrival in Florida last De-
member, though I remained
until the 10th of May, and
an exceptionally favorable one for
the development of malaria, owing to the drought.
Dysentery and diarrhSq of
a mild type, and easily man-
occasionally attack the winter visitor.
deaths than in any other portion of the United States.
fever, even when it appears
in other Southern
appears in Florida,
except at Key
West and Pensacola.
almost unknown in East Florida.
is only the second
city for. twenty
we are told by
Prof. Dickson that in
years' practice but
three have passed without his knowing of
the occurrence of yellow fever.
As regards the essential cause
of yellow fever,
we still remain in the dark.
however, that, to develop tile cause, and to keep up its action,
this condition seldom attains on the coast of Florida, it would
explanation of its
pearance in this region."
Wh'o should go to Florida ?
When one thinks of our cold
, extending from
thawing, cold and damp, with their attendant crops of
influenas, diphtheria, pneumonia, etc., one is disposed
now pour into the. State to enjoy the winter, are
the strict sense of the
of those who
valids are not perceptibly so to the general
avenge tourist is not therefore annoyed, as he feared he might
b., by constant
com .of the invalid clam, those afflicted or threatened with
$ fl~huU and its allied affections constitute the majority of the
to'all southern climates.
Although I do not coun-
(''r praetel of banishing those in
the last stage df
"- t ..
\ -r ," ^ '
the disease from friends and the comforts of home, yet, as has
been before stated, not all of\ those die, and an apparently
rash and hopeless determination of a patient, perhaps in oppo-
friends, occasionally reeslts in
Besides, a considerable
ought to be left for a possible
hardly require this margin, and many who do not come within
would convince the
pulmonary complaints, even
among those who stand high in
estimation, has not arrived at the degree of per-
fection usually accorded to it.
there is a class of cases
which is not considered
of sufficient gravity by
physicians to be banished from home
those who present some
unfrequently, at the present day,
the effects of malaria-such cases as Dr. I.
Pollock had in mind when
" Here "-that
he said, in
his recent lectures on
union of sub-
febrile symptoms with progressive waste of the body-is danger
without any physical signs."
Incipient phthisee, pneumonic
consolidation, laryngeal and pharyngeal diseases, have sought
and obtained great and prompt relief from this climate, espe-
of throat-disease are,
for the local affection, who have the seal
consumption already stamped on the countenance, yet who
are in ignorance
disease, and who
come sorely disappointed at the slow progress, and
, but to what extent, and in what particular localities,
I am not able to say.
It has been
claimed by invalids that a
locality back of Mellonville or Sanford, on the river, is particu-
Forry states that
patient who is sauff-
- -.... .. I! -. _. -t- .t-- -.ar----. La
mary irritation in other viscera, is mnch benefited; a]
ma connected with affections of the heart. But he (
advise any particular locality. The earlier stages of
disease may be more successfully treated here than in
scarlatina, particularly when
kidney or other sequel
are slow in passing away.
i of the
Florida a congenial winter
dangers of thoracic disease, to which this
period of life
peculiarly liable in our Northern
spring climate, the vitality
is impaired by the long winter and lagging spring.
this class of the male sex are also suffering from v
induced by cold,
causes much suffering, and
vorable termination. Many cases also of the other sex, whose
vitality has become impaired by chronic uterine disease, and
whose local ailments have been relieved
, as far as possible, by
local treatment, find a no less invigorating tonic in thip balmy
JRheumatism and some forms of
Certain forms of dyspepsia, particularly
neuralgia are benefited.
y such as may be termed
which is, like other nervous affections, be-
coming more and more common-which is merely one of
often relieved completely, for a
, by the
various other treatment has failed-are permanently relieved
by a winter's residence
Lastly, Florida offers
becoming so prevalent among the restless, driving denizens of
towns, which comes under the com-
nervous prostration ;
Jones terms cerebral
scribed by James Johnson
nearly fifty years ago
' "There is
a. condition of body intermediate between sickness and health,
former'than the latter, to which
unable to give a satisfactory name.
daily and hourly
S4"tI .-- aS A
--_ *' ML 1 .... 1'_1__ _J PIt- __ l q -- 1 .. I l _
felt by tens
metropolis and throughout
but I do not know that it has ever been described.
It is not curable by physic, though I at rehend it makes much
work for the doctors ultimately, if not for the undertakers. It
corporeal, which results from over-strenuous labor or exertion
of the intellectual faculties rather than of the corporeal pow-
in anxiety of mind and in bad air."
it, Florida affords as
It is as un-
as the other in
our Northern Babylons.
everything is energy, hurry, and rush,
at all times and at all
body is at
tendency is always
in the opposite direction.
Northern blasts, as they approach
our borders, are gradually
hushed into whispers. The
along their rocky beds as if
re, the very streams seem
afraid lest winter should
here, the swiftest
energy to form a ripple.
ture wears so subdued and peaceful an aspect, as one floats on
bosom of the St. John's, that the most
restless mind soon becomes
has come again
the wearied spirit, sleep
the fevered pillow.
" All that surrounds one in Florida," says
" is suggestive of, and in unison with, rest;
ing is more grateful."
When shall one go to Florida 7
This will depend on cir-
cumstances, extrinsic and
intrinsic, as regards the
and may be left to the judgment of the physician.
But, if an
invalid has only a limited winter vacation, he had better spend
it at the end than the beginning or middle. When shall one
Iave Florida or the South 1"
is a more important query.
not only sacrifice all the benefit obtained by a winter residence
in the South, by yielding
impatient desire to get home
too early in the spring, but are actually darrtaged to a greater
they had remained
catarrh, by going North too soon.
One may commence getting;
Virginia until the third week
ida becomes oppressive in Ap
But he should not get north of
in May. If the climate of Flbr-
ril, Aiken, or Beaufort, in South
Carolina, affords a more
bracing and, at
and end of winter, a delightful change.
He should not arrive
latitude of New
better even the first of
June, if. he
by land and
shall one get to Florida P
invalid, if he
takes the for-
mer, should go by easy stages, and not rush.
journey is so slow and
tiresome that, unless he has an
unusual repugnance to the sea, it would be better to take one
the very good
where a transfer takes
place to the steamer which goes direct
Being once aboard, all fatigue
four days of
the dread of
pulmonary and throat affections.
the coast, almost
means by which
may be greatly alleviated, and
First, one may take bromide of
frequently entirely prevented.
potassium in doses of twenty
to thirty grains
times a day,
power of the
I was led
their efficacy in
vomiting induced by anesthetics.
ed by Jobard, of Brussels, is, in
the belt recommend-
cases, a valuable
, as tightly as can be conveniently borne
(which gives less
trouble to females than
ewais, and should be shaped to fit wel
males), around the
Co.'a, 67 Chatham Street, after
,it actby preventing friction of the viacera against tho.
,/I n 'I
vessels in the abdomen
influence the semili
voyages have found
, thus preventing or limiting the varia-
the braf ;
or the pressure may
The former is the more
that, by managing
their respiration in a
certain manner, the sickness may be prevented.
That is, by ac-
customing one's self to take an inspiration as the ship descends
with the wave, and
making tile expiration
correspond, as far
with the rise of the ship, this apparent sinking of
the ship under the
induce the sickness.
landsman being the motion most likely to
Vomiting and nausea, from a variety of
, by the
after the failure of
electricity by faradization.
first called tl
effects in this
.profession to its
respect, in an article in the first number of the
dence yet to prove its value in sea-sickness, but such as he
A small Gaiffe battery,
readily managed by the
patient or a friend,
on the epi-
the other over the spine, or rather just to either side
of it, unless it is large enough to extend across, and then over,
the seventh cervical vertebra.
How shall one live in Florida P
This question will not be
fully answered here, as it will be again taken up.
*have a fondness for out-door life, hunting, fishing, etc., and who
have the vigor to endure a little
hardship, may form a
provide the necessary equipment, and, with Hallock's
and similar books as a guide,
dance of novelty, adventure,
may find abun-
they need any
other advice, I
Ken worthy, of
have no doubt
my friend Al-'reaco, Dr. C.
to any of
his confr6ree of the profession. One may li
ing-.houses at ten to twelve dollars per week,
ve in good board-
with good rooms
in pleasant situations, but, if he can afford it, the hotels in most
place of resort are far preferable on the score of food.
*It ^ 1
asle .qta naon
-for the alleviation or
Full nutrition of the
in the case
bldy is of the
of such diseases
people come to
highest importance, and
patients should never sacrifice
to a desire for cheap board;
make almost any other sacrifice.
attributed to the climate are
probably due to
If appetite or digestion fail for
error in this re-
lack of inviting or di-
gestible food, and this cannot be obtained,
ter go North and brave the cold, if he has a comfortable home.
If possible, one should always secure a room into which the sun
shines during a considerable portion of the day, especially the
Nothing is more cheering, and nothing is more
allowed to intercept the sun's rays.
by awnings or
by sunshine and
spends equally, if not
heavy and dark-
colored hangings which formerly adorned the bedsteads of the
Let us equally banish
dows of the
sick-chamber, and admit the
to assist our tonics with wh
iat no arti
light and air of heaven
facial tonic can supply.
us endeavor to
James Johnson aptly terms phoabophobia.
With regard to
the clothing proper for the winter climate
of Florida, it is seldom that the invalid will
want that which
we wear at the North in summer, but rather that suitable for a
moderate winter or late
be sometimes a
Moderately thick clothing will
little oppressive in the middle of the day, but
may be, should
be taken along
in a steamboat, as
the rapid motion creates a draught through the saloons.
woolen clothes should be worn at all times.
invalid is ooupa-
ion--something to give employment to
both mind and body.
Want of it
*i a A. aS La a a -A
War -- .-
upon his disease, whether imaginary or real, and usually to his
detriment. Employment, which Galen calls Nature's Phy-
sician,' is so essential to human happiness that indolence is
considered the mother of misery."' English soldiers in tile
West Indies, while idle, though kept out of the sun, and taken
care of, were far more disposed to diseases, says Robert Jack-
son. than when
nearly all day long,
building roads in a marshy district.
Lanier, in his interesting
on Florida, himself
, thoroughly ap-
preciates the importance of this subject.
to find some occupation consistent with your disease's require-
If you are near a Florida farm (e. g.),
on there, the
early vegetables, the
fine tobacco-culture and
field of Florida in these matters is
new, so untried
improvement, as to
full as fascinating, if one should once get one's interest aroused
in it, as it was in the old days when the Spaniards believed it
to be full of gold and pearls.
Many invalids came to this spot
interest them, although
superiority of the climate,
Many others, although remaining here
for many weeks, found that there were objects of interest still
unexamined when they left, although pretty industriously em-
The fault, in these cases, is generally in
the individual, not in the place.
Some seek out sources of in-
terest and amusement for themselves wherever they go
of different tastes, or
the temptation of in<
habits of mind, yield
have become blee
new course, and explore almost untrodden regions, and without
any particular danger or discomfort.
sands," says A.M. Oonklin, "who, each
'ih eahvtf heiti and pleasure, few if
dsrlht&1" interim country,' referring to the
"Of the tens of than-
i winter, go to Florida
any ever hear of this
I 1 I
" which is as
little known to the outside
world as Amazonian forests, East India
of equatorial Africa."
jets of interest, there
jungles, or the
the natural beauties and
are some of the most interesting relics
of the mound-builders to be found in the State.
and peculiarities are described in the December (1875) number
of the Forest and Streaom, with a map.
which are scattered along the St. John's River above Pilatka,
and their explorations
ancient art scattered a
over our country are still a mystery,
to some extent, to our scientific
tion of the subject, as found discussed in the many interesting
the explorations and
prosecute themselves in Florida,
examinations which they can
will be found to afford agree-
* able and perhaps profitable diversion to
considerable portion of the winter.
mind for a
Physicians, in sending their patients South,
vise them by all
means "to avoid
same advice, at home, might'often be good for those who have
a propensity for too much indulgence in these
injudicious medication and advice.
But, from my experience
last winter, I
directly injured by it, and, not infrequently, it has cost them
their lives, through neglect of the early treatment of serious
complications. Any physician in large practice in Florida, or
any boarding-house keeper, can furbish instances of this kind.
is no prominent
medical advice cannot be had-advice .which would
* be far
better than the usual
plan of trusting to
ture, or the advice of lady-friends, or the carefully-put-up bot-
indications for treatment which may chance
long winter. Upless the medical knowled(
skill could also be bottled up to accompal
to arise during a
SI I I
--11 La 1I*tal-m dmA na a A ^nlnan anti a andre FnrW MC'iKMft&.M
' '' '- *'
ay tabe I sthey
a serious complication, or of a disease, for some simple
derangement, ie too great, much greater than
medical advice ;provided
made for the
Besides the local physicians, there are now, always in all fre-
quented places, medical
trv. well known to the
men from other portions of the coun-
will refer to
fallen under his observation.
A well-known physician of
Jacksonville the;past winter, and introduced him
to a promi-
, and found that the gentleman had, from some impru-
a severe cold
before, and had been
get along the best way he could without med-
"Doctor, I don't know if I
right in sending for you,
charged me not to send
disease proved to be capillary bronchitis,
irremediable even if taken
at the onset.
which is frequently
He was in a hope-
less condition, and died within
writer's opinion (one, indeed,
tain extent, plead guilty), is, concealing from the invalid, and
even also from the friends or relatives, the true nature of the
profession and the patients.
The true pathological
not being stated,
may be called
in at different
the case are not
upon the sa:ne statement,
disagreeing, and the science of medicine is scandalized, or our
is a little
of this lung ;"
One says to the invalid,
is a little pleuritis at the
is some consolidation at
the apex; "
air does not enter quite as well in
lung as in the other;"
"The tubes are
is a little
, pqWQPS pilB
.% si.,, I
with his explanation to
my throat, I suppose ? "
that "it is only from
says, Posedby it is,"
and fails to
that it isn't.
undeceive him when he finds, as he usually does,
Then the patient tells his
doctor" says it is only in his
and his third
the other physicians wonder, perhaps, how so eminent an
thority could make so glaring a blunder.
are literacy true, but they are
Now, all these asser-
the zokot trutk; in
fact, but a very small part of it.
A medical man knows what
a "little weakness in one lung signifies, but the patient does
or a little pleurisy at the apex; or a consolidation,"
little bronchial difficulty," etc.
knows it means
But the patient does not, and he is very sure not
to cross-question the doctor too closely, if
He is only
tubercular deposit, or, if
already a cavity.
sive softening in
one prefers to
Many patients come t4
call it so, permanent
or, not unfrequently,
, Florida with exten-
the consent, if not
the advice, of their physician
to tell the
they and their relatives have formed,
through the instrumentat-
ity of the climate of
this favored region,
which they have
and, perhaps, hoping that, at least, a
When an early death occurs,
with none, perhaps, but strangers
body is, according
If he is right, Florida is wrong.
* not work miracles.
true, the physician
friends of the invalid
tion, and often
her she has con-
sumption-it will kill her if you do
One may wel
" It will kill her if you don't."
theeffects of the deception
are far worse ti
In the long-run,
ian those of the
while the latter are transient, though, no doubt, at times di-
treeeing and severe.
nings of the disease may be, the
should say to the patient, "You I
how slight, then, the
moment we are certain, we
have what will result in con-
without proper management."
cases, we can say,
" You have the beginning of
the announcement is made
min a proper
the physician's tact
idiosyncrasy of his
will enable him to vary according to
, and the patient's confidence reassured,
due care, and
by the fur-
just as certainly
as many other diseases.
superfluous attempt, at
It would be a
time, and a
history, to un-
there is no
of the proper remedies.
Most diseases would be in-
a resort to the proper remedies.
pens, however, that most of the best remedies for this disease
are unattainable by tihe majority of those afflicted by it
physician and friends, delay treatment.
ity. The cure of phthisis will never be I
any combination of
, in most cases, indispensable auii
Hence its great fatal-
found in any drug or
ie are valuable, and,
liaries. There is no
disease, in which skillful diagnosis, sound judgment, judicious
advice as to habits, occupation, climate, all the minutim which
enter into individual
daily life, are
spending success as in this.
Change is generally the key-note
to our management of incipient phthisis-change of locality,
of air, of almost all the habits, leaving off bad and adopting
good; wntilabtwn rs e (judiciously managed),iuod. Now,
it wbuld be mockery almost for
say to the
.i~raik a- 1 .
- z S- -
of the opprobria
L1 _,I_ _L L.. ~: !e ,I
sea or the farm, to
nd poisoned a
food, sound wine, fewer hours
hygienic rules as can be observed.
We are driven
et the proper
We prescribe cod-liver oil,
and we thus lengthen and render more tolerable
Sometimes, even under these untoward circum-
p save life. All do not die, by any means. The
physician who, at this day, consigns
to the realms of despair even in the
the disease, without an effort to save
more advanced stages of
, scarcely appreciates
his mission to its fullest extent.
* Suppose, then, that our inva-
lid knows that he has incipient consumption, or that condition
of lung, call it by whatever name you will, which under ordi-
He is cheered by the confident assurance that his
of our advice);
is, so to speak,
in his own hands
that he must, in a measure,
work out his own salvation.
He knows that he banishes him-
self from home, perhaps from friends also, to make a fightbor
He ought to know, likewise, that the fight
a short one;
is not to be
that perseverance is necessary, and a patient
quiescence in all the minute of the
however muck and often it may conflict with iis oishes and
his temporary pleasures.
Without this knowledge, it is almost
impossible to get the patient to avoid the most outrageous in-
fractions of the most simple
is not hampered
and too strict roles.
nual character come
signment to the ba
Here, judgment and a study of
Some patients may
K.nk aa As da* L. ni a.- me -,t,,414,,wa
'^*i*^^ ^-r -'
moisture or dryness, are to
be considered in
making a choice
facility of access to and from the outside world.
But, suppose .the
is not incipient.
Suppose it is
that it involves a considerable
portion of the lung,
that softening has commenced, even an abscess exists.
" Would you still inform a patient of his condition "
To a certain extent, yes
There are exceptions to all rules.
depend on the in-
few patients will
atfall times if they are not impressed with
submit to them
3 necessity, and
they cannot be so impressed if they are told that nothing very
The general condition of
many of these-the
the sleep, the ability to sustain
considerable fatigue-may be
good, or quite fair ;
it requires no small degree of
dence in a physician to convince such
edition is such as to demand so close an
invalids that their con'
adherence to hygienic
which is an
on the disease, prevents the invalids from realizing the mean-
Ignorance of their condi-
tion, they are constantly wondering why the cough cannot be
they do n<
" why the hoarseness or soreness of
why the expectoration cannot be checked ;
)t gain flesh
whom they look upon
or strength more rapidly, like others
as afflicted with the same form of dis-
kept them in
ignorance of their
, he cannot explain himself satisfactorily; his appar-
success impairs confidence,
, in going from one to-another, and from one
location to another, and
undergoing a succession of ex-
periments with various drugs and various climates, they lose
the only hope,
Some of thi
which is in a steady perseverance.
e reasons toa iwacids fail to a
r Mte cM-
"'* v .
r* a o* f.
proper appreciation of their condition, and of proper advice,
of proper care.
extent of the
many invalids would not be believed by any one who had not
remonstrances of friends seem to in-
fluence them but in
Mitchell, of Villa
My friend Mrs. Alex-
, a source of pleasure to visit-
ors, she is sometimes almost
related numerous instances of the temerity of invalids, ladies
sail-boats in the most ii-
clement weather, and clad
in tle most
sometimes arriving drenched with
spray or ram.
On one or
In fact, her experience teaches
her that, if there
monstrances seem to
be entirely unheeded,
not unfrequently repeating the operation.
Instead of getting
the best advice as t
able length of time
remaining there a reason-
it, they remain
a day or two,
, if the weather happens
to be unpropitious,
table not precisely what it should be, or the company not par-
, off they
thus traveling from one place to anot
Suppose they find a place which they cannot but
, fare, etc.
invalid would be glad to remain there.
" I am getting
tired of this
is so dull."
they go in search of variety and excitement.
Life and health
weigh lightly against matters of such magnitude as these
is tine, to go
lake or stream on an
When the hour arrives, the
S *t S U.
r ->* 5:
-, ^\!' ,*
-X~ ',d-rr (
think of going."
to protest against
knowing anything about it, that the
usually among the first
and the day be pleasant.
that is to be seen. The'
Many, on the other hand,
any competent medical a
' And then they must ses everything
r must stand
is best, and
come to one
in the forward part of'
the draught is worst.
locality, and, without
ting worse all the
is good, the music
daughters, and tl
is fair, there
they like the
place, the room
"hops for the
time to get
, when spring
comes, they go home, and condemn ria,
as if the whole
, and a gentleman-friend suffering
from lung-trouble, went to Sarasota Bay, then to Manatee, on
They were out of
the world and uncomfort-
and, in order to get away in the
spring, had to pro-
in a small
the coast to await
little steamer plying to Cedar Keys.
naturally rather "disgusted with
* two days;
n the way down
in the cars
The cola is
it gets worse;
sleepless, the appetite fails, there is some fever.
or mother gets nervous. "The climate don't a
haps they go home again, or go to St. Augustir
or Jackson v
gree," and per-
ie, or to Aiken,
le, or Pilatka, or somewhere else, anywhere ex-
cept where they ought to go, that is, to a competent physician
for advice, as to what they should do.
A suitable change may
or perhaps only a simple cough-mixture,
nursing is al
that is required to give the cli-
climate causes a diarrhea, or it may set in as one of the acci-
dents of the disease.
It is a simple matter if managed in the
.* *i i) "
A q ,
p ., .
'" con sults a friend.
She has a specific,
after considerable damage is done, a physician is consulted as
a dernier resort.
appetite is a not unfrequent corm-
4 -. ,y
r J > *
plaint among this class of invalids.
But this is endured
worried about, and friends are again consulted,
are recommended, and
the winter is
thus wasted to a consid.
It is a very common
the'greatest nuisances of Southern watering-places in winter,
lose their sleep, night after night,
seemingly not to be aware of it.
events, they consult
no physician ;
troubles arising from it, sometimes completely counterbalance
some of their
quence of one person on a corridor coughing night after night.
It would be tiresome to multiply these examples. One might
as a hint to those who
The writer is willing to
he may have a selfish object.
Those who know him will give
him credit for a
The following remarks, of
than whom no one is
on this subject, are so appropriate in this connection,
ought to be quoted at length
"Let not the invalid
trust too much to a change of climate.
Unfortunately for the
resorted to as a last resource or a forlorn hope
in cases susceptible of
or permanent cure, it has
creased, and his life shortened
, instead of being allowed to die
in peace in his own family;
another, who might derive
much advantage from
the change, is sent abroad wholly un-
instructed in regard to the selection of
proper residence, or
- -a a a -S -
suitable climate can be rendered beneficial.
.It is one of
too which, in
vantage will result neither from
traveling nor change of
mate, nor their combined influence, unless the invalid adheres
strictly to such regimen
as his case
the light of
all other therapeutic means, and, to insure its proper action, it
that the necessary conditions
patient should, in a measure, regard the change
of climate as
in a situation
remedies demanded by his disease."
remedies, whether local or general, or both, though ineffective
in a northern
climate, may become
the healing influences of a southern climate and out-door exer-
cise and employment.
..~I- *-j, *j '
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