SAT OF pOaI
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I. HISTORY .
Cession to Great Britain .
Retrocession to Spain.
Cession to the United States
Territory of Florida .
Seminole Wars .
State of Florida. .
II. EOGAPHY .
III. CLIATE .
IV. DvIoNs .
First, North Florida .
Second, Semi-tropical Florida
Third, Subtropial Florida .
V. HCALH .
VI. GEOLOGY .
Industrial Feature .
. 85 -
Biscayne Bay .
Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades.
Key West. .
The Ocklawaha River.
The Suwannee River .
The Caloosahatchee River
The Homosaess River
Northern and Foreign Immigrants
IX. EDUCATION .
Other Citrus Fruits
Grapes and Wine
Yet other Fruits.
Out of the. Waters
XII. PESTS. .
List of Hotels
Map of Florida
Map of Divisions
The Banana .
Street Scene in Jacksonville
Street in St. Augustine .
Ponce de Leon Hotel
Looking across Indian River.
A Hammock .
A Scene on the Ocklawaha River
The Banana and the Pineapple
A Cypress-Shingle Yard
A Hunter's Camp
conquests, reconquests, cessions, and retrocession-is
as varied and spirited as a romance.
Dimoverie--It is agreed generally among the
historians that Ponce de Leon was the first of the
This romantic and enterprising
adventurer, hunting the phantasmal Isle of Bimini
-one writer calls it Boiaca-with its precious fount-
sin of youth, failed indeed to find that, but reached
the coast of Florida just north of where St. Augus-
tine now is, on Easter-Sunday, the 27th of March,
He landed the 2d of April, and named the
country, known to the Indians as Cantio, FLOmIA,
from Pascna Florida, the day of his discovery. Mr.
Fairbanks, however, states that the discovery was
made on Palm-Sunday.
Ponce de Leon did little
OF TO-DA .
else on that occasion than to land, erect banners, and
baptize the fair land of flowers.
Florida was next discovered by Miruelo in 1516.
He got, it is said, some pieces of gold from the na-
tives, which, on his return to Cuba, the general base
of operations for the Spaniards at that early date,
created great excitement among the gold-hungry ad-
venturers of that day.
The next year, 1517, De Cordova led an expedi-
tion of Spaniards to the new El Dorado
but he was
speedily driven off, and returned to Cuba to die of
The same year Alaminos came with three ships,
landed twice, found no gold, and was soon driven
In 1521 Ponce de Leon made another invasion
but he found no gold, was baffled and
wounded, and returned to Cuba to die, as De Cor-
dova had done.
Seven years later
the Spanish fortune-hunters
to discover and
to invade Florida on
De Narvaez, in April, 1528, led an
expedition of about four hundred men and
and marched northward along the Gulf-shore, hav-
ing ordered his vessels to coast along apace with
his marching troops.
The arrangement was a fail-
The ships lost sight of the troops, and, baffled
in every effort to find them, months afterward re-
turned to Cuba.
The three hundred troops were
all, in one way or another, destroyed, except four.
These four remained seven
in the El Do-
"medicine-men" among the Indians,
One of these, Cabega de Vaca-the veri-
table discoverer of the Mississippi River-wrote an
account of these stirring events.
While the ships
were yet lying at Clear Water, a Spaniard, Juan de
Ortiz, rashly ventured ashore, and was left there a
prisoner among the Indians, known then as Mar-
He remained there eleven years-until the
next discoverer came along-and had a sort of John
Smith experience with a Floridian Pocahontas and
The name of the interesting heroine of
Powhatan was named Hirrihiua.
with a thousand
three hundred and fifty horses, landed in what is
De Ortiz, men-
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acted as his guide
but, as it
De Soto was in quest of reported "great
store of crystal, gold,
and rubies, and diamonds,
that lay somewhere to the northward.
He sent his
vessels home, and set out overland to the region of
Chicora, or Chicola-South Carolina, perhaps-then
turned westward, and passed beyond the Mississippi
River, which had been discovered years before, and
named Rio Grande, by De Vaca.
De Soto returned
to that river, died there, and was buried beneath its
Just three hundred and eleven of
his thousand men finally reached Mexico.
In 1545 a treasure-ship
sailing from Mexico for
Spain, was wrecked on the eastern coast of Florida,
and about two hundred persons escaped to the land,
and thus unwittingly discovered Florida again. The
most of these were
murdered by the gentle Stoics
of the woods, and the rest were enslaved.
twenty years later one of
Laudonniere's settlement, at the mouth of
the St. John's River, and a few others reached the
colony of Menendez at St. Augustine.
In 1549 four
Franciscan friars landed at Tampa
Bay, with the idea of evangelizing the stoical abo-
rigines, but the noble savages tomahawked three of
them, and thus convinced the fourth
that kind of a conquest of Florida was impractica-
ble-at that time.
years later, De Luna
set out from
Cruz with fifteen hundred adventurers and a large
number of zealous priests
the former to pick up
peace to the cut-throat
He landed at
pitched a camp
there, marched into
accomplished the loss of a good many men, and was
In 1562 Ribault came from France
vessels and a colony of Huguenots, and made land
near St. Augustine
thence coasted northward, dis-
covered the St. John's River, which he christened
the May, and erected a monument of stone engraved
with the arms of France.
He soon re-embarked,
and proceeded to make a settlement at Port Royal,
In 1564 Laudonni6re brought a still larger col-
ony of Huguenots, landed where St. Augustine now
stands, but promptly re-embarked and sailed to St.
John's Bluff, and there built Fort Caroline. This
colony struggled on for a year, and, becoming dis-
when, in August, 1565, Ribault arrived with about
six hundred and fifty other
Huguenots, some hav-
Settlement.-The same year brought Menendez,
who arrived in July, 1565, at St. Augustine.
his arrival he heard of Ribault and his Huguenots
at Fort Caroline, and promptly pursued his vessels,
but without success.
He then returned to St. Au-
gustine, and built solid fortifications.
set out to capture
French were driven south, and finally wrecked near
and, taking advantage of the situation, attacked and
captured Fort Caroline.
He hanged a number of
upon trees, and put this in-
christened the fort San Mateo, returned to St. Au-
gustine, there first heard of
under the banner of
the cross, butchered them to a man.
This closed the efforts of the French to hold a
colony in Florida proper.
Menendez held his post at St. Augustine, and
this doubtless was the first permanent settlement of
Europeans in the United States.
In 1567 a gallant Frenchman, De Gourgues, got
up an expedition to avenge the brutal massacre and
insult of his compatriots by the Spaniards at Fort
and eighty-four, men
adroitly secured the co-operation of the natives, and
with these combined forces he surprised Fort San
old Fort Caroline-and
He turned the merciful aborigines
in upon the Spaniards, and a few survived.
De Gourgues hanged upon the same trees that Me-
pine board over the corpses he .wrote,
"I do this,
not as to Spaniards, nor as to outcasts, but as to
traitors, thieves, and murderers."
and once, in
OF TO-DA Y.
1665, by Captain John Davis, a bue-
Spain claimed that Florida embraced all the ter-
ritory as far north as
Virginia and westward to the
known as the Rio Grande.
Accordingly, when the
English and Scotch began to colonize the Carolinas,
the Spaniards began to fight them as intruders; and
the Indians joined whichever side promised them
the most blood.
Under this feeling, in
Spaniards sent a force to wipe out the English set-
tlement at Charles Town, on the Ashley River; but
the expedition failed utterly.
Again, in 1678, an-
other Spanish force was sent for the same purpose;
and this one murdered many of the English colo-
nists, pillaged a few plantations, and did a deal of
In 1696 the Spaniards, under
D'Arriola, made a
Barrancas now stands, they built, their Fort Carlos,
a church, and some dwellings.
In 1702 the English Governor Moore, of
Carolina, captured and burned St. Augustine, but
failed to reduce the fort
and in 1703 he laid waste
towns in Middle Florida
under Spanish protection, so called.
The Pensacola settlement was destroyed by the
French in 1718
and the Spaniards, in 1722, built
stands, and rebuilt Pensacola.
These alternations of colonizing, building, capt-
uring, rescuing, burning, rebuilding, returning, and
the Spaniards and
French in animated style for several years.
nothing else seems to have received any attention.
The banner of the cross of peace waved over the
land, and the tomahawk
kept the soil moist with
St. Marks was settled by the Spaniards in 1718.
Spanish Florida had three aggressive and troub-
lesome enemies-the English in Carolina and Geor-
gia on the north, the French in Louisiana on the
In 1713 the English
Georgia, invaded Florida, and offered battle under
adlantado Montiano, declined to go out, and Ogle-
thorpe declined to go in--so
was but little
Ceion to Great Britain--The treaty of peace of
1748 between Great Britain and Spain closed these
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treaty was broken by the war of 1762, the British
captured Havana; and in the treaty following, in
1763, Great Britain gave Cuba to Spain in exchange
Thus Florida became a British posses-
sion, and enjoyed a rest from Spain's magnificently
little conquests of empires that had been going on
The Spaniards, during their
two hundred and
fifty years of occupancy, had achieved little beyond
conquests of nothing,
much bloodshed and brutality, and a profound igno-
rance of the country and its resources.
At the date
of the cession the European population of the terri-
tory was about six thousand five hundred
these many left the country at the transfer.
The first British Governor, James Grant, took
Turnbull and Sir William Duncan brought into the
Greeks, and made a settlement near New Smyrna,
in Volnsia County.
Florida took no part in the war of secession in
1776 known as the American Revolution, and was
a place of refuge for thousands of loyalists from the
battling States, as it was later for fugitive slaves
from the adjacent States.
Upon the breaking out of war between Great
Britain and Spain in 1779, the Spanish Governor of
Louisiana invaded Florida and captured Pensacola
Retrooeuion to Spain.-In 1783, upon the close
of the war, Great Britain exchanged Florida for the
Bahama Islands, owned by Spain, and thus Florida
returned to Spanish rule. The British settlers
promptly moved out, and Spanish lethargy settled
over the country again.
In 1814, during the late war, the. British sent
a feet to Pensacola and captured the forts there;
and General Jackson was sent to oust them. He
stormed the forts and destroyed them. In 1818
General Jackson again invaded Florida, in order to
check and chastise the Seminoles.
Ceasion to the United State--In 1819 a treaty
between Spain and the United States was concluded,
and ratified in 1821, by which Florida was ceded to
the latter power.
Territory f Florid--In 1822 the Congress of
the United States established the Territory of Flor-
ida, with its capital at an old Indian settlement or
OF TO-DA Y.
camp called Tallahassee, although the first Legisla-
tive Council met at Pensacola, and the second at St.
The Territorial Governors,
with the beginnings
Raymond Reed, 1839
John Branch, 1844.
Seminole Wara-It was mainly during the terri-
that the worst of
the Seminole wars
tragic events, and but li
bloody monotony. A de
wholly unnecessary here.
little variety relieved their
tailed account of them is
Speaking of the earlier
Indian conflicts at the beginning of the eighteenth
century-up to about 1720-Mr. Fairbanks makes
New England -house-
hold the story of the sufferings of the Williams fam-
of the Dustins, and
of Miss McCrea, excited
the most tender emotions of pity.
The history of
the Southern colonies presents hundreds of such in-
If it was hundreds then, it is thousands
It is within reason to say that the history of
Florida itself, as a
Territory and as a State-1821
to 1860, say-can give a score of such tragedies for
every one so graphically told in the school-books of
all the New
But these have not
yet been celebrated in song and story.
not been written at all, and are thus far recorded
only in the hearts and memories of this silent South-
Peace with these Indians is perhaps an impossi-
ability, and had never really existed
but the most
important outbreak, known as the Seminole War, be-
massacre in South Florida in
1835, and closed with the so-called treaty of 1842.
But there has been much fierce fighting outside of
that period both before and after.
The word mae-
fitly describes the destruction of Major Dade's
battalion in Sumter County.
had fallen, Mr. Fairbanks states, the Indians then
painted savage, who, believing that all were dead,
made a speech to the Indians.
They then stripped
off the accoutrements of the soldiers and took their
without offering any indignity, and
in a body."
closes with these words
"Soon after the Indians had left, about fifty ne-
groes galloped up on horseback and alighted, and
at once commenced a horrible
poor fellow on the ground showed signs of life, the
negroes stabbed and tomahawked him.
OF TO-DA Y.
being still alive, started
up and begged
the wretches to spare his life; they mocked at his
prayers, while they mangled him with their hatch-
ets until he was relieved by death.
the dead, the negroes shot the oxen and burned the
miracle, escaped to tell the story.
There have been several causes assigned for the
Indian's hostility to the white man-encroachments
of the whites, individual wrongs to property, espe-
essential cauea causans has been the innate blood-
thirst of the savages.
The killing is sweet to them.
This has show itself ever since the Easter-Sunday
in 1512 when De Leon, the fountain-hunter, first
sighted' the blooming shores of Cautio.
During these wars the savages have times and
again made agreements and treaties so called, only
to gain time or to put the whites off their guard, and
then resume hostilities whenever and wherever they
could find a white throat convenient to cut.
yet the whites trusted them again and again.
Reed, in 1839, in his message to the Legisla-
ture, said: The close of the fifth year will find us
struggling in a contest remarkable for magnanimity,
on the one
waging war with beasts of prey.
The tactics that
are but shackles and
fetters in its prosecution.
We must fight fire with
Gallant officers with brave soldiers were sent to
quell the brutal work of Indian murder and pillage
others-and all were baffled.
Some of them fought
well, and had edifying talks, and secured excellent
treaties; but the Seminole was master of the situa-
.and several of his braves, and they were en route
Worth sent to New
place on a
on the morning of the 4th of
and his staff
ironed, and sat down on the deck.
advanced, and, taking the chief by the hand, said
"Coacoochee, I take you by the hand as a
warrior, a brave man.
You have fought long, and
with a true and strong heart, for your country.
take your hand with feelings of pride.
your country as
Coacoochee, I am your
so is your Great
to you is true.
My tongue is not
forked like a snake's.
My word is for the happi-
the red man.
are a great
The Indians throughout the country look to you as
by your counsels they have been governed.
This war has lasted five years.
been shed-much innocent blood.
Much blood has
You have made
your hands and the ground red with the blood of
You are th
to do it;
war must now
I sent for you, that, through the
induce your entire band to emigrate.
I wish you
to state how many days it will require to effect an
can select three or five of these men to carry your
Name the time-it shall be granted;
tell you, as I wish your relatives and friends told,
that, unless they fulfill your demands, yourself and
these warriors now seated before us shall be hung
when the sun sets on
the day appointed, with the irons upon your hands
I tell you this, that we may well under-
stand each other.
do not wish to frighten you,
you are too brave a man for that
I mean, and I will do it. It is f
the white and the red man. Th
; but I say what
or the benefit of
e war must end,
and you must end it!"
wily chief made a diplomatic reply,
evidently counted on making his escape.
ing, he said
"I wish now to have my band around
me and go to Arkansas.
You say I must end the
do not ask
me to see them.
I never wish to tread upon my
not obey me when
talk to them in
Could I go free, they will surrender and
General Worth knew his man.
He told him
that he could not go free, and reminded him that
he had not proposed anything of
closed by saying: "I say to you again, and for the
last time, that unless the band acquiesce promptly
in your wishes, to your
last wish, the sun, as it
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appearance, will shine upon the bodies of each of
you hanging in the wind."
aright this time.
accepted the inevitable.
men to carry his talk to his band in the swamps.
The five went accordingly, and they returned with
the entire band of about two hundred Coacoochean
They all went West.
of General Worth's
treaty, by the provisions of which nearly three hun-
dred savages are yet allowed to linger in Florida-
almost powerless for serious ill, but a nuisance and
without any compensating advantage.
heroes, so called,
of this mongrel
counting back a hundred years or so, are many-
Secoffee, Pascoffer, Osceola (As-se-seha-bo-lar, Black
Halleck-Tustenuggee, Aleck Hajo, Tiger-Tail,
Bowlegs, Hospetarkee, and so on to
and all distinguished
One is crafty and silent
another, bold and
another, vigilant and far-seeing
ambitious and boastful
another, skillful and busy;
These Seminole wars have cost perhaps twenty
million dollars, and
have seen service in them, of whom about fifteen
hundred lost their lives.
In November, 1843,
the whole number of
in Florida as
ten; making ninety-four warriors;
women and children, three hundred in all.
1845 Captain Sprague estimated
three hundred and sixty. To-d
the aggregate at
ay, they are reck-
oned to be two hundred and sixty-nine--statement
the race is not self-sus-
State and admitted into the
Union in 1845.
The State Governors prior to the war of seces-
W. D. Moseley
John Milton, 1860.
Secemion.-An ordinance of secession from the
Federal Union was passed by a State Convention on
and the State
Sthe struggle for State
part bravely and well.
At the close
war a State
repealed the ordinance of secession.
three Governors-A. K.
the people, served until 1868, when reconstruction,
was regularly ushered in.
in 1868, a
line of Governors
Beginning with that date, the follow-
George F. Drew, 1877
Bloxham, 1881; Edward A. Perry, 1
in 1877 marks the new era of prosperity in Florida.
From 1868 to 1877 the reconstruction regime ob-
During that period party politics seemed
to be the main pursuit of those having the State in
charge; and other industries were dwarfed by mie-
directed legislation or overborne by onerous taxa-
tion. The upward and forward impulse given all
Drew, in 1877,
was well sustained and increased
of the rebound from the reconstruc-
or rather prostration, is clearly
shown by Governor Perry in a communication of
the 30th of March, 1888. He says: "I am glad to
be able to say for my State that its agricultural
interests are marvelously improving, that the num-
ber and amount of
and liens on
farmers are more
The assessments for taxation for the
1870, 1879, and 1887 bear ample testimony
to the material advancement of
the State during
the period in question:
* . . I
*~ ~ .5 . . . *
FLORIDA is the largest in area of the States east
of the Mississippi River, and it has an area of culti-
vable land greater than that of the six New Eng-
The political, judicial, and congressional
ions of Florida are not matters of special interest to
the traveling public; and, in view of the State as a
place to visit or to settle in, they are not important.
In a general
way, again, the
State is divided into
West, Middle, East, and South
but this division is
both vague and arbitrary, and comparatively mean-
To the Northern as to the European read-
her's mind the State is pretty much a unit; and from
this misconception has arisen much of the confusion
of thought, conflicting opinions, the seesaw. of vili-
fiction and overpraise, and
the general wholesale
inaccuracy, that has been so lavishly written about
Florida for the last twenty years.
For the purposes of these pages-to give a cor-
rect idea of the country in its salient and diverse
features, and to picture it as it is to-day-the sec-
tions of the State are three, which for convenience
Florida, and Subtropical Florida.
The basis of this
division is climate; and the three Floridas will be
discussed as separate in future pages.
eventful early history and its manifold industries,
are varied and diverse.
The highest point in the
though the barometric measurements have not been
very close, a presumption is established that the sum-
mit is nearly five hundred feet above the sea-leveL
Louisiana is the only State
The highest point in the 1
with a less elevation.
United States is Mount
Whitney in California, 14,898 feet.
Florida is a land of water.
In addition to its
1,148 miles of salt-water coast, it has, scattered all
over its surface, certainly
These vary in size, from Okeechobee (the word is
aid to mean Big Water), with its thousand square
iBes of area, to the picturesque little lakelet-for
t re are lakelets both large and small-with less
a hundred square feet.
These lakes and lake-
lets are nowhere stagnant and unseemly with scum
OF TO-DA Y
but are of waters fresh, clear, bright, smiling, and
wholesome, often good enough for general use, and
even for drinking.
pure and drinkable.
Even the Everglade waters are
This clearness and health-qual-
ity appear as well in the chalybeate and the sulphur
springs that are found in many parts of the State.
The word "spring," in this connection, has great lati-
tude of meaning; and some of the so-called springs
are very large, as Silver Spring, in Marion County,
yards in diameter,
whose brook is a
thoroughfare for a line of steamers, and the Blue
feet in diameter and forty feet deep.
Of this latter
a State official gives the following description: A
huge bowl, from the center of which a colu n of
blue-tinted water presses
with such force
that the center of the surface is convex to the ex-
tent of perhaps ten inches, and it is impossible to
put or keep a boat on this summit, such is the force
of the hydraulic
about fifty feet wide and of an average depth of ten
feet, with a current of about five miles an hour.
The Indian name of the St. John's River is Wee-la-
ka, meaning a chain of lakes.
The following are a
few of the largest lakes: Okeechobee,
Tohopokaliga, Istokroga, Monroe, Apopka, Eustis,
George, Crescent, Orange, Miccasukee, Iamonia, De
The heights of
simmee, 59"06 feet
and Okechobee, 20-24 feet.
it, extend the Everglades, in the counties of Dade,
Monroe, and Lee, with an aggregate area of fully
seven thousand five
hundred square miles-nearly
as the Commonwealth
waters are, like all
Florida, pure and clear, and vary in depth from a
few inches to several feet,
Tall grass, as high sometimes as eight or ten feet, is
all sorts of tangle and roots.
vines, trees, moss, and
Islands lie here and
there, with trees and vines on them-cypress, pine,
oaks, palmettoes, magnolias, and a score at least of
The immense extent of sea-shore, almost encir-
cling the State, is dotted
with islands-islands of
all sizes, from Santa Rosa Island and Key Largo,
thirty to fifty miles long, to a dot big enough only
to sun a turtle.
Beginning at the mouth of the St.
River, at Fernandina,
with Amelia Island,
twenty-two miles long, on which that city stands, we
have an unbroken chain-Anastasia, opposite which
St. Augustine stands; scores of islands and islets
along Hillsborough, Halifax, and Indian Rivers; on
down to the Florida Keys, numbering hundreds, of
Key Largo is the largest; on
to Key West
Gulf coast, taking in the Ten Thousand Islands on
the coast of Monroe
and so on by Charlotte Har-
to the island-
dotted coast of
Franklin County; and
on to the
largest of all, Santa Rosa Island
and finally on to
The rivers of the State are numerous, frequently
serpentine, sluggish, and shallow, but rarely if ever
The principal streams are the St. John's,
chee, Apalachicola, Ocklawaha, St Mary's,
Mark's, Miami, Ocklokonee, and Ocilla.
nineteen rivers navigable by steamers, to the aggre-
gate distance of over a thousand miles.
THE climate of Florida, considered as one, is ex-
It is, in some
in the world.
physician of Jacksonville, maintains that the State
occupies a most favorable position in regard to cli-
for the many modifying influences in oper-
ation have produced, he shows,
" a climate that for
equability has few if any equals and no superior."
ued observations in various parts of t&e State show
that it is not excessive in either direction during
the entire year, the range between winter and sum-
mer temperature being only about 20.
and winter, 600
is the Weather Bureau's official statement of the
S...111 .. 100*8
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This may be accepted as applicable for the northern
part of semi-trppical Florida, and approximately for
the whole orange belt.
The following table
the Signal Service. Th
sumably those for Jack
of the State where 105
e figures for Florida are pre-
sonville, for there are parts
has not been felt for a hun-
The figures are degrees
and the table shows the one point of comparative
. .. I .
**~~ *0I* *9**
Illinois .. ..
New York ....
* .. a.....
* ll .. a a
S* a *a.. *
a. a* a *
* a *.
aa a.. S *
* aea a.a *
As the public mind naturally expects, and as the
press have demanded, a comparison of
the two States in the matter of temperature, the fol-
lowing figures are given from the monthly weather
of the Signal-Service Bureau, for August,
Sanford . .
St. Augustine ..
* *111 **.**
* a .....
Red Bluff ..
* ...a. 4*1*
* ...a S*
For September, 18
the figures from the same
review are these:
St. Augustine ..
* Sea..... S
*(1 *5 S*C *
* a.. a5*e****
* I CC-* C** 9C
eet*.** C.- S
These two tables answer the question whether
California is warmer in midsummer than Florida.
Humidity.-As to the humidity about which so
much extravagant nonsence has been written, and
and with conclusive reasons,
that it is one of the
ered in the
light of science.
"Let it be remem-
THE FLORIA.-OF TO-DAY.
bered," he writes, that the term relative humidity
as used by meteorologists is not the same as absolute
"; and then proceeds to show how this is
true, in the following way: Absolute humidity de-
termines the exact amount of vapor in the air when
condensed into water
while relative humidity has
relation to the amount of vapor in the air when it
is reached, and this point of saturation depends on
determined by the barometric pressure at the time
point of saturation
figures in the column below 100 are the percentage
of that quantity as existing at the time under a spe-
cific degree of temperature and tension of
Therefore, the point of saturation is variable
is 500 and
barometer marks 30 inches pressure, a cubic foot of
air then contains four grains and a fraction of water
at the point of saturation, 100.
When the tempera-
ture is 750 and the barometer the same as before, a
of the atmosphere then
grains and a fraction where the air is saturated, but
pressure as before, the cubic foot of air at the point
of saturation will contain twenty grains and a frac-
tion. Thus we see that the amount of moisture in
the air at different temperatures varies in quantity.
percentages given of 100 and the
different temperatures must also vary, so that the
same figures, although they may be correct percent-
do not indicate
to us the absolute
amount of moisture in the atmosphere,
know the temperature which regulates each point of
Time and space will not permit a more
Professor Henry, of the Smithsonian Institution, in
an article on meteorology, says: It is not upon the
actual amount of vapor which the air contains at a
given time or place that its humidity depends; but
upon its greater or less degree of saturation.
air is said
to be dry in
place rapidly from a surface of water or moistened
humidity shows a
small percentage of 100, the point of saturation in a
the absolute moisture is great, its
effect in producing evaporation is the same as where
the absolute humidity is less at the same percentage
of 100, indicating saturation there."
Accordingly, so far as Florida is concerned, it,
is in that
OF TO-DA Y.
not less favorably conditioned than those
boast of their dry climates,
their absolute humidity is less, and therefore more
conducive to health.
But the absolute humidity of
this climate is productive of benefit in modifying
Vapor in the atmosphere regulates
radiation of heat from the earth into the
changes of temperature, so inimical to the comfort
of mankind, and so destructive to vegetation and
the ripening of fruits.
"The observations of
the meteorologists furnish important, though hith-
erto unconscious, evidence of the influence of vapor
on the atmosphere.
Whenever the air is dry, we are
liable to extremes of temperature.
By day in such
places, the sun's heat reaches the earth unimpeded,
and renders the maximum high
by night, on the
other hand, the earth's heat escapes unimpeded into
space, and renders the minimum low.
difference between the maximum and the minimum
air is driest.
drought reigns, we have the heat of the day forcibly
contrasted with the chill of the night.
In the Sa-
har itself, when the sun's rays cease to impinge on
the temperature runs rapidly
down to freezing,
because -there is no vapor over-
head to check the calorific drain."
Professor Tyndall states the phenomena in ques-
enough for this purpose.
Dr. Baldwin calls atten-
tion to the fact that the cool nights of
mers in Florida, so highly appreciated by all that
(so-called excessive) moisture
in the air
And again, during many winters
when excessive cold has characterized the weather
of the North, and the cold polar waves have been pre-
cipitated upon these latitudes, the moisture-bearing
breezes from the south meet them, and the moist-
ure overhead is condensed into clouds that prevent
severe radiation and protect them and their orange-
groves from the intense cold that otherwise they
their sad experience, those intensely cold winds, re-
to a temperature
below zero, be driven as
northers down upon
Texas and the Gulf and there
reflected across to this State, the passage of them
across the warm waters of the Gulf, although modi-
fying their temperature, will still leave them cold
enough to be destructive in their effects.
pre-refrigerated storms of a foreign origin are rare
visitors to this clime, and do not count as indige-
nous elements to this enjoyable climate.
To put this matter of relative humidity in yet
another light, the following table, taken by Dr. C.
J. Kenworthy from official Signal Service sources,
with two Mediterranean
Mcntone & Cannes
Nassau, N. P....
Atlantic City, N.J.
St. Paul, Minn...
Punta Rassa, Fla.
Key West, Fla...
three Floridas, three cli-
enic problems involved.
In defining these three
Floridas, the lines of lati-
tude are not the divid-
the west sides of the
peninsula differ in temperature more than a degree,
the east or Atlantic side being to that extent warm-
OF TO-DA Y
er in winter.
gaged in a botanical exploration of the State sev-
eral years ago, was the first to call attention to this
interesting and important fact.
He found that in
its flora Cedar Keys on the west corresponded with
Fernandina on the east
and in the same way cor-
responded Tampa with Daytona, Charlotte Harbor
with Cape Canaveral, Cape Romano with St. Lucie,
their that "Cape Romano on the western coast and
Cape Canaveral on the eastern may be considered
the points of demarkation between the temperate
and the subtropical vegetation."
since developed, it seems fair to divide the State
into three Floridas, as above intimated, basing the
division upon climatic conditions.
These three are
(1) Northern, (2) Semi-tropical, and (3) Subtropical.
Taking these in this order, severally, there are:
First, Northern Florida, lying north and west of
a line from Cedar Keys to Fernandina, or perhaps
better the tortuous line of the Suwannee, Santa F6,
and St. Mary's rivers-a region whose climate may
be designated as southern.
Second, Semi-tropical Florida, lying south of the
above-designated line and extending to a line from
the mouth of
the Caloosahatchee River to Indian
whose climate is semi-tropi-
cal, and which may be appropriately designated as
the Orange Belt
lying south of the semi-tropical orange belt above
defined, embracing the
features, climates, and productions; but the divid-
ing lines are in no sense sharp.
These Floridas run
varying seasons press their
lines northward or southward, and many conspicu-
ous floral features extend over all.
But the general
three are distinctly dissimilar.
In Northern Florida the extremes-approximately
stated, for illustration-are, maximum, 1050
; in Semi-tropical Florida, 1000 and
and in Subtropical Florida, 950 and 300. This in-
crease of equability or decrease of range as we go
south is at one with the scale covering greater dis-
trees always coming nearer as we go south.
is the natural result
Sthe midsummer day
of the decreased
at points farther
Semi-tropical Florida-apart from and in addition
to the difference of latitude-is largely due to the
greater elevation of the former, and the distance of
the Gulf Stream from it.
The waters of the Gulf
of Mexico attemper the immediate coast line in this
region, but their effect does not extend far inland;
and the obliquity of the dividing line is due mainly,
if not wholly, to the warming influence of the Gulf
Stream in the Atlantic.
The Gulf Stream is an immense factor in the
climate of both the peninsular divisions.
directly from the Cuban waters northward through
the Strait of Florida,
along Dade County by the Bahama banks, it flows
of deep-blue water,
thousand times the volume of the Mississippi River,
thirty miles wide, and two thousand feet deep, with
of fully five miles an
The temperature of this enormous ocean-
river is about 840 all the time, and thus creates a
constant stratum of warm air that floats over the
The temperature of the Gulf Stream is fully
nine degrees above that of the ocean-waters through
which it flows, and it loses but one degree every
five degrees of latitude.
Sir Philip Brooke reported
the temperature of the stream as 80* at the point
where the ocean-water was
The stratum of
warm air is borne westward, across the land by the
constantly from the east-
ward-at least nine tenths of
The stream flows directly along the
Florida coast from the point of contact-about 250
Inlet, 270, at which point it leaves
the land, getting gradually farther out to sea. Of
course, its influence on the climate of Florida grad-
decreases as it passes northward,
From the Indian River Inlet-the
southern boundary of Semi-tropical Florida-north-
ward to Fernandina, the whole coast is made both
greatly more equable
coast in the same degree of latitude; and this, as
to the extent of
more than one
And purity accompanies equability on the
wings of these eastern winds.
They strike the land
of Florida fresh from the Atlantic, absolutely pure,
and sweep across the peninsula, bearing with them
thus putting the Gulf coast to a
OF TO-DA Y.
so far as these
How far they extend has not been determined, but
certainly not very far.
Long moss is much scarcer
along the Atlantic coast than in most other places
be seen, and
Florida enjoys an equability decidedly greater than
does Northern Florida.
is that of
Northern Florida with its extremes softened a little.
This is the
part of the State
best known at
The St. John's River region has been so
and so frequently
down that readers can not need, here and now, to
hear more of this beautiful orange belt.
lar mistake is to confound this favored region with
the two other Floridas-the Northern and the Sub-
tropical-while the difference is considerable.
But the phenomenal effects of the Gulf Stream
and the trade-winds are to be found on the Atlantic
coast south of Indian River
south of Jupiter Inlet, where the shore trends west-
Gulf Stream bears rather eastward,
making for a passage around Hatteras.
It is this
separation of the Gulf Stream and the shore that
In this eastern side of Subtropical Flor-
ida are found the four equalizing agencies at their
to wit, the Gulf Stream, the trade-winds,
with water-surface preventing the
agencies conspire to
increase the mere latitudinal
the midsummer heat that
otherwise be 950
, say, is reduced to something like
and the midwinter chill that might otherwise
be, say, 300
,is warmed up to something like 400
The trade-winds, in bringing to the Subtropics the
breath of the Gulf Stream, hurry off all incipient
malaria into the Everglades, and
Spanish moss from this region
proves the purity
of its atmosphere; for, as a rule, in this latitude, if
moss does not mean malaria, it at least raises an
uncomfortable doubt in the premises.
as nowhere else on the earth except in the Island
are to be
.the most marked
results of these exceptional
greater than is to
be found anywhere
else in either of the grand divisions of the Ameri-
As Florida considered as a unit is
more equable, temperate, and healthy than any other
State in the
Union, so Subtropical Florida stands,
at least in equability, in favorable contrast with the
northern divisions of the State.
In summary, then:
The climate of Northern Florida, while its range
of temperature is the greatest of the three Floridas,
is still more equable than are the Southern States
Its greater range has its special charm
to many, and its enjoyableness depends upon indi-
For those coming to
higher latitudes, it is naturally the most attractive
part of the State.
The frosts are always light, but
they mark definitely the seasons and
insects, clearing the way for a pew spring.
formed every winter, and snow has fallen but once
in forty years, and then barely an inch deep. This
one snow extended over a considerable portion of
the orange belt.
This is the land of the Le Conte
pear, as Semi-tropical
the land of
orange, and the
The semi-tropical fruits, almost all, including the
Florida, and especially near the southern line; but
they do not attain the degree of excellence here that
they do in their habitat, either in size or inequality.
The influence of the Mexican Gulf water is consid
Stream does not reach those waters, the influence
is merely that of
however, the daily alternating land and sea breezes
which render grateful effects.
North of the range
and reach of these breezes, the different elevations
,with lakes, rivers, and springs, give pleas-
ing variety in warm weather, and
attractive Southern climate; a clii
produce a most
mate vastly supe-
nor to most of the written-up
of the Old World.
Messrs. Reasoner, perhaps
very carefully prepared and scientific catalogue of
fruits for this State.
They give, as suiting farther
than the semi-tropical fruits, the
Pears of several kinds, including the
Le Conte and the Keiffer, pecan, Japan plum, and
These all have Northern Florida as their
orange belt, is that of Northern
by more water frontage, by the partial influence of
the Gulf Stream, especially on the eastern side, and
by the slight difference in
point in the State is well south in
OF TO-DA Y.
mid-Florida lake region-there
are three or four
All these and many other delectable features have
been given to the public again and again.
gion is the Florida of the legions of writers that
in the last twenty years have lavished their praises
and their abuse for the entertainment or the infor-
nation of the Northern public.
& The fruits of the
but the trees of such are smaller and the fruit
The Reasoner Brothers,
of Manatee, in
their list of trees called
semi-tropical have these:
The whole citrus family-orange, lemon, shaddock,
granate, and jujube.
The climate of Subtropical
Florida is that of
by a still
proportion of water-frontage, by the full influence
of the Gulf Stream, and by the slight difference in
It is the most equable in the State.
authorities named above mention these tropical fruits
as suitable for Florida, and it is perfectly fair to as-
perfection anywhere north of
the subtropics, and
some of them even there are a little too far north
(sour-sop), custard-apple, sugar-apple, the pineapple,
sapodilla, cocoanut, mangosteen, mammee, mammee
lime, mango, aguacate or alligator
pear, guava, ties, tamarind, and almond.
GENERAL health depends largely-indeed, almost
about Florida health-and of the popular kind it has
been voluminous-has been about that part of the
State elsewhere in these pages defined as Semi-trop-
and a patient public that has read Dr.
Kenworthy on the Climatology of Florida," Dr.
Logan on Climate-Cure," Dr. Blodget on "Clima-
the more or
less able papers of Drs.
Wilson, and the rest, can hardly care to
have the matter treated here with any fullness. A
brief summary will suffice.
Malaria.-A good deal has been written and said
about the picturesque long or Spanish moss as an in-
dictator of malaria.
It doubtless indicates the pres-
ence of certain elements-moisture and heat, say-
that are often present where malaria prevails; and
it must be confessed that, other things being equal,
AalmoiTal the -wr'ing
the probabilities of perfect healthfulness are rather
there are many
Florida entirely free from this moss, notably along
the Atlantic coast quite near the ocean, as between
260 and 270
; and there are many places where the
Malaria seems to be the great
bugbear of the
be ascertained, approximately at
least, by finding the nature and prevalence of the
Even in these, Florida stands better than
any of the other States-better as to frequency of
malarial fevers, and vastly better as to the severity
arising from this cause are always milder, and yield
more readily to treatment, than in most other places
where they are found, and are almost never fatal or
even very severe.
A drainage company has been operating with
thirty to forty hands, all white, since 1881, in the
heart of the Everglades, where malaria is imagined
and James M. Kreamer, the chief en-
in 1885, after
OF TO-DA Y.
four years of work there, in his official report, says:
" One of the best attested records as to the contain.
ued healthfulness of
this portion of
shown by the reports respecting the condition of the
force employed by the Okeechobee Drainage Com-
pany, which has been operating on the line of the
ploys come from almost every State in the Union
and after a continuous service,
during the summer months,
never been a death from any cause whatever; and a
physician in a professional capacity has never vis-
ited our work.
The health of our men, not only,
but of the residents throughout this district, is un-
impaired at this time."
S. A., some years
ago, in his official report, after making a detailed
mention of the comparative health-merits of various
s respects h
of Florida is much more salubrious than that of any
other State in the. Union is clearly established by
the medical statistics
of the army.
statistics of this bureau demonstrate
the fact that
diseases that result from malaria are of much milder
type in the Peninsula of Florida than in any other
State in the
These records show that the
ratio of deaths to the number of cases of remitting
has been much less
than among the troops
serving in any other portion of the United States.
In the Middle Division
United States the
proportion is one death to thirty-six cases of remit-
in the Northern Division, one to fifty-
two; in the-Southern Division, one to fifty-four
Texas, one to seventy-eight
in California, one to one
hundred and twenty-two; in
one hundred and forty-eight;
Mexico, one to
while in Florida it is
but one to two hundred and eighty-seven.
it may be asserted,
without fear of refutation, that
Florida possesses a much more agreeable and salu-
brious climate than any other State or Territory in
the United States."
The sanitary qualities of the Florida climate are
send at least two classes of patients to this State-
consumptives, or those suffering from some disease
OF TO-DA .
Upon the former class of these-consumptives-
embodied in the following
Deaths from Consumption in 1,000 Deaths from all Causes.
New Jersey ...
New York ...
.. C.ll C
C Ce *
*I C CC C *
CCCCS* S. C
C**C CC C
South Carolina .
C C.... C C *
.. ....... 97
.. .. 76
This table is better than a volume of arguments
and laudatory generalities, especially when consid-
ered in view of the patent fact that something like
fifty per cent of the deaths from consumption in
Florida are imported cases-cases sent thither, too
often, when the patients were so far gone as to be
beyond the hope of recovery.
It is safe to add' that
cases of this class originating here are almost inva-
Upon the other class of cases benefited by Flor-
ida's sanatory climate-broken health, or brain-fag
-a few words from Dr. Kenworthy, a man thor-
oughly acquainted with Florida's sanitary and sana-
tory features, may suffice: "In this active business
country we find many persons who have been over-
worked and present a brbach in the chain of those
vital processes whose continuity constitutes health-
a condition popularly known as
'broken health.' In
of business, suffering
from 'broken health,' will find the necessary relax-
opportunities to take out-
door exercise, plenty of sunshine, pure and bracing
air, and other necessary adjuncts to relieve a condi-
tion affecting the many.
In this connection I can
not refrain from referring to what I consider an im-
From my observations in the
States and in foreign lands, and in hospital as well
as in private practice, I have been forced to notice
health in Flori
of this State
In my visits to various portions
I have met with many persons, old
and young, who live from year to year on improper
food, and who drink water from shallow holes, near
yet, singular to
persons are somewhat anemic),
say (although such
they do not present
58 THE FLORIDA OF T
any manifest diseased condition.
In cities, towns,
villages, and rural districts, where residents are sup-
proper food and
case of chronic disease or broken health is seldom
we have a climate in
these conditions rarely occur, are we not justified in
concluding that it will exert a powerful influence in
restoring the invalid
are aware, I have at
As most of you
portions of the State, and have
been surprised to
meet so many persons who have settled in it as in-
valids, and have been restored to health or compara-
tive comfort by the climate-a large proportion of
them having been
servation during the past decade or two, it is per-
fectly safe to assume that Florida as a whole is as
safely out of the line and sweep of tornadoes and
hurricanes as any State in the
Union, and rather
more so than some of the Northwestern States and *
So much for the climate of Florida as a, unit.
THE geology of Florida is full of interest, mainly
State Geologist, has issued
one report of results,
with profound interest the
inspection is all that has been thus far accomplished,
but that has afforded glimpses of rich treasures in
Dr. Kost finds the geological formations of Florida
to be "the equivalent of the Tertiaries of the Paris
basin in France and the vale of the Thames in Eng-
He reports fossil remains, not only of the
mastodon, zeuglodon, and carcharodon, but also of
the rhinoceros, hippopotamus, llama,
ard, tiger, hyena, lion, camel, and elephant; and "a
species of bimana." One of
skeletons found is of exceptional size and will be
set up for the State Museu
m: and it will be "the
largest one of a mastodon on record
and, next to
that of the whale, the largest known of any animal."
Dr. Kost finds lime, iron, and sulphur widely dis-
dium, magnesium, aluminum, and phosphorus.
and opal are reported as found near Tampa.
Nothing has been discovered, it appears, lower
the Tertiary period
but this is abundantly
and fully represented in all its subdivisions.
Eocene is of considerable depth
the Miocene and
heavy spread of Pleistocene or
The doctors disagree sadly as to the formative
this peninsula and their pro-
Some years ago, such men as Agassiz and
Joseph Le Conte, after examining the Atlantic side,
told us that this southward-pointing land was un-
derbuilt by corals and upraised in successive tiers.
Later, Heilprin explored the Gulf coast, and failed
to find any confirmation of the coral-reef
He confidently asserts
"On the contrary, the ex-
Tampa, on the Manatee, along the tributaries of the
Big and the Little Sarasota Bays, and more particu-
larly those exposed on the Caloosahatchee, conclu-
sively proves that a coral extension to the Southern
not exist in fact."
maintains, the structure is limited and local. Dr.
Kost thinks it almost absurd to venture upon any
statements concerning the principles of the geologi-
cal formation of the State.
He adds, however, that
when the Eocene rocks were in course of deposit,
the Tertiary was reposing at the bottom of the sea,
from one hundred to several hundred feet deep, and
was, for a time at least, sinking slowly-that is, at a
to the continuous
This Eocene deposit, though new geo-
logically, is in
cause it dates
back to a time anterior to the up-
heaval of the lower half of the Rocky Mountains.
In course of time, the bottom of the sea began to
rise, at first slowly.
During this period occurred
peared, and the Miocene deposits were made; and,
in the after-age, the land was submerged again, the
submergence embracing not only Florida but also
Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, and parts of
OF TO-DA Y
emerge a second
to rise to its
The State Geologist finds, further, that
extensive anticlinal, of an axis parallel with that of
the peninsula, trends centrally through the penin-
" There are
to-day indications, especially on
the eastern side, of a rise of the land now in prog-
this peninsula in the changes wrought by the "rise
of the Appalachian Mountains," which diverted the
Gulf Stream from its former channel up the Mis-
This caused an eddy south of the
and sand-bars resulted and sediment and
coral insects followed.
" And thus it has been go-
for ages-sand-bar and
And thus the building and extension of the
continue to this day.
The gradual up-
heaval of the land has lifted the northern and cen-
tral portions of the peninsula far above the sea-level
This elevation will probably increase, and the Ever-
glades become dry, even if not assisted by artificial
The digging of wells,
It is not
infrequent that a
posits of coral are disclosed high up in the peninsula
Florida as are to be found 6n the
continue, the deep channel of the Gulf Stream may
be closed, Cuba annexed by natural causes, the val-
ley of the Mississippi be extended, and the Gulf of
Mexico become a fertile plain."
along both the Atlantic and the Gulf side, are con-
firmatory of the theory that the land is still rising
slowly-more slowly, it is confidently believed, than
the operations of the Atlantic Coast and Canal Com-
pany's dredging corps.
some valuable mineral deposits among these rock
Kost states that several localities
deposits quite as
as are the phosphate rocks
Rivers in South Carolina, from which im-
mense revenue has been derived.
beds show phosphates of lime, of silica, of alumina,
and of iron.
They are indicated by phosphoric-acid-
bearing rocks in the counties of Walulla, Alachna,
Marion, Hillsborough, and Manatee.
the State Geologist finds a triple phosphate of lime,
iron, and alumina, indicating exceedingly valuable
beds, the samples analyzed showing in one instance
23*85 per cent
59*05 per cent bone phosphate of lime (CasP,0O).
OF TO-DA Y
Shell marl of marine deposit is found in nearly
all parts of the State, and inexhaustible fertilizing
marl-beds underlie the soil almost everywhere.
Limestone is to be found in nearly all parts of
arge proportion of which, however,
will not yield a first quality of lime.
The rock is
generally too silicious, and slacks poorly; yet Pro-
fessor Pickel, of the State College, found by analy-
of carbonate of lime, being equivalent to
52"46 per cent of quicklime.
Clays exist, especially in Northern Florida, of
presence of too much
either of lime or of
in this direction.
Clays sufficiently fine and pure for pottery are to
be seen at various
coarser varieties occur.
Kaolin has been found in numerous localities;
but thus far little is known of its quality or quan-
Iron-ore is found in Northern Florida, and in
but nobody seems to believe that it exists
anywhere in paying quantities.
limonite variety, and is not the
found in all parts of the State.
The ore is of the
It is to be
There are several
chalybeate springs whose
medicinal qualities have
Dr. Kost thinks that a large propor-
tion of the running water of wells and springs is of
the chalybeate character; in springs and wells these
are commonly called sulphur-waters, because of the
by "oxides of iron.
Coal is present.
Nearly all the clays are stained
Lignite has been unearthed in
Dr. Kost discovered, in Santa
This Tertiary coal is similar to that found along the
Northern Pacific Railroad and used on that road.
An artesian well, sunk during the present year in
Marion County, it is stated, passed through a vein
of coal some
to eighteen feet thick,
depth of nearly six hundred feet.
Limestone, quarried for building purposes, exists
in Northern Florida.
It is, however, for the most
part, soft, porous, and liable to imbibe moisture;
but the Ufiion Bank building at Marianna, in Jack-
son County, built of this material, has stood now
some forty years, and is today in a good state of
Chimneys are frequently built of it.
been pretty extensively used in
County for both building-walls and chimneys.
OF TO-DA Y
will last till the end of time.
This is found as far
south as Sumter County, in Semi-tropical Florida.
made of this flint
by the Indians or their prede-
In Northern Florida it abounds along the
line of the railroad in Suwannee and Alachua Coun-
"This rock was evidently
by presence of lime and
potash, with the silica in the waters of the later Ter-
tiary, as the shell remains of the echinoidea, pecten,
etc., appear with
their own shell
Sandstone occurs in many places.
It is soft, its
being impaired "by diffusion
of aluminous materials previously oxidized."
Marble, of stalactite and
stalagmite varieties, is
to be found in the caves of Jackson County and
Ceilings, floors, and walls of
the caves are covered with this marble.
It is in
some instances beautifully white and translucent.
The texture of the rock, Dr. Kost writes, is
very interesting, from the integrity of the shell man
It dresses moderately well, leaving a corra-
gated surface of rather agreeable aspect.
It is very
durable, as is proved by the integrity of the walls
of St. Augustine, those of the old Spanish Fort San
Marco, and of the old cathedral at thetsame place-
some of these a matter of two centuries old.
Coralline is abundant, especially on the Atlantic
coast south of the coquina region.
better, cement-is more easily managed than either
coquina or coralline, cheaper, and doubtless equally
so that its use is likely to supersede both
the other hitherto favorite building materials. It
has been used extensively in several places, notably
Keys ;and, more recently, in a modified
of the palatial hotels at St.
Xineral Waters.-The great variety and abun-
dance of mineral deposits in Florida naturally give
numerous mineral springs.
The mineral waters are
in the main solutions of lime, alumina, and iron
but magnesia, soda, sulphur, and
potash occur fre-
quently, and iodine and bromine somewhat rarely.
Ponce de Leon's Fountain of Perpetual Youth has
a score of times,
pretty much all
over the State, and the modern wonder is that that
OF TO-DA Y
when it is so numerous to-day.
Among the mineral
springs conspicuous are the
St. Mark's River, in
phur Springs, of Hamilton County
Springs, of Suwannee County; and
; the Suwannee
the Green Cove
Springs, of Clay County.
Soila--The soils are usually classed as first, sec-
ond, and third rate pine or sand lands, high and low
hammocks, and swamp lands.
Of the pine
lands Dr. Kost says
very generally mis-
They are generally estimated by the tour-
ist by what he has been conversant with in deposits
of 'sand-banks' in Northern localities, distant from
which are generally wind-drifts or
from fresh-water bays or lakes, and the sand is quite
to be clean and free from earthy or saline
But here in
are from salt-water bays or sea-coasts, and they are
never free from marine salts, or more especially hav-
ing the presence of the dust of marine shells, in the
form of carbonate of lime from organic forms or
4ehells of mollusca.
Hence the sands of Florida are
far more productive as compared to others than are
those not of recent marine derivation.
therefore, that tourists who have opportunity to in-
spect growing crops on
the andy barren'
not a little astonished to see respectably good crops
Similar sand deposits else-
where-that is, in the adverse circumstances-com-
monly are found to be almost completely barren."
Humus is the general need of the sand lands.
Hammocks may be defined as hard-wood lands,
the high being either alluvial or clay, the low being
of infinite variety both as to wetness and to material.
are either sand
process of formation.
Drainage.-Germane to the matter of soils is the
reclaiming of lands.
cially there is much
In Subtropical Florida espe-
overflowed land, and a drain-
age company has undertaken to reclaim
shares around Okeechobee as a center. H
[ere are, it
is estimated, about
square miles, and
times that area.
the Everglades, more
The company began operations in
In 1887 the Legislature sent a committee to
examine and report results.
They first visited Lake
East Tohopekaliga, and
their report states
find the lake eight feet two inches below its origi-
nal level, with a handsome beach of firm white sand
70 THE FLORIDA OF TO
three or four hundred feet wide,
hard and level,
where formerly was seven or eight feet of water.
swamps are dry and ready for the plow.
these lands are in the highest state of cultivation,
with handsome crops of sugar-cane, corn, potatoes,
The lands are exceedingly fertile, and though
recently freed from
two to four feet of standing
water, are now dry and fit for all crops of a tem-
operate or subtropical
. Sixty-five tons
of cane, seventy bushels of corn, seventy bushels of
rice, have been raised per acre on these lands."
All this is
en couleur de rose certainly.
Toward the draining of Okeechobee directly the
Drainage Company cut one canal forty-six feet wide
and tan feet deep from the lake connecting it with
the Caloosahatchee River, which flows into the Gulf
The company seems to have published
work; but Mr. John B. Hickey, of Fort Myers, on
River, writes that Lake Okee-
chobee is now three feet below its normal
friends of this
very hopeful of early and complete success.
As Okeechobee is 20*44
feet above sea level, and as the Everglades-level at
Lake Worth is sixteen feet above that lake, and as
the Everglades-level at Miami is 5*5 feet above that
of Biscayne Bay, it does not seem impossible that
at least a great part of these Everglades waters may
be drained off.
It seems to be a question mainly of
tions above given-removal df water from exten"
sive areas of rich alluvial lands and
the same-must evolve malaria. Th
of this reclaimed region, however, is vouched for,
at least for
the first four years of
Company's operations-up to
1885-as appears in
its report quoted elsewhere in these pages in treat-
It kept nearly forty white men at
work summer and winter for three or four years,
and had not a single case of malarial fever. This
prevalent as is popularly'beliei, i-at l Ta in' that
What future developments
are to bring forth remains to be seen
and it is pos-
sible that these very operations may change things
in that regard
but, to-day, assuredly there is
great reason to be alarmed about malaria. A very
few more years of draining will settle that question.
increasing- fm year to
These motives extend and increase
with the development of the country
profit seekers rapidly become immi-
Over sixtn thousand
toets t-State d "- pa season.
How to reach
the tourist's first
the adjacent States, and
Canada, excursionists for Florida should make New
York city their
point of departure.
that city all the great railway and steamship lines
where full information
and tickets bought not only for Fernandina or Jack-
sonville, but for numerous other points in interior
Ocean Routes.-Of the water ways, the Mallory
Steamship Line is an excellently appointed one and
Four first-class steamers ply between
York and Fernandina, Florida, leaving New
York every Friday.
These steamers are large, safe,
Steamship Line, New York, has also four first-class
steamers, two going to Fernandina and two direct
to Jacksonville; all of them generally stopping en
Tuesday and Fridays.
The Ocean Steamship Company have a full out-
fit of steamers sailing regularly from Boston, New
York, and Philadelphia, to Savannah,
connect with the Savannah, Florida, and Western
Railway-the Waycross Short Line,
which leads to
These vessels are large, convenient,
safe, and first class in every way.
They sail from
three times a
week, and from Boston
The Atlantic Coast Line is the
shortest one from the East and North to Florida.
The line runs three express trains daily each way,
the time between New
York and Jacksonville be-
OF TO-DA Y.
thirty hours, and by
than teon to t
In addition to these rare facilities of speed and
taken some important steps in advance of ordinary
The recent vast increase of pleasure-travel
has produced two coincident results-fine hotels in
Florida and sumptuous means of travel to the State.
The tide of fashionable touring and resort-seeking
southward has set in within the past year or two;
and the health and pleasure resorts have been made
to meet the demands of that class.
resorts of Newport,
Branch, and Cape May are beginning to reappear
with at least some of their features and habitue at
St. Augustine, Pablo Beach, Rock Ledge, Tampa,
Tarpon Springs, and Key West, as winter resorts in
In response to the increase of this class
of travel of late, the Atlantic Coast Line has put on
tween Boston and Jacksonville.
These trains con-
each a library, reading-room, smoking-room, dining-
cars, and sleeping-cars.
The cars of these trains are
so connected by means of vestibules that each train
is practically one continuous car, with the conven-
iences of a well-ordered hotel.
The trains through-
out are lighted with electric lights depending from
breakfast in New
York one day and dine in Jack-
sonville the next.
The Piedmont Air-Line has its advantages as an
all-rail route between the North and the South. It
runs double daily trains,
with Pullman buffet and
boudoir cars, between Atlanta and Jackson-
ville, making regular and close connections at At-
lanta with Northern trains.
through the great
The route from the
battle-fields of Vir-
ginia, the Shenandoah Valley, the beautiful broken
rolling country of the Piedmont region, which pre-
sents some of the finest landscape scenery in Amer-
ica. This connects also with the East Tennessee,
Virginia, and Georgia systems of railway.
Cincinnati is the starting-point from the North-
west region of St. Paul, Chicago, and Indianapolis;
that point there run
of the Cincinnati
Southern Railway and of the East Tennessee,
Railroad, connecting with
Savannah, Florida and Western Railway to Florida,
making the time between Cincinnati and Jackson-
ville only twenty-eight hours.
OF TO-DA Y
St. Louis is a fit starting-point from the great
Iowa, Minnesota, Dakota, Oregon, and the
From that point the Louisville and
Nashville Railway runs
two trains a
Alabama, and connects, by way of Pensacola, with
and the great
tobacco and cotton region of Florida.
New Orleans is the starting-point for the South-
Texas, Arkansas, Louisi-
ana, and Mississippi.
There the traveler may take
Junction on the Chattahoochee River
thence, by the
Savannah, Florida and Western Railway, through
Thomasville and Waycross; or by the Florida Rail-
way or Short Line,
which passes several points of
interest-the Olustee battle-ground,
River, and other attractive scenery in Western and
reached this travel-cen-
water, the tourist will pause to consider the outgo-
in ve anestfiomtlis poit.
Jacksonville itself is altogether familiar to the
reading public, and on that account needs but brief
It has a population
and is both progressive and aggressive
has all the
many of them, gas
and telephone, daily newspapers, street
The settlement was originally known
which means Cow's
it became a whiteman's town in 1816, and in 1822
It is largely a Northern city in its spirit
at least not
essentially Southern in
any characteristic sense.
T hn become representative of
the State. of Florida, by the establishment of the
It is to be kept open every winter season,
Florida and the most valuable and attractive exhib-
its that can be obtained from the Bahamas,
Indies, Mexico, and South America.
position is new in the
United States, and, when it
is fully organized and equipped as designed, will be
without a rival in the world.
increase its scope,
The intention is to
variety, and quality every year.
OF TO-DA Y
STRBET-SEn IN JAOCKSONVILLE.
and prove the entire feasibility of the general idea.
By this means the visitor to Jacksonville is, in a
a visitor to all parts of the State.
TRA V.R 79
buildings were erected, aad thme a et be extended
from year to year. The main building is three
hundred and twenty-five feet six iambe in length,
including towers-twenty feet-at the front end.
Its width, including the towers .or minaret -twen-
ty feet-is one hundred and fifty-two feet. En-
gine, dynamos, and other machinery anrerd
An annex, of sixty-four by eighty-eight feet, two
stories high, is for an art-gallery, restaurant, nd
other suppletory compartments.
Germane to the spirit, fim, and final cause of
the Subtropical Exposition, is the Florida Immigra-
tion Association, with headquarters at Jacksonville.
This Association, representing all parts of the State,
in the same way that the Exposition will ultimately
do, was organized for the purpose of furnishing full,
authentic, and trustworthy information to those that
are looking toward the State with conditional view
to making a home there. To carry out this object
there has been established at Jacksonville a general
agency for the purpose of inviting correspondence.
Prompt attention will be given to inquiries relating
to any section, locality, or feature of the State. It
is the purpose of this Association to deal only in
facts, and to avoid exaggerated praise, which ulti-
mately does the State more harm than, unjust de-
The general agent is E. B.
directions by railway from Jacksonville: one west-
Punta Gorda on Charlotte Harbor in the Gulf of
Mexico; and two southward, reaching St. Augus-
tine on the Atlantic coast and Titusville at the head
routes are controlled by
Seven years ago
there were 537
miles of railroad in the State, whereas to-day there
are 2,180 miles.
The five companies are-the
and Navigation Company, extending westward 209
miles to the Appalachicola River and to Cedar Keys,
and southward to the Withlacoochee River, Tavares,
etc.; the Plant System, which reaches southward to
Tampa and Punta Gorda; the Jacksonville, Tampa,
and Key West Railway, which extends to Sanford,
Tavares, Titusville, on Indian River, St. Augustine,
and De Land
the Florida Southern Railway, from
Palatka to Brooksville and Pemberton Ferry; and
the St. Augustine and Palatka Railroad, connecting
St. Augustine with Tocoi and Palatka, Jacksonville,
Mayport, and Pablo
the St. John's with Hills-
borough on the Atlantic, and Monroe with
Line-from Jacksonville up the St. John's River to
Sanford and Enterprise, runs passenger-boats every
day except Saturday.
From Jacksonville, accordingly, the traveler can
abound in all directions.
e by rail.
is a sea-side resort of growing
popularity, on the Atlantic shore, eight miles south
of the mouth of the St. John's River.
at this point is one of the finest on the Atlantic
coast, being straight, sandy, shelving gently, smooth,
and free from rocks and pit-holes.
The bathing is
town has sprung up within the last few years, hav-
ing now a first-class hotel known as Murray Hall,
with pavilions, restaurants, and other conveniences
and comforts-an establishment as fine as any on
the Atlantic coast, pot surpassed at Long Branch,
Ocean Grove, or Cape. May.
2. & Augustine, the oldest city in the United
States, is thirty-six miles by rail from Jacksonville.
The city-population, about 8,500-is noted for its
its crumbling old city gates;
its odd streets,
ten to twenty feet wide,
its coquina-built houses; its overhanging
balconies, with a scent of days gone by over all
its unique sea-wall
ramparts of its year-laden San Marco; its medisval-
looking Moorish cathedral;
striking hotel in the world.
and the finest and most
Hardy, in her admirable book of travels,
a few years ago, of this gaudily
solemn old city felicitously writes
"It is like an
beauty who has been lying in
through these long years, ranked in all her finery
of feathers, furbelows,
paint, powder, and patches,
and now wakes up and walks and talks with- us in
the quaint, stilted phraseology of old days."
There is not a step nor a turn in this grand old
ruin of other days that is not interesting.
ocean seems to roll in an antique sort of a way; and
the trade-winds that sweep through the picturesque
date-palms, magnolias, and
whispering in Spanish, or howling in the
vernacular spoken there four centuries ago.
TEA VEL. 83
0 a ~ f1 o
STREET IN ST. AuouSTnE.
OF TO-DA Y
The ancient San Marco is now Fort Marion.
probably in 1565, and is like the pyra-
mids of Egypt in being the work of slaves; and it
is a most interesting fossil of a foreign civilization,
restored by numerous later touches.
now dried up and overgrown; but
The moat is
there are still
the drawbridges, the massive arched entrance, the
bastions, and the crypt-like dungeons.
annex or supplementary house, the Alcazar
two, a magnificent unit, unite the old and the new,
the past and the present, with wonderful splendor
The Alcazar is unfinished.
de Leon revives the style of three hundred years
ago, and enriches it with all the luxuries of to-day.
It is built in the style of the early Spanish Renais-
The material is shell concrete, and the great build-
ing is a stupendous monolith, and was molded, not
The general complexion is a light mother-
of-pearl, with bright salmon terra-cotta ornamenta-
tion. The greatest turret height is a hundred and
fifty feet. The building is five hundred feet long
nearly five acres.
A thousand guests
can be accommodated and seated in the dining-room,
PONOR Du Lzox HROTL.
OF TO-DA Y
and this hall is one of the marvels of this immense
The grand parlor is one hundred and
four by fifty-three feet, but is practically divided into
five rooms by arches, portibres, and screens. The
drawing-rooms on the first floor surpass in number
and style everything of the kind ever presented to
these there are splendid
courts, fountains, lakes, tennis-courts, bowling-alleys,
bars, billiard-rooms, bazaars, and arcades; but more
sumptuous than all are the luxurious Roman, Turk-
ish, and Russian baths.
From these access is had
to the unrivaled plunge-baths of sea-water, covering
nearly half an acre of varying depths from two to
is the sea-bath
be described as a stupendous cave of
solid concrete, one hundred and eighty-four feet by
eighty-four feet, and from four to thirty feet deep,
altogether making a bath without a precedent in all
The electric lighting of the
something phenomenal, and is in keeping with the
splendor of the whole.
The outlay for this corn-
pleted main building-the Ponce de Leon proper-
is reported as two and a half million dollars; and
the Alcazar, it is predicted, will equal the other in
both splendor and
months, having a thousand guests frequently
dollars a day.
There are at St. Augustine yet other fine hotels
Cordova, as unique and in most
respects as fine and as well appointed as the
the San Marco,
the St. Augustine,
and half a dozen minor houses.
Fort George Island, at the mouth of the St.
John's, has fine
tropical scenery, charming
and drives, and a good hotel.
4. Mayport, on the south side of the mouth of
the St. John's, is a pleasant little town of perhaps a
residences for business men in Jacksonville.
thence the name of Mayport.
y the French, and
Already popular as
an excursion resort, it is growing in popularity.
excursion distance of Jacksonville,
scores of others on the, St. John's, all having hotels,
and all their special charms.
The St. John's region
is too well known to need a word at this late day.
Longer excursions from Jacksonville lie
directions southward and westward:
L s M -
Wtt0a ( o.
LooKIo AcRoss InDIAN ERVBr.
OF TO-DA Y.
The Narrows, with its acres and islands of oysters;
with its long-famed hunting-grounds and
its flocks of manatees
Eden, with its famous pine-
apple fields and fine fishing
on to Jupiter
end of the
170 feet high.
Here the tourist is defi-
sign of a new climate.
a few names of places have
this transit from
Titusville to Jupiter
but there are more than a score of delightful places,
with each a hotel and a post-office.
The flora and
fauna gradually pass from the semi-tropical to the
as the traveler goes
more and more operative until the traveler reaches
Jupiter, where the Stream first separates from the
land in its course northward.
2. Or, the traveler may make Lake Worth his ob-
He would then, as before, go from
Jacksonville by rail to Titusville, 166 miles
Titusville to Jupiter by steamer, 118 miles
Jupiter by hack to Lake Worth, 8 miles. C
the lake-which, like Indian River, was originally a
sound-he can go to any point in boat, either row,
sail, or steam; mostly sail.
long, about a mile wide,
Lake Worth is 23 miles
Atlantic by a narrow strip of land in some places
less than a quarter of a mile wide.
An inlet near
the northern end of the lake connects it with the
The water of the lake is less salt than
that of the
streams and a general seepage from the fresh-water
lakes above to the westward.
The fresh-water lakes
are about a mile west of Lake
so that the
finds three kinds of water in less than
three miles-the ocean, the semi-salt lake, and the
fresh lakes-with their several
turkeys, ducks, and small
kinds are abundant;
entire length of the
as indeed they are almost the
Atlantic coast, but especially
abundant in the more newly settled localities. The
flamingo, a distinctly tropical bird, has been seen as
far north as this lake.
The cocoanut-palm grows
and fruits here, while it is a very uncertain growth
anywhere north of this.
can be grown north of this region, can be grown
here without protection.
3. Or the tourist may make Biasyne Bay, about
OF TO-DA Y.
One is, as above, from Jacksonville to Titus.
ville, to Jupiter, to Lake Worth; and there charter
a boat and sail
down the Atlantic coast, from the
head of Lake
Dade County, 84 miles.
Miami, the county-seat of
From Miami to Key West
-~ -- -- C.. - 4
Y .? c-' --- -~ *-L-
the distance is 130 miles.
The other route to the
Biscayne region is, to go south down the other side
of the State-that is, from Jacksonville to Punta
Gorda by rail, to
Miami by sail.
by steamer or sail, to
Miami region has the usual
Atlantic coast variety of soils-pine, hammock, and
subtropics, the visitor
sees in the flora the difference
grows sometimes as far up as 80-and land agents
in that latitude advertise the guava as one of their
attractions-the guava, here in Subtropical Florida,
grows to be a tree twenty or even thirty feet high,
with a delicious and abundant fruit,
while in the
higher latitudes it is a shrub about as tall as a man,
with a dwarfed fruit that is hardly fit to eat at all.
lime; and, indeed,
with all the
rarer and more tender fruits. Fishing and hunting
both have here the best of fields. The Gulf Stream
brings into these waters the whole family of tropi-
cal fishes, and carries the same up as far north as
As to climate, this is, especially the
northern portion of it, doubtless the most equable
in the State;
and that, of
The equability appears to be pretty
OF TO-DA Y.
region touched by the Gulf Stream-and from Jupi-
ter Inlet to Fernandina the equability gradually de-
creases; but the entire Atlantic coast has less varia-
tion of temperature than other parts of the State.
4. Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades are best
reached from Jacksonville by rail to Kissimmee in
Osceola County, and
lakes and down the Kissimmee River into Okeecho-
A second route is, by rail
to Punta Gorda,
by boat up the Caloosahatchee River,
into Okeechobee-a lake of about a thousand square
The river and lake travel in these routes is
not generally so delightful in itself as a
but as a picnic,
pleasant and refreshing.
5. Key West is in Monroe County, on an island
the name of the city, of about twelve square
is a Spanish-looking
20,000 inhabitants, is lighted
with gas, runs street-
is reached by telegraph.
and antiquely novel city, full of
It is a quaint
oddities and va-
are of all
sizes and of
conceivable style, or no
of architecture; and they are promiscuously jumbled
together, but are joined or seamed to each other by
a wealth and
of tropical foliage,
which merge their
individuality in a harmonious
That writer sums up
heterogeneous attractions in these words: "And so,
mansions, huts, and hovels, balconies, canopies, and
columns, and pilasters, are mingled in endless con-
fusion, but harmonized by arabesques of fruit and
foliage, festoons of vines and creepers, wreaths and
climbing shrubs and
bowers of palm and
and tamarind, lime and lemon, orange and banana."
The population is mainly Cubans and Conchs, but
there are also
Spaniards, Italians, negroes, and Americans.
beauties and fruits
the United States are
Th6 island is rich in tropical
and the city is noted for its
unique and picturesque features, Spanish tone, and
In this one industry it employs
million dollars a year.
It can be reached, as above
Punta Gorda; and from either of these
points by steamer to Key West direct.
Or, on the
other side of the peninsula, from Jacksonville by
rail to Titusville,
thence down the coast
in Dade County, and thence one
and thirty miles, by schooner, to Key
vt. Cape Sable and the entire southern coast of
Lee, Monroe, and Dade Counties are well worthy a
Here the subtropical sometimes threatens to
become the tropical.
Cocoanut groves are here and
there, and the royal palm is to be found here, the
only place in the whole country.
The tourist, in
skore of attractive points for
his visit and tempo-
shoe of fertile land, not many miles wide at any
place, and backed by the Everglades,
in the great Okeechohee.
That part of this horse-
toward the east on the Atlantic side, is especially
All this region can
be reached readily
by schooner or other boat from either Key
and such boats are on hand all the time,
especially at Key West.
7. Tampa, some 240 miles from Jacksonville by
rail direct, is a typical Florida city, of nearly 2,000
It is interesting for its history, scenery,
oranges, fish, and mounds.
graph and express. One
It is reached by tele-
riter claims that Tampa
is probably older than St. Augustine, and explains
that, in the same year that Menendez founded the
latter city, his deputy, De Reinoro, was in charge
Menendez sent a hundred laborers, in-
eluding fifteen women, to Tampa to teach spinning
Rogel, a Catholic
was in charge
peace between the
Tago and the
of that his-
tory appear to have come down
Tampa Bay that General Worth persuaded
Coacoochee to go West with his tribe, as narrated
elsewhere in these pages. It is a few miles south
of this city that a very large and old orange-tree
was said to be still living that had borne over ten
thousand oranges in one year.
the State, is
ideal Florida city, and one of the loveliest in the
and a most charming
generous, hospitable, and essentially
has a population
hotels, telegraph, express, ice-factory, and is reached
by rail direct, 165 miles from Jacksonville. It is
the center, too, of many attractive points to visit
Two miles from
Tallahassee stands Bellevue,
the Murat homestead,
was occupied by the
widow of Murat, the marshal and King of Naples.
The prince spent the last years of his life upon his
who survived him many years lie side by side in
the Episcopal Cemetery at Tallahassee, with quaint
and interesting inscriptions over the graves.
Near by, too, is the site of the old Spanish Fort
St. Lids, with noteworthy fragments of ponderous
but decaying remains.
It is on Way Key in the Gulf
of Mexico, four miles from the mainland.
papers, two good hotels, a telegraph-office, and an
is a port
shipped as much as $695,000 worth of exports a
Imports, about $5,000.
A regular line of
steamers ply between this port and the
The Eagle and the Faber
have here each a factory for preparing the cedar-
It is a
kinds of fishing.
10. Pensacola, 326 miles by rail from Jackson-
ville, 161 miles west of Tallahassee, was founded by
the Spaniards in 1696, and has had an eventful and
The harbor is described as one
of the finest in the world, having an area of about
two hundred square miles, is thirty miles long, with
an average width of at least seven miles and a depth
of from thirty to
thirty-five feet of water.
entrance is half a mile wide, with twenty-four feet
There are immense quantities of lumber
There are several newspapers, churches, and hotels
Sa fine opera-house, an
office, and all the conveniences of a well-appointed
city. In that region are the Pensacola Navy-Yard
ive features for both the sight-seer and the home-
tier of counties.
OF TO-DA Y
11. Appalachicola has many points of attraction.
It is about 210 miles by rail from Jacksonville, and
It has one newspaper,
is an important
good hotels, and
an attractive entourage.
12. Wakalla Springs, sixteen miles from
hassee, is the source of the
nearly circular, four hundred feet wide and a hun-
many shades, and intensely interesting.
that flows from it is two
wide at the outset, and deep enough to bear large
is in some
water is in Marion County, and is now accessible by
rail, and enjoys the advantages of telegraph and ex-
It is described as a vast circular basin
hundred feet in
diameter and nearly fifty feet in
the source of a
known as Silver
which flows into the Ocklawaha River, about nine
Notwithstanding its great depth, the
water is so clear that the smallest object-a nickel