MIAMI AND DADE
ts Settlement, Pro s
B V. BLI.cumN
WITH A COLUCI ON O INDIVIDUAL SKInCHi
OF PuMBNTATIV r TI cn AND OGNEALOG-
ICAL R3CORD1 OF sOME OF THE OLD FAMILIES
WASBIMNTON. D. C.
T.o i M..wen
HENRY M. FLAGLER
Fhrima' Grci BRnq#ra
THIS VOLUME IS AFFECTIONATELY
DEDICATED 3T THE AUTrOB
ALL history is necessarily an abridgment,
the historian being compelled to select his
material from a multitude of details. In the
preparation of this history of Miami and Dade
County much has doubtless been omitted that
might have been of interest, but the author has
been obliged to confine his text to the more salient
points as illustrative of certain phases of local
I have been prompted to perform this service
by an earnest desire to see woven into permanent
record the wonderful story of this wonderful
community, for the benefit not only of contempo-
rary readers, but for future generations as well.
I can but hope that my effort will meet with the
approval of that intelligent and publie-spirited
eitienship in whose behalf the work was under-
Thankful acknowledgment is here made to the
many friends who have kindly furnished ma-
terial for this work and to those whose patronage
made its publication possible.
E. V. BLCKMAN.
II I I I
TABLE OF CONTENTS
DAI COOU .. .. ....-_................ .... 11
Buly History -______-_____- _11
Perrine Grant _-..---- -- 11
Original Dade County-- _---- ---- 18
Barly Settulm ______-.-.-_.___ 15
The S in le Ldian -.......-. ..... .....----. -- 816
CMr Mum -r-18
The fir Awakening 18
The Birth of a City 19
Barely Settlerm 2.
Miami Today 28
CaUnonS __ --27
DAm Coo0mw 8Seooue 81-. ..
Cm OammunrnT ArD CLUaB_ 834
DAM Coaum BA 7..
THns ILNAL PaON se .. 41
MElTAr Humao 48
BAm AmD BANe IO a46
Tha Pmas __.__..6 50
Ham M. PLAor --___. 51
Joux D. Trrrru 58
Amoouiam uAo Harcmuroan 8ou -61
BOAms AD B.... _641.
TmH POImD Bvreils _m 66
Tam DPw WATI MOVEMENT ____._ 68
TH= DADs CouyrT PAB __ 70
TABLE OF CONTENTS-Costimsed.
CocoUwr GUoM 72
Early Settlement 7
Cocomut Orove Library 75
Biasyne Bay Yaeht Club 75
How ekeepe Club 76
Mum R BACH 77
TowN AxD VILYe 80
Mr. Plflr' F'irt Publie ALd MI 84
The M(oquito ao Other DayJ 85
Cowunity Names 86
Bioemaur AL 91
N the ea 1808 the SpaUim oernmamt, whieh at t time
owd lMori, mWatla to fota k ma 100 aow t hald ata-
atd as tbh Miami lir, tLm kown a Sweat Watr, where
the City o Miamd is mer Lomed. The grant wu aWne FVdn-
ary 27, 1806. Ega diaio ed of traet t Ias laml to
Fsrns I and tlf e felmes t Them. Gme. AMtr alls was
tis" to th Usitled ate tr Sata, amM h ao|u, a m at JL gma, pr-
=Mtea clim far M40 aem Mehi t was *sgi n ml sm eaame br
the Itab fStateo earim s at St. AwmYa Jam b Aer eon-
vaWre bs dilam to Ima lt bIMI, rwh haL abse the a aw r
tha Jha 3gaa prant. tib tra tai wer afterward meaato b aoh
amaa's ular, m I mp.h ho n eame the lam to Wlm PI.Ia -
Ua, who kaht a lre mmbr at dsml asd eMmmme mas
famiaf POjets. He mami a Iea pertlo th h*mmmk and
lab,. hib primpedl I gp b eoo, bases a Ide hla iW diW
witoet k myo dearem at bi pwwrra =a be beg nmriM.
tm Fprpet wau a tlof e twee bi maer, IHribt noat Nad
an a be ther, Ja hnLh. Hani B T erase hr mJW
halt aimn to fr. J. V. ilansi at Er Wi. h h.l M eri% r W m l Wm
I. Cah sugt be md a Msim tok aof pp e-yl b*t the eeatl
dialed apt him. bSI tINa t im a mpr amn Ir a me ah anm
Ba m was ergadhel l DGuo w. c dh a behalf at ti Bis-
erws Bw Cinmpemr, l em Ite u f Dr. Harhd ..d the dahips
of Geaemer Chum.. whnma sathe eM ammi ov an U. esk *ei
lea. Iter nr MwaTh eam tham es the aSo m 2 ay cgarsw,
whol tor ta, omaweitmato a G. 1erL Seth l. hs
afi to U. G. 3.Aw, W. L wbsim. Jmgh W 3ad ao N. thew.
Afamwrdm m*3p Dw Aa s h hiofbb abmeodu m sme-
Jeose Ib r ad. No -r-lyb a"t ad dem-
Vere tsk i nII to Mm. Teleas thamom per1eat11 the
ahb at tes at thed dphtie in Ga ter a grmi.
Tn Paam Gua
Of a to eaUy ash et u egt ld Iru bel e tim nal
pbil was tde st at Car= in 1 w ma nd a pat em tow-
dLp of had to Dr. Nwur 1ins, a at sal*istat, ,r do pps at n-a
troducing purely tropical plants and trees from the tropics. Dr. Perrine
had several years' experience in tropical countries and during his resi-
dence abroad he became imbued with the idea that in southern Florida the
climatic conditions were similar to those in the real tropics, and that if a
large number of trees, plants and shrubs could be brought to the United
States and successfully grown that it would be a great economic measure,
saving the people of the United States millions of dollars each year, be-
sides building up what was then a wilderness. Dr. Perrine, with this
thought in view, went before Congress and asked that one township (six
miles square) be granted him for this purpose. On July 2, 1838, Congress
passed the following Act:
Whereas, in obedience to the Treasury circular of the sixth of Sep-
tember, eighteen hundred and twenty-seven, Doctor Henry Perrine, late
American consul at Camp Peachy, has distinguished himself by his perse-
vering exertions to introduce tropical plants into the United States; and
Whereas, he has demonstrated the existence of a tropical climate in
south Florida, and has shown the consequent certainty of the immediate
domestication of tropical plants in tropical Florida, and the great prob-
ability of their gradual acclimation throughout all our southern and south-
western states, especially of profitable plants as propagate themselves on
the poorest soil, and
Whereas, if the enterprise should be successful it will render valuable
our hitherto worthless soils by covering with a dense population of small
cultivators and family manufacturers, and will promote the peace, pros-
perity and permanency of the Union; therefore,
Be it enacted by the Senate and the House of Representatives of the
United States of America, in Congress assembled, That a township of land
is hereby granted to Doctor Henry Perrine and his associates in the south-
ern extremity of the peninsular of east Florida, to be located in one body of
six miles square, upon any portion of the public lands between 26 degrees
SETON 2. And be it further enacted, That the said tract of land shall
be located within two years from this date by said Henry Perrine, and
shall be surveyed under his direction by the surveyor of Florida, provided
that it shall not embrace any land having sufficient quantities of naval
timber to be reserved to the United States nor any site for maritime ports
SCTION 8. That whenever any section of land in said tract shall
really be occupied by a bona fide settler, engaged in the propagation or cul-
tivation of valuable tropical plants, and upon proof thereof being made to
the Commissioner of the General Land Office, a patent shall be issued to
the said Henry Perrine and his associates.
SUCTION 4. And be it further enacted, That every section of land in
the aforesaid which shall not be occupied by actual settlers engaged in the
propagation or cultivation of useful tropical plants within eight years from
the location of said tract, or when the said adjacent territory shall be sur-
veyed and offered for sale, shall be forfeited to the United States.
Before it was possible for Dr. Perrine and his associates to carry out
the provisions of this act he was murdered by the Seminole Indians His
widow was unable to carry out the contract or grant provisions made by
Old Barracks. Fort Dallas. and First Court House
Present Dade County Court House
ber late hubaad. I 1847 Dr. Persine ad hi aisodat. selected the
lands. The land wsn emrvri d designated on the public maps as
"Perrne Great." In I n an pplication wa made by the State of Florid
to lirt the lands embraced with the grant to the State under the swamp
land act of 1860, whi appliation was refused upon the ground that the
lands bdonged to the Perie bheis. Up to this time the Perrine bad
brought 36 famtlie from the Bahamas, who had settled an ad in the
great. It is dlamed that thee families, or a major part of thea. wee
driven away by the Indsam. On aeoount of the murder of Dr. Perrine, the
heir wer not abe to arry out the provisous of the rant in fll. This
amued some itigrtion, which was finally deded I favor of the Perrie
heie. _. E. i vice | nd gt r
Se-- t enteredd it t lar
over Mr. Jder
wam resident agent for
the Phrine gmat. Dr. Rldmond was a gradste from tbhe MaseaM uear
Agrieltural Colle, which made him a valuable arsmt to the etser who
came n from other section.
ORIomIAL DAM Cou Tr
Originally, ade Counaty the nor-h emmmed on the north ide of
the St. Lade Biver and exted sd eo ward to the Monroe Cony le
and wi ward to tha L efolmnr e &uAac oen bang its eeatn
.boundayr. The eologieal formation of the origial county varied gram
and intaed rva-i-is ma4i, mad prairie, pine bad, lat woods, ba
g~k i"d wales. BtA ertheir part were aso may aes of-hirb lead.
The surface of the leads n the northern part of the ounty vary aeatly
frm the laas in the central nd omtber portion of e coty. The
mar lands in the northern prt of the old county an of the ae general
charaemr a al the mard hands aept that in aso er there is a grnter
amount of sand miaed with.the mad formation The hammek lands, orig-
inally covered with a growth hardwo od timber, wen coomideed o a
much riher quality than the oer land, Mep the Everalade and mmak
pocket.. In eaoming aouth from Jpiter, the chracter of he hardwood
timber in the hra=mm I changes The ordiary hardwood is liU d mined
with aome of the more tropical tees, ineoadg in t tropical growth nmtil
in the haemmol of Fort luderdle the common hardwood varietes dis-
appear entire and the hardwoods of te tropics ta their place. The
ads in the northern portion of the county are of the same general forma-
tion a those in other port of the state, bt on reaching Fort Laer-
dal there is a dededd chane in e aracter of th land amd the natural
wild growth in the hammo Her, the eoralin rodk format bhei to
crop out, and in ming outward this rock fom motion is moe pronounced.
In some places the entire surface of the land is covered with boulder. In
other places the rock is called "pot hole" rock, while in other sections plate
rock comes to the surface. The surface rocky lands do not extend far into
the Everglades, but at different depths the rock is found, and going west-
ward the dip is greater. The soil overlaying the rock in the Everglades is
either sand marl or muck (peat), with here and there small hammock
islands where the soil runs from 1 to 20 feet deep over the rock.
What is now known as the Everglades was once an inland lake, with
long arms extending eastward to Lake Worth, Biscayne Bay or the ocean.
These lands are largely sand or marl. Making out from this vast body of
over-flowed lands (four million acres) are streams of greater or less propor-
tions that have broken through the ridge of rock and pine land lying be-
tween Lake Worth, Biscayne Bay and the ocean.
From the northern boundary of the original Dade County on the east
side of Lake Worth, extending southward to Cape Florida, is a ridge of
pine land interspersed with strips of hammock and in some places flat
woods or saw grass lands, covered with a growth of mangrove, a specie of
the Banyan tree. In the vicinity of Fort Lauderdale and Miami there were
and are some of the largest tropical hammocks in the United States. These
are now fast disappearing in the march of civilization. In the place of the
beautiful hammocks, magnificent homes have been built. Going south from
Miami, the western shore of Biscayne Bay is lined with a wall of rock sev-
eral feet in height, and many of these "bluffs" have been purchased by
wealthy men and converted into palatial homes. Going still further south,
the bluffs disappear and the flat woods and saw grass lands extend down
to the shore, while to the west there is a long line of rocky pine land ex-
tending west to the Everglades.
The first settlements at the north line of the original county were
Jupiter, Juno, Palm Beach and Fort Lauderdale. Among the first settlers
at Palm Beach were E. N. Dimmick and family, George Lainhart, William
Lainhart and a Mr. McCormick. The people living in the north part of old
Dade County became dissatisfied with being connected with Miami and the
southern part of the county, and began an active campaign to divorce the
northern part of the county from the southern portion, which resulted in an
election being called to register their desire. In this they were successful.
The legislature of 1909 passed an act creating Palm Beach County. This
divorced the northern portion of original Dade County, reaching south to a
point a few miles north of Fort Lauderdale. Again, dissension arose and
the people living in and around Fort Lauderdale became dissatisfied and de-
manded that another slice be taken off. An election was held July 8, 1913,
and in 1915 Broward County was created, being taken from Dade, leaving
the present Dade County, with Miami as the county seat. Many people
were discouraged by the taking of these two counties from the original
Dade. Some thought that the death knell of the county had been sounded,
but Dade County put on new life and has developed more rapidly than
Fort Dallas in Eaily Days
Fort Dallas, 121
In 186 Wmiam P. Wasme, odr a (ras, Smth Caroi, arrived
hem and took up a homesad of 40 areas ear where the ow Aapimh
dMhoo hm now rtadLa He did at take up 10 areas rbesame hI th ht
40 a of reek lad was al he wanted. In 8 Joeph Wilsm Waer,
also at harlest, South Carolina, took up a hominmi, aMd. hbe iL a
residt of the count, he ad Mrs. Adam C. Bdehad being the lyv-
inas srvivw r of thoa who settled hs' ln n= or prior to that sr. Adam
C. 3B d, ill a reidInat f iami. arrived hersu m Jammar 26, 15L
Mr. Ricards is fandmiar with the htory of the Itr tl et of the
o a and L knowledge the pioneer days probab emss that of
ay other m Mr. lw. was bor ari Ohio. Who a y a m he
weat to New York ad ftrm the saied to South Amk Raterans to
this county, he leader at KEa West ad u rom tr tk pa mn in a sal-
boat for Mimi t eI rL He he found the "ad t
At tattMto won only a few poiop heor. Aa ha t wam
B. rise i, who hd thel ---
.r ediar. ams am CldA OMdo. Gngto Noew York
heb sd~ seer and sit sad for Fort Dahlas. I b aM t blbig
mkodaid w arnda bB&alblhaaxlU. howhich be was
joined b his famil. Sta utvant, Julia D. Tu le
eam to Mimi soms two years pneio to to the om of Ms. Tttle and
afterwards sealed a hbomitad aorth Iof ile River. mi
G. Gleso sand Am* arriVe bare m-u t -a- t6 m orkh
livedM oaths I -o as U N-A terw tak ngup a
CC~aJ ~ j MLAdl C. Rkhhards reab =a& In 1 1u ig
hiMtoy o the early period. Hemarried dauter t WWimP. Wager,
and waso of the leader In the s eer epo. P 14 ryeas Mr.Wa er
made r itah from th trai t grew in abundance. Hea.W
new setter took it up addr them am t wold maBp al the
stard ansiery for thm th ese e do b iam
No aldup =&r-
4 thia waid apjwsirm
iem ouifld to hav eoultvard the to rae food fo r faMir fleL
At that time hunting was also one o the pri elpl aeuate der, wld
tof and other gem bsing plansitlf. L at h- beltl wale lo
pepeC madt smr to want to w Q iir tha
primeval eet, without wk or eas. Mr. Bidehumads the at
tabes that wmn W r gron for the aOther mi. This was n
18M. He was them played Iw Colal Ewlns auperintmdemt of the
Bieayn Bay Caompnr. The vegsaMles were ra ths rograds
oecapold by the Royal Palm Hotel and em Mr. Rioan' plao wet f the
Miami River. This was the firt experiment made here in growing food
products and was ucceeuL M r. Richards plated tomatoes, bea and
egplant and shipped them to New York or New Oreans. The uncertainty
of the shipments reaching their destiaton in good order was the principal
drawback. He received a high as sixteen dollar per barrel for eggplant
and seven dollars and a half per crate for bean. He states that the bfrt
fruit trees here of which he has y areolletio-aweeB
Flnteter place, nearii. th. mouth =ra.i iifri wer usme
apfi f aviiadimlo, Tban n -md
growth ainsailniibe uri y. In 187 Mr. Richards was elected
tax asemor and collector and has in his possession the original tax book.
In 1888 Samuel Rhode was elected treasurer. Rhodea settled o a home
tead at Coonot Grove and laid out a town called New Bisayne. When he
became treasurer he did not know what to do with the county's money, as
there were no banks here then. He secured a tin box and hid the treasure
in a crevice of a roki bluff near his home. A forest fire broke out, sweep
ing the surface of te country, and endangered the safety of Rhodes' vault
After the re had spent its fury, the tin box was found unharmed and the
county wealth was saved. Mr. Richards brands a untrue the old fa-
milar story of the stealin of the Dade County courthouse. He states that
there wa a regular election allied and held for the removal of the court-
house from Miami to Lake Worth and the result was that those who wanted
the county seat removed won. At that time Al Field, Pat Lenan and
others owned large tracts of land at Juno, on Lake Worth. In the call for
the election no definite site was mentioned. Field, Lenan ad the others
wanted to locat the courthouse at Juno. The Dimmicks Moore and other
settlers reidin at Lake Worth, now Palm Beach, thinking it would, of
course, be located at Lake Worth, voted for the removal. The Juno crowd
won, but lost what they expected in the making of a town. Juno did not de-
velop, and just ten year afterward another election was called to remove
the courthouse. West Palm Beach and Miami entered into a spirited con-
test for the honor, which resulted in Miami being ehoen for the county
seat. Soon afterwards the books, papers nd other county wbeloni ere
moved to Miami and an old idilaig on the north shore of the Miami Rivqr
was ued for a corthou until buildn of the prnt strctum. When
the removal was made from Miami to Juno all the county documents were
packed in one oap box.
TuH SzxmxoLz IWDIAns
No history of the early settlement of Dade County would be complete
without mention of the Seminole Indiana. When Floida became a part of
the United States the Indians wre a menace to the peaceful development
of the country. Thee troubles culminated in the Indian War, which east
1,500 lives, twenty millions of dollar and eight year of time It was ended
in 1842 by the banishment of the hostile red men into the fastaes of the
.Evg~dbes- #Oct__-. -1a -- l--- rrbs- wiraams t ne
sminhld. B itana d I
-m naming the Smi u ha-u ben
d bmt thee are blhowed W be about 400 number of thi trib in
Ploridi. Tw Sminole is a feamar figure in niaml and Dabe Couty,
wher tTher erane and M d4 r e attrae the attanti O the d teMr.
In their h lf-smCtatesld i thep ran ear, mpkqn s, Ppoeo~ pem
chidker and heO. Thwa e nMprt Mes ad M what avs thay used.
Five or aix aimieMs asdy amp udere heam em fadbly ar ag it
own prlmta htat. Te Shmio le is bealy, umbtriosr Is his
own wa, moal and Devoted to tribal customs, he is ssly ind to
hi wounm and cldrn, and rewmnMM the Great SpirL
THE CITY OF MIAMI
THE FIjST AWAKENING
DT had been a long, weary Rip Van Winkle sleep that enveloped
this tropical section. The same unapproachable climate had
prevailed for centuries, the same clear, sparkling waters had
laved the shores of Biscayne Bay, with only now and then a
visitor drifting in on his way to somewhere from some-
where. In many cases some real enthusiasm was kindled in the breasts
of these wanderers, but no permanent advance was made toward bring-
ing the wonders of this tropical section before the public. For cen-
turies it had been the same; flowers of rare beauty grew in pro-
fusion and "blushed unseen," the same equable climate had prevailed for
centuries, encouraging the growth of tropical and semi-tropical fruits
and trees; Biscayne Bay, the most beautiful sheet of water in the world,
had remained for centuries "unknown and unloved." The few who came
here went their way singing the praises of this wonderful clime, but
the story fell on deaf ears. With the coming of the Biscayne Bay Com-
pany, efforts were made to let the world know of the wonderful place,
but so far as bringing settlers here, the story again fell on deaf ears.
Later the coming of Mrs. Julia D. Tuttle, of Cleveland, Ohio, who pur-
chased the lands of the Biscayne Bay Company and settled here perma-
nently, was a failure so far as bringing in settlers and developing the
country. Seemingly,'t did no good for Mrs. Tuttle to tell the wondrous
story of the land of palms and sunshine. Now and then a settler would
come in, but there was no general movement toward development. The
Brickells, who had settled on the south side of the Miami River, also failed
to bring people here.
The world was singing the praises of Henry M. Flagler, who had com-
pleted the Florida East Coast Railroad to Palm Beach. Mrs. Tuttle, be-
lieving that the only thing needed to bring this country before the public
was to induce Mr. Flagler to extend his road to Miami, made the trip to
St. Augustine to interview Mr. Flagler and lay her plans before him.
The trip was made in vain. She also wrote many letters to Mr. Flagler,
offering to divide her large property holdings with him. Her persistent
pleas were of no avail at that time. But Providence favored Mrs. Tuttle
in her efforts. The great freeze of 1894-1895 devastated the old orange
belt, making men of wealth paupers, destroying their groves and wiping
out their fortunes. Mr. Flagler then remembered Mrs. Tuttle's story of
Starting Miami. Breaking Ground for Royal Palm Hotel. March 15, 1896
Flagler Street. Miami. 1921
thIs ad Was
ass as H. woest W ear t
l M byM T,. and mwtr ed Uw s hiutmat Mr. In-
grhamwe to mane a trip to M d md navea o s tthe comtlo; thet
esad there. On adVi o at Mamid Mr. Inafban waes nt oaly @r-
pri-ed but d d to d tht the frost kg bhd not rshed hea. He
found ower to ft bloom d he foa. k dnk sad grme; to fact t was
another wor d. Much diieds ap his swer to his hif, s there
were other coadMitlems to be token late o mlerst.o He was deliged
with the omHti rm-n- ba thed mpemaMe hatmmodw and the
rsky pane blds e tered his ind, ard he wderbd im thesM seemamingl
worthlea hd cdsodld be s ed ad brought tot ealtfvatioa. As evi-
deacet hat th rst had ot reshed Mia a bouquet at flower and
foalge-was gathbeed ad seat to Mr. PIaler, sad sooa the order was
-ieB to extead the Flerida bat Coast RBroed to- ad.L It is sete to
my that the deoida o to tead th read to Mlmi was bad on Mr. Ingra-
tThe port asooa wes~t utthat the zalsead waild b At mnd to
Miamu apit s a acoud 6do thwsdkA raJo thlepe aort WM
Labe Trtawa Ir s I to li e p. To th-ers was a hbek
HIM strtmd A r Pa eib to o e. iM 'P rls had to be tin d mr
thouMiads swh -were out ar- th ut th oid ebelt bAMd d to
Mim, aod I a sheet tim mon ed aste appeared. The ba was
covered with sal boatsa, q m lf gt up wifta tD abde luaeosswaMleas
to behor when hd eruiwaime rwasrto emme. At tat tine
. food Booem tahe rlda hsaf the alyr n and
th of people was great that wa aEMete tipae to gst
stocks to supply the demad. a pas weeks a e and went, aad
yet theb was so ader for the wakf to eoamus. May bee ahost
deaperats aa thy hd used up thedr little al to eolrf to MiamL Con-
dios wer aheost bearable whemIn t a ems that Joeph A.
MeDauMu Jaohn bay, Joha 8awd and G. Sawed wld arrnr in
Miam the ant day (bnrerry 15 1SM). am t uth r mr .fmW
the Boyal Palm Batl wou d be em aRsid Ah. tbi I id was
broakeL. Mi eam almt ftratle wtth Joy over the proapet d wok.
It wa the dawn o another day.
THa BwaT or A Car
rMisai was ltaM ag as a tay to MPl\ It has the diatiaeti of
ever havi bees a vige a tow, bt was tiia liedged dity. The
cdtjr birih da was Jir UM. An eleti for aty e es was held
and Joh B. ahOy was ,here thf bat mayor, aad Fead More, iJoee
A. Mdyma l Dal Coegrsr ad Walter & Graham wan elod d co ell-
men, and Jack Graham city clerk. The settlement prior to this time
had been known as Fort Dallas, the name of the military post main-
tained here for many years during and following the Indian wars. When
the city was incorporated there was considerable discussion as to the
name for the city. Many desired to name the new city "Flagler," in honor
of Henry M. Flagler, but it was finally decided to take the name Miami,
which is a Seminole Indian word meaning "Sweet Water," and was applied
by the Seminoles to the river which flows through the city. The growth
of the city since its incorporation has been phenomenal. In 1895 there
were but two families residing in what is now Miami. Today the city has
a permanent population of forty-two thousand people, and this is aug-
mented during the tourist season by a transient population of from fifty
to a hundred thousand. Miami is situated on Biscayne Bay and the At-
lantic Ocean, and is 866 miles south of Jacksonville, on the main line of
the Florida East Coast Railroad. It is the county seat of Dade County,
the southernmost county on the mainland of the United States. It is the
southern terminus of the Dixie Highway. Below the city is the Ingraham
Highway, and crossing the Everglades westerly is the Tamiami Trail,
now being constructed, which will connect the Atlantic Ocean at Miami
with the Gulf of Mexico. Miami Canal, running to Lake Okeechobee,
connects at the south by way of the Miami River with Biscayne Bay.
The Florida East Coast Railroad has its shop yards in Miami, and the
city is the center of all its operations on the southern section of the road.
MAYORS OF MIAMI
The following named men have presided over the destinies of the city
of Miami since its incorporation: John B. Reilly, four terms; J. E.
Lummus, three terms; John Sewell, four terms; Frank H. Wharton, two
terms; Rodman Smith, one term (died in office); John W. Watson, two
terms; Parker A. Henderson, one term; W. P. Smith, one term.
In 1921 the electorate of Miami voted to adopt the commission-
manager form of government. On January 21, 1921, a committee of fifteen
was chosen to draft a new city charter. This charter was submitted to
the voters in June and its adoption ratified. An election was then called
for July 12, 1921, for the election of five commissioners, who, upon their
election, would choose a manager for the city. The commissioners elected
at this election were J. E. Lummus, E. C. Romfh, J. I. Wilson, C. D. Leffler,
and James H. Gilman, who immediately assumed their duties. Col. C. S.
Coe was named city manager.
Here is given a partial list of the early settlers of Miami-those who
came here among the first and who have stood strong and stalwart in ad-
vancing the interests of the city. There are perhaps others who should be
mentioned in this connection, but their names cannot now be recalled.
F--- S. I
Flagler Street and Second Avenue North, 1900. Site of First National Bank
wm .r'li l "" i
First Automobile Parade in Miami--190
Mrs. Julia D. Tuttle ae hee fm Clevelad, Ohio, in 1870, and pur-
chued the proery of the Bles Bay Company.
Mr. and Mrs. Wllia B. Bricel, with their family, ame here from
Cleveland, Ohio, in 180, and Mr. Bridol prehdaed the Lewk rants.
Joseph A. McDonald arrived hem Febrary- 15, 186, to uperintend
the work of Beaey I. lagler.
John B. Really came in 18 as bookkeeper and cashier for Joseph A.
John ewdel came here from Kiernmme in 18M as foreman for the
Flagler intern .
EG. G. Sewel came from Kissimmee in 18, sad, in company with his
bWther, John Sewll, opIed the lms de ag and dhoe stto in Miami.
Frank T. Budge came from Tituvle in 18 and opened a hardware
J. ummus came in 18n aid opened a general re.
Jack Graham arrived in 1M80 ad sws el edthe frat city derk.
Isidor Cohen was 18366 the first
eob W from Kimimnme and built and
opened a hardware staor Fearteauth eet.
E. L. Bnry of TItvll, came a aM ad opened a greery tor.
L.C. Oliver eam trom Tim via I s sIand opene a lumber yd.
E. V. Blahman eam here trom odedge in U18 and oganised the
Methodist Epieopal QC h.
Mr. and M Salem Graham arrived from Palatha In 1 and opened
the frrt botel Miami in a houe leased frem Wiiam B. Briel.
C. F. Subner, of St. Auguste came to Miami in 18, before the rail-
rOed had been eatend.
William M. Bra, of Titrvi, arrived her in l8M6 and, with his
aseoit opened the ist bank here, the Bank of Bay Biesyne.
Fred Meae, a Beoaeman, eame her a ear or two bwe the rafl-
road waes sadad to Mimi.
In 188 Mr. and Mrs i B. Douglas eme her from Jadkoaville and
opened a dry goods and milliery stre for Cohen & Friedmam.
E. C. Bomh eame he in 1M and asened a po itin with L C.
Oliver, later taking a poatkmi with the Bank .o Bay Bias e.
Judge L. At momn came hea from Altoom, Florida, in January,
18~1, and opened a law oede.
Samuie A. Ber eame to Miami before the rai oad ad been -
tanded hersm a task up a hememad west of Miami.
J. IL bham. ae al y hU b ther, Thomas nmth.am. ar-
river tde fhm naowt J B 14 U .
Chards T. MeQriae (deImse) was amMo the l18 arriva.
John Fuhack, remear shde, arrived heer Ia Auenst. 18.
E. A. WaddUdl who erigily eame from Canada arrived in
Miami in 1894. He came before there was any movement toward opening
up this section.
T. N. Gautier came from West Palm Beach to Miami in 1896.
Dr. and Mrs. Jackson were among the first to arrive here in 1896, com-
ing from Bronson, Florida. The second year of the opening of the Royal
Palm Hotel Dr. Jackson was appointed house physician of that hostelry.
Mr. and Mrs. Gus Mills came with the Flagler crowd in 1896, and Mr.
Mills had charge of the painting of the Royal Palm Hotel.
George B. Romfh was among the 1896 crowd. He was bookkeeper for
C. L. Oliver and later entered the employ of E. L Brady Company. Mr.
Romfh established the Miami Grocery.
Captain J. F. Jaudon came here from Kissimmee in the fall of 1895.
He opened a produce house and later was assessor of Dade County for sev-
Harry C. Budge, secretary-treasurer of the E. B. Douglas Company,
came here from Titusville February 1, 1896.
Robert R. Taylor, attorney, came here in 1896 from Jacksonville.
Dr. R. E. Chafer took up his residence here July 2, 1896, coming from
Kissimmee and opening up the first dental office here.
John Seybold arrived in Miami April 28, 1896, as a journeyman baker
and is now president of the Seybold Baking Company.
Walter S. Graham and family came here from Titusville in 1896. Mr.
Graham, in company with William Featherly, founded the first newspaper
here, the Miami Metropolis. Mr. Graham was a lawyer of high standing
and compiled the first ordinances of the City of Miami. He was one of the
first city councilmen.
J. K. Dorn came here among the early arrivals.
Edwin Nelson, of Melbourne, came here in 1896.
Captain Charles Thompson was among the very early settlers here.
Captain Thompson made a catch of the largest fish caught in the southern
waters. The fish was exhibited in almost every city of the country.
William Burdine and family came to Miami in 1896, as did also Mrs.
Eva P. Quarterman and family. Mr. Burdine opened a small store on Ave-
nue D, and later leased a much larger store on Twelfth street. After the
death of William Burdine the business was reorganized under the name of
Burdine's Sons, now one of the leading department stores south of Jack-
EA LY BUILDING
The first building erected in Miami was a residence and office built by
J. A. McDonald at the corner of the Boulevard and Fourteenth street. The
second residence built here was built by a Mrs. Blackburn on the ground
where the Federal building now stands. The Royal Palm Hotel was the
next structure erected. The excavation for the foundation was begun early
in April, 1896. Joseph A. McDonald, who had charge of the Flagler work,
Brickell's Point from Avenue D Bridge. 1905
iWater Fon iii 1i 9
Water Front, Miami. 1921
built the Bisayne Hotel in 186, a solid brick structure acting about
o60,000. Frank T. Budge ereted a three-s str tore build on the north
side of Tweth street to take the lae of his first wooden struc e
Avenue D. J. Lama ereteda a caat building for his asoer bui-
ne after his tbt building had been destrred by fe. The Townlkg
erected a stor building for Coahn & Friedman, of Jacksonvlle. E. L
Brady & Compay ere ted a brick store buMldin at the rner of Twelfth
street and Avenue D. The Bank a BIa Bseajne oeeupied one of the two
rmoud oor anti the bank purchased their pr t ite. The Mode lad
Company arted a two-tary brick struneta at the eorar fTwlft htst
and Aveue C, with two stare room D. M. Connoly built the Everag de
Hotd, a wooden struture at the orner of Fourteenth t and Avene
C, where the Gralynn Hotel now stand. Lake & Goodwin built the fist
ice sad cod storage plant on the north side of Avenue D, near the spr
track that lead to the Royal Palm Hotel. Mrs. Juli D. Tuttle built the
Mimi Hotel on Avenue D. The hotel was two stories and ontaled 200
room. It was detroyedby fre inl8 Iaoday & s kce reretedatwo-
story wooden bulding on Avenue D in 18. The ground foar was to be
used for a saloon, but there was a claue in the deed that prohibited this
and asut was brought against them and before the smft was settled the build-
ing was destroyed by ar
MI mI TODAY
To draw a pen pictau of the City of Miami today, with its 40,000 or
more inhabitants, with its lon rows f up-todat business blocks, ts pa-
latial homes and magnficent hotels and apartments, is baond the decip
tive power of even th most talented writer. It is today a coamopoltan
city, thriving with eomuerxales and property. Climate, location and a
progreive dctiship have made Miami the wonder and admiration of
the world and given it high rank amoun the report citie of Europe and
Ameries. It is dieult to convince the newcomer that this great traier-
mation had been acconplaihed within so short a time, for 25 year ag the
location the now famed dety was a wilderve. Aeording to the late
United Stateeens the City o Miami increased in population in the it
ten ears 440 per cent and Dade County = per aent, establidin a ree-
ord unknown to any other city or comn in the United State. Thi gives
Miami a permanent population to about 42,000.
Miami is the moet popular tour center of al the South. The city
sprang into emislee with epe the P Balm ot
HomaltaeseOlywith the opeuinget the U al PaNm,
the etaBl ae was opened to tohe pabu, and solace then, year after
year, large and modern hotels have been erected that in point of beauty ad
oanv aeee are not urpaed by any other city of the wrld. An the
leading hotels are the Roal Palm, Haleon Hotel, Ht Urmae, The Gray-
lynn, the McAllister, Tamiami, the McKinnon, Pershing, Green Tree Inn,
the Alta Vista, the Plaza, and San Carlos. In spite of the fact that a
great number of modern hotels have been and are being built, there was a
shortage of accommodations for the throng of tourists, and beautiful apart-
ment houses were erected by the hundreds; rooming houses, like Jonah's
gourd, sprang up in every direction, and private families opened their doors
to the "stranger within our gates." The cry is still heard for more accom-
modations and every effort is being made to reach a point where it can be
said "there is room for all."
Within the city limits there are about 50 miles of paved streets and
many more miles of concrete sidewalks. Contracts have been let for many
additional miles of street paving and sidewalks. The postofflce and Federal
building were erected but a few years ago and at that time it was thought
that ample provision had been made for years to come. When the Federal
building was erected it was said to be the largest and most expensive build-
ing ever erected by the government in a city of the size of Miami at that
time, but the rapid growth of the city has rendered it inadequate. To help
out the situation, four sub-stations have been established, but even these do
not fill the pressing demands upon the department. A contract has been let
for the erection of another postoffice building, located near the depot of the
Florida East Coast Railroad. A postoffce has also been established at
Miami Beach, which has, in a measure, relieved the situation. -
The city is noted for the elegance and beauty of its homes. There is
probably no city of similar size in the United States where such lavish ex-
penditures has been made on residential properties. The shore of Biscayne
Bay is one continuous line of concrete mansions, reaching to the south bank
of the Miami River. North of Miami, to Lemon City, is thickly built up
with homes that would do credit to New York, Philadelphia or other metro-
politan cities. The Charles Deering estate, one of the most valuable private
estates in America, lies just south of the city, on Biscayne Bay. There are
six large modern school buildings within the city limits. Teachers of na-
tional reputation have said that Miami and Dade County have the most
complete and modern school system and the best buildings of any county in
the United States. Miami has, from the beginning, been noted as a city of
churches. Nearly every denomination is represented and many handsome
church edifices adorn the city. There are six banks in Miami, with total
deposits of over $20,000,000. The mercantile establishments vie in size
and quality of merchandise carried with cities of 100,000 inhabitants. There
are five ice and cold storage plants in the city. The public utilities of the
city include telephone, gas, water, electric light and power. A street rail-
way traverses a part of the principal streets, connecting with Miami Beach
by way of the Causeway across Biscayne Bay, making a loop on the Miami
Beach side, so every part of that city has easy access to the line. A ten-
minute schedule is maintained both summer and winter. There are sev-
Grapefruit Grove Near Miami
Post Office and Federal Building, Miami
eral ba lines running north, outh and west from Miami, so that all the
outrin towns an easil reahed several times day. To the north, a bu
line rnms far as Wet Palm Beach. Miami has one of the most uptodte
fire department in the state. There am three station the Cntral on
Flagler street the Riverse on Wet I t and one in the north
part oa the cdt. Eac ton is fy equipped with the late electric ne-
fihtin equipment The ity an boast of the fest "great white way"
lighting stem in the southland. At psent this "great white way" es-
tends over the principal portion of Faler street, Miami avenue and First
The Caeway, leading from Miami to Miami Beach, panning BD-
cane Bay, s one of the greatest and mot expensive works of it kind ever
undertaken. The Caseway was built bI Dade Conty ata a t of about
$1,000,000. It has two double driveway a st car track and rm for a
sidewalk. It haa two draws, ne on the east de d d one on the wet ide.
The Caueway is about three and onealf miles in le th. The Collin
bridge also spans BEiaye Bay, a abort distant no rth at the Cagneway. It
has recently been taken over by a company who an building four ida&
in the bay, al of which wll coaneet with the Collin bride. The has
been two islands thrown up In Biseaye Bay and bride from the lands
connect with the Causeway. On thesanew mad lands several ver haAd-
some residence have been ereat ad nearly al the lo them have been
aod to parties who wi buld winter homes.
Miami has become sa Important wholesale cente. Many of the lbrge
wholesale *etaBlad t of Jacksonville have either moved their bImnes
here or have atablhed large branch hoses. With the completion o the
deep water project the city wll become ne of the most important porter of
entry on the south Atlantic coa. The city has built a bul warehouse on
the municipal dock, which has already proven too all to are for the rap-
dly increasing domestic and fWign trade, ad is now preparing to expend
400,000 in enlargig the wan e and extendinr the doeka. Trad be-
tween Miami and Nassao has rapil inreasd within reet years, requir-
ing the services f several boat aes. South Amerian coantriea an be-
ginnin to reogniae Miami a their nearest port of entry and a anxioay
awaiting the setablibhment of steamer lne to and fram their port. Re
cently Miam has become an important terminal for domestic and foreign
hydroplanes, with the United States mal service to Nasesu, Bilmii and
Havaa. This service is to be restly inaresed during the winter o
Miami has an annual mean tomperatre of 74. 4reeM, the most
equable climate an city n America. The cty is the ae of an peri-
ment station of the United State Dpartment of Agriulture, where the
cultivation of ubropial plhat is carried n.
This brief ehrnide et the City of Miami in the ood year 11 is neces-
ariy incmpe The city is at n in t swaddlin dcothes, a lsty infant.
whoe destiny one may yet foresee. Its birth was propitious t born
in a day-and it growth and deveopment is without parael in the history
of Aerican cities. The wave of d lopnmnt began n i186 has increased
ach year nto new and larerproportions. The ftu e of the city is t ly
estahimed, and ita growth in the year to come will ospa the enviable
record already made. When we my that Mimi is the most beautiful ity
on this continent we are but voicing the opinions of me and women who
have traveled the "wide world over" and who at lat have found here their
"haven of rest."
O ROM the beginning the peo f Miami have bee known
r as a schrchgou people. t not stating the fact too
tronly to ay that one f inducent that has brought
desirable people to the city has been the fat that the
people as a whole an noted for their high standing in
moral and religious activities. Perhaps no ity in the country is made
up by a people so largely imbued with strIt nreligos ter.
later, early in the history of Miam, reached that chuach c aut s
were one of the necessary foundations on which to bauld a city. Ca-
quntly he made provision for the gift of two lots to each domination,
one for a church buldin and one for a personae. Mr. Igler was a
member of the Presbyterisa church, the ao of a Pmnbyterlan minister,
and his first thought was to provide for a Praebterian church and or-
anisation. He et asde two lot at the corner oft E rth Street and
Avenue B on which to ieret a church building, but for sme reason he
changed his plea, after the excavation had been cmmm ed, and selected
two lot at the cover of Twelfth (now Flalr) Street and Short Street.
On these lot Mr. Flaglr built a very handsome church edifice, which he
after deeded to the Pedbyterin church.
The Prebyteran church was the firt church organied here. Their
first place of worship was a ttlik house at the acornr of Avenue D
(now Miami Avenue), near the r track of the Forida Rst Coast Ball-
road leading to the Royal Palm HoteL This was ued by the demmans-
tin as a place of worship fr a year or two. Whenever the Prebytrian
tent-house was not in ue by their Adenominatin the ue of it was freely
given to other denominatno who had o place for services. This was
not only a fraternal and graiou spirit, but a typical iustration of the
earnest Christian spirit ao the people. Not only was the teat used for
rligios service, but it was opened as a re-dg room for the public
and made a gathering place for the "homeless" people then here. Papers
and magmans were donated for this purpose. In 1W7 Rev. W. W. Paris
was called to the pastate aad continued until he retired as pastor emeri-
tu in 1919. Dr. Paris enaded valiant service to the community not
only as a minister but a a pioneer elth.
A short time after the Prebyterlans organized here, and laid claim
to the fact that their church was the ast to organim, the Coasgas-
tionalist came in, the Bev. Ples being the distret representative. For a
short time there was some conflict between the representatives of the
two denominations, which finally resulted in the withdrawal of the Con-
gregationalists from this field.
The Roman Catholic church was also organized here about this time
and lots were secured at the corner of Northeast First Avenue and North-
west First Street by Joseph A. McDonald. Soon after the organization
of the church, steps were taken to erect a church edifice. The Roman
Catholics were very aggressive in their work and soon erected their
church building and priest's house. The late Joseph A. McDonald and
Mrs. McDonald were devout members of the church and to them is largely
due the successful raising of the funds for the buildings. Some years
later the Catholics built a convent school on the rear of the lot occupied
by the Church of the Holy Name, and the school was in charge of Sister
Eubhemia. The school building is a large two-story structure. From
the beginning, this school has been most successful, the pupils not only
coming from the Catholic families but many Protestant families as well.
The Roman Catholics are now preparing to erect a new church building
for the Church of the Holy Name, which when completed will be one
of the finest and most complete Catholic churches in the South.
The late Mrs. Julia D. Tuttle was a devout Episcopalian and early in
the awakening of Miami gave to the Episcopal church lots at the corner
of Northeast Second Avenue and Second Street on which to build a house
of worship for her chosen denomination. A movement was then started
to raise funds for building a church edifice, and the movement was car-
ried on with much earnestness by the eight women members of that
faith. Mrs. Tuttle, in addition to giving the lots for the building, was a
contributor to the church building fund. Among the leading members
were Mrs. Curtis W. Gardner, Fred S. Morse, and Mr. and Mrs. Frank
T. Budge. Several years later the original church building was removed
and a modern concrete edifice and rectory was erected in its stead, which
is an ornament to the city.
The First Methodist Episcopal Church of Miami was organized in
1896, the Rev. E. V. Blackman being its pastor. The first organization
was made up of about thirty members. Among the prominent charter
members were Mr. and Mrs. Edwin Nelson, Mr. and Mrs. Robbins, and
Mrs. J. I. Wilson. The Methodists had for some time quite a checkered
career and worshipped wherever a place was open to them. The Presby-
terian tent was used when not occupied by its own denomination. For
a time services were held in a store building at or near the corner of
Northwest First Street, near Avenue D (Miami Avenue). The Methodists
were aggressive in their work. The residents of the city at that time
were made up largely of young men who had no home and who lived in
boarding houses or tents. At North Miami, just outside the city limits,
was a resort of unsavory reputation, where a large number of these
young men gathered on Saturday nights and where drinking, gambling
Presbytery of East Florida, at Miami Church-Tent. April, 1898.
First Presbyterian Church, Miami. Occupied in February, 1900
and other ls wre carried O. Rev. Balshmn oaesived th ides of
hdoldi a Wr mns riSw a stun a ght, and t m nMAbr ao his ehu
encouraged the a ement by their prusne and hear eozopation. The
soa serrs poed to be a me s, and ,eah Satordy iaght the oo
was flid wit the 'Iomenai s yom m and othe. Aa l entered to
the og sarvie with seal. A heat tiar was spet in religious tal,
and thity to forery inbus ati g acqueleold. Manyr young on
their way to North Miai heard the salgig,. ecae to the oaeer are,
and speak at at mne wveni tohe wek where a reliko and moal
atmosphave urunoded them Iater It was thought dualrab to sea u
lots and build a cheh ~dM aad paisonna. A reqme was aat to
J. .Innraha, vl eeidMnet o the Flor ast COat RCalRo d, for a
dontion at two lots for this prpe. The lot gPmad e at the nar
of First Stret and l t Avne NLortheas When te pla for the
church building and prsonage were oomphtd it was huod that the two
lota would ant b sulebet for both bIul The pla were aft to
Mr. Inraham wih the arpum Mat it would be hoaubaa to eary
out the plans a onl two ioe. Mr. luraham repd that was Mr.
Fl er' plan to gie to eaeh Iuash gatilesna two l a ad tht he
couM not shaa that ple without -nAL.Mr- agier. The writer
wrote to Mr. asuer, giplaln the d tiuon, and aw my mest traes-
red letters is the rnepy a Mr. Fn Ia inds d t h third ei Mr.
Master told of his orial plea to giv to each chd two lot, whieh
he thought was Ibural and rawe. "Hbeer," he added, "you have
been in my plor a loug thu, and knaI s, as I do I vw rnkd an
exception in this ene. The pla for the biuNdl and the prnose
are entirely arUretie to ae, and I wE ItabIet Mr. 1.an.as to ele
the deved to the thee ots as equid by you." fmTh ndeata df the
church buildild was lid oo atrwd, ad sd a sbsription IM e elated
for funds, with aad etaer re fats. after the shrIh so this property
and purchased tw lobt at th eoamr of Avae B and Niah Steet and
buot the White Tqiaphl their present edUle, a of the largest and most
complete hoaues o wrahip to Miami.
The Baptist dcha war ei d bri n eto 1 John 8ewe, being
among the brst to come to Yaml and belg an eurgtle member the
Baptist church, is i r gey nrpape for the orasation of the Batist
church in MIiaL aS. .a Jer, a stadnt at mereer Unmrity,
was sent here to oral e the ehare and hi Mr. ewel he found a
hearty orr. After emnvs tih town ty found sixteen people
wing to Jo the new church, and usd e steps were tk to per-
feet a a nsaulati Th. follow in amed prses were ameg the
members se areand: John ew, J W. W. AnM, 3. Padgett, Mrs. Rosn
Padgstt, C. elHht, J. H. Cawli, Mrs. N M. hwubw, J. StrBage,
J. J. Dykes, H. W. Padgett, J L. I DeVaugh, Mrs. P. Amason, Mr.
Emma Strange, and W. H. Edwards. This was the nucleus around which
the Baptist church built. The church building was cammned in 1901,
the work being completed as rapidly a the building committee cold
secure the fund. It was a wooden struture, with a comfortable adi-
torium. Rev. W. E. Stanton, of San Mate was called to the pastorate
and remained until 1910, when Rev. John A. Wray wa called, rnmainhn
until 191 Rev. Wray was a very able pator, and the church lourished
under his care. Rev. J. L. White, the recent pastor, followed Rev. Wray,
and has acompH hd a wonderful work in MiamL His first work was
to build a new buildmh, and his eforta resulted in the erection of a mod-
ern oncrete building eating about $10,000. The old church build-
ing was moved to another ite on Avenue B, remodeled and named the
Stanton Memorial Church, in memory of Dr. W. B. Stanton, who Nrved
the church long and faithfully and who was loved not only by the mem-
bmrs of the Baptis church but by a who knew him.
The Methodist Episcopal Churbc, South, was oranised in Miami in
1898, by the Rev. Fred C. Blackburn, and a wooden church buildan was
erected at the corner of Northeat First Avenue. The Congrecation grew
rapidly, and in 1919190 the old building was remove d d a lrge and
beautiful church building was erected in its place, giving ample room for
its increasin congegation. Among those who were foremost i the
work of oranination were Dr. James M. Jackon and T. N. Gentler and
There have been numerous other church oraniations perfected in
Miami in recent year, in keeping with the rapid growth and develop-
ment of the eity alone other lines. The greater part of these new organia-
tions have houses f worship and stated pato. At present the Con-
gregationUlt are erecting a handsome brick churh building on Second
Avenue Northeast. ev. J. N. Ward is pastor.
At Coconut Grove the Bpiscopalans oaniaed early and have a very
complete bapel in which rvies are held. The Methodist Epieopal
church also has a good organltion their. In 1920 the Cogregationalists
built a large and hand-om church ediee of native tone.
At Miami Beach a Coarigational ehurh was organized in 1920, and
in 1920-1921 the congregation built a commodious and beautiful ehureh
At Silver Palm the Baptists and Methodist Episcopal, South, have o
anuatlon, and each has comfortable houses f worship.
At Homestead the Methodist Epicopal, South, organized several
years ag, has a modern house of worship
At Lemon Cty the Baptsts ~ ad the Methodist Episcopal, South, have
strw congregations and each has comfortable bddlnag.
The Miami Young Mm Christian Assoiation and the Miami Young
Women's Christian Ameodatio are mlltant organdatlos of great in-
flence. Both associations nave modern, concrete homes, and both ar
DADE COUNTY SCHOOLS
By Pnor. R. E. HAxL
H o nt teacher employed in the public schools of Dade County
was a sort o a "Pooh Ba." He was county aspeditemdat of
publ InstrotiU o and primlpl and faculty o three or four
school at one and the sam time. Th teacher was employed
in the early ealhties, by the state superintendent of schools to
go from place to lae and teach the childra l their homes a week at a
time He eel a aary a bout $40 a math, out f whblh h pald
al hia living, traelin and eolae emneee. oon, however, as communities
gre, rouob fme sheks wer provided and anI r ahools opea up
for business, Juno, Lamon City and Caoeomt Gre being among the fit.
Judge A. E. eyser, who now lives in Miami, was the Arst regular county
superintendent and Mis Ada Meritt and R. McDosld wre pioneer
A welldefned and earnet dere of the ery ette of Dade County
that their childrm n rbold be give a ommon ehool training was the efon-
dation of Dade County's preset splendid shool The early growth
and development at the stem was epealy fostered by the competent
leadership of Z T. Merritt, who was mperintde fort r eight ye be-
ginning hs incrnbnw In 1897. About tis tim Miami's fist public
school was begun under the capable R McDonald. Tih end of the Mer
rit administration w Dde County with some 25 asdool, trltcing fm
Stuart, 105 miles to the ath, to Over Palmn, on the soth. Eac cam-
munity had comfortade shool b es and there w e equipped with modern
desks ad furniahing, where ood teacher were employed for a term of
frm seven to eight moths.
The writer was installed sperintendent of schools in Jauar, 1906,
and hld the aes coatanmour for 16 yeas. Probaly the p est prob-
lem that coftrnted him and the boards was the task of providing hool
for the most raply growing county in the United tatea, and l ndert to
sueh growth the ad lack t funds. O n an aver the school population
during thee 1 years has doubled ever two and onhalf yea, while, as
a rule, the tax as iat increased from 10 to 15 per ent. This left a d-
acit each year, which was sgatly increased by the largr salaries paid
teachers and the large Inrease in the eot of every hae s hbool epera-
tion. From time to time the addition d cultural and veatina oure
have been made, and by mm ehlldma to several mall ahoos into one
large central uhool, Dade Countr has today a hool rtam secoa to nne
anywhere in America. A history of Dade County schools would not be
complete without some reference to the school board members, and the
schools as they are today are monuments to the earnest and faithful men
who served as the administrators of Dade County's school system. W. M.
Burdine, W. W. Faris, H. A. Pennock, A. Leight Monroe, G. A. Douglas and
F. C. Bush, all served several terms and gave their time and energies un-
selfishly to the business end of the schools.
It may be interesting to note that during the past 16 years every
school building in every district has been replaced by a modern concrete
structure. In Miami, in 1904, the only school was a four-room frame build-
ing on Avenue C, where the Central Grammar School now stands. When
that building was erected in 1909 a howl went up. Some people said "Why
that building will last Miami 50 years!" As a matter of fact it was crowded
almost by the time it was finished.
Dade County has no reason to be ashamed of her schools. Graduates
from the high schools are admitted to standard universities everywhere and
their worth is everywhere recognized.
A word about the County Agricultural School may not be amiss. From
a vision and a dream in the mind of one man, Dr. J. G. DuPuis, has come
into being the first Agricultural High School in Florida and one of the first
in the whole country. With Federal aid, under the provisions of the Smith-
Hughes law, this school is now a congressional district school and is doing
a work along vocational lines that makes it a beacon light to this section of
The above historical sketch of the public schools of Dade County was
written by Prof. R. E. Hall, who was the capable superintendent of public
instruction for 16 years. To Prof. Hall and his board the people of Miami
and Dade County are under many obligations for the present high stand-
ing of the public schools and for the class of school buildings which the
county now has. Judge A. E. Heyser and Z. T. Merritt started the work
for a high grade system of schools throughout the county and both of these
gentlemen did heroic work in the interests of the schools in the early days.
When it is taken into consideration that 25 years ago there were no
public schools in what now constitutes Dade County, the rapid growth and
development of our schools indicates not only the growth of population but
also the class of people that came here in the early days. The first thought
of the newcomers was a public school. If there were no schools there could
be no great increase of population from other portions of the country. The
people demanded the schools and the county furnished them, but it has been
a difficult task to build school houses as rapidly as the demand increased.
Captain C. J. Rose came here from Ohio and took up a homestead a few
miles west of Miami. He immediately commenced talking "school." The
few people then here did not favor his idea that the children must have
school privileges and he had a hard fight to get them of his mind. Finally,
Central School Building, Miami
Lemon City School Building
Ltmon City School Building
he, with others, wt to the beach where there was plenty a wek mber
and brought it wh eating it into th back country, whee thw built a
shack and called it a school bome The irst public aebodl l Miami w
hld in a buildin at the earner a t i strt, N. W., and Miam Avame,
with Prot. I i. KMeDo as pradpal The chool opened with abat 20
pupil. It is afe to that in o other part f rda or ay r state
ha there been amo a waed. ul dewdoprmmt at the pubic hood Wim
as the has be in in M i aad Dade County. Tm Mhoodl bual i0a in
Misi and in l the country ditrits a marvues t bmuaty. TheaM ad-
inpg are all buAt to cmete d and as a a n-proofr as an be.
bdiag is furanille with a welledad library of text and MrdwMe
books, cotaining 00 volumes or mo. Dr. Charle T. Gawn, ex-pr idmt
of the Cetral Mi higan State Nomal hool, had this to of tL Dade
County sadoo: "In the eoure at many yuMa' espeiame I have ma in
contact with ru educatoa n in praUedaly aD sectiUa at the United Stae.
uad after vilting evry aod o in Dbd Coaty I am pirmra to tate
aminwhat dogmstihaiy that there is no eLr eo-nty in the Uaited State
that can show a better rural school orgai ad a equipment." He lo
made the sme statemmt ai reard to the city cools.
Twnty-f years ago the Dade Coaul School Baurd did nt own a dol-
lars worth property, now t total valuation ot t school prort es in
Miami and the country districts amounts to the magnificent sum of
CIVIC ORGANIZATIONS AND CLUBS
MIAMI CHAMSM oF CoxMMia
[ ] HE Miami Chamber of Commerce is the outcome of the former
Miam Board of Trade, which was oraniled early in the history
of Miami. In the early days of Miami the Board of Tad was
active in the work of advancing the interests of Miami, taking
an important par in the Art movement to secure deep water
for the city. As the city ew there was a call for a stronger orgal-
ation-n organisation in which the larger portion of the bsines
men would be interest. A maw meeting was called, and on January
1, 1915, the Board of Trade was r-organad ad the Miami Chamber of
Commerce lunched G. D. Bmriper was elected the fnrt pnsident aad
George Paddock served the chamber as secretary. In 1918 E. Sewell
was choen president, and with the exception of the eameo of 1919-1U0,
when E. Roberts served as president, Mr. Sewe has directed the
destinies of the organisation up to the present time, with the probaeMhtie
that he has a ife position i he will accept the honor. He has been ably
assisted by Guy W. Livington, managing secretary. After the r-
organiation, the Chamber of Commerce put on new fe and entered into
broader felds of usefulness. Each year has marked the growth of mem-
berhip until there ar now 745 active members. Among the great
activitie of the chamber, under the direction o Presidet Sewel, has
been the work aeeompished in securing deep water for Miami. Mr. Sewl
has been active in this work, making numerous trip to Washington
in the interest of this project and give generous of his owa funds
to forward the movement. It Is obviouy mpossle to recount her
the may ways and mea used by the Chambe of Commerce to ad-
vertise Miami to the world. Suose to ay, these methods have been
rarely President Seweds method. President SeweD has been a stren
advocate of speaudnk moy for advertiag Miami. Last year the mCha-
ber of Commerce spent $146,000 n advertising. For several years tey
have brought Pryor's Band here to give daily concerts in Royal Palm Park.
It wa largely through the work and inflence of the Chamber of Com-
mere that the annual motor boat regattas wer held he. It was Pri-
dent Sewell's dea of holding the Palm Fete at the beginning of the season
of 190. The chamber held numeros council regarding the holding of
this festival, but President Sewell carried the day with a strong hand. The
Palm Fete was a great sees and proved of inestimable value in adv -
Ing Miami. It wll probably continue a n annual event. President
Sewel Is a thorough believer in newspaper advrtisin and advrtse-
mets of Miami appear in may of the at northern r ewspapers. "The
Miamisa" a monthly martin, is pub Bshd by the Chamber of Com-
meim in the interest of Miam and its attretltos.
MIAMI REALT BOAuD
The Miami Bealty Boad was organised January 8 1920. It i an
affiliated unit of the Florida Realtors Ascimaton and the National Asso-
catin of Real batate Boards. The fart o eusN were T. A. Wield,
president; .a V. Waters, secretary; Walter L Harris, taasurer. The
present oers arn Frank J. Pepper, presidet; R. V. Water secretary;
Thomas & Davenport, treasurer; W. L Grem executive secretary. Of-
fles are maintained in the Columbia Buildiag The board has a meber-
ship of 21. While the prinmry function of the Mmi Bealy Board is
to sea e cose cooperation among real estate brors and to foster a
higher standard of Interity in ral estate taiaens, Its scope a a
civic orantasin hea reached bePoad that special ed, ad has beeome
the instrumentality tough whieh its members caa coordinate their eM-
forts in deaopmenant of higher community standard. Its code of ethics
prescribes the duties of an agent to the customer, and it msists upon
a square deal to both. The board has endered valuale service, both to
the individual broker and to the investing puie, and it has placed the
vocation of the real estate broker upon a higher profesmdloal plane.
MuxI WoM W's CLUB An Ln nAy
The Miami Women's Club one of the largest and most influential
women's clubs in the State of Florid. From a small aodel dub orawmed
in 1900, it has gadualy broadened its Sied of ueuness until today
it has deatments eorina elvcs, conservation, education. f ar ts
home, Ubary, sodel mcondWos health, playgund, traver's aid, music
hohoehold seeoM mi, leblBtive and chld wemae. Mns. James M. Jak-
son and Mrs. Curtis W. Garner were the edriinatr* a the Wemen's
Cub. This was in 100. At thpt time Mium had but a small popula-
tion and the aodel Hfe of the community was coaind large to the fuen-
tions of the chuh. Mrs. Jadaon and M GardIer at one et their
afternoon viit proposed the formation of a sodel dub. A meet was
called at the home eo Mn. Ganer, and about twenty women responded.
Mr. Garder was chose chairman and Mrs Jackson president. A msoety
was organed and a cnstitulton was adopted. M Garder was ebome
presidt; MA. J. ames Jakn vice president; Mrs. .A.Frederick
secretary; Mrs. Bnrady, treasurer. Among the charter members were
Medame Gardner, Jackson, Bradley, Dewey, McAllter Budge, H.
Budge, Sander. Knowlton, Woodll, Tatum, Fris, Fuller. The foBow-
in is a list of the presidents of the dub from 1900 to 1981: Mr.
Curtis W. Gardner, 1900.190; Mrs. A. FP derick, 19 1909; Mrs. A.
Leight Momea, 1909-1911; Mrs. T. V. Mooe, 1911-1914; Mrs. ifton D.
Benson. 1914-1917; Mrs. Harvey Jarrett 1917-1919; Mrs. William Mark
Brown, 1919-190; Mr. Reginald Owe, 190-. The women t their
heart on building a dubbooue of their own, and while this was thought
to be a lare tak, they sueeeeded in doing as and a handsome building
was erected on Flagr Street on a lot donated by the late Hery M.
Flaler. The women aon turned their thoughts toward estabihing a
library. Each member agreed to pay ten cents each month for th pur-
chase books. Frm this sma beginning, the library was supplied, and
later many volumes were contributed. In 1990 the library had grown to
such proportions that a librarian was appointed. The brary shelves are
now crowded with books. Ms. A. Leight Moroe is the lbrrian.
The Els aub was ae of te rst social club in Miami. The dub pur-
ehased iots at the eoner af Eat Flaler and Northeast Second Street and
there erected a beautiful and substantial Ei home. The building is of
reinforced corete and is visited by many visitors during the winter se-
oa. During the World War a portion of the building was turned over to
the Red Croes. The Miami Botary lub is an organisation of which the
cty is proud. The membership is made up largely of buins men of
the city. The dub holds a weekly luncheon, at which the member dis-
cuas the well-bein of Miami. The ombaer of the Botary lub ar F. B.
Stoneman, presaldnt and Dr. A. L Evans, secretary. The Miami Shrine
Club is oe of the most popI ar oanimatonms in the dty and number
among its member hip man dy the iading men of Miami. Other dubs
of MiamI Imnlde the Chvtan Gub and th iwanls Oub, both recently
orsanmed and both having a reprentative medmberhp. The Miami Ad
Club is an organization but recently formed, yet it has aInrdy demon-
ontrated that it wil have a strong and helpful nfuea in building up
Mlaal and Dade County. The aim of this lub is to aee that careful and
truthful advertWement of Miami and Dade County be given the puble.
The Miami Anlers'ub is oneas a the moseet popular fishing clubs. The
membermabp is made up largely of farther tourists. An attractive clb.
oom is maintained at the Hotel Urmey, where weey meetings as hld.
The lb owns a number af modern fila boats, and offes prim for the
best catches of the season
THE DADE COUNTY BAR
By Juvon A. E. Harna
] 1N the beginning the strdy Seminole, with primitive passion for
fair play, fattened the msll with the red Mood of flarnnt of-
fenders and so the fountain of Jstice we kept pur.
The few white who first appeared settled their troubles
with the ame palsioat readiness for bood-letting as fr
from completion or pity as their more barbarous co-hatamta and with
a little e bo law's quibbe or delay.
On the urroundin it was the iame. Black COar and his kindred
bands of ruthles piat terror d ihe coasts, while effedinmg cmades or
troubleoe captives were mde to walk the plank to a watey gra the
accompanment of the lightnns l glare and the thunders crash
notes that ve terror to the equie of the storm. On land the tim were
scarcely less heroic, and the victim of feads or of private wrath w t to
their ret uamaskd beneath the lonsom e amadows of the ihlde pei.
Bar and ban there wer in Dade Count l kn before court and law-
yers were known and recognlad as a part of its ashime of existee. In
thee andcent days there was ong utadlg controvea as to which was the
mot popular or neeary, the light cheaeoth affair which kpt off the
myriad midnight asassin (now happy almost eti) and which cm .
in countlss clouds thirting for od, or the other kind of bar, whose
crossing thedeat famo, but which in those lonely and primi-
tive day was only very ocmsiou lly aed by eoarevr and pirates as their
way to the mariland to And fra water, or afly buy the beadl
wealth d their ill.eqired booty, and there mae aB kinds of trouble
about their caa buried tream r for th folks who came alog later.
When the first lawyer appeared there was no outlet for his prowlin
and predatory instlacts, eIpt trnek-rainga and beasrci Min g, and
when he did appear e bad for a while to contet himlf with a thinly
simulated enthisian for these uMinvn forms of outdoor and eld
sports for which he wa fitted neither t alen or trairnn. The fit law-
yer was here, t there was no Bar-in Dade County-no yet. That was
in 1881, and there was o red through the Brichll ammock.
These won deAtied to om later. Lke most ood things that e
to Dad County, the Bar was an importation. Things won ja beaming
and the -rowila pain were arnady maki s ditarbane. She had
jut come into promineee in national afasn b hold up th H apes-Tl-
den election for a couple of month when that able urist, Jud B. .
Foster, gathered around him some of Florida's ablest lawyers and, with a
schooner chartered from Indian River, set out for the golden quicksands of
the desert of Miami. They came into this terra ineognita of bloody and
romantic legends, to do or die; or else to organize and unscramble its strug-
gling society which had become all mesed up over a loal election contest,
and a wine wreck wherein a Spanish brque, full wine laden, had just been
cast on the coast, all unforeseen and unexpected, by one of nature's periodi-
cal disturbances. It was a nightmare of a nature's jag, in the threes of
which something like a thousand packages of good liquor came on shore
and afloat to the delectation of an unsuspecting, but highly appreciative and
receptive community. This was before the time of the bars that had foot-
Under these distracting conditions Judge Foster and his able attorneys
organized and held this never-to-be-forgotten rn term of Circuit Court,
which really placed Dade up in line with her sister counties as an organ-
ised and civilized community and established firmly the foundation for the
part it has since taken in the legal history of the state. That was in 1886,
and since then the wheels of the Gods of Justice have been grinding on
with more or less patience and regularity and precision.
Judge Foster's schooner was large enough to serve as home and hotel
for his lawyer crew, which rendered them independent of local hospitality,
which at that time was somewhat limited, and made the cruise a pleasant
and notable one. Among them were Mr. Allen, Judge Mershon, W. L. Pal-
mer, D. L Gaulden and J. Hugh Murphy, and also the first lawyer afore-
mentioned, whom they picked up at Palm Beach and who had the honor.of
being one of this delightful and unique party.
Thus was a Bar in Dade County, but not yet the Dade County Bar.
That came later,-when Mr. Flager's works began and the growing pins
had localised into real little centers of population and even crudities of at-
tempts at civilization, at Juno and Palm Beach-and Miami.
Who remembers Juno now? Yet, then-when Dade County stretched
from the Keys, in ever widening fan shape--lear to the St. Laue River,-
to the far side of Okeechobee, then it was, with the county seat at Juno,
that the firm of Robbins Graham and Chllingworth, came in to found the
abstract business and help form the legal procedure of what was then
sometimes called "the State of Dade." There folwed soon W. L Mdtalf,
now of West Palmhn Beach, but Judge at one time of the Criminal Court at
Miami, and H. AtLknson, still of Miami and Judge of the same court.
Also Robt. R. Taylor and S. L Patterson and Judge G. A. Worley, the flirt
judicial ofier in Miami, while the county ofleer were still at Juno, and
now one of the most noted figures among criminal lawyers. Also the la-
mented Judge Jas. T. Sanders, whose influence was largely nstrumntal in
establishing the first criminal court of the county. He was its first prove
outing attorney, and A. E. Heser, aforementioned as the first lawyer who
came into the county, was it first Judge. They served both at Juno and
also at Miami after the county seat was moved here, in 1899.
It was during these three years, from the time of its incorporation in
1896, until the return of the county eat, that Miami experienced its most
crucial time. Besides the naturally rouh and turbulent population of a
new frontier town, there was added to its regular residents a many as
7,200 soldiers at times during the Spanish War period. With the court-
houe and county offleer at Juo, more than 70 miles away, Judge Worley,
as justice of the peace, was the only Judicial oler within reach and to him
belongs the credit in keeping the situation nin hand and maintalinn law
and order in the new settlement during thee wild, formative day, and un-
til the the county neat and offers were moved back to Miam, where they
It was somewhere about this time, when Miam first began and the
county offices were at Juno, but most of the business and most of the law.
yen then at West Palm Beach, which was ten miles away and growing by
leaps and bounds, that there was really a Dade County Bar, ad its Bar
Association was first formed, with A. E. Heyer, then County Juge, as its
The Dade County Bar as an oramisatio has remained in more or les
active service ever since and has had many meetings to discuss matters that
went to mae up our local history, and now has its regard et-together
banquets every two weeks with timel dibussio on matter of the moat
pressing importance. It ha been honored by having at its head auh able
men as A. A. Boggs Judge H. P. Branning, Senator Hudaso and A. J.
Rose. It stands for all that is best in the law and t administration, a
power in counsel and omltaton for new and better laws and for the
proper administration and enforcement of those we have.
During the tn years that the courthouse was at Juno and the real
business at West Palm Beac (and then at Miami) lawyers came thick and
fast following the few pioneers I have mentioned, and since then there ha
always been the Bar Assocation, more or les organized, according to the
needs of the times, and always the Bar, meaning a large and ever inrea-
in assemblage of brilliant and high-grade lawyers, coming from almost
every state in the Union, and making up one of the brightest alaxies of
the profession to be found in the state, or perhaps in any state.
At Miami they have found and helped unravel some of the moat im-
portant and unique problems that have ome before the courts of the state
or country, and in some things have led the way and made precedents for
the rest of the country. The rapid growth of this Wonder City has led to
activities and gowth of the legal profession seldom equaled anywhere and
the signs of the times are that we are not yet done in this line, but may ex-
pect to be aled upon to blase the way in many ways that are still obscure
and unsettled. Under the labor and example of the Miami Bar, aided by
like amociations in sister cities, the ethics of the profession and the stand-
ing of its member are constantly improved, and the sefulness of the pro-
fesion enlarged. Crudites that were common and thought nothing of
within the memory of the writer would seem noneeivable and utterly im-
With the marvelous development of the Florida East Coast theb have
been cut off from old Dade the grand counties of Pahn Beach and Bmrward,
each of which has its own fne bodies of men who make up their own local
bars and are in themselves notable and influential bodies of lawyers. At
Palm Beach, especially, their he remained many of those who at one
time helped to make up the roster of the Dade County Amsscaton.
It is a far cry from the time the first lawyer set foot on Dade County
soil, in 1881, and notwithstandin two-thirds of it have since been cut of
to form Pahn Beach and Broward, leaving only Mimi and sounding
territory, i has steadily grown and increased as the city prospered and
grew, until now the local bar is made up of over a hundred (110 at present
writing) as brilliant, alert and ambitious body of lawyers as can be found
on the American continent.
The first circuit court for Dade County was convened at Fort Dallas
in 1889. Judge Foster, a Yale graduate, wasthen judge of the circuit and a
Mr. Faulkner was the first lerk. William Malone now living at Key West,
is said to have ben the firt man admitted to the Bar of Dade County.
Ralph M. Munroe, one of the early setters of Coconut Grove, tels of
attending a meeting of the county commissioner in 1877. The meeting was
held in a small building near the Miami River, on the south side of Fort
Dallas Park. The commissioner present were Charles Moore, Lake Worth;
Adam Richard, Miam; Judge Faulkner, George Potter and William B.
Brickell, also of Miami. Mr. Mnroe relates that at this meeting the room
looked more like an arsenal. Many of the spectators brought their guns,
wore their holsters with revolvers and cartridges, but there was no out-
break or disturbance.
THE MEDICAL PROFESSION
By JAmas M. JACxowN, M. D.
mROR to Mr. Flaer taking up the development and exten-
alon of the Forid Eat Coast Railroad from Palm Beach to
Miami, the people of this community were dependent for med-
Seal attention upo the following members of the profelon:
Dr. Eleanor Geult Simmon and Dr. Johd W. Jackson, who
resided near Coconut Grove, and Dr. J. D. Bausin, who resied at
Lemon City. Dr. Badds, after the opening of Miami, moved to Miami
for a time, afterwards moving away. lT development of Miam and its
much talked of resouNre brought a cosiderable number of new members
of the profeion. At one time, in le than three months after the town
was opened, there were 14 members with odee opened for the practice of
their profesion. The usual condition of good health and mall amount of
sicne prevailed, and this number gradually became less and lm until
the summer of 18V there wer oly two doctors in active practe in the
city. Thee was little change until 18 98 when the Sad-Amersn
troops we located in iami for a time, bringing iana epidemic of typhoid
and the usual camp dieaea. The dem d for additional men increased the
number during this year to six and slce then the proteImon has gradally
increased in numbers until at the paet time Miami and Dade County i
well populated with member of t h medical proemine, presenting all
branches and spe alties, men of hihdas attainmente, who ae rec ed
as such by the best me of the promeaon over the United State
It is noted with pride th the amber of the medical profe eami of
Miami and Dade County have always been a harmenlous boy, alhray ready
to assist each other and the pubic, and never ndulging in those ptty
bikerings aomethme found amoa mmben r of the preeion in other
places, to the detriment of the prefetion and the p ic.
In 1900 the Dade Couty Medical Aeociation was organeld t a
luncheon at t the then Eerglades t new the Graly Htel. Dr. L H.
Huddleton, new deeaed, was la ft predent and Dr. W. Pugh was
its ecreary. Dr. Pugh was a few year later elected pride and died
during his term dof odee. Slce the orsenantion of the Anoeial It has
been coatinuans in exatensue ad its members manifet a been i teat in
sdcentine invest atnioad a r. It has tam much interest n local eai-
tar matters and it has been due in a Ieat measure to the active co-wpes-
tion and advice of t members that Mmi a h ad ach a good ecod f
health as a city. Members have always taken great interest while away o
their vacations and while taking pot-graduate courses to impress upon
the public, and especially members of the medical profession, the peculiar
health advantages of Miami. It is believed that this has had much to do
with the rapid development and growth of Miami.
It was due to the urgent demand of the Dade County Medical Aoda-
tion that the City Board of Health was created by the city eounefl. The or-
dinane was drawn by its members and they, collectively and individually,
urged upon the citizens ts enactment. The board has two medical and one
lay member, all serving without eompenation, and they have aeenplished
much good and healthful work in behalf of the city.
The present City Hospital ia, in a measure, due to the urgent demand
of the Dade County Medical Association for better care of ty patients. Its
staff is selected from the county association, with the cooperation of every
member of the society.
Members of the medical profession n Miami and Dade County are not
only interested in their professional work, but may always be found in the
front rank when work is to be done for the welfare of the city and county.
UBING the Indian War Ja L186 AJ> .War "Dut-rtab-
Sa ne, w. T. shenan b n his military
career. Several house and a barracks were built. Aecordin
to a report of the arrison, this country was at that time
a treeless place In one of these report it is claimed there as no
timber nearer than ve or six mile. There were four building erected on
the grunds now o pied by the oyal Palm Hotel. One of these buildings
was a bakery and the others were hu for the & obeea Thes buildings
were burned aboat 1870 or 1871. One of the o e' quarters, which wa
occupied as a home by Mrs Julia D. Tuttle, rmatd stadium as did also
the stone barracks. The rounds in front of the builds were aed for a
parade and drilling ground. The War Deprtment did not make a perma-
nent military reservation of te rounds.
In IMs, during the Spanl-Amerie a War, when troop were being
sent to Jaekaville, Tampm, and otr Florid points, the people here be-
cae anxious over the fact that Mismi waa located dose to the Atlantic
Ocean, where the Spanih codd end their leet in and destroy the city. An
effort was made by the people to set the War Departnent to end a body of
troops here for the protect of the ity. This was done, the Department
sending here a body of troops numberiin aboot 7,000. Thee troops were
located from Flaler street north to the terminal station and west alone
Sixth tree. The general hospital wa located on Avenue C, alone Thir-
teenth stre. The fist ease of typhod fever ever known here oriiated
atthis time. Some f the Meers had arranged for room for theaelv
in private home. One o er h arranged for rooms at the home of Mrs.
Chase, on Thirteenth set The net morning after his arrival a overn-
ment urgem o was eall to thu home of Mrs. Chase on acontd the illness
of this ofaer. The aurgeon pronouneed it a bad ease of typhd fever. Sev-
eral days later mo cases developed among th soldiers, t the disease was
largely overcome before the troop were transerred to Jackonvile. While
the troops were here the people felt ad d o afet as far as an attack
upon the city was covered, bt there was other unplesnt conditons.
For sme reaas thee are a fed between the troops and thi eolod peo-
ple of the town, which reslted in some fatalities. The content frieto
between the troops and the colored people was a eoutinual source o anxey.
The troop were very muh d r with comditons her and after a
while they were transferred to Jaeksoville. The people were as lad to ee
them o as they had been to them come. Durin the Spanih-American
War the government built a sad fort on Brikea Drive, mouth of Miami.
The fort was ompleed, but no guns were mounted. One or two Sue were
shipped he, but weo only ued as a decoration on the aide of the rod.
While the troops were stationed he the people had a tate of real military
government. During this time home guards were formed, citing
largely of the bet citiana of Miami. In this oranisation were about 150
men. They wre not equipped by either the state or federal government,
but they drilled daily and became a most odicet guard.
Early in the history of Miami the ift company of tat militia was or-
ganied here. The company was oranied May 1, 1901, with the follow-
ing adcers: James T. Sanders, captain; Elbert A. Froesher, firt HMuten-
ant; Charies Miller, second lieutenant; Joseph Chaille, rt sergeant; James
F. Jaodon, second aersant. In 18 Captain Sandes was promoted to
lieutantclonel. Srseant Jaudom, who had been steadily promoted and
who at the time Captain Sanden wa promoted wa serving a second li-
tenant, was promoted to the captainy of the company. The company was
designated as Cmpany L, National Guard of Florida. Company L was
recognized as moe of the bet drled companies in the state. In 1904 it wa
selected to attend a point army ad militia encampment at Manama, Vir-
ginia, as a part of the First Florida Provisional Reiment, National Guard
of Florida, and was admitted to be the best drilled company atatt eamp-
ment. On December 5, 1907, Captain Jaudon's common expired and G.
Dunean Bresaier, first lieutenant, was cmmirioned captain. Some time in
1910 se Mtions were made that a second militia company be formed. In
July, 1911, Captain Jadon and nearly 70 other petitioned the governor to
orgeanse a new company, which was granted. The work of enrollment was
soon made and on July 19, during the ffteenth anniversary celebration of
the foundhn of Miami, the new company was mutered into the service of
the National Guard of Florida and designated as Company M. Captain J.
F. Jado was elected captain, James D DDil first lieutent and Robert W.
Mcndon second lieutenant. On September 1, 1911, Captain G. Dnean
Broler tendered his resignation as captain of Company L. Geeral Fos-
ter ordered an elation to ill the vaeany and Lieutenant B. Frank Davis
was elected captain; Walter C Gibon being chosen first lieutenant and
Youel G. Pope second lieutenant.
About January 1,190 the few Union doldie living her made an of.
fort to form a society, which finally relted in the orgaleatio of the
Union VeteranM Amoation. There were about 20 members, me living i
the city and other in the country district. For ome time the amodateon
met on the first Monday evening of the mouth. Dr. W. W. Parl was
elected president; Captan C. J. Rose, vi-parsident; V. Baesmman, mee
rotary, and A. B. Wyatt, treas r. The meeting w kept up dina g tih
tourist season, but on account of the small number of Union seaiars here
at the time the amoiation diubandd. The Henry lay Boone Pot, Grad
Army of the Republie, was organized later, with about 40 mmbe Cap
tain C. oe was elected ommader and E V. Mhaman adjutant On
May 192, I9 the Heny Clay Roome WomanR' Belie Corps was orgeanad
with about 40 mambea, with Mrs. B V hcmamn prneidnt.
In the arly dys the Co~alfsete soldiers crnlb the Tim Andr.
n Camp at Coederate Vtermn, with the lt Cptain May at i hted.
Soon afterward, the Daghts a the Cefederay orgeamnd a po or
camp. Seveaml ye a dg the Bue and Gray AmmdUlo was formal and
for tMh pea three year hav hldpleaes at Miaam Beb. Tee iaers of
the amem.ondi an J. C. Kanmr, Coafedwate, preidnt; E. V. BlYhman.
During the eat Word War, which the United StateMs atrd April
6,1917, Miam and Dade County fanld her full ota men undr the
Selective Ser t. Men fMtm al ran d soieta ml elted to sv their
country. som ada duWy overseas and o tr serving in various enmts-
mants. Harver Seed, of Miami, and UMl Decoumm at Coonmt Gmrve,
made the Mapeme ecrisfae. In Miami the Harver Seeds Pt, N. 29,
Amrieri Uc lonba, has been formed, with the fowler NsOrs: A. J. Cleary,
pot m 0ader; I C. Alle, viae en er; hAther G. reaes, hiderian;
Robert N. Ward, chaplain, and J. H. Me Qoatbte, aweureat -rm. At
Coconut Grove the Undley DeGnao Post, American Legon, ha b been
formed. Miami and Dade Cout did their ful dry it aD war avitke ,
soin "wer the to" in all the I berity Lo drives and MuberiUb liber-
ally to all relief oramaations.
BANKS AND BANKING
BAxj or BAT BucLsAC
] ATING back to 1896, thence forward to 1921, it would se
that not enough time had elapsed to make much real banking
history in Miami and Dade County, as compared with the
history of banking in other towns and cities. Yet during this
short time Miami has made a record in banking that it has
taken many towns and cities a century to reach. In 18 a few men
awakened to the fact that there was a need of a bank in Miami and they de-
termined to supply this want, so the Bank of Bay Biseayne is the oldest
bank in the city, and from the first day of its opening it has supplied the
ever-increasin population with the acommodatio that is demanded of a
first-cda banking institution. The Bank of Bay Biacayne opened its door
May 2,189. The first officers were William M. Brown, president; R.R. 3M
Cormick, vie-prsident; and C. S Schuyler, eahier. The first directors
were William M. Brown, Charles H. Garthaide, Jlia D. Tuttle and James
Prithard. The capital stock wa $25,000. When the bank first opened its
doors the few people who then resided here asked: "What need is there for
a bank in Miami?" It is safe to say that the bank did not have eay sailing
in the early days of Miam But Mr. Flager had just begn his srt de-
velopment here and his deposits materially helped the bank during the Arst
few months of it existence. Business men, inveors and laborers oon be-
gan to come and the deposits increased rapidly. For 25 years the Bank of
Bay Biscayne has been a safe harbor for the depositor and for the business
man. Their motto has been "safe beakin," at the same time ranting all
accommodations consistent with safe banking. Soon after its organimato
James H. Gilman was employed as bookkeeper, au wa also E. C. Ramfh.
Mr. Gilman, after serving under several presidents, rt a bookkeeper and
later as cashier, wa elected president of the bank in December, 1918. In
1906 the late Joseph A. McDneald accepted the presidency for a short time,
being succeeded by J. E. Lummus. The present odMes are: James H. Gl-
man president; 8. A. Becher, vice-prident; E B. Douglas, vic-preedent;
F. W. Fusard, vice-president; T. E. James, cashier; M. W. Hallm and J.
E. Lind, assistant cahiers. Directors: James M. Jackson, chairman;
James H. Gilman, F. W. Fussard, A. Belcher, E B. Douglas, John B.
Reilly, and F. L Church. The capital stock wa frt increased to $50,000
and in 1911 it was increased to $100,000 and saie then to $150,000. In
1898 their deposits amounted to $66,000. Their statement of April 2, 191,
shows deposits of $6,660,487.75. The Bank of Bay Blacayne was opened
for business in a mual building near Fourteenth steet and Avenue D. It
was later moved to a small roam near the corner of Avenue D and Twelfth
street. The later purchased the banking houwe formerly owned by the de-
funct Fort Dallas National Bank, at the corner of Twelfth and Avenue D,
which is one of the hand t banking houses in the south.
FrrT NATIONAL BANK
Edwad Coleman Romh, president of the First National Bank, while
employed as a bookneper in the Bank of Bay Bisayne became convinced
that another stro bank was needed in the eity. He went among his freads
and interested them in the proposed oarm~mtian. Tb new oranulnti
was perfected June 10, 190. A commodious bank building was ermde at
Twelfth stret and Avenue C and modern banking flxt s installed. The
bank opened for business Decmber 1 190, and from the day of its open-
ing has met with phenomenal sueses. Tlbe fid nt ee were: E.. M. ls-
ford, of Palm Bach, parident; W. H. Spiter, irt vie-preident; E. A.
Waddell, second vispreident; C. Ramu earlier. The director were
A. P. Anthony, M. Brelfod, WillamH. Graham, W.o. H. Smr, K.
Salsbury, E. A. Wadde, E. C. Bmfh, W. M. Brdine and James E. Lm-
mu. Later G. C. Frfdll and George B. Romf we elected to the broad.
In 1897 W.H. 8pitr wa elected president and Harry McCown assiant
cahier. In 1910 the capital stock wa increased from $0,000 to $100,000
and E. C. Romh was elected president; W. H. Spiter, fit vicepresident;
E. A. Waddel second vic president; Harry McCow, cashier; with the fol
lowing board of directors: E. C. Bmh, W. H. Spiter, A. A. Wadde, G. C.
Friaell, B. Romfh, Harry McCown, C. C. Chfllinswort, Geoare .
Romfh and John Srbold. The capital stock has sdne been increased to
$800,000. The prea et oee are: E. C. Rmh, president; W. H. Spter,
G. B. Romfh and E. A.Waddel, vipresideants; W. W. Colberteon, leader;
T. F. MeAulif, assistant cahier. The back's praent capital tock is
00,000 and their statement of February 21, 1921, shows despite of
$,621,890.92. Th First National plans to erect a modern ten-tory bank
building on ite preat ste. It s not out of plae to ay her that Mr.
Bomnfh is really the father of the First National Bank and his vision
of the growth and seeds o Miami and Dade County has been fully jti-
fed in the wondertfl saees of this strong financial institution, of which
Miam is justly proud.
Fnar Tanur an" SAvIrsn BANK
The Miami Savings Bank was oraniad aad opened for business Febru-
ary 15, 1910, with a capital stock of $,000 and the following c eer: W.
H. Spiter, president; Theodor G. Hower, lrat vicpreident; Jlius
Smith, second viepresident; arles M. Te l, treasury. Dietors: .
C. Rameh chairman; W. H. Spiter, T. G. Hoewr, Julis Smith. A.
Waddel, R. A. Deal and Chias M. Ter, secretary. In 190 th name
of the bank was changed to First Trmat ad Savings Bank ad a new ad
commodious banking b eeted n a lot in the rar of the Firt National
Bank Bulding. The present officers ar E. C. Rmfh, chairman of the
board; W. H. Spitzer, president; Cal4 n E. Oak, vie-prident; T. G.
Houser, vice-prsddmt; C. tM Terrl, treaurr; C. LiLndom assistant
treasurer. Their statement of May 18, 1921, showed deposits of $1,00,-
MiAmi BANx AN Tlaer COMPANY
The Miami Bank and Trust Comay was organized January 1, 1918,
and opened for business March 1, 1912. The ieopomtor were Theodore
Hofftatter, C. D. Ider, R. M. Price, M M Smith. Walter Waldin, H. G.
Ralsto, J.. Dorn and A. A. Bos. Property at the corner of Ave C
and Eleventh street was purchased and a substantial bek buldin ereted.
The first odcers were: Theodore Hofftatter, president; M. Pfice, vi-
presidet; J. T. Wsdom, cashier and treasmer. The frst directors were:
Theodore Hofftratter, B. L Price, C. D Ldler, mithL and Walter
Waldin. The present dAera ar C. D. IAer, president; R. L Prkie vie-
president; John C. G'ord, vicepresident; J H. age, trust olfer; I. H.
Daiel, easier; V. R. Brie assistant cashier. The bank is considered mne
of Miami's sold financial institutions. The bank has a capital stock of
$0,000. Statement of December, 81, 1920, showed deposits of $10,-
SoUTBr BN BAN AND TRUT COMPANY
The Southern Bank and TruLt Company was orsanued January 18,
1912, with a capital stock of $100,000. The following eders were elected:
J. Lana, president; Frederick Mare, vice-prdnt; T. E. James,
secretary and treasurer; H. H. iler, assistant secretary and tra er.
The omers with Dr. James M. Jackson institute the board of directors.
President Lummus, who had been president of the Bank of Bay Bicayne,
refined that position to take the president of the new institution. The
odeers of the bank enjoyed the full condence of the people and from ts
opening day it has been conidered moe of Miams trea fmanedal Insti-
ttions. The prsnt aDers are:: J. Lammu s, prident; M. I. 8paud-
in, secretary and treasurer; J. N. Lamm assistant secretary and tr
uer. During the year the bank met with a great le in the death of Ped
Morse, its vie-president Mr. Lmunns, president of the bank was
among the first to coe to Miami and has been a great factor in carryag
forward every interest of M i. Statement f Aprl 2, 1921, showed do-
posits of $1,785,4.14.
DAM CoUNTY SNCUrY CoMPANY
The Dade County Security Company was organaied in 1901. The com-
pany is a building and loan asocration. Hundreds of homes have been
built by this organiaton and Miami owes a great deal of its property in
hame building to the association. In the beginning it was a mall affair,
but its bun b has been handled with great care and it has had a continual
and steady growth. At the last annual meeting the capital stock was in-
creased from three million to five minio dollars. The aern aro: J. L
Wilon, president; J. E. Lommun, vi-presdent; W. R Sherrston, aehier.
Directors: W. F. Mller, Orio E. Hainin, J. T. Feaster, J. F. Chalfle, C. P.
Weldlin and G. A. Blles.
MIAm ExcHAIax BANK
The Miami Exchane Bank opened for business May 0, 190, with a
capital stock of $0,000. The aser are: J. T. Thorp, president; T. R.
Knight, vis-presidet; L E. SeliHg vicpreod ident; George Whitner.,
vice-president; George L Branmia, eaider. Since its oranation it
has grown rapidly nl popularity and the ome ers and the bank have the
confidence of the people. Statement of May 18, 1921, showed deposits of
Ten FIamTrr BANx AND Taucr COMPANY
The Fidelity Bank & Trust Company was oranised by L. T. Higlay-
man in December, 1915, with a capital stoek of $150,000. The bank pur-
chaed lota and erected a moderbankint home on FIser stiw. The Srnt
offers were L T. Hihlymman, president; E. G. Sewell viespeident;
Clarence M. Busch, vicepesideant In April, 1921, Mr. Highinm an re
signed, being sueeeeded by R. W. MeLaem E. G. Sewel aso resigned as
vice-preident Mr. HShI~ man renma ined as chairman of te board. The
Fidelity Bank and Trust Company dosed May 19, 1921, and the flowing
July it was announced that the aet of the institution would be taken over
MIAxI NArIoI. BAIx
a new organisation formed by J.. Anthony aid his aociates. It was an-
nounced that the oeers do the new bank woud be George B. Nlan, pre-
dent; G. M. Clayton, vice-peident, and John Welbour, eadler. The
bank's capital stock was annoueed at $160,000, two-third of whieh wa to
be allotted to Miam.
BAmx or Cocomrr Gmova
The Bank of Cooonot Grove, one of the substantial banks of Dade
County, was oranised November 1,1920. Deposits n this bank are in-
ured against loss, it beg one of the Wtham chain of banks. The bank ha
a capital stoek of $15,00. The oer are: A. W. Sanders, president; W. V.
Little, viepresident; D. F. F. Cristance, vice-president; George L Bey-
nolds, aebhier. Statement of May 17, 1921, showed deposits of $146,607.79.
BAwNK o HomrMADn
The Bank Homestead has a capital stock of $25,000 and deposit are
insured against los. The r ers are W. D. Home, president; Charles T.
Fuchs, Sr., vie-president; W. M Bradley, cashier; E. Z Crowley, aseeitant
eahier. Statement of May 19,1921, showed deposit of $407,888.
Other banks in Dade County include the Bank of Bena Vista and the
First National Bank of Miami Beach, recently organized.
[ ]-JIAMI is served by two daily newspapers, the Miamd Dail
Metropoiks covering the afternoon ield and the Mami Herald
the morning ldd. Both of thee ae a re equipped with
all modern facilities and cover the eld adequately. The
Metropol is the pioneer newspaper of the city, its rst issue
appearing May 16, 1896, the memorable year of the ctys incorpora-
tion. The paper was establied by Walter 8. Graham and Wesle M.
Featherly. In 1899 B. B. Tatum purchased an interest in the paper, and
in 1906 S Bobo Dean boouht a half interest. Som time later Mr. Tatum
sold his interest to A J Benel, and Mr. Dean and Mr. Benda conducted
the paper until 1915, when Mr. Dean became the soe owner. The Metrop-
Hl is published every afternoon except Sunday and has full Assoated
Prae leased wire. It issues a paper of from twelve to sixteen pages aad
has all the features of a metropolitan newspaper. It also Iseea a weekly
edition, the Weeky MetroMpli The Mii Herald, whie cover the morn-
ins feld, was etahihaed in 1910. F. B. Stoneman began the publication
of the Masaim Ew RBeerd September 15, 1908. This publation after-
ward became the Mormio News-Record and in 1910 a reoranzation took
place, which resulted in the establihmen of the MissM Heda The paper
is published by the Miami Herad Publsing Compay, ao wheh Prank B.
Shatta is president, F. B. Stonman is editor, and Edward Taylor is a-
ral manager. The Herld is published daily, inedudg Smnday, and issues
from twelve to sixteen page daily. It is a member of the Amoeated
Prn and gres its readers man special features.
The BomMested Bnte rim is published at Homestead, Florda, and i
a weekly newspaper conducted by A. C. Graw.
HENRY M. FLAGLER
E T IS not my purpose to write a life history of the late Hi ry M.
| Fagler, the greet phlnthrowt and empire builder and builder
of the FloMrid East Coast Ra lad ad its chain ao hot s. Mr.
Fbaglr's life has bae written in books and moanment have
brn -Jneated to his mmory, but the gratst of adl meaamat
ha bas buflt by himself in what he has done. The bilididn eo an epire
and the opewga up of what was ae thought to be a worthem country Is a
monument that wl ndue forwa r.
Whk the undertaokB to Mr. Flalr may have bean to a retain ex-
tent da a per dal natre, his higet aim was to be to averla to the word
Regardiax tb work he had undertm, Mr. Pagler oae id to me: I do
not epec durfag my life tie to get ay motary gain from e YM t r-
penditure at time, amoa and thought that I a inkt in Florida. II am
spared long moh to erty out my pla a I l be satinod. I have be
singularly blad In my bermies career and I feo that where a man has
been med with mor than a nal mnM that he wl bo held roqpbi
to his Mahkar fo the that his omPr pt to. Others ha built
churches, librari and soou ; them wml aBl pas away with tie and the
givers wi be footte. B tkh bNlding at the Florida at Coa Bafl-
roed and the ong up at a wldrae wlB ot, I m sue, be d dby
time, bt therl w grow in vae a th yea o by ad as the people
come in 'ad poms the lad. I am ameomit that tlhe Mallhd I am bld-
ing wM in time become the mot valuab rad od p ert in te word.
Mr. lages pro pti wee a ft coming tru. Yea ag while
I wa an eitr e a paper ti DaytIms I wrto sa artdte gad t h fa-
turn o tbhe Forida het CoMat Rafred. I stayed that tMh time wold
come who the andlrod woud be dob4rbashm d fm Jadmsale to
Miami. Mr. Flgter, is eo rtw this a itleS mid, "Mr. BS3dma,
you come the ment writing amO to e, aie end ambilaei for the fa-
turen of th Fi h Cosat Comat ilaMd than ay ma What you my
about the doIud4nrek l th ead wml sertaiyi be fulMled.
Mr. Flrgier was alry mliBe them who hav bees latrnted in rail-
road buldnti this eeoa His wrk aeemd to me to be didrecd Ib a
hier powr. Bo had a waderful vim at what this couaky wld
evrrta be, a vi.o that was nt share by other npram st aadtB
I number am tim t asth bread pi at tihe Ryal hm BHotel
in ovrmallir wihi the lat Sm 8 M aM the M t dd t the Deaware
& Lachwama Balrad. Our oma mlde tard s I pan Mr. Flagler and
the wonderful work he was undertaking wheo Mr. 81oan said: "I do not
want to criticise Mr. Flagler in what he is undertaking here, but I do say
that it would be impossible for him to form a group of capitalists to build
the Florida East Coast Railroad and make the other developments he is
making in what I consider a worthless country, save its climate. A rail-
road must have a certain amount of business and there are but few people
in this southern section and no immediate prospect of the population in-
creasing rapidly. Even though he fills this palatial hotel it will cut little
figure in paying the expenses of the road. I do not think he can succeed,
but should his dream prove true it will make him the greatest philan-
thropist of this or any other age." Mr. Sloan was a great man, who had
risen from a lowly position to the head of a great railroad, yet he, and
many other great financiers, honestly believed Mr. Flagler's great projects
were doomed to failure.
We all revere the name of Henry B. Plant, the great awakener of the
west coast of Florida, but in building his road south he built, generally
speaking, as a demand had been created for railroad facilities. The con-
ditions on the east coast were far different. Mr. Flagler had not only to
build the railroad but he had to create the business that would make it pos-
sible to run trains, and he took the entire responsibility of success or fail-
ure, asking no one to share his burdens. This was vision, this was inspira-
tion. I have long believed that Providence has during the ages raised up
men to accomplish certain work, and I firmly believe that Henry M. Flagler
was commissioned to do his great work. And well he performed the work
entrusted to him! He once said to me that many of his strongest friends
had advised him to give up the work, adding "but there is an impelling
force within me and I must carry out my plans."
It was Henry M. Flagler who first thought of connecting Miami, the
embryonic city, with a deep water channel to the ocean. Unaided financially
and with little encouragement from the people, he caused to be dredged
from the Miami River to Cape Florida a channel to the open ocean. When
completed he put on a line of steamers from Miami to Key West and a line
from Miami to Nassau, afterward building a dock on Biscayne Bay and
dredging a channel from a point opposite Miami to his new dock.
The last work Mr. Flagler undertook was the extension of the Florida
East Coast Railroad to Key West. This was one of the greatest engineering
problems of any age. To build bridges over the deep sea passes was thought
to be impossible, yet Mr. Flagler, with his inspiration for conquest, under-
took the venture and succeeded. There was a long gap of rough sea water
between Key West and Havana, Cuba, over which bridges could not be
built. A great over sea ferry was established, carrying train loads, which
proved to be a great success.
Vision and inspiration, coupled with the willingness of Mr. Flagler to
follow the dictation of vision and inspiration, enabled him to complete his
great work. He went out into the great beyond to receive his recompense
HENRY M. FLACLER
for the deeds done In the body, and a nation mourned his passing and the
nations of the earth paid tribute to his memory.
The Miami Women's Cub, on November 12, 1920, unveiled a bromse
memorial tablet at the library building in honor of Henry i Fagler.
The occasion was a notable one in Miami Mr. James E. Ingraham, of
the Florida East Coat Railroa nd a l red d ad a l associate of
Mr. Flaler, made the principal address recounting so many interting
historical fact touching the life and labors of Mr. Fgler that the writer
feel justified in recording here Mr. Ingraham's address in full:
Madam PrdM t and Lades of the Miemi Wone 's Club, Lades and
Madam President, I want to thank you for t opportunity you have
giyen me of saying a few words on this eeeasion at the anveing to the
memorial to my friend and chief, Mr. Henry M. Fagler, and as oe of
the few men left of the sroap amoeiated with him on the East Cout
in his gret undertaken I that I can ay romthing not only of
Mr. Flagser, but of the men that were associated in his work, n a of
whom have crossed the Grat Divide. There never was a clanr, more
hardworking, more honest or capable body of men ever groued in ome
association under one man than those who were associate with Mr.
Flaer in his work, and I am sure that they appreciated Mr. Flbler
and would rather stay with him and help him do nat thing in a great
way than to strike out for themselves and, p with their knowi-
edge of thins that wne to be domn, mhe large fortunes.
One of the moat striking caraeterlcs of Mr. Flagwr was his great
courage and coandene in his own jud He was a man who had no
regard for eperiam or preadse, e b he was a maker f pres-
denta. One Iastanse or mor wi perhaps Mutr my meann. ma
the Arst of the atworks e dertook was the cotraction of a bridge
across the St. Joh Rive at Jackonville. While the work was being
planned, his engmners came to him one day and told him that there was
no precedent for the castruetio of a center on a eal son I90 feet
of water, that nothing of the kind a ever be done befo, and there
rather intimated ome doubt of the pretisablity of It Mr. F laer
looked at the gentlmen for a few moment and said: "It ha never been
done before? Well, why ot? Cannot you build that pier in 90 feet of
water?" Tey looked at him for a few moments and t id: "Ye,
and they did t and the bridge is standing, and they a pree-
dent for ostrlion of that character.
Aain, after Mr. Flgler had made up his mind to buld the ovrea
section from Homrstead to Key West, and he had caled in oesuati
some engiasrs who are among the great anginrs of the world-you
ma not realize it, but th wer ad are-ae of thm has passed away
Sthe other is living Wh these men made their timate and ian
for the conetruata this line, Mr. Fller havirn determined to buud
it, he told Mr. Parrot to advertise for bids the c rea tim n of all
or part of this wok in t great papers of the United State, giving
ample time for these who deeded to sed in proposals to e ain the
work and pr e their bids. On the speeied day, wh the bds weea
to be opened, there w er ome sent In. Several gentlemen we present
and oe offered to submit what is now cae a cost-plus contract; in
effect, a willinness to build the road on the plans and speclleatoI s at
cost, phu a comisaion for their profit, and when w questioned he
said that there was no precedent for the formulation of the lopol
for esh construction, that there never had been anything lke it, to bad
a concrete viaduct between the waters of the Atlantic Ocean and Glf
of Mexico wa an unheard of procedure, that there were no fiures
they could get anywhere in the world on which to be uided in making
up their id and they had therefore been unable to do o. After ome
further eonultation, the gentleman withdrew. Mr. Fauer sat in ilent
thought for sometime, and finally turned to Mr. Parrott and said: "Com-
modore, cannot we do this job ourselve" Mr. Parrott looked at Mr.
Merridith, Chief ngineer, and back at Mr. Flaglr, and aid, "Yes";
and Mr. Fller then said, "Iet's et to work." There never was a
greater undertaking started with lee ftus and confusion than this gsat
work. All preedents for construction of this character we lat sight
of and new one established.
But you would be intrted perhaps in hearing something of the
foundation of Miami ad how it came into being, and how two women
were larly nterted in s o doing, and as this matter of the etabish-
ment of Miami was one in which I was peroaly very much in evi-
deace, you will pardon me for thrusting my peronalit into it, for I
cannot wel avoid it
Sometime before Mr. Flaler flnishd his railroad to Palm Beach
I met at a dinner party in Clevland, Ohio, Mr. Jul D. Tuttle, who
told me that h was bo to nmov her family and effects to Miaml,
and during the evening she said: "Some day somebody wl build a rail-
road to M mi. I hope you wil be interested in tt, and whe the do I
will be wnMa to divide my properties there and ive oe-alf of them
to the company for a town site." "Wel," I aid, "Mrs. Ttle, it is a
big way off, but trainer thin ve happened, and possibly I ome
day may hold you to hat promo ."
On December 24, 18, occuerd the first of the aret frees, which
was a tremendous disaster, at firt supposed, to Florld, ru n the
oran rove in the orange belt, touching the pine on the lIdian ltr
and nn te cocoanut leaves on the trees In the eaoanut rovs as
far M Palm Beach. As the orange industry was the pridipal in-
dustry at that time in Florida, it eemd as if this fresee was a fatal
thing and could not be overcome, and in almost every family dent
upon the orange industry it seemed as if death and disaster were their
Shortly after this free I came to Miami, and I found at lasder-
dale, at Lemon City, Bena Vista, Miami, Coonut Grove and at Cutler
orange tres Imon tree and lime trees bloomin or about to bloo,
without a loaf hurt, vegetable growing in a small way untouched. Ther
had been so frost their. I gathered up a lot of blooms fro those various
tree, put them in damp cotton, and after an interview with Mrs. Tute
and Mr. and Mrs Brickel of Miami, I hurried to t. A ustine, when
I called on Mr. Flagler and showed him the range bIoswms, tllina
him that I believed that these arne blossoms wene from the only part
of Florida, meaept possibly a sma ara on the etrme southerty part
of the western coat, which had e eaped the free; that hen was a body
of land mor than 40 mls long, between the Everlades and the Atlante
Ocean, perhaps very much lower than that, pabdoutly untouched, and
that I believed tha it would be the hom ao the itru industry in the
future, beeue absolutely imal from devastating tre I said: "I
have al he writt proposals from Mrs. Tattle ad Mr. and Mrs.
Brike, inviting you to er yor railroad frro Palm Beah to Miami
and offer to shan with o t h oldgs at Miami for a town ste."
Mr. nalr looked at me r s om mntes in perfect slae, the he
said: How son ean you aa for me to go to Miami" I aid: "If
yu ean give me three days i which to get a massaeger through to Mr.
Tottle, adviing her of your coming o that a may prepare for you
and a arri and horse to Fort laderdale, I will arrange to have
the huch maet you at West Palm Beach, take you down the ecaal to
Fort lauderdale and from thin by carriage to Miami. How many people
wil you have n your y Mr. laglr thought for a minute and
said: "There will bM a Mr. MeDoald (our Mr. MDeaald,
e trip was made aordin to schedule and we arrived In Miami
one perfect day, and that night was th mt perfect moalih hat I
have ever seen Bt r bed Mr. F lr had ae npted the proposi-
tion for the meteaon h rlrod, had heated de ite of the Roal
Palm Hotel and told Meser. MeGirse and Melodml to baud it and had
authored Mr. Panott to extend his rairoad fom Wmet Pam Beach to
iami, and had told me to go ahead and make pla for Miam town
sit*r, r up the town and get it ready. He seleted, to, the stes for a
pma r station. fre ht yrd aSd station, and told Mr. Parrott to
put advertisement e tate papers that labor of a kinds could and
employment for many months at Miami in the conototion of the ral-
road, hotels nd other aoese t work He seat down nme f the steamers
tat had been runingf on the Indian River to the cnal to eetali rait-
road camp for the countretion work, arryig men, material and sup
plies. He arua d to hav an additional dredge pt on the canal to
hurry the compleaon of the work between Lauderdale and the head of
Bimear Bay, that mspp lies dt phed nto Miami.
In Jul 18 te Ct a wa ra wwith 502 voter.
Mr. John B t, =4 aMr. BBJwoe aof i7ZJ N d Ibeing the fi rt
mayor. The railroad was alhed later, and the ity began to arow.
There were hundreds of people who had eeme into this territory to en-
pe in truakint, vegetbe sardeo putt a oat UIremries of yoan
tree, who had been brought in by the rairoad and encouraged to ettle
in this community.
On the seventh of February, 187, occurred the second of the peat
frees. This time trees were in Moom throu oot the whole Sta
vegetable were nearly ready, in many localities, to be shipped, and the
los was utter dimay in ta t verwoing dit ioa. At a con ce
with Mr. Parrott, Mr. Beckwith and our other oeAlal it was decided
that the railroad company would Iaue seed free, would haul fertilizer
and crate material ree, buat Mr. Parrott told me that that was as far
as he thao t the railroad compa could go. I mu i y got in
touch with the seed ordered supplies and eed to be given out
free anad bought all the eds of tomatoes that I could get my hands
on for free distribution. While we were taking in the afternoon a
telegram was handed to me from Mr. lagler, saying: 'Come to Miami
at ose." I took the first train and arrived at Miami about 6. in the
morning following, and found Mr. Flagler waiting for me on the steps
of the Royal Palm. He took me by the arm, he did not ay good morn-
ing or how do you do, but walked with me into Mr. Merrill's (the
Manager) office, and turned around and putting both hands on my
shoulders said: "Ingraham, tell me how bad it is." I sid: "Mr. Flagler,
it is a total los, the orange trees, we think, are ruined; they wer in
bloom, full of ap, and the mercury wentto fourteen. Vegetables every-
where are killed; the pineries on the Indian River are killed, and it is a
hundred per cent of loe." He aid: "What have you decided to do?" I
said: "After a conference ith Mr. Parrott, he authorized me to iue
free seeds and to haul fertilier and crate material free. That i s s far
as he felt that we could go, and I have bought up al the seed I can get
my hands on, and seed beds, for that purpose. He sid: "That is all
right so far as it goes, but it doe not go far enough. These banks here
in this territory are not strong, the banks will have to shut down on the
merchants and the merchants on the farmers, and they will starve."
He aid: "Mr. Ingraham, I want you to get right into this territory.
These people are not beggars nor paupers and they must have money to
go on. In order to save time issue your own eheek and let them have
such money as they need at 6 per cent on their notes for as long time as
they desire. You can use 6.0,000, or $100,000 or $200,000. I would
rather lose it all and more than that, than one man, woman or child
I should like to have you people think a minute of this situation.
Mr. Flagler ad expended hundreds of thousands of dollars on the e-
tension to Miami in the hopes of getting into a territory that was abso-
lutely free of frost. There was never oe word of reproach to me, who
had been largely instrumental in attracting his attention to this terri-
tory, not one word, nor did he have one thought in his mind, I am sure,
for the protection of this territory when he authorized this issue of
money to those in need. It was simply that no woman and no child
should starve. I was almost speechess when he told me. He said:
"Now, get right out, issue your own chek and cover it by drafts on
Beardaley, whom I will wire about the matter." Don't you know that
when I wired my associates and told them what Mr. Flaglar had told
me to do that th were tremendously revived, their courage was re-
stored, their n renewed and they realid wht a great thin it
was to do and why they chose to stay by Mr. Flagler and work with him
and for him rather than independently.
The effet of Mr. Flagler's decision to extend his railroad to Miami
after the great free of 18 restored confidence in the tate, because
other people, other territories, other banks, other corporations had re-
alised that if Mr. Flaglr had faith in Florida that it would pay them to
have faith, too, and carry on the works in their territories, ad they did,
and the free instead of ben, as we first thout, great disaster,
ruining the principal Industry of the State, brought about a realization
of the very great amount of resources in the State, the reablitation of
some, building up of others, to seuh an extent that Florida was stronger
after the freses by far than before. The effect of the loans to the
people in Miami of these sums to enable them to carry on again was
marvelous. It gave them courage, it kept them from drifting away.
That it was needed I can assure you was absolutely true. I saw some
of the direst suffering that Mr. Flagler's money relieved, which I could
not have belied possible had I not sen it, and much of the welfare
of this county, n fact the backbone of this county, lay in the strength
of the men and women who stuck to their work, went on with their
plantings and brought about a renewed condition of confidence in this
territory. Within seventy-two days of the time that the rst relief check
was issued, vegetable, tomatoes snap bean began to move, first by -
press, then by carload, then by trainload, and I want to tel you that the
season was so good a one as to price and quantity as to establish perma-
nently the truckingel industry in this territory.
And now a more personal story of Mr. lagler. The last time I
saw him, stretched out on his bed of fferin at Pam Beah, before his
death, I had just returned hm a trip to Oshobe where we were
undertaking the last of the gret work begun in Mr. Flagr' lifetime.
He asked me to tell him about it, and I showed him some pictures and
he gave me his Ft words on this subject, which were: "I hope you wil
succeed. I am orry I have not bee there. I wish I couldgo, I hope
to g, but I a afraid I will never ee that great lake ad that great
country." He then turned and put his head on mine and aid: "When
were you at Miami?" I sid: "I was there yesterday and the day before.
came up from there this evening He said: "Wel, what about it, what
are they doing?" I told him some things that were goi on, and I told
him that it was truly a magic city. He id: "No, that is a misnomer; t
is apt a mage ciy. Those men and women there are ke boys and girls.
They have never be hurt and they know no fear." He aid to me: "It
is a eity of eternal youth."
Think of It, with these skis, thee beautiful waters, thee trees
ever green, the City of Eternal Youth. When I read in some a your
daly papers of sme wild,r stunt that about to be puled off by
your boyish men and girlish women, I often think of what Mr. Flagler
said, that t it a city of eternal south, and th boy and thee girls
have no fear, and I am forced to belv e e by which has attend
them that it is a city of eternal youth, and I pra you, you boish me
and you girl women, when you bring your hildre up and teach them
of Mimi, do not let them forget the name of the man who founded it,
who believed in it and who loved it, do not et his memory be forgotten.
I, therefore, in the name of the surviers of the little of men
who were ociated with Mr. Fagler in his seat work i lmrd thank
you ladies t the Miami Womens Club for your remembrae of our
chief in the establishment of this memorial table to him.
MRS. JULIA D. TUTTLE
D OON after I came to Miami I made the acquaintance of the
late Mrs. Julia D. Tuttle, who impressed me as being a woman
of great foresight, a woman who could at all hazards carry
out her plans, although many of her plans reached far into the
future of Miami and Dade County. Many of her plans have
been more than carried out, and while some of them have not yet
materialized, who knows but that they will be carried out in full before
many years roll around; in fact, her highest aspirations may have been
but slight visions of what the future of Miami will eventually be.
Mrs. Tuttle often called me to her home to consult with her in regard
to some plan that she had in mind for advancing the interests of Miami.
I have often thought that it was largely Mrs. Tuttle's visions of the future
of Miami that urged me to write enthusiastic letters for the papers and
magazines. To sit and hear her talk of what Miami would finally be was
always inspiring. Many thought Mrs. Tuttle a dreamer-a chaser after
shadows-but the passing years have proven beyond question that she
was a woman of great foresight, a woman who had visions of the future
that others were not permitted to see. I remember one evening, in the
latter part of 1896, Mrs. Tuttle sent me a note inviting me to come to her
home. It was a pleasure for me to grant her request. On my arrival at
her home, she said: "I have had a new inspiration regarding the future
of Miami and I want to tell it to you, for I know that you will remember it
and some time use it." We were seated in her living room, she occupying
a large settee on the south side of the room. "Now," she said, "I want to
talk to you, and don't laugh at my predictions, for I feel sure they will all
come true. All these years I have had but one thought and that one
thought is to see Miami grow to one of the largest, if not the largest, city
in all the southland. I have had many discouragements-discouragements
that perhaps to one of a different temperament might have proven fatal-
but the one thought and belief that at some future time these dreams of
Miami's greatness would prove true has urged me on during all these years.
No sacrifice on my part has been neglected to assist in bringing about my
convictions of what Miami will eventually be-one of the greatest and most
important cities, financially, commercially and residential, as well as the
most important deep water port in all the southland. How many years will
pass before this becomes true is, to me, yet a mystery. I can now only get
a glimpse of the far future, but I want to tell you what I see will be the
condition ten years hence." She then gave a description of what she saw
JULIA D. TUTTLE
in her fnrhtednsQe or viLto, o what Mimmi would b ten years h e.
To me It seemed Il the dram at a real dwmer. Thare we thb mary
buildings under process d irtruti. The great Byal Palm Botal wa
begihing to form sha; its fouedmtios wea comar and the turm of
the uper9 trwatm was being p lad in portion. The ate Jasph A. Mo.
Domad, who had faith in the f of M i as the comin city of the
southad, was bualdin the Bsearne Blar ot; Mr. Flglr was eretu
aottages on Thtrtanth and rarteimeth tt a tret improvremrts
had ommMeed and Mr. ngler was dredgain a eannl fram the lami
river to Cape orlda. Oa eaery had improvements wer being rraed
on, indfeting a permaineIm and the rtpd b Midi up of the city. Mr.
Tttle id that In ten years Mam would have a reident population of
mo O than ten thousand people. She the went on and dmernbed ma of
the buldi that she maw In her vision, te beautiul teta, t great
rows of business bMo and the beauotil homes. I aid to Mr. Tattle:
"You have a very active and farreaching inmgiatom. You surely do
not mean to my that within ten yea all this development will bme boht
about." She replied moet emphatiai that mho believed even sgeater d-
vlopments would be made during the coming ten yea. Mr. Tuttle's
vidol did not al come true within te tme stated. In 190 the was a
permanent popsto of between three and four thoumad, but the build-
Ina both businm and nsidential, had mo than kept pae with Mrs
Her vision of the development of the country ditrit was also as-
tonishr n, yet her statements rarding the outlyin districts ha more
than come true. The question has ma times rim in my mind was what
she saw in her md simply the "op that pa father to the thought,"
or was it qpiation, a vision wanted her ofd Mamis future r stat
Mrs. Tttle had equally bright visions reading the port of Miami.
Alon this lin she maid: "It will not be many years hence when Miami
will be the mot important port on th Atlati Coat in the South. The
time wil come when tmh harbor and it approach will b dendgd to a depth
that will allow the deep sa-oig vsel to anhor. Not mly will this
bring in the eoastwiae teamers, whose eaptal now cast lominf yem
toward Miai as they pas, but the Soth Amerian eels wI fnay ply
between their hm ports and Miami, and Miami will bmecme the pat
cter od the South American trade. Vsses from an ports o the wurd
will all at Miami, making Miami the sIeatet commeral eater in al the
oautIand. This may rm farethbed to you, but as surly as the n
rises and sets a aof this wlome true." Aain, we ask, was thi a day
dram ar was it vision or lpiratio
M Jalls D. Tattle wa bora Cin s, h .I -
T.swEs emae to Dade CoUy abont 1M71, and with Wi m B.
Brickel located at the mouth of the Miami River, at wt h P..OT led
BrktMa'i PiantE alD te afact that bo t Ther 6lilulbm &maithar re-
turaliirE to iCvelanli.rs. Tuttle -iagg iffiifTI'ir demtha ta ma her
permanent olime In this State. She purchased from the Byire Bay
Company a iref of -ix hundred and fort cr -e narth bank of the
Maia River, and upon thfi trct T now bolt a of the main i- n aO
the City of itbana SM e i rndT eitiH 7 E iaibler to build _the
to this point, makingiim bniportant riiel itte cosedeiona. She died in
Miami, September 14, 1898.
AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE
W T-FIVE years ao this portion of Florida was thought
T to be of no value as far as agriulture and horticulture was
concerned. This iade it dicult to induce men to take up
the cultivation of vacant land. Those who were msenk
homes were looking for a o where favorable result might
be obtained. The writer had faith in the productivity of the soil of Dade
County and made efforts to dispel the idea that the sol was worthless.
Sample of soils from the Allapattah district were ent to the State
hbemt for analysis, who pronounced the se of no value for either agri-
cultural or horticultural purposes. This adverse report wa a great sar-
prie to those who believed otherwise and was not at in harmoea with
the practical facts. The place from which this sample oil was taken
had, in fact, been planted in tomatoes with wonderful result. The
owner had marketed five hundred rate of tomato from a ingle acre,
besides selling quantities of "over-ripes" in the home market. He had
demonstrated beyond question that the sll, with commercial fertaer,
would grow bountiful crops of tomatoes. About this time William Free-
man, of Little River, concluded to raise tomatoes for the northern mar-
ket, and planted a small tract of about an are. His crop was a won-
derful demonstration of what could be done on this da of lands. His
net returns from the commission men, after deduction the fright and
commisions, amounted to ffteen hundred dollars. This rult was ob-
tained from a tract that measured a trif lees than oe acre Some-
time later, J. Peters came to Little Rver with his family. Through
the advice of EA. Wadde he purchased a piece of land there and n-
gaged in tomato growing with wonderful sucmrs. The Peters tomato
ilds were written up and sent broadcast throughout the country and
people came from many point to ae if the story was true. The grow-
ing of tomatoes oon became the real occupation of the ettlers who
came in and in a abort time Dade County was hbippnl to the northern
market more tomatoes than any count in the State. The farmers
then bean eperimenting with other arop, sueh ua eaq plant, bea,
okra and other vegetables, ad these experiment proved very suoeeamfuL
The lonr arms of sand and marl lands, which have their head in the
Everglades, once thought to be worthless, ar now the home of the
trucker, and a great variety of crop are succeesflly cultivated.
DADE COUNTY FRUIT
For a time the attention of the cultivators of the soil was centered
on growing "garden truck." Gradually experiments were made in grow-
ing citrus and tropical fruits. These experiments soon proved the value
of the lands and climate to fruit growing. Scattered over the southern
part of the county was here and there a settler, the larger portion of
whom had come from the Bahama Islands, where all kinds of tropical
fruits are grown. They had brought with them seeds of the avocado,
mango and sapadillo, hoping that the country would be adapted to the
growth of these fruits. As other settlers came from the North they
secured seeds from the once dwellers of the Bahamas, and in this way
nearly every homestead taken prior to 1896 had more or less of these
trees. George B. Cellon, of Beuna Vista, was among the first to recog-
nize that the avocado and mango had great commercial value. He re-
alized, however, that at the season of the year when the fruit matured
here the northern market was filled with peaches, apples, strawberries
and other fruits and that it would be a hard matter to introduce this
new fruit under those conditions. He undertook to find an avocado that
would mature in the fall or early winter. He visited every place where
the avocado and mango was grown and on the homestead of C. L Trapp,
at Coconut Grove, he found one tree that matured its fruit in the fall.
He arranged with Mr. Trapp for buds from this tree, and in his honor
it was named the "Trapp," and today wherever man is found the Trapp
avocado is known, and thousands of acres of Dade County soils have
been planted in Trapps. The Department of Agriculture became in-
terested in the development of the avocado, especially the later varieties,
and sent trained specialists to every country where the avocado grew to
select the best and choicest varieties. In Guatemala and in China they
discovered a number of varieties which matured almost every month in
the year. From these trees buds were selected and sent to the Govern-
ment experiment station in Miami and distributed to sections suited to
growing the avocado. Many years ago the Department of Agriculture
secured buds of the Mulgabo mango and buds were sent to Palm Beach.
Today there are thousands of the Mulgabo trees planted in Dade County.
This fruit is valuable from a market standpoint and is easily grown.
In the southern part of Dade County as it is today there was for-
merly no commercial groves of either orange or grapefruit. In the
northern extremity of the county as it was in 1896 there was one or two
commercial groves west of Jupiter. In the vicinity of Miami there was
a few citrus trees here and there. The few trees scattered through this
southern section were practically left to grow without care or cultiva-
tion. The writer began to study the practicability of planting com-
mercial groves, and believed that the trees with proper care would thrive
here. I was at that time editor of the Florida East Coast Homeseeker
Cattle Raising in Dade County. Scene from Curtiss-Bright Ranch, Near Miami
Sheep Raising in Dade County. Scene from Curtis-Bright Ranch
and I wrote an rtcle advocating the planting of commercial citrus groves
in this s on. Twenty years after this article was published Dade
County was supplying on-third of all the grapfruit dipped from the
State of Florida. One of the rst commercial Prov planted in the
vicinity of Miami was planted by John Douglas about four miles wt of
Miami. Thi grove was for years the show place of this set. The
Potter brothers, who had brown citrus fruit near afford for many
year, took up a hom tad wet of Coconut Grove and soon had a
"real sow" gove. The late Henry Wells of Barlinton, Vermont, pr-
chaed a part of the Captain Samuel Filer tract, bordering on Biasayne
Bay, and plted a part of it in rapefruit, oranges, avocado and mango.
After Mr. Wll' death, Mrs. W s purchased forty acres at Orange
Glade ad pnted twenty acres in citrus fruits nd other tree. This
grove was a beauty spot Samuel Bdeher, who camo here before the
railroad reached Miami, planted a srove of citrus ad tropical trem on
what s now Twentieth Street. Co. Henry Cay Boom came here in
1896 and was suimesl with a citrus grove which he panted on ham-
mock land on a bluff outh of the Brikel In 1897 tde le Bery M.
Flagler selected a tract of eighty acre at Kendall ad plated seventy
acre in orange and srapefrit. This grove was sold in 190. In 1897
the late M. March bought a tract south of Coonut Grove and
planted citrus ftritL Mr. March wa one of the few me wo from
the start had faith in the adaptability of thi soil for citrus frita Along
about this time Charles IAleou eame bhe frm France and pra d
the h e d .of the late Dr. Jadcon on what is now kown as the
Lelne Boad. He has a roe of or sevnty areas sad it is uamo the
rove that py large dividends. Lwis Wager and family came here
from Georgia, Florid. He purchased a te-acre tract at Orange Glade
and planted a citrus grove, addig a few avocado aad mao tree.
This is another rove that has been a profitble investment Space
forbids referring to many others who ame to Dade Couny in the early
days and planted grove of citus and tropical tre. These grove aN
here as witaeses that no one was mistake in undertaking the growing
of thee fru this climate and soll. At th St Iauis Npsimtio I had
charge of an exhibit from the East Coat of Florida sad won frst pri
on orange, grapefruit ad pineapples. A box of avocado sat to the
Jametown exposition was awarded first premium. I also had charge
of the Eat Coast exhbit at the Ohio Val Exposition at Cincinnati,
Oho, where a great number of premium wer seeurod. Expert judges
pronounced Dade Conty fruits even in t e early day the bat on the
market Today they rank a the bt in the world.
ROADS AND BRIDGES
N 1896, when Henry M. fagler began his great improvement
work in Miami, there was not a single mile of public roads
in the southern part of Dade County. Theb were oly trails
over the rocky pine lands leading to the homes of the few
settlers. In Mr. Flagr's agreement with Mrs. Tuttle was
Stipulation that he would hard surface the roads or streets in certain
portions of imi and build sidewalks. "Captain" Jon Sew a
he was then called, had charge of ad this work, and proved to be not only
a good rod builder but a dioverer, as we Whe the order was given
to him to build streets and idwalks there was no special material spe-
fed. He had experimented with the native rock in building sidewalk
around the Royal Palm Hotel, and was the first man to use the native rok
for road build. The first hard surface road and walks were built around
the Royal Palm grounds, then on Fourteenth. Thirteenth and Twelfth
streets and a portion of Avenue D. This was the beginning of hard sur-
face roads in Dade County. A hard surface road from Miami to Buena
Vista was built by the city and county, aided by Mr. Flgler, sad this was
followed by a road from Miami to Coconut Grove bult in like manner.
Then there arose a demand for a hard surface rad from Miami to the John
Douglas road, west from Miam. Kirk Munroe appealed to the county com-
missioners to build this road, offering to assume charge of the building of
the rod, but the commissioners did not respond. Mr. Munro then uder-
took to build the road by private subscription but did not secure enough
pledges to complete the entire rod, but the commissioner then came to
his rescue and wished enough money to complete the road. The buld-
ins of hard surface roads soon became a general slogan and the commis-
sioners wee swamped with petitions for rods in difieent parts of the
county. The county has built over four hundred and fity miles of hard
surface highways and the county has the best roads in the State. All of
the early rad building was done without road machinery. Now the county
has a number of machines. Withthhe great increase of traec it was found
that the soft native rock did not make a strong and substantial wearin
surface and other methods wer tried out. Nearly ll the roads in the
county are treated with an oil surface, but with the increase of trafft the
county has taken up what is called the penetration system. Neither the
city nor the county have adopted the concrete road.
The first bridge built in Miami wasb lt by the Florida ast t
Hotel Company, or the Model Land Company. This was a wooden stru-
to re.nnpng the Miami Bhm tathlaA C.r A c The architect
did not ta o the beauty vt the strtrutur, but smply it
utility. It ser d its ppo for several years. The next bridge to
the Miami river was a at fel] aI l
Aveasl.) was tbhe ctty and was a handsome str re
ie ity was proud of. The next b the atae
Brothers emac the Mianil t was a
W m Mtn eno a r to arry the trolley ar, which the Tatum
Brother were then openta and the general trand, sad was a very atis-
factory structure. The stdil o Miami Avenue became unsafe for
tr an a B< sKt r t wy ad .
city but a co ete bride in its pae, a counterpart to the Miami Avenue
bridge Both ad these bride ar handsome and substantial stratre.
The Colins bridge spannn Biscayne Bay and connecting Mini aad Miami
Beach, wa built in 1912. It is a wood structure, two and aehiaf mai
In length and is oe of the aget bri es in the country. The baldhl of
the Caueway from Mimi to Miami Beach, over the waters of Bisayne
Bay, a distance of about three mies, is oe of the gratest pies of oad
coutretion n the entire country. The Causeway s a handed feet wide
on the top, with two roadway and a railway track in the anter. The
surface is lshed with asphalt Over the Causeway the Miami Beach
Traction Company operate a street railway sysm from Flager street,
Miani, to Miami Bech. On the Miami Beach sid thee is a loop covering
both side and both ds of the peninsula. The operation company built
its power hom, electric liht and cod storage plant adjo en the Cause-
way o the south side. The cost of the Causeway wa about one mllio
dollar. County Commisionr J. C. Bale had eharge f the building of
the Causeway until it was nearly complete. A variety of trees, shrdb
and Bowers ar planted on the south sde the Causeway.
THE FLORIDA EVERGLADES
BHE first attempt made for dralning the Everglades was mad
by Hnmilto Dion, f Piladelphia. This was smLhna
e twent-two yean mao Mr. Dinato pnrehMrd a lar
trct of the Evradm ands ftm the State, ituated i
what was known as the Lake Hart ri, on te sout er
boundary of Orange Conty. The topography of that setin was favr-
able for the complete drainage do the lad. The prhpal operation In
drainage was in Oneola County. Seoo after th purchase d the lade,
Mr. DiMstoa entered ito xtsive plans for the drainam a a r ane
of mack lands, under the diretion of .L BRs, now State chemist.
Drainage canals wre compdle d d a large acre atgr o a e pleated
as well aa reat variety of the ordinary field erozp asd vegtaM es. Al
these cop proved most satisfactory. A sugar all was eremtd at or
,ear St Cloud, whieb turned at as n grade of granlaed sugar a
that made in anr of the old sugar growing portions of the world After
demonstrating beyond question that the drained mek lhad of the
Everglades were not aonly wodertaly suited to growing sugar anew, but
aD agricultural crop garow further north, oethin saddeahy happened
whih dtroyed Mr. Diaton's hope, and the Diatom dracina and uar
cane farm wee abandoed. Thi put a stop to further erts to drain
this vast body of rich lad. Thee was mre or lss talk of drainage for
year afterward, but time relld on and these fin lande nremalnd au the
cam from the hand aof the Creator.
In June, 18, there was a rtroeg movement that prmksed to mature
into something deaite toward the dralnae of a ports of the ladess
west from MiamL In tbht year the trustees of the Internal Improement
Fund entered into a contract with J. R. Parrott, J. E. Ingrham, Rufus
E. Rose, James M. Schaumaher, J. & Murray, Guy I. Pride and L. M.
As le, wh o empoed the Florida Eat Coast Draiage and Suar Com-
pany, for the ale of practicay dght hundred thoead ase of Ever-
slade land, lyin on the dividin rage line inof thirty-i and thlrty.even,
at a price of twenty-fve eeats per ace We sa not try to inform the
public bow this project came to fal. The falue of tbis company to
carr out their plans, however, awakened the spirit of draining the ovr-
glades, not only in this section, but throughout the State. In 1UM or
198 there aroe a statesum who wa detained to lead the dranh e
forces out of former defeat to victory. This was th beloved Napoleon
B. Broward. He was elected Governor of te State in 1904 a platform
advroetin the drainage of the erglades. Wham he amnnoned his
platorm, thorn opposed to drandim looked upon the aomumeamt as
a joke, but they were on copelled to '"t up ad tah notea." He was
eledbd by a large naorit sad himMdiar eoommurad *a Imovemmt to
carry out his reeldtion pIemies. This he fioud to be daifnalt uader-
takha. His old eneami tried in every way to defeat him, but he was
steadfast Sand imovable.
Ths has bar sme diMappolatints in the work of draias the
Everdt Wdm ha the work was art eaommaad t was thought It
would be eampitd within a few hart years, but anay obstis have
ban amt bae and there. Th people arn aimbro iy awaiting te t
whan the work will be rompad. MAl the shre of the Miami-
Obehdbee C Jl, for several wSt of the the cty, he drainage has
eaomflUd Tmuh for this Mertioa. Aearg the astern haboe of the
'slad tht are nw lare aseag M under alvartio. The Phaslvetas
Samr Company parehaim one hundred and twe thousand amer of
Everglades lead sad havelht dd e e hundrl ed a sain r ase.
The Rnailan colmory hv eleve themanUd sef, lve hundred of width
is ander aulthvatio. In the sam asigUorhood is the CurtJe-Bright
ranCh sand other importat holdigs. As rgdy as these lads are
dried there wll be takis up by paMpl who wiB iege in some of the
industries that are now being sCebsuly carried on in the drained
THE DEEP WATER MOVEMENT
HE first movement to secure deep water for Miai was made
by Henry M. Flaler, whme he caued to be dredm Jrom
the Miami River to Cape Florida what wa then eoaidered
to be a deep-water chiai to the ocean, and put on steamers
plying between Miami and Nassau and Miami and Key
West. This was considered a great victory. It did not, however, satisfy
the aspirations of the people of Mimi. In their vision they w a
deep-water channel from Miam to the ocean-a rat harbor, with thoa-
sands of ships from a quarter of th obe resting on the plid face of
its waters. Th Miami Board of Trade discussed the matter pro ad con,
and finally it was de ed to go after deep water with a determination to
secure it. The matte was takn up with the Rivers and Harbor Com-
mission in Washingto and a method at procedure was determined upon.
First, there must be a minute statement in regard to the tonnage of freight
that come to and is sent out from Miami. This was a gigantic task and
the work was turned over to K V. B kman, secretary of the Boad of
Trade. It was a long and tedious undertaking. Many of the merchants,
fruit growers and vegetable men responded to the earnest solidttion of
the secretary, but it took nearly two months to sure what was thought
to be a complete list of the tonnage of freight eamig into and being
shipped out of Miami. A committee was appointed to go to Washington
and present the claim of Miami for deep water. The committee did their
work well. At the same time Mr. Fagler was represented in Washington
by the late Joseph Parrott, president of the Florida Est Coast Railrad,
beside several other influentil men, who work with the committee from
the Board of Trade. In this effort Mr. Flagler spent thousands of dollars
in forwardin the movement. The committee and Mr. Parrott and his
associates were recognized by the congressional committee, who listened to
the claims of Miami as a deep water port. Although at that session of
Congress no great headway was made in securing deep water, the recog-
nition given the committee and Mr. Parrott and his associates was most
This was the real opening of the fight for deep water, which has
continued from that time to the present. The Mami Chamber of Com-
merce took up the deep water problem, which nally resulted in the gov-
ernment dredging an eighteen foot channel from t Eii-an nd to &p
water, while the city of Miami dredged a chanel through the bay to a
municipal dock to be built and a turning beasn, both of the ame depth of
the o m t chapel. This work is now nearly completed, yet a chan-
nel t Edeph does nota tisfy the Chamber of Commerce or the people
of Miami. Then is now a well-defned movement on foot which will sive
Miami a deep-water channel from the municipal docks to the ocean at a
uniform depth of twenty-ve feet, with every prospet that it will be
The city of Miami hau received great benemts from the present chan-
nel. Ships from foreign ports Me taking the advantage of the port. trade
with foreign nations has been and in being estaMlshed, which i proving
an important factor in the commerelal lie of Miami. Many government
ship have taken advantage of the deep water and have anchored at the
municipal dock. Ths was especially true during the world war. The
Drake Lumber Compay and the Ljnday Lumber Company have each
built up lucrative onections with foreign lumber dealers ad weekly p-
loads of their products have been and are bei seat abroad. It is mpeted
that within a year steamer line will be etea hed between Miami New
York, Phadelphia and perhaps Boston, earryin both passenger and
freight Alread there is a lie of stesmers beten Miami and Havana
and several inea between Miami and Namas and seveN l other Baglioh
idsand. The amo but the indleationm ofth t ftum a saestes of the port
of Mismi and the faure that t wil eventually cut in the word's ommee
when twenty4ve feet of water is secued. Then the reat coastwise
steamer that now pages or door wil make Miaml a port of cal. Already
South American steamhp nen and South Amerian business interests are
investigation the posbllites of thib port. These are all indiatios that
in the ear future the port of Miami wl become one of, if not the most,
important ports of entry on the South Alntlc coat.
Prom t time the first movement was made toward securing deep
water, it as be a constant Sht, with the mast flatterai p pet that
Miami wll win a complete achievement. Durias the loe strusi the
people have had the most cordial aistance frem CongressmI SJeanrs
Senator Fieteher and othea and evo r mv made by Miami people has
had th earnest support of these representative. President E. G. Sewel,
of the Miami amber of Commer e, keeps i cooetant toeuh with every
movement at Washington whleh affects the nteresta of this port and he
with his committees stad ready to take up any work that will advance the
Interests of the ity and port, be it here or a trip to the nation's capital
THE DADE COUNTY FAIR
AD COUNTY was the frst county in the State a Florida
to hold a county fair. In the year 1897 the International
Tobacco Growe held its annual convention n Mimi. Tis
was to be a great event and would brinr in a large number
of deleates. Miami was at that time an infant city ad
there was doubt whether a the delegate euld ad uomdin
I was employed at that time as editor of the Floride es Coet Rome.
soker, a magazine pubiahed in the interest of the land department of
the Florida Eat Coat Railroad. Before comig to Florid I had bean
intereted in county and townhbip fain, beleving them the best posebe
medium for advertising. It occurred to me that if I could ather a few
products gown in Dade County and exht them it milht be a drain
card at the meeting of the tobacco rower. I went to Heary Mteril,
then manager of the Royal Palm Hote, and told him my plan and asked
him for e room on the ground floor for the fair. He was emtheetle
over the ides. Thus ecouragd, I wrot to J. E. Inraham, who was in
charge of the land department of the Florda Bast Coast Rairoad. He
wired me to Set up the fair and stated he would pay al apemes and fer-
nish a tent. I immediately started to seue exhibit for the fir. At this
time it was generally believed that neither vegetab or uits could be
grown hen profitably. There we but a few people who had even a
"kitchen garden." It was no eay undertaking to ece enough exhibit
for a real fair. A that time the late C. 0. Rielh a had the laret
garden a the south bank aof the MiamR ier, and he MIndy ai6i-lB I
anything he had that would do for anedriildt. Nkeary P^otered a
prize of seventy-Ave doabri foir-irii apTty of vegetabMi. The tat
arrived, and the fair was a great success. Th delesat to the tobacco
rowers convention wrote lowing aceeunts of the fair. Mr. ]Riharr m,
although a man of eighty yean, won the prime of asenty-4 dollars.
Twenty-four years have passed since the first fair was held, and the
movement thus started has contend year after year. Other eountis have
also taken up the idea and now hold annual fai It wakened the people
to a realiatin of the value of xhbiting their products and this resulted
in the forming of a State Fair Associaton.
For three or four years the Dade County fair was held in any place
avalablend and the xpens were paid b J. Igraham, the Florida
East Coast Rairoad. The fairs were directly under my manement. The
fairs were such a success that Mr. F er Instructed Mr. Ingrabam to eret
a fair buldin. Ths was dae and a building erected at the foot o Twelth
street over the waters of Biaeiar Bay. This r s a srrt imrpovemn t
and added mue& terast to the ammr l fta. The iut year after the
buBdir was aueted Mr. Fller aad Mr. uraamm wen pree. After
sedor the enmrdd ecmdmtm of the buldin. Mr. lFsler ordered an ad-
ditio to the bluldig befre the mxt year. For several years the rAoid&
Eut Cmst allnmrd paid the rtire apeme the annml fir. As our
people wer re Ea ng muaeh be t from the tars I touatgt the people
here Msold tribe to Ito ppot. I took tie matter up with the bei-
newo mam, t0he eMoty em mrn td the dty fathe, and the zrpa
wya ainost um mo However, the nu~l a coumpy m mooti d to p-
port th in utittim. Lter, I propod that a fair muM atio be formed,
and aidor Cao was oeam p- M and ummries were melted fem
aparV t dthe e8rty. I was elected eretary smad seral manger. The
seoad year pter the orgmtat was famed, J. C. BDo was dleted
preidm t; A. WaddBel, vIapridint; J. L Wihom, treaurr; ad B. V.
Bhlcdma seem r ad ma er.
The burda of the fair bad become o heavy that I reigned lat yer,
as did al the other oaoenr. The fair lteest wer termed over to J. 8
Balm, eoumty demamntrw t agent, who made a most aeedtable ihowin
with t ttwantyfth manual fair.
OCONUT GROVE, lying five miles mouth of Miami, is maid to
be the first settlement on Biscayne Bay. It is one of the most
picturesque communities in Florida, and is noted for its beau-
tiful homes and its culture environment The first post-
ofe was established at Coconut Grove in 1878, but was dis-
continued in 1874 and was not reetablished until 188, when Charles
Peacock became potmaster Dr. Porter established the fat tore there
in 1870. The Bayview Hotel, afterward known as the Peacock Inn, was
built in 1881 by Charles Peacock. The firt school examination for
teachers was held at Coconut Grove, April 6, 1888, at the cottage of Mrs.
Caleb Trapp and she became the first teacher. Coconut Grove was in-
corporated in 1919, Irving J. Thomas being the first mayor. It has a
number of prosperous business concerns, magnificent churbe and schools
and a bank.
Ralph M. Munroe, one of the first settlers of Coconut Grove, ame
there in 1877. The Brickell were at that time keeping asn j d trAd-
ing post at Fort Dallas, on he south side of the jlilm River, and J. W.
Ewan, superintendent of the Biscayne Bay Compny, way al
a sore on the north side of the slamn River. Mr. Munroe state that a
permanent settlement was made in Coconut Grove when John Frow and
family, Jack Peaock, Charles Peaeock and family, the Pent family, the
Newbolds, Roberts, Rhodes and Jenkiaon settled there. Theme people
raised gardens for the support of their families, but the rabbits and deer
often played havoc with their crop. Insect life was so bothersome that
dense smokes were built and the doors and windows of the homes kept
closed during the night. The early setter underwent man privations,
but they had faith that sooner or later Cooout Grove would com into its
own. Nature materially assisted the setter in providing for the wanted
of their families. Scattered over the rocky pine lads to the west of Coeo-
nut Grove "eoontie" grew in almost unlimited quantities. The Indian
before had solved the problem of making stach from the roots of this
plant. The settlers adopted the Indian's metod and aB eonmmmee mak-
in starch, for which there wa always a ood market in Key Wrt, whlm
it was exchanged for the necessitis of life. Indian yam was alo plenti-
ful at that time, but this product is now extint. Mr. Munroe sates that
this yam was of a very fine quality ad unlike any their. Mr. Munree
found Mr. and Mrs. Chares Peacock working for the Biscayne Bay
Company at Fort Dallas. Mrs. Peacock came here from England in
July, 1875, coming from New York to Key West and from there to Coco-
nut Grove. Mr. Munroe urged thdm to build a hotel in Coeoaut Grove.
Lack of funds prevented them doing this for a time, but finally Mr. Mun-
roe assisted them financially and they reacted a modest hotel called the
Baview, afterward noted a the Peacock Inn. At that time the only
way to secure lumber for building purposes was to gather the wreckage
from the beach, which was very plentiful. The lumber for all the homes
built by the early settlers at Coconut Grove was secured in this way, ea-
cepting the shingles and the siding, which were brought from Key West
J. W. Ewan, known as the "Duke of Dade," arrived at Coconut Grove
in 1874. He was made superintendent of the Biscayne Bay Company and
located at Fort Dallas, where he opened a store, was appointed postmaster
and later was elected representative to the legislature.
A mail' route was established from Fort Dallas to Key West about
1870. Later a route was established from Palm Beach to Fort Dallas
and it was claimed that mail brought by the way of Palm Beach aved
from two to four days over the Key West route. A man by the name of
Sturtevant secured the first contract for man service. He traveled on
foot, following the beach on dowa. During the Seminole War a mal roote
was established from t. Augustine to Fort Dalas to deliver dispatches
to the garrison. "Long Joh," as he was called, secured this contrat. The
Seminole War was in ful force and "Loa John" traveled the beach during
the night and hid in the brush during the day fo fer of bein captured
by the aemlnols. The first postoaee in Dade County was esteoaed at
Indian Key in 1885, with Charles How as posmaster; the second at Key
Bisayne in 1889. In 1860 a ptoee was established at Fort Daas,
with George W. Ferguson as posmastr.
Ralph M. Mnroe came to Coconut Grove from Staten Island, where
he was acquainted with a are number of prominent people, many of
whom have visited him at his beautiful place on Bisayne Bay. Mr. Mun-
roe represented the Marritt Wnecking Company as their seet, his terri-
tory extending from Jupiter to Alligator. He was oespo nt for the
Department of Agriculture and the Burea of Fisheries, as well as for the
Museum of Natural History of New York. He is a Nw York registered
naval aritt ad he designed a large majority of the earlier yac os n
Bieeaye Bay. In the early days Mr. Munroe was the "surgeon ga ,"
"consul gener and anBaerod man et this enti seti. In udlmess or
health, when the seers felt the aed of hep, Mr. Munree was eaBed lp.
He tate tha several bodies were burled a the mound in the edal Paa
grounds in Miami be the hotel was built. Be aid that for fitee
years there were but two yacts that me into the harbor at Bieah e
Bay, and on each of these yaets were persons e had met beIore. When
Mr. Munroe came to Coconut Grove there were but two cocoanut trees
there, and they were on his place. There had been many others, but they
had been destroyed when the country was storm-swept. He planted a
fine grove of cocoanut trees on the muck land fronting the bay. The avo-
cada, mango, sapadillo and other tropical fruit trees that adorn his place
were planted more than fifty years ago by a northern man named Porter,
who never owned a foot of land on the bay. Many of these trees were
planted in nursery form and were later transplanted by Mr. Munroe.
Mr. Munroe assisted in the organization of the Biscayne Bay Yacht
Club in the spring of 1887, and was for twenty-two years commodore
of this club. Mr. Munroe has much valuable historical data concerning
the settlement of this section of Florida, which he has collected and
preserved. He also has a large and valuable collection of historic photo-
graphs covering the period from 1877 to the present, a number of which
are reproduced in this volume. The author is indebted to Mr. Munroe
for much authentic data for this work.
Mr. and Mrs. Kirk Munroe arrived at Coconut Grove in 1886 and
purchased property on the shore of Biscayne Bay, where they built a
home, which they retained until recently. The first home was built of
lumber secured from wreckage along the beach. Palmetto leaves were
used for a covering for the porch. Coming from the North and from
palatial homes, their experience as pioneers was novel, but both entered
into the new life with much zeal and energy. After building his first
house Mr. Munroe built a "den" a short distance from his home, and in
this "den" he began the writing of his series of boys' stories, which has
made him famous as an author. Mrs. Kirk Munroe is the daughter of the
late Amelia Barr, one of the greatest of American novelists, and is her-
self a talented writer and a contributor to many of the leading magazines
of the country. She has been prominent in all community activities of
Coconut Grove and her influence and that of her famous husband has been
an inspiration to all those striving for the intellectual and moral better-
ment of the locality. In speaking of the early settlers and her devotion
to them, Mrs. Munroe stated that those who were there when they ar-
rived were Charles Peacock and wife and three sons, Jack Peacock, John
Pent, Joseph Frow and wife and sons, John and Charles, and their daugh-
ter, who is now Mrs. George Roberts; Samuel Rhodes, R. M. Munroe,
James Nugent, Richard Carney. Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Seibold, Mr.
and Mrs. John Addison, William Fuzzard and a family named Callahan
were at Cutler. Soon afterward Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Hine and Edward
Hine arrived from Newark, New Jersey. Mrs. Hine was an ardent church
and Sunday School worker and was of great assistance in carrying for-
ward the interests of the little church which Mrs. Peacock, Mrs. Hine,
Mrs. Munroe, Miss Flora McFarlane and others organized. The first
sermon preached in Coconut Grove was delivered by a son of the late
Peacock Inn, Coconut Grove, 1887
A "Coontie" Starch Mill of Pioneer Days
Harriet Beeodr Sowe I the Bayvi w HeOL, aftrwar kwn a the
Praoek la The wome at Coe o-t Grve w deemed to bflt a
embk. aad the let a o pu l p to nm for this purpose.
Frn the rmddrt ther o etedb wht tlmw tbr odd n lbor or eah.
At t t td m mra vitrsm me palref t es to the pesoek Inm dmrbin
the ft and wntr M. Peaock wa a wom n tol by d ald o
rar bled a sionr*a a datlm treom the tourists Charlm Pesek
wae the owner at a meal s boat, ad when yaebts saeord in the ba
Mrs. Peasok woud s.id a masms e with a pot utes adi or as-lst-
aeus b the work at hbela a reth, and sddom did the me wr re-
twu wltheut a subsantl espeaoNs. ContrLbetlms made t poLMe for
thbe earnest womr to have ereteod the f at ebaurh bhalg ti Coeourt
Grove. L. Ma M aro the kad for thi chdrv wheih wu alld
Unzi Chapl. Th wmu ftrwrd taknm over by the Cogregatil
Society, and is now the Commnn Cahb.
CocowaK Goms Luaar
The Coconut Grove Ibruy wu founded June 15 18M. Aeoordin
to Mrs. Krk Munroe, the fouder a tfhe libry wee an oreansatioa
known a ts "P Ple Needle Clb." Mrs. Minoe we peidmt *t thbi
dcb. 8b* states tAt Mrs. Aadrw Casrn e, who was makht a tour
of the southern watr ae day aehored her palatl yacht at Coeomut
Grow. The "PM Need Cub" wu holding em of t weekly sesms,
and Mrs Ca raneie to the mUtlg. She be ea~ tretd t the
cdb uad asd if nthe wu anything rhe eodd dto art it. Whe
Informed ath ther led boob, Mr. Carneie ofaef d to sad them a
box of boos, and upou her ebrt home did as. Thu w s the start the
library. In 18 the library had meh an acemultio boob that it
was nesoary to fhd a permanent home, and it wa moved to a store-
room anede te Ba Rmb e IarUary. In 181 Krk Muane erected
a library buldlin o real tate dated by Ralph M mi. T he bd-
Inf was oeupied Marc h, 10L Prior to tals, on March fS, 1M7, a
meet3af w as eac d to organ e a I brary n**ola and o Oetobr S,
1900, the Coeomt Grove Lbruary acatim w laeoporat d. The
library today has may preou o me, ad an additMio to the oriial
buidg is plaaned toab eare at the growth at member and boo. The
present a ier of the library aocatd are Kirk Mame, predidMt; Mn.
Kirk Maoe, treurer, and Mr. Ralph M. Mnroe, creary.
BdCITRx BAY YACHT CLUB
The Biane Bay Ycht aob wae fouded in 1887. Kirk Mamroe
and Comodeore Ralph I ManmI aorgalu ths edob. A lbbou we
baot aad the two Maur demiAed the db fa teht has been ned. The
lub been vitobd b yadtmn rm a par of the world. In the
-- --- I
early days yachtmen found the Biscayne Bay Yacht Club further south
than any club listed, and it created a desire in the minds of these ship-
men to explore this southern section. In this way the club became known
to yachtmen throughout the world. The membership increased to such
an extent that a branch club was organized in Miami and a great many
people who spent their winters at the Royal Palm Hotel became members.
The branch was established at the foot of Eleventh Street and a beautiful
clubhouse was erected, with suitable docks and anchorage. Kirk Munroe
was elected secretary at the first meeting and held this position until 1920,
when ill health caused him to resign. Ralph M. Munroe served as com-
modore of the club from its organization until he retired in 1909. He
was made a life member of the club in recognition of his long and honorable
The Housekeepers Club was organized February 19, 1891. It is said
to be the first woman's club founded in the State. Those present at the
first meeting were Miss Flora MeFrlane, Mrs. Kirk Munre, Mrs. John
Prow, Mrs. Charles Peacock and Mrs. Newbold. Miss Flora MeFarlane
was chosen president. At first there was little enthusiasm shown in the
new organization, only two members being present at the second meet-
ing. Through the active influence, however, of Miss MeFarane, Mrs.
Charles Peacock, Mrs. Kirk Munroe, Mrs. M. Munroe, and others, inter-
est was aroused and the attendance increased and new members were
secured. From a small beginning the Housekeepers Club has become a
power for good. It has brought the members together to discuss ways
of bettering the community and of bringing more people to Coconut Grove.
Coconut Grove is a bird sanctuary, the feathered inhabitants being
protected by law. The town council cooperated with the Coconut Grove
Audubon Society and passed an ordinance making it unlawful to shoot, trap
or in any manner kill any birds of any kind within the corporate limits
of the town, excepting only the cooper hawk, sharp shinned hawk and
great horned owL
[ ] HE northern part of what is now Miami Beach was but a few
short years ao a dense wilderness of hammock trees, pametto
and other useless tropical growth. Today Miami Beach is a
playground for the pleasure lovin, with magnifient estates
for the great and near-reat, the polo and gofig center of
Ameria, with Bower-bordered anal, palm boulevards and wave-washed
_imi Beach was originally called Ocee Bean A9 the small sand
dunes was a skirt of coconut trees. The usual accepted story of the growth
of these tres was that at smne unknown time a schooner loaded with nuts
in the hull was shipwrecked along the coast and that the nuts wee washed
ashore and took root. This plausible story was general accepted as true,
though now conceded to be pue fiction. The faet that te tress were
growing in well-dened rows shattered the story of the wrecked sooner.
Early in the eightUes there lived in Monouth County, New Jere, two
men who had heard the oft repeated story of the great fortune made by
comanut planters. E. T. Fld and an Osbo, who were ambitious to
make a fortune, purchased from the Government a lar prt of the oeean
frontage from Jupiter to Cape Florid, for which they paid from sventy-
five cents to one dollar and twenty-lve cents per ae. They were goint
to become co nut planters. They had been told that no cearing of the
land was necessary and that all they hd to do was to plant the nuts. They
fired that each tree would drop one mature nt each dy and as they
planned to plant four hundred and fity thousand tres a great fortune
seemed within their grasp. They secured a schooner ad seat t to Trini-
dad to secure the nuts for planting. Men had to be brought from New
Jersey to do the work. The nuts were scattered alone the coast for con-
venient planting. It required three winters to complete the plUantin of
the nuts. A large proportion of them sprouted, but the beach was in-
fested with rabbits and a large number of the young trees we destroyed.
John Collins, one of the leading horticultuists of New Jerse, also
lived in Monmmouth County, New Jersey, and Field and Obarn consulted
Mr. Collins in regard to their experience, and Mr. Collins was induced to
purchase a half interest in these lands. After a thorough investigation
of this tropical section and being convinced that there wee other lnes
of horticulture and agriculture more premsind than rowing coeommuts,
Mr. Coins purchased the other half Interest in these lands, which made
him the owner of sixteen hundred andd seventy aces of oean front, ex-
tending hfm Jupiter to the Norris Cut, yig between the oce an d Bil-
cayne Bay and embraein four and one-half miles. A large portion of
this land was covered with blue palmetto. Mr. Collins, being an expert
farmer and a splendid judge of soils, was convinced that if the land could
be cleared at a reasonable cost the growing of early vegetables would be
a profitable investment. The clearing of the land by hand labor was
found to be about one hundred dollars an acre, so he used a traction engine
for the purpose and was able to clear the land at a cost of thirty dollars
an acre. Two hundred acres was laid out and planted in vegetables. As
there was no way to get to Miami to deliver his product to the railroad,
he dug a canal from Biscayne Bay to a small grass lake which connected
with Indian Creek. This, however, proved too slow and in 1912 he built
the Collins bridge connecting Miami and Miami Beach. The bridge is two
and one-half miles in length and is said to be one of the longest wagon
bridges in the world. The Collins properties are now incorporated as the
Miami Beach Improvement Company. The company has planted about
two hundred acres in avocado and budded mangoes. However, the bulk
of the trees planted are the Trapp avocado, a late variety. They planted
about nine thousand budded trees. The company has the largest tract of
budded avocados and mangoes in the world. The grove is a most profitable
investment, the fruit selling as high as twenty-five dollars for a crate of
three dozen. The building of the Collins canal and the Collins bridge
started the great work of development of Miami Beach. Millions of dol-
lars has since been poured into these developments and fortunes are being
expended by the wealthy classes in building "millionaire" homes. The
beach has been incorporated as a city and is now a thriving municipality.
Some time after the awakening of Miami, Dick Smith and a number
of others conceived a plan to build a casino or bathing house at the south
end of Miami Beach and establish a ferry from Miami to the beach. The
only conveyance to the beach at that time was row boats. Mr. Smith suc-
ceeded in interesting others and a company was formed to carry out his
plans. The casino was built-a wooden structure, a part of which is now
the Smith casino. Docks were built on the east and west side of Bis-
cayne Bay and ferry boats put on. However, the venture did not prove
a success. Later a company was organized, composed of Miami residents,
and a large tract of land was purchased at the beach. Among those in-
terested in this project, called the Biscayne Bay Company, were J. N.
Lummus, J. A. McDonald and J. C. Baile. The land purchased was largely
a mangrove swamp, with a skirt of small sand dunes on the ocean side.
The mangrove swamp was to be filled by pumping the sand from the
bottom of the bay. The casino was leased to Avery Smith, of Connecticut.
A town site was laid out by the new owners of the land, but the company
did not make the success they had planned. Later, Carl G. Fisher, an
Indianapolis millionaire, became interested in the improvement of the
beach and purchased a tract of land from the Miami Beach Improvement
Company and arranged to take over the Biscayne Bay Company's hold-
The Cocoanut Planters
Cocoanut Planters at Work
oas. Mr. P Lshr smmaty bemn e ive d-vdqmmI t of th beach.
He la id mt e rM- wamp withm m and am k ftro the bay, r-
claiming about es theo d rs am o land. A town sat was lai ia,
hard surfm e rtest be t and dude tr plaMted. T. J. Paneat, en-
tarm of the Miamd Bear Imaproom C pMany, buil the t born a
beautiful moaete str-etur tr the eema. John 8. Colis also bflt a
fin bme on the fsesa frot, as did Mr. Flher. Awry Sth eare in
control of the orii casiao at the u ath ead of the peiamb a "d in-
talled eapeahsi bath heroes ad a swa ing pool. Later, Da Beidle
purchased iroprty on the oeems frmat ad eted a lage cMalIo with
a number of bathe roam, a swinmla pool and other enealmem. Te
MiaOlA ch proawemenat C po rooted a luase and attranti eaoino
and deane ballt the north and oa the beach, Cardi Floer amu his
amaa biimsa ed thi progty and erected a ma -srt bMoBdag of
Spaaleb aehitetoral dMlga, aid to be the bfert buldia of its kind
in the Soth. The Bay View Company am re oemblato ac a thereand
areas hath of Mami Beach which they an laokg oat in lot. A rtal-
ing wa has bsee built, thousands of shade trur h bers plad aad
hard srtaced street eontroetd. In Is Mr. iber completed the
magoleuot Flamingo Hote e of the a oet r rt hotds in the word,
wbich I the mecea for men of weal throongout America. HeB alo, i
one of the greatet aquarium in the werd, etabliMed by James A.
Allisn. The flet yaeh racing aere an the eount iy at Miam Beach,
and yearly sationa yacht rae e an hld. On t eoase the ft reaig
boats in America have beat al rating re-ord.I Maglaent Salf ad polo
rounds are also maintained. The vat expenditure wa lth at Miami
Beach has made the "wildernoe Mb em Ike the ree," and mflioaeirem
from all parts of the world hae built palatial winter home.
"I -- **- "- -I. -- .
TOWNS AND VILLAGES
NE of the signs of progress is the springin up of prosperous
towns and village in Dade County. These towns and villages
wer once an unknown quantity. Where they now stand was
a wilderne twenty-fve years aso, with only here and there
a daring homesteader who had braved the solitude of the
wilderness. At that time these roek lands along thia southern coast
could be purchased at almost any price. Thr was also more or le
Government land open for homestead, which was nearly all taken up
within a few years. The extendin of the Florida East Coast rairoad
south was the great inspiration that first started the trend of the people
south. Coconut Grove was at tht time an old settlement and had
reached considerable popularity as a tourist resort, though the only trans-
portation facilities was the sow sail boat lines running with more or less
regularity to Key West. Coconut Grove is mentioned at length in a
Larkis, the first village south of Coconut Grove, has in a few short
years become a real, hustling village, with several large picking houses
and several mercantile establsments, hotel, and other small business
Kendall, two miles further south, is another prosperous village, with
local stores and a large packing house. Hen Mr. Fgler located his ev-
enty-acre citrus grove, employing John J. Hineon as superintendent. This
grove brought Kendall into prominence as a citru-growing setion.
Perrine, a few miles further south, was named after the late Dr. Henry
Perrine. Some of the early-planted roves were put out he There are
packing houses, a splendid concrete school building, stores, etc.
Peters, a mile or so further south, was named after Thomas J. Peters,
the tomato king. Hre he has a beautiful home, several packing houses,
hotel and store.
The next place south on the Ingraham Highway is Goulds. The
Tampico farms are located here, owned by J. C. Bale and associates There
ar several king houses, stores and a hotel. Goulds came into public
notice soon after the railroad was extended to that point.
Modelo is a small village about two miles south of Goulds. This is a
growing town and is noted for its citrus, avocado and mango roves.
Princeton, one of the largest villages south of Miami, was founded by
Gaston Drake, who located the mills of the Drake Lumber Company thee.
These are the largest lumber miles south of Jacksonvlle. There are several
stores churches and the general conveniences of towns of like size. A
large portion of the lmber manufactured is sold for export.
Homestead. This pace was for a time the terminus of the Florida
East Coast Railroad and became the most important station south of
Miami in Dade County. He the railroad company erected a great water
plant during the building of the extension of the railroad. Train-loads of
water cars were scarred south daily ad distributed to the points reached
by the extenson. Homestead soon began to put on the appearance of a
real village. People from all sects of the country located there and in
the nearby country. Homatead has two banks, a large number of mer-
cantile estabismets and other shops. It is an incorporated village and is
lighted by eletricity.
Florlda City was laid out by the Tatum Brothers Investment Com-
pany, who own a large tract at land there, including a large amount of
marsh land lybg between the mainlad and Biscayne Bay. Forids City
has the distinction of being the last village on the mainland of Florida. It
has a lar e and co storage plant, church school and the usual
business houses. The lands lying east of Florid City are largely mar and
have provn to be excellent lands for general farming purpose and vege-
table rowing. In order to drain the east marsh lands, Tatum Brothers
excavated a drainage canal from the mar land at Florida City east to the
Biaayne Bay, besides many lateral nal.
A few miles west of Florid City and Homestead is an View, famous
as the home of the loom of the a Ru and Carpet Company. Mr.
Loveland is the leader of this enterprise. The products of thee looms
have become famous throughout the entire country. Tourists purchase
them and ship to their northern homes. It has become a staple industry.
In noting these towns and villages, little has been sad regarding the
back country. From Miami south to Florida City the back country is
settled with a live, progrsiv people; not only taking in the fln line of
pine lands, but soar baee to the west into the Everglades. Citru, avocado
and mango groves of the finest quality abound. BoRe roads leading from
the Ingrahm Highway extend far into the country districts ad into the
verlaIdes. West from Homestead is the celebrated Krome grove of
citrus and tropal fruits. West and south from Miami borderin on the
Evergades are many of the finest goes in Florida.
Buea Vista, the first town north of Miam, was settled early by a few
people. The first hotel there was the Buena Vista House, owned and
operated by Mr. and Mrs. Charles Courley. Bena Vista has grown rapidly
during the past few years and when the boundaries of Miami were extended
it took in about balf of the vlage. Bdeae the railroad was built there
was a dock on Bisayne Bay whee schooners plying between Miam and
other points docked, the few settlers receiving their supplies from these
boats. Among the nt settler were Captain Samuel Filer and C. T.
Merritt. Dr. MaGonge, a retired minister from St. Augustine, purchased
a tract of land there and planted a grove. Buena Vista has made wonde-
ful strides and now the greater part of the village haa been laid out in sub-
divisions. Magnificet homes have been ereted there. There are number
ous mercantile establishments there and the village is counted one of the
most prosperous along the east coast.
Lemon City, the next village north, is an old settlement, dating back
to the time before the railroad was extended to Miami. Here was one
of the largest docks on Biscayne Bay, the shooners coming up the bay
through the old Lemon City channel. Among the first settlers were
William Filer, who was for years prominent in the polities of the county.
Mr. Filer came from Key West. Mr. and Mrs. Carey also came to Lemon
City in the early days. They erected he first hotel there, where E. A.
Waddell made his headquarters, coming to and from Miami daily on foot.
Little River, a mile or so north, is the next village, and within the past
few years has become an important trucking and fruit center. A consd-
erble portion of the land in the vicinity of Little River has been subdivided
and laid out in village lots. T. A. Winfeld and family wer among the
early settlers and Mr. Winfield planted the largest citrus grove in that
section. Little River became famous as a vegetable center in the develop-
ment of that section. Thomas J. Peters settled there with his family, as
did also William Freeman, who planted tomatoes.
Arch Creek is the next village north. Near here is the famous Natural
Bridge which spans Arch Crk. The creek plmnges beneath the ground,
forming a natural bridge, which has been in use as a public road for many
years. Like the Natural Bridge of Virgina, its fame as a natural wonder
has spread all over the word. Here Robert E. McDonald, who at one time
represented Dade County in the Legislature, has deeded to the Boy Scouts
a goodsised camping round, where the outs hold their annual meetings.
Ojus is the next point north. This section came into prominence as a
vegetable and fruit growing section. In late years it has become noted
for its rock quarries. The character of the rock thee is different from the
ordinary rock which abounds in this southern section. It haa become the
most popular rock for road building in the State, and is used largely for
surfacing the roadways. The Florida East Coast Railread is resurftacing
their read beds with this rock. The Maul Bock Compa opeate great
dredges and the rock is mined and shipped to al parts of the country.
Going north, the next village is Fulford, noted for its vegetable out-
put. R. E MeDonald built the first hotel, which has become a popular
place, usually filled to capacity from fall to spring.
Skirting Blcayne Bay east of the Die Highway, the land is near
all in cultivation. Splendid homes have been erected and large rchards
have been planted. To the west of the Dixie Highway, north of Buena
Vista, reaching far back into the Everglades are many substantial I-
prvements that tell the great future of the country. Al M the iami-
Okeechobee canal the developments are of a mt substantial character.
The Pennsylvana Sur Company have 120,000 acres of Everlade lands
and for two year have ben developing one of the largest sur planta-
tions in the country. They have over even hundred acres planted in sugar
cae and have other hundreds cleared, plowed and made ready for planting.
The company is dredxhi a canal ten miee in length through their prop-
erty and ar putting in lateral canals. They have alo established a small
sugar refinery for testing out the cae. The company has tested a portion
of the cane grown its drained muck, manufacture white sugar. The
test has been a tisfactory and preparation t bae n made to carry on the
work until the whole aereae Is planted in cane and one of the largest
refneries in the South erected.
Lying eat of the Pensylvanla Sugar Company's holding is the
Russian Colony This colony owns eleven thousand acr at Everglade
land. For the past three years they have had a larse aema planted in
various vegetables and general farm cps. They ae enthusiastic over the
result of their crops.
To the east is the Crti-riht plantation and dairy farm, coasisting
of twelve thousand areas of Everglade land. The Curtias-Bright ranch has
the largest dairy in Dade County; also the lairest poultry yards. Several
thousand sheep and many goats a a part of the stock on the farm.
Hialeh Is a new town being laid out by the Curtl-Bright people, as a
gateway to the Everalades. The new town is to have paved streets,
sewerae, sidewalks, water and electric rights.
East from the Curts-riht ranch is the Marcus A. Milam dairy.
Mr. Mlamn was amoon the first to start in the dairy busines-st a time
when it was thought impasible to raie full-blooded cattle he. He
selected the Jersey beed and has relilonly held to his fnt choice. His
Jersey battle have take first premiums at both county and State fairs.
A little way north is the dairy of Dr. J. DuPuls. He alo commnced
in the dairy business weary in the history of Dde County, while the tick
were abundant. Dr. DuPus Is a graduate physician and his dairy ntersts
are a aide lie. When be cmmenced he ebose the fulbooded Dutch White
Bel attle but has not kept entirely to this breed, having a of tMood
Holsteins. He has a Hobtein cow that has the highest record of any cow
in the United States for living milk.
MR. FLAGiEa' Flmr PUBLIC ADDmm
URING one of the Dade County Fairs Mr. Flager was in Miami
Sand the writer asked him if he would deliver an address to the
people during the evening. Mr. Flagler replied: "I have never
delivered a public address in my life; I am not a speaker, I am
diffident, and I cannot possibly comply with your request." I
continued to urge him to say even a few words to the people, telling him
that the people really expected him to meet them and talk to them. After
much urging, Mr. Flagler consented, saying: "I will do the best I can, but
what I have to say will be very brief. I shall really be delighted to meet the
people face to face and speak of a few of my aspirations and plans for
them, the pioneers of Dade County." Mr. Flaler's address was haort,
but his words and his presence encouraged the people in the work of not
only building a city but of making Dade County the most populous in the
State. Mr. Flaler said in pat:
"Friends and Fellow Citizens: This is my maiden speech I am cer-
tainly glad to meet so many of the citizens of Dade County face to face, as
I recognize that in order that I may complete my plans for Miami and Dade
County I must have the cooperation of its citiaeship. Not that I have
no aspirations and determinations in doing what I can, but I certainly have
very great aspirations and confidence in what the men and women who
have come and are coming here will accomplish in the near future To those
I owe a debt of gratitude for leaving their homes and coming to what seems
now an unpromising country. The future has great things in store for
Miami and Dade County, not only because of the millions I am spending
here but because of those brave men and women who, sharing my inspir-
tion and enthusiasm, have come he."
At one time Mr. laler was visiting Miami, during the construct
of the Royal Palm Hotel, he expreed some surprise that the people who
were here did not purchase lots and build homes. In discussing this phase
of the conditions here John B. Reilly explained to Mr. Flagler that the
larger part of the men then employed here wre men who had lost their for-
tunes in the great free in the old orange belt and that it required all that
they earned to supply their own wants and the wants of their families who
had not yet come herm Mr. Flager replied: "This explains the situation,
but we must have homes for these people, and we must build them. Lets
take a walk around and select a place to erect houses that we can rent or
sel to these men; they cant live without homes." So Mr. Flagler and Mr.
lly started on an invesatifg tour, Mr. eilly leading the way to th
bay frost After reachin there Mr. ReWly minsed that along the bay
ot would be a deirabl place to build the ottages. Mr. Ragler waited
a moment before anwerarg the said: "I think yo ar a smitaken, John;
theae t will sell for high pries to wealthy people who will build winter
hoame No, I do not think this is ut the place. Les take a further look.
Mr. Befy the piled Mr. Fader over the roes and and to Fourteeth
treet and suggested that sheet as a good place to build. Mr. Flagler
thought mo t and id: "You are right this time We will build sme
cottages on this street but we want more room" They then visited Thir-
teenth street and Mr. Plmakr deided that thee two location wre ideal
and the order went forth to bld cottages. Then Mr. Player said there
mut be sme ottae for the mployesn of the ralrod, as the men could
not live in tent. A trp was made to the northern part oft the ty, a lo-
tion choen and the order went forth to "buld the cottages here." hus
the fist bldin residences fell pon the suden of Mr. Fagler. These
indents show the implicit faith Mr. laler had in the future of Miami
and his wli e to a la of to s d unt m start the build-
Inl of homes here.
Tan Momurro or OTrm DAYS
Outside of the ides, which at that time generally prevaled, that the
land tn this vicinity wa of no value for agricultural or hotieultural es,
the fat that each year Miami was scou d with swamns of mWueitm was
perhaps me of the early stumbling os in building up Miami and Dade
County. Th fact is that in the early day here the monsuito was almost
unlarable. It took real courage to sett here at that time, yet the people
on the whole were wlli to undergo mnck diseomfitre in order to stay
her. In July, 1897, an em on was run fram Jad rvile to Miami. A
large number of people came here the excursion, which arrived lato n a
Saturday night. It so happened that t was the writer's trn to preach that
night in the Preutorian tent at the corner t Aveae D and Fourteenth
stne When I reached the tnt aery seat was oacoped sad thae wae
may standing around the door who ounld ot gain admittane. The mo1-
quite wre swarming in untold numbers about the congreatlm. I felt that
the would be little e to preach to a congregation that was bein
bitter to a point almost unbearaMe. I proposed to the congregatio
that we sing "Prale God hrm Whom All Bessings Flow," prmoues the
bemedictio and adjourn the service. The people said "Where shea we
go?" Ther were no houses at that time, and they id "Go ahead," whih
I did. Never in my lie have I ben so tortured, and the people were to-
tured likewise. The Mmi Hotel was prtily built; the doer and win-
dows wer not placed, but the beds in eh r oom and every room w
ocpied. After the service in the tent osed, which was abort, the con-
gregation started out to seune moequit ito posAile. The merchant
opened their store and the crowd made a rush for thu. In les than an
hour every mosquito bar in the city was od and hundreds of pdee were
en with these proteto wrapped about them.
This incident Is mentioned to llutrate what the frt settlers in Miami
had to undergo. Each year, as the city has bee built up, there has bee
Ie mosquitoes, until now there are bat few of thew pots left. It is a-
peeted that within a year or so Miami, like Havana, will be absolutely free
The name "Miami" is a Seminole Indian word meaning "Sweet
Water," and wa applied by the Seminoles to the river which flow through
the city. Prior to 189I when Miami was incorporated the settlement
was known as Fort Dalla, from the army poet maintaied here.
Miami has been variouly named. It has bee called the "Wonder
City of the World," "The City of Opportunity," sa other popular o-
briquet, but t athe name that lions to it i the "Male Cty." This name was
frt given to the city by the author of this voume. In an lue af the
Floied Homseaker, of which he was then editor, Mr. Blackman called
attention to the coming greatnce of Miami, declarin that the city was a
"Magi City" in the strides that it was making. The name has eung to the
city to this day.
Probaby the oldest name of all in this setion is that of Bscayne
Bay, and for many years this section of Florida was known a the "Bis-
cayne Bay country." It is said that the name wa patterned after the
Bay of Biscayne in Europe.
Dade County is named in honor of Major Francis L Dade, whor
fore were massacred by SeminoleW near what is now Bushael, in 18U.
Of his force of eight oaeers and 100 private, only one private aeaped to
tel the story.
Coeoaut Grove, just south of Miami, is named from a rg grove
of eocoanut trees on the bay ahore. For many years the reidets of that
town peeled the name "Cooanut Gove" but when the ity was neepo-
rated two year a&e, the "a" wa omitted in the charter, through the eaets
of Kirk Muaroe.
Bunas Vsta s said to have been named by Charles Crowley, a pioneer
Lemon City derived its name from a lemon grove wanted by Samuel
Arch Creek is named from the mal stream that flow under a natural
bride near there. The Dixie Highway eroase the natural brid.
Names of pioneer famileee n perpetuated by the name of "Perrin,"
"Goulda" "Larkin" and "Pters," vilges south of this ity.
Princeton was named by Gaston Drake, local lumbermn, after the
university of which he is a graduate.
The Redlnds sectlo reeived its name from some rddih so, and
probably those why frst ave the aetion the name had In mind the Red-
lands to Caltfeas.
Homested was named from the fact that there wer many people who
secured bhmesteads In that vidnity under the federal land hsws.
Florida City, promoted by the Tatum interest was fnnmealy known
as Detit, the name later being changed by the residents ot that town.
Names of a subdivisioas n iami follow no particular rule, the names
being selected by the real estate men who develop each subdiialon. The
names in these subdivisions were selected at random, and the opening of
the large number of these subdivision with the rapid growth of Miami,
caused mueh confusion, with the result that last fa a new street-naming
ytem was adopted.