• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Preface
 Florida Flashlights
 Glimpses of Florida History














Group Title: Florida flashlights : a thousand and one facts concerning the history, development, resources and possibilities of the great peninsula state,
Title: Florida flashlights
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055626/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida flashlights a thousand and one facts concerning the history, development, resources and possibilities of the great peninsula state
Physical Description: 82 p. : ; 24cm.
Language: English
Creator: Reese, Joseph Hugh, 1877-
Publisher: The Hefty press
Place of Publication: Miami
Publication Date: 1917
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Subject: Florida   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by J. H. Reese.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055626
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000123497
oclc - 01538400
notis - AAN9444
lccn - 18000667

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Title Page
        Page 2
    Preface
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Florida Flashlights
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Glimpses of Florida History
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
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        Page 53
        Page 54
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Florida Flashlights


A thousand and one facts
concerning the history,
development, resources
and possibilities of the
great Peninsula State



By J. H. REESE


Copyright, 1917, by J. H. Reese


WTh H




















PREFACE


The person in search of information about Florida must assume the
drudgery of going through voluminous official documents which frequently
are not readily had, or else he consults histories and geographies that fall
to afford him the desired knowledge. This volume was compiled with the
idea of filling the demand for a condensed presentation in simple language of
leading facts about Florida. It contains the meat of many official reports,
and represents more labor than its modest form indicates. Although pain
taking efforts have been made to include the most essential information
pertaining to the State's history and its varied activities, no claim for
absolute completeness is asserted. Unquestionably much important and
interesting information has escaped this survey. It is offered on its merits
with the knowledge that its defects may be remedied in subsequent editions.
The compiler wishes to acknowledge obligations to the Ibrarian of
Congress, to the State House officials of Florida, to the Librarian of the
Woman's Club Library of Miami, and to numerous others who have extended
him courtesies in the preparation of the matter contained herein.










Know ye the land of the cedar and vine,
Where the flowers ever blossom, the beams ever shine,
Where the citron and olive are fairest of fruit,
And the voice of the mocking bird never is mute?
-Byron.

UA NASBWR LUEGD THE
Ion, e bd. e~~~ the al h nt
h o of many who folded r he i TI re a
*00 j .^an# t 1 R I D gT Ejt. inri e
beoam a possession of the United tS f-i
than & hundred 6 Sta te t


tie no e fl ?
SMuth has be St n



Florida Leads Ine- a o on o
S aand t
\vas *t U it s

hEquable climate.a *ao
ouh tlened lif




Percentage of population increase. eagh a
Variety fruits and vegetables. (f have nas
hore in &bled fOun,


Construction of gooded in



Production of phosphates and ful- a
l er s earth. In- t or 1st.



Ther ,OA ieo?
Area of standing timber. climate ded
Percentage of population increase. 0i L Wydtw^ rj--
Variety fruits and vegetables. ohave f nd 1



Conservation of bird roadlife ere u
Production of phosphates and ful- an so 4AS .
lers earth. bar frmse fan
Variety and quality of fruits. ereateS W1 ^fh
Area of standing timber. t"aretw or
Conservation of bird life. hee Iar nd.
Drainage of rich lands. tal od;
Extent of coast line.















Notes on Florida Geography


Florida's total area is 54,861 square miles. Of this, 8805 square miles
are occupied by lakes and rivers.
Florida has the largest area of any State east of the Mississippi River,
with the exception of Georgia only.
The greatest length of Florida, north to south, is 450 miles. The
greatest width is about 400 miles. The average width of the peninsula is
95 miles.
The Florida keys are a succession of small islands dotting the waters
and curving westward in a semi-circular chain from the termination of the
mainland for a distance of two hundred miles. Many of the keys ar
extremely fertile and produce fruits and vegetables of a fine s and quality.
The word key in this sense comes from the Spanish cayo, meaning a small
island.
Florida has 1250 miles of coast line, more than that of any other state.
Florida has 54 counties. Tallahassee, Leon County, is the capital.
Jacksonville is the chief city.. Tampa is the chief port and headquarters of
the customs district of Florida.




Florida's Population in Paragraphs


The population of Florida as given by the State census of 1915 was
921,618. The Federal census of 1910 was 752,619. The figures that follow
are based on the State census. White population, 559,787; negro, 860894.
Urban population, 408,157; rural, 518,461. Population per square mile in
the State, 16.7; rural, 93.
The area of Florida is 54,861 square miles. The largest county in are
is Lee, 4,641 square miles. Population per square mile in Lee county is two
persons.
Duval county has the largest population of any Florida county, 94,794,
divided as follows: Whites, 47,727; negro, 47,067.
Hillsborough has the largest white population of any Florida county,
65,754; negro, 17,880; total, 83,684.
The State Census of 1915 shows 129 Indians, and 1,082 state convicts in









6 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
Florida. Palm Beach county is credited with having 74, the largest number
of Indians.
Theree a 264,71 men of voting age in Florida, 160,107 white and
104,404 negro. The total vote cast by Florida in the presidential election of
1916 was 80,808.
There are thirteen cities in Florida of five thousand population, or
more, as follows: Jacksonville, 66,850; Tampa, 48,160; Pensacola, 28,219;
Key West, 18,49; Miami, 15,594; West Tampa, 7,837; Lakeland, 7,287; St.
Petersburg, 7,186; Gainesville, 6,736; Orlando, 6,448; St. Augustine, 5,471;
Ocal 5,870; Tallahassee, 5,198.
There are sixteen cities in Florida having 2,500 to 5,000 population;
forty-two having 1,000 to 2,500; one hundred and twenty-three of 1,000 and
under.
Between 1905 and 1915, the rural population in Florida increased 34.8
per cent.; the urban population, 74.6 per cent. The towns showing a hundred
per cent. increase or more during this period were: St. Petersburg, 210.8
per cent.; Miami, 208.8 per cent.; Lakeland, 120.8 per cent.; Tampa, 111 per
cent.; West Tampa, 114 per cent.
Miami was the only town in Florida of five thousand population or
more that showed more than a hundred per cent. increase between 1910 and
1915, its percentage being estimated at 184.9.


Florida's Balmy Climate



In Florida the winter is the dry season; fog is rare. In California win-
ter is the wet season; fog is common.
Florida is south of the usual storm tracks which move from west to
east across the country in winter, hence the high percentage of sunshine.
California experiences some of her severest storms in winter.
From October to June the weather in Florida is generally ideal. The
lower peninsula especially enjoys uniform temperatures. Summers are
very pleasant; sea breezes are constant.
Florida has suffered only five severe cold waves, namely: February,
1835; December, 1894; February, 1895, 1899 and 1917. The lowest tem-
perature recorded on the peninsula was 24 at Fort Myers in 1899 and 27
at Miami in 1917.
Droughts seldom occur in Florida, never to cause complete crop failure,
as is the case some times in the west. Generally the. rainfall is uniform.
The driest months usually are April and November; the wettest from June
to September.
Florida's annual normal temperature is 70.8. The normal rainfall is








FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 7
about 58 inches, varying from about 88 inches at Key West to about 62
inches on the northwest coast
Florida's driest year was 1895, with 460 inches precipitation; wettest
was 1912, with 64.88; coolest, 1901, with mean temperature 68.8; warmest,
1911, with 72.8.
-*Data supplied by U. S. Weather Bureau.


Character of Florida Soils


The Florida Department of Agriculture classifies the soil of the State
as follows: Pine Lands of three classes; Swamp Lands, The Everglades,
Low Hammocks, High Hammocks and Prairie Lands.
The greater portion of Florida lands are designated as pine lands,
because of the predominance of pine timber. The lands on which there is
a mixture of pine and hardwoods are termed mixed hammock lands.
Wonder at the productivity of "Florida sand" is modified when it is
known that the sand is thoroughly mixed with particles of shell which con-
tain carbonate of lime, other minerals and decomposed vegetable matter.
Lands that are considered worthless in more northerly climates are
wonderfully productive in Florida because of the influences of its semi-
tropical climate and abundant water supply.
First class pine land is covered with vegetable mould, beneath which is
a chocolate colored sandy loam, mixed with limestone pebbles and resting
upon a substratum of marl, clay or limestone rock.
Swamp lands are regarded as the most durable rich lands in Florida.
They are alluvial and occupy natural basins which have gradually been
filled with deposits of vegetable matter washed in from the higher lands.
Drainage is necessary to successful cultivation. Such lands have been known
to produce five thousand pounds of sugar per acre without fertilizer. The
best swamp lands are located in east and south Florida.
The low hammock lands of Florida are mostlyitevel,-~aidlive-grmter
tenacity than high hammock lands. They are somewhat indiscriminately
classed as swamp lands, but are not considered as desirable.
High hammock lands are regarded with great favor in Florida. They
occupy higher ground than the low hammocks and generally present an
undulating surface. They consist of a fine mould of vegetable matter mixed
with sandy loam, sometimes several feet deep, and rest upon a substratum
of clay, marl or limestone. They produce a great variety of crops and
are easily cultivated.
The prairie lands of Florida are found in extensive tracts and are like
the swamp lands in character, their freedom of timber being the chief dif-
ference. Care should be exercised in the selection of such lands, however,









8 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
for some of them are rendered non-productive by a substratum of hard-pan
which is impervious to moisture. Prairie lands afford fine grazing, and
the counties of the south-central peninsula embracing them constitute the
best cattle raising section of the State.
One of the most attractive features of Florida soils is the ease with
which they are cultivated, and the great diversity of crops which they
produce, owing to a climate which makes every month in the year a "grow-
ing month."





The Everglades of Florida


The Everglades of Florida embrace an area of approximately 4,000
square miles (2,560,000 acres) south of Lake Okeechobee. Of this area,
the State still retains about a million acres.
The reclamation of the Everglades was actually begun July 4, 1906,
when the first dredge built under the direction of the late Governor N. B.
Broward began work at a point near Ft. Lauderdale.
Drainage operations in the Everglades have been carried on ever since
1906, but the progress was slow for ten years because the State was depen-
dent upon funds derived from the sale of the lands. In their undrained
condition the lands commanded but a low figure.
The first large sale of Everglades land under Governor Broward was
to R. J. Bolles in 1907. Mr. Bolles died early in 1917. By the terms of
the contract, Mr. Bolles was to receive 500,000 acres, for which he was to
pay $1,000,000. Three-fourths of this sum was to be used for drainage, and
the one-fourth was to be turned into the public school fund. The first big
sale of Everglades and other overflowed lands was made by Governor Blox-
ham to Hamilton Disston, four million acres for one million dollars.
During 1917, the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund (composed
of the Governor, the Comptroller, the Attorney General, the Commissioner
of Agriculture and the State Treasurer) floated a bond issue of three million
dollars to push the drainage work, and the legislature of 1917 created two
large special drainage districts, each in charge of three drainage commis-
sioners, with authority to levy a special tax for drainage purposes. A
drainage tax of twenty-five cents an acre was levied. Thus new impetus
for the early completion of the main canal system has been given. This is
the largest drainage and reclamation project on the continent
The subsoil of the Florida Everglades is coraline limestone, upon which
lies an accumulation of sand, alluvial deposits and decayed vegetable matter,
from two to ten feet deep, making an exceedingly rich and fertile soil.
The annual rainfall over the Everglades averages nearly sixty inches.
The Everglades area is aptly described as a wet prairie. Many persons








FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 9
suppose it to be a swampy jungle. It is dotted here and there with ham-
mocks, spots of land higher than the prairie, covered with trees and under-
growth, but the Everglades proper is free of trees and is almost devoid of
shrubs. After the water is drained of, clearing is effected simply by burning
the sawgrass.
There are several prosperous settlements in the Everglades. The
variety of products is innumerable. The soil and climate conspire to
make it particularly adapted to cane, Irish potatoes, celery, tomatoes,
cabbage, turnips, beets, peppers, onions and other such crops.
The greatest development which the future will witness in the Ever-
glades will probably be as a cattle and stock raising section, its adaptability
to native and imported pasture grasses recommending it pre-eminently
for this industry.
Reclaimed lands in the Everglades have already sold as high as two
hundred dollars an acre. There are many who expect to see these lands
valued at from five hundred to a thousand dollars an acre within the next
few years.





The Florida Hill Country


Owing to erroneous statements in geographies and histories, there is
an impression abroad that Florida is a low, fiat country subject to inunda-
tion. The truth is that the hills in some sections of Florida reach almost
the dignity of mountains. The hills of Hernando in the southwestern part
of the State are well known, but perhaps the most famous section of this
character is the Knox Hill country, covering about fifty square miles in the
eastern part of Walton county. It was settled by Scotchmen in 1823. In
some places there is a hundred feet difference in elevation between the hills
and the adjacent valleys.
The highest point in Florida is at Hardaway, a station on the Apalachi-
cola Northern railway, the elevation being 808 feet above sea level. There
are numerous other points of about the same altitude. Mt. Pleasant is 801,
and Gretna 294.
The hill country about Tallahassee, the capital of Florida, is famed
for its beauty, the tall and symmetrical growth of oaks and other hardwood
trees, whose laterals extend across the roads from either side and interlace,
forming leafy canopies above many picturesque driveways, gives fine
evidence of the strength of the soil
The hill country of Orange county, Florida, excites exclamations from
those who travel the fine brick highway from Orlando to Winter Garden.
The hillsides are dotted with citrus groves and the valleys between are
watered by a chain of fsh-bearing, sand bottom lakes.









10 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
The hill country between Eusti and Clermont in Lake County, Florida,
is deservedly famed for its beauty and fertility. The diversity of Florida
landscapes is happily illustrated on this drive by the presence also of one of
the largest and most solemnly impressive cypress swamps in the country.
This is a favorite sight-seeing trip for the tourist.





Florida's Farm and Grove Products



Florida leads all other states in the value of products to the acre.
There are 1,547,383 acres under cultivation, the value of field, vegetable,
fruit and miscellaneous crops being $46,023,994, or about $30 to the acre
average. It is not unusual for certain truck crops to yield from $500 to
$1,000 an acre.
Total farm products of Florida, including field, vegetable and fruit,
dairy, poultry and live stock amount to $84,335,164 annually. The large
increase of corn, potato and other crops run the total up to a hundred
million for 1917.
Thirty-three Florida counties produce upland cotton, Jackson county
leading all others in acreage and production. The todal upland cotton crop
for Florida amounted to 388,762 bales with a value of $1,847,542, season of
1916-16. Twenty-five counties produce Sea Island, or long staple cotton,
the crop amounting to 27,852 bales, with a value of $2,528,156.
The Florida corn crop for 1917 was the largest in the history of the
State, being estimated at upwards of thirteen million bushels.
The Irish potato crop of the Hastings, Fla., section for 1917 was
marketed for five million dollars.
Seminole county, Fla., leads in the production of celery, the annual
output being about a million crates, the market value of which is above a
dollar a crate. Manatee county produces a third of a million crates.
Florida's peanut crop is worth three millions a year.
Dade county leads in the production of tomatoes. Florida's tomato
crop is upwards of four million dollars annually.
With favorable conditions, Florida's orange crop is six and a half mil-
lion boxes, and grapefruit two and a half millions. The value of these
crops is about sixteen million dollars.
The avocado (alligator pear) is a Florida fruit which is just beginning
to be developed for commercial purposes. It is grown successfully in the
lower peninsula, the last reports showing production in twelve counties. It
has a rich, nutty flavor and is eaten as a salad.
The Florida pineapple and strawberry crops combined produce a revenue
of upwards of a million annually, each being worth about six hundred thou-
sand a year in the markets. Bradford county leads in strawberry culture,









FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 11

over two and a half million quarts being the annual production. Pineapples
grow chiefly in the lower east coast counties, Palm Beach holding the ban-
ner for quantity.
The greater portion of the Florida pineapple crop is grown in the lower
counties of the east coast, but delicious fruit is grown by the Shaker colony
in Osceola county, and there is a successful pineapple farm under shade
at Orlando, in Orange county, in the central part of the State.
The Caladium Gardens at Goth, -Orange county, Florida, are among
the rare beauty spots of the country, where upwards of two thousand varie-
ties of this foliage plant are grown annually and the bulbs distributed over
a wide territory by Dr. Henry Nehrling, who is regarded as an eminent
authority on hybridizing and propagating.
Florida offers a splendid field for the botanist to pursue his investiga-
tions. There are plants, trees and shrubs in Florida that do not grow any-
where else in the known world.

There are 160 nurseries in Florida, selling variously, citrus, pecan,
avocado, tropical and general stock..

SOME PROMISING CROPS
THE AVOCADO
Only recently has attention been given to propagating the avocado on
a large scale. Now there are several nurseries in southern Florida, and as
a result of their activities considerable acreage is being planted to budded
stock. The avocado was known in earlier days as the "alligator pear." The
fruit is pear shaped, much larger than the ordinary pear, however, and
having no other resemblance to the fruit. The meat has a rich, nutty flavor,
the food value of which is great. The meat is eaten from the rind with a
spoon, or is served as a salad. The earliest varieties ripen in July, and
other varieties make the crop a continuous one until late fall. The Gaute-
malan varieties ripen during January and the early spring months.

SISAL HEMP
For years Florida has been regarded as a promising field for the grow-
ing of sisal hemp. Successful experiments have been made, but so far
no well organized effort to carry on this industry has been effected. Inves-
tigations in this direction are being pursued, and this bids fair to become
soon a revenue producing industry of large proportions.

CASTOR BEANS
Considerable attention has been given to the cultivation of the castor
bean in some of the counties of the Lower Florida peninsula, Osceola and
DeSoto among them. The oil of the castor bean is among the best of lubri-
cants, and is in great demand by the war department for use on fying
machines. This industry is one of the most promising for Florida, since the
castor bean grows readily, and practical without cultivation. The








12 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
yield is estimated at from 15 to 80 bushels to the acre, and the value at
from 80 cents to $1 per bushel For the year ending June 80, 1914, the
United States imported 1,048,928 bushels, valued at $1,145,086.

PECANS
Pecan culture is increasing in Florida. Already the crop is grown in
forty-seven counties, the annual production of which is valued at upwards of
half a million dollars. Jefferson county is famous for the size and quality
of these nuts and leads all other counties in the quantity produced, the last
figures compiled showing 95,101 bushels sold in the aggregate for $257,698.
Jefferson will probably take second or third place in a few years, however,
for Leon county has three-quarters of a million trees which will soon come
into bearing, and Baker county has half as many not yet of bearing age.

PEACHES
Peaches are not generally regarded as a Florida crop, but in some
sections of the State early varieties are successfully grown. Volusia county
has 80,470 bearing trees, which produced a crop of 17,429 bushels in 1916,
valued at $16,424.

FIGS
Okaloosa is one of the newest and smallest of Florida counties, but it
heads the list in the production of figs, the last crop reported being 2,625
crates.


Pasture Grasses and Forage Crops


A large variety of grasses find natural conditions hospitable to their
growth in Florida, the diversity being such that pasturage may be had the
entire year. There is scarcely a section in which native grasses do not
grow well.

Meal made from the soja-bean, which grows readily in Florida, has been
found to be the equal of cotton seed meal for the production of milk and
butter.

Common Florida grasses yield two tons of hay to the acre. The cut
from some of the native and imported grasses and legumes is much heavier.
Hay from leguminous crops is held by authorities to be twice as rich in
protein as hay from grasses.

The ease with which the soil is worked and natural conditions that favor









FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 18
it cause the making of pastures in Florida to be accomplished with compar-
atively little labor.

Florida's never failing water supply, in conjunction with climatic and
soil conditions, commend it strongly as a cattle growing country. Its moist,
alluvial lands make the best pastures. Bermuda is regarded as the best
foundation for a pasture. It is hardy, good for grazing and hay. Large
water grass and Terrell grass are favorite pasture grasses along the water
courses with the cattlemen of Florida, while bur clover and lespedeza are
sown on the uplands and dry places.

Crab-grass grows abundantly, following cultivated crops on Florida
lands. Some farmers have made as much as a hundred dollars an acre
from crab-grass hay after taking a profitable crop of potatoes or tomatoes
previously from the same land.

For winter grazing in Florida, oats, rye, barley and hairy vetch give
the most satisfactory results.

Para grass is growing in favor in southern Florida. It is not so well
suited to the more northerly sections.

Rhodes grass, comparatively new in Florida, is a native of Africa. It
makes excellent hay and produces three tons and upward per acre. The
hay compares in quality to the northern Timothy.

Crowfoot is one of the valued hay grasses native to Florida. It is a
volunteer following field crops, and is usually mixed with beggar-weed and
Mexican clover.

Sudan grass is a prolific hay plant in Florida, sometimes yielding eight
tons to the acre. It is necessary to exercise care in selecting seed, as the
plant is similar to Johnson grass, which is regarded as a pest Sudan grass
grows best on rich, loamy soils.

The velvet bean is a rank growing annual legume, grown in Florida as
a forage crop and soil restorative. It makes good hay, but is difficult to cut
and cure on account of its long tangled vines.

Florida farmers regard the beggarweed as a valuable forage plant.'
It is a volunteer growth found most commonly on old fields of light sandy
soil.

Cassava is grown in central and southern Florida, producing five to ten
tons of roots per acre. It is valuable as a cattle and hog feed.









FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS


The cattle industry has thrived in Florida for years, and many of her
leading men have made fortunes from it, but only of recent years has the
introduction of improved breeds and the installation of dipping vats for
eradicating the cattle tick guaranteed the extension of the industry and
increased the demand. Osceola county has imported a larger number of
thoroughbred stock and has exported more cattle than any other Florida
county. Alachua and Marion counties also have introduced large numbers
of the best breeds.

The loss to Florida cattlemen from disease and exposure to weather
amounts to $150,000 a year.

Florida hogs sold for slaughter each year are valued at upwards of three
million dollars. The loss from disease amounts to a quarter of a million.

An appropriation for hog cholera cure was passed by the Florida
legislature of 1917, and a live stock board to administer the fund was created.

Ten thousand dollars' worth of sheep and lambs are killed by dogs in
Florida every year. The loss from exposure is more than seven thousand
dollars.

Bradford raises in the neighborhood of five thousand goats annually,
leading all Florida counties in this industry.

Okaloosa is the banner sheep county of Florida, its spring clip of wool
amounting to 82,415 pounds. This industry is yet in its infancy.

Florida's poultry and products amount to five million dollars.

Florida's dairy products are $8,881,452.

Honey is produced in practically all Florida counties, the annual output
from the busy little bees being 628,682 pounds, valued at $108,626.

At last reports there were 296 silos in Florida, and this number has
been increased since the statistics were compiled. Many are built of wood,
but a large number are concrete, and some are steel. Farmers may have
the advice and active assistance of the Extension Division of the University
of Florida in silo construction.










FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS


The total land area of Florida is 85,11,040 acres, of which 27,000,000
are forest, this wooded area being greater than that of any other state.
The total stand of timber in Florida is estimated at upwards of a hun-
dred billion feet (board measure) merchantable saw timber.
There are about 462 saw mills in Florida, with an average annual cut
of upwards of a billion feet. At this rate of removal it doesn't appear that
the timber resources of Florida are likely to be exhausted for a century.
Florida has more kinds of trees than any other state. Dr. John Gifford,
of Cocoanut Grove, gives a list of 281 native and cultivated trees. But few
kinds are valuable commercially, however, the long leaf pine constituting
about half the stand. Other kinds of pine and cypress also are commer-
cially valuable.
In 1908, the United States government established the Choctawatchee
National Forest, embracing 735 square miles in Walton and Santa Rosa
counties, and the Ocala National Forest in Marion county, of smaller area.
As early as 1828 the government appropriated $10,000 for the purchase of
live oak lands in West Florida, the timber being in demand for ship building,
and between 1830-60, 208,824 acres in Florida were set aside for that pur-
pose. These reservations included the whole of Santa Rosa island and
scattered areas in middle and west Florida.
Naval stores, the trade name applied to turpentine and resin, manufac-
tured from the gum of the pine tree, constitute an important product of the
Florida forests. The latest available statistics (State Census 1915) show
an annual production of 8,884,218 barrels of spirits turpentine, valued at
$3,854,114; 569,191 barrels of resin, valued at $8,48499.
There are thirty-five shingle and crate factories in Florida, the output
of which is valued at $1,255,000 annually. There are twenty-nine barrel
factories in Florida with an annual product valued at $117,975.
More than thirty thousand persons are employed in Florida at saw and
planing mills, barrel, crate and shingle factories, cabinet shops, and at
turpentine distilleries, in the manufacture of native forest products.

AN OPPORTUNITY
To those who would better their prospects in life, live stock growing
should be an attractive industry. There should be a fascination about it for
young men particularly. It offers to them a life in the open, where they
can live amid the glories of nature and breathe the pure air of heaven and
enjoy health, instead of existing between office walls, or in dingy stores with
little or no hope for future betterment of their condition.-H. & EDet, Flor.
ida Department of Agricultre










FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS


Florida's Mineral Deposits


The mineral resources of Florida produce a revenue of twelve million
dollars annually.
The Florida Geological Survey was established by legislative act of
1907. The first annual report was made in 1908. This bureau has issued
many publications of value concerning the State's minerals, water supply
and other natural resources. t
Florida has a State Museum illustrating the geological and mineral
features of the State, which was started and is being maintained by the
Geological Survey at Tallahassee.
Hard rock phosphate, used largely in the manufacture of fertilizers,
has been mined in Florida upwards of 25 years. The deposits have gen-
erally been found in the western part of central peninsular Florida. The
phosphate rock output for 1912 was 2,579,865 tons; foreign shipments,
1,203,005 tons. About half the phosphate mined in Florida is used in the
United States. The hard rock phosphate sold at the mines for $6 a ton;
pebble phosphate at $2.75 to $4.50 per ton. The phosphate output for 1918
amounted to $9,563,084. In mining phosphate rock, the overburden is
removed by hydraulics. Thirty companies are engaged in mining phosphate.
The earliest use of phosphate rock for agricultural purposes in Florida
was by Dr. C. A. Simmons, of Hawthorne, Alachua county, in 1888.
Nearly the whole product of fullers earth in the United States comes
from Florida. Fullers earth is used for clarifying oils, as an ingredient of
talcum powders, and to some extent for medicinal purposes, for poultices,
etc. The chief mines in Florida are in Gadsden and Manatee counties.
Value at the mines, $9.50 per ton.
Extensive deposits of lime rock are found in Florida. In addition to
its use in making lime for structural purposes the broken rock is used for
railroad ballast, concrete manufacture and road building, and ground lime-
stone is used for application to soils.
The coquina rock found at Anastasia Island, near St. Augustine, Florida,
has been used as building stone for more than three hundred years. It was
the first stone used in America for building purposes. The magnificent
Ponce de Leon hotel at St. Augustine, completed in 1877, is constructed of
this material. Coquina consists of a mass of shells, varying in size,
cemented together by calcium carbonate.
Miami limestone is extensively used on the lower east coast of Florida
for buildings and roads. The formation extends for some distance along
the eastern border of the Everglades north and south of Miami. It is
relatively soft when taken from the quarry, but hardens upon exposure.
Dade county has a greater mileage of hard roads than any other Florida









FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 17
county, because of the accessibility of this rock, and its comparative cheap
cost. The surface of these roads is treated with oil tar, which relieves the
glare and enhances the durability of the surface.
The native road materials of Florida include chiefly limestone, marl and
shell, flint, chert, gravel and sandy clay.
Deposits of peat are widely distributed through Florida. The fuel
value of Florida peat has been demonstrated to be well up to the average
of the peats of other countries. There is only one plant mining peat in
Florida, the Ransom Humus Company, Pablo Beach.
Several companies are boring for oil in Florida. Oil bearing sand has
been discovered in Wakulla county at a depth of two thousand feet.
It is estimated that $100,000 is spent annually in Florida for drilling
deep wells. Vicksburg limestone is the chief water-bearing formation in the
peninsula.
Prehistoric shell mounds in the vicinity of New Smyrna, Fla., excite
much interest. Some of these mounds cover several acres, and in places
are forty feet high. They are found on the banks of the Indian and Halifax
rivers. The supposition is that the marshes around New Smyrna were at
one time a vast oyster bed and that the mounds were built through ages
of accumulation by a race that fed principally on oysters.
Alum Bluff, in Liberty county, Florida, has a precipitous face about 160
feet high, and is characterized by the State Geologist (Dr. E. H. Sellards)
as perhaps the most conspicuous topographic feature in all Florida.
Fossil remains unearthed by mining operations in Florida show that
Florida was once the home of the mastodon, elephant, rhinoceros, camel,
llama, tapir, sloth, armadillo, crocodile and gavial.
The clays of Florida are commercially utilized in the manufacture of
common brick, hollow brick and tile. The manufacture of sand lime brick
is also a considerable industry.





Florida Waters and Waterways


Flowing wells are numerous in the central lake region of the Florida
peninsula. Some of these deep wells whose flow does not reach the surface,
are used for drainage and irrigation. The manner in which they are thus
utilized is seen around Orlando. One of these wells, near Orlando, has
developed the phenomenon of spouting. At intervals it sends a stream some
thirty feet into the air.
The springs of Florida are famous for their large volume of flow and
for the clearness and beauty of their waters. Silver Springs, at Ocala,
probably has the largest flow of any spring in the world, 868,913 gallons
per minute. Blue Springs, at Juliette, is also a large spring, flowing about








18 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
346,166 gallons per minute. The waters are wonderfully clear and the
depth about forty feet.
Florida is celebrated for the number and beauty of its lakes. Lake
Okeechobee is the largest fresh water lake, with the exception of Lake
Michigan, lying wholly within the United States. Its surface area exceeds
700 square miles.
The interior of Florida is being washed into the ocean, but not at a
rate rapid enough to be alarming. According to estimates made by the
State Geologist, the water of Silver Springs contains 274 pounds solids to
every million pounds of water. The flow of the spring is three million
pounds per minute. The interior of Florida is thus being carried into the
ocean through Silver Springs at the rate of 890 pounds per minute, or about
600 tons a day. The mineral solids removed in this manner amount to a
little more than 400 tons annually per square mile. At this rate the sur-
face level of the central peninsula is being lowered by solution at the rate
of a foot in five or six thousand years.
The Apalachicola River, which heads among the mountains of Georgia,
is the only stream in Florida which derives any of its waters outside the
coastal plain. The waters of the Apalachicola are always muddy, whereas
Florida streams are generally clear.
The St. Johns river is the most majestic stream of Florida. It is navi-
gable from Jacksonville to Sanford, which is situated 'on Lake Monroe, and
a regular boat line plies its waters, winter and summer.
The most attractive water trip in Florida, from a scenic viewpoint, is
through the Ocklawaha river from Palatka to Ocala. The Ocklawaha is
said to be the crookedest stream on the continent. The tropic beauties of
the growth along its banks and the rare birds that fit among its foliage and
across the stream render the journey well worth the trouble and expense.
A water trip which will in time be sought by the visitor to Florida is
from Kissimmee through the Kissimmee river and a chain of lakes, to Lake
Okeechpbee, and thence to either side of the peninsula through the Ever-
glades drainage canals to the east, and the Caloosahatchee to the west.
Navigation in the Kissimmee river has recently been abandoned because
Congress has failed to recognize the importance of providing funds for
deepening the channel. A regular boat line is being operated through the
drainage canals.
The Suwannee river is probably the most widely known Florida stream,
because of the song by Stephen Collins Foster. The river was named by
the Spaniards, San Juan, which was corrupted by the Indian negroes into its
its present form.
The Indian and Halifax rivers traverse the east coast of Florida for a
considerable distance, and are noted for their tropical beauty.
The St. Mary's forms part of the northern boundary, and is the first
Florida stream which the visitor crosses coming into the State by Jackson-
ville.
Indian River, which parallels the east coast of Florida, is two hundred
miles long, and for a goodly part of the distance runs in plain view of the
Florida East Coast Railway. The scene from the train on a moonlight night









FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 19
is one of rare beauty. Indian river oranges, grapefruit and pineapples have
attained superior preference in the markets because of unusual sweetness
and perfection.

Florida has a bottomless pit in Wekiwa Springs, which are the head-
waters of the Wekiwa river. The main boil of these springs is supposed
to have been of volcanic origin. Some of the older residents claim to remem-
ber hearing the report when the earth was disrupted at this point. The
rush of waters is so strong that expert divers are borne back to the surface.
Though they are able to go far enough into the pool to be lost from sight, no
one has ever been able to reach the bottom of the boil.





Florida Fish Industry



The office of shell fish commissioner was created by the Florida legis-
lature of 1918. T. R. Hodges was the first shell fish commissioner. He was
succeeded in 1917 by J. A. Williams. The fish commissioner works under
the State Commissioner of Agriculture.

The Florida Fish Commission operates twenty-two boats in the service,
at an average cost of $27.8 per day.

The Florida Fish Commission is sustained by revenue derived from the
collection of licenses, oyster bed rentals and privilege taxes and sale of tags.

The territory in Florida patrolled in the enforcement of the fish and
oyster conservation laws covers about three thousand miles. In two years,
the Florida fish commissioner traveled 44 thousand miles pursuing his work.

The shrimp industry, which is new to Florida, produces over a million
dollars annually. Shrimp are canned extensively at Fernandina, Apalachi-
cola and Pensacola.

The stone crab and cray fish (Florida lobster) are fast disappearing
from Florida waters. Fin fish, oysters and clams are protected by law,
but shrimp, crabs and cray fish are not.

Though Florida has a great expanse of fish propagating waters, no
provision has been made for fish hatcheries.

The U. S. Bureau of Fisheries recently made a survey of the oyster









20 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
reefs of Franklin county, Florida, at a cost of $10,000. It is expected that
Congress will provide for the continuation of such work in Florida waters.

Two clam canning factories, located at Marco and Caxambas, in Lee
county, Florida, use 13,000 bushels of clams annually.

The tarpon, better known as the "silver king," is Florida's game fish.
It is found in the waters of the lower coast and in the Gulf.
The mullet is known as the revenue producing fish of Florida waters,
being shipped in large quantities.
The Spanish mackerel is a migratory salt water fish which produces a
large revenue annually for Florida fishermen.
The sea trout, found plentifully in Florida waters, is in great demand
in northern markets.
Shad is a salt water fish of Florida which is growing scarcer. It is
regarded by many as the choicest of water borne foods.
Sturgeon is a valuable salt water fish which finds its haunts in Florida
waters.
The pompano is a favorite fish taken from Florida waters. It has been
termed the aristocrat of salt water fish.
Sheepshead is a Florida fish of considerable value in the markets.
Red Fish is found in all the salt waters of Florida, and is a favorite with
sportsmen.
The great variety of Florida fish has caused these waters to be sought
by the great aquaria of northern and eastern cities for rare specimens, at
the exercise of much care and at heavy expense.

POISON WATER PHENOMENON
Outbreaks of poison water, which killed fish in large numbers, have
been reported eight times between 1844 and 1916, from the west coast of
Florida. The United States Bureau of Fisheries sent its experts to investi-
gate, and the results of their observations were published in a pamphlet
entitled "Mortality of Fishes on the West Coast of Florida." (Washington
1917). The experts admit that the strange occurrence is still a mystery,
though their observations are interesting. The Literary Digest, which had
an article on the subject, thinks a plausible explanation is that slight earth-
quake shocks release from the sea bottom poisonous gases, resulting from
the decay of sedimentary organic matter, and that these gases dissolved in
the sea water interfere with the life processes of the fish. The shocks in
question may be due to West Indian hurricanes, says the Digest.


Of all the Florida lands in farms operated by white farmers,
more than 85 per cent. is operated by owners. The average size of a
Florida farm is 105 acres, but more than a third are from 20 to 49
acres. In Florida the intensive farmer is the most prosperous. Sev-
enty per cent. of the farmers in Florida are white.









FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS


Public Education


There are 2,916 public schools in Florida. The total school population
(6 to 21) is 802,028; white, 183,607; negro, 118,421. Total school enroll-
ment is 198,365; white, 135,883; negro, 62,482. Average daily attendance,
144,419; white, 98,847; negro, 45,72.
The amount invested in public school property in Florida is $7,409,947.
Florida spends annually $3,818,675.18 for public education. The amount
paid teachers is $2,086,725.83. The number of teachers employed is 5,784.
The average monthly pay of teachers is $56.25; average based on twelve
months is $30.82. The average length of the school term is 180 days. In
many school districts the schools run eight months. The public school fund
is supplemented by local taxation in 784 school districts. The State levies
one mill for school purposes. The constitutional county levy is 7 mills
maximum and 8 mills minimum.

Florida has a local option compulsory school attendance law, but it has
been adopted in only a few of the counties.

Florida has 104 high schools.

Lee county, Florida, has taken the lead in establishing teacherages for
rural school teachers.

Florida supports by legislative appropriation the University (for men),
at Gainesville; the College for Women, at Tallahassee; the School for the
Deaf and Blind, at St. Augustine, and the Agricultural and Mechanical
College for Negroes, at Tallahassee. The last mentioned is co-educational.
Buildings, real estate and equipment for these institutions represent an
investment of $1,087,434.24. The expenditure for maintenance for the last
biennium was $695,644.18.

Rollins College is the oldest institution of higher learning in Florida.
It was incorporated and opened in 1885. The first president was Dr. Edward
P. Hooker. The endowment fund is $242,000. Rollins is co-educational.
It is situated at Winter Park, five miles north of Orlando, on the Atlantic
Coast Line, 140 miles south of Jacksonville.

Stetson University, located at DeLand, on the Atlantic Coast Line, 100
miles south of Jacksonville, was incorporated in 1887. The university was









22 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
named in honor of John B. Stetson, the famous hat manufacturer, who was
the chief donor to its endowment, which is upwards of a million dollars. The
sum of $400,000 is invested in the university plant and grounds. John F.
Forbes was its first president. Stetson is co-educational.


Sectarian colleges in Florida are located as follows: Columbia College
(Baptist), at Lake City; Southern College (Methodist), at Sutherland;
Cathedral School for Girls (Episcopal), Orlando; St. Leo College (for boys),
St. Leo, and the Academy of the Holy Name, at San Antonio (for girls)
(Catholic), in Pasco county.
Southland Seminary, at St. Petersburg, is an independent college for
girls.
The Florida Normal School at Madison is a special training school for
teachers.
The State Reform School for Boys is located at Marianna, and a similar
institution for girls is located near Ocala, in Marion county.



r---- ****"*** *** ------*.---

SManufacturing Establishments


Florida has 5,175 manufacturing establishments, which give employ-
ment to 64,235 persons, and wages amounting to $29,653,731. Capital
invested is $67,611,774.
Florida manufactures 400,736,457 cigars annually, valued at $18,811,491,
and 7,800,000 cigarettes, valued at $15,400.
Florida manufactures 8,884,218 gallons of turpentine annually, valued
at $3,854,114, and 569,101 barrels of resin, valued at $3,430,199.
Florida has 137 ginneries, with an output of 20,841 bales of upland
cotton, valued at $1,196,103; and 23,160 bales of Sea Island cotton, valued
at $2,004,897.
Cigars are manufactured in 19 Florida counties. Hillsborough (Tampa)
leads, with 267,792,000 cigars annually; Monroe (Key West)ranks next, with
103,86,109 cigars. Tampa is the only Florida city in which cigarettes are
made. (Above figures from State census, 1915).
The lumber and timber products of Florida are valued at $20,863,000
annually.*
There are twelve fertilizer factories in Florida, the output of which
amounts to $8,878,000 annually.*
There are 174 printing offices in Florida that give employment to 905
persons, and whose annual product is valued at $1,866,000.*
There are 113 bakeries in Florida, whose annual product is valued at
$1,292,000.*









FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS


There are 70 ice factories in Florida, which yearly turn water into ice
at a value of $1,207,000.*
The manufactured product of all Florida industries amounts to
$72,890,000 annually.*
*U. S. Census, 1910.





Transportation Lines of Florida



Florida's total mileage of operated railroad tracks is 5,96. The total
railway operating revenue is $21,691,289. The net revenue per mile, $1,090.
The receipts of the Southern Express Company in Florida for the year
ending June 80, 1915, were $757,70457; the net earnings were $9,488.08.
The receipts of the Pullman Company in Florida for the year ending
June 30, 1915, were $884,069.68; the net revenue, $46,756.28.
The Atlantic Coast Line charges 2% cents per mile, except on certain
branches, which charge 8 cents.
The Florida East Coast Railway charges 3 cents per mile north of
Homestead; south of Homestead, 4 cents.
The Seaboard Air Line charges 2% cents per mile, except on certain
branches, which charge 8 cents.
The Tampa and Jacksonville road charges 4 cents per mile (from
Sampson City to Emathla, 56 miles long). Seventeen other small lines are
permitted to charge 4 cents straight fare, with 8 cent round trip tickets.
Eight other railways charge 8 cents straight.
The Atlantic Coast Line operates 2,016.42 miles of track in Florida.
Main line mileage, 947.86.
The Seaboard Air Line operates 1,249.54 miles of track in Florida. Main
line mileage, 956.56.
The Florida East Coast Railway lies entirely within Florida. Its total
mileage, including second, siding and yard tracks, is 872.22. Main line
mileage, 522.
Eleven steamboat lines operate in Florida waters. Their gross receipts
for the year ending December 81, 1915, were $354,886.48; net revenue,
$43,189.38.

TELEPHONES
There are seventy-nine telephone companies doing business in Florida.
They operate 185 exchanges, and have 41,286 subscribers. Total receipts for
1915 were $1,866,524.57; net revenue, $162,488.69.








FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS


The Over-Sea Railroad


The actual development of the East Coast of Florida began with the
coming to Florida, in 1885, of Henry M. Flagler, of New York. Pos-
sessed of great wealth and the passion for achievement, Mr. Flagler pro-
jected and started the great system of palatial hotels and transportation
lines which now stand as an enduring monument to his memory.
Mr. Flagler's first enterprise was the building of the great Ponce de
Leon hotel at St. Augustine, at a cost of two and half million dollars. This
was completed in 1887, and was followed shortly by the erection of the
Alcazar and Cordova hotels. In 1886 Mr. Flagler purchased the narrow
gauge railroad which connected South Jacksonville and St. Augustine. In
'87 he acquired the narrow gauge Daytona road, and the next year he bought
the St. Augustine-Palatka line. These roads were changed to standard
gauge, and in 1889 the St. Johns river bridge was built and service opened
between Jacksonville and Daytona. Construction from Daytona down the
coast was taken up and service established to West Palm Beach April 2,
1894. At Palm Beach the Royal Poinciana and Breakers hotels were built,
and the Ormond hotel at Ormond was purchased and remodeled. Mr. Flag-
ler made his pioneer trip to Miami in a spring wagon, and two years
later, April 16, 1896, Miami was connected to the north by regular train
service, and the Royal Palm hotel was completed. As the construction pro-
ceeded southward a crew of engineers and surveyors was ever in advance,
preparing for the completion of the "farthest South" railway, which had
existed for years only in the imagination of the great developer.
The convention between the United States and Panama which insured
the construction of the Panama Canal was signed Nov. 18, 1903, and July
22, 1904, Jos. C. Meredith was appointed chief engineer for the construc-
tion of the Key West Extension of the Florida East Coast Railway. Con-
struction south of Homestead commenced April, 1905. This marked the
beginning of the "Oversea Railway" proper, which was opened to traffic
January 22, 1912. On January 2, 1912, Mr. Flagler was 82 years old. Thus
he lived to see the completion of his gigantic enterprise. He died at Palm
Beach in the spring of 1913.
Mr. Meredith died during the construction and was. buried at Miami.
The railway company erected an unhewn granite monolith above his grave
with this inscription: "In memory of Joseph Carroll Meredith, chief en-
gineer in the construction of the Key West Extension of the Florida East
Coast Railway, who died at his post of duty April 20, 1909. This memorial
is erected by the railway company in appreciation of his skill, fidelity and
devotion in this last and greatest work of his life." William J. Krome,
Mr. Meredith's first assistant, succeeded him and carried the great work









FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 25
to successful completion. Joseph R. Parrott, president of the Flagler road
during this period, has also passed away. So that three of the leading
figures in this stupendous undertaking have paid their last debt to nature.
W. H. Beardsley, who was vice-president and treasurer at that time, is
now president of the road, and J. P. Beckwith is vice-president in active
management of traffic and operation. J. E. Ingraham, vice-president, hai
charge of the land and industrial department.
The distance from Homestead to Key West Terminal is 128. miles
There are 11.1 miles of concrete arch viaducts and 6.1 miles of steel bridging
resting on concrete piers. The longest bridge is between Knights Key and
Little Duck Key, which with approaches is over 7 miles long. The greatest
depth of water is at Bahia Honda harbor, where foundations of some of the
piers are 80 feet below tide level.
Key West is nearly 300 miles nearer the eastern terminus of the
Panama Canal than any other Gulf port.
DISTANCES IN ENGLISH STATUTE MILES FROM KEY WEST TO:
Belize, British Honduras .......... 6181Honolulu (via Panama Canal)_5,686
Bluefields, Nicaragua ..................1,050 Matansas, Cuba .................... 185
Cienfuegos, Cuba (via Cape New Orleans, La ..................... 580
San Antonio) .............................. 625Port Limon, Costa Rica ..........1,090
Colon, Panama .............................186 Santiago de Cuba (via Cape San
Galveston, Texas ............................86 Antonio) ............................. 786
Greytown, Nicaragua .................1,075 San Juan, P. R. ...........................1,115
Guayaquil, Ecuador (via Panama Tampico, Mexico ..........................1,025
Canal) ...... .... ........ ..... ...2,386 Valparaiso, Chile ..........................,686
Havana, Cuba ................................ 105 Vera Cruz, Mexico ...................... 990





Florida's Coast Line Canal


The first charter of the Florida Coast Line Canal and Transportation
Company was obtained from the Legislature June 24, 1881. Subsequent
articles of Association being filed July 23rd, 1881, June 27, 1882, and
March 18, 1885.
Work on canal was begun in 1882 and continued with occasional in-
terruptions till 1912, when canal was finally completed between the St.
Johns river on the north, to Biscayne Bay on the south, making a con-
tinuous waterway navigable for light draft boats of 860 miles. Few peo-
ple realize the immensity of this work or of the many difficulties, financial
and otherwise, encountered during its prosecution. Had it not been for the
untiring and unselfish devotion of its first president, Dr. John Wescott,
Mr. Geo. L. Bradley, Mr. Frederic Amory, Mr. A. H. Sawyer, Mr. Geo.
F. Miles, Mr. Samuel Maddox, and a few other backers of the enterprise,
the work would have been abandoned.









26 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
The total cost of the Canal was a little over three and a half million
dollars. From this can be deducted proceeds of state land grant, amount-
ing to approximately one million, three hundred thousand dollars, leaving
the net cost of the canal something over two million two hundred thousand
dollars.
On January 1, 1914, three toll chains were established between the St.
Johns and Indian Rivers, and in March, 1916, three chains were added
between Jupiter and Biscayne Bay.
During the last fiscal year, 7,178 boats passed through chains of the
Company, varying in size from a small fishing launch, to large house
boats, yachts, dredges, etc. Since the opening of the Canal in 1914 ship-
pers have been saved an average of $50,000 per year on freights by using
this waterway.
Owing to its use by many boats of greater draft than the canals were
intended to accommodate, much difficulty has been experienced in keep-
ing the waterway to grade. On this work from one to three dredges have
been constantly employed since 1914, two machines being at work at the
present time (November, 1917).
The present officers of the company are: Frederic Amory, President;
A. H. Sawyer, Secretary and Treasurer; Geo. W. Gibbs, Asst. Treasurer and
Gen. Manager. The principal office of the Company is at St. Augustine, Fla.





Florida's Good Roads System


Florida spends more per capital for road improvement than any other
State.
There are 9,224 miles of improved roads in Florida, 4,158 miles of
which are graded earth roads; 664 miles of modified asphalt; 483 miles of
vitrified brick; 35 miles of concrete; 1,268 miles of rock; 92 miles of rock,
oil treated; 538 miles of shell; 1,944 miles of sand clay.
County and district bond issues for building roads in Florida amount
to $17,600,000. The bonded area equals 68 per cent. of the total area of the
State. The constitution forbids the bonding of the State for road building.
Polk leads all Florida counties in the amount expended for good roads,
voting $1,500,000 in a single issue. The material used in Polk is modified
asphalt. Duval, Hillsborough and Palm Beach counties each have spent a
million for hard roads.
Orange county claims the distinction of having started the good roads
movement in Florida, and it was the first to complete its system of hard
roads from county line to county line. The central Florida branch of the
Dixie Highway traverses Orange county. That county's bonded debt for
roads is $600,000. The roads are vitrified brick.









FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 27
Dade county, Florida, roads are built of native (limestone) rock, treated
with oil, giving the appearance of asphalt. These roads are constructed at
a cost which is comparatively small, which is accounted for by having the
base material at hand.
Florida has a State Highway Commission composed of five members.
A competent engineer is in charge of the work. The commission has the
authority to designate State Roads and State Aid Roads. To meet the
amount of Federal aid allotted to Florida, a levy of one-half mill was
authorized by the Legislature of 1917. The fund from this special levy and
the Federal Aid funds are to be used under the supervision of the commis-
sion. (State Road Dept.).
Florida has a single State license tax on automobiles and all other
motor driven vehicles. This does away with county and municipal licenses,
which heretofore were quite an annoyance to tourists.
The Florida Highway Commission has the authority to work three
hundred convicts on State roads The counties in which they work must
provide an amount equal to ifty per cent. of the cost of the work done under
the supervision of the commission.





I Florida Bird Reservations


Florida has thirteen reservations for the protection and preservation
of bird life. There are sixty-eight in the United States and its possessions.
The first Federal bird reservation in America was established at Peli-
can Island, near Sebastian, on the East Coast of Florida. The date of its
formal setting aside was March 14, 1908, but for more than half a century
ornithologists had visited Pelican Island, and numerous volumes of their
observations have been published. Bibliography can be secured from the
Bureau of Biological Survey, Washington, D. C.
Following is a list of the bird reservations in Florida in order as they
were established: Pelican Island, Passage Key, Indian Key, Mosquito Inlet,
Tortugas Keys, Key West, Pine Island, Palma Sola, Matlachla Pass, Island
Bay, Orange Lake, Julia A. Hanson reservation, and Royal Palm State
Park, the last named being owned by the Florida Federation of Women's
Clubs. The Hanson reservation was established by the Florida Audubon
Society. It was named in honor of the chairman of the Bird Protection Com-
mittee of the Florida Federation.
For purposes of administration the government has grouped bird
reservations in six districts. The Florida reservations are in the Gulf dis-
trict, No. 1, including the reservations in Louisiana and Porto Rico. The
most important birds protected in this district are brown pelicans, gulls,
terns, herons and ducks. At Pelican Island the only species which breeds is








28 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
the brown pelican, and on the Tortugas reservation the breeding birds
are chiefly noddy and sotty terns and a few least terns. At Mosquito
Inlet and Passage Key and other reservations on the West Coast herons
of several species are found. At Passage Key laughing gulls and terns of
various species also nest. On the Mosquito Inlet reservation manatees and
porpoises find protection, and both species have been increasing since the
reservation was established. On Passage and Indian Keys are found the
snowy egret and pink curlew. These were formerly the prey of plume
hunters, but during the past few years the practice of taking their plumes
has been outlawed and several plume hunters have received severe sen-
tences in the criminal courts. On the Hanson reservation, a few miles from
Fort Myers, numbers of white egrets, herons, ibis and roseate spoonbills
(pink curlew) are reported. The Royal Palm Park reservation is rich in
its variety of rare birds.
In Florida it is against the law to kill any wild bird, except game
birds in open season; to hunt without a license; to hunt on Sundays; to
kill or cage song birds or destroy their nests. Licenses may be obtained
from the county judge.
The Legislature of 1913 established the office of state game warden,
but the Legislature of 1915 abolished the office, placing the duties of game
warden upon the sheriff of each county.


Royal Palm State Park


This forest reserve is an Everglade key, or hammock island, that has
been protected for ages from fire by the head-waters of Taylor River which
surround it. It is different in vegetation from the high pineland ham-
mocks, having a more tropical growth. It gets its name from the most
conspicuous element, scores of royal palms towering above the other trees.
Some 241 kinds of plants have been identified in it, a number having been
found nowhere else on the mainland of the United States. Scientists think
it belongs geologically and botanically to the West Indies, therefore a visit
to the Park by auto will be your easiest way of seeing West Indian nature.
You reach it by traveling 45 miles south of Miami over Ingraham Highway,
a continuation of the Dixie Highway.
Mrs. Kirk Munroe first suggested the reservation of this forest, unique
in the United States. The Florida Federation of Women's Clubs secured
from the Legislature of 1915 the grant of Royal Palm Hammock, with the
proviso that the Federation secure a like acreage as endowment, which
makes a park of 1,920 acres. Florida's is the only Federation in the United
States owning a state park. It has been maintained entirely by private
subscription until the past year, when Dade County Commissioners aided










FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 29
the Federation. An expert caretaker has been kept there and a lodge built.
Some of the scientists who have found Royal Palm State Park most
interesting in flora and fauna are: Dr. J. K. Small, Curator New York
Botanical Gardens, and who was a pioneer botanist there; Chas. T. Simp-
son, probably the most accomplished conchologist in the world; Dr. John
Gifford, formerly Assistant Professor Forestry, Cornell University; P. H.
Rolfs, Florida Experiment Station; Dr. Roland M. Harper, Geologist; Mr.
Kirk Munroe, author, probably the first white man to enter it; David Fair-
child, U. S. Dept. Agriculture; Dr. W. E. Safford, Economic. Botanist, Dept.
Agriculture, and who is now preparing an article on the Park for the
Smithsonian Institution; Thos. E. Snyder, Specialist in Forest Entomology,
Dept. Agriculture; J. Arthur Harris, Station Experimental Evolution, Car-
negie Institute. Until recently the Park has been a virgin field for bird
observation, and 110 species have been identified there within the past year,
some rare ones. Occasionally animals of the wild are yet to be seen in
it. A biological survey of the region is planned by the U. S. Dept. of Agri-
culture in the near future.
*Written for Flashlights by Mrs. Hiram Byrd, of the Florida Feder-
ation of Women's Clubs.




S Financial Institutions and Taxes


Florida individuals paid Federal income tax to the amount of $305,879.91
for the year ending June 30, 1917. The amount paid by Florida corporations
was 1827,655.04.
Florida paid "general taxes," through the U. S. Internal Revenue
Collector's office for the year ending June 30, 1917, of $2,192,883.95. The
largest item was on cigars, cigarettes, tobacco, distilled spirits, etc., amount-
ing to $1558,849.
Florida's aggregate taxable valuation, as shown by the comptroller's
books for 1916 were $304,944,175. The State tax rate is 9 mills.
Florida has 181 regular State banks, 12 trust companies, 4 savings
banks, 2 special charter banks, 2 private banks, all of which are under
State charter, and 54 National banks. The 201 State institutions employ
capital stock of $7,423,000; surplus, $2,500,629; certificates of deposit, $4,-
870,843; individual deposits, $18,968,785; savings deposits, $13865,890. The
National banks have capital stock paid in of $6,381,000; surplus fund of $3,-
289,000; demand deposits of $34,275,000; time deposits, $21368,000.


Out of over fifty thousand white farmers in Florida, only 1215 are
foreign born.









FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS


GOVERNOR-Sidney Johnson Catts.
SECRETARY OF STATE-Henry Clay Crawford.
COMPTROLLER-Ernest Amos.
ATTORNEY GENERAL-Van C. Swearingen.
SUPT. PUBLIC INSTRUCTION-Wm. Nicholas Sheats.
STATE TREASURER-John C. Luning.
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE-Wm. A. McRae.
(The Governor is ex-officio chairman of the Board of State Institutions,
the Internal Improvement Board, the State Board of Education, which
boards are composed of members of the Cabinet.)
ADJUTANT GENERAL-J. B. Christian, St. Augustine.
RAILROAD COMMISSION
R. HUDSON BURR, Chairman.
NEWTON A. BLITCH,
ROYAL C. DUNN,
Commissioners.
DON McMULLEN, Counsel.
TAX COMMISSION
JOHN NEEL, Chairman.
R. J. PATERSON,
JAMES V. BURKE,
Commissioners.
BOARD OF CONTROL
(Institutions of Higher Learning)
JOS. LUCIEN EARMAN, Chairman.
T. B. KING.
E. L. WARTMAN.
J. B. HODGES.
J. T. DIAMOND.
The same personnel composes the State Plant Board.
STATE ROAD DEPARTMENT
ED. SCOTT, Chairman.
W. J. HILLMAN.
JOHN E. GILBERT.
J. D. SMITH.
M. M. SMITH.
WM. L. COCKE, State Highway Engineer.









FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 31
STATE GEOLOGIST-E. H. Sellards.
STATE CHEMIST-R. E. Rose.
STATE HEALTH OFFICER-Dr. W. H. Cox, Jacksonville.
FISH COMMISSIONER-J. A. Williams.
HOTEL COMMISSIONER-Jerry L. Carter.
PRESIDENT STATE SENATE-J. B. Johnson, Live Oak.
SPEAKER HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES-Cary A. Hardee, Live Oak.




Governors of Florida


TERRITORIAL.
ANDREW JACKSON-July, 1821 to 1822.
WILLIAM P. DUVAL-1822 to 1834.
JOHN H. EATON-1884 to 1886.
RICHARD K. CALL-1886 to 1839.
ROBERT RAYMOND REED-1839 to 1841.
RICHARD K. CALL-1841 to 1844.
JOHN BRANCH-1844 to 1845.
STATE.
WILLIAM D. MOSELEY-1845 to 1849.
THOMAS BROWN-1849 to 1858.
JAMES E. BROOME-1863 to 1857.
MADISON S. PERRY-1857 to 1861.
JOHN MILTON-1861 to 1865 (died in office).
WILLIAM MARVIN-1865 to 1866.
DAVID S. WALKER-1866 to 1868.
HARRISON REED-1868 to 1872.
SAMUEL T. DAY-(Acting during impeachment proceedings against
Governor Reed), 1872.
OSSIAN B. HART-1872 to 1878 (died in office).
MARCELLUS L. STEARNS-(Acting June to November) 1873.
MARCELLUS L. STEARNS-1878 to 1877.
GEORGE F. DREW-1877 to 1881.
WILLIAM D. BLOXHAM-1881 to 1885.
EDWARD A. PERRY-1885 to 1889.
FRANCIS P. FLEMING-1889 to 1898.
HENRY L. MITCHELL--1893 to 1897.
WILLIAM D. BLOXHAM-1897 to 1901.
W. S. JENNINGS-1901 to 1905.
N. B. BROWARD-1905 to 1909.
ALBERT W. GILCHRIST-1909 to 1913.
PARK TRAMMELL-1918 to 1917.
SIDNEY J. CATTS-1917 to









FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS


The Judiciary of Florida


SUPREME COURT OF FLORIDA
JEFFERSON B. BROWNE, Chief Justice.
R. FENWICK TAYLOR,
JAMES B. WHITFIELD,
WILLIAM H. ELLIS.
THOMAS F. WEST,
Justices.


Name
A. G. Campbell


E. C. Love




Mallory F. Home




George Couper Gibbs



W. S. Bullock



O. K. Reaves


James W. Perkins


CIRCUIT JUDGES
Circuit Counties
1st Escambia
Santa Rosa
Okaloosa
Walton
2nd Liberty
Franklin
Gadsden
Jefferson
Wakulla
Leon
3rd Hamilton
Taylor
Madison
Columbia
Suwannee
Lafayette
4th Clay
Nassau
St. Johns
Duval
Flagler
5th Lake
Sumter
Citrus
Hernando
Marion
6th Pinellas
Manatee
Pasco
7th Brevard
Volusia
Osceola
Orange
Seminole


Address
DeFuniak Springs


Quincy




Jasper




Jacksonville



Ocala



Bradentown


DeLand









FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS


Name
James T. Wills



D. J. Jones

John S. Edwards

H. Pierre Branning

Daniel A. Simmons
F. M. Robles
C. L. Wilson

E. B. Donnell




Name
R. A. McGeachy
Geo. W. Walker
H. Stafford Caldwell
Frank L. Dancy
Geo. W. Scofield
M. A. McMullen
Joseph H. Jones
A. V. Long
Ira A. Hutchison
John W. Barton
John C. Gramling
Horace C. Gordon
R. H. Buford
Edgar C. Thompson


Circuit Counties
8th Levy
Baker
Patnam
Bradford
Alachna
9th Holmes
Washington
Bay
10th Lee
Polk
DeSoto
11th Dade
Monroe
Duval
13th Hillsborough
14th Jackson
Calhoun
15th Broward
Palm Beach
St. Lucie
Okeechobee
STATE ATTORNEYS
Circuit
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th
10th
11th
18th
14th
15th


Address
Gainesville



Chipley

Lakeland

Miami

Jacksonville
Tampa
Marianna

West Palm Beach




Address
Milton
Tallahasee
Live Oak
Jacksonville
Inverness
Clearwater
Orlando
Starke
Chipley
Arcadia
Miami
Tampa
Marianna
West Palm Beach


U. S. COURT, NORTHERN DISTRICT OF FLORIDA.
WILLIAM B. SHEPPARD, U. S. District Judge, Pensacola.
F. W. MARSH, U. S. District Clerk, Pensacola.
JOHN L. NEELEY, U. S. District Attorney, Pensacola.
J. EARLE HOFFMAN, Asst. District Attorney, Pensacola.
JAMES B. PERKINS, U. S. Marshal, Pensacola.
Places holding court: Pensacola, first Monday May and November;
Tallahassee, second Monday January; Gainesville, second Mondays June
and December; Marianna, first Monday in ApriL
Counties in district; Alachua, Calhoun, Escambia, Franklin, Gadsden,
Holmes, Jackson, Jefferson, Lafayette, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Santa Rosa,
Taylor, Wakulla, Walton, and Washington.









34 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF FLORIDA.
RHYDON M. CALL, Judge, Jacksonville.
EDWIN R. WILLIAMS, Clerk, Jacksonville.
N. H. BOSWELL, Marshal, Jacksonville.
HERBERT S. PHILLIPS, Attorney, Tampa.
FRED BOTTS, Assistant Attorney, Jacksonville.
DATES OF HOLDING COURT:
At Jacksonville-First Monday in December.
At Tampa-Second Monday in February.
At Key West-First Monday in November.
At Ocala-Third Monday in January.
At Miami-Fourth Monday in April.
At Fernandina-First Monday in April.
The Counties comprised in the district according to divisions are as
follows:
No. 1-Duval, Nassau, Baker, Bradford, Columbia, Hamilton, Madi-
son, Suwannee, Clay, Putnam, St. Johns, Volusia and Flagler.
No. 2-Marion, Lake, Citrus, and Sumter.
No. 3-Seminole, Brevard, St. Lucie, Palm Beach, Dade and Broward.
No. 4-Monroe.
No. 5-Lee, DeSoto, Manatee, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Polk, Osceola,
Pasco, Hernando and Orange.
SUPREME COURT JUSTICES OF FLORIDA
C. J.-Chief Justice.
THOMAS DOUGLAS (C. J. 1846-1850) (1858-1855).
THOMAS BALTZELL (1846-1850) (C. J. 1854-1860).
GEORGE S. HAWKINS (1846-1850).
GEORGE W. MACRAE (1847).
JOSEPH B. LANCASTER (1848-1850).
WALKER ANDERSON (C. J. 1851-1853).
LESLIE A. THOMPSON (1851-1853).
ALBERT G. SEMMES (1851-1858).
BENJAMIN D. WRIGHT (C. J. 1853).
CHARLES H. DUPONT (1864-1860) (C. J. 1860-1868).
BIRD M. PEARSON (1856-1859).
WILLIAM A. FORWARD (1860-1865).
DAVID S. WALKER (1860-1865).
AUGUSTUS E. MAXWELL (1865-1866) (C. J. 1887-1888) (1889-1890).
JAMES M. BAKER (1865-1868).
SAMUEL J. DOUGLAS (1866-1868).
EDWIN M. RANDALL (C. J. 1868-1885).
OSSIAN B. HART (1868-1872).
JAMES D. WESTCOTT, JR. (1868-1885).
FRANKLIN FRASER (1873-1874).
ROBERT B. VAN VALKENBURG (1874-1888).
GEORGE G. McWHORTER (C. J. 1885-1887).








FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 85
GEORGE P. RANEY (1885-1888) (C. J. 1889-1894).
HENRY L. MITCHELL (1889-1890).
ROBERT FENWICK TAYLOR (1891-1896) (C. J. 1897-1905) (1905-1915)
(C. J. 1915-1917) (1917-
MILTON H. MABRY (1891-1894) (C. J. 1895-1896) (1897-1908).
BENJAMIN S. LIDDON (C. J. 1894) (1895-1896).
FRANCIS B. CARTER (1897-1905).
EVELYN C. MAXWELL (1902-1904).
THOMAS M. SHACKLEFORD (1902-1905) (C. J. 1905-1909) (1909-1918)
(C. J. 1918-1915) (1915-1917).
ROBERT S. COCKRELL (1902-1917).
WILLIAM A. HOCKER (1908-1915).
JAMES B. WHITFIELD (1904) (C. J. 1905) (1905-1909) (C. J. 1909-1912),
(1918-
CHARLES B. PARKHILL (1905-1911).
WILLIAM H. ELLIS (1915-
JEFFERSON B. BROWNE (C. J. 1917-
THOMAS F. WEST (1917-




Congressional Representation


FIRST DISTRICT-Counties: Citrus, DeSoto, Hernando, Hillsboro,
Lake, Lee, Manatee, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk, add Sumter (11 counties). Popu-
lation (1910), 168,001. Herbert J. Drane, Lakeland, Fla., representative.
SECOND DISTRICT-Counties: Alachua, Baker, Bradford, Colum-
bia, Hamilton, Jefferson, LaFayette, Levy, Madison, Marion, Nassan,
Suwanee, and Taylor (18 counties). Population (1910), 197,086. Frank
Clark, Gainsville, Fla., representative.
THIRD DISTRICT-Counties: Bay, Calhoun, Escambia, Franklin,
Gadsden, Holmes, Jackson, Leon, Liberty, Okaloos, Santa Rosa, Wakulla,
Walton and Washington (14 counties). Population (1910), 190,960. Walter
Kehoe, Pensacola, Fla., representative.
FOURTH DISTRICT-Counties: Brevard, Broward, Clay, Dade, Duval,
Flagler, Monroe, Orange, Osceola, Okeechobee, Palm Beach, Putnam, St.
John, St. Luce, Seminole, and Volusia (16 counties). Population (1910),
196,572. William Joseph Sears, Kissimmee, Fla., representative.
Florida had one representative in congress until the increased popula-
tion under the census of 1870 allowed two, and in 1872 the second represen-
tative was elected. The apportionment act of congress of January 16, 1901,
provided that after March 8, 1908, the house should be composed of 886
representatives, and Florida's third congressional district was created by
the legislature of 1901. The act of congress approved August 8, 1911, gave
one representative in congress for each 212,407 of population, increasing the









36 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
number of representatives to 485. This act was passed after the biennial
session of the legislature in the spring of 1911, hence Florida had a con-
gressman at large for two years. Claude L'Engle, of Jacksonville, was
elected in 1912 and served 1918-14. The legislature of 1918 redistricted the
state into four congressional districts.

FLORIDA CONGRESSMEN.
From the Seventeenth Congress, March 4, 1821, to March 8, 1823, when
Florida as a territory was represented for the first time in the National
House of Representatives, to the Sixty-fifth Congress, March 4, 1917, to
March 3, 1919.
17th Congress, March 4, 1821-March 3, 1823.
JOSEPH M. HERNANDEZ, took his seat Jan. 8, 1823.
18th Congress, March 4, 1823-March 3, 1825.
RICHARD KEITH CALL.
19th Congress, March 4, 1825-March 3, 1827.
JOSEPH M. WHITE, Pensacola.
20th Congress, March 4, 1827-March 3, 1829.
JOSEPH M. WHITE, Pensacola.
21st Congress, March 4, 1829-March 3, 1831.
JOSEPH M. WHITE, Monticello.
22nd Congress, March 4, 1831-March 3, 1833.
JOSEPH M. WHITE, Monticello.
23rd Congress, March 4, 1833-March 3, 1835.
JOSEPH M. WHITE, Monticello.
24th Congress, March 4, 1835-March 3, 1837.
JOSEPH M. WHITE, Monticello.
25th Congress, March 4, 1837-March 3, 1839.
CHARLES DOWNING, St. Augustine.
26th Congress, March 4, 1839-March 4, 1841.
CHARLES DOWNING, St. Augustine.
27th Congress, March 4, 1841-March 3, 1843.
DAVID LEVY, St. Augustine.
28th Congress, March 4, 1843-March 3, 1845.
DAVID LEVY, St. Augustine.
29th Congress, March 4, 1845-March 3, 1847.
Florida was raised to statehood by act of March 3, 1845.
Senators-DAVID LEVY (YULEE)*, St. Augustine. JAMES D. WEST-
COTT, JR.,* Tallahassee.

*Senator Yulee took his seat December 1, 1845; term to expire, as
determined by lot, March 3, 1851. On Jan. 12, 1846, the Senate ordered
the surname of Yulee to be added to the name of the senator (David Levy
Yulee), in conformity with an act of the Legislature of Florida. Senator
Westcott took his seat Dec. 1, 1845, term to expire, as determined by lot,
March 3, 1849.









FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 37

Representatives-EDWARD C. CABELL,* Tallabassee.
WILLIAM H. BROCKENBROUGH,* Tallahassee
30th Congress, Mach 4, 1847-March 3, 1849.
Senators-DAVID L. YULEE, St. Augustine; JAMES D. WESTCOTT, JR.,
Tallahaaee.
Representative-EDWARD C. CABELL, Tallahassee.
81st Congress, March 4, 1849-March 3, 185L
Senators-JACKSON MORTON, Pensacola; DAVID L. YULEE, St.
Augustine.
Representative-EDWARD C. CABELL, Tallahassee.
32nd Congress, March 4, 1851-March 1853
Senators-JACKSON MORTON, Pensacola; STEPHEN R. MALLORY,*
Jacksonville.
Representative-EDWARD C. CABELL, Tallahassee.
33rd Congres, March 4, 185-March 1855.
Senators-JACKSON MORTON, Pensacola; STEPHEN R. MALLORY,
Jacksonville.
Representative-AUGUSTUS E. MAXWELL, Tallahasee.
34th Consres, March 4, 1855-March 3, 1857.
Senators-STEPHEN R. MALLORY, Key West; DAVID L. YULEE,
Homasassa.
Representative-AUGUSTUS E. MAXWELL, Tallahasee.
35th Conress, March 4, 1857-March 1859.
Senators-STEPHEN R. MALLORY,*** Pensacola; DAVID L. YULEE,
Homuasass
Representative-GEORGE S. HAWKINS, Pensacola.
36th Congress, March 4, 1859-March 3, 1861.
Senators-STEPHEN R. MALLORY,*** Key West, DAVID L. YULEE,
Homaassa.
Representative-GEORGE S. HAWKINS, Pensacola.
37th Congress, March 4, 1861-March 3, 1868.
Florida seats in both houses vacant. Seat of Senator Mallory declared
vacant by resolution of March 14, 1861 (special session of the Senate).
38th Congress, March 4, 186-March 3, 185.
Florida seats vacant.
39th Congress, March 4, 1865-March 3, 1887.
Florida seats vacant.

*Representative Brockenbrough successfully contested the election of
Edward C. Cabell, and took his seat Jan. 24, 1846.
**Election unsuccessfully contested by David L. Yulee.
***Florida seceded from the Union Jan. 10, 1861, and the Florida sen-
ators and representative withdrew from Congress Jan. 21, 1861, being the
first Southern congressmen to take this action.










FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS


40th Congress, March 4, 1867-March 3, 1869.
Senators-THOMAS W. OSBORN, Pensacola; ADONIJAH S. WELCH,
Jacksonville.
Representative-Charles M. HAMILTON, Marianna.
41st Congress, March 4, 1869-March 3, 1871.
Senators-THOMAS W. OSBORN, Pensacola; ABIJAH GILBERT, St.
Augustine.
Representative-CHARLES M. HAMILTON, Jacksonville.
42nd Congress March 4, 1871-March 3, 1873.
Senators---THOMAS W. OSBORN, Pensacola; ABIJAH GILBERT, St.
Augustine.
Representatives-JOSIAH T. WALLS, Gainesville; SILAS L. NIBLACK,
Gainesville.
43rd Congress, March 4, 1873-March 3, 1875.
Senators-ABIJAH GILBERT, St. Augustine; SIMON B. CONOVER, Talla-
hassee.
Representitives-WILLIAM J. PURMAN, Tallahassee; JOSIAH T. WALLS,
Gainesville.
44th Congress, March 4, 1875-March 3, 1877.
Senators-SIMON B. CONOVER, Tallahassee; CHARLES W. JONES, Pen-
sacola.
Representatives-WILLIAM J. PURMAN, Tallahassee; JOSIAH T. WALLS,
Gainesville; JESSE J. FINLEY,* Jacksonville.
45th Congress, March 4, 1877-March 3, 1879.
Senators-SIMON B. CONOVER, Tallahassee; CHARLES W. JONES, Pen-
sacola.
Representatives-HORATIO BISBEE, JR., Jacksonville; JESSE J. FIN-
LEY,** Jacksonville; ROBERT H. M. DAVIDSON, Quincy.
46th Congress, March 4, 1879-March 8, 1881.
Senators-CHARLES W. JONES, Pensacola; WILKINSON CALL, Jack-
sonville.

Florida was readmitted to representation June 25, 1868. Senator
Osborn took his seat June 80, 1868, term to expire March 8, 1873; Senator
Welch took his seat July 2, 1868, term to expire March 8, 1869. Repre-
sentative Hamilton took his seat July 1, 1868.
Representative Walls served until Jan. 29, 1878, when he was suc-
ceeded by Representative Niblack, who successfully contested his election.
Under the apportionment following the census of 1870, Florida had
two representatives. Representative Purman resigned Feb. 16, 1875.
*Walls served until April 19, 1876, when he was succeeded by Finley,
who successfully contested his election.
**Bisbee was succeeded Feb. 20, 1879, by Finley, who contested his
election.









FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 39

Representatives-ROBERT H. M. DAVIDSON, Quincy; NOBLE A. HULL,
Sanford; HORATIO BISBEE, JR.,* Jacksonville.
47th Congress, March 4, 1881-March 3,1888.
Senators-CHARLES W. JONES, Pensacola; WILKINSON CALL, Jack-
sonville.
Representatives-ROBERT H. M. DAVIDSON, Quincy; HORATIO BISBEE,
JR., Jacksonville; JESSE J. FINLEY,** Jacksonville.
48th Congres, March 4,188-March 3, 1885.
Senators-CHARLES W. JONES, Pensacola; WILKINSON CALL, Jack-
sonville.
Representatives-ROBERT H. M. DAVIDSON, Quincy; HORATIO BISBEE,
JR., Jacksonville.
49th Congress, March 4, 1885-March 1887.
Senators-CHARLES W. JONES, Pensacola; WILKINSON CALL, Jack-
sonville.
Representatives-ROBERT H. M. DAVIDSON, Quincy; CHARLES
DOUGHERTY, Port Orange.
50th Congress, March 4, 1887-March 3, 1889.
Senators-WILKINSON CALL, Jacksonville; SAMUEL PASCO, Monticello.
Representatives-ROBERT H. M. DAVIDSON, Quincy; CHARLES
DOUGHERTY, Port Orange.
51st Congress, March 4, 1889-March 3, 1891
Senators-WILKINSON CALL, Jacksonville; SAMUEL PASCO, Monticello.
Representatives-ROBERT H, M. DAVIDSON, Quincy; ROBERT BUL-
LOCK, Ocala.
52nd Congres, March 4, 1891-March 3, 189.
Senators-WILKINSON CALL,*** Jacksonville; SAMUEL PASCO, Monti-
cello.
Representatives-STEPHEN R. MALLORY, Pensacola; ROBERT BUL-
LOCK, Ocala.
53rd Congress, March 4, 1893-March 1895.
Senators-WILKINSON CALL, Jacksonville; SAMUEL PASCO, Monticello.
Representatives-STEPHEN R. MALLORY, Pensacola; CHARLES M.
COOPER, Jacksonville.
54th Co~ res, March 4, 1895-March 3, 1897.
Senators-WILKINSON CALL, Jacksonvlle; SAMUEL PASCO, Monticello.
Representatives-STEPHEN M. SPARKMAN, Tampa; CHARLES M.
COOPER, Jacksonville.

*Hull served until Jan. 22, 1881, when he was succeeded by Bisbee, who
contested his election.
**Finley served until June 1, 1882, when he was succeeded by Bisbee, who
contested his election.
***Senator Call's election was unsuccessfully contested by Robert H. M.
Davidson.









40 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
55th Congress, March 4, 1897-March 3, 1899.
Senators--SAMUEL PASCO, Monticello; STEPHEN R. MALLORY, Pensa-
cola.
Representatives-STEPHEN M. SPARKMAN, Tampa; ROBERT W. DAVIS,
Palatka.
56th Congress, March 4, 1899-March 3, 1901.
Senators-STEPHEN R. MALLORY, Pensacola; JAMES P. TALIAFERRO,
Jacksonville.
Representatives-STEPHEN M. SPARKMAN, Tampa; ROBERT W. DAVIS,
Palatka.
57th Congress, March 4, 1901-March 3, 1903.
Senators-STEPHEN R. MALLORY, Pensacola; JAMES P. TALIAFERRO,
Jacksonville.
Representatives-STEPHEN M. SPARKMAN, Tampa; ROBERT W. DAVIS,
Palatka.
58th Congress, March 4, 1903-March 3, 1905.
Senators-STEPHEN R. MALLORY, Pensacola; JAMES P. TALIAFERRO,
Jacksonville.
Representatives-STEPHEN M. SPARKMAN, Tampa; ROBERT W. DAVIS,
Palatka; W. B. LAMAR,* Tallahassee.
59th Congress, March 4, 1905-March 1907.
Senators-STEPHEN R. MALLORY, Pensacola; JAMES P. TALIAFERRO,
Jacksonville.
Representatives-STEPHEN M. SPARKMAN, Tampa; FRANK CLARK,
Lake City; WILLIAM B. LAMAR, Monticello.
60th Congress, March 4, 1907-March 3, 1909.
Senators-STEPHEN R. MALLORY,* Pensacola; WILLIAM JAMES
BRYAN, Jacksonville; WILLIAM H. MILTON, Marianna; JAMES P.
TALIAFERRO, Jacksonville.
Representatives-STEPHEN M. SPARKMAN, Tampa; FRANK CLARK,
Gainesville; WILLIAM B. LAMAR, Monticello.
61st Congres, March 4, 1909-March 3, 1911.
Senators-JAMES P. TALIAFERRO, Jacksonville;DUNCAN U. FLETCH-
ER, Jacksonville.
Representatives-STEPHEN M. SPARKMAN, Tampa; FRANK CLARK,
Gainesville; DANNITTE H. MAYS, Monticello.

*Lamar was the first representative from the Third congressional dis-
trict of Florida created under the new apportionment following the census
of 1900.
**Senator Mallory died Dec. 23, 1907; Senator Bryan was appointed to
fill the vacancy, and took his seat Jan. 9, 1908, and died March 22, 1908. Sen-
ator Milton was appointed to fill the vacancy in the term commencing
March 4, 1908, caused by the deaths of Mallory and Bryan, and took his
seat April 6, 1908.









FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 41
62nd CongrMe, March 4,1911-March 3,191.
Senators-DUNCAN U. FLETCHER, Jacksonville; NATHAN P. BRYAN,
Jacksonville.
Representatives-STEPHEN M. SPARKMAN, Tampa; FRANK CLARK,
Gainesville; DANNITTE H. MAYS, Monticello.
63rd Conress, March 4,1913-March 3,1915.
Senators-DUNCAN U. FLETCHER, Jacksonville; NATHAN P. BRYAN,
Jacksonville.
Representatives-STEPHEN M. SPARKMAN, Tampa; FRANK CLARK,
Gainesville; EMMETT WILSON, Pensaola; CLAUDE L'ENGLE, elect-
ed conressman for the State at large under apportionment following
census of 1910.
64th Congress, March 4,1915-March 3,1917.
Senators-DUNCAN U. FLETCHER, Jacksonville; NATHAN P. BRYAN,
Jacksonville.
Representatives-STEPHEN M. SPARKMAN, Tampa; FRANK CLARK,
Gainesville; EMMETT WILSON, Pensacola; WILLIAM J. SEARS,
Kissimmee.
6th Congress, March 4, 1917-March 3, 1919.
Senators-DUNCAN U. FLETCHER, Jacksonville; PARK TRAMMELL,
Lakeland.
Representatives-HERBERT J. DRANE, Lakeland; FRANK CLARK,
Gainesville; WALTER KEHOE, Pensacola; WILLIAM J. SEARS,
Kissimmee.



T ..-- --..... i ... ...........

ILegislative Apportionment



The Constitution of 1885 provided: "The legislature that shall meet
A. D. 1887, and those that shall meet every ten years thereafter, shall
apportion the representation in the senate, the whole number of senators not
to exceed 82 members; and at the same time shall also apportion the repre-
sentation in the house of representatives, the whole number of representa-
tives not to exceed 68 members. The representation shall be apportioned
among the several counties as nearly as possible, according to population;
provided, each county shall have one representative at large in the house of
representatives, and no county shall have more than three representatives."
The following apportionment was made by the legislature of 1887, but










42 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
no reapportionment has been made by any subsequent legislature:


Alachua ......................
Baker ........................1.
Bradford ...................
Brevard ....................1.
Calhoun .....................1.
Clay ..............................1
Columbia ..................2
Dade .............................1
DeSoto .........................
Duval ...........................2
Eaeambia .... ............2....
Franklin .....................1.
Gadsden ........................2
Hamilton ......................2
Hernando ......................1


Representatives
Hillsborough ............2.
Holmes ......................1.
Jackson ......................2.
Jefferson ...................... 2
Lafayette ......................1
Lake ..........................2
Lee ...........................1.
Leon ...........................2
Levy .............................1
Liberty ..........................1
Madison ........................2
Manatee ....................1.
Marion .....................2.
Monroe ......................2.
Nassau ......................2
Senatorial Districts


Orange .......................
Oceola ........................1
Polk ............................2
Putnam ......................2
St. Lucie ..................2
Santa Rosa ...............2
Sumter .....................
Suwannee ..................2
Taylor ........................
Volusia ........................2
Wakulla .......................1
Walton .......................1
Washington .......-.......1
Pasco ........................1
Citrus ........................ ....1


lst-Santa Rosa. L7th-Suwannee.
2nd.-Escambia. 18th.-DuvaL
3rd.-Walton and Holmes. 19th.-Orange and Osceola.
4th.-Jackson. 20th.-Marion and Sumter.
5th-Liberty, Franklin and Wakulla.21st-Levy.
6th.-Gadsden. 22nd.-Jefferson.
7th.-Polk. 23rd.-Lake.
8th.-Leon. 24th.-Monroe and Lee.
9th.-Hernando, Pasco and Citrus. 25th-Washington and Calhoun.
10th.-Madison. 26th.-Putnam
llth.-Hlllsborough. 27th.-Manatee and DeSoto.
12th.-Taylor and Lafayette. 28th.Volusa.
lSth.-Dade and Brevard. 29th-Clay and Baker.
14th.-Columbia. 80th.-Hamilton.
15th-Bradford. 81st--St. Johns.
16th.-Nassau. 32nd.-Alachua.
St. Lucie county was created in 1905 from a part of Brevard county.
(4th congressional district, 18th senatorial district.)
Palm Beach county was created in 1909 from a part of Dade county.
(4th congressional district, 18th senatorial district.)
Pinellas county was created in 1911 from a part of Washington county.
(1st congressional district, 11th senatorial district.)
Bay county was created in 1918 from a part of Washington county.
(8rd congressional district, 25th senatorial district)
Seminole county was created in 1918 from a part of Orange county.
(4th congressional district, 19th senatorial district.)
Broward county was created in 1915 from parts of Dade and Palm
Beach counties. (4th congressional district, 13th senatorial district.)
Flagler county was created in 1917 from parts of Volusia and St. Johns
counties. (4th congressional district, 81st senatorial district.)
Okeechobee county was created in 1917 from parts of St. Lucie, Oaceloa
and Palm Baach counties. (4th congressional district, 18th senatorial district).
Nine counties have been created since the apportionment of 1887, hence
the house has nine representatives in excess of the number allowed by their
constitution, making the total number of members of the legislature 109,
instead of 100.








Glimpses


of


Florida History

















FLORIDA


Discovered March 27, 1513 (Spanish).
Huguenots settled near mouth of the St. John's 1564
(French).
St. Augustine founded by Menendez (Spanish) Sept. 6, 1565.
Massacre of French colonists by Menendez Sept. 20, 1565.
Spanish colonists massacred by de Gourges (French) in
spring of 1568.
Florida ceded by Spain to England in 1768.
Territory divided into East and West Florida by British.
Retro-ceded by England to Spain in 1783.
Ceded by Spain to United States 1819.
Territorial government organized at Pensacola 1822.
Seminole war 1885-42.
Admitted into the Union 1845.
Seceded January 10, 1861.
Readmitted 1868.









FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS


SPANISH COLONIAL PERIOD
(1513-17U)
The right to the discovery of Florida belongs to John Cabot (1497) and
Amerigo Vespucci, about the same time, but Juan Ponce de Leon was its
first explorer.

Ponce de Leon named Florida in honor of the date of its discovery by
him, which was Easter Sunday (Pascua Florez), March 27, 1518.

In 1516, Diego Miruelo, a Spanish navigator from Cuba, sailed up the
west coast of Florida and discovered Pensacola Bay. He is alleged to have
procured gold from the Indians, and upon his return to Cuba spread reports
of the great wealth of the new land.

The first governor of Florida was Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon, commis-
sioned by the Spanish crown in 1521. He attempted to plant a colony
where the English later built Jamestown. At that time Florida extended to
the Canadian line.

Hernando de Soto sailed from Spain in 1588 with six hundred picked
men, and after spending the winter in Cuba, entered a bay on the west
coast of Florida, May 25, 1589, the day of the Feast of Pentecost. He
named the bay Espiritu Santo because of the day of its discovery. This
was later named Tampa Bay, from an Indian village in that vicinity. De
Soto attempted no colonization, but marched northwesterly and finally died
on the banks of the Mississippi River.

The first attempt of the French to colonize Florida was made by Jean
Ribaut in the spring of 1562. He sailed up the coast of Florida and set up
a stone pillar at the mouth of the St. Johns river, claiming Florida as a
possession of France. He proceeded farther north and landed at Port
Royal, S. C., then a part of Florida, and after leaving a number of men
there, sailed for France, expecting to return soon. Ribaut was accom-
panied by Rene de Laudonniere, who returned in 1664 and set up a Huguenot
colony on Anastasia Island. The settlement was named Fort Caroline.

In 1565, Philip II. of Spain gave the title of governor and captain
general of Florida to Pedro Menendez de Aviles, who was said to be "an
admirable soldier and matchless liar, brave as a mastiff and savage as a
wolf." He proved his savagery by murdering the French colonists, about
five hundred, only fifty of whom escaped.









46 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
In August, 1567, Dominique de Gourges, a nobleman of Gascony,
enraged by the tidings of the massacre of the French colonists by Menendez,
sailed from Bordeaux to wreak vengeance upon the Spanish. He stopped
by San Domingo and repaired his vessels, reaching Florida early in 1568.
He made an alliance with the Indians, and in the spring of 1568 he fell upon
the Spanish colonists who had killed his countrymen and slew the most of
them in like manner.

In 1583 the convent of St. Francis was founded at St. Augustine.

In 1586, Sir Francis Drake, an English sea rover, returning from a free-
booting expedition to the West Indies, sighted evidences of settlement at
St. Augustine. He fired several cannon shots at the fortifications, which
so surprised and alarmed the Spanish that they abandoned the fort, and the
town also surrendered. Drake burned the town.

In 1592 twelve Franciscan missionaries arrived in Florida from Spain,
and in two years had established twenty missions. Nearly, if not all, of
these were destroyed by the Indians- a few years later, and those priests
who were not slain were driven out. Early in the 17th century some of the
missions were restored.

In 1607, the English colony of Virginia fixed the boundary limiting
Florida to the territory south of the 34th parallel In 1668, the Carolina
charter set it down to the 80th parallel. Two years later the line was car-
ried about fifty miles south of St. Augustine, but the boundary question was
not settled until Georgia colonists established the line between Georgia and
Florida, after considerable hostile interchange.

Fort Marion, at St. Augustine, Fla., was under construction for nearly
a century and a quarter before its completion. Captive Apalache Indians,
who were conquered by the Spanish in 1688, did the heaviest part of the
work covering a period of 60 years. The fort was built of coquina rock
mined on Anastasia Island. It was christened Fort San Marco, the English
called it St. John, and the Americans changed its name to honor the Marion
of Revolutionary fame.

In 1665 English buccaneers from the West Indies invaded Florida
and pillaged St. Augustine. The fort was not completed at that time, and the
garrison made no resistance.

In 1699 the boundary between French Louisiana and Spanish Florida
was settled peaceably by fixing the Perdido river as the boundary line.
When the British took possession in 1768, the western boundary was
extended to Lake Ponchartrain. The Apalachicola river was then the east-
ern boundary of West Florida.









FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 47
In May, 1719, the French captured Pensacola from the Spanish, and in
the summer of the same year the Spanish recaptured the fort. In Septem-
ber of the same year, the French again attacked, blew up San Carlos and
destroyed Pensacola. This was during the war between Spain and France.
Six months later, peace was declared and what was left of Pensacola was
restored to the Spanish.

St. Augustine.-Menendez landed on Florida soil May 28, 1565, entering
a harbor which he named St. Augustine, after the saint honored on that date.
Shortly afterward he began work on fortifications. With the exception
of certain Mexican settlements, St. Augustine is the oldest town on the con-
tinent. This and other Florida colonies were fifty years old before the
Pilgrim Fathers landed at Plymouth.

Early Colonial Wars.-Encroachments of English colonists upon Florida
led to the invasion in 1676 and 1686, of South Carolina by the Spanish, and
in 1702 the South Carolina Assembly voted $10,000 for an invasion of
Florida. This expedition resulted in failure. In 1706, an invasion of
South Carolina was attempted by French and Spanish colonists, their
governments being allies against the English. This also proved futile.
In 1739, General Oglethorpe of Georgia invaded Florida up to the gates of
St. Augustine. War was declared between England and Spain in 1789, and
on June 20, 1740, after considerable preparation, Oglethorpe began the
siege of St. Augustine. The siege lasted until July 18, when he gave it
up as useless. Marks of Oglethorpe's bombardment still remain on the walls
of Fort Marion. In July, 1742, the Spanish invaded Georgia and landed
some four thousand men near Frederica, where the battle of Bloody Marsh
was fought in which two hundred were slain. By superior generalship,
Oglethorpe forced the retreat of the Spaniards, and in 1743 again invaded
Florida up to the gates of St. Augustine, but the Spanish would not give
battle, and the English general retired satisfied. This ended hostilities
between the Spanish and English colonies.

Settlement of Pesaeola.-The first attempt to colonize Pensacola was
made in 1559 by Don Tristan de Luna y Arellano, who was sent at the head
of an expedition from Vera Cruz, Mexico, at the direction of Philip II. of
Spain, acting through Don Luis de Velasco, Viceroy of Mexico. Hardships
and dissensions caused the abandonment of the colony in 1560. In 1696,
one hundred and thirty-six years later, the foundation of Pensacola was
laid by Don Adres D'Arriola, near the present site of Fort Barrancas,
where he erected a small fort and named it San Carlos. From this time
the settlement was known as Pensacola, from Pensicola, a small town in
Spain.


Florida appears in the U. S. census reports for the first time in
1830. The State has increased in population more rapidly than the
country as a whole during every decade'since.










FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS


ENGLISH COLONIAL PERIOD
(1763-1788)

The first governor of East Florida, under British sovereignty, was
James Grant (1763-1771). The seat of government was St. Augustine. The
first governor of West Florida was George Johnstone (1764-1766). Pensa-
cola was the capital. Both governors were Scotchmen.

In 1772, Florida exported forty thousand pounds of indigo, which
brought high prices in the London market. In 1779, forty thousand barrels
of naval stores were shipped from St. Augustine, valued at thirty-six
shillings per barrel, to which the government added a bounty of ten shillings.

The first popular assembly was held in East Florida in January, 1781,
under Governor Tonyn. At the direction of the British crown, the govern-
ors of the two Floridas were empowered to summon general assemblies.
Governor Chester of West Florida issued a call for an election as early as
1773, but the people objected to the term of office as fixed by the governor at
three years. They wanted a one-year term. This Governor Chester refused
to grant, and West Florida never had an assembly.

In May, 1781, Spanish forces which had attacked the English at Pensa-
cola forced the surrender of the fort. The British troops were taken to
Havana and from there went to Brooklyn, where they joined the tory forces
against General Washington. Under the terms of the capitulation, nearly
all the English left West Florida within eighteen months of the surrender
at Pensacola. On September 8, 1788, the Floridas were again transferred to
Spain. Zespedes, the new Spanish governor, arrived at St. Augustine in
June, 1784, and a general evacuation of the British from East Florida
followed. The Greeks and Minorcans remained.

In 1783, Florida was re-ceded by Great Britain to Spain.

Governor Tonyn of East Florida was the last governor of that province
under British rule. He was in office during the revolutionary war, and
issued a proclamation of protection to all loyalists of neighboring colonies
who should come to Florida. Many came, and settled in and about St.
Augustine.

Florida remained loyal to the crown during the revolutionary war.
When news reached St. Augustine that the Declaration of Independence









FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 49
had been signed, John Adams and John Hancock were burned in effigy on
the Plaza.

During the British occupation of Florida, covering a period of twenty
years, there were only ten doctors in East Florida.

East and West Florida,-In 1763, the English divided the country
into East and West Florida. The latter contained about half of the
present states of Alabama and Mississippi This division was continued
by Spain upon her recovery of Florida twenty years later.

Turnbull's New Smyrna Operations.-During the British possession of
Florida, an association was formed in London, headed by Dr. Andrew Turn-
bull, a Scotchman, for planting a colony in Florida. A number of Bermuda
islanders had settled at Mosquito Inlet in 1766, and this was the site chosen
for the new colony. After spending $166,000, Dr. Turnbull, in 1767, secured
some fifteen hundred colonists from Smyrna, composed of Greeks, Italians
and Minorcans The town was named New Smyrna. The colonists were to
be held in bondage for a certain number of years to pay for their passage
and support, after which they were to receive grants of land. An extensive
system of canals and ditches was constructed for drainage and irrigation.
Some of these ditches parallel streets of New Smyrna today. Indigo
and sugar cane were the chief articles grown from the soil. The net value
of the first crop of indigo was $3,000.00 The colony made a promising
start, but in 1769 the "Turnbull slaves" revolted, and in 1776 they were
freed by the courts, and most of them went to live at St. Augustine.

Florida's First Advertising Campaign.-The first advertising matter
setting forth the advantages of Florida's climate and fertility was issued in
England shortly after the British succeeded to the possession of the country
in 1768. This marked the beginning also of the construction of good roads
in Florida. Such roads being built under direction of the government,
were called "king's roads."



SPANISH RE-POSSESSION
(1788-1819)
In 1795, by treaty between the United States and Spain, the northern
boundary of Florida was fixed at the 81st parallel.

In 1800, by the treaty of San Ildefonso, Napoleon forced Spain to give
up that portion of Louisiana west of the Mississippi, which France had ceded'
to Spain in 1762, and in 1803, Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States.










50 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
In 1808, when President Jefferson forbade commercial intercourse with
foreign countries, Fernandina became a port of free entry. As many as
150 square rigged vessels were often in the harbor at one time. Florida
at that time was yet under Spanish rule and not a part of the United States,
and consequently was not affected by Jefferson's embargo.

During the war of the United States against Great Britain (1812) the
British of Canada sent Tecumseh, the Shawnee chief, to incite the southern
Indians to war against the Americans. British agents at Pensacola furn-
ished the Florida Indians with arms. General Andrew Jackson took the field
against the Indians and subdued them after a series of bloody battles.
Peace was made with the Creek Indians at Fort Jackson, August 9, 1814.

Learning of the Spanish governor's active aid to the British forces,
General Jackson Attacked the forts at Pensacola and forced the surrender
of the Spanish, November 8, 1814. He set out for New Orleans the next
day, and on January 8, 1815, fought the historic battle of New Orleans.

Republic of West Florida.-Prior to 1762, the French owned the terri-
tory west of the Perdido river, which afterwards was embraced in West
Florida. When the United States bought Louisiana from the French a
contention arose between this government and Spain over what was known
as the "Government of Baton Rouge" and the "Mobile District." The Span-
ish claim that this territory was not included in Louisiana was supported
by the French. The people of the "Government of Baton Rouge" rebelled,
and, with the assistance of the Americans, threw off the Spanish yoke and
declared themselves an independent state, and applied for admission to the
Union under the title of the "Republic of West Florida." After an existence
of one month, the Republic of West Florida was annexed to Louisiana
October 27, 1810. The "Mobile District" still remained in the possession of
Spain until it was surrendered to the United States, April 18, 1813.

The Repulic of Florida--In East Florida revolt against Spanish
dominion bean in 1812, and the territory between the St. Johns and St.
Mary's river was organized into the Republic of Florida. A peace was
effected in 1816 at a gathering at Waterman's Bluff. The territory was
divided into three districts with a magistrate's court and company of militia
in each. The districts were known as Nassau, Upper and Lower St. Mary's.

Florida Ceded to United States.-The province of St. Augustine, under
Spanish rule, consisted of one parish of fifty thousand square miles. A
treaty between the United States and Spain ceding the Floridas to the
United States was concluded February 22, 1819. Ferdinand VII., King of
the Spains, and James Monroe, President of the United States, signed the
articles. The act creating the Territory of Florida (including both East and
West Florida) was approved March 80, 1822. It provided for the appoint-
ment of a Governor who should hold office for a term of three years, and a
legislative council to consist of the Governor and thirteen citizens.










FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS


TERRITORIAL PERIOD
(1819-1845)

The transfer of the Floridas from Spain to the United States took place
July 10, 1821, at St. Augustine, for East Florida, and July 17, at Pensacola,
for West Florida. General Jackson was appointed military governor for
the two provinces, and military government continued until March 8, 1822,
when Congress created civil authority. William P. Duval, of Kentucky, was
appointed as the first territorial Governor of Florida. He was continued in
office until 1884.

The first Florida legislature (1822) divided the territory into four coun-
ties, Escambia, Jackson, Duval and St. Johns. By 1887 there were twenty
counties. Now there are fifty-four.

Richard Keith Call was Florida's third territorial governor. He was
also a member of the first legislative council, and was the second territorial
delegate in Congress.

In 1829, United States engineers submitted a report to congress for a
ship canal across Florida between St. Marks and Ferandina. Routes were
again surveyed in 1854 and 1878. Other surveys have been made since, but
this project, which is nearly a hundred years old, is still in a state of incu-
bation.

In 1885-86, the third railroad in the United States was built in Florida,
from Tallahassee to St. Marks. General K. Call was the builder.

The First Seminole War.-The first Seminole war began in the fall of
1817, and many brutal massacres of the whites followed. In 1818 the
United States government ordered General Jackson from Tennessee, to take
the field against the Indians. This time he invaded East Florida, and in six
weeks crushed the Seminoles in that section. From there General Jackson
moved against St. Marks, where Spanish agents were inciting the Seminoles
to hostilities. The town surrendered to Jackson, and here he captured Alex-
ander Arbuthnot, a Scotch trader who was friendly to the Indians. Soon
afterwards, at the Suwannee, Robert Ambrister, once a British soldier,
was captured by Jackson, who hanged both for "aiding and abetting the
enemy." On May 25, 1818, Jackson again captured Pensacola and its forti-
fications from the Spanish, which virtually gave the United States posses-
sion of West Florida.

The Territory of Florida--The first legislative council for the Territory
of Florida was held in Pensacola in 1822, and the next was held at St. Aug-










52 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
ustine in May, 1823. At this time Dr. William H. Simmons, of St. Augus-
tine, and John Lee Williams, of Pensacola, were appointed as commissioners
to select a permanent capital site. Tallahassee was chosen, and the first
session of the legislative council to be held in the new capital was convened
in a log cabin to the southeast of the present capitol building. The body of
the present State House was erected in 1844 by the United States at a cost
of $85,000. The building of the first capitol was begun in January, 1826.

The Second Seminole War.--In 1834, the government began prepara-
tions for the removal of the Seminoles to a western reservation. The Indians
had become troublesome, and attempts to deal with them without force had
failed. On December 28, 1835, Osceola waylaid General Thompson and
Lieut. Smith at Fort King (which was where Ocala now stands) and killed
them. On the same date a band of one hundred and eighty Seminoles
ambushed Major Francis L. Dade and one hundred and thirty-eight men,
who were on the way from Tampa to Fort King. Only two of the Dade
command escaped the massacre. Major Dade was betrayed to the Indians
by -his guide, a negro named Lewis. Osceola was captured in 1837, and was
subsequently taken to Fort Moultrie, S. C., where he died at the age of 34.
He was buried just outside the principal gate of the fort, and a monument
erected to his memory. The war against the Seminoles continued until
August 14, 1842. The leading generals served in Florida during that period,
having as many as nine thousand men at one time engaged in the attempt
to subdue the Indians, whose fighters numbered two thousand. The war
cost forty million dollars. The total number of soldiers enlisted in the
second Seminole war was 10169 regulars; 29,953 volunteers. Of the regu-
lars, 18 officers and 810 men were killed; 20 officers and 270 men wounded.
Of the volunteers, 5 officers and 50 men were killed; 24 officers and 234
men wounded. Most of the Indians were finally moved to Arkansas, leaving
in Florida, according to General Worth's calculation, 95 warriors and 205
women and children. In 1845, Capt. Sprague estimated the number at 360.

Florida Admitted to the Union.-On December 3, 1838, a convention
assembled at St. Josephs to frame a constitution preparatory to asking for
admission to the Union, but the bill admitting Florida was not passed until
1845. It received the President's approval March 3 of that year. An effort
to form two states at that time was lost.

French Noblemen in Florida-In recognition of his services to America
during the revolution, Congress voted Marquis LaFayette an honorarium of
$200,000 and the grant of a township of land from the public domain. The
township selected was in Jefferson county, Florida. Prince Achille Murat,
son of the King of Naples, and nephew of Napoleon, bought a plantation
not far from LaFayette's township, and later married Kate Willis, the
daughter of Bird Willis, a former Virginian, who had moved to Florida.
Prince Murat and his wife are buried at Tallahassee.








FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS


FIRST YEARS OF STATEHOOD
(1845-1861)

State Election.-The first State election in Florida was held May 26,
1845. W. D. Moseley, the Democratic candidate for governor, defeated
former Governor Call, the Whig candidate. David Levy, a Democrat, was
returned to Washington as representative. The first State legislature met
at Tallahassee, June 28, but adjourned immediately on account of the death
of General Jackson. On July 1, David Levy and James D. Westcott were
elected United States Senators. Levy was succeeded in the House of Rep-
resentatives by a Democrat, Brockenbrough.

Final Indian Outbreaks.-Early in the year 1852, the Indians began
depredations again, being discovered in the neighborhood of Lake Harney,
150 miles north of their reservation previously agreed upon. Governor
Brown ordered General B. Hopkins at Mellonville (now Sanford) to organize
a company and proceed against the disturbers. This order was carried out
March 2, 1852, and this company of 100 men remained in active service
until December 8, 1852. They captured several Indians, who were sent to
the reservation in the west. Again, on December 20, 1855, a party of Indians
attacked Lieut. Hartseff and a detachment near Fort Drum, and a little
later an attack was made on the residence of Dr. Bradden, on the Manatee
River. About fifteen hundred men were organixd against the Indians
during the uprising, some of them being retained in the service until
1860. The cost to the State was $225,000. Since then, the Indians
have given no trouble. The legislature of 1917 set aside a large reservation
in the Everglades for them.



CIVIL WAR PERIOD
(1861-1865)

At the Democratic convention held in Charleston in 1860, the Florida
delegates were prominent, and were quick to follow the lead of Alabama in
withdrawing, an act which was indicative of the secession which occurred
January 10, 1861, at a convention in Tallahassee, which had assembled Jan-
uary 8. Alabama withdrew from the Union the same day. South Carolina
and Mississippi had previously withdrawn.
Florida became a member of the Southern Confederacy formed at
Montgomery by the convention, which met February 4, 1861.
The Quincy Guards seized the U. S. Arsenal at Apalachicola four days
before the ordinance of secession was passed. A day later, Florida troops
seized Fort Marion at St. Augustine, which surrendered without resistance.









54 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
January 12, 1861, Florida troops took possession of the navy yard at Pen-
sacola, Fort Barrances, below the navy yard, and Fort McRae, further down
the bay, but Fort Pickens, on Santa Rosa Island, was held by the U. S.
forces. The first flag of the Confederacy hoisted over a captured camp in
Florida was raised over the navy yard. It contained thirteen alternate
stripes of red and white and a blue field with a single star.
Florida gave ten thousand troops to the Confederate service, and furn-
ished large quantities of food. In 1864, she supplied two thousand head of
cattle a week, chiefly from the central and southern sections of the state.
March 11, 1861, Brigadier General Braxton Bragg assumed command
of the Confederate forces at Pensacola.
April 13, 1861, Fort Pickens, still in possession of U. S. garrison,
received reinforcements under Major Israel Vodges, from the U. S. ship
Brooklyn.
April 15, 1861, Fort Pickens received one thousand more Federal troops,
and this fort became headquarters for the U. S. forces in Florida. Col.
Harvey Brown commanding.
May 6, 1861, the port of Pensacola was blockaded by United States
vessels.
June 8, 1861, the port of Key West was blockaded by U. S. forces.
September 2, 1861, Federals burned a naval dock held by the Confeder-
ates at the mouth of Pensacola Bay.
October 8, 1861, the Confederates attacked the Federal batteries on
Santa Rosa Island. Repulsed.
The first engagement resulting in bloodshed on Florida soil was Octo-
ber 8, 1861, when the Confederates attacked the Federal batteries on Santa
Rosa Island. Repulsed. Confederate loss, 18 killed, 39 wounded, 30 missing.
Federal loss, 14 killed, 29 wounded, 24 missing.
November 22, 1861, the Federals of Fort Pickens began the bombard-
ment of Confederate Fort McRae, across the channel. The guns of both forts
boomed for two days without injury, except to property by fire. Another
bombardment January 1, 1862, was equally fruitless.
In the beginning of 1862, the bulk of Florida troops were ordered to
Tennessee, leaving coast fortifications subject to possession by the Federals.
Fort Clinch, on Amelia Island, at Fernandina, was the first to be occupied
by the Federals, March 4, 1862.
March 11, 1862, Commodore Rodgers, Federal, received the surrender
of St. Augustine. March 13, 1862, four Federal gunboats dropped anchor
at Jacksonville, and Confederate forces evacuated.
March 20, 1862, Unionists at Jacksonville held a meeting and declared
the ordinance of secession void, and Florida still a State of the Union. A
convention for March 24 was called, but was never held, as the Federals
ordered the withdrawal of their troops on the ground that the Federal line
was becoming too extended.
March 22, 1862, two Federal gunboats arrived at Mosquito Inlet to
investigate rumors of blockade running by Confederates. March 28 the
gunboat commanders were killed by Confederates. while on a trip of investi-








FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 55
nation up into the inlet. A number of their men also were killed or taken
prisoner by the Confederates.
May 9, 1862, Confederates abandoned Pensacola on orders, burning
the navy yard, steamers in the bay and the public buildings of the town.
This left the Federals in possession of almost the entire Florida coast.
In June, 1862, Federals from Pensacola made at Milton the first of a
series of raids that terrorized the inhabitants of west Florida during the
war.
October 3, 1862, the Federals captured a battery of nine guns held by
the Confederates a few miles from the mouth of the St. Johns river. After
destroying the works, the Federals captured the Confederate steamer "Gov-
ernor Milton," a few miles up the river.
In 1863, following a recommendation to the legislature by Governor
Milton, all men and boys in Florida not subject to service in the Confederate
army were organized into Bome Guards, to be mustered out for service only
in event of an invasion.
In March, 1868, two regiments of negro troops from South Carolina
were stationed at Jacksonville by the Federals. General Finnegan, in com-
mand of the Confederate forces of east and central Florida, organized to
drive out the invaders, and on March 29 Jacksonville was evacuated for the
third time. A large portion of the city was burned. About the same time,
the Federal garrison was withdrawn from Pensacola, and that town also
was given to the lames.
In 1868, a detachment from Federal vessels at the mouth of St. Andrews
Bay destroyed Confederate salt works and 198 private plants, and burned
two hundred houses. The loss to the Confederates was placed at three
million dollars.
July, 1864, Federals raided the interior from Cedar Key, capturing 150
bales of cotton and burning 200.
September, 1864, Federals under General Asboth, marching from Pen-
sacola, with seven hundred mounted men, raided as far east as Marianna.
August 17, 1864, Confederates under Capt. J. J. Dickinson overtook a
band of Federal raiders at Gainesville, and after an engagement of two
hours, killed 28, wounded 5 and took 188 prisoners.
March, 1865, Confederates planted torpedoes in the St. Johns river
several miles below Jacksonville, and destroyed three Federal vessels, the
Maple Leaf, Hunter and Harriet A. Weed.
In the latter part of March, 1865, General Newton (Federal), who had
garrisoned St. Marks strongly against blockade running by the Confederates,
started on a march with the purpose of investing the Florida capital, Tal-
lahassee. The Confederates met him at Natural Bridge with an inferior
force and compelled his retreat, with heavy losses.
April 1, 1865, Governor Milton, of Florida, died, his health having
been impaired by strain and overwork due to the war. He was succeeded
by A. K. Allison, president of the senate, who held the office until July 18,
when he was succeeded by William Marvin, provisional goeror appointed
by President Johnson. Marvin was succeeded January 17, i866, by David S.








56 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
Walker, who was the first governor of Florida elected by the people after the
war. Marvin and Wilkinson Call, the latter a nephew of Governor R. K. Call,
were the first United States senators elected after the war. They were not
seated, however, because Florida had not been restored to the Union.
May 17, 1865, Confederate troops in Florida surrendered to General
Israel Vodges.
May 20, 1865, General McCook issued a proclamation from Tallahassee,
declaring free all slaves in Florida.
October 25, 1865, a convention at Tallahassee annulled the ordinance
of secession, declared slavery abolished and repudiated the State debt
incurred between January 10, 1861 and October 25, 1865.

The Battle of Olustee.-On February 20, 1864, occurred the greatest
battle of the war on Florida soil. Six thousand Federals under General,
Truman Seymour landed at Jacksonville, February 7, and started to march
to Tallahassee. They came upon General Finnegan entrenched at Olustee,
near Lake City, whose force of about two thousand had been reinforced by
troops from Charleston under Brigadier-General A. H. Colquitt and CoL G.
Harrison, giving the Confederates a force of 4,600 infantry, 600 cavalry
and 12 guns. After a furious battle of four hours and a half, the Federals
retreated back to Jacksonville, and from there left Florida soil. The Fed-
eral loss was 203 killed; 1152 wounded, 506 missing. The Confederate loss
was 93 killed, 857 wounded and 6 missing. The Confederates captured sev-
eral cannon and sixteen hundred stands of small arms.



POST BELLUM PERIOD
(1865- )
Florida Readmitted to the Union.-In 1867, under reconstruction meas-
ures enacted by Congress, General John Pope was placed in charge of a
military district of which Florida was a subdivision.
A constitutional convention was assembled at Tallahassee January 20,
1868, with seventeen negro members. There was much dissension over
seating delegates, and- split occurred, each wing claiming to be the right-
fully elected one. Geeral Meade, who had succeeded General Pope, had
to come to Tallahassee to restore quiet. He placed Colonel Sprague in
charge of the convention and a constitution was adopted. The convention
adjourned as such and nominated Harrison Reed for governor, Wm. C.
Gleason for lieutenant governor, and C. M. Hamilton for congressman.
Florida was readmitted into the Union over President Johnson's veto,
and on July 4 of that year the government was transferred from military
to civil authority. Reed was installed as governor, and Gleason as lieu-
tenant governor.

Attempted Impeachment of Governor Reed-In November, 1868, the
legislature filed impeachment proceedings against Governor Reed, upon his








FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 57
veto of a bill to pay expenses of the constitutional convention. The supreme
court sustained the governor. Lieutenant Governor Gleason appealed the
case to the U. S. supreme court, but was unable to displace Reed. The
legislature met again in January, 1869, and decided that Reed was governor.
Reed appointed Edmund C. Weeks lieutenant governor to succeed Gleason.
This brought on dissension, which was not settled until S. T. Day was elected
to the office. Two subsequent attempts were made to impeach Governor
Reed, but both failed. The last time he was charged with misapplication of
funds.

Memorable Election of 1876-The election of 1876 is memorable in
Florida annals. The election returns showed 24,825 votes for Marcellus L.
Stearns, Republican, and 24,282 for George F. Drew, Democrat. A second
count increased the Republican majority. Attorney General W. A. Cocke,
one of the three members of the canvassing board, filed a protest against
the action of the board in rejecting returns from certain precincts. A
recount was ordered by the supreme court. Two recounts were made under
direction of the court, both resulting in a majority of 195 for the Democratic
candidate, and Drew was installed as governor. Democratic members of
congress also were elected.

Florida's Part in Tilden-Hayes Contest--The year 1876 was a stirring
one in Florida, not only because of the excitement over the State election,
but on account of the presidential election as well. The vote between Samuel
J. Tilden, Democrat, and Rutherford B. Hayes, Republican was so close that
Tilden needed only one vote in the electoral college to win. Of the several
doubtful states, Florida was one, and all were needed to give the Republican
candidate a majority. First returns showed that Republican electors had
been chosen, and Governor Stearns (Republican) issued certificates to them.
Again the attorney general protested, and issued certificates to four Demo-
cratic electors. The supreme court ordered a recount, which showed a
majority of ninety-four for the Democratic electors. Governor Drew (Dem-
ocrat), who succeeded Stearns, issued a new set of certificates, which made
three sets that were forwarded to Washington from Florida. The situation
was so complex that congress adopted the plan of leaving the matter to a
commission, which was composed of eight Republicans and seven Democrats
The vote of Florida and the other doubtful states was given the Republican
candidate, and Hayes was declared President.

Survey for Ship Canals-In 1878-79 a route for a ship canal across
Florida was surveyed, the project being to connect the St. Mary's river with
the Gulf at St. Marks or Cedar Key. It was given up as non-feasible,
though other routes have been proposed since.

Disston Drainage Operations.-In 1881, Governor W. D. Bloxham
effected a sale of four million acres of Everglades land to Hamilton Disston









58 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
and associates of Philadelphia, at twenty-five cents an acre. The State's
finances were at low ebb, and the million dollars thus received saved the
credit of the State. At that time this deal was considered not only satis-
factory but propitious. Disston began drainage operations by cutting canals
to lower Lake Okeechobee by connecting them with the Caloosahatchee
river. Approximately 200,000 acres were reclaimed and the first large sugar
plantation in Florida was located on some of this reclaimed land at a point
near St. Cloud. Financial difficulties prevented this pioneer from carrying
his plans to a successful consummation. The effect of his work was felt
all through the fertile Kissimmee Valley, much of which was made fit for
pasturage thereby.

Constitutional Convention of 1885.-In 1885 a constitutional convention
was held and the organic law was changed to eliminate the office of lieu-
tenant governor, and to make the administrative officials elected by direct
vote and not appointed by the governor. Representation in the legislature
was limited to a hundred members, thirty-two senators and sixty-eight
representatives.

In 1887, the Ponce de Leon hotel at St. Augustine was completed at a
cost of two and a half millions of dollars. During this year nine new rail-
road companies were incorporated. This marked the beginning of the tourist
travel to Florida in large numbers.

The State Board of Health.-Governor Francis P. Fleming was inaugur-
ated in January, 1889, and convened an extra session of the Legislature
Feb. 5, 1889, for the purpose of enacting a law establishing a State Board
of Health. The constitution of 1885, ratified in the general election of
1886, made it mandatory, and urgent action was necessary because of the
yellow fever epidemic, which started at Key West in May, 1887, the in-
fection having been brought from Havana, and spread from Key West
to Tampa, becoming epidemic there in October, and later in Manatee and
Plant City. Jacksonville suffered from the plague from August to the
middle of December, 1888. Other Florida towns that had it were Mac-
clenny, Sanderson, Fernandina, Gainesville, Enterprise, Live Oak and Green
Cove Springs. The act establishing the State Board of Health was ap-
proved Feb 20, 1889. The first board appointed by the governor was com-
posed of Dr. R. P. Daniel, Jacksonville; William B. Henderson, Tampa, and
William K. Hyer, Pensacola. Dr. Jos. Y. Porter, of Key West, was elected
State Health Officer at the first meeting of the board. Dr. Porter had
been a U. S. army surgeon, and had been appointed by the government
to stamp out the epidemic in Key West in 1886, and had rendered notable
service in Tampa and Jacksonville during the epidemics of 1887-88. Dr.
Porter adopted vigorous measures in preventing the infection from being
brought into Florida, and the rules laid down by him were relaxed only
after the occupation of Cuba by the U. S. troops, when the State inspec-
tors were authorized to accept certificates of inspection issued from Cuban
ports. Thus yellow fever took hold in Key West, Miami and Tampa in









FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 59
1899. Upon the cleaning up of Havana by the United States sanitary
engineers and surgeons, and the adoption by the government of more
stringent regulations, Florida has never again been visited by yellow fever.

The First Florida Railroad Commission held office from August 17,
1887 till June 18, 1891. The commission was abolished by act of the legis-
lature in 1891, but was re-created six years later, in 1897. The first com-
mission was composed of George G. McWhorter, chairman; E. J. Vann,
William Himes, and John G. Ward, secretary. The first commission under
the act of 1897 was composed of R. H. M. Davidson, chairman; John M.
Bryan, John L. Morgan, with John L. Neeley, secretary.

The "Ocala Platform."-In December, 1890, the National Farmers'
Alliance met in Ocala, Florida, and adopted what was afterwards known as
the "Ocala Platform," which was quoted and referred to by orators and
newspapers throughout the United States. It was a great convention and
gave Ocala national publicity. The late John F. Dunn gave $5,000
toward the entertainment fund, and there were generous subscriptions from
others. The State Populist convention was held in Jacksonville in 1892. A.
P. Baskin was nominated for governor and A. S. Mann for congress, with
a full set of State officers.
December 29, 1894, is known as the date of the "big freeze." The
orange crop, valued at four millions of dollars, was destroyed, and many of
the groves were killed.

The Chipley-Call Campaign--The most exciting senatorial campaign
that has ever taken place in Florida was that between Senator Wilkinson
Call and W. D. Chipley (1897). The latter was identified with railroad
interests and was recognized as the candidate of the corporations. Senator
Call's standing and affiliations were anti-corporation. When the Legis-
lature met it was rather generally believed that Call had a majority of the
members of both branches, but enough votes were withheld from him to
prevent his re-election. This early became apparent, and the anti-corpora-
tion forces centered upon John N. C. Stockton, of Jacksonville, as a can-
didate who could marshal enough votes to defeat Chipley. Senator Call
urged his supporters to stand by Stockton. After a number of futile ballots,
however, Stockton withdrew in favor of Stephen R. Mallory, of Pensacola,
who had come to Tallahassee to work in Stockton's behalf. A caucus was
held at which the Stockton and Call men pledged support to Mallory,
but all told he lacked two votes of having enough to elect. The tension
was great from midnight till the joint house met. Balloting developed
49 votes for Chipley and 47 for Mallory, but before the result was announced
by the president of the Senate, Stockton jumped on top of his desk and
demanded that the result be not announced until Representative Morgan,
of Putnam, and Senator Barber, of Baker and Clay, had voted. Great ex-
citement sad confusion prevailed. After some delay, both voted for Mal-
lory, which created a tie. Stockton then called on Representative Rawls,
of Jackson, to explain his agreement with Senator Daniels, who had been









60 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
called home, but had paired with Mr. Bawls, giving him release from the
pair in event of a chance to elect Mallory. Mr. Bawls cast his vote for
Mallory having difficulty in making himself heard above the uproar. After
that there were a number of changes, and the final vote stood Mallory 53,
Chipley 45. When the ballot which showed 49 for Chipley and 47 for Mal-
lory was taken, the news was flashed over the wires that Chipley was
elected, and he began receiving congratulations. This had to be corrected
in a few minutes.

A Florida Town That Levies No Taxes-The town of Estero, Lee coun-
ty, Fla., is unique in that no town tax is levied upon its citizens. The town
embraces a territory of about ten square miles, and a majority of the in-
habitants are members of the Koreshan Unity, a communistic organization.
The form of town government is regulated by Florida laws. The ordinances
stipulate that no town officer shall receive pay for official services to the
town, and that no whiskey, beer or tobacco is ever to be sold within the
corporate limits of the town. The town of Estero was incorporated in 1905.
The postoffice is about 16 miles south and a little east of Fort Myers.
Municipal improvements include a general store and postoffice, a publishing
house which is probably better equipped than any printer on the West
Coast south of Tampa, a machine shop, a steam laundry, a sawmill, a boat-
building shop, an art hall containing a number of valuable paintings. This
hall is used by the community for entertainments and religious services
The common treasury takes care of whatever improvements the Board
of Trustees for the community sees fit to make. George W. Hunt is mayor
of Estero.

For State Prohibition-At the 1909 session, the Legislature of Florida
passed a resolution submitting a constitutional amendment prohibiting the
sale of liquors, but the amendment was defeated in the general election of
1910. The legislature of 1917 adopted a similar resolution, to be voted on in
the general election of 1918.

Commission Government.-Pensacola was the first Florida city to adopt
the commission form of government. Green Core Springs was the first
town to make the change, which was authorized in 1911. The act for Pen-
sacola was passed in 1918. Commission government was instituted in June,
1918.
Commission form was established in St. Petersburg in 1918 with three
commissioners, but was changed in 1915, effective July 1, 1916, to seven
commissioners and a mayor elected at large, the seven commissioners ap-
pointing three directors who have charge of finance, public utilities and
public works.
Commission form went into operation in St. Augustine July 17, 1915.
St. Augustine is the only city in Florida having a commission-manager char-
ter. Under this charter three commissioners are elected for terms of three
years each, one commissionership expiring each year. The commissioners
serve without-salary; their duties are entirely legislative.










FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 61
Orlando established commission government January 1, 1914. Lakeland
put her commission charter into effect May 1, 1914 and adopted the man-
ager plan for a year, but abandoned it. Daytona adopted commission
government in 1916, and Jacksonville instituted commission government in
June, 1917.
Jacksonville has a mayor and five commissioners, but under special act
the office of mayor ceases after the election of June, 1919, when one of the
five commissioners, as chairman, succeeds the mayor. Tampa, Miami and
Gainesville have voted on commission government and rejected the plan.

Florida in National Statuary HalL-Florida is represented in National
Statuary Hall of the Capitol at Washington by statues of Dr. John B.
Gorrie, of Apalachicola, the inventor of artificial ice, and Edmond Kirby
Smith, a Confederate general who served with distinction during the Civil
War. The Legislature appropriated $10,000 for each statue. Both statues
were modeled by C. Adrian Pillars, sculptor, of Jacksonville.

Olustee Monument--A granite shaft marking the battlefield of Olustee
was unveiled October 28, 1912, during the administration of Governor A. W.
Gilchrist, with General E. M. Law, of Bartow, presiding under auspices
of Florida United Daughters of Confederacy, in the presence of some three
thousand people, among them veterans in attendance upon the annual con-
vention of Florida United Confederate Veterans, at Lake City. The move-
ment for the mounment had been started during Governor Fleming's admin-
istration, by Mrs. J. N. Whitner, now of Gainesville, widow of Lieut. Whit-
ner, who fired the first gun of the famous battle. Lieut. Whitner, after the
war, was a member of the original faculty of the University of Florida,
where he served for many years. The monument is two miles east of
Olustee station, 14 miles from Lake City and 46 miles west of Jacksonville,
on the western division of the Seaboard Air Line, in Baker county. The
shaft may be seen from the railroad. It cost $6,000; the State appropriated
$5,000.

Equal Sufrage.-An amendment to the constitution of Florida provid-
ing for equal suffrage has been before each bi-ennial session of the Legis-
lature since 1918, but has never secured the necessary three-fifths majority
to authorize its submission for ratification. The first town in Florida to
have equal suffrage in local affairs in its charter was Fellsmere, a new town
in St. Lucie county. The act incorporating the town was passed in 1918.
Moore Haven, a new town in De Soto county, secured equal suffrage by
an act passed in 1917, and soon thereafter elected Mrs. Horwits (now
Mrs. O'Brien) mayor. Thus Moore Haven is the first town in Florida
to have a woman mayor. Mrs. O'Brien came from Pennsylvania and is
financially interested in the development of Moore Haven and the section
immediately surrounding the town. The Florida Equal Suffrage League
was organized at Orlando in 1918, and Rev. Mary A. Safford, of Orlando, a
minister of the Unitarian faith, was its first president.










62 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
State Plant Board.-The legislature of 1915 created a State Plant
Board to have direction of the work of stamping out insect and disease pests
hurtful to Florida plants and trees. An adequate appropriation was placed
at the command of the board, which employed and maintains an expert in
charge of a large force of inspectors in carrying out this important work.
The members of the State Board of Control, in charge of the institutions of
higher learning, are by virtue of appointment, members of and constitute
the State Plant Board. The legislature of 1917 created a State Live Stock
Board, which has direction of tick eradication and other pests and diseases
that afflict live stock.

New Counties.-Flagler county, Fla., was created from portions of
Volusia and St. Johns counties by an act approved April 28, 1917. Bunnell
is the county seat. It is a part of the 4th congressional district, of the 31st
senatorial district, and of the 4th judicial circuit.
Okeechobee county, Fla., was created from portions of Osceola, St.
Lucie and Palm Beach counties by an act approved May 8, 1917. Okee-
chobee City was named in the act as the "temporary county seat." The
new county is a part of the 4th congressional district, a part of the
13th senatorial district, and a part of the 7th judicial circuit.

The Old Spanish and Tamiami Trails.-The great impetus given to
road building in Florida has led to the birth of an ambitious project desig-
nated as The Old Spanish Trail, following a route from New Orleans by
Mobile, entering Florida near Pensacola, traversing the State by Tal-
lahassee, Lake City, Live Oak and Jacksonville, and thence down the East
Coast to Miami, connecting with the Tamiami Trail from Miami to Fort
Myers, and other trunk lines. The counties along the route have pledged
financial support, and it is proposed to secure aid from the Federal Aid
fund. The Spanish Trail will probably be built within the next two years.
The Tamiami Trail already is under construction, and that it will be open
for travel by the latter part of 1918 seems reasonably certain. This will give
a hard road across the lower peninsula which is much needed.

Florida Newspapers-Florida has twenty-five daily newspapers, with
a combined circulation of about 125,000. Fifteen are of afternoon and ten are
of morning issue. None of the afternoon papers issues a Sunday edition.
Five of the morning papers, the Times-Union, Jacksonville; Tribune,
Tampa; Journal, Pensacola; Herald, Miami, and Post, West Palm Beach,
issue each day of the seven; the others do not issue Mondays. In addition
to the permanent dailies mentioned, "season dailies" are issued in Daytona,
Deland and Palm Beach during the winter months. There are 154 weekly
newspapers issued from 112 places of publication. The total number of
periodical publications in Florida is 204.

The Historical Society of Florida was organized at St. Augustine in
1856, with Major A. B. Putnam as president. The society still exists and has
issued a number of historical publications.










FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 6
EARLY FLORIDA TOWNS.
San Marcos de Apalache was the name given to the fort erected by
the Spaniards on the site of St. Marks, Fla., in 1718. The French erected
a small fort at St. Joseph's the same year, but this was abandoned when
the Spanish governor at Pensacola protested.

Palatka, Fla., was founded in 1821 by James Marver, an Indian trader.

Jacksonville's first name was Macca Pilatka. It was called Cow Ford
by the English. It received its permanent name in 1822 in honor of General
Andrew Jackson.

Tallahassee, the capital of Florida, was incorporated in 1825. The
building of the first capitol was commenced in January, 1826.

Immigrants from the Bermuda Islands settled at New Smyrna in
1766.

Monticello was laid out in 1828.

Marianna was incorporated in 1829.

Apalachicola dates its existence as a city from 1880.

Key West was made a naval station in 1829, and was then laid off
into lots.

St. Joseph's, a port of importance in the early days of Florida, was
started in 1886.



Indian Names in Florida Geography.-The map surface is dotted with
Indian names. Thus the Indian nomenclature is perpetuated in at least a
fragmentary form. It would be erroneous to suppose that all Indian names
are of Seminole origin. According to historians, the Seminoles were orig-
inally Creek Indians who joined forces with Governor Moore of South
Carolina when he attempted to drive the Spanish out of St. Augustine in
1702. The term semanole, or isti semanole, signifies separatists, or run-
aways, and the Seminoles were regarded as outcasts of the main body of
Creeks. Later the Seminoles became known as "Peninsula People," and
by 1782 they claimed the country between the Flint river and St. Augustine.
By 1850 they had extended their domain southward, and before the end
of the century were in possession of the lower peninsula, and had absorbed
remnants of other tribes. In the beginning of their Florida wandering










64 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
they had given refuge to runaway negro slaves belonging to the Spanish and
English colonies farther north, and in time the negroes intermarried with
them. Thus it appears that the Seminole lacks much of being the best
type of pure American Indian. In the 16th century two tribes of the
Muscogee Indians, Caloosa and Tequesta, lived on the lower peninsula. It
is said that these came from the neighboring islands. Thus in the name
Caloosahatchee, the name of Caloosa is preserved, which evidently is not
of Seminole origin. Early Spanish explorers gave the name of San Juan
to the river which is famed in song as the Suwannee. Plainly "Suwannee"
is a corruption of "San Juan." The Apalache Indians were among the
first Florida inhabitants, and were conquered by the Spanish in 1688. Cap-
tives of that tribe were put to work on the old fort at St. Augustine, and
were kept in bondage for a period of sixty years. There can be little doubt
that Apalachicola was derived from Apalache. Early writers give the
spelling of Tallahassee as Tal-a-hosochete, and again as Tal-a-hassie. It is
described as a Seminole Indian village, meaning Old Town. Another writer
gives it as the combination of two Seminole words, "Tallofor," meaning
town, and "hassie," the sun, hence the contraction meaning Sun Town. There
is doubt also as to the origin and meaning of Pensacola. This word is
claimed by some to have had its origin as descriptive of a tribe which in-
habited that region, the word meaning literally "Hair Men." Another his-
torian declares that Pensacola was named by the Spanish after Pen-si-cola,
a small town in Spain. The names of nearly all the streams and lakes
in Florida are unquestionably of Indian origin. Miami was originally
"Mi-am-ee," Ocklocknee appeared in early histories as Ocklockonne,
Miccosukee as Mickasukee, Wakulla as Wackhulla, showing that the original
forms have been refined rather than corrupted, at the same time retaining the
musical sounds of the original words. A glance at the map of Florida is
sufficient to show that the Indians have left evidences of their existence
indelibly written upon its geography. The name of Osceola, the Seminole
chief, is perpetuated in the county of that name. Tallahassee also was the
name of a Seminole chief. Indian names in Florida are easily recognized.
In some sections they are predominant. An illustration may be had
by taking a boat at Kissimmee, on Lake Tohopekaliga, through a chain of
lakes, and the Kissimmee river for Lake Okeechobee. From the beginning
to the end of this 150-mile journey practically every body of water and
stream bears an Indian name. The subject offers a study filled with ro-
mantic interest.


The ports of New Orleans and Mobile were at one time a part of the
province of West Florida.

An historical society, recently formed at New Smyrna, has set up the
claim that New Smyrna was really the site of the first Spanish colony
planted in Florida; in short, that it antedates the settlement of St. Aug-
ustine.









FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS


Saving the Public Lands


The period of the greatest railroad construction in Florida was between
1885 and 1900, which was encouraged by legislative grants of large tracts of
public lands to transportation companies, the basis being ten thousand acres
for each mile of construction. While this act was intended to advance
internal improvement, the result was wholesale dissipation of the State's
public lands. The administration of Governor William S. Jennings, marked
the beginning of the conservation of the State's lands and the rehabilitation
of the Internal Improvement Fund. When Governor Jennings went into
office there were no known lands in the Fund, and less than $25,000. He at
once set about the ascertainment of the powers of the Trustees of the
Internal Improvement Fund, and the status of the lands granted to Florida
under the Swamp Land Grant Act by the United States Government in
1850, and their disposition by the trustees; also legislative grants to railroads
and canal companies, showing the area granted to each, the number of acres
claimed and the number of acres deeded, the legal status of such claims
and the disposition of swamp lands. The result of this investigation showed
outstanding claims by corporations of eight million acres. In short, suc-
cessive legislatures had granted away more than the State then owned.
No lands were deeded to railroads during Governor Jennings' administra-
tion, and when he left office there had been restored to the Fund approxi-
mately four million acres of land and the Internal Improvement Fund
showed a balance of $600,000 cash on hand. In his message of 1903, Gov-
ernor Jennings outlined a system of canals for the drainage of the Ever-
glades, which was ultimately adopted in its essential points and the work
started and carried forward under Governor Broward's administration,
which immediately followed, and has been kept going under subsequent
governors. It was during the administration of Governor Jennings that the
State's Indian War Claim, resulting in the collection of more than a million
dollars, was turned into the State treasury.
A notable reform which took place during this period was the defeat of
an arbitrary control of the hire of State convicts, which increased the return
to the State $750,000, subsequent years having exceeded a million, and the
better care of convicts. The abolition of this system has been provided for,
however, and soon Florida will cease to lease its convicts. This has been
brought about by the establishment of a large prison farm at Raiford, in
Bradford county, and by an act of 1917, providing for the employment of
able bodied convicts on the public roads.
The policy established by Governor Jennings in reference to the State
public lands was adhered to by Gov. N. B. Broward, under whose adminis-
tration the work of draining the Everglades was started. The first dredges,










66 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
"Everglades" and "Okeechobee" were constructed under his personal super-
vision. Gov. Broward had been a mariner and was possessed of great
energy and practical sense. He financed the drainage operations by nego-
tiating sales of large tracts of Everglades lands, selling only alternate
sections, every other section being reserved to the State and of necessity
benefiting by the reclamation work and the increased value. Governor A.
W. Gilchrist followed Gov. Broward, and it was under his administration
that a final compromise was effected with the railroads having claims against
the State for public lands, by giving the railroads some 272,000 acres for
claims amounting to over four million acres. Governor Park Trammell
succeeded Gov. Gilchrist, and under the Trammell administration an act was
passed authorizing the bonding of the Everglades territory for drainage
purposes, and it was during this period that the first survey of the area was
made by drainage experts, the canal system being enlarged and the plan of
reclamation otherwise perfected.



Many years ago the region about Cape Sable, Florida, was regarded
with favor by experts as adapted to coffee culture.

Tarpon Springs and Key West are headquarters for the largest sponge
fisheries of Florida. Annual production is above two million dollars.

Lake Worth in Florida is noted because it divides Palm Beach, the
world famous tourist resort, from West Palm Beach. The latter is the
capital of Palm Beach county. A toll bridge connects the towns.

Kissimmee is a famous Florida town, known the country over because
it suggests an invitation to osculation. This is because of incorrect pro-
nunciation. The accent is correctly placed on the second and not on the first
syllable. Kissimmee is the county seat of Osceola, one of the leading
cattle growing and shipping counties of Florida.

Crescent City, in Putnam county, Florida, is a beautiful village, largely
composed of cultured people from the North who have settled there in
retirement. It is topographically interesting from the fact tbht it is
located on Lake Crescent, which is forty-five feet lower than Lake Ethel,
on the opposite side of the town, and only a few hundred feet distant.

Florida abounds in picturesque towns and villages. Among the
most beautiful of these is Winter Park, the seat of Rollins College. Though
one of the smallest, it is one of the wealthiest towns in the State when
appraised according to the financial standing of its winter residents, com-
posed largely of wealthy Northerners who have retired from active busi-
ness, and have built handsome residences there.









FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 67


Transportation Lines


RAILROAD LINES AND DISTANCES.
ATLANTIC COAST LINE
(Jacksonville to Port Tampa)
Jacksonville to:
Palatka ........................................ 54.9 Orlando ........................................14 .6
Crescent City Junction............... 77. Kissmmee ................... ............. 1644
DeLand Junction ......................107.2 Lakeland ....................................
Orange City Junction .............. 112. Plant City ....................................217.6
Enterprise Junction ..................118.1 Ybor City ....................................2875
Sanford ............................... .124.3 Tampa ........ ..........................
Port Tampa...................................248.
Jacksonville to Jesup, Ga................................... ............................ 96.
(Jacksonville to St. Petersburg)
Jacksonville to:
Baldwin ...................................... 19.2 San Antonio ..............................187.9
Gainesville .................................. 84.5 Tarpon Springs ..........................22L
Ocala Junction ............................124.2 Sutherland ............................ 226.
Ocala ..........................................125.1 Clearwater ............ ...................
Ocklawaha ................................140. Bellair ........................... 55
Leesburg Junction ..................158. Pinellas Park ........... ...............245.8
Leesburg .........................159. St. Petersburg Wharf............ 52
Croom .......................................189.2 St. Petersburg .. ....................252.2
Jacksonville to Perry..................................................................................161.
(Lakeland to Fort Myers)
Lakeland to:
Arcadia ...................................... 62. Punta Gorda ............................... 86.
Fort Myers ....................................114.
(Sanford to Trilby)
Sanford to:
Winter Garden ................... 30.1 Clermont ................................... 4.5
Trilby ..................................... 74.6
(Lakeland to Waycros)
Lakeland to:
Groom ............................................ 43.1 W illiston .................. ...... 106.1
Inverness ....................................- 62.8 Live Oak ...................................186.6
Gulf Junction .........-- ..-..-- 79. Bakers Mill ...............................206.7
Dunnellon .......................... 81.8 Waycross, Ga. ............................270.
High Springs to Burnett's Lake................................. ...... ..... 9.
Wilcox Junction to Dunnellon....... ----.. ----................ 51.
Ocala to Homosassa ....-...........................-..--- 9
Sanford to Astor .... ........ ........ .............. 60.









68 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
Sanford to Lake Charm ......................................................... 18.4
Leesburg to Fort Mason ................. .....-- ........................... 13.8
Kissimmee to Apopka .............................. ....... ......... 33.1
Kissimmee to Narcoossee ........................................ .................. 14.
Lake Alfred to Bartow........................................... .. .. ............... 16.7
DeLand Junction to DeLand............................ ......-. 4.
Winston to Fort Meade ........................... ................ 28.8
Sanford to Mecca Junction ....................................... ...... ................ 9.
Thonotosassa Junction to Thonotosassa .......................................... 11.
Croom to Brooksville............................. ..... ..... 10.
Proctor to Citra ...................... ............. ............ 6.1
Palatka to Rochelle ............... .......... ......................38.9
Micanopy Junction to Tacoma .......................................... 8.4
Lake City to Lake City Junction......................-..... ..... ....... 18.7
Monticello to Thomasville, Ga............... ..................... ................... 24.1
River Junction to Climax, Ga................................ ..................... 803
Haines City to Sebring ............ ............................. 46.5
Tampa to West Tampa .................... .......................... ......... 3.
Nichols to Mulberry ....................................... .......................... 4.
Fanlew to Thomasville, Ga.......................................... ...... 47.

SEABOARD AIR LINE RAILWAY
(Jacksonville to River Junction)
Jacksonville to:
Baldwin ........................................ 18.7 Lloyd ........................................... 147.
Macclenny ..................... 27.5 Tallahassee ...............................:..165.1
Olustee ..................................... ... 46.7 Quincy .......................... ............189.
Lake City ................................... 59.3 Gretna ................................194.8
Live Oak ...................................... 81.3 M t. Pleasant ................................197.7
Madison .......................................109.7 River Junction ......................... 207.8
(Jacksonville to Tampa)
Jacksonville to:
Baldwin .................................... 18.7 South Lake Weir Junction........117.3
Lawtey ....................................... 87.7 Wildwood ............ ...................127.4
Starke ...................................... .. 44.4 Sumterville ...............................188.2
Waldo ................................. ... 56.3 Dade City .......-...........................164.2
Hawthorne .................................. 70.5 Plant City ...............................188.9
Silver Springs ............................ 99.6 Tampa Northern Junction.......209.4
Ocala ..............................................101.5 Ybor City .................................. 210.1
Tam pa ........................................ 211.
Jacksonville to Savannah, Ga...........................................................................137.8
Fernandina to Baldwin .................................................. 47.2
Waldo to Cedar Key.......................... -.............- 70.8
Starke to W annee ......................... ........ ....... ..................... 56.6
Buda to Norwillis ....................................... ....................... 9.
Archer to Inverness ........................................ ................... 58.6
Wildwood to Orlando ..............-........ --.. ........... ........................ 53.1
Orlando to Lake Charm ........................................................... 17.
Morriston to Ackert Spur.......................................................... 5.
Turkey Creek to Venice ........................... ............... .. 74.5










FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 69

Plant City to Lake Wales.......................................................... 44.5
Edeson Junction to Agricola ........... .................................. .......... 12.1
Tampa to Brooksville...... .......... ....................... 48.6
Brooksville to Centralia .............................................................................. 15
Tallahassee to St. Marks (First railroad in Florida; third in U. S.).... 20.4
Tallahassee to W aylon o............................................................................ 2.
Morriston to Holder (Phosphate Mining Section)....................................... 40.
Drifton to M onticello.................................................... .................................. 4.4
GEORGIA SOUTHERN AND FLORIDA RAILWAY
(Palatka to Valdosta, Ga.)
Palatka to:
Putnam Hall ............................ 21.5 Lake City .............. ................. 74.4
Sampson City .... ................ 42.1 White Springs ............................ 86.8
Lake Butler ........................... 53.1 Jasper ..............................10.8
Valdosta, Ga. ................................
Jacksonville to Macon, Ga............... ................... .... 261.8
FLORIDA RAILWAY COMPANY
(Live Oak to Blair's Still)
Live Oak to:
Suwannee River........................... 16.7 Perry ................................... 51.1
Fenholloway ........................... 45.3 Blairs Still .................................. 55.
M ayo to Alton .......................... .................................... .... ...................... 2.5
TAMPA AND JACKSONVILLE RAILWAY
(Sampson City to Emathla)
Sampson City to:
Gainesville ....................... .............. 20. Micanopy ..................................... 36.7
Emathla .................................. 56.

LIVE OAK, PERRY AND GULF RAILROAD
(Live Oak to Loughridge)
Live Oak to:
Dowling Park .............................. 17. Hampton Springs --.................... 49.
Fenholloway .............................. 38. Murat Junction ............................ 4.
Blue Creek Junction .................. 40. Waylonzo .......................... ..... 60.
Perry .................................... 44. Loughridge ........................... 64.
Mayo Junction to Alton ........................... .......... .......... ................ 14.3
LOUISVILLE AND NASHVILLE
(Pensacola to River Junction)
Pensacola to:
Bagdad Junction ...................... 18.7 Marianna .............................135.1
Deunak Springs ................... 78.9 Grand Ridge ........ .................149.1
Bonifav ....................................107.6 Sneads ... .......... .... 155.1
Chipley ......................................116.4 River Junction ............ .......... 160.7
Pensacola to Flomaton ....................... ............................................................... 4 .7
Crestview to Florala, Ala...... ........................... ............................ 26.4
Graceville to Montgomery, Ala.................... ..... .1......6...........159.4










70 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS
APALACHICOLA NORTHERN RAILROAD
(River Junction to Port St. Joe)
River Junction to:
Hardaway (Highest Point in Apalachicola .............................. 79.5
Florida, altitude 808 feet).... 8.5 Port St. Joe (one of the early
Fort Gadsden ............................ 62.5 fortified and shipping -orts)..102.3
ATLANTA AND ST. ANDREWS BAY RAILWAY
(St. Andrews to Dothan Ala.)
St. Andrews to:
Panama City ................................ 2. Cottondale .................................... 53.
Millville Junction ........................ 4. State Line, Ala .................... 68.
Lynn Haven Junction ............ 4. Dothan, Ala. ........................... 84.
GEORGIA, FLORIDA AND ALABAMA RAILWAY
(Carrabelle to Cuthbert, Ga.)
Carrabelle to:
Lanark ................... .................... 5. Tallahassee ............................... 50.
Sopehoppy ............................... 19. Havana .......................................... 67.
S. A. L. Junction ...................... 49. Bainbridge, Ga............................ 90.
Cuthbert, Ga ...................................156.
Havana to Quincy (Tobacco growing section)........................................... 11.

SOUTH GEORGIA RAILWAY
(Hampton Springs to Adel, Ga.)
Hampton Springs to:
Perry ........................ ................ 5. Ouitm an, Ga................................ 54.
Greenville ............................ 31. Adel, Ga ....... .................. 82.
GEORGIA AND FLORIDA RAILWAY
Madison, Fla., to Valdosta, Ga...................................................................... 28.

CHARLOTTE HARBOR AND NORTHERN RAILWAY
(South Boca Grande to Mulberry)
South Boca Grande to:
Boca Grande ......................... 2.3 Ft. Green Junction ................ 77.
Gasparilla .................................... 53 Bradley Junction .................... 89.1
Ft Ogden ..........................-......... 36.9 Martin Junction .......................... 90.6
Arcadia ................................... 48.9 Mulberry .................................... 96.9
PENSACOLA, MOBILE AND NEW ORLEANS RAILWAY
Pensacola to:
Millview Junction ...................... 6.29 Milview ........................................ 7.29
Millview Junction to Muscogee ......................... ................................... 15.3
OCKLAWAHA VALLEY RAILROAD
(Ocala to Palatka)
Ocala to:
Silver Springs Junction ....... 3.8 Rodman ........................................ 89.5
Silver Springs ............................ 5.8 0. N. Junction ........................ 52.1
Rodman Junition ................... 41.7 Palatka ...................................... 58.7










FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 71
TAVARES & GULF
(Tavares to Ocoee)
Tavares to:
West Apopka ............................ 15. Tildenville .............................. 275
Oakland ...................................... 26.5 Winter Garden .......................... 29.
Ocoee ............................................. 1.4
Waits Junction to Clermont.................................----................ ......... 6.
MARIANNA & BLOUNTSTOWN
(Marianna to Scotts Ferry)
Marianna to:
Blountstown .............................. 26.7 Gaskins Siding ............................ 40.
Scotts Ferry ............................... 42.
FLORIDA EAST COAST RAILWAY
(Jacksonville to Key West)
Jacksonville to:
St. Augustine .............................. 86.7 Melbourne ......................... ......1942
Hastings ...................... .......... 5.7 Sebastian ..........................214.5
East Palatka ................................ 61.5 Fort Pierce ........................ 241.6
San Mateo Junction .................... 62.8 Stuart .................... .............. ....261.4
Bunnell ......................................... 86.6 West Palm Beach ...................299.
Ormond ....................................104.2 Fort Lauderdale ........................841.2
Daytona ......................................109.7 Miami ....................................... 6
New Smyrna ..............................124.6 Homestead ................... .....---- 9.9
Titusville ..............1 Indi .ey............154.4 Indian Key ......... 445.2
Rocklede ....................................174.6 Knights Key Dock ......... ..........476.8
Eau Gaie .............................1898 Key West ................................522.
New Smyrna to Orange City Junction.................----....... 27.5
Titusville to:
Mayport ........................................ 16.4 Enterprise Junction ..............--.. 40.
Jacksonville to Mayport ..................................................... 25.4
East Palatka to San Mateo ................................................. ---...--.. 4.1
East Palatka to Palatka .............................................. 2.7
Maytown to
Chuluota ....................... ..... .... 18.5 Fort Drum ....................................101.5
Kenansville ................................. 72.8 Okeechobee ...........................--121.9
TAMPA & GULF RAILWAY
(Tampa to St. Petersburg)
Tampa to:
Sulphur Springs ................. 8. Clearwater .................................. 8.7
Gulf Coast Junction ................ 7.7 Beeair ............................------- 85.
Tarpon Springs Junction........... 15.4 Largo ........................................---------
Espiritu Santo Springs.............. 26. St. Petersburg ............................ 54.8
Tarpon Springs Junction to Tarpon Springs................................................ 21.5
Lake Villa to Port Richey.................................................................... 1
LAKE HANCOCK & CLERMONT RAILROAD
Carters to Nettle........-...---.........----.--------.....-............ 24.
FELLSMERE RAILROAD


Sebastian to Fellsmere


......................-.--.........-.---. ------------..----------------------------









72 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS

FLORIDA, ALABAMA & GULF RAILROAD
Galliver to:
Blackman Junction ................... 16. Falco, Ala ................................... 25.

OCALA & SOUTHWESTERN R. R.
Ocala to Ray ........................................................................................................ 6.
BIRMINGHAM, COLUMBUS & ST. ANDREWS R. R.
Chipley to Southport ........................................................................................ 38.

GULF, FLORIDA AND ALABAMA RAILWAY
Pensacola to:
Muscogee ..................................... 21.8 Gateswood Junction ................ 25.2
Pine Forest .................................... 47.3
STANDARD & HERNANDO R. R.
Chatmar, A. C. L Connection, to Inglis (Phosphate section).................. 16.

MELROSE RAILROAD
Davis Siding to Melrose ................................................................................... 6.5

EAST AND WEST COAST RAILWAY
(Bradentown to Arcadia)
Bradentown to:
Junction ........................................ 1. Lorraine ............................. ....... 11.7
Manatee ...................................... 1 Myakka City ............................. 28.
Alsace ............................................ 5.1 Nocatee Junction ........................ 44.1
Arcadia .......................................... 50.3
MADISON SOUTHERN RAILWAY
Madison to W aco ......................................................................................... 7.



Florida pensions her Confederate soldiers and widows more libertlly
than any other Southern State. There are 4,915 persons on the pension
rolls, who receive $222,483.96 quarterly, or nearly a million dollars an-
nually.

Jefferson county in Florida was named for the founder of the Dem-
oeratic party, and its capital was named in honor of the founder's famous
estate-Monticello. The town retains the appearance and some of the cus-
toms of the typical southern town of a generation ago, which are regarded
by many as quaint and pleasing.


Florida offers wonderful opportunities for profitable dairying.
The sale of native dairy products approximates $1,500,000 annually,
but great quantities of butter and milk are shipped in from other
States.











FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 73


Men of Florida



ADAMS, THOMAS BURTON, Jacksonville. born near Jasper. Fla.. Nov. 11.
1877; educated at Uni. of Nashville, Tenn., and George Washington Unt., Wash-
ington, D. C.; began practice of law in 1906; was leading attorney for W. V.
Knott in the gubernatorial, Knott-Catts, contest of 1917.
ALDERMAN, RHENUS HOFFARD, Sutherland. born Lithia, Fla. Dec. 9.
1881; educated at Emory College. Oxford, Ga. Uni. Denver Denver, Colo., Co-
lumbia Uni. New York City; chair science Southern College 1905-7; pre. Russell
College Lebanon, Va., 1907-9; press. Morris Harvey College. Barbourvllle, W.
Va., 1909-14; press. Southern College (Methodist) Sutherland, Fla.. since 1914.
ALLEN. GEORGE WHITING, Key West, born at Jacksonville. Fla., Sept.
1, 1864. educated at Jacksonville and Key West, Fla., and Ithaca, N. Y., was
collector of customs 16 years in Key West. president of the Florida Bankers
Assn., has been president First National Bank of Key West since December
28; 1891. In 1918 was Republican nominee for governor.
AMOS, EBRNST, Tallahassee. born at Milton, Fla., Nov. 26, 1867. educated
in public schools, State auditor, February 1, 1909 to December 16. 1916; elected
Comptroller of Florida in 1916 and assumed office January 2, 1917. Both parents
of Mr. Amos were born at Milton also; Milton was named in honor of his
grandfather, Dr. Milton Amos.
APPLEYTARD, THOS. JEFBERSON. Tallahassee, born Richmond, Va., Aug.
19. 1850, educated Richmond public schools; came to Fla. fall of 1888; six terms
secretary State senate; sec. Fla. Press Assn. upwards of quarter century; 26
years asst. sec. National Farmers Congress; member board of aldermen San-
ford. Fla., ten years and press. of that body; many years editor Lake City Index;
state printer since Oct., 1909.
BALL, WILLIS K., Jacksonville, born at Tallahassee Aug. 26, 1859, educat-
ed in public schools and colleges of Florida, president of the Florida Pub. Co..
publishers of the Florida Times-Union.
BATCHELOR, DAVID 0, Clearwater, born Franklin, Ind., Oct. ,. 1866;
educated in Indiana; county auditor Elkhart county. Ind., 1908-12; member
State Board of Accounts. Ind.. 1918-14; came to Florida, 1916, and purchased
Clearwater Sun from W. B. Powell, taking charge Feb., 1916.
BEACHAM, BRAXTON, Orlando, born at Dublin, Ga.. in 1864, educated in
public schools; came to Florida in 1884; was appointed U. S. Food Administra-
tor for Florida by Herbert C. Hoover. National Food Administrator, and took
up that work in September, 1917; extensively interested in agriculture and
horticulture.
BBENTLEY, ROBERT WILLIAM. Tampa, born North Adams. Mass., Feb. 9,
1878; educated in public schools of New York and Fla., managing editor Tampa
Times 8 years, became managing editor Tampa Tribune July 8. 1916.
BLACKMAN, B. V. Miami, born North Pitcher. N. Y., June 19. 1845; educat-
ed at Cortland. N. Y.; came to Florida in 1886; to Miami 1894; editor for sixteen
years; secretary Dade County Fair Association for many years; citrus expert.
BLACKMAN, WM. FREMONT Lake Monroe Fla., born North Pitcher. N.
Y., Sept 26 1855; educated at Oberlin College. Yale Uni. Cornell UnL Berlin and
Paris; prof. Yale Uni. 1898-1902; press. Rollins College, Winter Park, Fla.. 1902-
1916; press. Bank of Winter Park 1911-' press. Fla. Live Stock Assn. 1916-;
pres. Fla. Audubon Society 1912-; member State Live Stock Sanitary Board
1917.
BLITCH, NEWTON A, Tallahassee, born near Ocala, Fla., Oct. 12, 1844,
educated in common schools, served 8 years in the Confederate army, 8 years
in Florida House of Representatives, 12 years as State senator, 3 years as
State convict inspector, and has been a member of the Florida R. R. Commis-
sion since January 1, 1907.
BLOUNT. WILLIAM ALEXANDER, Pensacola. born Clarke county. Ala.,
Oct. 26. 1861; educated at the Uni. of Ga., began practice of law 1873, member
Fla. Constitutional Convention 1886; chairman com. to revise Fla. Statutes.
1892: State senator 1908-6, member capitol construction com. 1904-6; press. Com-
missioners on Uniform State Laws.











74 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS

BRANNING, HENRY PIERRE, Miami, born at Osteen. Fla., Aug. 18, 1877,
educated at South Fla. Military Institute (then) at Bartow; took law at Cum-
berland Uni. Lebanon, Tenn., served one term as Justice of peace, one term as
county solicitor, was appointed Judge of the eleventh circuit by Gov. Trammell
in 1915 to fill the unexpired term of Judge Bethel, who died, and was reappoint-
ed in 1917 by Gov. S. J. Catts.
BROWN, HARRY L, St. Augustine, born Niagara Falls, Ontario Canada,
June 26, 1872, educated at Trinity School, Port Hope, and Welland Collegiate
Institute: came to Florida 1902; editor St. Augustine Record (daily) and gen-
eral manager of the Record Company since December, 1904.
BROWN, LEWELLYN BUPORD, St. Petersburg, born at Madison, Ark., June
13. 1861; self educated, having attended only eight months of school; county
and city attorney in Taylorsville, Spencer county, Ky., 1897-1901: press. Ky Press
Assn. 1906; came to Florida Dec. 15, 1908, and bought the St. Petersburg Inde-
pendent, of which he is the editor and publisher; was editor and publisher of
monthly periodical at Ozark. Ark., when 15 years of age.
BRYAN, NATHAN PHILEMON, Jacksonville, born in Orange (now Lake)
county, Fla., April 23, 1872; graduated from Emory College, Oxford, Ga.. in 1893:
studied law at Washington and Lee University, graduating in 18956 practiced
law at Jacksonville. until his election to U. S. Senate. His term expired March
3, 1917, when he was succeeded by Park Trammell.
BURE, JAMES V, Tallahassee, born Calhoun county, Fla., Sept. 5, 1856.
educated in public schools; secretary to Gov. S. J. Catts Jan. 2, 1917 to Sept. 6
1917, when he was appointed a member of the State Tax Commission.
CALDWELL, JOHN M., Jasper, born Madison, Fla., Nov. 21, 1846; educated
at Lake City; clerk of circuit court Hamilton county 1881 to 1888, 1896-6;
county treasurer one term; was editor Jasper News, (weekly) many years.
CALL, RHYDON MAYS, Jacksonville, born Fernandina, Fla., Jan. 13, 1858
took law at Washington and Lee University, Va., U. S. attorney, solicitor Duval
county, Judge 4th circuit, U. S. district Judge, southern district of Fla., since
April 1. 1912.
CAMPBELL, ANGUS G., DeFuniak Springs, born Euchee Anna, Fla., Nov.
19. 1874 educated at DeFuniak Springs; county solicitor of Walton county from
1909 to 1913; appointed Judge of the let Judical circuit of Fla. April 14, 1915.
CARSON, CHARLES A., Kissimmee, born Reynolds, Ga., Nov. 10, 1862, finished
education at Mercer Uni.. Macon. Ga.. state senator from 1904; press. pro tern.
1903; trustee Uni. of Fla. 1899 to 1905; press. board trustees Columbia College
(Baptist) 1907-1917.
CATE, WALTER B., Madison, born Maryville, Tenn., Nov. 2, 1879; educated
at Maryville College; came to Florida July, 1897; prin. Jasper Normal Ins., 8
years; prin. Fla. Normal Ins., Madison since Sept.. 1906.
CATHCART, JAMBS M'CREIGHT, Jacksonville, born Sumterville. Fla., Feb.
22, 1886. educated in public schools of Tampa; graduated in law from George-
town Uni., Washington. D. C.. June 12, 1917; secretary to U. S. Senator D: U.
Fletcher Nov., 1911; clerk to Senate Commerce and Senate Printing Committees;
Collector Internal Revenue Dist. of Fla.. since June 4, 1917.
CATTS, SIDNEY JOHNSON. Tallahassee, born at Pleasant Hill., Ala., July
31, 1863; educated at Howard College, Auburn, Ala., and Cumberland Uni. Tenn.,
came to Florida 1910 as Baptist minister to the church at DeFuniak Springs;
was candidate for governor in the Democratic primary of 1916 in which there
were ive candidates; upon the face of the returns he was the leading candidate
but was made defendant in contest proceedings brought by the candidate receiv-
ing the next highest vote, W. V. Knott, before the Florida Supreme Court, which
ordered a recount, upon the result of which Knott was declared the Democratic
nominee. Catts had received the nomination of the Prohibitionists of Florida,
and his name was placed on the general election ballot by petition as an inde-
pendent He was elected by a large majority and took the oath of office
January 3, 1917. His term expires in January. 1921.
CELLON, GEORGE B.. Miami, born 10 miles north of Gainesville. Fla.. Jan.
2, 1862; attended country schools; moved to Miami November. 1900; has devoted
many years to growing fruit and nursery stock, propagating and improving
fruit stock.
CLARK. PRANK, Gainesville, born at Eufaula, Ala., March 28, 1860; moved
to Florida January, 1884; served three terms in Florida legislature; was U. S.
district attorney for the southern dist. of Fla., was chairman of the Democratic
State Committee; was elected to the 69th Congress and has been elected for
each successive term since, representing the second district.
CLARKSON. JOHN POULTON, Tallahassee, born Charlotte county, Va., Oc-
tober 12, 1865; educated in public schools of Baltimore, Md., came to Florida
Jan. 23, 1883; presidential elector 1916; was elected chief clerk State Road
Department upon its organization October. 1916.












FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 75

COCKE, WM, F. Tallahassee, born Powhattan county, Va., Feb. 7. 1876;
educated at Mechanics Institute of Virginia; railroad work to 1907; 1907 to
1908 city of Richmond, Va., 1908 to 1916 Virginia State Highway Commission;
came to Florida May, 1918. when he was chosen as Florida's first State Road
Commissioner.
CODRINGTON, CHRIS. 0, DeLand, born Jamaica, West Indies, June 14,
1870; came to Florida when two years old; educated at Stetson Un.. DeLand;
editor DeLand News (Weekly, daily during winter) since 1892; county com-
missioner 1917.
CRAWFORD, HENRY CLAY, Tallahassee, born Bainbridge, Ga., April
1856. came to Florida when a boy, attended school at Bainbridge, and in
Wakulla county Fla., member legislature from Wakulla county 1887. Secretary
of State since Jan. 28. 1902.
CURLEY, MICHAEL JOSEPH, St. Augustine, born at Athlone, Ireland. Oct.
12. 1879; educated at Mungret College. Ireland, and Propaganda University.
Rome, Italy; ordained priest March 19, 1904; came to Florida November, 1904;
appointed Bishop of St. Augustine April 8. 1914.
DARNELL, MARCY BRADSIAW, Key West, born at Edgar, Il., Jan. 27.
1872; educated in public schools; came to Florida/ 904; editor Key West Daily
Citizen; member legislature 1918; appointed posaster Key West 1918; reap-
pointed Aug. 1, 1917; on leave account naval service. lieut. National Naval
Volunteers, commanding naval training statisl Key West since April, 1917.
DAVIS, CHARLES EDGAR, Madison. born Aucilla, Fla., Feb. 1. 1872; edu-
cated at Fla. State College (then) at Lake City, and at Washington & Lee
Uni.. Lexington, Va., mayor of Madison. chairman. State Democratic Executive
Committee few months succeeding Arthur T. Williams, resigned; member House
of Reps., senator 10th dist., two terms, press. senate 1916; author "Davis Pack-
age Law" 1916.
DEAN, SIMPSON BOBO, Miami, born Walnut Grove, Ala., March 21, 1871,
attended Howard College, Ala., came to Fla. Aug.. 1894. editor and manager
The Miami Metropolis (daily) since 1906.
DeBBRRY, J. FRED, Orlando, born Tallahassee Fla., Nov. 80. 1876; educat-
ed at Fla. Agricultural and Mechanical College, Lake City; presidential elector
first Wilson campaign (1913); editor The Florida Cracker, since Sept. 16. 1917.
DETWILER, JOHN Y., New Smyrna, born Birdsboro, Berks county, Penn..
Feb. 17, 1845, educated in public schools; private Co. C 17 W. Va., Inft. 1864-5;
moved to Florida from Toledo. O., June 1888; first editor New Smyrna Breeze
(weekly) 1885; pres. Fla. Fish Com. 1898 to 1904; honorary pres. later.
DIXON, JOSEPH TROT PTR, Quincy, born Talladega, Ala., March 81. 1846;
educated at Virginia Military Institute; came to Florida December. 1902; edi-
torial writer the Gadsden County Times since November, 1916; several years
occupied similar position with the Lakeland Telegram.
DOHRMANN. HENRY W, St. Petersburg. born Cincinnati, 0., Jan. 8, 1866;
educated at Louisville, Ky., ten years under auditor War Department; came
to Fla. April, 19165; president Southland Seminary and College at St. Petersburg,
Florida
DONNELL, ELIZA BALLARD West Palm Beach, born in Wilson county,
Tenn., March 1, 1881; educated at Peabody College, Nashville, Tenn., and at
the UnL of Fla.; supt of schools at Baton Rouge, La., 1908-1911; came to Florida
1911; county attorney of Duval county, Fla, 1918-1917; appointed Judge of
15th circuit by Gov. S. J. Catts and began that service June 14, 1917.
EARMAN, JOB. LUCIEN, West Palm Beach, born at Cross Keys, Va., June
18, 1875; educated, according to his statement, in the College of Experience;
came to Florida in 1880; was appointed by Gov. S. J. Catts a member of the
Board of Control and began his service as such July 2, 1917; was elected chair-
man of the board; his term expires in 1921.
ELLIS, WM. HULL, Tallahassee, born Pensacola, Fla.. Sept. 17. 1867, edu-
cated at Quincy, Fla.; State Auditor 1908 (one year); Attorney General 1904 to
1909, 6 years; General Counsel Internal Improvement Fund and Board of Drain-
age Commissioners Nov. 1911, to Jan. 1916: elected Justice of the Fla. Supreme
Court and began his term January C, 1915. Term expires January. 1921.
FAGO, MARCUS C, Jacksonville, born Madison. Wis.. Dec. 20, 1879; educat-
ed at Madison. Wis.; secretary Associated Charities, Evansville, Ind. 4 years,
chief probation officer Juvenile Court, Pittsburg, Pa., State Supt. Children's
Home Society of Florida since Sept. 1, 1910.
PARMI WILLIAM WALTIR, Miami, born Barlow, O.. Aug. 26. 1843. educat-
ed at Washington College, Penn., and Chicago UnL, IlL, degree D. D., Black-
burn College 1886; came to Florida October, 1897. pastor and educator 60 years,
pastor First Presbyterian church Miami, since October 1897.











76 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS

FARRIS, ION LOWNDES. Jacksonville, born at Savannah, Ga., Sept. 14, 1878
came to Florida when 6 years of age; educated in public schools; member of
Fla. House of Reps. sessions of 1907-09-18; speaker 1909-13; senator 18th dit.,
1916-17; was tendered appointment of judge of criminal court Duval county
by Gov. Broward; was also tendered appointment as Judge of 4th Judical cir-
cuit by Gov. Trammell, both of which he declined; was candidate for governor
in 1916.
PELIEL, HERBERT, Tallahassee, born at DeFunlak Springs, Fla., June 28,
1889; educated in public schools, Florida State College at Tallahassee, Univer-
sity of Chattanooga, finished at University of Florida, Gainesville. In 1909 did
legislative reporting for Claude L'Engle's Daily Sun at Tallahassee; then to
Pensacola with the News; was youngest member of Associated Press, youngest
editor of a daily newspaper in Florida; now editor Florida Record (weekly) at
Tallahassee, and correspondent for leading dailies.
FERRIS. JOSIAH, Orlando, born Tampa, Aug. 8, 1867, started in printing
business on Gulf Coast Progress at the age of 13. Published several papers
in Orange county and established the Daily Sentinel (morning) in Feb., 1913,
which he sold in October. 1915. to W. M. Glenn and W. C. Essington. Now
identified with the Reporter-Star (evening) published by R. B. & J. C. Brossier.
FLETCHER. DUNCAN U, Jacksonville, born in Sumter county, Ga., Jan. 6,
1859: educated at Gordon Institute, Barnesville Ga., and Vanderbilt University
Nashville. Tenn. Practiced law in Jacksonville, Fla.. since 1881. Member of
the legislature in 1893; was mayor of Jacksonville 1898-96 and 1901-03; chairman
Democratic State Executive Committee 1904-07; was nominated in primary of
June 16. 1908, for United States Senator, and was elected by the legislature of
1909; renominated in primary of June, 1914, and elected November 8, 1914, for
the full term of six years beginning March 3, 1915. His term expires March
3 1921.
FLOURNOY, WILLIAM WALTON, DeFuniak Springs, born in Walton coun-
ty December 5, 1874; educated in public and private schools, Southern Univer-
sity, Greensborough, Ala., Florida Agricultural College, Lake City, Florida. A.
B. degree 1896, Cumberland University. Lebanon, Tennessee; mayor DeFuniak
Springs 1908-9-10-11-16-16-17; State senator 1909-11; several years captain N.
G. F.. leading counsel for Governor S. J. Catts in Knott-Catts governorship
election contest 1917.
FLOYD, CHAS. HENRY BURKB, Fort Pierce, born Apalachicola, Fla., May
4, 1876, Uni of Ga., tax assessor Franklin county, Fla., 1900-04; rep. Franklin
county sessions of 1911-13; attorney, orator and poet.
FOSTER. J. CLIFFORD R, St. Augustine, Fla., born Savannah, Ga., Feb.
13. 1873, educated in public schools of Fla., asst. postmaster at St. Augustine
1893-96; Judge municipal court, St. Augustine 1899 to 1901; Adjutant General
of Fla.. 1901-17; subsequently represented the U. S. War Department Com. in
training camp activities (1917.)
FRENCH, CALVIN H., D. D. LL. D., Winter Park, born Williamsburg, O.,
June 13, 1862, educated Lake Forest College, Ill., and Union Theological Sem-
inary, New York City; was president Huron College, South Dakota 1898-1913;
associate secretary Presbyterian College Board, New York, 1913-17; came to
Florida August 1917; president Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida,
since September 1, 1917.
GAITSKILL, SILAS HENRY, McIntosh, born near Winchester, Ky.. July 12,
1852, educated in public schools; came to Florida Jan. 8, 1884; began stock
farming in 1903, and has demonstrated by his success the adaptability of
Florida lands and climate for this industry.
HARDEI, CARY A. Live Oak, born at Perry Fla.. Nov. 13, 1876; educated
in public schools; was State's attorney 3rd Judical circuit 1905-1913; speaker
Fla. House Reps. sessions of 1915-1917.
HARRIS, FRANCIS EPPES, Ocala, born Tallahassee Dec. 8, 1846, educated
at Quincy. Fla., began newspaper career on the Quincy Republic in 1859, and
is now editor of the Ocala Banner the oldest daily paper in Florida; has served
as trustee of Uni. of Fla., chairman school board and a member of the board
of county commissioners.
HARRISON, BENJAMIN, Jacksonville, born in Sumter county, Ala., July
18, 1862; educated at Summerville Ins., and the Uni. of Virginia; moved to
Florida January, 1877; county judge and postmaster at Palatka; editorial writer
on the Times-Union since the consolidation; held a like position on the Citizen
prior to consolidation.
HARRISON, CHARLES EPHRAIM, Tampa, born Jacksonville Oct. 5 1851;
educated by private tutors; county supt., pub. Ins. Bradford county 1876-80;
member Bad. Pub. ins. Hillsboro county 1886-90; county Judge 1886-1901; chair-
man exemption board. Div, No. 1 city of Tampa, admitted to bar Oct. 20 1872:
served at different times for 9 years as editor Tampa Tribune and Tampa
Times.










FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 77

HARTbIDGB. JOHN EARLE. Jacksonville, born Madison, Fla., Nov. 6.
1849; educated at Uni. of Ga., has served as county solicitor, city attorney,
State senator; nominated by President Cleveland for U. B. Dist. Judge but was
not confirmed because of Republican majority in the U. 8. Senate; attorney
representing Jacksonville Terminal Co., W. U. T. Co. and Pullman Car Co.
HAYES, PERCY SCOTT, Pensacola, born at Shubuta, Miss., in 1880, educat-
ed in a printing office in Mississippi, came to Florida in 1898; was managing
editor of the Pensacola Journal for several years and June 27. 1918, became
editor of the Pensacola News. Never held a public office and doesn't want
any.
HECKMAN, REV. W. H., Orlando, born Grand Rapids, Mich., Jan. 17. 1872:
educated at Battle Creek College, Mich., pastor Battle Creek Tabernacle of
Seventh Day Adventists, largest church of the denomination, pastor of Grand
Rapids church, presiding officer of the Pennsylvania Conference 8 years; moved
to Fla., October, 1912, presiding officer Fla. Conference Adventists.
HETHBRINGTON, ML F, Lakeland, born Elkton, Ky., December 27, 1867.
educated at Bardstown, Ky., came to Florida 1900; editor Lakeland Telegram
(daily) since March 1905; president Florida Press Association 1908-9.
HILBURN. SAMUEL J., Palatka, born at Gainesville, Ark., May 30. 1869:
educated at Cumberland Uni Tenn., served as a member of the Florida House
of Representatives in 1909. and Florida senate in 1911, resigning to become a
candidate for congress in 1912: was appointed Judge of a new circuit by Gov-
Park Trammell in 1915. but never served his term as the Supreme court invali-
dated the act creating the circuit.
HOLT, ADONIRAM JUDSON, D. D. Arcadia, born Somerset, Ky., Dec. 1.
1847; Southern Bap. Theo. Seminary, Louisville, Ky., cor. sec. gen. con. Texas
18 years; cor. sec. Bap State con, Tenn. 9 years; mis, to wild Indians 4 years,
pastor 25 years, editor Fla Baptist Witness since 1914.
HOLT, PLEASANT A. Jacksonville, born at Lake City, Fla., April 19, 1869,
educated in schools of Duval county; member of State Democratic Executive
Committee; member Jacksonville City Council, first elected to council 1897,
and has served almost continuously since.
HOOD, SAMUEL C., Orlando, born at Topsham. Vt., July 9. 1880; educated
at the University of Vermont; came to Florida in 1909; special asst. U. S. Dept.
Agri. since 1904, except for the year of 1916.
HOPKINS, CHARLES FLOYD, St. Augustine, born at St. Augustine, real
estate and loans for 35 years; postmaster at St. Augustine since January. 1918.
HOUGH. ALVERON SANFORD, Jacksonville, born at Oxford, Ga., July 19,
1858; educated at Emory College, Oxford; came to Florida September, 1890;
never held public position: chief of the editorial staff of the Florida Times-
Union, Jacksonville, since 1908, had previously held same position from 1898 to
1896.
HOWARD, C. n., Orlando. born in Pennsylvania, came to Florida October.
1883. located in Orlando 1904: edited Orlando Star, Orange County Reporter,
Orlando Reporter-Star, Orlando Sentinel, and for seven years owned and edited
the Orange County Citizen, served as alderman of Orlando 12 years, several
terms chairman: secretary Orlando Board of Trade several years, and is chair-
man of Orlando district school trustees
HUDSON, PREDERICK .L, Miami. born in Jefferson county, Ark. Feb 2.
1871. received his education in law at Washington and Lee University. Va.,
moved to Florida in 1900. was member of the Florida senate 1904-16 (3) terms.
and served as president of that body the session of 1909; was special counsel to
the Fla. R. R. Commission from Nov. 1914 to June. 1916, when he resigned to be-
come a candidate for governor; subsequently resumed practice of law at MiamL
HUMPHRIES, JOS H., Bradentown, born Thomasville, Ga.. Jan. 24, 1857
educated at Lexington, Va.; came to Florida January. 1876; state senator 1904
to 1912: editor Manatee River Journal (weekly) several years, appointed post-
master at Bradentown August. 1918.
HULLEY, LINCOLN, Pres. Stetson Uni., DeLand, succeeded Pres. Forbes in
1904: A. B. Bucknell Uni. Lewisburg, Pa. 1888; A. B Harvard Uni., Cambridge.
1889: A. M. Bucknell, 1891; A. M Ph D, Uni Chicago. 1896; Litt D., Stetson UnL
19068 LL. D.. Denison Uni., Granville, 0., 1907: spent every summer from 1892
to 1908 except '97-9 lecturing in United States in summer schools. chautauquas,
etc., 1897-9 in European travel' many positions of trust and honor, among them
press. Fla. Teachers' Assn., (1910) press (1917) Fla. Bankers' Assn.. author Child
Verse (1900); Love Songs (1902), Studies in the Book of Psalms (1904).
JENNINGS, FRANK E., Jacksonville, born near Centralia Kan., June 9,
1877; educated in public schools and Uni. Missouri; came to Florida May, 1903,
member State Board of Control 1913-17. port commissioner Jacksonville 1918-
17; lawyer.











78 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS

JONES. CHARLES EDWIN, Jacksonville, born at Princeton, Ky., Dec. 13, 1864.
educated at Princeton College, Ky., came to Florida in 1880; managing editor
Florida Metropolis, (daily) Jacksonville 12 years; Democratic elector and
messenger to electoral college 1913; has been managing editor of "Dixie"
(weekly) isnce 1912.
JONES, LOUIS D., Winter Garden born Gallipolis, O., June 20, 1864, served
Big Four railroad from age of 17 to k6 as operator dispatcher and asst. supt.,
was business manager Fla. Citrus Exchange April 22, 1913 to June 6, 1916;
orchardist and farmer.
JORDAN, ADRIAN PETIUS, Punta Gorda, born at Glenville, Ala., Sept.
17, 1851; educated at Emory and Henry Colleges, Emory, Va., came to Fla.
March 15, 1877; postmaster at Leesburg July 1, 1896, to June 80, 1900; State
Food Inspector Jan, 1909 to Aug. 1915; has been editor of the Punta Gorda
Herald (weekly) since Sept. 1, 1901.
KELLUM, JOHN G., Tallahassee, born Lake Butler, Fla., Oct. 5, 1871 edu-
cated public schools, Jasper Normal Ins. and Peabody Normal College, Nashville,
Tenn.. school teacher, asst. chief clerk, Fla. House of Representatives 1901-08,
chief clerk each session from 1905 to 1917. when he declined to become a can-
didate; secretary Board of Control 1906. and in addition was made business mgr.
Fla. State College for Women, 1907; was succeeded as sec. Board of Control in
1917, by W. Bryan Mack, and was made auditor for the board.
KNOTT, WILLIAM VALENTINE, St. Petersburg, born Dawson, Ga., Nov.
24, 1862, educated in public schools; came to Florida January, 1881; ex-
aminer public accounts (before creation of the office of State auditor) January,
1887, to Feb. 1903; Treasurer of Florida February, 1903 to February, 1912;
Comptroller of Florida February, 1912 to January, 1917; declared Democratic
nominee for governor, after contest before the Florida Supreme Court, but was
defeated in general election by S. J. Catts, independent.
LAMBRIGHT, EDWIN DART, Tampa, born at Brunswick, Ga., May 21,
1874; educated at Emory College, Oxford, Ga.; came to Florida June 1, 1899;
editor Tampa Tribune 1899-1917; delegate at large Democratic National Con-
vention at Baltimore 1912; president Tampa Rotary Club 1917-18; appointed
postmaster at Tampa and entered that service Sept. 1, 1917.
LEACH, GILBERT de la MATTYR Leesburg, born at New Albany, Ind., Feb.
2. 1881; educated at Charleston, Ind., came to Florida Feb. 18, 1907; editor the
Leesburg Commercial (weekly).
I/ENGLE CLAUDE, Ortega, born Jacksonville in 1862, 18 years in mercantile
business; editor Sun (daily and weekly) Jacksonville and Tallahassee 1904-09;
candidate for U. S. Senate 1910; editor "Dixie," (weekly) Jacksonville 1911-12;
elected congress-at-large 1912; served one term when state was redistricted
and 4th Cong. Dist. created.
LOWRY, DEXTER M, mayor of Tallahassee. born Valley Head. Ala., 1876;
educated at Greensboro. Ala.. came to Fla. 1900- member city council Talla-
hassee two years before being elected mayor in 1910; has been eight times
elected mayor, present term expires 1918.
LUING, JOHN C, Tallahassee, born Albany, Ga., Dec. 21, 1868, educated
in public schools, came to Florida 1882; county commissioner Lake county 10
years; upon death of B. E. McLin, Commissioner of Agriculture, was appointed
to fill that vacancy and February, 1912 was appointed State Treasurer when
Treasurer W. V. Knott was appointed to fill vacancy caused by the death of
Comptroller A. C. Croom.
MARTIN, JOHN WELLBORN, mayor of Jacksonville, Fla.. born at Martin,
Fla., June 21, 1884; went to school two years; commercial traveler for several
years; in 1917 defeated Mayor J. E. T. Bowden of Jacksonville for mayor of
that city and began his term of office June 22, 1917, which expires two years
from that date.
MATHEWS. EUGENE S. Starke, born at Providence, Fla., July 9 1872
educated at Galnesville; county judge of Bradford county 1897-8; member of
the legislature 1906-07-11; speaker 1907. Editor Bradford County Telegraph
(weekly).
MATS, DANNITTE HILL, Monticello. born Madison county, Fla. legislature,
28. 1852; educated at Washington & Lee Uni.; three terms in Fla. legislature,
one term speaker; elected as representative third Fla. dist. in 61st and 62d
terms of congress.
M'CREARY, H. H., Galnesville, born South Port, N. C.. 1861; attended pub-
lic schools' came to Fla., 1866; member Fla. legislature 1895-7; member State
senate 1899-1901-3-5-7-9; editor Gainesville Sun (daily) 35 years to Aug. 17,
1917. when he retired.
MITCHELL, ALEXANDER J, Jacksonville. born Glennville, Ala., Nov. 14,
1832. educated at Auburn, Ala., moved to Florida June, 1884, lived at Jupiter










FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 79

several years; member school board Dade county in the nineties; practiced law
at Juno while in charge of the weather offce at Jupiter; section director and
meteorologist U. 8. Weather Bureau, Jacksonville, since 1896.
MILTON, WM. H., Marianna, born in Jackson county, Fla., March 2, 18(4,
educated at Marianna, Fla., and Auburn. Ala., member legislature 1889, county
commissioner 1890; U. S. surveyor general 1894-7, press. Fla. Ind. School 1897-
1915; was appointed by Gov. Broward in 1908 to ill the unexpired term of U. 8.
Senator William James Bryan, who had been appointed to fill the unexpired
term of Senator Stephen R. Mallory; is at present (1917) member city council
of Marianna.
MILLER, WM. F., Valrico, born Buffalo, N. Y., Jan. 16. 1877; came to Fla.
Aug. 19, 1910; pres. South Fla. Chamber of Commerce; pres Hillsborough County
Board of Trade; manager Exchange Supply Co., and Valrico Development Co.
M'INTOSH, WM. MOUZON, JR., Tallahassee. born Sumter, S. C., Feb. 19,
1895; educated West Fla. Seminary; member city council Tallahassee 20 years;
chairman council 16 years; mayor one year; chairman Board Public Works 8
years; clerk in Comptroller's offce 35 years; at present (1917) chief clerk.
M'KENZIE, HENRY ., Palatka, born at Augusta, Ga. May 27, 1886; edu-
cated in Palatka high school and Fla. Military College at Bartow; served three
terms in the Fla. legislature, lower branch; chairman Mothers' Pension Com-
mission of Fla.. became editor of the Palatka Times-Herald, (weekly) at the
age of 22.
M'NAMEE, ROBT, Jacksonville, born at Easton, Penn., October 16, 1862;
educated at LaFayette College, Penn., came to Florida 1884; member Fla.,
Legislature 1899-1903; speaker Florida House 1899; publisher "Dixie" (political
weekly) Jacksonville, since 1912.
MOHR, CHAS H. Rt. Rev.. press St. Leo College. St. Leo, Fla.. born Chillico-
the, 0.. Jan. 24. 1863; educated at St Vincent College, Penn, came to Fla. August.
1890.
MONTAGUE. ANDREW PHILIP, Lake City, pres. Columbia College, born in
Essex county, Va., Sept. 27, 1864; educated at the Uni. Va.; was dean in Columbia
Uni. Washington. D. C., pres Furman Un. S. C, pres Howard College, Birming-
ham, Ala; came to Fla., July, 1912, and has been press. of Columbia College
(Baptist) since.
MURPHREE. ALBERT ALEXANDER, Gainesville, born at Walnut Grove,
Ala., April 29, 1870; educated in public schools, Peabody College for Teachers,
University of Nashville; came to Fla. Sept, 1896; was principal and supt of
schools 1886-95; Prof. Mathematics. Fla. State College 1895-97; pres. Fla. State
College and Prof. Philosophy 1897-1906; pres. State College for Women 1906-
09; press. Uni of Fla., since 1909.
NAUGLE, EDWIN EARLE. St. Petersburg, born Greencastle. Ind., Sept.
13, 1883, Indiana Uni. came to Fla. June. 1907; managing editor St. Petersburg
(morning) Times since Sept., 1916.
NEEL. JOHN Tallahassee, born Ponce de Leon, Fla., Aug. 5, 1848; common
schools; sheriff Holmes county 1873-5; member constitutional convention 1886:
state senate 1901-3-5-7: state convict inspector 1907-11.; chairman State Tax
Commission since July, 1913, when it was first organized.
NEHRLING, HENRY. Gotha, born Howards Grove, Sheboygan county, Wis..
May 9, 1853: educated at Teachers' Seminary, Addison, IlL, deputy collector and
inspector of customs 1887-1890, custodian public museum Milwaukee, Wis.. 1890-
1908. came to Florida January. 1902: horticulturist, collaborator U. S. Bureau of
Plant Industry; began caladium garden at Gotha, Orange county, Fla.. in the
fall of 1893.
NEWELL, WILMON, Gainesville, born Hull, Iowa. March 4. 1878. educated
Iowa State College, Ames, la., and Ohio State UnL, Columbus, 0., state entomo-
lo ist of Georgia 1902-4; secretary Louisiana state crop pest commissioner
1906-9; state entomologist of Texas 1910-16; came to Fla. Aug. 24. 1915, as
state plant commissioner appointed under act of 1915 creating state plant
board.
O'NEAL. WW. L. Orlando, born Belpre. 0., 1864: lived in Orlando since 1886;
pres. State Bank of Apopka, finance com. State Bank of Orlando, treasurer
Rollins College; member Board of Control Ins. Dept. Knights of Pythias of the
World; candidate of the Republican party of Fla. at sundry times for congress,
U. S. senator and governor.
PATERSON, ROBERT J.# Tallahassee, born Thomasville, Ga.. July 13. 1864,
educated in public schools, came to Florida 1864: tax assessor Madison county.
Fla., 19 years; member State Tax Commission since July 10, 1918.
PEPPER, WM. MULLIN, Gainesville. born Philadelphia, Pa., July 30, 1874;
came to Fla. 1904: editor the Gainesville Sun (daily) since August 1917.










80 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS

PILLARS, CHARLES ADRIAN. Jacksonville. born Rantoul. Ill., July 4,
1870, educated at Uni. of Illinois; student Chicago Art Institute under Sculptors
Taft, French and Potter: asst, to Lorado Taft 9 years, asst. Columbian Ex-
position Commission under Daniel French and E. C. Potter 1891-3; came to
la. 1894: sculptor for Florida statues in National Statuary Hall, Washing-
ton (Dr. John Gorrie and Gen. E. Kirby Smith. C. S. A.)
POWELL, WILLIS B. Clearwater, born Wapakoneta, O., April 12, 1868;
never went to school, moved to Florida, 190.3 was editor and publisher of St.
Petersburg Independent; established Clearwater Sun (evening) 1918, retired
February, 1916.
PRICE, WILLIAM H., Miami, born at Brandon, Miss., Mar. 10, 1864, edu-
cated at Weatherford, Tex., came to Fla., 1893, was chairman Democratic State
Executive Committee 1908-12; Judge of the 9th Judical circuit June, 1911 to
Nov. 1912; presidential elector 1916; moved from Marianna to Miami in July
1917, and became member law firm of Price, Price & Eyles.
RISESELL, WM. ARTHUR, Palatka, born at Port Huron, Mich., March 2,
1866, educated at Detroit and Albion College, Mich.; came to Fla. Dec. 1887;
mayor of Crescent City 1900-01; member Fla. House of Reps. 1907-1913 (two
terms); has been editor Palatka News (weekly) since January 1902.
ROBLES, FRANCIS MARION, Tampa, born in Tampa, Feb. 26, 1863; edu-
cated at Ann Arbor. Mich., county judge Hillsborough county from Jan. 1901,
to Jan. 1909; judge 13th circuit from July, 1911, beginning his second term July
1. 1917.
REAVES, 0. IL. Bradentown, born Sarasota, Fla., October 16, 1877; edu-
cated in the public schools of Manatee county took a business course at Jack-
sonville in 1898 and graduated from Stetson iUnL law school 1903; member Fla.
House of Rep., 1911; appointed Judge 6th circuit June, 1915. renominated and
reappointed without opposition; city attorney for Bradentown 1905 to 1915.
ROGERS, ROBERT F. Ocala, born at Darlington, S. C., May 30, 1847, edu-
cated in the school of "hard knocks" according to his statement; came to
Florida in 1867; was a member of the constitutional convention of 1886, and
has served in both the State senate and the House of Representatives; was
appointed postmaster at Ocala 1914.
ROLFS PETER HENRY, Gainesville, born Le Claire, Iowa, April 17, 1865,
educated Iowa Agri. College; came to Florida 1891, Fla. Agri. College 1891-99;
U. S. Dept. Agri. Miami station 1901-06; UnL Fla., 1906; director experiment
station, (1906), and director extension division (1913) dean agri college (1915).
SCOTF, ED., Arcadia, born in Ontario county, Canada, June 27, 1866; edu-
cated in public and high schools of Virginia; came to Florida in November,
1886; was county surveyor of Lee county in 1889; in October. 1915 was appoint-
ed by Gov. Trammell a member of the Florida Road Commission and was
elected chairman, which position he still holds.
SEARS. WILLIAM JOSEPH. Kissimmee, born at Smithville, Ga., Decem~lbr
4, 1874; educated in public schools of Osceola county Fla., Florida State College
then at Lake City, and at Mercer University, Macon. Ga., receiving his degree
in law in 1896: was elected mayor of Kissimmee in 1899; was elected supt of
public instruction for Osceola county in 1906 and served until 1916, when he
took his seat as representative in the 64th congress from the fourth Florida
district, having been elected in 1914.
SELLARDS, ELLIS HOWARD, Tallahassee, born Carter, Ky., May 2, 1876,
educated at Uni. of Kansas and Yale Uni.. came to Fla., 1904; geologist, Fla.
State Uni. 1904-7. State Geologist since the creation of the Survey in 1907.
SHEIAS, WM. NICHOLAS, Tallahassee. born Auburn, Ga., March 5, 1851,
educated at Emory College, Oxford, Ga., degree LL. D. conferred by Stetson UnL
June. 1913: came to Fla.. Dec. 1866; county supt. pub ins. 1881 Alachua county
served 12 years, delegate from Alachua county to constitutional convention of
1886. and was author of the Article on Education; state supt. 1893-1905 (12
years) again 1913-(1921) second term began Jan. 2, 1918.
SHUTTS, FRANK BARKER, Miami, born in Dearborn county, Ind., Sept. 11,
1870, educated at Depauw Uni., Greencastle, Ind., came to Florida July 1, 1910,
press. Miami Herald Co., and attorney at law, admitted Sept. 11. 1891.
SMITH, HENRY M. Chattahoochee, born at Douglasville, Ga., May 10, 1884,
educated at the Univ. of Ga., came to Florida in 1908, supt. Florida Hospital
for the Insane since July 1, 1917
SMITH, J. D., Marianna, born at Thomasville, Ga., May 10, 1861. educated
at Thomasville and Dawson, Ga., came to Florida in 1880; pres. North Fla.,
Chamber of Commerce. member of the Florida Highway Commission, having
been appointed by Gov. Trammell in 1915; merchant, real estate dealer and
banker.
SPARKMAN. HUGH C, Daytona, born Ft. Myers,, Fla., April 17. 1880; edu-
cated in public schools: presidential elector 1912; editor Daytona Journal
(weekly and winter daily) since 1914.











FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS 81

SPARKMAN, SIVB4N KL, Tampa. born in Hernando county, Fla.. educat-
ed in public schools. studied law under oy. Henry Mitchell and admitted to
practice in 1872; State's attorney for Sth judicial circuit 1878-87; elected to the
4th congrs and served eleven successive terms of two years each: was chair-
man of the Rvers and Harbors Committee when he was succeeded in 1017 by
Herbert J. Drane.
STOCKTON, JOHN N. C. Jacksonville, born Quincy. Fla., Nov. 17. 1861t
educated at Jacksonville; chairman board public works. Jacksonville. member
board county commissioners; member Florida legislature 1897; candidate for
U. senator against Senator Tallaferro. 1904; candidate for ovrnor against
Gov. Gilchrist. 108: candidate U. senator against Senator Fletcher, 1914.
STOCKTON, TIULAIR, Jacksonville. born at Quincy. Fla.. Jan. 31 1860.
member Board of Public Works. Jacksonville. 1897-09; State senator 194-4;
member House of Reps. 1917.
STONIMAN, RANMK ., Miami. born Indianapolis. Ind.. June 2. 1857.
educated at the Unl. of Minnesota, came to Florida Jan 1. 1897, presidential
elector 194; began editorial work in 1901, editor Miami Herald (dally) since
1910.
STOVALL, WALLACE FISHR, Tampa, born at Elsabethtown, Ky., Jan.
4. 189; educated at Elisabethtown; came to Florida at the ae of .: has been
owner of various newspapers since 18 years .of age in Lake Weir Oc
Sumterville. Bartow andampa; etablihed the Tam t pa Morning Tribne t
1892.
STDRAUB. WM. LINCOLN St. Petersburg, born Dowagiac. Mich., July 14.
1867; educated at hard work; helped organize State of North Dakota. com-
menqing "Sairent County Rustler on army press became managng editor
and artoonist Grand Forka Daily Herald; came to a., im., bought the Times
(then weekly) April 1. 1901. later established the Times a a morning daily;
appointed postmaster at St. Peterburg 1918.
'TrNC LLOYD STANLEY, Miami. born near Rochester. N. Y.. Dee. 4.
1871; educated UnL Rochester and Cornell UnL.; professor at Cornell: came to
Fla. Jan.. 191. secretary-manager Fla. Growers and Shippers League; eere-
tary-treaurer and manager Coral Reef (Avocado) Nurseries; since Aug 1. 191;
sec. Fla. East Coast Growers Assn. since Nov. 1917.
THOMAS, JEPFERSON, Jacksonville. born Hodgenville, Ky., July 11. 1873.
educated in the School of Hard Knocks, came to Florida in 1913; is the head
of the Thomas Advertising Service, Jacksonville.
THOMAS, WAYNE, Plant City, born Springseld, Tenn.. Oct. 1 189: educat-
ed mainly in printing office; editor and manager Plant City Courier since April.
1910; press. Fla. Press Assn press. South Vla. Press A n., lieut Hillborough
County Guards; pree. Plant City Board of Trade.
HOMPSON, NORBBRG, Key West. born at Key West 188:; educated Mt.
Plesat Academy and New York Uni.; member Key West city council Nov.
1918-1; mayor Nov. 1915-17.
TRAER, WILLIAM M., Jacksonville, born Vinton, la., July 30. 1876; came to
Florida October 1, 1912; editor and general manager Florida Farmer and
Stockman.
TRIPLETT, STONEWALL JACKSON, St. Cloud, born Monticello, Fla.. Jan
16. 1861; self educated: left Florida at age of 10 years and returned after (6
years of travel; editor several Florida publications. latterly the Kissimmee
Valley Gazette and St. Cloud Tribune before retirement.
WALL, PERRY G., Tampa, born at Brooksville, Fla., Nov. 22. 1807; educated
at Gainesvill.e Fla.: served two terms as member of the Tampa city council.
and two terms as member of the Hilllborough county school board; was a can-
didate for U. 8. senator in 1916.
WARTWAN. EDGAR LAWRENCE, Citra. born Harrisburg, Va., Oct 18T7;
educated in public schools; came to Fla. when 19 yrs. old; member legislature
from Marion county 1905-07, appointed member Board of Control 1907, on which
he has served for ten years.
WATSON, JOHN WILLIAM, Miami, born New Berne, N. C.. Oct. 21, 5IU.
educated at Lovejoy Academy. Raleigh, N. C.; was mayor of Kissimmee. mem-
ber of legislature eight times; speaker 1901; elected 1917 mayor of Miami for
the third time.
WEST, THOMAS FRANKLIN, Tallahassee, born Santa Rosa county Fla.,
Nov. 23. 1874* attended common schools the State College and took law at
Washington & Lee; member House of Representatives 1903; senate 1905-07:
member committee to revise statute laws 1903-6; member House Representa-
tives 1911; attorney general 1913 to Sept. 1 17 resigned and was appointed
Justice supreme court by Gov. Catts; press. tate Bar. Assn., July, 1915 to July,
1918.
WHITFIBLD, GEORGE TALBOT, Tallahassee, born Tallahassee, July 29.
1872, educated at Baltimore, Md., secretary to Gov. Albert W. Gilchrist during
his entire term, Jan. 1909-12, and to Gov. Park Trammell from 1912 to July,
1915, when he was appointed clerk of the Florida Supreme Court.











82 FLORIDA FLASHLIGHTS

WHITFIELD, JAMES BRYAN, Tallahassee, born Wayne county, N. C. Nov.
8, 1860, educated West Fla. Seminary, Tallahassee, and Uni Va., from which he
graduated Bachelor of Law, June. 1i886 secretary to Gov. E. A. Perry 1888;
county judge Leon county 1889; clerk Fla. Supreme Court from 1889 to 1897;
State Treasurer 1897 to 1903; Attorney General 1908-4; appointed Justice of the
Supreme Court 1904; re-elected 1904-1906, 1912; was Chief Justice in 1906 and
from 1909 to 1913. Present term expires January, 1919.
WILSON, EMMBET, Pensacola, born at Belize, British Honduras, C. A..
Sept. 17, 1882, educated at Fla. State College, Stetson Uni. law school; asst. U.
S. dist. attorney and later attorney Northern Dist of Fla. Oct, 1907, to March,
1909. Represented third cong. dist. in 63d and 64th congress.
WILSON. JAM S EDGAR, Lakeland, born Martinsburg, W. Va., Oct. 19,
1860, educated Baltimore public schools, minister since 1880, came to Florida,
May. 1901, editor Florida Christian Advocate (Methodist) since Dec., 1918.,
WOLFE. J. BMMETT, Miami, born at Oquaka, Ill., Nov. 23, 1869, was edu-
cated at Peabody Normal College, Nashville, Tenn., came to Fla., 1866; mem-
ber Fla. State senate 1891-8; House Reps., 1901; U. S. atty., 1894-1898; judge
1st circuit court 1907-14; moved to Miami from Pensacola March, 1914 to practice
law
WOODS, CLARENCE EVERETP, Eustis, born at Lebanon, Ky., July 31,
1866; educated at Central Uni. Richmond, Ky., mayor Richmond 4 years, asst.
sec. U. S. Senator McCreary, (Ky.) 2 years, nationarlgrand recorder and editor,
Sigma Nu Fraternity, 19 years, honorary life member Ky. Press Assn., came
to Florida March 4, 1912. and has been editor manager of the Eustis Lake
Region (weekly) since Aug. 25, 1912.
WRIGHT, EDGAR A. Tampa, editor and manager of the Florida Grower,
was born at Lewiston. Maine, May 17, 1867, and came to Florida November,
1910. when he took charge of the Grower.
ZM, LEWIS W. St Augustine, born at Alexandria, La., April 10, 1858, edu-
cated principally in printing office but had two years at Louisiana State Uni.
Came to Florida in 1880. Served as councilman of Green Cove Springs, supt.
Clay county schools, chairman of the Board of Education of Clay county rep-
resentative from St Johns county in 1892 and again in 1894, and was elected
to the State senate in 1904, 1908. 1912; president Fla. Federation of Labor 1908
to 1914; editor St. Augustine Meteor (weekly.)



COMPARATIVE WEATHER DATA FOR FLORIDA


Temperature. pripi-
tati.

Year
d *

__ _____________a W 4
1892 ...................................... .. 70.4 101 22 47.99
1893 .................................. .......... 71.0 104 19 5 .01
1894 ............................................ 71.2 101 12 52.51
1895 .......................................... 69.9 100 11 46.50
1896 ............................................ 71.0 102 20 49.62
1897 ......................................... 71.2 04 17 66.9
1898 ............................................ 70.5 102 17 48.36
1899 .......................................... 71.0 104 -2 5.9
1900 ............................................ 70.7 104 13 1.19
1901 ........................................... 8.8 107 2 8.47
1902 ........................................ .. 70.8 10 1 1.24
1903 ...................................... ... 9.8 10 17 66.79
1904 ....................................... .. 9.9 102 20 48.16
1906 ............................................ 70.6 101 10 61.48
1906 ............................................ 70.9 101 14 61.7
1907 ............................................ 71. 102 21 49.16
1908 ............................................ 71.2 10 20 48.64
1909 ............................................. 71.1 108 16 49.6
1910 ............................................ 69.2 102 19 60.81
1911 ............................................ 72.3 104 16 47.40
1912 ............................................. 71. 104 1 4.8
1913 ............................................ 71.2 104 23 48.02
1914 ............................................ 70. 107 19 49.68
1916 ............................................. 70.4 1065 2 56.10
1916 ............................................ 71.1 102 21 47.10




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