?D rr #1.
WMP s% /rke
July 1, 1935, ended Key West*a first
year under Governmental oontrol- the first
unit of a projected fir year program to
put t'o Island City back on a selt-support-
So evident was the lak of comparative
economic data whLoh would enable the AdAinis-
tration to determine how fruitful wre Its
efforts, that the eaaearoh Soetion of the
Florida mAerg~noy elite Adkinistration at
Ley jest forthwith lapped ou a program
of compilations, contacting every business
firm In the city of Key West. The task the
statistoial group set itself was rendered
the aore difficult because of deplorable
business stagnation existent prior to July
of 1954: many establiahaents were run on a
hand-to-mouth basis without the formality
of aoeountbs. -
.4 .k .' *
This is the first in a series of
economic factual studies that will be
presented by the Researoh and Statistic-
al Project. It uses the four ites* of
freight unloadin-rs, postal receipts,
incoming travel, and bank deand deposits,
which togethmr are of uandubted sa. indispu-
table tapartanoe in delineation of the Key
West economic status over a definite
.*. period of tiL and whioh ari auoh to be
preferred to tncomplate and inaoouzate
data covering a number of mall businesses
with their natural, unreasonable, non-Lndi-
oatve snd unaccountab le fluctuations.
Albert C. Aanuoy
Mary K. Falk.
*In view of the fact that Key West is not
.a industrial community, power eaousption
Sis not included in the oaaputationa;
separate studies of powr eonaauption, whole-
sale asd retail sales are available in t.-i
-or Cent of Population Dope-dent on Federal 7unim
Genral Reief:I sfp itdur.*s
,3an k Denand Depposito
G*Moral Buxines M Ativity
Key West is a unique community. From the very year of its birth
has been considered primarily a point strategic for protection of
I United States against belligerents, As military and naval base
jgew, swelled by a transient manufacturing industry that eventually
ft*t bleated with population.
Depending on one major industry and neither utilising nor adver-
* ig its meaifold natural attractions, Ley West found its overpopu-
oou com nity without adequate means of support when both industry
d military force left the territory. Its industrial-type population
over 1,000 was stranded with little outlet for its activities and
payrolls to provide wherewithal for the bare necessities.
Key West is a unique community. Tith no major industry, no exports,
payrolls and no accurate retail sales records, what was to furnish
In variance with the usual economic survey, the statistical group
ad ample Justification in using incoming travel data along with freight
Sadingse postal receipts and bank demand deposits. For upon tourist
vol depends such of prosperity for this peculiarly situated city.
unately, the geographical location of the place uskes it possible
obtain an aourat check as to the number of visitors.
This group of four sorcees provided data definitely indicative of
ral economic conditions with as little fluctuation as is in charact-
With the Key West problem.
r manufacture. The fashini industry was of little moment.
The remarkable increase depicted within travel
data is due largely to the publicity given Key West
by the efforts of the Administration during the 1934-
35 season, to more reasonable- teaportation fares,
better facilities, and.to realization on the part of
the transient public that Key West offers attractions
peculiar to that city alone.
Of considerable importance is the fact that
although the peak in freight unloading was reached
in the first part of 1934 because of importation of
oivil Works Administration materials, the volume
import tons has been consistently greater during the
latter twelve months.
B e ; -..^ .^ .. .-* L ^ -*..1
Bank demand deposits form one of the most
indicative of the .series. The constant increase is
traceable mainly .to:expenditure in Key West of Federal
funds, the ourve- bein 'to some extent in conformity
with those general relief expenditures. Unusual,
however, is the fact that the two conform less than
might be expected, and for that reason these data may be
regarded as of more value than mere indirect recording
of Federal disbursements.
Postal receipts are the most stable item. They are
at first glance unenoouraging, but certainly show less
variation over the 1934-35 period.
The individual graphs' and charts are summarized
in two composite index series:
(1) The index corrected for trend shows business.
conditions on a relatively monthly basis there is
total disregard of upward trend. Particular is pointed,
out the .proof that thee haa been a decided tendaenyo toward
out the proof hto be as t aag
normalov in business conditions
See General Relief IxDenditures.
or the summer of 1935.
(2) The index showing trend and adjusted for seasonal
ad chance fluctuation is emphatic by the upward slope of its
The -lack of inexplicable fluctuation as pointed out in
bese adjusted series shows beyond a doubt that apparent econo-
tio improvement is not a result of psychic buoyancy alone.
But the index showing trend is no longer indicative.
hed September hurricane disaster affected the economic situation
Little but. In the economic survey computations, greatest
rights were given incoming travel and freight uloadings data,
both iteim cannot but change radically, disrupting the line
I:trendand its subsequent predictions: largest factor in in-
Ait trael ras the overseas railway, and with discontinuance
this services totals must drop alarmingly.even when incoming
fel-hamsadjusted itself to a new norm. .t. will be, never
ekxn &wely interesting to watch ~~e development of those
of transportation which are now eeqWA g-tobpe4ity.
Justification of the Federal program is to be
seen over and above the mere fact that subsistence
was provided to thousands literally in need of bare
*r. ,. I;- 7 -. -- *I. ** !
neoeseities; it has given a much needed boost to the
"14 1 *
"Monroe County merchant who indicated in July 1934 that
he was grasping at the proverbial straw by relinquishing
hs control of county and municipal government.
Yet, it is notable that even at the height of the
1934-35 winter season, the population remained 38.31 per
cent on relief. Travel into Key West during the twelve-
month period from July of 1934 increased 39.19 per cent
over the previous unit in 1933, bringing in a total of
67,154 persons. How many more tourists unat visit ey
aest to brna in ambsia --- -- .th -ii n .in ..
." See Per enht of P op tdent on 7ide$l
j-.. *,: : -as oqcra -
P .3 .: .. .; ] I... t o. ... ..,
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Ir *-- *- ---* ---
.* *- 3 ^fIL-f --*
habitants of the county?
The answer to Key West's economic problem lie
Mnly in part with the tourist aspect. It must be
possible to give the vioinity a more stable reason
ror existence than that of catering to tourists; and
moreover, it Ia possible. The Keys provide commercial
ind agricultural opportunities that supplement admirably
the idea of a tourist center. Sadly enough, these things
cannot be developed without considerable money outlay and
Measured education. The Key West Administration has in-
estigated each of the vicinity's potentialities, and is
prepared to take steps has taken steps, in some instances
or the development of them. And Key West can be made a
ree port a very prosperous one, were it made legitimate
o utilize certain manufacturing possibilities.
With the active consideration of these supplementary
teams, the rehabilitation program is sure to succeed; with-
ut them, aobievements over the past year may go for naught.
Albert 0. Manuoy, M. A.
+For example, there is the Orawfish Hatchery Projects.
kewise, this Administration has cooperated to the extent
its ability in aiding the sponge fishe4me to organize-a
020 eoa B0 .of t Pes tat o$oan
y,. ., y MO y esV8 Rpor
pared by Research Section, ey West Administration,
strict IX, Florida Emergency Relief Administration.
13 feb 1936
Will you read and criticize frankly the material
herewith? It's in the nature of a log for work
activities like the periodical report I prepare
for Relief, and is for the use of the Administration.
Mar k it as you choose it's a rough copy. But
for heaven's sake don't misplace the graphs and
charts! They're the one and only.
I'll appreciate your additionall suggestions.
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