o g Wq?v
THIS HISTORY OF 1IS STATE
CAROLINE M. BREVARD
Capitol, at Tallahassee, Florida
WITH QUESTIONS, SUPPLEMENTARY
AND AN OUTLINE OF FLORIDA CIVIL
H. E. BENNETT
NEW YORK.:. CINCINNATI
CAROLINE M. BREVARD
AND H. E. BENNETT.
HIST. OF FLORIDA.
W. P. I5
THIS book has been written to. supply the need, which
my own experience in school work has impressed upon
me, of a brief, accurate history of Florida, suited for
practical use in the schoolroom.
Naturally, many facts of interest could not be treated.
On the work of selection, constant effort has been made
to relate the more important events affecting the develop-
ment of the commonwealth so fully as to impress them
upon the mind of the student, while omitting entirely
a mass of details not essential to the central idea. So-
cial, economic, and industrial conditions have not been
In every case the best available authorities have been
consulted, conflicting accounts being carefully compared
and studied. The narrative from 1814 to the present
time is based upon original sources of information, to
which in practically unbroken succession I have fortu-
nately had access.
I here record my indebtedness to Mrs. Ellen Call Long,
who has permitted the use of her collection of valuable
historical material; to General William Miller for data
regarding the battle of Natural Bridge; and to Governor
William D. Bloxham for data used in later chapters of
The chapters on the geography of Florida, the history
of internal improvements, and the Florida school system,
with the sections on Florida Civil Government, have been
written by Mr. H. E. Bennett, State Normal School,
De Funiak Springs. The questions for review and
research have also been prepared by Mr. Bennett.
Should the work prove helpful to the teachers of
Florida in making the events of our history real and the
duties of citizenship clear, its purpose will be fulfilled.
CAROLINE MAYS BREVARD.
IT will be noted that there are three distinct series
of questions. It is important that teachers and pupils
understand the distinction among these that they may
serve their rightful purpose. On each page are ques-
tions based directly upon the text, and intended to aid
pupils and readers to
they have read. The
in most cases are no
they may be used for
The chapters are
division of the subject
and after each
teachers and pu
larly useful to
from the text.
grasp the essential facts in what
se questions are not intended, and
It suitable, for clast use, although
that purpose with discrimination.
grouped according to the natural
as shown in the Table of Contents,
is a series of topical review ques-
teachers, and those who wish to use th
for, collateral investigation. Their use i
reasoning and research.. The chapter
assistance to the
y will be particu-
in preparing test
can be answered
e work as a guide
r on bibliography
and references (pp. 213-216) will explain where nearly
all the information involved in these questions may be
are intended to b
ipils in reviewing.
teachers and exam
questions of this
Topics," is intended
THE GEOGRAPHY OF THE STATE
How Ponce de Leon discovered Florida
Panfilo de Narvaez .
The Indians of Florida .
A French Colony in Florida
How the French Colony was destroyed
The Revenge of Dominique de Gourgues
More about St. Augustine
The Founding of Pensacola
English Neighbors .
Florida a British Colony
Second Spanish Occupation
Florida's Part in the War of 1812
Jackson in Florida
How Florida became a Territory of the United States
Governor Duval .
The New Capital
The Scotch Pioneers of the Euchee Region
THE SEMINOLE WAR
V. Governor Duval and the Indians
n. Beginning of the Seminole War
Dade Massacre, Withlacoochee, the Blockhouse
The Capture of Osceola and Coacoochee
End of the Seminole War
X. Governor Call
AND THE CIVIL
How Florida became a State, and how she withdrew
from the Union
XII. Events of the War at Pensacola
End of the War
Florida again in the Union .
Drew, Bloxham, Perry, Fleming, Mitchell
Bloxham, Jennings, Broward, Gilchrist
Chronological Table of Principal Events in Parts I and II
Establishment of Counties .
References for Topical Research
Brief History of Internal
The Florida School System
Improvement Fund and
CIVIL GOVERNMENT OF FLORIDA
Constitution of Florida, rearranged and simplified
Florida Election System .
Privileges and Duties of Florida Citizens
POPULATION OF FLORIDA BY COUNTIES
GOVERNORS OF FLORIDA -
OF THE STATE
IN the early days of colonial history, the Spaniards
called all of North America north of Mexico, so far as
they knew it at all, Florida, and they claimed it as their
own. Little by little this claim was given up until the
boundaries were fixed as we have them now. Our Florida
reaches from the Perdido River on the west to the Atlan-
tic Ocean on the east, and from Alabama and Georgia on
the north to the Florida Strait and the Gulf of Mexico on
the south. It stretches a total of 450 miles north and
south, and as much east and west, containing about 58,000
sauare miles. Florida lies farther south than any nart of
Europe, lying in
and the southern I
Florida is an e:
being a junction
attains its greatest
in the sand-hills
------- -s r`
same latitude as Egypt, Palestine,
vision of the southern coastal plains,
the Atlantic and Gulf slopes. It
titude some 300 feet above the sea
Florida and in the middle
Peninsula. From Madison County westward the
hill country of Georgia and Alabama extends intc
State. Between this and the Gulf is a stretch of he:
timbered pine land. From the Suwanee eastward,
northern tier of counties is flat and sanidy, covered
pine timber and wire grass.
Through the central peninsular section, stretching
Alachua to Polk county, is a ridge of rolling pine
hammock lands, dotted with count-
less lakes. These lakes vary in size
from an acre or less to such splendid
sheets of water as Lakes Harris, ALT
Apopka, and Orange. Together the
lakes of Florida contain 4400 square
miles, of which Okechobee contains
more than 1000. Many of these
lakes, large and-small, have no visible
outlet, yet are characterized by clear,
fresh water, and, except where the
aquatic growth extends into them, FLORI
by white sand bottoms and shores.
The subsoil of coarse sand is sup- .m *
posed to account for the evident
drainage of the lakes into the neigh-
From Jackson County southeastward, through the central and
of the peninsula, the country is usually formed upon strata of
limestone. The erosion of this soft limestone has produced man
peculiar features. In Jackson County are great caves, extending
instance, more than a mile underground. In the same county,
are the "natural bridges" where whole rivers disappear from
again at a distance. Through this section are many deep, perpe
Some of them are filled and ever flowing with the clearest of 1
out from springs at the bottom. Such are the famous and
Spring, Wakulla Spring, and others. Where the springs
cavities are known as sinks." The sinks not only occur comr
the region, but are occasionally produced by the sudden sink
Through the same region, from Lake Okechobee to near Tall
deposits of valuable phosphates the chief mineral product of
varieties of valuable clays are found, including the fuller's ea
Quincy, which produces most of the American supply, and vast
white kaolin in Lake and Putnam counties.
The eastern and southern portions of the peninsula are of col
le upper Eocene
in at least one
6ter, which boils
re wanting, the
k of portions of
th deposit near
eds of the finest
d formation and
OF THE STATE
have been produced by a series of reefs along the coast
and the gradual filling in behind them. The St. Johns
River was evidently once a long slough, shut in by a coral
The Indian River was formed in like manner at a
date. A similar reef at the south formed the rocky
of the Miami country and inclosed the Everglades.
her one, now forming, stretches from Biscavne Bay
e Tortugas, the portions projecting above the surface,
their accumulations of soil and vegetation, forming
the chain of islands known as t
As would be expected from
coast has few harbors, and these
They are at Fernandina- the
at Jacksonville on the St. John
Miami on Biscayne Bay. Th
he Florida Keys.
finest beaches of America, if not th
almost continuous beach from Fern
ing it a famous resort where open-
summer sports are engaged in the y
The western coast is irregular
splendid harbors and fringed with r
Harbor, Tampa Bay, Cedar Keys,
sacola are the most important harb
The drainage of Florida falls into
First, the rivers flowing into the Gu
are the large rivers flowing from
through the western part of the
Escambia, Yellow, Choctawhatchee,
onee, and the song-famed Suwan
the State and emptying along the
formation, the eastern
th of the St. Marys, -
St. Augustine, and at
)ast has, however, the
e world. There is an
andina to Miami, mak-
-air bathing and other
, deeply indented by
ich islands. Charlotte
Apalachicola, and Pen-
three natural divisions.
If. Chief among these
Alabama and Georgia
State, including the
ee. Entirely within
lower Gulf coast, are
the Withlacoochee, Peace, and Caloosahatchee.
Into the Atlantic flow the St. Marys and the splendid
St. Johns. The former forms a part of the Georgia bound-
OF THE STATE
ary; the latter flows northward nearly parallel with the
coast. The St. Johns is navigable for two hundred miles,
and its only important tributary, the tortuous and wonder-
fully picturesque Ocklawaha, is navigable to its very head
waters in the "lake region." The Indian River cannot
be classed as a part of the drainage system, being merely
a series of inlets and sheltered coastwise channels.
The third division is the interior drainage formed by
the Kissimmee River and other tributaries of Lake Oke-
chobee. This lake is situated in the northern part of the
Everglades -a great, marshy region nearly covering the
lower portion of the peninsula. This is not an ordinary
slow current. I
ow streams movie
The larger of
of the Evergla
is clear and wholesome, and flows
n the lower part is a vast network of
ng among countless islands of ver-
these islands are covered with pines
iss, or tropical shrubs and vines.
des is a growth of giant saw grass
with open fo
the larger bor
sandy stretches toward the coasts and the
sand hills of the interior are mostly covered
rests of long-leaved yellow pine, -the chief
ct of the State,-and carpeted with hatdy
There are occasional treeless savannas, and
lies of water often extend into swamps of saw
Sby magnificent cypress. These, in turn, are
unded by more or less extensive hard-wood
hammocks of magnolia, hickory, bay, live oak, water oak,
palmetto, persimmon, sweet gum, and other characteristic
trees. The trees of the hammocks are commonly festooned
by grapevines or Spanish moss, or nearly hidden under
the foliage of climbing smilax and yellow jasmine. Occa-
sional "scrubs" of dwarf oaks and gall berry mark the
OF THE STATE
poorest sand beds, while the thickets of scrub palmetto
occur frequently in hammock and low pine land.
Wild cat, bear, turkey,
pearing from the populous
abundant. Alligators and
lessly destroyed, but are no
commonest song birds are
mocker and the cardinal gr
Florida waters, both salt
and deer are gradually di
sections, but small game is
plume birds have been r
t rare in secluded places.
those unparalleled singers,
and fresh, abound in the fi
fish, the taking and marketing of which has become an
important occupation. Key West is the center of the
Since the "Great Freeze of 1894, the growing of tropi-
cal fruits is confined to the lower peninsular counties, but
truck growing and general farming are developing rapidly.
The valuable output of oranges, lemons, grape-fruit, pine-
apples, etc., from the southern sections is paralleled by
the extensive shipment of melons, strawberries, tomatoes,
potatoes, celery, etc., from the counties further north.
The growing of fine tobacco on an enormous scale is an
important industry in the middle portion of North Florida,
and the high hills of West Florida are now recognized as
peculiarly suited to profitable cattle raising. The lumber
and naval stores industry employs thousands of laborers in
every part of the State.
HOW PONCE DE LEON DISCOVERED FLORIDA
An Indian Myth.
Indians used to
white men first came from the foam of the ocean thrown
upon the beach.
After lying awhile in the sunshine the
foam melted away, and white men were seen where it had
They arose and
A pretty story, and one that no doubt the Indian children
hear and tell.
like as well the true story of how
the discoverers came.
It is an old
second voyage was Juan Ponce de
ocean in search of adventure.
Ponce de Leon
stead of returning to Spain, he remained at Hispaniola.
Tell the Indian legend of the coming of the white men.
told of the position and character of Ponce de Leon ?
did he cross the ocean?
Why and when
18 PART I
He conquered the island of Porto Rico for Spain and was
rewarded for his services by having his command taken
Yet he could not
in idleness, and
Rumors of a Fountain of Youth. Now, while his plans
undecided, he heard
the Indians of
island called Bimini, where there was much gold and a
treasure even more precious than gold-a fountain whose
waters would make young forever all mortals who should
drink of it.
Many wonderful discoveries had been made
since Columbus had proved the world to be round, and
people were ready to
haired old warrior had no trouble in getting a commission
possession, for the
crown, of the land
with its marvelous
given in 1512, and
he was to settle Bi-
years after its dis-
The Expedition for
-At his own
he fitted out three small vessels for the expedition, and
What was Ponce de Leon's next achievement and its reward ? Of
what land did he hear ?
What were its attractions?
Is a com-
What.did this commission authorize Ponce de Leon to do?
What did it require ?
How large was the expedition ? How equipped?
PONCE DE LEON
found men eager to join him. He could not sail as soon
as he had expected on account of some trouble with the
Indians at Porto Rico, which detained him there until
early in the next year.
Discovery and Landing. -Sailing in the spring of 1513,
he cruised among the Bahamas, for in that group he ex-
pected to find Bimini. Failing in his search, and hearing
of land in the northwest, he steered in that direction. It
was on Easter Sunday, March 27, that he sighted land,
and after coasting along the shore for several days, landed
a little north of where St. Augustine now stands.
Florida named.- The Bahama Indians had called this
land Canico, or Cancio. But on account of the beautiful
everywhere to be seen, or because the
de on Easter Sunday called by the
Florida, De Leon gave the name Flo
.He raised a cross and planted the Sp
ing possession for the Spanish crown.
rations and Return. He made some e
country, and cruised about the coast
He discovered and named the chain
xe called the Martyrs, as well as the
n sailed a little way up the western c
3 could he learn anything of the fable
seeking, nor did he find either gold
Much discouraged, he returned to Port
Another Expedition planned. Just
thought of the value of the discovery
but new lands seemed always welcome.
bestowed upon De Leon the very grand
rida to the
any rate, he
How delayed? How long delayed? Give date of the discovery.
Of the landing. Mark the place of landing on a map. Enumerate
the other results of the expedition. What was De Leon's reward?
tado, or governor, of
conquer and colonize,
the new territory fo
begin the enterprise
explore the country.
the West Indies, for t
against the Spaniards
Florida, and commissioned him to
an army of three hundred men,
crown of Spain. He was to
e year, and within three years
again De Leon was delayed at
dians of those islands had risen
his aid was needed.
- Meanwhile, since the way had
been shown, others were making voyages.
In 1516 Diego
Miruelo, a pilot with one vessel,
to Florida, and sailed up. the
made his way from
west coast, trading
the natives. He
covered a beautiful
supposed to be
afterward called P
cola. He obtained
gold from the nal
and when he took
back to Cuba and
Spanish Coat of Arms
writers, Fernandez de Co
shore of Florida, but was
of the beauty of the
country he had visited,
many persons were
eager to go there,
Cordova lands. In
1517, according to some
rdova landed on the western
surprised by an attack from
of hostile Indians. Six Spaniards were
one was killed. Cordova himself after-
Give the particulars of the new expedition planned. How inter-
Give the date, important events, and results of each of the next
HOW PONCE DE LEON DISCOVERED FLORIDA
ward died of wounds received. The Spaniards were glad
enough to return to Cuba without seeing any more of the
Pineda's Explorations. Though this expedition had
failed, one of the party gave such an account of the
riches and beauty of the country to the governor of
Jamaica, Don Francisco de Garay, that he sent an expedi-
tion of three vessels under Pineda to learn more of it.
The natives were no more friendly to Pineda than they
had been to Cordova, and though he landed twice,-he was
each time obliged
sailed up the Gulf
of the Mississippi
De Ayllon. Tl
to return to his boats for safety. He
coast and then west, passing the mouth
and as far west as the river Panuco in
ie next year, 1520, De Ayllon, a Spanish
officer from San Domingo, fitted out two vessels, really for
the purpose of taking the Indians as slaves. Cruising
along the Atlantic shore, he learned much of the coast
north of the St. Johns River. He told wonderful stories
of a province in the present limits of South Carolina
where the royal family were made giants by a process only
understood by certain skillful doctors and nurses. He told
also of a race of men who were said to have tails like
horses. Perhaps he was thinking of the stories of the
centaurs he must have read at school. Some years later
De Ayllon tried to make a settlement on the spot where
it; for in
afterward built. But the
ss. De Ayllon died the firs
'as broken up.
re was still another Spanish
1524 Emperor Charles V.
re was faniine
t winter, 1526,
sent Gomez to
What is meant by centaurs?
Tell of the first settlement attempted.
examine the coast south from Labrador t
was any strait north of Florida by whi
reach the Indies. All these voyages prove
was part of a large continent, but De Leor
of it and wrote of it as an island.
De Leon attempts a Conquest. As t
Leon's ambition was aroused by various
which he heard, and mo
Cortez's triumphs in Me
determined to make the
He laid out al
out two vessels
in 1521. The
stormy one, but
oast was reached
;o learn if there
ch vessels could
red that Florida
ist of all by
:xico, and he
1 his fortune
to bear him-
at last the
I and a land-
S. .ing made. De Leon intended mak-
Sing a settlement, and had brought
with him colonists and domestic ani-
mals for their use. Priests to teach
the Indians were with him.
Warlike Indians. But there was no welcome from the
Indians. The "children of the sun" soon found them-
selves among a fierce and warlike people. The Spaniards
had hardly landed when they were violently attacked.
Many were killed and the rest forced to return to their
Ponce de Leon, fighting bravely, was wounded
arrow. All thought of conquering and settling
What was proven by this time? What was De Leon's mistake?
What aroused him to another expedition? Give his purpose this
time. Where did the expedition start? When? Whom and what
did he bring with him? Tell of the trip and reception. The
Florida was now given up, and the return voyage to Cuba
De Leon's Death. Soon after reaching Cuba, the brave,
disappointed old knight died of his wounds. "A lion by
name and still more so by nature," is the translation of the
Latin inscription on his monument, so great was his repu-
tation for courage and daring.
PANFILO DE NARVAEZ
the conquest of
Velasquez, the governor of Cuba, who had planned the
expedition, learned this, he became jealous of Cortez's suc-
cess, and sent Panfilo de Narvaez to take the honors away
from him. But Cortez was not to be so easily overcome.
One stormy night, with about three hundred men, he sur-
prised De Narvaez's force of nine hundred Spaniards and
one thousand Cuban Indians, on the coast of Mexico, and
took De Narvaez himself prisoner. The Spanish court
favored Cortez in the matter, and the complaints of Nar-
vaez aroused no sympathy. Disappointed in getting the
command in Mexico, he asked for permission to conquer
and colonize Florida. Emperor Charles V. granted this,
and gave him the title for life of Adelantado of all the
lands he should discover and conquer.
What became of Ponce de Leon ? By whom and on what expedi-
tion was Narvaez sent from Cuba? Why? With what result?
What commission was next granted him? By whom?
24 PART I
Lands near Tampa Bay. -He sailed from Spain with
five vessels and six hundred men, but when he reached the
West Indies, nearly one fourth of his men refused to go
any farther. Then two of the vessels with seventy men
on board were lost in a hurricane. On account of these
misfortunes, he could not go on with his voyage until he
could get more-vessels and more men. Next spring he
again set sail, and on April 15, 1528, he entered a bay just
north of what is now Tampa Bay.
He had not looked for any great resistance from the
natives, but, like De Leon, he soon found that they were
very different from the gentler natives of the West Indies.
Some were on the shore when he landed and, though they
did not attack him, they made signs that he must go back
to his boats and sail away.
De Narvaez decided that he would march with the
greater number of his men along the coast until he should
reach the large bay Miruelo had discovered, and there the
ships with one hundred men on board were to meet him.
But De Narvaez and the men with him never saw the
ships again. The ships reached the bay, anchored, and
waited in vain for the leader and his forces. Then, after
cruising and searching along the coast for a year, they
sailed to Mexico.
Search for Gold.- A few days after landing, De Nar-
vaez began his march to the north. He met some Indians
wearing gold ornaments. He asked where the gold
came from, and the Indians pointed to the north, saying
"Apalachee" They made signs from which the Spaniards
Give the size of the expedition. What two misfortunes befell it?
How long was it delayed? Describe place and time of landing.
Reception by the Indians. Arrangement with the ships. What did
the vessels do? Tell of Narvaez's march.
PANFILO DE NARVAEZ
supposed that a great deal
Indians probably meant th
the head waters of the
thought they meant a mu
lachee Indians, on Lake
Tallahassee now stands,
Indian Hostility. It wa
the end was reached Apal
very small Indian village,
of gold was to be found. The
e gold region of Georgia near
Apalachee, but the Spaniards
lch nearer village of the Apa-
viccosukee, not far from where
and there they directed the
Ls a long, hard march, and when
achee was found to be only a
with no gold or splendor of any
kind. Other villages were not far away, and De Narvaez
made his headquarters at one of the largest, Anhayea,
about the present site of Tallahassee. There he remained
several weeks, the Indians all the while trying to get rid
of him. First a kind of irregular war was made upon the
invaders; then the Indians tried the more successful plan
of saying that their land was poor and not worth having,
but that nine days' journey to the sea was a town called
AutO, where plenty of provisions could be gotten.
Since no gold could be found, provisions were not to be
despised, so De Narvaez could think of nothing better to
do than to go to Aut6. This must have been near the bay
of Apalachicola. Here was another disappointment, for
Aut6 was reached only to find that the natives had burned
the village and fled.
Suffering and Death. De Narvaez was now sick at
heart, and longed to escape from a land where he had met
with such great misfortunes. Many of his men had died
of disease, many had been killed by the Indians, and star-
Name and locate on the map each of the three Indian villages vis-
ited by De Narvaez, and tell his purpose in going to each. Tell the
means by which the Indians endeavored to get rid of their unwelcome
visitor. Three causes of death among the Spaniards.
vation threatened the rest. They decided to wait no -
longer for the boats, but to go to work at once and make
boats in which to sail to Mexico or Cuba.
Boat building under Difficulties. -This was no easy thing
to do, for none were experienced in the work and suitable
materials could not be procured. But the men felt driven
by necessity, and one and all set to work. Deer were killed
and bellows made from the skins. Fortunately there was
a blacksmith in the party who forged bolts and nails from
the swords ai
1 other arms.
and horses' tails
Cordage was made from
and manes. The men
gave of their clothing for sails.
Fate of the Expedition. So hard did all v
few weeks the vessels were finished, and in t
of September the party embarked, hoping to
But misfortunes greater than anything they
with were in store for them. One boat was
Pensacola, two were lost at Santa Rosa, w
that carried De Narvaez, after reaching the
blown out to sea and never heard of again.
sailed as far as Pass Christian, where the
york that in a
he latter part
had yet met
while the boat
The last boat
men went on
shore, were attack
The few survive
adventure and wa
So the white ma
Florida, and the
away his footprint
by the natives, and all
but a few
ors were taken prisoners and suffered
They escaped and after several years of
ndering reached their countrymen in
n disappeared again from the coast of
vaves dashing upon the beach washed
;s. For ten years longer the, red man
How did they decide to escape? Tell of the difficulties in build-
ing boats. How many boats did they sail in and what became of
HERNANDO DE SOTO
rested under the shade of magnolias and oaks, hunted his
game, and kept his feasts with no white brother to dispute
HERNANDO DE SOTO
De Soto's Commission. Ponce de Leon had sailed with
Columbus, De Narvaez had fought against Cortez for his
honors in Mexico,
took to finish the
served as soldier i
under Pizarro. M
quer Florida, so g
soldier that he had
the king of Spain.
of Florida and mar
and Adelantado of
Lands at Tampa
Hernando de Soto, who under-
they had begun in Florida, had
West Indies and then in Peru
ie planned an expedition to con-
as his reputation as a successful
no difficulty in getting
He received the title
quis of all the lands he
Bay.- It was a splen
did retinue that;
sailed with him from Spain in 1538, all eager for adven-.
ture in the land they believed to be "the richest country.
that unto that day had been discovered." After a wiutr,
at Cuba they sailed in the spring for Florida. On there
25th of May, 1539, they landed at Tampa Bay after A,
voyage of six days. As it was Whitsunday, De Soto
called the bay Espiritu Santo (Holy Spirit), and by
this name it was known for many years. The name of
Tampa was afterward given on account of an Indian vil-
lage of that name near by. This was very near the place
where De Narvaez had landed.
Recount De Soto's former experience. What were the titles given
him? Date and place of landing. Former name of Tampa Bay.
Origin of name Tampa. k
28 PART I
Romance of Ortiz and the Indian Princess. -Near the
landing place, just where the city of Tampa now stands,
was an Indian village, whose chief was called Hirrihigua.
When De Narvaez's vessels had anchored off the shore
eleven years before, the Indians had enticed
captured a young man of eighteen, Juan
comrade. Ortiz's companion, who tried to
was immediately killed, but Ortiz was put
on shore and
Ortiz, and a
to torture by
being stretched on a staging of green poles with a slow
fire burning it. Now Hirrihigua had a lovely young
daughter. Her heart was filled with pity at sight of the
youth who, though he had harmed no one, was put to such
cruel torture. .Weeping bitterly she threw herself at the
stern chieftain's feet, and pleaded with him for mercy.
Out of love for his daughter the chief released Ortiz, and
the Indian maiden dressed his wounds and cared for him
until he was well.
But Hirrihigua hated the sight of the white man, and
after a few months Ortiz's life was again in danger.
Again the Indian maiden saved him. She told him of his
danger and said that he must go to Mucoso, a neighboring
chief to whom she was betrothed, and who, for her sake,
would befriend him. She herself went with him part of
the way one dark. night, and gave him directions how to
find Mucoso. Mucoso received him kindly, and refused
to give him up at Hirrihigua's bidding. Hirrihigua was
very angry and declared that he would never give his
daughter in marriage to Mucoso so long as he befriended
the Spaniard. But even then he could not overcome his
daughter's mercy nor the young chief's sense of honor, and
Ortiz was protected by Mucoso until the coming of De
Soto. By that time Ortiz had been living among the
Tell the story of Ortiz.
HERNANDO DE SOTO 29
Indians so long that he looked and talked like an Indian
and had almost forgotten his own language. But he
gladly joined his countrymen and went on with De Soto
on the march.
The March. It was not until July that De Soto, after
sending one or more of his ships back to Cuba with news
De Soto's March
of his landing, began his march northward. The knights
and soldiers of Spain in their glittering armor, the spirited
horses with their necks proudly arched, all in splendid
array, with gayly waving pennons and strains of martial
music, passed through the forest.
Conflicts with the Indians. The natives were no better
pleased to see him than they had been to see De Narvaez,
When did De Soto march? Appearance of the Spanish army.
30 PART I
and there was one fight after another. Sometimes there
was trouble in getting provisions, and the hungry strangers
were glad to eat the young stalks of maize. But after
they crossed the Withlacoochee they found plenty of nuts,
vegetables, and fruit at a village called Ocalee. This was
at, or near, the present site of Ocala. After leaving
Ocalee they entered the province of a very powerful and
warlike chief, Vitachuco. Here, on a plain between two
lakes, there was a bloody battle. It is said that in this
battle two hundred Indians, forced into a lake, swam and
fought for a day and night without putting foot to bottom.
Though a great many Indians were taken prisoners in
this battle, several days later they made a successful
struggle for liberty, and in the confusion De Soto himself
was nearly killed.
De Soto's Route. Crossing the Suwanee and continuing
his march to the northwest, he reached Anhayea in Octo-
ber and passed the winter there. From Anhavea he sent
exploring parties in different directions. One of these
parties found at Aute the poor little forge of De Narvaez,
with some trace of the work that had been done there.
His vessels arrived at the harbor near Aute and were sent
to explore the coast to the west. Then in the spring De
Soto left his winter quarters and began his march to the
northeast in search of gold and pearls. You can easily
trace his march on the map. He went from Apalachee
Bay northeast, crossing the Savannah River, then west or
northwest to the gold region of upper Georgia, then south-
west almost to Pensacola Bay, and from there northwest
to the Mississippi a few miles below where the city of
What conflicts were there with the Indians? Where were provi-
sions scant? Where abundant? What places did De Soto reach?
Memphis is now, then west beyond
the river and back
to its banks.
You must remember that the Span-
iards called all of this country Florida.
Relations with the Indians.- The
Indians feared and
distrusted De Soto, but finding that they could not drive
him away, they tried
to make friends with him.
chief sent two thousand men
to meet him with presents
of corn cakes, partridges, hens, conies, and many dogs for
A tribe near the Tennessee River sent him seven
hundred hens, another twenty baskets of mulberries, and
still another, as a very great compliment, sent him three
We are sorry to know that he laid waste
was applied to all this country by
How did the Indians regard De Soto?
What things did they give him ?
How did they treat him
32 PART I
the fields and villages through which he passed, and that
he took many Indians prisoners, treating them very cruelly.
Near the Savannah River De Soto was met by the In-
dian queen of the province of Cofitachiqui. She was
young and very beautiful. The Spanish writers called
Do Soto and the Indian Queen
her "the ladie of the countries On the 1st of May she
crossed the river in a canopied canoe, her attendants fol-
lowing in other canoes. Meeting De Soto, she presented
him with skins and shawls, then took off her beautiful
pearl necklace, and placed it on De Soto's neck. After-
ward she told him where he could find a great many more
What return did De Soto make for the Indians' kindnesses ? What
was the result of this treatment?
HERNANDO DE SOTO
pearls. Yet this generosity did not save her from being
taken prisoner and led away on foot. A month later she
When the Spaniards reached Mauvilla, at the present
site of Mobile, on the Alabama River, there was a battle
with the Indians. Eighteen Spaniards were killed, 150
were wounded. The Indians had seized the baggage of
the Spaniards with all their pearls, and these were burned
when the village was set on fire by the white men.
Discovery of the Mississippi. After this battle De Soto
learned that his ships were at Pensacola Bay -only a few
days' journey from Mauvilla; but he kept their arrival
a secret from his men, fearing that they would all want
to return hom
returned to Cu
on the journey
boats and rafts
The summer, a
the regions be
e. The vessels, after long waiting in vain,
ba. De Soto next turned to the northwest
that led him to the Mississippi. This the
simply the Great River. They made
om the trees on the banks and so crossed.
umn, and winter were spent in exploring
nd; but in the spring he decided to go
to the coast and send a vessel to Cuba to ask for help in
carrying on the expedition. He had now lost 250 men
and 150 horses.
He returned to the Mississippi, but made slow progress
on the journey to the coast. For the first time he became
discouraged- he who had borne up .so bravely. For,
through all the trials and disappointments of the march,
his gallant heart and nerve had never before failed. He
had cheered and encouraged his men, and had believed so
strongly that he would succeed that they had believed it
Why did not De Soto join his ships when he could?
cross the Mississippi? What did he plan?
How did he
But now he fell ill.
about him knew that his ion
He himself knew and those
march was ended.
Death and Burial. lie called his men about him, and
He said he had meant to reward them when it
should please God to prosper him.
He begged that they
would forgive any wrong he had done them, and that they
to forgive him his sins.
He said he
would feel less sorrow at leaving them in a strange coun-
try if they would choose a leader and promise to obey him.
They asked him to appoint their leader, and this he did.
On the next day he died.
Great care was taken to con-
ceal his death and place of burial from the Indians. In
the hush of night, by the pale light of stars, he was borne
to the middle
of the great river
of his discovery, and
prayers, buried beneath its
vived him reached Mexico to tell the story of suffering
What ended De Soto's explorations?
What became of the sur-
vivors of the expedition?
1. The Indian legend of the coming of the white man.
2. A sketch of Ponce de Leon according to the following outline: -
(a) His social position, wealth, time of life, former life.
(b) Traits of character.
(c) His superstition and its relation to his age, and the mar-
velous discoveries of the time.
(d) His prevailing ambitions and desires
(e) His ideas of Florida, before and after his first, and after
his second expedition.
(f) What he accomplished by each expedition.
(g) What he hoped to accomplish by each.
HERNANDO DE SOTO 35
(h) Why he failed in his purposes.
(i) His connection with each of the following:
Hispaniola, Porto Rico, Bahamas, Tortugas, Cuba.
3. Tabulate in the following form all the expeditions to Florida
recorded in Chapter 1:
NAME OF LANDING EXPLO A- PURPOSES OF RESULTS
YAR EXPLORER PLACE TIONS EXPEDITION
4. What three commanders lost their lives in these expeditions ?
5. Account for the credibility of the men of that time in believing
the stories told by the Indians and De Allyon.
6. Tell of the first settlement attempted on the mainland by the
7. Were the requirements of De Leon's commission complied with ?
8. Give the purpose, incidents, and results of De Narvaez's expedi-
tion to Mexico.
9. Fit the exploration of De Narvaez into the tabular form prepared.
10. What seems to have been the dominating ambition of the
11. What were the relations between the Spaniards and the Indians?
12. Why did the land and water expeditions never meet as in-
13. Give the reasons for the great suffering among the Spaniards.
14. Tell of the fate of De Narvaez's expedition.
15. How did these facts become known?
16. Under whom and where had each of the first three great ex-
plorers of Florida had training?
17. Write a composition on the adventures of Juan Ortiz.
18. Trace De Soto's march from his landing to the time of his death.
19. Give an account of the foods and other commodities of. value
used by the Indians.
36 PART I
20. Describe the different kinds of treatment the Spaniards received
from the Indians.
21. Describe the treatment of the Indians by the Spaniards.
22. Tell of the Queen and De Soto.
23. Tell of De Soto's death and burial.
THOUGHT AND RESEARCH TOPICS
1. What was accomplished by the second voyage of Columbus?
2. What is the force of the expression, "a Spanish gentleman "?
3. What is the meaning of the name De Leon "? Find Leon on
a modern map. What was Leon at that time? What is it now?
Explain De Leon's being called "a lion by name."
4. With whom did De Leon remain at Hispaniola? When were
the first settlements made there? Whence the name, Hispaniola?
What is its present name?
5. Read the history of Ponce de Leon prior to his crossing the
6. How did he acquire the wealth with which to fit out the expe-
ditions at his own expense?
7. How long was the Spanish rule in each of the islands named
in this chapter maintained?
8. Who were the Spanish sovereigns during the period covered by
these chapters? What changes took place in the importance of Spain
as a nation ?
9. King Charles I. of Spain was Emperor Charles V. of what?
10. On a map, mark the extent of the world then explored, and the
portion of it ruled by this emperor.
11. What was implied in De Leon's raising the cross when he
landed? What in his planting the Spanish flag?
12. Make an outline map of the West Indies and Florida and trace
approximately the several voyages, marking the landings and explo-
13. Considering the point at which he landed, and the nature of the
country there, which of the two origins of the name Florida is more
14. Notice the date, and mention the flowers that he may have seen.
15. Read of the Conquest of Mexico. (Prescott.)
16. Read of De Narvaez's expedition to Mexico.
THE INDIANS OF FLORIDA
17. What was the bay
Narvaez wish to reach it?
Miruelo had discovered?
Why did De
(See Chapter I.)
18. Describe the character of the different parts of the country
through which De Narvaez passed.
19. At what season did he embark upon the gulf?
weather might be expected at that season ?
20. What famous story is a parallel to that of Ortiz
What kind of
21. Account for the continued hostility of the Indians toward
Also account for his apparently cruel policy.
22. Give the reason of De Soto for each of the several directions
pursued by him in his march.
23. Note the traits of character of De Soto as shown by his actions,
and compare him with the other Spanish explorers.
THE INDIANS OF FLORIDA
Races. The Indians found by the Spaniards in Florida
were a wild and savage people.
Two of the tribes in the
lower part of the peninsula, the Tequestas and Caloosas,
were so like the natives of the
Bahama Islands that it is
thought they must have come from there many years be-
fore Ponce de Leon's discovery.
The tribes living north
of these belonged to the great Muscogee family.
- Like others of
copper-colored people, with long, straight, coarse hair, high
cheek bones, and black, deep-set eyes.
The early Spanish
explorers declared that the men they met were like giants
in size, and so strong that they could shoot an arrow and
drive it through a tree the size of
they told, too, of how fleet-footed
To what two great families did the Florida Indians belong?
scribe their facial characteristics.
following the deer, and of their wo
Clothing. They wove a kind of
grass and palmetto fiber, and of this
clothing. The women wore mantles
tened on the shoulder with the right
fastened at the waist and hanging to
wore mantles over the
shoulder in the same way,
with short tunics of deer-
skin dressed and colored.
Their moccasins were of Locatio. n 1
deerskin prepared in
a way as to be as so
cloth. They loved
ments of gold and of
have been gotten fr
nearest gold region
their own waters.
tattooed their skins.
nderfully keen sight
coarse cloth of bear
made most of their
of this material fas-
arm out, and skirts
the feet. The men
cipal Indian Nations
y and wore orna-
. The gold must
e Indians of the
the pearls from
of these Indians
- Their dwellings were usually grouped to-
lve feet hi1
gh. In the nortl
t these dwellings
with woven mi
its home in one
something like a
a close wall of posts
hern part of Florida E
were often mere shelt
ats. In some cases
great building wh
large arbor a part
would be set apart for the chief and his family.
some tribes the houses were very substantial. In
certain villages near the Atlantic coast, all the houses ex-
cept the chief's were circular, having floors level with the
Of what did the Indians make cloth? What ornaments did they
have? How were their villages protected?
THE INDIANS OF FLORIDA
ground. The chief's house was usually on a mound, and
was not circular; the floor was below the level of the
Government and Wars.-
very powerful. When lhe
place. The tribes that w
by these chiefs were fierce,
war was their delight.
Like other Indians,
they fought in
small bands, and
their weapons _-:
spears, clubs, and toma-
hawks. Warriors were
proud of the number of
scalps they could take.
They would sometimes
take prisoners. Some
of these were put to torture
and afterward killed, some
were kept as slaves. Occasion-
ally a prisoner who showed very '1
graet courage would be adopted
ilto the tribe.
Occupations. These Indians
were skilled in hunting and fish-
ing. With streams, lakes, and
coast waters alive with fish, and the
deer, turkeys, and other game, they
[he chief or king was always
died his son ruled in his
What form of government did they have?
ons? How did they dispose of their prisoners ?
oods full of bears,
ared well. Tilling
What were their weap-
How did they provide
the soil in a simple wa
year. The principal to
a shell fastened to the er
to furnish dishes and
Florida Indian thought
it in a long pipe made ol
end, much as pipes are
talked little and seldom
ments -games of ball,
matches and their wil
Worship. They wor
lived that after death
the happy hunting gro
in honor of the sun and
an imaginary being call
In the morning ever
dwelling, and stretching
say or sing a sort of hyn
done again at noon. At
y, they raised' food crops twice a
ol used was a kind of hoe made of
id of a stick. A clumsy sort of
tool it must have
3 been, but the fertile
beans, squashes, and
other vegetables in
plenty. When veg-
etables could no
Longer be had, there
were nuts and roots
to be found.
Gourds were raised
vessels for various uses. The
much of his tobacco, and smoked
E a cane with an earthen cup at the
made and smoked now.
were grave, dignified people, who
smiled. Yet they had their amuse-
wrestling, running, and leaping
shiped the Great Spirit, and
the good and brave would el
unds. They had special festi
the moon, and offered sacrifice
y Indian would stand before
; out his hands to the rising
n in praise of its glory. This
Evening, standing so that the
What crops did the Indians raise?
belief? What was their daily custom?
What was their religious
THE INDIANS OF FLORIDA
rays of the
to the rapid
iir 2 1
sun would Iall upon tnem, tmey
ly sinking globe of fire.
ere a number of feasts, but fc
during the year, when they would gather on the highest
ground near the villages and offer sacrifices of plants and
honey. At such times the chief priest, or jauva, as he was
called, would spread corn on a smooth stone as an offering
to the birds in gratitude for their melody. At noon the
offering would be made again, and then cages, in which a
great many birds had been kept for the occasion, would be
opened and the birds set free. A festival was held at the
time of the corn planting and another when the corn was
The jauvas were also medicine men and were expected
to have a cure for every ailment. They were treated with
great respect at all times, and were always consulted when
anything of importance to the tribe was to be decided.
They were a strange people, very fierce, very cruel to
their enemies, but brave as men could be and faithful to
those of their own tribe. The story of Juan Ortiz and
other stories their history gives show that they were
capable of a high sense of honor and noble conduct.
What did their feasts celebrate ? Who were the jauvas ?
1. Describe the physical characteristics of the Florida Indiana
2. Their clothing.
3. Their dwellings.
4. Their warfare customs.
5. Tell about the agriculture of the Florida Indians.
6. Their religious custom.
THOUGHT AND RESEARCH TOPICS
1. Supplement and illustrate this chapter with all that has been
aid in preceding chapters regarding the Indians.
42 PART I
2. Compare the Indians of Florida with those farther north as
described in large United States histories.
3. Of what kind of stone
the arrow and spear heads most
commonly made and where are quarries of this stone found?
4. Old Indian fields, mounds, and collections or specimens of pot-
tery and weapons are to be found in almost every part of the State.
Large mounds of oyster shells are found near the coast at various
points, which show clearly that they were formed by annual encamp-
ments of Indians at these places.
All these afford convenient mate-
rial for research throughout the State.
5. Read the accounts of the recent or present customs of the rem-
nant of Indians
in the Everglades, including the "
Green Corn Dance
and other feasts in recognition of the beautiful belief of
A FRENCH COLONY IN FLORIDA
Spanish Missionaries. -Several
expedition, a few earnest priests determined to try to teach
the Christian religion to the Indians of Florida.
the strange land had come in
the name of an earthly king, seeking wealth, glory, and
These came in
the name of a heavenly king to
bring the knowledge of God and His goodness.
ing Tampa Bay two of the priests tried to land, thinking
go together into the interior of the country.
it was not
clubs, were assembled on the coast, arid with heavy blows
instantly killed both priests.
Then another of the pious
said that he would
land alone so
as to show
natives that he came in
landed than he too fell dead
Yet no sooner
under the warriors'
Discouraged by his sad fate and seeing that it was of no
How did the Indians
the Spanish priests?
A FRENCH COLONY IN
use to try to land, his companions sorrowfully gave up
hope of teaching the Indians and set sail for Havana.
made by th
Luis de Ve
a very wise
Settlement by De Luna. So
Spaniards to conquer Florida
matter to the
far every effort
had failed. In
lasco. He was
, just man and
fairly with the
Indians of Mexico, always
protecting them in their
rights. So it was hoped
that he might win the
friendship of the warlike
Indians of Florida and
make a peaceable settle-
ment of the country.
Three years later, the
expedition so carefully
planned sailed from Vera
Cruz, Mexico, under the
command of Don Tristan
It landed near
e site of Pensa-
ndred soldiers and settlers,
convert the Indians.
They had a year's supply of pro-
What was the next effort to make a settlement in Florida?, Under
whose direction? Who led the expedition? Where did theta land
But this expedition, planned with such forethoug
no more successful in making a settlement than oth
been. A settlement was indeed attempted just
Pensacola was afterward built, but it was given up.
many weary marches and disappointments the
iards returned to Mexico or to the West Indies, an
Philip II. declared that he would make no further attempt
to settle Florida, as there was no danger of the French
trying to do so.
France and the Huguenots. Perhaps France might have
thought more of making colonies in the New World if she
had been less busy at home. In 1524 Verrazani, an Italian
sailor in the service of France, had explored and claimed
for that nation the coast from Carolina to Nova Scotia,
calling it New France. You remember that Spain had
claimed the same land as part of Florida. Yet it was not
until after De Luna's expedition that the French tried to
found a colony on the territory claimed by both nations.
There was but little ueace or safety in France for the
as the Protestants there were called.
great Admiral Coligny, had for a long
establish a safe home for them in America,
would be free to worship God in their own
first attempted a settlement on the coast of
though this proved a failure, Coligny was not
Discovery of St. Johns River. He obtained a commis-
sion from the king of France, Charles IX., and sent an
What was the outcome of De Luna's expedition ? Why was Philip
willing to give up settling Florida? What had the eastern coast of
the present United States been called by the Spanish? By the
French? Who was Coligny? Whom did he wish to colonize in
America? Why? Where had he attempted a settlement ?
COLONY IN FLORIDA
expedition to North America under the command of the
ruary, 1562, his two vessels carrying some of the best men
He reached Florida near the latitude of St.
Augustine, but did not land, sailing northward along the
but now called St.
? '*' ~ ~ ~~~- -- *^ *-' '- -" '-'- -'
-- -- -" -; ^ --- *-,.- --- Cf' U1 < l
Jean Ribault (from an old print)
the River of May, because he saw it on the first day of
the coast, he
names to the capes and named the rivers for the rivers of
French at Port Royal, z562.
- At last he came to the
fine harbor of Port Royal and here decided to make the
A small fort was built and called Fort Caro-
line in honor
men were left to hold possession of the fort, and Ribault,
What did Ribault discover ?
Where did he land ?
expecting soon to return,
arrived there he found civil
return then to carry aid to
Meanwhile things went
The Indians had been frier
reled among themselves.
and there was no sign of
their captain. They said
hazards, for they could no
ness. So they made a frai
perilous voyage across the
out before the voyage was
perished had they not been
set sail for France. When he
il war raging, and he could.not
the little fort.
badly indeed at Fort Caroline.
idly, but the soldiers had quar-
When provisions became scarce
help, they mutinied and killed
they would return home at all
t longer bear life in the wilder-
1 little boat, and set out for the
ocean. Their provisions gave
half ended, and all would have
rescued by an English vessel.
Settlement on St. Johns. -After many months of a
so-called religious war, a peace, or pretense of peace, was
made between Charles IX. and his Huguenot subjects,
and now Coligny asked that help be given for the little
colony across the ocean. The king consented, and three
ships were fitted out. The command of these was given
to Ren6 de LaudonniAre, one of those who had been with
Ribault on his first voyage.
Instead of Port Royal, the site selected f
was on the southern side of the St. Johns
they called the River of May), a few mi
mouth. Here they built a fort, called, like
Caroline. The fort was triangular, and was
of sand and logs.
The natives received the newcomers
or this colony
les from the
the first, Fort
They came to see them, bringing presents of vegetables
and fruit, showed the French how to plant corn and make
What became of Ribault's colony? Who commanded the next
French expedition? Where was the settlement made? How was the
A FRENCH COLONY IN FLORIDA
fish traps, and did
get on in the new
get on in a new
there were many
and finally they
friendship of the
I all they could to help the strangers to
bhe colonists were not the sort of men to
country. They became discontented;
ness. Iney tnougnt
could be found in Flo
and in looking fol
wasted time that m
better have been spend
French had landed
Florida in June, 1564. In
the spring of the next year,
scarce that the
determined to 1
vessels as they
return to Franc
this time Sir J
kins, a famous E
man, came sailing along the coast in search of fresh water.
He was very generous to the colonists, and gave them,
not only a large supply of provisions, but a vessel from
his fleet. Delighted now, the homesick colonists made
How were the French received by the Indians?
Indians teach them? What was the cause of trouble?
of the colony? What aid did they receive?
What did the
Of the failure
preparations to return to France.
home had not forgotten
sailing, August 29, 1565,
pected vessels were seen
vessels, bringing families
tools, seeds, and supplies
their friends at
them. On the very day set for
the sails of Ribault's long ex-
approaching. There were seven
of emigrants, domestic animals,
of every kind.
So the French remained, but Sir
gone his way.
A Rich Land.- Sir John Hawki
of the French c
that he could n
great store. .
serviceable to t
)lony when he reached England, and said
it understand why they had been in such
e wrote, "the ground doth yield victuals
The ground yieldeth naturally grapes in
Also it yieldeth roots, passing good;
good, with divers other beasts and fowls
he use of man.
with a man may live, having
bread." He mentioned the
cedar, cypress and others,
in the world." He was st
able medicinal plants he i
of the country he said tha
There be things where-
maize wherewith to make
s that grew in the country,
g "better cannot be found
,too, with the many valu-
i. In naming the animals
had heard there were also
lions, tigers, and unicorns ; but the honest gentleman did
not say that he had himself seen these.
HOW THE FRENCH COLONY WAS DESTROYED
Menendez.- Though Philip II. had for a while lost in-
terest in the settlement of Florida, he had no idea of really
What of Ribault's return?
What did Sir John Hawkins say of
HOW THE FRENCH COLONY WAS DESTROYED
1565 he s
any part of his lands in the New
nt Don Pedro Menendez de Aviles,
very cruel one, to conquer
Menendez was making
sail, news came of the
colony, and of Ribault's
a brave sol-
preparation to go to its aid.
was the anger among the S1
and as many as Menendez cc
with him eagerly joined his
tion. At midsummer the ve
sail, and they made a quiel
uld take ,
across the Atlantic. A storm scattered the fleet, how-
ever, and when Porto Rico was reached, only about a third
of his forces were with Menendez.
The Landing. In too great haste to await the rest, he
sailed to Florida. He sighted the coast on the day conse-
crated to St. Augustine, August 28, and he gave the name
of that holy man to the place where he lauded. He learned
all the Indians could tell him of the French, then sailed
about the coast. to make certain where they were. Some
distance to the north he sighted four vessels of Ribault.
These had arrived a few days before, but were too large
to cross the bar at the mouth of the river.
St. Augustine Founded. The French demanded of
Menendez who he was and why he came. He replied in
no gentle words that he was Menendez of Spain with
Whom did Philip next send to Florida? When? What added
zeal to this expedition? Tell of the voyage. Why was the first set-
tlement called St. Augustine? What was the first thing Menendez
did after landing? What was his reply to the inquiries of the
50 PART I
orders from his king to kill and behead all Protestants
in the regions about.
Frenchmen who were
no wish to be killed an
to give battle, they cut
sued by the Spaniards,
He then said he would
Catholics. As Ribault's
d beheaded, and were not
their cables, and though
escaped to the open sea.
The Spaniards returned to
on shore, and, on September
St. Augustine. They went
8, took formal possession of
the land for the king of
Spain. After religious
services, the foundation
Sof St. Augustine, the
oldest town in the
United States, was laid.
An Indian village had
occupied the site, and
the chief made a present of his dwelling to the Spaniards.
Around this dwelling defenses were hastily made of earth
and fagots- the Spaniards learning with great surprise
that no stones were to be found. Then eighty cannon
were put in place, and so the hurriedly built fort was
Ribault's Vessels Wrecked. The French at Fort Caro-
line hardly knew whether to make their defenses stronger
and wait for the enemies to make the attack, or to em-
bark on their vessels and seek the Spaniards. The latter
plan was decided upon, and Ribault left only a small gar-
rison at the fort with the women and children and the
It was the season of storms. Hardly had Ribault left
the harbor when a terrible gale arose. The French ships
Tell of the founding of St. Augustine. What had the place been?
How did the French seek to protect Fort Caroline?
FREN'CH COLONY WAS DESTROYED
were all wrecked upon the
dred miles south of Fort
escaped to the shore, but we
make their way there.
Massacre at Fort Caroline.
attack Fort Caroline,
Swamps, lakes, creeks,
coast, some more than a hun-
Jaroline. Most of the men
ere too far from the fort to
- Menendez made ready to
now practically without
and thick for-
ests lay between the fort and St.
Augustine; but through all and in
the pouring rain Menendez led his
men. The fight could not last long.
He made a furious attack. There
was a frightful massacre. Although
toward the last Menendez ordered
the women and children, the crippled
and aged, to be spared, it was not
till after many even of these had
A few of the garrison escaped to
the woods. Some of these went French Soldier
back and gave themselves up to the
mercy of the Spaniard. They were instantly put to
death. The others, after great suffering, reached the sett
coast. There they were taken on board two small French
vessels that had remained in the harbor when the rest
went out. So they escaped.
Massacre at Matanzas.- Having destroyed Fort Caro-
line, Menendez went in search of the Frenchmen, who,
the Indians told him, had been shipwrecked on the coast.
Two hundred of these unfortunate men were found at
Matanzas Inlet, with no means of crossing. Menendez,
on the other side, arranged his men so that their number
With what result?
Relate the story of the massacres.
52 PART I
seemed greater than it really was. The shipwrecked men
asked permission to pass the inlet and go to their friends
at Fort Caroline. Then, when told of the destruction of
the fort, they asked to be sent home, as France and Spain
were at peace. But Menendez would only say they must
trust to his mercy, and it seemed there was nothing else
for them to do. Boats were sent over for them, and, ten
at a time, they were brought across the inlet. They ex-
pected to be taken to St. Augustine as prisoners, but
before sundown all
Catholics, had been
After a few hours.
at Matanzas making
back, and bade Riba
his mercy as he had
except eight, who
put to death.
r a raft to cross
that Ribault was
on. He hurried
lult and his companions to submit to
bade the two hundred
hundred of these felt that they could never
somehow slipped away into the woods. A
were later captured by the Spaniards, yet
return to France. But Ribault with one
to do. Two
trust him, and
few of these
some lived to
fifty of his men, as the two hundred had been, were
by tens across the inlet, then were bound and mass
A few musicians and mechanics were spared, and
who said they were
The noble Ribaul
In a clear voice he
twenty years, more
to God, and Menen
So with calm and
Catholics less than twenty in all.
t met his death calmly and fearlessly.
sang a psalm. Then he said that in
or less, he must make his final account
idez might do with him as he would.
pious courage that strengthened his
comrades to the last, his life ended.
How many were murdered by Menendez at Matanzas Inlet ? Who
REVENGE OF DOMINIQUE .DE GOURGUES
THE REVENGE OF DOMINIQUE DE GOURGUES
MENENDEZ was greatly praised by his king, the cruel
Philip II., for his treatment of the Huguenots. The king
of France, Charles IX., had himself so little love for his
Huguenot subjects that he gave himself no trouble about
the matter, and the noblemen at his court sympathized
rather with the Spaniards than with their own country-
men. The people of France were very indignant, but
could do nothing. The widows and orphans of the mur-
dered colonists signed and sent to the king a memorial.
Still he pr
man of F
aid no attention to
que de Gourgues. -
the massacre of his
en should be re-
We do not know
whether he was
or Huguenot, but
However, there was a gentle-
de Gourgues, who could not
we do know that he cared for
the honor of France. He had
been a soldier from his boy-
hood. While very young he
was captured by the Span-
iards, made to work as galley
slave, and treated with great
cruelty. The insults received
at that time he had never
How was the conduct of Menendez considered by the Spanish king?
How, by the French king? Who were indignant? Who undertook
revenge? What private grievances had he ?
54 PART I
forgiven, and the memory of them now made him yet more
evenge.- Keeping his plan secret,
had and borrowed the rest that
ready for the work of r
The Expedition of R
he sold all that he
was needed from a b
small vessels for the pi
on the African coast.
men, August, 1567, and
Cuba. Here he called
the first time, told the
must avenge the insult
always be at your he
danger; will you refu;
after a very stormy v
Shis followers about
true purpose of the v
to our country," he
ad; I will bear the
se to follow me?" "
out that they were ready to go where
deed, they were so eager that he could hard
ted out three
y two hundred
Shim, and, for
said. "I will
brunt of the
The men cried.
3d them. In-
Ily make them
wait until the moon should be full before making the pas-
sage of the Bahama channel.
St. Augustine and San Mateo. The Spaniards were more
strongly situated in Florida than the French had been.
St. Augustine was well defended; a new fort, called San
Mateo, had been built on the site of Fort Caroline, and
there were two small forts guarding the mouth of the
river. The French ships kept their course to the north,
and one morning at daybreak anchored near the mouth of
the St. Marys River.
Friendship of the Indians. The shore was thronged
with warlike Indians. They were now at open war with
the Spaniards at St. Augustine and the forts, and, think-
ing the strangers were Spaniards, were ready to prevent
their landing. It happened that on one of the ships was
How was the expedition fitted out? When was its purpose ex-
plained to the men? How did they respond? What fortifications had
the Spaniards built in Florida? Where did the French land?
purpose, he said,
He sailed with
THE REVENGE OF DOMINIQUE DE GOURGUES
a trumpeter who had been in Florida before and knew the
the beach an
asked why h
come back so'
happy day sin
went toward them in a boat, making gestures
They recognized him and danced about on
the chief, the power
friends with him an
ted for joy as he came nearer. They
ever left them, and why he had not
For, they all said, they had not had a
French had gone. De Gourgues told
ful Satouriona, that he had come to be
d had brought him presents. At this
there was more dancing and more shouting than ever.
Satouriona sent word to all the neighboring chiefs to
come to meet the French, and next morning there was a
great council held. To show their trust in each other,
all laid aside their arms. Satouriona and De Go.urgues
sat side by side on a seat decorated with gray moss, while
the Indians and the French gathered around in circles.
De Gourgues began to speak, but the chief, who had
not, as an old historian solemnly tells us, learned French
manners, broke in upon the speech, telling his own tale of
Spanish cruelty. He said that the Spaniards had robbed
them of their food, driven them from their homes, and
killed their children; all because they had loved the
How were they received by the Indians? How was the friendship
established? What did .the Indian chief tell the French?
French. Then he ordered brought to De
French boy sixteen years of age, Pierre de Br
the massacre, had been found and cared for by
They had kept him with them and protected
the Spaniards had repeatedly demanded that
After much talking it was agreed that whe
should have passed the French and Indians sl
gether to attack the Spanish forts. Then p:
given to the savages, mirrors, and tri
and the council was over.
Capture of Forts. When the appc
Indians were ready, armed, and in the
danced, and waved their war clubs, ar
drink," which they thought would m
battle. They insisted that De Gourgu
the black drink with them. All prep
e, who, after
he should be
n three days
iould go to-
nkets, and knives, -
inted day cam
ir war paint.
id drank the "
ake them stro
ies, too, should
they set out
forest, the F
here had to
at dark; the Indians by paths through the
rench by sea.
at dawn of the second day on the bank of a
one of the
After this delay they
the fort before they we
fled, the Spaniards did
nel gave the alarm and
of the Indians ran him
forts at the mouth of the
some hours on account of
proceeded, and had nearly
re discovered. Confused
not know where to turn.
fired twice upon the Fren
through with a spear. S
to escape through the gates, but were killed or capt
The ships began an attack from the sea, and the arro
the Indians fell like hail.
The guns in the fort across the
What had the Indians done to befriend one of the French? What
plot was laid? What tokens were given? How did the savages pre-
pare for the attack? Where did they attack ?
THE REVENGE OF DOMIIQUEE D GOURGUES
river opened fire. The French returned the fire from the
San Mateo Taken. De Gourgues now marched on to
San Mateo. Here the garrison were so terrified that they
did not attempt to defend themselves. The commander,
with a few others, escaped. All the rest were killed or
captured. But De Gourgues was not yet satisfied. When
Menendez had destroyed Fort Caroline, some of the French,
:r escaping from the fort, had returned and surrendered
selves. Menendez had them hanged from a tree. On
tree he wrote, "This is done, not as unto Frenchmen,
as unto Lutherans." On the same tree De Gourgues
'ged certain unfortunate Spanish prisoners, and placed
the tree the inscription, "This is done, not as unto
,niards, but as unto liars, thieves, and murderers."
it. Augustine was too strong to be attacked, so when
three forts were destroyed, farewells were said to the
Indian allies, and the shi]
De Gourgues's Reward.
in France. The Huguen
king and nobles were not
manded his life, and he w
for several years. Then
Queen Elizabeth of Engl
vice, but about that time (
He died in 1598, just as h
ps of revenge sailed for home.
- Ill fared it with De Gourgues
ots greeted him warmly, but the
pleased. The king of Spain de-
'as obliged to live in concealment
things grew brighter for him.-
and invited him to enter her ser-
Charles IX. restored him to favor.
e was about to take command of
a Portuguese fleet against his old enemies, the Spaniards.
With what result? What place was next attacked? With what
result? What explanation had Menendez written of his massacre?
What reply did De Gourgues now make ? Why did De Gourgues
now return? How was he received in France?
MORE ABOUT ST. AUGUSTINE
Forts Rebuilt.- At the time of De Gourgues's attack
was in Spain,
with supplies and reinforcements.
San Mateo and the other forts with little loss of
Gates of St. Augustine
and explored the country to a great distance north and
Menendez attempts to Christianize the Indians.
- He was
anxious to bring
religious conversion of
natives, and had brought with him ten missionaries and a
Indian educated by the Spaniards in Cuba.
Indian offered to lead a party of missionaries to the prov-
ince where his brother was chief.
Trusting to his guid-
ance, the party set out, sailing north along the coast as far
Menendez at the time of De Gourgues's attack ?
did he do on his return ?
How were his missionaries treated ?
MORE ABOUT ST. AUGUSTINE
as Chesapeake Bay.
Here they landed and went a little
way into the country, when they were betrayed by their
guide and killed. Another party that came the next year
shared the same fate. Then Menendez went to the region
himself, and severely punished the Indians of the prov-
But he won no converts and made no settlement
Death of Menendez.
- After a few years Menendez left
the government of Florida to his nephew and returned to
- - ------- --
~t-4~ ~ -
- ~-z~ ~-~--Z~U --
~--- -- ~- z. --- -
Oldest Houses of St. Augustine
There he was treated with great honor, and the
him in command of
which he expected would destroy the power of England.
But his days of fighting were done
was about to sail Menendez died.
just as the fleet
sailor Sir Francis Drake, returning from a voyage to the
What did he inflict upon the Indians?
Tell of his great honor
that there w
and burn tht
sighted St. Augustine. He had not known
as a Spanish settlement in that part of the
learning it now, he was well pleased to land
e little town, founded just twenty years be-
ine Rebuilt. St. Augustine was rebuilt, but
very slowly, for in Spain there was little interest
colony. But there was interest in the conversion
Indians, and in 1593 twelve missionaries of the o
St. Francis came to Florida and labored at villages
coast not far from St. Augustine. These good men
and converted a great many Indians.
Conversion of Indians. One of these converts
the chief of
fluence over his companions.
at the mission, after reproving
for some misconduct, rebuked
the young warrior very angry
suading a large number of his
back with them to the mission.
and he had great in-
appened that the priest
privately several times
publicly. This made
[e went away, and per-
ids to join him, hurried
arrived there at night,
and rushing into the chapel where the priest was at prayer,
killed him instantly.
Murder of Priests. There was great excitement in the
village, for most of the people had loved the priest, and
all feared the Spaniards. The young warrior told them
that since one priest had been killed, the Spaniards would
be as angry as if all had been put to death, and that this
was the time for the Indians to show they had not lost
their old valor, but were still to be feared. So they fol-
Who burned St. Augustine? When? What new effort was made
to convert the Indians? What success was had? What caused the
murder of the priests?
MORE ABOUT ST. AUGUSTINE
lowed while he led the way to the neighboring mission of
good Father Montes. He went to tl
he must now die, for it had been c
missionaries. The priest implored
wicked plan. But they brandishe
cried out again that he must die.
allowed to celebrate the mass, and t
So he stood in his white robes a
, and told him
to kill all the
give up their
n asked to be
it the altar,
enemies pressed about him.
before the altar in silent pra
him, and he fell dead.
In this way the Indians w
ori their merciless course, killi
the chapels until they reached
The service ended, he knelt
His foes rushed upon
t from mission to mission
the priests and destroying
the island of San Pedro.
There the chief who governed it met them as they were
landing, and forced them to seek their own safety in flight.
Further Missionary Work.- Other missionaries came.
In a few.years the chapels were rebuilt, and many more
missions 'were established, not only on the coast, but even
as far. west as middle Florida. A great many Indians
became Christians, and their children were baptized and
taught by the priests, i
them all. One of the
Indian language was a
rho won the trust and affection of
first books ever printed in the
catechism in the language of the
Timiquis, -a tribe living on the coast below St. Augus-
Fort Marion Built. -Unfortunately a war broke out in
1638 between the Spaniards at St. Augustine and the
Apalachee Indians, who lived in the interior. Though
What checked the murderous career of the Indians? How was
the mission work resumed? With what success? What was one of
the first books in the Indian language? When was the next war with
back into their own
great many of the Indians were captured, and they and
their descendants were kept at work for sixty years on the
fort at St. Augustine.
This fort, which we call Fort Mar-
ion, was called by the Spaniards San Marco.
It was built
of coquina from Anastasia Island, and remains to-day just
Port San Marco
as it was two hundred
It is a
tacked, it has never been taken.
Wall.-It was feared that the force of the sea
might destroy the town, and the next public work under-
taken after the building of the fort was a sea wall to pro-
What was done with captive Indians?
present names of the fort built. Of v
was the material secured?
Give the Spanish and the
vhat is it built?
THE FOUNDING OF PENSACOLA
sea wall served its purpose
a territory of the
Then the present
wall, much more substantial than the old, was built by
THE FOUNDING OF PENSACOLA
Other American Colonies. Time passed,' and Spain was
no longer the only European nation with colonies in the
New World. The English had successfully planted colo-
nies in Virginia and New England, and were arranging
for the settlement of the Carolinas. The thrifty Dutch
Old View of Pensacola
had settled New
French had laid
claim not only to the basin of the St. Lawrence, but also
to all the country drained by the Mississippi. Spain had
claimed the greater part of all these lands by right of dis-
What other public work was done?
What other settlements had
cover and exploration, but had not colonized them.
was now becoming plain
she would soon have no
So at last it
and select a g
oration of t
ood place f
that unless she d
part of Florida
led to send a p
he western coast
or a colony.
beautiful bay called by the
now Pensacola. This was i
had tried to make a settle
Augustine was founded. T
three hundred men under
id plant colonies
to call her own.
arty to make a
of the peninsula
e site selected was on the
early explorers Santa Maria,
;he very site where De Luna
ement five years before St.
he second attempt in 1696 by
Don Andres d'Arriola, was
more fortunate. A small fort called San Carlos was built
and a church near by with several dwellings. The name
Pensacola was given to the settlement, whether for a town
in Spain (Penis-cola) or whether because a tribe of In-
dians, the Pensacolas, had once lived there, is not quite
certain. At any rate this name was then given to the
town founded and to the magnificent body of water on the
shores of which it was situated.
French Settlements.- It is well that D'Arriola came
when he did, for hardly more than a year later a French
expedition under Lemoine D'Iberville arrived off the
harbor. Seeing the Spanish ships, D'Iberville did not
eater, but passed on and made a settlement at Biloxi and
later at Mobile. The Perdido River was agreed upon as the
boundary line between the French and Spanish territory.
Within a short while after Pensacola was founded there
were neighbors at Mobile, Biloxi, and New Orleans. For
What site was selected for a new Spanish colony? What origins
of the name Pensacola are suggested? What neighboring colonies
were established? By whom? What boundary was agreed upon?
THE FOUNDING OF PENSACOLA
a long time there was peace.
one another. Mobile and
The settlements traded with
Pensacola exchanged many
courtesies. Once when Pensacola was threatened with
starvation, Mobile supplied her needs, and again came to
her -assistance against a threatened Indian attack. But,
unfortunately, the time came when France and Spain were
at war with each other, and the colonies had to take the
part of the mother countries.
Pensacola taken by the French. When the troubles
began, De Bienville, governor of Louisiana, was ordered to
attack Pensacola. On the 14th
of May, 1719, he appeared
with his fleet before Pensa-
cola, having sent a large forte
of Indians by land to join in
the attack. The Spanish com-
mander, Metamoras, had
never heard that war had been
in the after
1 France and
I so small a
felt it would
private property should not be dis-
the garrison should march out with
the honors of war and be carried to Havana in French
De Bienville left about sixty men at Pensacola, and sailed
What were the relations between the colonies? What disturbed
these relations? What forces took Pensacola? What were the con-
ditions of surrender?
66 PART I
away. But he did not feel very well satisfied, for what
had been so easily gained might be as easily lost. It turned
out as he had feared, and the French held the town only
about two months.
Spanish Recapture. -When the French vessels reached
Havana with the Spanish garrison on board, they were
front of I
and the S
when he r
get help f
the captain general of Cuba, a
were cast into prison. Then a la
diately fitted out to recover
French ships forming part of tl
put under command of Metamo
h ships in first, and when a go
the fort was taken, the other
panish colors were shown.
bench commander was called on to
refused, the ships opened fire on
ten asked for a truce of four d
rom De Bienville. A truce of
At the end of that time no help
nd the officers
he fleet. This
)ras. He sent
od position in
Recapture. De Bienville determined to I
attempt to capture Pensacola. He fitted
several ships and organized a large force, principally of
Indians, to attack the town in the rear. He took the place,
as he had planned, and made prisoners of the garrison.
But he was not strong enough to hold it against a large
attacking force, so, after destroying the fort and burning
the town, he sailed away. The French of Louisiana were
Of what breach of faith was the captain general of Cuba guilty?
How was this advantage followed up? With what result? What
was the next step in the Pensacola War? What disposition did
Bienville make of the fort? Why?
THE FOUNDING OF
well pleased with the part they took in this expedition,
which they called the
Restored to Spain. In 1722 peace was made between
France and Spain. Then Pensacola was restored to Spain.
The original town, which was burned by the French, was
where Fort Barrancas is now.
When the-Spanish returned
in 1722, they
on Santa Rosa Island,
thought they would be safer from Indian attacks.
some years, people began
of the bay,
and building on the
in 1763, the city of
Pensacola was regularly laid out.
What ended the conflict in the colonies?
Where was the original
Where was it next built?
Where Was the city finally
1. The missionaries and the Indians.
2. Attempted settlement at Pensacola.
3. The naming of
4.0 The reasons of the French for seeking a settlement in America.
5. Story of the attempted Fort Caroline settlement.
6. Account of the French settlement in Florida and its troubles.
7. The three names of the greatest river of Florida.
8. The commission and the voyage of Menendez.
9. The founding and naming of St. Augustine.
10. The conflict with and the massacre of the French.
11. How Menendez's act was regarded in Europe.
12. The motives and expedition of De Gourgues.
13. The relations of the Indians with the French and with the
14. The attack on the fort.
15. The career of Menendez from his coming to Florida to his
16. Efforts to Christianize the Indians.
17. The burning and rebuilding of St. Augustine and the public
68 PART I
18. Indian troubles at St. Augustine.
19. Location, naming, and founding of Pensacola.
20. Neighboring French settlements and their relations with
21. What are the several positions which the city has occupied?
THOUGHT AND RESEARCH TOPICS
1. Do the circumstances seem to show that the Indians killed the
Spanish priests through sheer brutality or through fear of deception ?
2. Did the Spaniards afterward realize the mistake they had made
in the treatment of the Indians?
3. What seems to have been the chief purpose of Philip in encour-
aging the settlement of Florida?
4. What were the relations existing between France and Spain
about the middle of the sixteenth century ? What important changes
in their relations occurred during the period covered by these
5. Tell of the religious wars of Europe in the time of Coligny and
his part in them..
6. Was the settlement at the mouth of the St. Johns in a favorable
location for a self-sustaining colony?
7. Find out what you can of Sir John Hawkins.
8. Read about the Reformation and the Inquisition. A knowledge
of the religious wars and intolerance of the time is essential to an
appreciation of these chapters.
9. What storms are regularly expected about the time of year
of the destruction of the French forts?
10. Was the extremely religious conduct of Menendez and the other
Spaniards, so out of harmony with their brutality, due, apparently to
hypocrisy or was it a characteristic of the religious practices of that
11. Why did Charles of France show so little interest in the
murdered French colony?
12. Were the motives of De Gourgues any more commendable in
the light of modern ethical ideas thanthose of Menendez?
13. What would be the attitude of modern nations toward the
spirit or actions of either Menendez or De Gourgues?
ENGLISH NEIGHBORS 69
14. Find the location of each of the forts and settlements mentioned
and tell their present names.
15. Account for the difference of the relations sustained between
the French and the Indians and between the Spanish and the Indians.
Is this difference characteristic of the history of these nations among
the Indians elsewhere in America?
16. Mention the several evidences of Menendez's vigorous execu-
17. What relation may there have been between the conduct of the
Indian guide who betrayed the Spaniards and his education among
the Spaniards in Cuba?
18. Read the history of Sir Francis Drake.
19. Read of the great Spanish Armada which Menendez was to
20. As a means of converting and civilizing the Indians, which
was probably more effective, the punishment inflicted by Menendez
or the submissive death of the priests?
21. What is coquina? Where is it found and what use of it is
made at this time?
22. What established a nation's claim to new territory?
23. How far apart are Pensacola and Mobile?
24. What was probably D'Iberville's purpose in settling so near to
25. What war in Europe brought on colonial troubles about this
26. Was the action of the Spanish governor in seizing the French
vessels in accord with the laws of war, considering that the French
had seized Pensacola?
27. What is the further illustration, in the seizure of Pensacola,
of the comparative relations of the two nations with the Indians?
English Encroachments. It has been told how De Ayllon
had in 1526 tried to make a settlement on the very spot
where Jamestown was afterwards built, and how Menendez
had sent two missionary parties to t
Chesapeake. But these attempts had
failure, and for many years it was all tl
do to keep the colonies they had first pl
Spain was no longer the powerful nati
the time of the earlier voyages of expl
the Atlantic coast from New England to
had planted her colonies without hind
But when South Carolina was given a
her southern boundary below St. Auni
he Indians of the
been followed by
ie Spaniards could
anted in the South.
on she had been at
oration. So along
rance from Spain.
charter that fixed
iti ine i t, was nain
there would be trouble.
St. Augustine Plundered. St. Augustine had suffered
from the English b
struck a blow at Spa
Captain Davis, an E
The fort was not f
resistance. Little w
ill pleased at the con
thing to complain of,
runaway servants an
Indians to make war
now. Sir Francis Drake
burning the town, and in
freebooter, had plundere
d, and the garrison mad
that the Spanish colonists
f the new neighbors.
English, on their side, had soon some-
for the Spanish gave refuge to their
d prisoners, and had encouraged the
on English settlers.
In 1676 a small army from Florida attacked one of the
English settlements, but was obliged to retreat. Ten
years later another Spanish force took and plundered Port
Royal, and destroyed many plantations. These things
were not forgotten, and in 1702, England being at war
with France and Spain, Governor Moore, of South Carolina,
undertook an expedition against St. Augustine. He suc-
What change in the power of Spain had occurred by the beginning
of the eighteenth century ? What encroachments upon their territorial
possessions in Florida were occurring? What cause of complaint had
ceeded in driving the people into the fort and keeping
them there three months, but the fort was too strong to be
taken, and after burning the town he marched back home.
Fort San Luis and Ayavalla Destroyed. This expedition
a failure and Moore still longing to distin-
he decided to march against the Spanish
In towns of middle Florida. The most important of
Swas Fort San Luis, just two miles west of the present
of Tallahassee. Here twenty-three Spaniards and
four hundred Apalachee Indians met
of English with their Creek allies.
said, was in
away from S
and the church, al
ue they contained, w
the St. Marks Riv
fate. The other tc
r offered to surrender
reat many Indians
return for the negro se
outh Carolina to Florida
a much larger force
The Spanish com-
t half his men were
after being robbed of
ere destroyed. Aya-
er, with its church,
wns near by were so
r. Governor Moore
as slaves. This, he
rvants who had run
and been harbored.
of the Apalachee Region. A hundred years
tradition still told the story of the terrible
visitation. Traces of roads and bridges built by the Span-
iards and the Indians, whom they had done much to civilize,
were still pointed out. Where villages, forts, and churches
had been, only ruins remained, though many of the names
still appeared on the maps. An old church bell was found
near the Suwanee when the Americans took possession
What were the first two warlike demonstrations between the
colonies? Tell of the English retaliation under Governor Moore.
What was done in Moore's first expedition? What in his second
expedition? What places were destroyed? What prisoners taken?
What was the region visited?
It was all that remained of the little mission
church, and the Indians looked upon it with awe and won-
der, telling legends of how it had been
them so long before.
It was this region desolated by Governor
afterwards became the home of Indians from the territory
Ruins of an Old Spanish Mission
north of Florida.
Here the Seminoles came, though they
later pushed their way as far south as the Alachua region.
Forts at St. Marks and CrBve Cceur. After the English
the Apalachees were so reduced in numbers that
their chief persuaded
the governor of St. Augustine to
build a fort at St. Marks on the Gulf for their protection.
What Indians afterwards occupied the middle Florida region q
was finished ii
os de Apalache
church near it
at St. Josephs
) This after
n March, 1718, and was called San
e. The Indians themselves built a
.The same year the French built
Bay, calling it Crave Cceur (Broken
a few months was given over to the
Settled and Fortified.- Hard pressed as Florida
had been, it was still worse for her whei
of the thirteen English colonies, was
settled by Oglethorpe in 1733. The
Georgia settlers built a fort on the
Altamaha and another at Frederica on
St. Simons Island. The Spanish govern-
ment demanded the surrender of these
forts, but Oglethorpe refused to give
them up. Indeed, he prepared not only
to defend them, but to attack St.
War with Eneland. -In 1739 war
tween England and Spain.
assist Oglethorpe, South Caro
attack by land and sea was
body of Indian allies.
Siege of St. Augustine. A
forces met near St. Augustine
taken, then began the siege ar
The people of the town were
in the fort, and now the E
number of hungry mouths to
a Georgia, the last
Then a squadron was sent to
lina joined forces, and a joint
planned. There was a large
bout the last of May all these
. The small forts were easily
id blockade of St. Augustine.
soon obliged to take refuge
english hoped that the great
be fed would oblige a speedy
When, why, and by whom was St. Marks founded? What place
was established by the French? What still harder pressure was soon
brought to bear upon Florida?
.... =. --i
The Spanish governor, Don Manuel Monteano, was a
man of great energy, and made the most of every means
at his disposal, but the anxiety he felt is shown in a letter
to the governor of Cuba. "I assure your lordship," he
wrote during the siege, "that it is impossible to express
the confusion of this place, for we have no protection ex-
cept the fort, and all else is open field. The families have
abandoned their homes and come into the fort for pro-
tection, which is pitiable,
want of provisions; and i
force, cannot relieve us,
English knew of this dis
although my only anxiety is the
if your lordship, lacking requisite
we must certainly perish." The
tress and were confident of their
But there was a change of fortune.
On the night of
the 25th of June a party
and recaptured Fort Moosa
great encouragement to the
wore on, sickness broke out
became weary of the siege
Worse still, some deserted
siege lasted until July 10.
vessels with provisions for th
Inlet. This decided Ogleth
e fort h
As the sun
o return h
Spaniards. Yet the
it was learned that
ad reached Mosquito
orpe to raise
the siege and
Invasion of Georgia. English deserters told
that Oglethorpe intended returning the next spi
did not do so, and Monteano decided to lead
against Oglethorpe's colony. A fleet was sent f
to aid him, and with this force he entered the
St. Simons July 5, 1742. The shore batteries
steady fire, but this did
not prevent the fleet passing.
Tell of the siege of St. Augustine in 1739.
How was the siege
way through a marsh.
attacked, and in
the battle lost four cap-
two hundred men killed,
besides many taken pris-
This is known
as the battle of
to retreat, and
as some English vessels
off the coast,
- In March,
the gates of St.
Augus- Map to illustrate Campaigns of Oglethorpe
6- -.3 .r*-^- j
tiue and offered, battle,
but the garrison took no notice of his challenge, and he
There were no regular battles, but neither
Tell of the return invasion.
What was the objective point?
English invasion of Florida.
Where did the expedition land?
How did it end?
Tell of another
was there any good will between the colonies.
lish wrote of St. Augustine as "a den of
ruffians! receptacle of debtors, servants, and s
of industry and good society!" while Moni
that a day might come when he should "
General Oglethorpe with all his forces."
FLORIDA A BRITISH COLONY
Florida exchanged for Havana. In the war known in
American history as the French and Indian War, lasting
from 1754 to 1763, Spain took part with France against
England. At the end of the war France gave up to Eng-
land all her possessions east of the Mississippi except New
Orleans and a very small piece of land near the mouth of
the river. New Orleans and the small piece of land with
it had been ceded by France to Spain the year before with
all the territory west of the Mississippi that France had
claimed. England's territory now stretched from the
great river to the Atlantic. She was anxious to add
Florida to her possessions,
from Spain in exchange for
lish the year before. So
Spaniards Leave. The
the Spanish who remained
and easily arranged to get it
Havana, captured by the Eng-
it was that Florida became a
treaty provided that none of
in Florida should be disturbed
Describe the feelings existing between the colonies. What terri-
torial transfers in the South resulted from the French and Indian
War? What territory was then held by each of the three European
nations connected with Florida history? What transfer of Florida
was then made? How did Havana become an English possession?
FLORIDA A BRITISH COLONY
in the exercise of the Catholic religion, and that all pri-
vate property should be respected. But the Spanish in-
habitants were not pleased with this change of government,-
and every one from Pensacola and all but five from St.
Augustine left on the transports provided to take them to
Cuba or to Me
East and Wes
ernment by the
and West F
--One of the first acts of gov-
English was to
and the Apa-
divide the colony into East
cola to the Mississippi and
Lake Pontchartrain, and
north to latitude 31 degrees;
but the northern boundary
was afterward made latitude
32 degrees and 28 minutes,
thus taking in nearly the
southern half of what are
now the States of Alabama
Growth and Prosperity. -
To encourage the settlement
of the new territories, the
English government gave
generous land grants to officers and soldiers who had served
in the war. Reports of the country's natural wealth and
What provisions regarding the inhabitants were in the treaty?
How many Spanish citizens remained? What new boundaries and
divisions were established for Florida? What were the two northern
boundaries of West Florida?
advantages were published
in. England so
might be ind
homes in Fl
lies came fro
uced to c
i of good
*rs from I
A great number of
were persuaded to
from South Caroli
d a colony of forty
public roads were
cane, and fruits were cultivated, lumber was
the Floridas prospered as they had never
Assemblies Called. Best of all, for people whose lib-
erty was dear to them, the governors were directed to call
general assemblies as soon as possible, to make laws for
the colonies. In the meantime the governors were, with
the advice of the councils, to establish courts.
The Turnbull Minorcan Colony. In 1767, a Scotchman,
Dr. Andrew Turnbull, one of the governor's council,
formed a company to bring out settlers from Minorca and
other islands of the Mediterranean to cultivate the vine,
fig, olive, and indigo. His idea was that they would suc-
ceed well in cultivating plants like those at their own
Fifteen hundred colonists were brought out from Italy,
Greece, Smyrna, and Minorca, and a colony called New
Smyrna was founded at Mosquito Inlet. The passage of
the colonists was paid, and they were to be furnished with
food and clothing for three years. During that time they
were to work for the company, and at the end were to
receive enough land for their support.
What was done to encourage immigration?
What industrial progress resulted? What po
planned ? What was the plan of the Turnbull colo
planted? Who were the colonists? What were
With what result?
litical liberty was
ny ? Where was it
the terms of their
FLORIDA A BRITISH COLONY
All went well for a
They said th
and had suffe
and two of
after the fou
-as all the
ery their nur
into by the g
A Royal Col
lared that the
ey had been cru
red for want of
oke out among
the leaders were
ending of the col
lid their wrongs
and begged fo
contract had been broken.
elly treated by the company
food and clothing. An in-
them, but was soon crushed
put to death. Nine years
ony, a few of the Minorcans
now called-went to St.
years of slavery and mis-
uber had been reduced to
The matter was looked
government, and they were
m all obligations to the
rhey all moved to St.
here portions of land in
part of the city were given
lony during the Revolution.
British Soldiers of the
- Florida was a new colony and had
been so well treated that she had not the same causes for
complaint against the mother country that the older
colonies had. She remained under British rule through
the Revolutionary War, and gave refuge to many English
sympathizers from Georgia and South Carolina. Yet there
must have been a few who were for the cause of inde-
pendence, for in 1776 the governor of East Florida called
on the militia to join the royal forces to repel invasion
and to prevent any more men from joining their "traitor-
What was the cause of trouble? What was the outcome? Where
did the colonists go? What was a chief reason for Florida's not join-
ing the Revolution?
80 PART I
ous neighbors." When the astonishing news of the Decla-
ration of Independence reached St. Augustine, the people
rushed in wild excitement to the public square and burned
Hancock and Adams in effigy.
During the next two
moved from Georgia and
there was bitter feeling a
of Florida was planned,
an expedition was fitted
Georgia, this also failed.
years several thousand loyalists
South Carolina into Florida, and
umong the colonies. An invasion
but not carried out, and though
out at St. Augustine to invade
Later in the war other expedi-
tions were planned on both sides, but were not carried out.
Spanish Conquest of West Florida.- In 1779 war was
declared between England and Spain, and in August the
governor of Louisiana invaded West Florida and took
the forts on the Mississippi. The next March, after a
strong resistance, he took Fort
; Charlotte on Mobile River,
Q then prepared to attack Pensa-
Scola. General Campbell was
in command at Pensacola with
Powderhorn and Canteen a thousand men, and besides
there were two garrisoned
forts. But the Spanish were superior in strength, and on
May 9, Campbell and his troops marched out and gave
up their arms. Spain now held West Florida from Pensa-
cola west to the Mississippi River.
Florida exchanged for the Bahama Islands. When the
Revolutionary War ended and the American colonies be-
came independent States, England ceded East and West
Florida back to Spain in exchange for the Bahama Islands.
What was her relation to the neighboring colonies? What was the
occasion for the invasion of Florida by the Spanish? Enumerate the
results of the invasion.
SECOND SPANISI OCCUPATION 81
The treaty was signed September 3, 1783, and the English
colonists who had made homes for themselves in the new
country were given eighteen months to remove with their
property. It happened, however, that a few English did
remain and all the Minorcans. Some who had come into
the colony from Georgia or South Carolina returned to
their old homes. The rest were taken on transports fur-
nished by the British government to seek homes in England,
Nova Scotia, or the Bahamas.
SECOND SPANISH OCCUPATION
Settlements Abandoned. The Spaniards did not find it
easy to get new colonists in place of the English. Some
fine estates on the St. Johns River and the east coast were
now unoccupied, and settlements in other places were aban-
doned. The few people at St. Augustine hardly dared go
beyond the protection of the guns of the fort; for the In-
dians now began to give trouble in various ways.
Alexander McGillivray. The Spaniards were very anx-
ious to gain the friendship of the neighboring tribes, espe-
cially the Creeks. The principal chief of the Creeks was
Alexander McGillivray, the son of a Creek woman and a
Scotch trader. He was remarkably intelligent and had
been well educated. He took the part of the English dur-
ing the Revolution, and was very active in their service in
Georgia. He held the rank of colonel in their army. In
At the close of the Revolution what disposition did England make
of the royal colony? Who remained in Florida? What of the
desolateness of Florida at the time of the second Spanish occupation ?
What danger threatened the few people in the colony?
W PART I
1784, he made a treaty for the Creeks and Seminoles with
the Spanish government, promising to prevent all white
going into their country
.He also did much to g
Sfor Spain. For all these
ent gave him a colonel's r
ter still McGillivray rep
r with the United States, i
Spaniards by promising t
the trade of th
except with the consent of
,ain the friendship of other
;e services the Spanish gov-
hank and pay.
Creeks should pass
ed the Creeks in a
pleased both Indians
er a certain date all
through ports of the
United States. And now it was proved that whi
ceived a large salary from Spain, he was receiving
salary as agent for the United States, and that
sometimes the uniform of a Spanish colonel and s(
that of a brigadier general in the American army.
very remarkable Indian chief had held high con
under three great civilized nations. He died in
ile he re-
g a large
was buried at Pensacola with
William Augustus Bowles.-
in 1789 by General William .
possession of Florida for the
tive of Maryland, and during
command in the British army.
cola he was dismissed from tl
adventure went away with som
A bold attemi
he service, and
e Creek Indians
pt was made
es to regain
es was a na-
had held a
ed at Pensa-
in search of
i. He after-
ward married the daughter of one of their chiefs, and
made his home among them for a while.
What alliance did the Spanish now seek? What remarkable
character brought about such alliances? What different positions of
power did McGillivray hold under different governments? What
treaty did he make with Spain for the Creeks and Seminoles?
Where was he buried? What nation did Bowles serve? Tell of the
career of this man.
SECOND SPANISH OCCUPATION
Meanwhile the Spaniards of Louisiana had captured
Pensacola. When this news reached Bowles he marched
there against the Spaniards, at the head of a large force of
Indians. The expedition was unsuccessful, but on ac-
count of his undertaking it, Bowles was restored to favor.
He was of a restless disposition, however, and was not sat-
isfied with one profession. He went to New York and
afterwards to the Bahamas, and became an actor and then
q7 a portrait painter. During the
second Spanish occupation he was
sent by the English to establish a
Trading post among the Creeks.
S'- St. Marks Surprised. But merely to
-:wE"-' establish a trading post did not satisfy
his ambition. He first tried, without success, to get
allies among the Indians in East Florida and in the
Alachua district to aid in destroying the Spanish power.
He was more successful among the Creeks. He told
them that the goods at the various trading posts were
really presents that had been sent to the Indians and had
been wrongfully kept from them. The Creeks believed
What invasion did he lead?
What plot did he later undertake?
b the Spaniards.
him in mak-
As a proof
confidence they gave Bowles the title of king of Florida.
But the reign of the king of Florida was short. He made
against St. Marks, and took the fort by surprise, but was
obliged to give it up. Then the Indians would follow
"Lying Captain," and gave him up to the Spaniards.
He was taken to Cuba and kept in prison until I
death, which took place in a few weeks.
When he was
ill the governor sent
word that he should
like to visit him. "I
deed," said Bowles,
"but not so low as
Florida as organized under
BoundaryDisputes.- There came a time when
the question of the northern boundary of West
Florida gave a great deal
English had made the
tude 82 degrees and 28
line on lati-
minutes, but in the treaty with the
United States at the close of the Revolution, the line was
fixed at 31 degrees. Spain, however, would not give up
the territory between the two lines, saying that she had
conquered it from England, and England had no right to
What allies did Bowles secure?
Where were his headquarters?
What title did they
What success did his expedition
How was he then treated?
Tell of his death.
What was the
northern boundary of West Florida adopted by the English?
It was not until
agreed to make latitude 3
boundary of West Florida.
twelve years later that
[ degrees the northern
803 the United States
purchased from France, Louisiana, which had been ceded
from France to Spain in 1762, and re-ceded to France in
Before 1762 France had owned the land west of
the Perdido in
West Florida, so when the United States
bought Louisiana she claimed that territory.
this was part of Florida, and would not give it up because,
like the other disputed
territory, it had been conquered
from England and not received from France.
Republic of West
- The territory
lay between the
and the Pearl rivers; that called the Mobile district lay
between the Pearl and the Perdido.
Both were claimed
by Spain as part of Florida, and both were claimed by the
as part of the land purchased from France.
A time came when Spain was too busy fighting the great
Napoleon to pay much attention to the Floridas.
inhabitants of Baton Rouge declared themselves an inde-
their territory the name
of West Florida, and asked to be admitted into the Union.
After one month the Republic of West Florida
nexed to Louisiana, October 27, 1810.
-When war was declared between the
United States and England, in
the United States
government was afraid to leave the Mobile district in the
What boundary did they accept in the treaty with the United
What claim did Spain make for a more northerly line?
What was the claim of the United States to the territory west of the
Tell of the Republic of West Florida?
What became of it?
How was it
What was accomplished by its exist-
86 PART I
hands of Spain, as that nation was now a friend of Eng-
Wilkinson sailed from
Mobile with six hundred men, and in April, 1813, received
the surrender of the Spanish commander.
This made the
Perdido River again the western boundary of Florida, and
so it has remained ever since.
FLORIDA'S PART IN THE WAR OF 181s
Embargo and Non-Intercourse Acts. During some years
of the Spanish occupation of Florida, France and England
were at war with each other.
Though the United States
did not take either side in the dispute, it caused her a
great deal of trouble.
Each of the nations at war forbade
our young government trading with the other.
this, but the English would stop and search our ships, and
seize seamen who they maintained were British subjects, to
serve in their navy.
All this was very insulting to the
United States, and Congress,
the Embargo Act, a
view to improving
law forbidding all
is was worse than
ever, for the loss of trade was very great, and thousands
of men were thrown out of employment. Then the Em-
bargo Act was repealed, and Congress passed the Non-
Intercourse Act. This gave Americans the right to trade
with all nations except France and England, and bettered
matters a little.
How was the Mobile district secured to the United States?
acts of Congress were intended to punish England and France for
WAR OF 1812
Plans to secure Florida from England.-When it became
certain that there would be war between England and the
so gain a great ad-
persuade the Span-
ish government to
cede Florida to the
any rate for a cer-
tain time, and Con-
gress secretly gave
power to take pos-
were any danger of
Republic of Flor-
ida. Pains were
to keep all
these plans quiet,
but they became
known, and some
Impressment of Seamen
Why was America desirous of having possession of Florida in
case of war?
What provisions were made to secure it?
Tell of the
"Republic of Florida.
88 PART I
some of the Floridians to form the Republic of Florida,"
on the banks of the St. Marys. The president of this
new and hastily formed government was General John
McIntosh, and Colonel Ashley
its military affairs. The time
forces of this little republic to
to protect Ai
mined to take
war ships into
of Florida just b
it port of entry fo
the harbor and C
in boats to join in the attack.
small Spanish garrison comm
Lopez had no choice but to
1812, the agreement was si
remain a free port of entry
should be war between the
was placed at the head of
vas at hand for the military
be called into action.
elia Island lies off the
elow the mouth of the St.
this island had become a
r foreign vessels. In order
General Matthews deter-
the island. He sent nine
colonel Ashley's forces came
Fernandina was held by a
nded by Don Jose Lopez.
to all nations, b
na was to
ut if there
english ships should not be allowed to enter after
Expedition against St. Augustine. -Next day three hun-
dred Americans marched against St. Augustine, making
two miles from the town.
another force of one hundred
East Florida had some can
nd fired at the Americans.
Pass Navarro, a mile away, an
beyond the St. Johns River. Sickness broke out, and some
What was the importance of Fernandina? How taken ? Condi-
tions of surrender? Tell of the St. Augustine expedition from the
"Republic of Florida." What caused the Americans to retreat?
FLORIDA'S PART IN THE
WAR OF 1812
of the men were sent back to the "Republic of Florida"
under charge of a United States officer. At the twelve-
mile swamp this little party of invalids was fired upon by
a band of negroes from St. Augustine, an
soldiers charged upon the negroes and
several officers were killed or wounded.
Expedition against Seminoles.-The An
carried the war into the Alachua district,
d though the
where it was
said the Seminole Indians were making ready for a raid
into Georgia. Colonel Newman, a Georgian, offered
to lead a party of scarcely more than three hundred
against King Payne's town. King Payne and Bowlegs
were the principal chiefs of the Seminoles. They were
the sons of Secoffee, the Creek who had in 1750 led the
band of runaway Creeks, afterwards called Seminoles,
The Indians Defeated. -When the Americans reached
a lake a few miles fr
chieftains with their
thick hammock. At
but Newman ordered
pretense drew them o
Payne, mounted on a
lantly until wound
did, for at sunset
and made several
After eight days
fore going far he
om King Payne's town, the brother
warriors began the attack from a
first the Indians could not be seen,
his men to pretend flight, and this
ut. There was a fierce fight. King
beautiful white horse, fought gal-
The Indians then retired and the
It was well they
the Indians returned under Bowlegs
furious charges, but finally withdrew.
Newman began his return march. Be-
was attacked by Billy Bowlegs with
What was the result of the attack made upon the returning in-
valids? Where did the American forces march? What was the
occasion of this attack ? Who were the Indian chiefs? Tell of the
battles. How did they result?
UU PART I
fifty warriors, but again won the victory and after that
went on his way unmolested.
preparations for a Seminole raid into Georgia.
bands gave much trouble to the America:
end to any
by attacking small Spanish settle-
Suppression of Hostilities by the President. It was not
to be expected that Spain would be pleased with all these
and the Spanish minister
plained of the invasion of Florida. The governor of
East Florida demanded the withdrawal of the American
troops, and as it seemed unwise to provoke a dispute with
Spain while war was threatening with England, the Presi-
that all American
forces should be with-
drawn from Florida.
JACKSON IN FLORIDA
war was declared
the United States and
About the same time it was discovered that
Indians of the west had
joined in a plot against the
Shawnee chief, Tecumseh,
came south to persuade the southern Indians to
the plot. He was very eloq
and Indians of other tribes
[uent and many of the Creeks
His plans were
aided by British agents at Pensacola, who encouraged the
Indians to make war on the Americans, and furnished them
What was the effect of this expedition?
hostilities to an end?
What brought these
What was the great Indian plot of 1812?
Creeks destroy Fort Mims.--
had taken refuge at Fort Mims,
bile. On August 30, 1813,
the chief, Weatherford, a
nephew of McGillivray,
led a thousand Creek
warriors against the fort,
Many women and children
a few miles north of Mo-
it by surprise, and
killed and scalped every
person in it.
Jackson at Horse Shoe
Bend. It was now that
General Andrew Jackson
marched from Tennessee,
and in a hard-fought cam-
paign, ending in the vic-
tory of the Horse Shoe
Bend, March 27, 1814,
completely broke the
power of the Creeks as a
nation. Some of them w
Tecumseh inciting the Creeks
'ent to Pensacola to the British,
others into the interior of Florida, but they were no
longer to be feared as they had been.
Weatherford's Surrender. There is an interesting story
of Jackson's generosity at the time of Weatherford's sur-
render. The chief came to the general's tent and gave
himself up. "Kill me, if you wish," he said, "but I come
to ask you to help our women and children who are starv-
ing in the woods. They never did you any harm."
Jackson could be merciful as well as brave.
He not only
How were the British using the Indians? Tell of the Fort Mims
massacre. Where was Fort Mims? How did Jackson retaliate?
Tell of Jackson's generosity to Weatherford.
sent food to the women and children, but also spared the
chief's life and sent him away safe and free.
British Agents at Pensacola. Spain either could not
or would not prevent the English from having agents at
-~: < cijKf- 5
Bay to arm the Indians
against the United States.
In August, 1814, a British
of the surrounding region
were now openly engaged
to make war on the Ameri-
cans and were supplied
with arms and ammuni-
tion. The streets of Pensa-
cola were full of Indians
in British uniforms march-
Andrew Jackson ing and drilling.
Jackson marches against
.- Jackson determined to put a stop to all this.
a force of three thousand volunteers from Ten-
d Kentucky and, joined by other troops, marched
ensacola. On November 6,1814, he camped less
miles from the Spanish fortifications and sent
an officer with a flag of truce to the governor.
The officer was fired upon, and Jackson immediately de-
manded the surrender of the town. When the governor
refused to surrender, Jackson determined to take the town
What was going on at Pensacola?
Who composed Jackson's army?
How was this to be stopped ?
JACKSON IN FLORIDA
by storm. This was not an easy thing to do, for Pensacola
was well protected with a fort and several batteries, and
there were several war ships in front of the city.
Pensacola Surrendered.- Jackson marched his troops
around the town at night, and in the morning advanced
rapidly from the east. Two batteries tried to stop their
march, but these were soon captured. Soon after, the
Spanish governor with his escort
cans and offered to surrender.
render and marched
on into the city. On Run
their way down the 4 A
principal street the
fired upon by the
British marines, but
returned the fire Opei
with such effect
that the British with their India
came to meet the Ameri-
Jackson received the sur-
n allies were
- ~ .1,
glad to make their escape to the ships, and
sailed away. The Indians were left at the mouth of the
Apalachicola and gave much trouble later.
Jackson remained at Pensacola two days, then, after
destroying the fort and batteries, he left the place in
the hands of the Spaniards and hurried on to New
It is said that when the Spaniards began rebuilding the
fortifications, the British Captain Nichols offered to assist.
But the governor declined, saying that if he needed help,
he would call on his friend General Jackson. Pensacola
What defenses had Pensacola? What became of the British? Of
the Indian allies? How and to whom did Jackson leave Pensa-
was taken on November 7.
Just two months later Jackson
won the great battle of New Orleans.
Negro Fort taken by Colonel Clinch. After
driven from Pensacola, Captains Percy and Nic
a strong fort on the Apalachicola and made it
ters for arming Indians and runaway negroes to
against the frontier settlements of Georgia and
This was kept up even after peace was declared.
was commanded by a negro, Garcia, and was
the Negro Fort. After waiting a year and a
to be abandoned, the United States authority
to wait no longer. Colonel Clinch was sent
half for it
fort, and attacked it with 116 men and some Creek allies.
One of the hot shots struck a powder magazine and blew
up the fort, only a few of those in it escaping death.
The Spanish negroes were given over to the Spanish agent
and the runaway American negroes were taken charge of
by Colonel Clinch. The negro commander and a Choctaw
chief were put to death. A quantity of ammunition was
taken from a magazine that had not been .injured, and
more than two hundred thousand dollars' worth of prop-
erty was found in the fort. The Americans suffered no
loss at all.
Destruction of Fowltown. After this, vessels could
navigate the Apalachicola River with less danger, but the
attacks on the border settlements of Georgia and Alabama
by the Seminoles and runaway negroes continued. In
What was Jackson's next great achievement ? What and where were
the further operations of the British agents? What was their fort on
the Apalachicola called? What steps did the United States author-
ities take? What were the results of the expedition? What was
gained by the destruction of the "Negro Fort "? What danger still
JACKSON IN FLORIDA
November, 1817, General
view with Enemathla, one
not come to his camp, and
to Fowltown, the chief's
of the chief
to arrange an inter-
s. The chief would
sent a party of men
above the Georgia
border, to bring him. As the soldiers drew near the
village, they were fired upon by the Indians. Upon this,
the soldiers attacked and destroyed the village. In one
of the cabins was found a British uniform of scarlet
cloth with gold epaulettes and a paper stating that the
chief, Enemathla, was a faithful British subject.
Indian Attacks. Scott Massacre. The Indians retali-
ated for the destruction of Fowltown by attacking plan-
stations and small settlements of the Americans; then they
would escape into Florida. Here they could consider
themselves safe, as they were on Spanish land. One of the
most shocking massacres was that of Lieutenant Scott and
his command. His boat was ascending the Apalachicola
with supplies for Fort Scott. In passing a swamp where
the Indians were concealed there was a sudden attack,
and nearly all on board were killed. This shocked the
whole country, and the American people felt that such
things must no longer be allowed.
Jackson destroys Indian Towns. As Spain seemed un-
able to control the Indians, General Jackson was put in
command against them,
neighboring States for
General Jackson lost n
thousand volunteers, m
hundred regulars, and a
with all speed upon the
and he was directed to call on the
troops if it should be necessary.
o time in the matter. With one
ost of them from Tennessee, five
large force of Creeks, he marched
Miccosukee towns in East Florida
Tell of the destruction of Fowltown.
What evidence of British en-
couragement of the attacks was found? Why were the border planta-
tions in such great danger? What massacre then took place?
96 PART I
and destroyed them, then upon the Fowl towns which he
also destroyed. The Fowl towns lay west of the Suwanee.
The Tallahassee fields were about the center. At Micco-
sukee Jackson found three hundred scalps of men, women,
and children hung on painted war poles over the village
St. Marks and Suwanee Taken. Hearing that there
were agents at St. Marks stirring up the Indians against
the Americans, Jackson hastened to that fort. It sur-
rendered without any resistance, though it was well gar-
risoned and had twenty mounted guns. From St. Marks
Jackson marched to Suwanee, where he took a number of
prisoners. Among the prisoners were two British sub-
jects: Arbuthnot, captured at St. Marks, and Ambrister
at Suwanee. Arbuthnot was a Scotch trader, and Am-
brister had been a soldier under Nichols. They were
accused of having given help and encouragement to the
Indians in their attacks on the frontier, and were sentenced
to death. For this Jackson was afterwards much blamed,
but he declared that he had done only what was necessary
for the protection of the Americans on the frontier.
Marches on Pensacola.- Jackson next turned his atten-
tion to Pensacola, for he had heard that Indians hostile to
the United States received arms and encouragement there,
while not even food supplies for the American troops were
allowed to pass up the Escambia River. While on his
way he received several haughty messages from Masot, the
Spanish governor of West Florida, demanding that he
Why was Jackson again called to Florida? What troops did he
bring? What places did he destroy? What. horrible evidence did he
find that this punishment was deserved? What forts were taken?
Tell of the two prisoners whose execution caused much criticism.
What was Jackson's defense ?
JACKSON IN FLORIDA
But these messages made no difference to
He went on to Pensacola, and Masot retired to
Pensacola Surrendered Again.
- Three times Jackson de-
manded the surrender of the fort, and three times Masot
Then Jackson made the attack.
After a few
hours of resistance Masot surrendered on condition that
his troops should march out with the honors of war and
be carried to Havana.
this time the Americans were in control
Jackson established a provisional govern-
ment, and then returned to his Tennessee home for a much
to Spain in
September, 1819, a
treaty had already been made for the purchase of all Flor-
ida, so it was only a little while longer that the Spanish
flag waved over Florida before she ceased to be the colony
of a European nation and became a territory of the United
Where did Jackson next turn?
What was the result?
what shape did he leave affairs in Florida when he returned to his
1. Make a list of all the English attacks on St. Augustine, giving
(as far as shown) date, leader, object, and results.
2. Make a like list of all the attacks of the Florida Spaniards upon
3. Describe Governor Moore's expedition against middle Florida.
4. Describe the siege of St. Augustine.
5. Monteano's invasion of Georgia.
6. What southern territory was held by each nation at the close
of the French and Indian War?
7. Give all the changes of ownership of Florida, with the occasion,
terms, and provision for the residents in each case.
8. Discuss the history of Florida under the British rule, as to
civil government, immigration, industry, and relation to the War of
9. Give an account of the Turnbull colony.
10. Tell the occasion, date, and circumstances of the Spanish con-
quest of West Florida.
11. Write a sketch of Alexander McGillivray.
12. Tell of his serving four nations.
13. Write a sketch of William Augustus Bowles;
14. What was his plot and what did he do toward its
15. Give the causes of the dispute, the two boundaries claimed, and
the settlement as to the northern boundary of West Florida.
16. Give the same as to the western boundary of West Florida.
17. Tell of the Republic of West Florida and what
polished by it.
18. What were the Embargo and Non-Intercourse acts?
they affect Florida or her ports ?
19. Explain the importance of Florida to the United States.
20. Give an account of the Republic of Florida."
21. Relate the taking of Fernandina.
22. Describe the Alachua campaign against the Indians.
23. Tell of Jackson's campaign against the Creeks and its results.
24. Describe his Pensacola campaign with its causes and results.
25. Tell of the Negro Fort," Fowltown," and Scott massacre.
26. Describe Jackson's second invasion of Florida.
27. The Arbuthnot and Ambrister incident.
1. What charter of
AND RESEARCH TOPICS
South Carolina included St.
What was the form
Winsor's "Narrative and Critical History of
2. What war was there between England and Spain at the time
of Moore's invasion?
3. What war at the time of Oglethorpe's