• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Main
 Index
 Back Matter














Group Title: The Floria of to-day; : a guide for tourists and settlers,
Title: The Florida of to-day
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055594/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Florida of to-day a guide for tourists and settlers
Physical Description: 254 p. : front. (fold. col. map) illus. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Davidson, James Wood, 1829-1905
William and Sue Goza Collection
Publisher: D. Appleton and company
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1889 [c1888]
 Subjects
Subject: Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by James Wood Davidson ...
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055594
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000586800
oclc - 01535118
notis - ADB5486
lccn - 01006889

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    List of Illustrations
        Page 6
    Main
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    Index
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    Back Matter
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Full Text













































































































SAT OF pOaI


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70


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0 k


CONTENT


CHAPTER
I. HISTORY .
Discoveries
Settlement
Cession to Great Britain .
Retrocession to Spain.
Cession to the United States
Territory of Florida .
Seminole Wars .
State of Florida. .
Secession .
Reconstruction .
Restoration
II. EOGAPHY .
III. CLIATE .
Temperature .
Humidity. .
IV. DvIoNs .
First, North Florida .
Second, Semi-tropical Florida
Third, Subtropial Florida .
V. HCALH .
Malaria .
STornadoes. .
VI. GEOLOGY .
Industrial Feature .
Mineral Waters.


PAGe
. 7
. 7-
. 12/
S15
. 17
. 17
. 17
. 18
. 25
S25
. 26
. 26
28
* 33
. 83
. 85 -
S41
S42
S43
S43
S52
. 52
. 58
. 59
. 68
. 67


k~3~e~J3


E~h)








CONTENTS.


CHAPTER


Soils


Drainage
VII. TRAVEL


Ocean Routes
Overland Routes


Jacksonville


From Jacksonville


Indian River
Lake Worth


PAGE
. 68
. 69
. 72


. 76
80
S88
. 90


Biscayne Bay .
Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades.
Key West. .
Cape-Sable.
Tampa .
Tallahassee .


Cedar Keys
Pensacola .


Appalachicola.
Wakulla Springs
Silver Spring
The Ocklawaha River.
The Suwannee River .
The Caloosahatchee River
The Homosaess River


100
100


Mounds


VIII. POPULATION
Peoples
Old Residents


Northern and Foreign Immigrants
Negroes
Indians


IX. EDUCATION .
X. PRODUCTIONS
Oranges
Lemons


.113
S117


.180


Limes
Other Citrus Fruits


.94
S94


. 97







CONTENTS.


CHAPTna


Cooanuts 0
Pineapples.
Bananas


PAGE
141
144


Pears


Grapes and Wine
Grand Possibilities
Yet other Fruits.


Tobacco
Cotton


.151
.152
154
164


.182


186
.192
.193
194


Lumber
Rice
Sugar.
Grains


Cattle


.196
196


Goats
Other Stock


Poultry
Gardening.
Opium
Honey
Out of the. Waters


198
.199
.203
204
.205


XI. SPORTING
Fishing
Hunting
XII. PESTS. .


Insects


S209


.22
225
226


Reptiles
Land.Sharks


APPENDIX:


Railway Routes
River Routes
List of Hotels


229
231
236
















MAPS


AND


ILLU


STATION


PAGE
Facing title


Map of Florida
Map of Divisions
The Banana .
Street Scene in Jacksonville
Street in St. Augustine .
Ponce de Leon Hotel
Looking across Indian River.
A Hammock .
A Scene on the Ocklawaha River


Orange.
Orange-Tres.
Lemo0 ,.
Lime-Tree
Cocoanut-Grove


The Banana and the Pineapple
Guava .


Mango.
The Date-Palm


.187


.156


S165
.188


A Cypress-Shingle Yard
A Hunter's Camp


S92












THE


FLORIDA


OF


TO


-DAY


HISTORY.


early


history


Florida-its


discoveries,


conquests, reconquests, cessions, and retrocession-is
as varied and spirited as a romance.
Dimoverie--It is agreed generally among the
historians that Ponce de Leon was the first of the


several discoverers.


This romantic and enterprising


adventurer, hunting the phantasmal Isle of Bimini
-one writer calls it Boiaca-with its precious fount-
sin of youth, failed indeed to find that, but reached
the coast of Florida just north of where St. Augus-
tine now is, on Easter-Sunday, the 27th of March,


1512.


He landed the 2d of April, and named the


country, known to the Indians as Cantio, FLOmIA,
from Pascna Florida, the day of his discovery. Mr.
Fairbanks, however, states that the discovery was


made on Palm-Sunday.


Ponce de Leon did little







THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DA .


else on that occasion than to land, erect banners, and


baptize the fair land of flowers.


Florida was next discovered by Miruelo in 1516.
He got, it is said, some pieces of gold from the na-
tives, which, on his return to Cuba, the general base
of operations for the Spaniards at that early date,
created great excitement among the gold-hungry ad-
venturers of that day.
The next year, 1517, De Cordova led an expedi-


tion of Spaniards to the new El Dorado


but he was


speedily driven off, and returned to Cuba to die of
his wounds.
The same year Alaminos came with three ships,
landed twice, found no gold, and was soon driven
away.
In 1521 Ponce de Leon made another invasion


of Florida


but he found no gold, was baffled and


wounded, and returned to Cuba to die, as De Cor-
dova had done.


Seven years later


the Spanish fortune-hunters


began


to discover and


to invade Florida on


western side.


De Narvaez, in April, 1528, led an


expedition of about four hundred men and


eighty


horses,


which


landed


in Clear


Water


landed with


three


hundred


men


and the


horses,


and marched northward along the Gulf-shore, hav-







HISTORY.


ing ordered his vessels to coast along apace with


his marching troops.


ure.


The arrangement was a fail-


The ships lost sight of the troops, and, baffled


in every effort to find them, months afterward re-


turned to Cuba.


The three hundred troops were


all, in one way or another, destroyed, except four.


These four remained seven


years


in the El Do-


rado, became


"medicine-men" among the Indians,


finally worked


their


back,


crossing


Mississippi


River,


to the


Spanish


settlements in


Mexico.


One of these, Cabega de Vaca-the veri-


table discoverer of the Mississippi River-wrote an


account of these stirring events.


While the ships


were yet lying at Clear Water, a Spaniard, Juan de
Ortiz, rashly ventured ashore, and was left there a
prisoner among the Indians, known then as Mar-


annes.


He remained there eleven years-until the


next discoverer came along-and had a sort of John
Smith experience with a Floridian Pocahontas and


Powhatan.


The name of the interesting heroine of


adventure seems


to have


perished,


Powhatan was named Hirrihiua.


1539


Soto,


with a thousand


men


three hundred and fifty horses, landed in what is


now


Santo.


Tampa


Upon


which


landing,


christened


he found


Espiritu


De Ortiz, men-







THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y.


tioned
turned


above,


acted as his guide


knew


almost


nothing


but, as it


about


country.


De Soto was in quest of reported "great


store of crystal, gold,


and rubies, and diamonds,


that lay somewhere to the northward.


He sent his


vessels home, and set out overland to the region of


treasures,


wherever


might


reached


Chicora, or Chicola-South Carolina, perhaps-then
turned westward, and passed beyond the Mississippi
River, which had been discovered years before, and


named Rio Grande, by De Vaca.


De Soto returned


to that river, died there, and was buried beneath its


paternal waters.


Just three hundred and eleven of


his thousand men finally reached Mexico.


In 1545 a treasure-ship


sailing from Mexico for


Spain, was wrecked on the eastern coast of Florida,
and about two hundred persons escaped to the land,
and thus unwittingly discovered Florida again. The


most of these were


murdered by the gentle Stoics


of the woods, and the rest were enslaved.


About


twenty years later one of


these


slaves


made


way to


Laudonniere's settlement, at the mouth of


the St. John's River, and a few others reached the
colony of Menendez at St. Augustine.


In 1549 four


Franciscan friars landed at Tampa


Bay, with the idea of evangelizing the stoical abo-





HtISTORY.


rigines, but the noble savages tomahawked three of


them, and thus convinced the fourth


brother that


that kind of a conquest of Florida was impractica-
ble-at that time.


years later, De Luna


set out from


Vera


Cruz with fifteen hundred adventurers and a large


number of zealous priests


the former to pick up


fortunes, and


latter


to preach


gospel of


peace to the cut-throat


barbarians.


He landed at


Pensacola,


called


Santa


Maria,


pitched a camp


there, marched into


the interior,


accomplished the loss of a good many men, and was
ordered home.


In 1562 Ribault came from France


vessels and a colony of Huguenots, and made land


near St. Augustine


thence coasted northward, dis-


covered the St. John's River, which he christened
the May, and erected a monument of stone engraved


with the arms of France.


He soon re-embarked,


and proceeded to make a settlement at Port Royal,
South Carolina.
In 1564 Laudonni6re brought a still larger col-
ony of Huguenots, landed where St. Augustine now
stands, but promptly re-embarked and sailed to St.
John's Bluff, and there built Fort Caroline. This
colony struggled on for a year, and, becoming dis-






THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DAY.


heartened,


were


preparing


to return


-to France,


when, in August, 1565, Ribault arrived with about


six hundred and fifty other


Huguenots, some hav-


ing families.


Settlement.-The same year brought Menendez,


who arrived in July, 1565, at St. Augustine.


Upon


his arrival he heard of Ribault and his Huguenots
at Fort Caroline, and promptly pursued his vessels,


but without success.


He then returned to St. Au-


gustine, and built solid fortifications.


Ribault ral-


quickly,


set out to capture


Menendez


before


he could


complete


defenses


French were driven south, and finally wrecked near


Matanzas.


Menendez


was equal


to the


occasion,


and, taking advantage of the situation, attacked and


captured Fort Caroline.


He hanged a number of


his French


prisoners


upon trees, and put this in-


scription


over


their


hanging


bodies


" Non


Francesee, sino


Luteranos.


" The


victor re-


christened the fort San Mateo, returned to St. Au-


gustine, there first heard of


Ribault's


shipwreck,


hastened


down


to Matanzas


Inlet,


captured


bault's straggling


party, and,


under the banner of


the cross, butchered them to a man.
This closed the efforts of the French to hold a
colony in Florida proper.





HISTOE Y


Menendez held his post at St. Augustine, and
this doubtless was the first permanent settlement of
Europeans in the United States.
In 1567 a gallant Frenchman, De Gourgues, got
up an expedition to avenge the brutal massacre and
insult of his compatriots by the Spaniards at Fort


Caroline.


With


three


small


vessels


a hun-


and eighty-four, men


came


to Florida,


adroitly secured the co-operation of the natives, and
with these combined forces he surprised Fort San


Mateo-the


old Fort Caroline-and


captured the


entire garrison.


He turned the merciful aborigines


in upon the Spaniards, and a few survived.


These


De Gourgues hanged upon the same trees that Me-


nendez


for the


Huguenots,


on a


pine board over the corpses he .wrote,


"I do this,


not as to Spaniards, nor as to outcasts, but as to


traitors, thieves, and murderers."


The avengement


was complete.


Augustine,


meanwhile,


was held


continu-


ously


by the


Spaniards


but holding


was about


all they


except


fighting


Indians.


1647


was twice


Francis


a freebooting


contained
captured


Drake, v
expedition


three


hundred


burned


families.


down-once


was returning


in the


Spanish


from
Main,





FLORIDA


and once, in


OF TO-DA Y.


1665, by Captain John Davis, a bue-


cancer.
Spain claimed that Florida embraced all the ter-


ritory as far north as


Virginia and westward to the


Mississippi


River-in


those


early


Spanish


known as the Rio Grande.


Accordingly, when the


English and Scotch began to colonize the Carolinas,
the Spaniards began to fight them as intruders; and
the Indians joined whichever side promised them


the most blood.


Under this feeling, in


1676, the


Spaniards sent a force to wipe out the English set-
tlement at Charles Town, on the Ashley River; but


the expedition failed utterly.


Again, in 1678, an-


other Spanish force was sent for the same purpose;
and this one murdered many of the English colo-
nists, pillaged a few plantations, and did a deal of
petty damage.


In 1696 the Spaniards, under


D'Arriola, made a


settlement


where


Pensacola


where


Barrancas now stands, they built, their Fort Carlos,
a church, and some dwellings.


In 1702 the English Governor Moore, of


South


Carolina, captured and burned St. Augustine, but


failed to reduce the fort


and in 1703 he laid waste


Indian


towns in Middle Florida


which


were


under Spanish protection, so called.





HISTORY.


The Pensacola settlement was destroyed by the


French in 1718


and the Spaniards, in 1722, built


on Santa


Rosa


Island,


where


Pickens now


stands, and rebuilt Pensacola.
These alternations of colonizing, building, capt-
uring, rescuing, burning, rebuilding, returning, and


so on,


were


between


the Spaniards and


French in animated style for several years.


Indeed,


nothing else seems to have received any attention.
The banner of the cross of peace waved over the


land, and the tomahawk


kept the soil moist with


blood.
St. Marks was settled by the Spaniards in 1718.
Spanish Florida had three aggressive and troub-
lesome enemies-the English in Carolina and Geor-
gia on the north, the French in Louisiana on the


west,
them.


aboriginal


tomahawks


around


In 1713 the English


Governor Oglethorpe,


Georgia, invaded Florida, and offered battle under


walls


Augustine


Spanish


adlantado Montiano, declined to go out, and Ogle-


thorpe declined to go in--so


there


was but little


bloodshed.
Ceion to Great Britain--The treaty of peace of
1748 between Great Britain and Spain closed these
--^*





THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y


alternating


forays


and filibustering.


When


treaty was broken by the war of 1762, the British
captured Havana; and in the treaty following, in
1763, Great Britain gave Cuba to Spain in exchange


for Florida.


Thus Florida became a British posses-


sion, and enjoyed a rest from Spain's magnificently
little conquests of empires that had been going on
so long.


The Spaniards, during their


two hundred and


fifty years of occupancy, had achieved little beyond


their numerous


ostentatious


conquests of nothing,


much bloodshed and brutality, and a profound igno-


rance of the country and its resources.


At the date


of the cession the European population of the terri-


tory was about six thousand five hundred


and of


these many left the country at the transfer.
The first British Governor, James Grant, took


steps


promptly


to develop


country.


Roads


were c
offered


colonization


for indigo


encouraged,


and other


bounties


productions.


Turnbull and Sir William Duncan brought into the


territory


about


fifteen


hundred


Minorcans


Greeks, and made a settlement near New Smyrna,
in Volnsia County.
Florida took no part in the war of secession in
1776 known as the American Revolution, and was





HISTORY. 17

a place of refuge for thousands of loyalists from the
battling States, as it was later for fugitive slaves
from the adjacent States.
Upon the breaking out of war between Great
Britain and Spain in 1779, the Spanish Governor of
Louisiana invaded Florida and captured Pensacola
in 1781.
Retrooeuion to Spain.-In 1783, upon the close
of the war, Great Britain exchanged Florida for the
Bahama Islands, owned by Spain, and thus Florida
returned to Spanish rule. The British settlers
promptly moved out, and Spanish lethargy settled
over the country again.
In 1814, during the late war, the. British sent
a feet to Pensacola and captured the forts there;
and General Jackson was sent to oust them. He
stormed the forts and destroyed them. In 1818
General Jackson again invaded Florida, in order to
check and chastise the Seminoles.
Ceasion to the United State--In 1819 a treaty
between Spain and the United States was concluded,
and ratified in 1821, by which Florida was ceded to
the latter power.
Territory f Florid--In 1822 the Congress of
the United States established the Territory of Flor-
ida, with its capital at an old Indian settlement or
f a






THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y.


camp called Tallahassee, although the first Legisla-
tive Council met at Pensacola, and the second at St.
Augustine.


The Territorial Governors,


with the beginnings


of their
William


terms,


were


P. Duval,


: Andrew


John


Jackson,
W. Eaton,


1821
1834


R. K.
R.K.


Call, 1835


1840


Robert


Raymond Reed, 1839


John Branch, 1844.


Seminole Wara-It was mainly during the terri-


trial period


that the worst of


the Seminole wars


occurred.


These


wars


were


full of


stirring


tragic events, and but li
bloody monotony. A de
wholly unnecessary here.


little variety relieved their
tailed account of them is
Speaking of the earlier


Indian conflicts at the beginning of the eighteenth
century-up to about 1720-Mr. Fairbanks makes


this comparison


"In every


New England -house-


hold the story of the sufferings of the Williams fam-


of the Dustins, and


of Miss McCrea, excited


the most tender emotions of pity.


The history of


the Southern colonies presents hundreds of such in-


stances."


now.


If it was hundreds then, it is thousands


It is within reason to say that the history of


Florida itself, as a


Territory and as a State-1821


to 1860, say-can give a score of such tragedies for
every one so graphically told in the school-books of






HISTORY.


all the New


England


States.


But these have not


yet been celebrated in song and story.


Many have


not been written at all, and are thus far recorded
only in the hearts and memories of this silent South-
ern people.
Peace with these Indians is perhaps an impossi-


ability, and had never really existed


but the most


important outbreak, known as the Seminole War, be-


Dade


massacre in South Florida in


1835, and closed with the so-called treaty of 1842.
But there has been much fierce fighting outside of


that period both before and after.


acre


The word mae-


fitly describes the destruction of Major Dade's


battalion in Sumter County.


After the


last man


had fallen, Mr. Fairbanks states, the Indians then


rushed into


breastwork,


headed


a heavy


painted savage, who, believing that all were dead,


made a speech to the Indians.


They then stripped


off the accoutrements of the soldiers and took their


arms,


without offering any indignity, and


in a body."


The story


retired


closes with these words


"Soon after the Indians had left, about fifty ne-
groes galloped up on horseback and alighted, and


at once commenced a horrible


butchery.


poor fellow on the ground showed signs of life, the


negroes stabbed and tomahawked him.


Lieutenant






THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y.


Basinger,


being still alive, started


up and begged


the wretches to spare his life; they mocked at his
prayers, while they mangled him with their hatch-


ets until he was relieved by death.


After stripping


the dead, the negroes shot the oxen and burned the


gun-carriages.


man,


something


like a


miracle, escaped to tell the story.
There have been several causes assigned for the
Indian's hostility to the white man-encroachments
of the whites, individual wrongs to property, espe-


cially


cattle,


but the


great


underlying and


essential cauea causans has been the innate blood-


thirst of the savages.


The killing is sweet to them.


This has show itself ever since the Easter-Sunday
in 1512 when De Leon, the fountain-hunter, first
sighted' the blooming shores of Cautio.
During these wars the savages have times and
again made agreements and treaties so called, only
to gain time or to put the whites off their guard, and
then resume hostilities whenever and wherever they


could find a white throat convenient to cut.
yet the whites trusted them again and again.


ernor


And
Gov-


Reed, in 1839, in his message to the Legisla-


ture, said: The close of the fifth year will find us
struggling in a contest remarkable for magnanimity,


forbearance,


credulity


on the one






HISTORY.


ferocity


and bad


faith


the other.


waging war with beasts of prey.


The tactics that


belong


to civilized


nations


are but shackles and


fetters in its prosecution.


We must fight fire with


fire."
Gallant officers with brave soldiers were sent to
quell the brutal work of Indian murder and pillage


-Jackson,


Clinch,


Dade, Macomb,


Belknap, and


others-and all were baffled.


Some of them fought


well, and had edifying talks, and secured excellent
treaties; but the Seminole was master of the situa-


practically,


until


General


Worth


went


1841.


Our forces


captured


Coacoochee, a


chief,


.and several of his braves, and they were en route


for the
Orleans
Tampa.


West,


when General


and had


The interview


Coacoochee took


party


Worth sent to New


returned


between


place on a


to him


the general


transport


in Tampa


on the morning of the 4th of


July,


1841.


general


chief


and his staff
companions


were
came


seated,
forward


and the
heavily


ironed, and sat down on the deck.


General Worth


advanced, and, taking the chief by the hand, said


to him


"Coacoochee, I take you by the hand as a


warrior, a brave man.


You have fought long, and






THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DAY.


with a true and strong heart, for your country.


take your hand with feelings of pride.


You love


your country as


we do.


Coacoochee, I am your


friend
What


so is your Great


to you is true.


Father at


Washington.


My tongue is not


forked like a snake's.


My word is for the happi-


ness of


the red man.


are a great


warrior.


The Indians throughout the country look to you as


a leader


by your counsels they have been governed.


This war has lasted five years.
been shed-much innocent blood.


Much blood has
You have made


your hands and the ground red with the blood of


women and
You are th


children.


e man


to do it;


war must now


must and


accomplish it.


I sent for you, that, through the


exertions


yourself


your men,


might


induce your entire band to emigrate.


I wish you


to state how many days it will require to effect an


interview


Indians in


woods.


can select three or five of these men to carry your


Name the time-it shall be granted;


but I


tell you, as I wish your relatives and friends told,
that, unless they fulfill your demands, yourself and
these warriors now seated before us shall be hung


to the


yards of


this vessel


when the sun sets on


the day appointed, with the irons upon your hands






HISTORY K


and feet


I tell you this, that we may well under-


stand each other.


do not wish to frighten you,


you are too brave a man for that
I mean, and I will do it. It is f
the white and the red man. Th


; but I say what
or the benefit of
e war must end,


and you must end it!"


wily chief made a diplomatic reply,


evidently counted on making his escape.


ing, he said


Conclud-


"I wish now to have my band around


me and go to Arkansas.


You say I must end the


Look


at these


irons


Can I


warriors?


Coacoochee chained


do not ask


me to see them.


I never wish to tread upon my


unless


unchained,


am free.


they will


can go


follow


to them


me in


not obey me when


talk to them in


irons.
afraid.


They


will. say


heart


is weak,


Could I go free, they will surrender and


emigrate."


General Worth knew his man.


He told him


that he could not go free, and reminded him that


he had not proposed anything of


the kind.


closed by saying: "I say to you again, and for the
last time, that unless the band acquiesce promptly


in your wishes, to your


last wish, the sun, as it


down


on the


appointed


their






THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y


appearance, will shine upon the bodies of each of
you hanging in the wind."


Coacoochee


understood


aright this time.


accepted the inevitable.


selected


five of


men to carry his talk to his band in the swamps.
The five went accordingly, and they returned with
the entire band of about two hundred Coacoochean


Seminoles.


They all went West.


This policy


of General Worth's


availed some-


thing.


was arrested


midway


by another


treaty, by the provisions of which nearly three hun-
dred savages are yet allowed to linger in Florida-
almost powerless for serious ill, but a nuisance and


annoyance,


without any compensating advantage.


heroes, so called,


of this mongrel


counting back a hundred years or so, are many-
Secoffee, Pascoffer, Osceola (As-se-seha-bo-lar, Black


Drink),


Alligator,


Jumper,


Black


Micco,


Dirt,


Jones,


Arpeika,


Micanopy,


Chitto-Tustenug-


Coacoochee


or Wild


Emathla,


Otulkee,


Halleck-Tustenuggee, Aleck Hajo, Tiger-Tail,


lahassee, Billy


Bowlegs, Hospetarkee, and so on to


a hundred,


thing.
talkative


and all distinguished


One is crafty and silent


some-


another, bold and


another, vigilant and far-seeing


another,


ambitious and boastful


another, skillful and busy;


t






HISTORY.


another,


vulpine


another, feline


another, snaky;


another,


tigery-but


all blood-hungry


revengeful.
These Seminole wars have cost perhaps twenty


million dollars, and


over thirty


thousand


soldiers


have seen service in them, of whom about fifteen
hundred lost their lives.


In November, 1843,
the whole number of


General Worth


Indians


estimated


in Florida as


warriors,


sukies, thirty-three:


Seminoles,
Creeks, ten


forty-two


Micco-


and Tallahassees,


ten; making ninety-four warriors;


and, including


women and children, three hundred in all.


These


were


under


Assinwar


Holatter


Micco


and Otulko-Thlocko


as head-chief,
as sub-chiefs.


1845 Captain Sprague estimated
three hundred and sixty. To-d


the aggregate at
ay, they are reck-


oned to be two hundred and sixty-nine--statement


given


elsewhere-so that


the race is not self-sus-


training.


state


of Florida.-Florida


State and admitted into the


was organized
Union in 1845.


as a


The State Governors prior to the war of seces-


sion were:


W. D. Moseley


Thomas Brown,


James


Broome,


1852


Madison


Perry,


John Milton, 1860.






THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DAY.


Secemion.-An ordinance of secession from the
Federal Union was passed by a State Convention on


the 10th


of January,


and the State


joined


the Confederate


States in


Sthe struggle for State


sovereignty


in the


war of


secession,


bearing


part bravely and well.


At the close


war a State


Convention


repealed the ordinance of secession.


In 1865


there


were


three Governors-A. K.


Allison, acting
tary Governor


Governor;
and David


William


Marvin


mili-


Walker, elected


the people, served until 1868, when reconstruction,


so called,


was regularly ushered in.


Reconstruction.


- Under


a new


Constitution,


adopted


in 1868, a


new


line of Governors


inaugurated.


Beginning with that date, the follow-


been


Harrison Reed,


Governors,


1868


0. B.


their


Hart,


dates:
M. L.


Stears, 1873


George F. Drew, 1877


William D.


Bloxham, 1881; Edward A. Perry, 1


Restoration.-


election


Governor


Drew


in 1877 marks the new era of prosperity in Florida.
From 1868 to 1877 the reconstruction regime ob-


trained.


During that period party politics seemed


to be the main pursuit of those having the State in
charge; and other industries were dwarfed by mie-


was







HISTORY.


directed legislation or overborne by onerous taxa-
tion. The upward and forward impulse given all


industrial


pursuits


the election


of Governor


Drew, in 1877,


was well sustained and increased


successively


Governors


Bloxham


Perry.


The
tional


extent


of the rebound from the reconstruc-


depression,


or rather prostration, is clearly


shown by Governor Perry in a communication of
the 30th of March, 1888. He says: "I am glad to
be able to say for my State that its agricultural
interests are marvelously improving, that the num-


ber and amount of


crops


farm mortgages


are decreasing,


and liens on


farmers are more


prosperous generally.


creasing in
is marked."


years


value, and


Their
their


lands are


general


yearly in-


advancement


The assessments for taxation for the


1870, 1879, and 1887 bear ample testimony


to the material advancement of


the State during


the period in question:


For 1870
For 1879
For 1887


* . . I
*~ ~ .5 . . . *


$29,700,022
82,794,388
86,265,662















GEOGRAPHY.

FLORIDA is the largest in area of the States east
of the Mississippi River, and it has an area of culti-
vable land greater than that of the six New Eng-
land States.


The political, judicial, and congressional


divis-


ions of Florida are not matters of special interest to
the traveling public; and, in view of the State as a
place to visit or to settle in, they are not important.


In a general


way, again, the


State is divided into


West, Middle, East, and South


but this division is


both vague and arbitrary, and comparatively mean-


ingless.


To the Northern as to the European read-


her's mind the State is pretty much a unit; and from
this misconception has arisen much of the confusion
of thought, conflicting opinions, the seesaw. of vili-


fiction and overpraise, and


the general wholesale


inaccuracy, that has been so lavishly written about
Florida for the last twenty years.
For the purposes of these pages-to give a cor-






GEOGRAPHY.


rect idea of the country in its salient and diverse
features, and to picture it as it is to-day-the sec-
tions of the State are three, which for convenience


be called


Northern


Florida,


Semi


- tropical


Florida, and Subtropical Florida.


The basis of this


division is climate; and the three Floridas will be
discussed as separate in future pages.


physical


features


State,


eventful early history and its manifold industries,


are varied and diverse.


The highest point in the


State


is Table


Mountain,


in Lake


County;


though the barometric measurements have not been
very close, a presumption is established that the sum-
mit is nearly five hundred feet above the sea-leveL


Louisiana is the only State
The highest point in the 1


with a less elevation.
United States is Mount


Whitney in California, 14,898 feet.


Florida is a land of water.


In addition to its


1,148 miles of salt-water coast, it has, scattered all


over its surface, certainly


1,200 fresh-water


lakes.


These vary in size, from Okeechobee (the word is
aid to mean Big Water), with its thousand square
iBes of area, to the picturesque little lakelet-for
t re are lakelets both large and small-with less


a hundred square feet.


These lakes and lake-


lets are nowhere stagnant and unseemly with scum






THE


FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y


but are of waters fresh, clear, bright, smiling, and
wholesome, often good enough for general use, and


even for drinking.
pure and drinkable.


Even the Everglade waters are
This clearness and health-qual-


ity appear as well in the chalybeate and the sulphur
springs that are found in many parts of the State.
The word "spring," in this connection, has great lati-
tude of meaning; and some of the so-called springs
are very large, as Silver Spring, in Marion County,


two hundred


yards in diameter,


whose brook is a


thoroughfare for a line of steamers, and the Blue


Springs in


Volusia County,


with a


feet in diameter and forty feet deep.


basin seventy
Of this latter


a State official gives the following description: A
huge bowl, from the center of which a colu n of


blue-tinted water presses


upward


with such force


that the center of the surface is convex to the ex-
tent of perhaps ten inches, and it is impossible to
put or keep a boat on this summit, such is the force


of the hydraulic


stream


pressure


which


upward


gigantic


and laterally.


spring feeds


about fifty feet wide and of an average depth of ten
feet, with a current of about five miles an hour.
The Indian name of the St. John's River is Wee-la-


ka, meaning a chain of lakes.


The following are a


few of the largest lakes: Okeechobee,


Kissimmee,






GEOGRAPHIC


Tohopokaliga, Istokroga, Monroe, Apopka, Eustis,
George, Crescent, Orange, Miccasukee, Iamonia, De


Funiak,


Santa


Buffum.


The heights of


these


lakes


a good


Buffum,


in Polk


County,


being


138*26


above


sea-level


simmee, 59"06 feet


and Okechobee, 20-24 feet.


About


Okeechobee, and


mainly southward


it, extend the Everglades, in the counties of Dade,
Monroe, and Lee, with an aggregate area of fully


seven thousand five


hundred square miles-nearly


as large


as the Commonwealth


The Everglade


waters are, like all


Massachusetts.


waters of


Florida, pure and clear, and vary in depth from a


few inches to several feet,


rarely more


than ten.


Tall grass, as high sometimes as eight or ten feet, is


very common,


with shrubs,


all sorts of tangle and roots.


vines, trees, moss, and
Islands lie here and


there, with trees and vines on them-cypress, pine,
oaks, palmettoes, magnolias, and a score at least of


other


subtropical


trees.


infinite


variety


abound everywhere.
The immense extent of sea-shore, almost encir-


cling the State, is dotted


with islands-islands of


all sizes, from Santa Rosa Island and Key Largo,
thirty to fifty miles long, to a dot big enough only


to sun a turtle.


Beginning at the mouth of the St.






THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DAY


Mary's


River, at Fernandina,


with Amelia Island,


twenty-two miles long, on which that city stands, we
have an unbroken chain-Anastasia, opposite which
St. Augustine stands; scores of islands and islets
along Hillsborough, Halifax, and Indian Rivers; on
down to the Florida Keys, numbering hundreds, of


which


Key Largo is the largest; on


to Key West


and the


Dry Tortugas


thence


northward


up the


Gulf coast, taking in the Ten Thousand Islands on


the coast of Monroe


and so on by Charlotte Har-


Tampa Bay,


and Cedar


Keys,


to the island-


dotted coast of


Franklin County; and


on to the


largest of all, Santa Rosa Island


and finally on to


Perdido Point.
The rivers of the State are numerous, frequently
serpentine, sluggish, and shallow, but rarely if ever


stagnant.
Suwannee,


The principal streams are the St. John's,


Kissimmee,


Caloosahatchee,


Withlacoo-


chee, Apalachicola, Ocklawaha, St Mary's,


Wakulla,


Chipola,


Peace,


Manatee,


Alafia,


Homosassa,


Mark's, Miami, Ocklokonee, and Ocilla.


There are


nineteen rivers navigable by steamers, to the aggre-
gate distance of over a thousand miles.















CLIMATE.

THE climate of Florida, considered as one, is ex-


ceptional.


finest


It is, in some


in the world.


important


Dr. Baldwin,


respects,


a prominent


physician of Jacksonville, maintains that the State
occupies a most favorable position in regard to cli-


mate


for the many modifying influences in oper-


ation have produced, he shows,


" a climate that for


equability has few if any equals and no superior."


Temperature.-As


regards


temperature, contin-


ued observations in various parts of t&e State show
that it is not excessive in either direction during
the entire year, the range between winter and sum-


mer temperature being only about 20.


nual mean


is 700


of spring,


; summer,


autumn, 710


and winter, 600


SThe following


is the Weather Bureau's official statement of the


temperature


at Jacksonville,


1887


Annual mean..
Maximum.....
Minimum....
8


S...111 .. 100*8








THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y.


This may be accepted as applicable for the northern

part of semi-trppical Florida, and approximately for

the whole orange belt.


The following table


presents results


given by


the Signal Service. Th

sumably those for Jack

of the State where 105


e figures for Florida are pre-

sonville, for there are parts

has not been felt for a hun-


years.


The figures are degrees


Fahrenheit,


and the table shows the one point of comparative

equability


PLACE.


Florida...
Louisiana.
Mississippi
Alabama .


. .. I .


**~~ *0I* *9**


West Virginia.


Georgia ...
Ohio. ...
Kansas ...
Connecticut


Oregon .....
Illinois .. ..
Nebraska.....
New York ....
Idaho........
Colorado......
Dakota.....
California.....
Montana.....


* .. a.....

* ll .. a a


Maximum.


S* a *a.. *
at.... S
a. a* a *
* **a
* a *.
aa a.. S *
* aea a.a *


Minimum.


10
0
- -05
-10
-20
-20
-25
-20
-80
-25
-35
-30
-35
-80
S-45
-45
-45
-50


Difference.


As the public mind naturally expects, and as the


California


press have demanded, a comparison of


the two States in the matter of temperature, the fol-







CL MATE.


lowing figures are given from the monthly weather


review
1885:


of the Signal-Service Bureau, for August,


In Florida.


Limona


Jacksonville ...
Sanford . .
Key West.....
Merritt's Island
St. Augustine ..


* wet......
* *111 **.**
* a .....


In California.


Fall Brook..
College City.
Murietta....
Red Bluff ..
Los Angeles
Sacramento.


* ...a. 4*1*
* ...a S*


S..... 106


For September, 18


the figures from the same


review are these:


In Florida.


In California.


Limona


Key West.....
Merritt's Island
St. Augustine ..
Jacksonville ...


* Sea..... S
*(1 *5 S*C *


Fall Brook..
Los Angeles
Murietta ....
Poway.... .


* a.. a5*e****
* I CC-* C** 9C
eet*.** C.- S


These two tables answer the question whether
California is warmer in midsummer than Florida.
Humidity.-As to the humidity about which so
much extravagant nonsence has been written, and


which


hasty


writers


pronounced


excessive


and therefore


objectionable,


Baldwin insists,


and with conclusive reasons,


that it is one of the


fortunate


favorable


features,


when


consid-


ered in the


light of science.


"Let it be remem-






THE FLORIA.-OF TO-DAY.


bered," he writes, that the term relative humidity
as used by meteorologists is not the same as absolute


humidity


"; and then proceeds to show how this is


true, in the following way: Absolute humidity de-
termines the exact amount of vapor in the air when


condensed into water


while relative humidity has


relation to the amount of vapor in the air when it


will be


condensed


after


point


saturation


is reached, and this point of saturation depends on


temperature


tension


or force


vapor


determined by the barometric pressure at the time


of taking


the observation.


point of saturation


In relative


is marked


humidity,
and the


figures in the column below 100 are the percentage
of that quantity as existing at the time under a spe-


cific degree of temperature and tension of
Therefore, the point of saturation is variable


vapor.
as, for


instance,


when


thermometer


is 500 and


barometer marks 30 inches pressure, a cubic foot of
air then contains four grains and a fraction of water


at the point of saturation, 100.


When the tempera-


ture is 750 and the barometer the same as before, a


cubic foot


of the atmosphere then


contains


grains and a fraction where the air is saturated, but


still marked


At the


temperature


of 1000


pressure as before, the cubic foot of air at the point






CLIMA TE.


of saturation will contain twenty grains and a frac-
tion. Thus we see that the amount of moisture in
the air at different temperatures varies in quantity.


Therefore, the


percentages given of 100 and the


different temperatures must also vary, so that the
same figures, although they may be correct percent-


of 100,


do not indicate


to us the absolute


amount of moisture in the atmosphere,


unless we


know the temperature which regulates each point of


saturation.
extended


Time and space will not permit a more


exposition


interesting


subject.


Professor Henry, of the Smithsonian Institution, in
an article on meteorology, says: It is not upon the
actual amount of vapor which the air contains at a
given time or place that its humidity depends; but


upon its greater or less degree of saturation.


air is said


to be dry in


which evaporation


That
takes


place rapidly from a surface of water or moistened


substance.


Hence,


if relative


humidity shows a


small percentage of 100, the point of saturation in a


climate


where


the absolute moisture is great, its


effect in producing evaporation is the same as where
the absolute humidity is less at the same percentage
of 100, indicating saturation there."
Accordingly, so far as Florida is concerned, it,


its so-called


excessive


humidity,


is in that






38

respect


THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y.


not less favorably conditioned than those


places which


boast of their dry climates,


because


their absolute humidity is less, and therefore more


conducive to health.


But the absolute humidity of


this climate is productive of benefit in modifying


its temperature.


Vapor in the atmosphere regulates


radiation of heat from the earth into the


voids of


space,


preventing


refrigeration


and sudden


changes of temperature, so inimical to the comfort
of mankind, and so destructive to vegetation and
the ripening of fruits.


Professor


Tyndall


"The observations of


the meteorologists furnish important, though hith-
erto unconscious, evidence of the influence of vapor


on the atmosphere.


Whenever the air is dry, we are


liable to extremes of temperature.


By day in such


places, the sun's heat reaches the earth unimpeded,


and renders the maximum high


by night, on the


other hand, the earth's heat escapes unimpeded into


space, and renders the minimum low.


Hence, the


difference between the maximum and the minimum


greater


where


air is driest.


Wherever


drought reigns, we have the heat of the day forcibly


contrasted with the chill of the night.


In the Sa-


har itself, when the sun's rays cease to impinge on


burning


sands,


the temperature runs rapidly






CLIMA TE


down to freezing,


because -there is no vapor over-


head to check the calorific drain."
Professor Tyndall states the phenomena in ques-


tion with


further


illustration,


above


enough for this purpose.


Dr. Baldwin calls atten-


tion to the fact that the cool nights of


the sum-


mers in Florida, so highly appreciated by all that


experienced


them,


attest


(so-called excessive) moisture


prevent radiation.


in the air


And again, during many winters


when excessive cold has characterized the weather
of the North, and the cold polar waves have been pre-
cipitated upon these latitudes, the moisture-bearing
breezes from the south meet them, and the moist-
ure overhead is condensed into clouds that prevent
severe radiation and protect them and their orange-
groves from the intense cold that otherwise they


should


experience.


But if,


as has


recently


their sad experience, those intensely cold winds, re-


duced


to a temperature


below zero, be driven as


northers down upon


Texas and the Gulf and there


reflected across to this State, the passage of them
across the warm waters of the Gulf, although modi-
fying their temperature, will still leave them cold


enough to be destructive in their effects.


But these


pre-refrigerated storms of a foreign origin are rare






THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DAY.


visitors to this clime, and do not count as indige-
nous elements to this enjoyable climate.

To put this matter of relative humidity in yet
another light, the following table, taken by Dr. C.
J. Kenworthy from official Signal Service sources,


compares


Florida


several


other


States,


with two Mediterranean


watering-places


Mean


Relative


Humidity.


Mcntone & Cannes
Nassau, N. P....
Atlantic City, N.J.
Breck'nridge,Minn
Duluth, Minn....
St. Paul, Minn...
Punta Rassa, Fla.
Key West, Fla...
Jacksonville, Fla.
Augusta, Ga.....
Bismarck, Dak...
Boston, Mass....


Novem-
ber.


Per et.
3 71-8
1 76*1
5 76"9
5 7609

6 970-8
5 72*7
5 77-1
5 71"9
5 71*8
1 76"6
1 68"0


Decem-
ber.

Per et.
74-2
72"0
79"1
8312
12"1
78*5
78-2
78"7
69*8
7216
76*4
61*8


Jana-
ary.

Per et.
72-0
7700
8016
7618
72-7
75*2
74*2
78-9
7012
7890
77*4
60-6


Febrau-
ary.

Per et
70-7
72"5
77-8
81"8
78-8
70-7
7387
77-2
08*5
6487
81"6
68-2


March.

Per t.
78.8
684
76-8
79-5
71-0
67-1
69-9
72"2
68-9
62o8
70"6
6887


Mean
for fv"
m'ntLa.













DIVISIONS.


three Floridas, three cli-


enic problems involved.
In defining these three
Floridas, the lines of lati-
tude are not the divid-


the west sides of the


peninsula differ in temperature more than a degree,
the east or Atlantic side being to that extent warm-






THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y


er in winter.


Professor


A. H.


Curtiss,


while en-


gaged in a botanical exploration of the State sev-
eral years ago, was the first to call attention to this


interesting and important fact.


He found that in


its flora Cedar Keys on the west corresponded with


Fernandina on the east


and in the same way cor-


responded Tampa with Daytona, Charlotte Harbor
with Cape Canaveral, Cape Romano with St. Lucie,


Chukaluskee


Lake


Worth.


Lines


con-


necting these


lines.


places


respectively,


Professor


Curtiss


be called


concluded


their that "Cape Romano on the western coast and
Cape Canaveral on the eastern may be considered
the points of demarkation between the temperate


and the subtropical vegetation."


light of


these and


other similar


since developed, it seems fair to divide the State
into three Floridas, as above intimated, basing the


division upon climatic conditions.


These three are


(1) Northern, (2) Semi-tropical, and (3) Subtropical.
Taking these in this order, severally, there are:
First, Northern Florida, lying north and west of
a line from Cedar Keys to Fernandina, or perhaps
better the tortuous line of the Suwannee, Santa F6,
and St. Mary's rivers-a region whose climate may
be designated as southern.


isqo *al






DIVISIONS.


Second, Semi-tropical Florida, lying south of the
above-designated line and extending to a line from


the mouth of


the Caloosahatchee River to Indian


River


Inlet-a region


whose climate is semi-tropi-


cal, and which may be appropriately designated as


the Orange Belt


Third,


Subtropical


Florida,


or all


region


lying south of the semi-tropical orange belt above


defined, embracing the


Florida Keys.


These


three


Floridas


are distinct


in general


features, climates, and productions; but the divid-


ing lines are in no sense sharp.


These Floridas run


into one


another, and


varying seasons press their


lines northward or southward, and many conspicu-


ous floral features extend over all.


But the general


demarkation


is distinct,


defined,


easily


noted.


In climate


three are distinctly dissimilar.


In Northern Florida the extremes-approximately


stated, for illustration-are, maximum, 1050


mum, 200


mini-


; in Semi-tropical Florida, 1000 and


and in Subtropical Florida, 950 and 300. This in-
crease of equability or decrease of range as we go
south is at one with the scale covering greater dis-


tances


as, New


York,


Virginia, Florida-the


trees always coming nearer as we go south.


This






44

difference
length of


THE


FLORIDA


is the natural result
Sthe midsummer day


of the decreased
at points farther


south.


The difference


between Northern


Florida and


Semi-tropical Florida-apart from and in addition
to the difference of latitude-is largely due to the
greater elevation of the former, and the distance of


the Gulf Stream from it.


The waters of the Gulf


of Mexico attemper the immediate coast line in this
region, but their effect does not extend far inland;
and the obliquity of the dividing line is due mainly,
if not wholly, to the warming influence of the Gulf
Stream in the Atlantic.
The Gulf Stream is an immense factor in the


climate of both the peninsular divisions.


Coming


directly from the Cuban waters northward through


the Strait of Florida,


pressed


close to


the shore


along Dade County by the Bahama banks, it flows


northward-this vast


body


of deep-blue water,


thousand times the volume of the Mississippi River,
thirty miles wide, and two thousand feet deep, with


a velocity


of fully five miles an


hour-the


round.


The temperature of this enormous ocean-


river is about 840 all the time, and thus creates a
constant stratum of warm air that floats over the


land.


The temperature of the Gulf Stream is fully


OF TO-DAY






DIVISIONS. 45

nine degrees above that of the ocean-waters through
which it flows, and it loses but one degree every


five degrees of latitude.


Sir Philip Brooke reported


the temperature of the stream as 80* at the point


where the ocean-water was


The stratum of


warm air is borne westward, across the land by the


trade-winds


which


blow


constantly from the east-


ward-at least nine tenths of


and winter.


time-summer


The stream flows directly along the


Florida coast from the point of contact-about 250


20'-to Jupiter


Inlet, 270, at which point it leaves


the land, getting gradually farther out to sea. Of
course, its influence on the climate of Florida grad-


decreases as it passes northward,


ceases entirely.


never


From the Indian River Inlet-the


southern boundary of Semi-tropical Florida-north-
ward to Fernandina, the whole coast is made both


milder and


greatly more equable


Gulf


coast in the same degree of latitude; and this, as


elsewhere stated,


to the extent of


more than one


degree.


And purity accompanies equability on the


wings of these eastern winds.


They strike the land


of Florida fresh from the Atlantic, absolutely pure,
and sweep across the peninsula, bearing with them


whatever of


malaria


escapes


dilution,


absorption,


and dissipation,


thus putting the Gulf coast to a





THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y.


disadvantage


so far as these


influences


extend.


How far they extend has not been determined, but


certainly not very far.


Long moss is much scarcer


along the Atlantic coast than in most other places
in Florida.


Thus it


be seen, and


why,


Semi-tropical


Florida enjoys an equability decidedly greater than


does Northern Florida.


climate


is that of


Northern Florida with its extremes softened a little.


This is the


part of the State


best known at


North.


The St. John's River region has been so


fully


and so frequently


written


up and


written


down that readers can not need, here and now, to


hear more of this beautiful orange belt.


The popu-


lar mistake is to confound this favored region with
the two other Floridas-the Northern and the Sub-
tropical-while the difference is considerable.
But the phenomenal effects of the Gulf Stream
and the trade-winds are to be found on the Atlantic


coast south of Indian River


Inlet


and especially


south of Jupiter Inlet, where the shore trends west-


ward and


Gulf Stream bears rather eastward,


making for a passage around Hatteras.


It is this


separation of the Gulf Stream and the shore that


really


marks


northern


boundary of


tropics.


In this eastern side of Subtropical Flor-






DIVISIONS.


ida are found the four equalizing agencies at their


greatest


to wit, the Gulf Stream, the trade-winds,


the Evefades,
land-breeze and


with water-surface preventing the


its corresponding


sea-breeze, and


zone


barometric


pressure.


These


agencies conspire to


increase the mere latitudinal


difference
Florida.


betwec
Here


en


Semi-tropical


Subtropical


the midsummer heat that


might


otherwise be 950


, say, is reduced to something like


and the midwinter chill that might otherwise


be, say, 300


,is warmed up to something like 400


The trade-winds, in bringing to the Subtropics the
breath of the Gulf Stream, hurry off all incipient


malaria into the Everglades, and


keep pure


air of


eastern


coast.


absence


Spanish moss from this region


proves the purity


of its atmosphere; for, as a rule, in this latitude, if
moss does not mean malaria, it at least raises an


uncomfortable doubt in the premises.


Here, also,


as nowhere else on the earth except in the Island


of Formosa,


are to be


found


.the most marked


results of these exceptional


climatic


agencies-an


equability


greater than is to


be found anywhere


else in either of the grand divisions of the Ameri-


can continent.


As Florida considered as a unit is


more equable, temperate, and healthy than any other








State in the


OF TO-DAY.


Union, so Subtropical Florida stands,


at least in equability, in favorable contrast with the
northern divisions of the State.
In summary, then:
The climate of Northern Florida, while its range
of temperature is the greatest of the three Floridas,
is still more equable than are the Southern States


generally.


Its greater range has its special charm


to many, and its enjoyableness depends upon indi-


vidual tastes.


For those coming to


Florida from


higher latitudes, it is naturally the most attractive


part of the State.


The frosts are always light, but


they mark definitely the seasons and


destroy the


insects, clearing the way for a pew spring.


Ice is


formed every winter, and snow has fallen but once
in forty years, and then barely an inch deep. This
one snow extended over a considerable portion of


the orange belt.


This is the land of the Le Conte


pear, as Semi-tropical


Florida is


the land of


orange, and the


subtropics


are of


the pineapple.


The semi-tropical fruits, almost all, including the


typical


orange,


can be


grown


in Northern


Florida, and especially near the southern line; but
they do not attain the degree of excellence here that
they do in their habitat, either in size or inequality.
The influence of the Mexican Gulf water is consid


THE FLORIDA






DIVISION&


erable on


the southern


border,


but, as


Gnlf


Stream does not reach those waters, the influence


is merely that of


an ocean-frontage.


There are,


however, the daily alternating land and sea breezes


which render grateful effects.


North of the range


and reach of these breezes, the different elevations


of land


,with lakes, rivers, and springs, give pleas-


ing variety in warm weather, and
attractive Southern climate; a clii


produce a most
mate vastly supe-


nor to most of the written-up


and classic


resorts


of the Old World.


Messrs. Reasoner, perhaps


best-informed


nurserymen


in Florida,


publish


very carefully prepared and scientific catalogue of


fruits for this State.


They give, as suiting farther


north


than the semi-tropical fruits, the


following


among many


Pears of several kinds, including the


Le Conte and the Keiffer, pecan, Japan plum, and


grapes.
habitat.


These all have Northern Florida as their


climate of


Semi-tropical


Florida,


or the


orange belt, is that of Northern


Florida, modified


by more water frontage, by the partial influence of
the Gulf Stream, especially on the eastern side, and


by the slight difference in


latitude.


highest


point in the State is well south in


this division,


and the


number


variety


lakes


in this






THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y.


mid-Florida lake region-there


are three or four


regions


State tend


to make


one of


great


variety


and numberless


attractions.


All these and many other delectable features have


been given to the public again and again.


This re-


gion is the Florida of the legions of writers that
in the last twenty years have lavished their praises
and their abuse for the entertainment or the infor-


nation of the Northern public.


& The fruits of the


subtropics will


many of


them


grow


mature


but the trees of such are smaller and the fruit


inferior.


The Reasoner Brothers,


of Manatee, in


their list of trees called


semi-tropical have these:


The whole citrus family-orange, lemon, shaddock,


grape-fruit,


lime fig,


Cattley guava,


pome-


granate, and jujube.


The climate of Subtropical


Florida is that of


Semi-tropical


Florida, modified


by a still


greater


proportion of water-frontage, by the full influence
of the Gulf Stream, and by the slight difference in


latitude.


It is the most equable in the State.


authorities named above mention these tropical fruits
as suitable for Florida, and it is perfectly fair to as-


sume


can not


grow


to anything


perfection anywhere north of


the subtropics, and


some of them even there are a little too far north







DIVISIONS.


anonas,


the cherimoya,


guanabena


(sour-sop), custard-apple, sugar-apple, the pineapple,
sapodilla, cocoanut, mangosteen, mammee, mammee


sapota, Spanish


lime, mango, aguacate or alligator


pear, guava, ties, tamarind, and almond.


t











UMMOM C


Tax BAANA.


i|















HEALTH.

GENERAL health depends largely-indeed, almost


r-upon climate.


about Florida health-and of the popular kind it has
been voluminous-has been about that part of the
State elsewhere in these pages defined as Semi-trop-


ical Florida


and a patient public that has read Dr.


Kenworthy on the Climatology of Florida," Dr.
Logan on Climate-Cure," Dr. Blodget on "Clima-


tology," and


the more or


less able papers of Drs.


Baldwin,
Jacques,


Lawson,


Denison, Lente,


Lee, Johnson,


Wilson, and the rest, can hardly care to


have the matter treated here with any fullness. A
brief summary will suffice.
Malaria.-A good deal has been written and said
about the picturesque long or Spanish moss as an in-


dictator of malaria.


It doubtless indicates the pres-


ence of certain elements-moisture and heat, say-
that are often present where malaria prevails; and
it must be confessed that, other things being equal,


AalmoiTal the -wr'ing






HEALTH.


the probabilities of perfect healthfulness are rather


against
marshes


places


abounds.


wherein


this banner


there are many


places in


Florida entirely free from this moss, notably along
the Atlantic coast quite near the ocean, as between


260 and 270


; and there are many places where the


moss


abounds


are free


from


effects


malaria.


Malaria seems to be the great


bugbear of the


partly- informed.


character


quality


malaria can


be ascertained, approximately at


least, by finding the nature and prevalence of the


diseases
known.


caused


These


diseases


are well


Even in these, Florida stands better than


any of the other States-better as to frequency of
malarial fevers, and vastly better as to the severity


of such


cases.


fevers that


are reckoned


arising from this cause are always milder, and yield
more readily to treatment, than in most other places
where they are found, and are almost never fatal or
even very severe.
A drainage company has been operating with
thirty to forty hands, all white, since 1881, in the
heart of the Everglades, where malaria is imagined


to abound
gineer and


and James M. Kreamer, the chief en-


general superintendent,


in 1885, after





THE


FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y.


four years of work there, in his official report, says:
" One of the best attested records as to the contain.


ued healthfulness of


this portion of


State


shown by the reports respecting the condition of the
force employed by the Okeechobee Drainage Com-
pany, which has been operating on the line of the


bottom-lands since


1881.


Our em-


ploys come from almost every State in the Union


and foreign


countries.


During


this interval


1885],


and after a continuous service,


permission,


during the summer months,


without in-
there has


never been a death from any cause whatever; and a
physician in a professional capacity has never vis-


ited our work.


The health of our men, not only,


but of the residents throughout this district, is un-
impaired at this time."


Surgeon-General Lawson,


S. A., some years


ago, in his official report, after making a detailed
mention of the comparative health-merits of various


places occupied


by the


army,


gives


pointed


summary


An
stands


s respects h
pre-eminent.


health


the climate


That the


peninsular


Florida
climate


of Florida is much more salubrious than that of any
other State in the. Union is clearly established by


the medical statistics


of the army.


Indeed,


N





HEALTH.


statistics of this bureau demonstrate


the fact that


diseases that result from malaria are of much milder
type in the Peninsula of Florida than in any other


State in the


Union.


These records show that the


ratio of deaths to the number of cases of remitting


fever


has been much less


than among the troops


serving in any other portion of the United States.


In the Middle Division


of the


United States the


proportion is one death to thirty-six cases of remit-


ting fever


in the Northern Division, one to fifty-


two; in the-Southern Division, one to fifty-four


Texas, one to seventy-eight


in California, one to one


hundred and twenty-two; in
one hundred and forty-eight;


New


Mexico, one to


while in Florida it is


but one to two hundred and eighty-seven.


it may be asserted,


In short,


without fear of refutation, that


Florida possesses a much more agreeable and salu-
brious climate than any other State or Territory in
the United States."
The sanitary qualities of the Florida climate are


important.


best informed


medical


advisers


send at least two classes of patients to this State-
consumptives, or those suffering from some disease


of the
health
disease.


respiratory


without


organs,


well-defined


those
special


broken
1 form







THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DA .


Upon the former class of these-consumptives-


United


States


CensUs


embodied in the following


facts


reports
table:


Deaths from Consumption in 1,000 Deaths from all Causes.


Maine. .........


New Hampshire
Vermont ....
Rhode Island..
Massachusetts.
Delaware....
Connecticut...
Ohio I........
West Virginia.
Kentucky.....
Maryland.....
New Jersey ...
Michigan.....
New York ...


Tennessee....
Indiana .....
Pennsylvania.


hiCC****.C9
.. C.ll C

C Ce *


Ce.... C.1

*I C CC C *


CCCCS* S. C
C**C CC C


California
Virginia...
Iowa......
Minnesota.
Wisconsin.


North Carolina.
Illinois .......
Louisiana .....
Missouri.......
Kansas .......
South Carolina .
Mississippi .....
Alabama ......
Arkansas .....
Georgia .......
Texas ........


C C.... C C *


.......... 97
.. ....... 97
...... 90
..... 90


..C. CS
CC....


.. .. 76
.... C71
.... 70


Florida..


This table is better than a volume of arguments

and laudatory generalities, especially when consid-
ered in view of the patent fact that something like

fifty per cent of the deaths from consumption in
Florida are imported cases-cases sent thither, too
often, when the patients were so far gone as to be


beyond the hope of recovery.


It is safe to add' that


cases of this class originating here are almost inva-

riably inherited.


68
63
V D






HEALTH.


Upon the other class of cases benefited by Flor-
ida's sanatory climate-broken health, or brain-fag
-a few words from Dr. Kenworthy, a man thor-
oughly acquainted with Florida's sanitary and sana-
tory features, may suffice: "In this active business
country we find many persons who have been over-
worked and present a brbach in the chain of those
vital processes whose continuity constitutes health-


a condition popularly known as


'broken health.' In


Florida,


worn-out


man


of business, suffering


from 'broken health,' will find the necessary relax-


action


from


'brain-fag,


opportunities to take out-


door exercise, plenty of sunshine, pure and bracing
air, and other necessary adjuncts to relieve a condi-


tion affecting the many.


In this connection I can


not refrain from referring to what I consider an im-


portant fact.


From my observations in the


United


States and in foreign lands, and in hospital as well
as in private practice, I have been forced to notice


the infrequency


chronic


disease


and broken


health in Flori
of this State


da.


In my visits to various portions


I have met with many persons, old


and young, who live from year to year on improper
food, and who drink water from shallow holes, near


marshes, and


yet, singular to


persons are somewhat anemic),


say (although such
they do not present






58 THE FLORIDA OF T

any manifest diseased condition.


'O-DAY.


In cities, towns,


villages, and rural districts, where residents are sup-


plied


proper food and


drink


water, a


case of chronic disease or broken health is seldom


met with.


we have a climate in


which


these conditions rarely occur, are we not justified in
concluding that it will exert a powerful influence in


restoring the invalid
are aware, I have at


to health


various


As most of you


times


visited


many


portions of the State, and have


been surprised to


meet so many persons who have settled in it as in-
valids, and have been restored to health or compara-
tive comfort by the climate-a large proportion of


them having been


sufferers from


pulmonary


eases."


Tornadoes.-In the


light of


meteorological


servation during the past decade or two, it is per-
fectly safe to assume that Florida as a whole is as
safely out of the line and sweep of tornadoes and


hurricanes as any State in the


Union, and rather


more so than some of the Northwestern States and *
Territories.
So much for the climate of Florida as a, unit.
















GEOLOGY.

THE geology of Florida is full of interest, mainly


prospective,


although


no general


survey


made.


Kost,


present


State Geologist, has issued


one report of results,


and the


public await


with profound interest the


further prosecution


the work.


A preliminary


inspection is all that has been thus far accomplished,
but that has afforded glimpses of rich treasures in


fields


of both


mineralogy


and paleontology.


Dr. Kost finds the geological formations of Florida
to be "the equivalent of the Tertiaries of the Paris
basin in France and the vale of the Thames in Eng-


land."


He reports fossil remains, not only of the


mastodon, zeuglodon, and carcharodon, but also of


the rhinoceros, hippopotamus, llama,


peccary, leop-


ard, tiger, hyena, lion, camel, and elephant; and "a


species of bimana." One of


the three


mastodon


skeletons found is of exceptional size and will be






THE FLORIDA


set up for the State Museu


OF TO-DAY

m: and it will be "the


largest one of a mastodon on record


and, next to


that of the whale, the largest known of any animal."


mineralogical


scope


is also


considerable.


Dr. Kost finds lime, iron, and sulphur widely dis-


tribute


silicon


galore, and


potassium, so-


dium, magnesium, aluminum, and phosphorus.


er authorities


report


Agates of


chalcedony


and opal are reported as found near Tampa.
Nothing has been discovered, it appears, lower


the Tertiary period


but this is abundantly


and fully represented in all its subdivisions.


Eocene is of considerable depth


the Miocene and


the Pleiocene,


while


over


nearly all


lies a


heavy spread of Pleistocene or


Post-tertiary.


The doctors disagree sadly as to the formative


agencies


made


this peninsula and their pro-


cesses.


Some years ago, such men as Agassiz and


Joseph Le Conte, after examining the Atlantic side,
told us that this southward-pointing land was un-
derbuilt by corals and upraised in successive tiers.
Later, Heilprin explored the Gulf coast, and failed


to find any confirmation of the coral-reef


He confidently asserts


theory.


"On the contrary, the ex-


istence of


heavy


fossiliferous


deposits


about


Tampa, on the Manatee, along the tributaries of the




Jf






GEOLOGY.


Big and the Little Sarasota Bays, and more particu-
larly those exposed on the Caloosahatchee, conclu-
sively proves that a coral extension to the Southern


United


States, such


as has


theoretically set


forth, does


not exist in fact."


Of the


coral, he


maintains, the structure is limited and local. Dr.
Kost thinks it almost absurd to venture upon any
statements concerning the principles of the geologi-


cal formation of the State.


He adds, however, that


when the Eocene rocks were in course of deposit,
the Tertiary was reposing at the bottom of the sea,
from one hundred to several hundred feet deep, and
was, for a time at least, sinking slowly-that is, at a


pace correspondent


to the continuous


building of


coral reefs.


This Eocene deposit, though new geo-


logically, is in
cause it dates


secular


chronology


very old,


back to a time anterior to the up-


heaval of the lower half of the Rocky Mountains.
In course of time, the bottom of the sea began to


rise, at first slowly.


During this period occurred


the Oligocene


deposits.


Later,


peared, and the Miocene deposits were made; and,
in the after-age, the land was submerged again, the
submergence embracing not only Florida but also
Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, and parts of


Tennessee,


Arkansas,


Texas the


whole






THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y


emerge a second


time, and


to rise to its


present


level.


The State Geologist finds, further, that


extensive anticlinal, of an axis parallel with that of
the peninsula, trends centrally through the penin-


" There are


to-day indications, especially on


the eastern side, of a rise of the land now in prog-


Dabney


Palmer finds


origin of


this peninsula in the changes wrought by the "rise
of the Appalachian Mountains," which diverted the
Gulf Stream from its former channel up the Mis-


sissippi


Valley.


This caused an eddy south of the


then land


and sand-bars resulted and sediment and


coral insects followed.


" And thus it has been go-


mg on


for ages-sand-bar and


deposit, and


coral


And thus the building and extension of the


peninsula


continue to this day.


The gradual up-


heaval of the land has lifted the northern and cen-
tral portions of the peninsula far above the sea-level
This elevation will probably increase, and the Ever-
glades become dry, even if not assisted by artificial


means.


The digging of wells,


has disclosed


great


State.


variety


It is not


formations


infrequent that a


throughout
S beautiful


posits of coral are disclosed high up in the peninsula


and Northern


Florida as are to be found 6n the


reefs


south


of Cape


Sable.


Should


these


causes


ress.






GEOLOGY.


continue, the deep channel of the Gulf Stream may
be closed, Cuba annexed by natural causes, the val-
ley of the Mississippi be extended, and the Gulf of


Mexico become a fertile plain."


The indications,


along both the Atlantic and the Gulf side, are con-
firmatory of the theory that the land is still rising
slowly-more slowly, it is confidently believed, than
the operations of the Atlantic Coast and Canal Com-
pany's dredging corps.


Industrial


Features


- The


industrial


arts find


some valuable mineral deposits among these rock


materials.


Kost states that several localities


been found


to have


large


deposits


phosphates,


deposits quite as


in phosphoric


as are the phosphate rocks


Ashley


on Cooper


Rivers in South Carolina, from which im-


mense revenue has been derived.


These


Florida


beds show phosphates of lime, of silica, of alumina,


and of iron.


They are indicated by phosphoric-acid-


bearing rocks in the counties of Walulla, Alachna,


Marion, Hillsborough, and Manatee.


Wakulla


the State Geologist finds a triple phosphate of lime,
iron, and alumina, indicating exceedingly valuable
beds, the samples analyzed showing in one instance


23*85 per cent


in phosphoric


equivalent to


59*05 per cent bone phosphate of lime (CasP,0O).






-T-HE


FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y


Shell marl of marine deposit is found in nearly
all parts of the State, and inexhaustible fertilizing
marl-beds underlie the soil almost everywhere.
Limestone is to be found in nearly all parts of


the State


arge proportion of which, however,


will not yield a first quality of lime.


The rock is


generally too silicious, and slacks poorly; yet Pro-
fessor Pickel, of the State College, found by analy-


sis 93-67


of carbonate of lime, being equivalent to


52"46 per cent of quicklime.
Clays exist, especially in Northern Florida, of


which


passably


good


bricks


are made;


but the


presence of too much


either of lime or of


often


prevents the


results


in this direction.


Clays sufficiently fine and pure for pottery are to


be seen at various


points, in


lower strata.


where


coarser varieties occur.
Kaolin has been found in numerous localities;
but thus far little is known of its quality or quan-
tity.
Iron-ore is found in Northern Florida, and in


Jackson
reported


County a


"rather


extensive


deposit"


but nobody seems to believe that it exists


anywhere in paying quantities.
limonite variety, and is not the
found in all parts of the State.


The ore is of the


It is to be


There are several






GEOLOGY.


chalybeate springs whose


been tested.


medicinal qualities have


Dr. Kost thinks that a large propor-


tion of the running water of wells and springs is of
the chalybeate character; in springs and wells these
are commonly called sulphur-waters, because of the


presence


sulphureted


hydrogen


occasioned


chemical action.
by "oxides of iron.
Coal is present.
Northern Florida.


Nearly all the clays are stained


Lignite has been unearthed in
Dr. Kost discovered, in Santa


County,


a vein


about


thirty


inches


thick.


This Tertiary coal is similar to that found along the
Northern Pacific Railroad and used on that road.
An artesian well, sunk during the present year in
Marion County, it is stated, passed through a vein


of coal some


fifteen


to eighteen feet thick,


depth of nearly six hundred feet.
Limestone, quarried for building purposes, exists


in Northern Florida.


It is, however, for the most


part, soft, porous, and liable to imbibe moisture;
but the Ufiion Bank building at Marianna, in Jack-
son County, built of this material, has stood now
some forty years, and is today in a good state of


preservation.


Chimneys are frequently built of it.


It has


been pretty extensively used in


Hernando


County for both building-walls and chimneys.






THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y


Flint-rock


is available


rough


walls,


will last till the end of time.


This is found as far


south as Sumter County, in Semi-tropical Florida.


Arrow-heads,


spear-points,


and rude


knives


were


made of this flint


cessors.


by the Indians or their prede-


In Northern Florida it abounds along the


line of the railroad in Suwannee and Alachua Coun-


Kost says


deposited from


solution


"This rock was evidently
by presence of lime and


potash, with the silica in the waters of the later Ter-
tiary, as the shell remains of the echinoidea, pecten,


etc., appear with
full integrity."


their own shell


tissue,


often in


Sandstone occurs in many places.


cementing principle


It is soft, its


being impaired "by diffusion


of aluminous materials previously oxidized."


Marble, of stalactite and


stalagmite varieties, is


to be found in the caves of Jackson County and


some other


localities.


Ceilings, floors, and walls of


the caves are covered with this marble.


It is in


some instances beautifully white and translucent.


Coqnina--a


limestone, as


name


plies-exists


in many


places


along


Atlantic


coast.


The texture of the rock, Dr. Kost writes, is


very interesting, from the integrity of the shell man


trial.


It dresses moderately well, leaving a corra-






GEOLOGY


gated surface of rather agreeable aspect.


It is very


durable, as is proved by the integrity of the walls
of St. Augustine, those of the old Spanish Fort San
Marco, and of the old cathedral at thetsame place-
some of these a matter of two centuries old.
Coralline is abundant, especially on the Atlantic
coast south of the coquina region.


But concrete-of


sand,


shells,


better, cement-is more easily managed than either
coquina or coralline, cheaper, and doubtless equally


dtirable


so that its use is likely to supersede both


the other hitherto favorite building materials. It
has been used extensively in several places, notably


at Cedar
form in


Keys ;and, more recently, in a modified


the election


of the palatial hotels at St.


Augustine.
Xineral Waters.-The great variety and abun-
dance of mineral deposits in Florida naturally give


numerous mineral springs.


The mineral waters are


in the main solutions of lime, alumina, and iron


but magnesia, soda, sulphur, and


potash occur fre-


quently, and iodine and bromine somewhat rarely.
Ponce de Leon's Fountain of Perpetual Youth has


been discovered


a score of times,


pretty much all


over the State, and the modern wonder is that that


grandiose Adelantado


himself


could


not find






THE


FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y


when it is so numerous to-day.


Among the mineral


springs conspicuous are the


St. Mark's River, in


Wakulla


Newport


County


Springs, on
the Hamp-


ton Springs,


Taylor County;


the White


phur Springs, of Hamilton County
Springs, of Suwannee County; and


; the Suwannee
the Green Cove


Springs, of Clay County.


Soila--The soils are usually classed as first, sec-
ond, and third rate pine or sand lands, high and low
hammocks, and swamp lands.


Of the pine


lands Dr. Kost says


"The sand


deposits of


Florida


lands are


very generally mis-


judged.


They are generally estimated by the tour-


ist by what he has been conversant with in deposits
of 'sand-banks' in Northern localities, distant from


the sea,


which are generally wind-drifts or


drifts


from fresh-water bays or lakes, and the sand is quite


liable


to be clean and free from earthy or saline


mixture.


But here in


Florida


the accumulations


are from salt-water bays or sea-coasts, and they are
never free from marine salts, or more especially hav-
ing the presence of the dust of marine shells, in the
form of carbonate of lime from organic forms or


4ehells of mollusca.


Hence the sands of Florida are


far more productive as compared to others than are


those not of recent marine derivation.


It happens,






GEOLOGY


therefore, that tourists who have opportunity to in-


spect growing crops on


the andy barren'


not a little astonished to see respectably good crops


grown


on such


lands.


Similar sand deposits else-


where-that is, in the adverse circumstances-com-
monly are found to be almost completely barren."
Humus is the general need of the sand lands.
Hammocks may be defined as hard-wood lands,
the high being either alluvial or clay, the low being
of infinite variety both as to wetness and to material.


Swamps


are either sand


or low


hammocks in


process of formation.
Drainage.-Germane to the matter of soils is the


reclaiming of lands.
cially there is much


In Subtropical Florida espe-
overflowed land, and a drain-


age company has undertaken to reclaim
shares around Okeechobee as a center. H


lands on
[ere are, it


is estimated, about


eight


million


acres of


water-


covered


land-


Lake


Okeechobee,


a thousand


square miles, and
times that area.


1881.


the Everglades, more


The company began operations in


In 1887 the Legislature sent a committee to


examine and report results.


They first visited Lake


East Tohopekaliga, and


their report states


"We


find the lake eight feet two inches below its origi-
nal level, with a handsome beach of firm white sand






70 THE FLORIDA OF TO

three or four hundred feet wide,


-DA Y.


hard and level,


where formerly was seven or eight feet of water.


surrounding


marshes


swamps are dry and ready for the plow.


cypress
.. All


these lands are in the highest state of cultivation,
with handsome crops of sugar-cane, corn, potatoes,


various


vegetables,


vigorous


thrifty.


The lands are exceedingly fertile, and though


recently freed from


two to four feet of standing


water, are now dry and fit for all crops of a tem-


operate or subtropical


climate.


. Sixty-five tons


of cane, seventy bushels of corn, seventy bushels of
rice, have been raised per acre on these lands."


All this is


en couleur de rose certainly.


Toward the draining of Okeechobee directly the
Drainage Company cut one canal forty-six feet wide
and tan feet deep from the lake connecting it with
the Caloosahatchee River, which flows into the Gulf


of Mexico.
no report


The company seems to have published


recent


results


work; but Mr. John B. Hickey, of Fort Myers, on


the Caloosahatchee


River, writes that Lake Okee-


chobee is now three feet below its normal


level.


immediate


friends of this


enterprise


very hopeful of early and complete success.


appear
Many


others are


less hopeful.


As Okeechobee is 20*44






GEOLO Y.


feet above sea level, and as the Everglades-level at
Lake Worth is sixteen feet above that lake, and as
the Everglades-level at Miami is 5*5 feet above that
of Biscayne Bay, it does not seem impossible that
at least a great part of these Everglades waters may


be drained off.
canal capacity.


It seems to be a question mainly of


Writers


on hygiene


maintain that


the condi-


tions above given-removal df water from exten"


sive areas of rich alluvial lands and
the same-must evolve malaria. Th


cultivation of
e healthfulness


of this reclaimed region, however, is vouched for,


at least for


the first four years of


the Drainage


Company's operations-up to


1885-as appears in


its report quoted elsewhere in these pages in treat-


of malaria.


It kept nearly forty white men at


work summer and winter for three or four years,
and had not a single case of malarial fever. This


report


far to


prove


that malaria


is not


prevalent as is popularly'beliei, i-at l Ta in' that


Everglade-lake region.


What future developments


are to bring forth remains to be seen


and it is pos-


sible that these very operations may change things


in that regard


but, to-day, assuredly there is


great reason to be alarmed about malaria. A very
few more years of draining will settle that question.















TRAVEL


TRAvEL to


year.


Health,


Florida is
pleasure,


increasing- fm year to


and profit


are the


three


guiding stars.


These motives extend and increase


with the development of the country


pleasure, and


and health,


profit seekers rapidly become immi-


grants


home-seekers.


Over sixtn thousand


toets t-State d "- pa season.


How to reach


Florida is


the tourist's first


quiry.


From


New


England,


the adjacent States, and


Canada, excursionists for Florida should make New


York city their


common


point of departure.


that city all the great railway and steamship lines


have offices,


where full information


be got


and tickets bought not only for Fernandina or Jack-
sonville, but for numerous other points in interior
Florida.
Ocean Routes.-Of the water ways, the Mallory
Steamship Line is an excellently appointed one and






TE8A EL.


very popular.


Four first-class steamers ply between


York and Fernandina, Florida, leaving New


York every Friday.


These steamers are large, safe,


comfortable,


tons capacity


built


each,


deep


three


draught


thousand
and full


power.


Clyde's


New


York,


Charleston


Florida


Steamship Line, New York, has also four first-class
steamers, two going to Fernandina and two direct
to Jacksonville; all of them generally stopping en


route


at Charleston.


They leave


New


York


Tuesday and Fridays.
The Ocean Steamship Company have a full out-
fit of steamers sailing regularly from Boston, New


York, and Philadelphia, to Savannah,


where they


connect with the Savannah, Florida, and Western


Railway-the Waycross Short Line,


Jacksonville.


which leads to


These vessels are large, convenient,


safe, and first class in every way.


They sail from


York


three times a


week, and from Boston


on Thursday.


Overland Routea
exceptionally fine.


-Railway


travel


facilities are


The Atlantic Coast Line is the


shortest one from the East and North to Florida.
The line runs three express trains daily each way,


the time between New


York and Jacksonville be-






THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y.


ing about


thirty hours, and by


express


train less


than teon to t
In addition to these rare facilities of speed and


frequency, this


during the


present


taken some important steps in advance of ordinary


travel.


The recent vast increase of pleasure-travel


has produced two coincident results-fine hotels in
Florida and sumptuous means of travel to the State.
The tide of fashionable touring and resort-seeking
southward has set in within the past year or two;
and the health and pleasure resorts have been made


to meet the demands of that class.


The summer


resorts of Newport,


Saratoga, Bar


Harbor,


Long


Branch, and Cape May are beginning to reappear
with at least some of their features and habitue at
St. Augustine, Pablo Beach, Rock Ledge, Tampa,
Tarpon Springs, and Key West, as winter resorts in


Florida.


In response to the increase of this class


of travel of late, the Atlantic Coast Line has put on


regularly


running


Pullman


vestibuled


trains


tween Boston and Jacksonville.


These trains con-


sist exclusively


of drawing-room


containing


each a library, reading-room, smoking-room, dining-


cars, and sleeping-cars.


The cars of these trains are


so connected by means of vestibules that each train
is practically one continuous car, with the conven-






TRA VEL.


iences of a well-ordered hotel.


The trains through-


out are lighted with electric lights depending from


the ceilings.


traveler


on these


trains


breakfast in New


York one day and dine in Jack-


sonville the next.
The Piedmont Air-Line has its advantages as an
all-rail route between the North and the South. It


runs double daily trains,


Mann


with Pullman buffet and


boudoir cars, between Atlanta and Jackson-


ville, making regular and close connections at At-


lanta with Northern trains.


North lies


through the great


The route from the
battle-fields of Vir-


ginia, the Shenandoah Valley, the beautiful broken
rolling country of the Piedmont region, which pre-
sents some of the finest landscape scenery in Amer-
ica. This connects also with the East Tennessee,
Virginia, and Georgia systems of railway.
Cincinnati is the starting-point from the North-
west region of St. Paul, Chicago, and Indianapolis;


and from
cars and


that point there run


double


daily


trains


through sleeping-
of the Cincinnati


Southern Railway and of the East Tennessee,


ginia and


Georgia


Railroad, connecting with


Savannah, Florida and Western Railway to Florida,
making the time between Cincinnati and Jackson-
ville only twenty-eight hours.






THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y


St. Louis is a fit starting-point from the great


North-Northwest,


embracing


Kansas,


Nebraska,


Iowa, Minnesota, Dakota, Oregon, and the


ries thereabout.


Territo-


From that point the Louisville and


Nashville Railway runs


through


two trains a


mountain-regions


day, passing


Tennessee


Alabama, and connects, by way of Pensacola, with


the Florida


Railway


and Navigation


Company's


road,


passing


through


Tallahassee


and the great


tobacco and cotton region of Florida.
New Orleans is the starting-point for the South-


west-Mexico,


California,


Texas, Arkansas, Louisi-


ana, and Mississippi.


There the traveler may take


Louisville


and Nashville


Railway,


to River


Junction on the Chattahoochee River


thence, by the


Savannah, Florida and Western Railway, through
Thomasville and Waycross; or by the Florida Rail-


way or Short Line,


which passes several points of


interest-the Olustee battle-ground,


the Suwannee


River, and other attractive scenery in Western and
Middle Florida.


Jackuonville.-


reached this travel-cen-


ter, .t


rail o


water, the tourist will pause to consider the outgo-
in ve anestfiomtlis poit.
Jacksonville itself is altogether familiar to the






TRAVEL.


reading public, and on that account needs but brief


mention


here.


It has a population


and is both progressive and aggressive


has all the


modern


appliances


comfort-- fine


hotels


many of them, gas


and electric


lights, telegraph


and telephone, daily newspapers, street


The settlement was originally known


by its


original name,


Wacca Pilatka,


which means Cow's


Crossing-over-Cowford-Oxford-Bosporus; but
it became a whiteman's town in 1816, and in 1822


received
Jackson.


its present


name


in honor


Andrew


It is largely a Northern city in its spirit


and methods


at least not


essentially Southern in


any characteristic sense.
T hn become representative of
the State. of Florida, by the establishment of the


Subtropical


Exposition,


a permanent


institution,


there.
and is


It is to be kept open every winter season,


to exhibit


the products


resources


Florida and the most valuable and attractive exhib-


its that can be obtained from the Bahamas,


Indies, Mexico, and South America.


position is new in the


West


Such an


United States, and, when it


is fully organized and equipped as designed, will be


without a rival in the world.


increase its scope,


The intention is to


variety, and quality every year.


*0904e,





THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y


STRBET-SEn IN JAOCKSONVILLE.


season's


exhibits


were


eminently


successful


and prove the entire feasibility of the general idea.
By this means the visitor to Jacksonville is, in a


a visitor to all parts of the State.


Suitable


r5r~~
:7,~


qgr= i-l%





TRA V.R 79
buildings were erected, aad thme a et be extended
from year to year. The main building is three
hundred and twenty-five feet six iambe in length,
including towers-twenty feet-at the front end.
Its width, including the towers .or minaret -twen-
ty feet-is one hundred and fifty-two feet. En-
gine, dynamos, and other machinery anrerd
An annex, of sixty-four by eighty-eight feet, two
stories high, is for an art-gallery, restaurant, nd
other suppletory compartments.
Germane to the spirit, fim, and final cause of
the Subtropical Exposition, is the Florida Immigra-
tion Association, with headquarters at Jacksonville.
This Association, representing all parts of the State,
in the same way that the Exposition will ultimately
do, was organized for the purpose of furnishing full,
authentic, and trustworthy information to those that
are looking toward the State with conditional view
to making a home there. To carry out this object
there has been established at Jacksonville a general
agency for the purpose of inviting correspondence.
Prompt attention will be given to inquiries relating
to any section, locality, or feature of the State. It
is the purpose of this Association to deal only in
facts, and to avoid exaggerated praise, which ulti-
mately does the State more harm than, unjust de-






THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DAY


traction.


The general agent is E. B.


Van Deman,


Jacksonville. Florida.


From


Jaukonville. There


are four


general


directions by railway from Jacksonville: one west-


ward,


reaching


Pensacola;


one


southwestward,


reaching


Cedar


Keys;


one southward,


reaching


Punta Gorda on Charlotte Harbor in the Gulf of
Mexico; and two southward, reaching St. Augus-
tine on the Atlantic coast and Titusville at the head


of Indian


River.


These


routes are controlled by


five companies.


Seven years ago


there were 537


miles of railroad in the State, whereas to-day there
are 2,180 miles.


The five companies are-the


Florida Railway


and Navigation Company, extending westward 209
miles to the Appalachicola River and to Cedar Keys,
and southward to the Withlacoochee River, Tavares,
etc.; the Plant System, which reaches southward to
Tampa and Punta Gorda; the Jacksonville, Tampa,
and Key West Railway, which extends to Sanford,
Tavares, Titusville, on Indian River, St. Augustine,


and De Land


the Florida Southern Railway, from


Palatka to Brooksville and Pemberton Ferry; and
the St. Augustine and Palatka Railroad, connecting
St. Augustine with Tocoi and Palatka, Jacksonville,


Mayport, and Pablo


Beach,


Pensacola


with Mill-






TRA VEL


view, Blue


Springs on


the St. John's with Hills-


borough on the Atlantic, and Monroe with


Tarpon


Springs.


steamboat


line-De


Bary


People's


Line-from Jacksonville up the St. John's River to
Sanford and Enterprise, runs passenger-boats every
day except Saturday.
From Jacksonville, accordingly, the traveler can


readily


reach


any point


interest,


these


abound in all directions.


Excursions


a few


hours


made


1. Pablo
e by rail.


Beach, sixteen


miles from


Jackson-


is a sea-side resort of growing


popularity, on the Atlantic shore, eight miles south


of the mouth of the St. John's River.


The beach


at this point is one of the finest on the Atlantic
coast, being straight, sandy, shelving gently, smooth,


and free from rocks and pit-holes.


The bathing is


perfectly


handsome


irregular


little


town has sprung up within the last few years, hav-
ing now a first-class hotel known as Murray Hall,
with pavilions, restaurants, and other conveniences
and comforts-an establishment as fine as any on
the Atlantic coast, pot surpassed at Long Branch,
Ocean Grove, or Cape. May.






THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DAY.


2. & Augustine, the oldest city in the United
States, is thirty-six miles by rail from Jacksonville.
The city-population, about 8,500-is noted for its


picturesque beauty;


its crumbling old city gates;


its odd streets,


ten to twenty feet wide,


without


sidewalks


its coquina-built houses; its overhanging


balconies, with a scent of days gone by over all


governor's palace;


its unique sea-wall


the hoary


ramparts of its year-laden San Marco; its medisval-


looking Moorish cathedral;
striking hotel in the world.


Lady


and the finest and most


Hardy, in her admirable book of travels,


"Down South,"


a few years ago, of this gaudily


solemn old city felicitously writes


old-fashioned


"It is like an


beauty who has been lying in


through these long years, ranked in all her finery


of feathers, furbelows,


paint, powder, and patches,


and now wakes up and walks and talks with- us in
the quaint, stilted phraseology of old days."
There is not a step nor a turn in this grand old


ruin of other days that is not interesting.


The very


ocean seems to roll in an antique sort of a way; and
the trade-winds that sweep through the picturesque


date-palms, magnolias, and


oleanders,


seem


whispering in Spanish, or howling in the
vernacular spoken there four centuries ago.


to be
Cautio









TEA VEL. 83


'-












kli






0 a ~ f1 o


STREET IN ST. AuouSTnE.






THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y


The ancient San Marco is now Fort Marion.


was begun


probably in 1565, and is like the pyra-


mids of Egypt in being the work of slaves; and it
is a most interesting fossil of a foreign civilization,


restored by numerous later touches.
now dried up and overgrown; but


The moat is
there are still


the drawbridges, the massive arched entrance, the


barbacan,


the dark


under-ways,


the sullen


bastions, and the crypt-like dungeons.


The princely


hotel


recently


built,


Ponce de


Leon,


annex or supplementary house, the Alcazar


has an
and the


two, a magnificent unit, unite the old and the new,
the past and the present, with wonderful splendor


and effect.


The Alcazar is unfinished.


The Ponce


de Leon revives the style of three hundred years
ago, and enriches it with all the luxuries of to-day.
It is built in the style of the early Spanish Renais-


sance,


its decided


flavor


Moresque.


The material is shell concrete, and the great build-
ing is a stupendous monolith, and was molded, not


built.


The general complexion is a light mother-


of-pearl, with bright salmon terra-cotta ornamenta-
tion. The greatest turret height is a hundred and
fifty feet. The building is five hundred feet long


covers


nearly five acres.


A thousand guests


can be accommodated and seated in the dining-room,

t.

































PONOR Du Lzox HROTL.


5d



-0~,dt


I


It






THE


FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y


and this hall is one of the marvels of this immense


establishment.


The grand parlor is one hundred and


four by fifty-three feet, but is practically divided into
five rooms by arches, portibres, and screens. The
drawing-rooms on the first floor surpass in number
and style everything of the kind ever presented to


public.


Besides all


these there are splendid


courts, fountains, lakes, tennis-courts, bowling-alleys,
bars, billiard-rooms, bazaars, and arcades; but more
sumptuous than all are the luxurious Roman, Turk-


ish, and Russian baths.


From these access is had


to the unrivaled plunge-baths of sea-water, covering
nearly half an acre of varying depths from two to


six feet.


Back


these


is the sea-bath


proper


which


be described as a stupendous cave of


solid concrete, one hundred and eighty-four feet by
eighty-four feet, and from four to thirty feet deep,
altogether making a bath without a precedent in all


history.


The electric lighting of the


building is


something phenomenal, and is in keeping with the


splendor of the whole.


The outlay for this corn-


pleted main building-the Ponce de Leon proper-
is reported as two and a half million dollars; and
the Alcazar, it is predicted, will equal the other in


both splendor and


During the


past season,


immense


hotel


was crowded


for full






TRA VEL.


months, having a thousand guests frequently


gross


income


being


stated at


over


five thousand


dollars a day.
There are at St. Augustine yet other fine hotels


-the new


Hotel


Cordova, as unique and in most


respects as fine and as well appointed as the


Hotel


the San Marco,


Magnolia,


the St. Augustine,


and half a dozen minor houses.


Fort George Island, at the mouth of the St.


John's, has fine


tropical scenery, charming


walks


and drives, and a good hotel.
4. Mayport, on the south side of the mouth of
the St. John's, is a pleasant little town of perhaps a


hundred


cottages,


many


of these


being


summer


residences for business men in Jacksonville.


St. John's


was called


thence the name of Mayport.


y the French, and
Already popular as


an excursion resort, it is growing in popularity.


5. Besides


the above


there


within


excursion distance of Jacksonville,


Orange Park,


Mandarin, Magnolia,


Green


Springs,


scores of others on the, St. John's, all having hotels,


and all their special charms.


The St. John's region


is too well known to need a word at this late day.


Longer excursions from Jacksonville lie
directions southward and westward:


in all








TRAVEL. 89


INC












L s M -
Wtt0a ( o.


LooKIo AcRoss InDIAN ERVBr.






THE


FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y.


The Narrows, with its acres and islands of oysters;


Lucie,


with its long-famed hunting-grounds and


its flocks of manatees


Eden, with its famous pine-


apple fields and fine fishing


on to Jupiter


Inlet,


the present
lighthouse


end of the
170 feet high.


telegraph


Here the tourist is defi-


nitely


within


well-grown


subtropics


cocoanut-tree


Flora's


a handsome,
conspicuous


sign of a new climate.


Only


tioned in


a few names of places have


this transit from


men-


Titusville to Jupiter


but there are more than a score of delightful places,


with each a hotel and a post-office.


The flora and


fauna gradually pass from the semi-tropical to the


subtropical
attempering


as the traveler goes


breath


of the


Gulf


southward.


Stream


becomes


more and more operative until the traveler reaches
Jupiter, where the Stream first separates from the
land in its course northward.
2. Or, the traveler may make Lake Worth his ob-


jective point.


He would then, as before, go from


Jacksonville by rail to Titusville, 166 miles
Titusville to Jupiter by steamer, 118 miles
Jupiter by hack to Lake Worth, 8 miles. C


from
from


)nce on


the lake-which, like Indian River, was originally a
sound-he can go to any point in boat, either row,






TRA VEL.


sail, or steam; mostly sail.
long, about a mile wide,


Lake Worth is 23 miles


and separated


from the


Atlantic by a narrow strip of land in some places


less than a quarter of a mile wide.


An inlet near


the northern end of the lake connects it with the


Atlantic.


The water of the lake is less salt than


that of the


ocean,


reason


numerous


small


streams and a general seepage from the fresh-water


lakes above to the westward.


The fresh-water lakes


are about a mile west of Lake


Worth


so that the


fisherman


finds three kinds of water in less than


three miles-the ocean, the semi-salt lake, and the


fresh lakes-with their several


Deer,


turkeys, ducks, and small


families of


game of


fishes.
various


kinds are abundant;
entire length of the


as indeed they are almost the
Atlantic coast, but especially


abundant in the more newly settled localities. The
flamingo, a distinctly tropical bird, has been seen as


far north as this lake.


The cocoanut-palm grows


and fruits here, while it is a very uncertain growth


anywhere north of this.


The tropical


fruits that


can be grown north of this region, can be grown
here without protection.
3. Or the tourist may make Biasyne Bay, about


sixty
point.


miles


south


Lake


beautiful


Worth,
region


there


objective
are two







THE


FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y.


routes.


One is, as above, from Jacksonville to Titus.


ville, to Jupiter, to Lake Worth; and there charter


a boat and sail


down the Atlantic coast, from the


head of Lake


Worth to


Dade County, 84 miles.


Miami, the county-seat of

From Miami to Key West


-Il
"if.













'A-




-~ -- -- C.. - 4







-- -


A HAMMOCK.


~1





Y .? c-' --- -~ *-L-


--


c.-b





TBA YEL.


the distance is 130 miles.


The other route to the


Biscayne region is, to go south down the other side
of the State-that is, from Jacksonville to Punta


Gorda by rail, to
Miami by sail.


West


by steamer or sail, to


Miami region has the usual


Atlantic coast variety of soils-pine, hammock, and


prairie


- with


the Everglades


lying


of it.


Here, in


heart of


subtropics, the visitor


sees in the flora the difference


between semi-tropic


and subtropic.


guava,


for example,


which


grows sometimes as far up as 80-and land agents
in that latitude advertise the guava as one of their
attractions-the guava, here in Subtropical Florida,
grows to be a tree twenty or even thirty feet high,


with a delicious and abundant fruit,


while in the


higher latitudes it is a shrub about as tall as a man,
with a dwarfed fruit that is hardly fit to eat at all.


So also


lime; and, indeed,


with all the


rarer and more tender fruits. Fishing and hunting
both have here the best of fields. The Gulf Stream
brings into these waters the whole family of tropi-
cal fishes, and carries the same up as far north as


Jupiter Inlet.


As to climate, this is, especially the


northern portion of it, doubtless the most equable


in the State;
United States.


and that, of


course,


means


in the


The equability appears to be pretty






THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y.


uniform from


Cape


Florida


to Jupiter


Inlet-the


region touched by the Gulf Stream-and from Jupi-
ter Inlet to Fernandina the equability gradually de-
creases; but the entire Atlantic coast has less varia-
tion of temperature than other parts of the State.
4. Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades are best
reached from Jacksonville by rail to Kissimmee in


Osceola County, and


thence by


through the


lakes and down the Kissimmee River into Okeecho-


A second route is, by rail


and thence


to Punta Gorda,


by boat up the Caloosahatchee River,


into Okeechobee-a lake of about a thousand square


miles
miles.


in area,


being


about


forty


twenty-five


The river and lake travel in these routes is


not generally so delightful in itself as a


but as a picnic,


vestibuled


pleasant and refreshing.


5. Key West is in Monroe County, on an island
the name of the city, of about twelve square


miles.


is a Spanish-looking


town


nearly


20,000 inhabitants, is lighted


with gas, runs street-


cars, and


is reached by telegraph.


and antiquely novel city, full of


It is a quaint
oddities and va-


riety.


Dr. Henshall


says its


buildings


are of all


sizes and of


every


conceivable style, or no


style,


of architecture; and they are promiscuously jumbled
together, but are joined or seamed to each other by






TRA YEL.


a wealth and
surrounds, in


them
harsh


profusion


vests,


,softening the


outlines,


of tropical foliage,


surmounts, i
asperities, t
uniting the


which


overshadows


oning


down


separate


pieces,


which merge their


individuality in a harmonious


tout ensemble.


That writer sums up


West's


heterogeneous attractions in these words: "And so,
mansions, huts, and hovels, balconies, canopies, and


porches,


gables,


hoods,


pavilions,


pillars,


columns, and pilasters, are mingled in endless con-
fusion, but harmonized by arabesques of fruit and
foliage, festoons of vines and creepers, wreaths and


traceries of
and shady


climbing shrubs and
bowers of palm and


trailing


flowers,


palmetto, almond


and tamarind, lime and lemon, orange and banana."
The population is mainly Cubans and Conchs, but


there are also


Englishmen,


Frenchmen,


Germans,


Spaniards, Italians, negroes, and Americans.


immigrants


from


the Bahamas


Eng-
called


Conchs,


called


and settlers


Americans.


beauties and fruits


the United States are


Th6 island is rich in tropical
and the city is noted for its


unique and picturesque features, Spanish tone, and


cigar manufactures.


In this one industry it employs


over


three


thousand


operatives, and


handles


million dollars a year.


It can be reached, as above


I






THE


FLORIDA


OF TO-DAY.


stated,


from Jacksonville


by rail


to Cedar


Keys,


Tampa, or


Punta Gorda; and from either of these


points by steamer to Key West direct.


Or, on the


other side of the peninsula, from Jacksonville by


rail to Titusville,


Inlet,
Miami


thence


steamer


thence down the coast


Lake


in Dade County, and thence one


to Jupiter


Worth


hundred


and thirty miles, by schooner, to Key


West.


vt. Cape Sable and the entire southern coast of
Lee, Monroe, and Dade Counties are well worthy a


visit.


Here the subtropical sometimes threatens to


become the tropical.


Cocoanut groves are here and


there, and the royal palm is to be found here, the


only place in the whole country.


The tourist, in


a paradise


Nature,


select


one of


skore of attractive points for


his visit and tempo-


sojourn.


Around


coast


runs


a horse


shoe of fertile land, not many miles wide at any


place, and backed by the Everglades,


in the great Okeechohee.


which center


That part of this horse-


attempered


the Gulf


Stream,


toward the east on the Atlantic side, is especially


attractive.


All this region can


be reached readily


by schooner or other boat from either Key


or Miami


West


and such boats are on hand all the time,


especially at Key West.


MsV4I-






TRA EL.


7. Tampa, some 240 miles from Jacksonville by
rail direct, is a typical Florida city, of nearly 2,000


inhabitants.


It is interesting for its history, scenery,


oranges, fish, and mounds.
graph and express. One


It is reached by tele-
riter claims that Tampa


is probably older than St. Augustine, and explains
that, in the same year that Menendez founded the
latter city, his deputy, De Reinoro, was in charge


of Tampa.


Menendez sent a hundred laborers, in-


eluding fifteen women, to Tampa to teach spinning


to the


squaws.


Padre


Rogel, a Catholic


priest,


was in charge


time, and


Spanish
tribes at


of ecclesiastical


the following


peace between the


Tocobayo.


But no


interests


Menendez


Tago and the


records


at that
made a
Tampa


of that his-


tory appear to have come down


was in


to this


Tampa Bay that General Worth persuaded


Coacoochee to go West with his tribe, as narrated
elsewhere in these pages. It is a few miles south
of this city that a very large and old orange-tree
was said to be still living that had borne over ten
thousand oranges in one year.


8. Tallahamue,


the capital


the State, is


ideal Florida city, and one of the loveliest in the


South


and a most charming


community,


homo-


generous, hospitable, and essentially


Southern.






THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DAY.


has a population


nearly


3,000;


has excellent


hotels, telegraph, express, ice-factory, and is reached
by rail direct, 165 miles from Jacksonville. It is
the center, too, of many attractive points to visit


-historical


homesteads,


andscapes,


lakes,


Two miles from


Tallahassee stands Bellevue,


the Murat homestead,


which


was occupied by the


widow of Murat, the marshal and King of Naples.
The prince spent the last years of his life upon his


estate


in Jefferson


County.


He and


his widow


who survived him many years lie side by side in
the Episcopal Cemetery at Tallahassee, with quaint
and interesting inscriptions over the graves.
Near by, too, is the site of the old Spanish Fort
St. Lids, with noteworthy fragments of ponderous
but decaying remains.


9. Cedar


Keys is


railway direct


miles


from Jacksonville.


It is on Way Key in the Gulf


of Mexico, four miles from the mainland.


three


thousand


inhabitants,


It has
news-


papers, two good hotels, a telegraph-office, and an


express-office.


is a port


entry,


and has


shipped as much as $695,000 worth of exports a


year,


principally


lumber,


green


turtle,


oysters.


Imports, about $5,000.


A regular line of


steamers ply between this port and the


West






TRA VEL


The Eagle and the Faber


Pencil Companies


have here each a factory for preparing the cedar-


wood


for lead-pencils.


It is a


fine field


kinds of fishing.
10. Pensacola, 326 miles by rail from Jackson-
ville, 161 miles west of Tallahassee, was founded by
the Spaniards in 1696, and has had an eventful and


checkered history.


The harbor is described as one


of the finest in the world, having an area of about
two hundred square miles, is thirty miles long, with
an average width of at least seven miles and a depth


of from thirty to


thirty-five feet of water.


entrance is half a mile wide, with twenty-four feet


of water.


There are immense quantities of lumber


shipped,


some coal


from


Alabama.


There are several newspapers, churches, and hotels


Sa fine opera-house, an


express-offic,


a telegraph-


office, and all the conveniences of a well-appointed
city. In that region are the Pensacola Navy-Yard


and the
ens, and


Lighthouse,


Bayou


Grade.


Barrancas,
Pensacola


Fort
is a


Pick-
rapidly


progressive


place,


one having


many attract-


ive features for both the sight-seer and the home-


seeker.
having


Its climate


is all


that could


advantages of


be desired


North


Florida


tier of counties.







THE FLORIDA


OF TO-DA Y


11. Appalachicola has many points of attraction.
It is about 210 miles by rail from Jacksonville, and


some


lumber-port,


and fish.


000 inhabitants.


and sends


out also


It has one newspaper,


is an important
oysters, sponges,
good hotels, and


an attractive entourage.


12. Wakalla Springs, sixteen miles from


hassee, is the source of the


Talla-


Wakulla River.


nearly circular, four hundred feet wide and a hun-


dred and


six feet


deep,


brightly


clear,


many shades, and intensely interesting.


that flows from it is two


hundred


green of
The river
fifty feet


wide at the outset, and deep enough to bear large


vessels.


spring


is in some


respects


more


remarkable


famous


Silver


Spring


Marion County.


13. Silver


Spring.


-This


phenomenal


body


water is in Marion County, and is now accessible by
rail, and enjoys the advantages of telegraph and ex-


press.


It is described as a vast circular basin


hundred feet in


diameter and nearly fifty feet in


depth; is


the source of a


river


known as Silver


Spring


Run,


navigable


small


steamers,


which flows into the Ocklawaha River, about nine


miles distant.


Notwithstanding its great depth, the


water is so clear that the smallest object-a nickel




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