Title Page
 Table of Contents
 A Ramble into the Early History...
 Florida Gazetteer of the Most Important...

Title: Petals plucked from sunny climes.
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055593/00001
 Material Information
Title: Petals plucked from sunny climes.
Physical Description: 495 p. : front., ill., plates ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brooks, Abbie M.
Publisher: Southern Methodist publishing house
Place of Publication: Nashville Tenn
Publication Date: 1886
Edition: 2d ed.
Statement of Responsibility: By Silvia Sunshine pseud....
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055593
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001712539
notis - AJC4884

Table of Contents
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
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        Page 7
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    Table of Contents
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    A Ramble into the Early History of Florida
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    Florida Gazetteer of the Most Important Points in the State
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Full Text

*'. ".. **

-* I



4r O lI


liim et


Ib te


With /Ilustrations.
I'sXoIn X2ITZ01T.







/ L







to Act

of Congress,

in the venar

1879, hv


Librarian of Congress,

-A & ;

at Washington.

Office of the














HIS book contains a brief account of the early settle-

ment of

Florida, and some of

its Indian conflicts,

together with -many amusing incidents connected with its
present history; also a new illustration, prepared expressly
for this work-the whole being a collection of travels, and

what is

to be seen in various portions of

Florida, Key

West, and Cuba; with a Gazetteer and Florida Guide-book
attached, designed for the use of tourists and settlers.





to those

ike other employment, furnishes a reward
rho are fond of it-elevates the mind to a

higher and happier state of enjoyment than merely grasp-

ing for earthly treasure, a desire to discover

something beau-

tiful in our surroundings, a nobility of character in mankind,
a grandeur in all God's works.
My travels, both in Florida and Cuba, when not suffer-
ing from sickness, were an uninterrupted source of pleas-
ure and entertainment, made thus by the smiles of friend-
ship, intercourse among kind-hearted people, combined with
the luscious fruits and delightful scenery by which I was al-

most constantly surrounded.

In arranging the historical portion of this

work, I have

endeavored to sift conflicting events, at all times retaining

those which


the most tangible, and

rejecting many

which have been received by superficial observers as con-
sistent truths.

I shall

feel amply rewarded

f any sa

in life's struggles, is cheered

perusing these pages,

or the consumptive

sensitive heart,
ri _fgr atile',in

invalid entertained

with a pleasanter potion than his


cod-liverand gloomy fore-
cod-liver and gloomy fore-

of future

e 6 =!SCQ


i 4 2



ThIis m'nagniicl t stricture was coimmenced Novemb4'r :0), 1 .I S5.
.An, l ih leI.t.ld M.iy ;;00, IS.1 7.



Adieu to Atlanta and arrival in Macon-Early settlement
nah by General Oglethorpe-Met by the Yamacraw Indiani
ents-Death of Count Pulaski-Bonaventure Cemetery-
route to Florida-Pass St. Simon's Island-Wesley visits
to establish his faith-Cumberland Island, the home of
Greene- Olives-The scuppernong vine- Dungenness,
place of Light-Horse Harry Le -Gtuten l Rob~et E.
the grave of his father-Amelia Island-Taken by flibus
surrender-Fine beach and light-house-The turtle-i
God's treasures-A resting-place for the weary.


t of Bavan-
iwith pres-
The inland
the burial-
Lee viits


..................... ......................28

Fate of the Spanish galleons-St. John's Bar and River-General re-
marks on Florida-Lumber-mills-Jacksonville-Grumblers-The in-
valid-Churches-Dr. Stowe preaches in the Methodist church-Mrs.
Harriet Stowe goes to sleep-Sermon by a colored brudder-Journal-
ism-Moncrief.Springs-The invincibility of boarding-house keepers-
The cemetery-Too much delay with invalids before coming to Florida.
CHAPTER III...........................................46
Jacksonville Agricultural Association, and its advantages-Exhibits
of wine, perfume, and fruits-Industries of the ladies-Yachts-Gen-
eral Spinner-Steamer Dictator-Nimbus on the river-Mandarin-
Employment of its inhabitants-Murder of Mr. Hartley by Indians-
Weariness of war by the settlers-Fanciful names given to towns-
Hibernia and Magnolia-Green Cove Springs-Fortat Picolata-Pilat-
ka-Putnam House-The Herald, edited by Alligator Pratt-Colonel
Harte's orange-grove-The Catholic Bishop as sexton--Ocklawaha


IV ......... .... ........... ........ ........55

No fossilized Spaniards on the Ocklawaha-Scenery on its banks-
Thick growth of timber-Passengers amuse themselves killing alliga-
tors-Climbing asters-Air-plant--Water-lily-An affectionate meet-
ing at Orange Springs-The deaf lady-Pleasure-riding in a cracker-
cart-Northern and Southern crackers-March of improvement-Make
fast I-Wooding up-PAssengers take a walk-Night on the water-
Surrounded by thickets-Our flame-lit craft moves on with its pillar
of fire-Who --Plutonic regions-Pyrotechnic displays.

Incident as we enter Silver Springs-A gentleman loses his grinders
-The Mirror of Diana-Sunset-A beautiful legend of the Princess



I...... ............. ...........................17


V................... ................... ......69

10 Contents.

Weenonah-A scientific description by Prof. J. Le Conte-Vicinity of
the springs-Improvements--Description of Ocala-Impressions of
DeSoto-Public Square-Conltented, hospitable people-Marion county
the back-bone of the State-Matt. Driggers and his neighbors go on a
mastodon hunt-Lakes and long prairie-grass above Silver Springs-
The man who wanted a sheriff to marry him-Leesburg and its im-
provements-A dredging-bont mistaken lor cook-stove-Indian trails
-Historic relics-Lake Dunham-Okahumkee-The Ocklawaha his-
toric ground.
CHAPTER VI. .......... ...... .................... ....90
Florida during the Indian war-Cumbersome movements of the troops
-Cause of the war-Treaty of Payne's Landing-Birthplace of Osce-
ola-Lives with his mother in Okefinokee Swamp-Afterward in the
Big Swamp-Osceola expresses opposition to the "treaty "-Jumper
unwilling to go West-Charlie Emaltha-Plea for remaining-Indian
poetry-Appearance of Osceoln-Hostility toward the survey force-
Does not favor immigrating-Decision of Micanopy-Osceola in irons
at Fort King-Sullen, then penitent-First hostile demonstration
from the Indians-Murder of Private Dalton-Killing of Charlie
Emaltha-Osceola seeks revenge in the assassination of General
Thompson-Dade Massacre-Micanopy fires the first gun-More than
one hundred whites killed-Depredations of daily occurrence-Battle
of Withlacoochee-Captain Elis, of Gainesville-Capture of Osceola
by General Jessup-Imprisoned first in Fort Marion, afterward sent
to Fort Moultrie-His death-Cbechotar, his wife-Poetry by a friend
-Sisters of Osceola now living in the West.

CHAPTER VII........................................105
Shores of the upper St. John's, where various kinds of timber grow,
and bony stock range-Mounds and their contents-Their obscure
origin-The chasm not yet bridged-Belief in the immortality of the
soul-The mounds a shrine-Conduct of the Spanish invaders-An-
cestral veneration-Articles for use deposited with the body-Unan-
swered questions-History of mound-building in its infancy-Found
in Europe-Uses of mounds-Monumental mounds-The mystery
shrouding their structure-Intrusive burial-The growth on Florida
mounds, and the distinguishable feature of mound-bui4lers-Mound
near New Smyrna-Mounds in South Florida-The large one at
Cedar Keys-Mounds for sacrifice-Description of a victim-Pyramid
of Cholula-Mexican teocalli-Pyramids for kings-Mounts of ordi-
nance-Sacred fires-Indians worshiped high places"-The temple
at Espiritu Santo-Residence of King Philip-Lake Jessup mound-
Copper weapons-Indians worship the sun and moon-Burial urns-
Pearls a heavenly product-The Indian empress a prisoner-Manu-
farture of beads from conch-shells-Pearls of no value fund on the
coast of Florida-Who were these arehitects?-A veil obscures our
vision in trying to discover the engineers of these mounds-The key
never found-Tumuli,'mounds, and plateaus, all objects of interest.

CHAPTER VIII........ .................. .. .... 121
A description of the animals and birds seen on the St. John's a cent-
ury since-Lovely landscape-The happy family-Lake George-En-
terprise-Mellouville-Sulphur Springs-Lake Harney and Salt Luke

Contents. 11
-Indian River-Settlers discouraged on account of the Indians-An
order for blood-hounds-Battle of Caloosahatchee-Famished soldiers,
and fidelity of the dog-Big Cypress Swamp-Locality of the chiefs-
What the Indians cultivate-Their babies never cry-The Prophet,
and his influence as a medicine man-Wild Cat in command of Fort
Mellon-Speech of Sam Jones-Hanging of Chekika-Major Belknap
takes his command into the Big Cypress-Country developed by war
-Indian River after the war the sportsman's heaven-Game, oysters,
and fish-Scientific theory on the formation of coquina-Fine products
of the Ind in River country-A resort for consumptives-Camp-cook-
ing-Soothing influences from the surroundings-Coning down the
St. John's-The sick man-Stewardess and" 'gaitors"-Curious people
with curious things-The chameleon-The fawn-The crane-The
bug-hunter and his treasures-The many old people in Florida-The
CHAPTER IX. ......... ...... ................... ..139
Stop at Tocoi for St. Augustine-Scenery along the route-Stage-con-
tractor's notice-Murder of Dr. Weedman-Cloth houses-Two mail-
carriers murdered-The blood-hounds-Mr. Francis Medicis and four
others shot-Remarks by a resident on witnessing the scene-Wild
Cat the leader of this atrocity-The theatricals fil their engagement
-Coacoochee admires himself in the glass, also one of General Her-
nnndez's beautiful daughters-His capture and escape-His twin sister
and her pearls-Returns, dressed in theatricals, for a parley with the
whites-Starts West, and dies on the way.
CHAPTER X.................................. ....15
St. Augustine described in rhyme-The old Spaniards-A place for
stimulus of thought-Treachery of legends-Early settlers lured by
tales of wealth-Historical antiquity-Astonished Seloes-Capture by
Sir Francis Drake-St. Augustine, 1764-French privateers-Rory
McIntosh the Don Quixote of the times-American flag raised in
1821-Freedom to worship God-St. Augustine-arahives-Dr. MeWhir
the founder of Presbyterianism in Florida-Appearance in 1834-The
frost-Every thing shrouded in a kind of tradition-Fromajardis, or
Garden Feast--Mattnzas River-Nuns-Escribanio, or St. Mary's
Convent-The ancient city sleeps all summer-The dear old folks
from their Northern homes, and the young ones too-Curiosities-
Crafts of all kinds-Gayety of the winter-Remarkable memory of
the natives-Peaceful days-No welcome for adventurers-St. Augus-
tine supposed to have been the residence of the Peri-Expressing an
unfavorable opinion about Florida not popular here.
CHAPTER XI..........................................173
The cathedral-Regular attendance of its worshipers-Harsh tones
of the church chime-Early mass-Cathedral finished in 1793-Mate-
rial employed-Moorish belfry-Irreverent visitors-Religion of the S
natives a part of their existence-The bishop regarded as a vicegerent
-Mistaken conclusions of outsiders- Peculiar frescoes representing
death-Christmas Eve-Ceremonial conducted by Bishop Verot-Ad-
ministration of the saerament-Tolemato Cemetery-Its custodian-
Murder of Father Corpa by the Indians-Chapel dedicated to Father
Varela-Tablet-inscriptions erased by time--A medallion supposed to
have been worn by Father Corpa, which was brought from Rome.

12 Contents.

CHAPTER XII........................................183
Castle San Marco-Indestructibility of the material employed-Com-
menced in 1565-Completed by Montiano, 1756, with the aid of Mex-
ican: convicts-Attacked by Oglethorpe-Appearance in 1740-Im-
proper change of names-Description of Fort Marion-Its resemblance
to Scott's Garde Douloreuse-The chapel and its holy mysteries-Iron
cages-Caving in of the bastion-No cages sent to the S.mithsonian
Institute-The wooden machine-The old sergeant-Human bones not
unusual in other ruins-Spaniards branded with the cruelties of the
Inquisition-True version of the iron cages from Sefor B. Oliveros-No
nation exempt from cruelties during some period of their history-The
Western Indians retained as hostages in the fort.
CHAPTER XIII.......................................198
The sea-wall-when commenced-Material emp)oyed-Boulevard of
the city-City gates and vandal visitors-Tapoquoi village-Murder
of Father Rodriguez-La Sylphide rose-Fine pulpit talent-Sabbath
in January-The Presbyterian Church-Flowers from the gardens of
Messrs. Alexander and Atwood-Gushing young men-Dr. Daniel F.
March and his words of comfort-A description of the Episcopal
church-A curious question about disputed grounds-Dr. Root, the
clergyman-A peculiar man and his dog, that walked into the church
from habit-St. Augustine a restorer to both health and reason-Pub-
lic reading-room-Circulating library-What shall we eat?-Sbips
constantly coming in with supplies-Fresh vegetables-Oranges-
Hotels and fine boarding-houses-Growlers-Gratuitous hospitality
now obsolete-The most eligible houses-Summer resort-Pleasant
people found by the sea.

CHAPTER XIV.. .................... ......... .....214
How they spend their time in the ancient city-A slight departure
into history-Different kinds of visitors-Grand opening of the Lunch-
basket on the NorthBeach-Music and moonlight on the water-The
Indian buffalo-hunt near the old fort-Dancing inside by the Indian
prisoners- Preparation for a gala day, March, 1877 -Post- band-
Yacht-race-A jockey-race-The hurdle-A foot-race by the Indians
-Wheelbarrow contest-Victor and greenbacks-Ham and money-
The cat a musical animal-St. Augustine Hotel, where music is made
from their sinews.

CHAPTER XV.. ................. ............... ......224
Longevity in St. Augustine-Manufacture of orange marmalade and
wine-" El Pavo Real"-Genovar & Brother, wine-makers-Visit-
ors leaving-A page from unwritten history-Tolling the bells for the
pope-Grand illumination by the Yacht Club-The ignes-fatui boats
-String-band and dancing-Capricious weather a e6mfort to growlers
-A change to balmy air and waving palms-The Indians leave-They
have no use for Government clothes on the plains-Mrs. Black Horse
and Mochi dressed in hats and plumes-The Indians leave their
Moody & Sankey song-books-A picture-written letter from the squaw
of Minimic-These Indians differ from novel-writer characters-The
strain of civilization during their stay being too great they mutiny,
headed by White Horse-A squad of soldiers from the barracks search

Contents. 13

nd iron four of them-Fort cloeed to visitors-They pine for home,
be aristocracy of their nature scorning restraint-Money made by
fishing sea-beans, etc.-Description of St. Anastasia Island-Ponies
feeding on marsh-rass-Attack of General Oglethorpe in 1740-The
id light-bouse built by the Spanish, and used as a fortress-Fresh
after in mid-ocean caused from lime-sinks-Treaty of Fort Moultrie
Origin of the Seminoles.
CHAPTER XVI................... .................. .... 235
turning of the Spanish Governor's son by the Indians over a century
ince--The Great Spirit as arbiter-Fort Matanzas-Its age, use, pres-
nt appearance-Entered by an escalade-New Smyrna settled by Dr.
urnbull with his Greek colony-They at first engage in the culture
of indigo, which soon fails-Great dissatisfaction among the eqlonists,
who are finally released, and retire to St. Augustine-The Douglass
Dummit Plantation-Indian Key Massacre, August 15, 1840-Murmur-
ings of the citizens.
CHAPTER XVII................... .............. .... 245
The Everglades Expedition, under Colonel Harney, 1841-Prepara-
tions-Spanish Indians-Leave Fort Dallas, arriving at Chitto's Island
-The bird flown-Sam Jones's Island, containing villages and pleas-
ure-grounds-The soldiers greatly annoyed by roaches and musquitoes
-Prophet's Island-Discovery by Indians-Sergeant Searles mortally
wounded-Arrival at New River-Fort Dallas-General appearance
and extent of the Evergladesa-Manilla hemp and the cotton-plant
indigenous-Return of Colonel Harney-Grand ovation in St. Augus-
tine-Sorrowful reflection on the situation-Present inhabitants of
the Everglades-Old Tiger Tail-Intrenches himself in Mexico as'
brigand, afterward makes his way to Florida, and becomes chief of
the Seminoles-Father Dufau goes to the Everglades as a missionary
-" Two squaws no good "-Dress of the Indians-Everglade alligators
and moccasins no respeeters of persons-Primeval condition of the
country, with its trees, birds, and native growth.
CHATER XVIII....................................260
rom Jacksonville to Cedar Keys-The Florida Central-Baldwin-
Alligators and moccasins-West India Transfer Railroad-Piney Woods
-Trail Ridge-Lawtey-8tarke-Turpentine distillery-Serenadesr-
Waldo-Alachus county-Hummock-lands and phosphates-The in-
dignant Boston lady-Alachua settled in 1750 by an Indian named
Secoffe-Juggs or sinks---Approach to Gainesville--This town named
for General E. P. Gaines-Accommodations for visitors-Tillandsia
nd its uses-Orange Lake the natural home of the orange-Budded
trees-Eucalyptus-tree for malarial districts-Information on the sub-
Iect of lands-Orange City, Arredondo, Albion, and other prospective
ities--Bronson-Its good settlers-Otter Creek-" Great Gulf Hum-
mock "-Its tropical growth.

CHAPTER XIX .... ................... ..............270
Cedar Keys, the terminus of the West India Transit Railway-Extor-
tion-Dr. Mellvaine's Hotel-Fourth of July toasts, 1843-Steamers
from Cedar Keys to Manatee-Early settlement of Clear Water Har-
bor-The unfortunate Narvaez-Inaccessibility of South Florida-


14 Cobtents.

Manatee-Its dwellings embowered among orange-trees-Tenacit7 of
contesting Indiana-Their independence subdued by association-rbe
cactus pear eaten by Indiana-Present population-Church privileges
for worship-Schools-Good physicians-Sowing before reaping-
Boarding-houses kept as sanitariums-Pantry supplies-Fine fish-
An Elysium for rheumatics-No starving-The grape-culture suggested
-Also wine-making-A variety of crops-Sugar-cane ratooning for
six years-Old-fashioned bees in gums-This locality a fine resort for
those who wish to avoid cold-The sunny-side of nature turned oat
in February-Oleander and orange-buds bursting their pink and
white petals-The banana-Spring flowers, etc.-Zephyr breese-The
rose-"A child of summer"-Historic records-Hon. Judah P. Ben.
jamin-Remains of the mastodon and megatherium.

CHAPTER XX.................................. 285
Tampa-Undisturbed slumbers-First settlement by Narvaez-Poor
Juan Ortiz I-His vigils among the dead-Espiritu Santo Bay-De Soto
and his festive soldiers-Billy Bowlegs-Cedar and pine lumber-mills
in Tampa-A school and its teacher-Old Tampa-Uses of the cabbage
palm-Fort Brooke-Appeal of General Worth to the vanity of Coa-
coochee, which finally results in his band being sent West-An invo-
cation to the Great Spirit during a storm.

CHAPTER XXI.. ................... .................. 296
Marooning from Tampa to Key West-Drum-flsh-Loons-Acrobat
fleas-Roachee-Bilge-water-The MethodiAt preacher and his chil-
dren-Sailor's fare-Landing lady-passengers-Terrasilla Island and
its products-Madam Joe-The romantic young couple-Sarasota Bay
-Stock-raising- Health -Mangrove thickets-Perpetual verdure-
Palmetto houses-Striking for fish-Varied amusements for visitors-
Hunting deer-Bugs and butterflies-Egmont Key-Rare shells and a
rarer Spiritualist, with his toothless wife-Professor Agassiz-Bucca-
neers-Jean Lafitte-Sunset at sea-Isles of the sea-Boca Grande-
Felippe the Spaniard, and his Indian concubines-Polly goes West for
money-Punta Rassa, the terminus of the International Telegraph..

CHAPTER XXII....................... ...........313
Alone with God and the ptars-Phosphorescent waves-Reefs and coral
formation-Key West-Cocoa-trees-Chief of the Everglades-Dwell-
ings-Inhabitants-Early settlers-Conchs-Their origin and occupa-
tion-Court of Admiralty-Wrecking-The International Telegraph
Survey-Public schools-The sisters-Cigar-makers-Reading while
working-Monkey-jugs and their use-Cochineal-Sponge and spong-
ers-Fort Taylor and other fortifications-Curiosity-shop-Captain
Dixon its Greek keeper.
!CHAPTER XXIII.................................... 327
Middle Florida and South Georgia-Jealousy between Middle and East
Florida-Good landed titles in Middle Florida-Disappointment the
result of overestimation-No spot with every thing desirable-Dis-
eased people tinctured with a sullen melancholy-Lake City-Deriva-
tion of the name-The citizens-Style of architecture adapted to the
climate-Products-Atmosphere for asthmatics-Monticello-Its peo-

Content. 15

pie-Former wealth evidenced by the numerous freedmen-Good hotel
here-The festive frogs: great variety, some with loud-sounding voices
-The "pretty frog" that went to England-The singing-wap--Tal-
lahessee, where De 8oto spends his first winter, 1539-The Spanish
soldiers and their armor-Town incorporated, 1825-Corner-stone of
the capitol laid, 1826-Situation of Tallahassee-Governor Reed's mes-
sage, 1840-Blood-hounds and leash-men from Cuba-Two Indians
caught by them-Bounties on heads-Indian scar-Only a goat-In-
dians attack wagons, relieving negroes of their clothing-Former
wealth and culture in Talahassee-Colonel Murat and his mother
ome to America-Visit the Catholic Bishop, but not in regal style-
The neighbors afe disappointed in a king's son-Birthplace, home,
and early associations of the gifted authoress, Mrs. Mary E. Bryan-
Wakulla Spring, with a beautiful description by Bartram-Chattshoo-
chee-State penitentiary-Montgomery and Eufaula route to Florida
-Town of Quincy-Mountain-streams with a musical cadence-Cuban
tobacco and suppernon grapes. grown here-Stage communication
between Quincy and Bambridherokee rose-hedges-Bainbridge
-Its decline on account of railway communication-Thomasville-
Mitchell House-Gulf House-Embowered dwellings-Brisk trade-
Newspapers-Female college-Churches-Former wealth of Thomas
county-Colored politicians prefer speaking by proxy-No water com-
munication from Thomasville-Wire-gras country-Quitman-Home-
like hotels-Cotton factory-Valdost--Pine-trees-Plenty to eat-
Valdosta editor-Crowds on public days-Trip on the Gulf road-The
light-wood fires an epitome of the Arabian Nights' Entertainment.
CHAPTER XXIV.................... .............355
Pensacola musings-Its early settlement and capacious harbor-Origin
of the name-The soil contains clay for brick and pottery-Casa Blanca
-The city conquered by the Spaniards-Causes for its not competing
with other Gulf cities-Description of Fort Barrancas-It is supposed
to contain a dungeon-Fort Pickens-Fort St. Michael and Fort St.
Bernard-Ten dollars offered for the scalps of eolonists-General move-
ents of General Andrew Jackson-Governor Callavea in the cala-
se-Description of the old plaa-Present appearance of Pensacola
It contains no fabled fountains-A plank walk on which sailors reel
ike drunken elephants-Prosperity of the place dependent on the
demand for lumber-Commotion on the arrival of a ship-Resin-
us wood and its light accompaniments-The Indians hated to leave
tr-Ferdinand Park and its rural scenery-The market-house-The
singing fishermen-The proud fishermen with their big fish-An ox-
orn announces the sales-Fresh-water wells-Drawers of water lose
heir vocation-Porpoises-Tropical fruit-culture not very successful
ere-The washing bayou and its water-nymphs-Florida hunters--
he fleet-footed fawn a past record-The yellow-fever visitor-Perdi-
o, or Lost Bay-Eseambia Bay-The alligator: her nest, and her
roung-Churches-Free schools-Catholic schools-Episcopal school,
nd its founder, Mrs. Dr. Scott.

CHJAPTER XXV.......................-....*.....**** 378
O leaving Pensacola-Contentment in our moving habitation-A calm
rPhyalia utrieulue-A genuine nor'-wester and its accompaniments
-A moment of terror-Morning at last-Isle of Pines and its products

16 Contents.

-Pirates-Water-spouts-Early history of Cuba-The Spaniards burn
an Indian-Cienfuegos-The fort on the bay-Cuban houses-Clothing
of the children-Cruelty to northern seamen-Mother Carey and her
unlucky chickens-The fate of the insurgents, and their numerical
strength-" La Purisima Conception "-Neglect of ceremonial duties-
The church ihside-Its lady-attendants furnish their seats-The slave
receives a gentle admonition-The largest plaza on the island-The
beautiful senoritas and the band-music.
CHAPTER XXVI. ..... ..............................399
Distances from Cienfuegos to Havana-Railroads-Three classes of
passenger-cars-Smoking-Rain-drops-Harvest-LoI the poor ox-
Goads-Sugar-cane in bloom- Cattle-herders-The war-Arabian
stock of horses-Devastations by the insurgents-Vegetation and va-
riety-Depots and drinking-Flowers-Fences from vegetation-Royal
palm and its uses-Slaves gathering palm-fruit-Great variety of
growth-Cactus family-Sugar and sugar-makers-Negro slaves and
coolies-Their miserable quarters-Chicken-fighting-Inhuman treat-
ment of the poor fowls--Matanzas-A Pentecostal illustration-" En-
glish and French spoken"-Dinner and its condiments-Matanzas
Bay at night-The tough old tars-Their families on shore-The phos-
phorescent lights on the water-The plaza and hotel-Our French
valet de chambre-riesta-My cafi-El volante-Up the mountain-side
-El Cueva de Bellamar, being a remarkable subterranean temple-
Stalactites and stalagmites-Names given to the different formations
inside the cave-Return to Matanzas.

CHAPTER XXVII...................................424
From Matanzas to Havana-Buzzards-Description of El Moro Castle,
A.D. 1519-Captured, 1619, by Sir George Pocock-El Moro like the
Venetian "Bridge of Sighs"-Havana a century since-lts harbor
and fleet of ships-Architecture of the houses-Narrow streets-A
view from El San Carlos Hotel-Beautiful moonlight on the bay-El
Paseo-French coaches-Residence of the Captain-general-Ladies
shopping in volantes-Market-house-Mules, panniers, etc.-Work-
ing-class receive an early supply of grace-No Sabbath here-" Lot-
tera"-Beggars-Description of the cathedral-Bishop-Acolytes--
Organ-Tomb of Columbus-Santo Christobal-His life and mission
as Christ-bearer-Cemetario de Espeda-Its walls, vaults, tablets, in-
scriptions-Three bodies for sepulture-The poor without coffins-
The Protestant dead not admitted in Catholic grounds-Fragility of
promises in Cuba.

A Ramble into the Early History of Florida.......439
Florida Gazetteer, etc,....... .....................481


Sluc ed





TRIP to Florida during the winter season
is now the popular move for everybody,
Whether invalid or not, which those living
in so close proximity as Atlanta find diffi-
cult to resist.

Atlanta is a
a thousand feet
mountain breez
with the purest
the world. Th
P.M. for Macon,
We arrive in
being fortified
House, the trai

delightful summer resort, situated
above sea-level, visited by healthful
es in summer, besides being blessed
of freestone and chalybeate water in
e night passenger train leaves at 10
one hundred and five miles distant.
Macon about 7 A.M., where, after
with a good breakfast at the Browni
n departs for Savannah-Macon be-

ing the commencement of
continues to the sea-sho
towns are passed through
which have never recove
effects of the war.
Savannah is at last re

the mountain-slope which
re. Many pleasant little
h on the route, most of
red from the devastating


ninety-two mil s from Macon.

one hundred and
To say that Savan-

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

nah is a pleasant place conveys an indefinite idea
of its attractiveness. Many persons stop to remain

only a night, but are so
month before proceeding
The present site of Sa
Oglethorpe was met, in
Indians, who, after he hi
with a buffalo-skin, on
painted the plumage of ax

much pleased they tarry a
farther South.
vannah is where General
1733, by the Yamacraw
ad landed, presented him
the inside of which was
i eagle, accompanied with

the following address: "The feathers of the eagle,"
said the chief, "are soft, and signify love; the buf-
falo-skin is warm,zthe emblem of protection; there-
fore love and protect our families." Oglethorpe, in
coming to America, was stimulated with the desire
of finding a home for the oppressed Protestants and
bankrupt gentlemen of England. Upon the adjust-
ment of terms with the Indians he proceeded to lay
out the city of Savannah with the greatest regular-
ity. It then contained ten public squares of two

acres each, in which were trees, walks,
The number of squares has now been
twenty-four-the walks all being paved

and swept daily. F
tended plan than th
large fountain, fine
trees, a small zoolo
interest, displaying
well-cultured people
Count Pulaski, who
the American Revol

'oreyth Park is on
ese small squares,
flowers, magnolia

. P

on the ground where the
He died on board the bri

I collection-a
taste and refi
ulaski Square
mortally wou
n while in n
Central D o
g Wasp as e

and a pump.
increased to
with granite,
a more ex-
containing a
6 grandiflor
ill objects of
nement. of a
is named for
nded during
t now stands.
was leaving


Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

Tybee- for Charleston, when
to the sea. The citizens of
munificent bequests, have
Square a monument to Cou
stone of which was laid wh
visited America for the last

his body was consigned
Georgia, through their
erected in Monterey
nt Pulaski, the corner-
en General La Fayette

Savannah has made another fine exhibit of her'
discriminating powers in selecting a retired and
lovely spot, made sacred to them by depositing all
that remains of the loved ones who have crossed
the river a little before. They have christened it
Bonaventure, derived from the Spanish, signifying,
Coming good. Here rest, in the unyielding embrace
of death, those whose warfare in life has ended,
where the huge live-oaks, with overlapping limbs,
entwine with their companions, forming natural tri-
umphal archways, while the somber-hanging gray
moss clings lovingly to its outstretched arms, waving
in the winds like some weird fancy that lingers only
on the brink of uncertainty. These beautiful
grounds were once the hope of the Tatnall family,
but have now been purchased and devoted to the
dwelling of the dead, whither the living can come
and contemplate the change which awaits them all.
Travelers, in leaving Savannah for Florida, can

go outside by sea, or the inland route, many

ring the latter on account
the passage being made
islands, before Fernandii
steamers are first-class
long marsh-grass contai
lizards called alligators.


it of avoiding sea-sickness,
between-sounds, inlets, and
na is reached. The inland
in every respect, and the
ns many of those colossal
They crawl about fear-


20 Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.
lessly in their hiding-places, while the swamp black-
bird whistles very sweetly for us as we pass along

so quietly most of the tim
certain of any movement,
the pro rata of speed.
We are now close to S
General Oglethorpe comm
in 1786, called Frederica.
pered island they laid out
four bastions to protect their

e that we are not exactly
but ten miles an hour is



ced anoti
On this
town, bu

Island, where
ier settlement
equable- tem-
ilt a fort with
cabins, which,


camp with bowers,
pleasing color."
found here by the

of art, with th

" being

ripe grapes

them, appeared like a
covered with leaves of a
paths and arbors were
as if formed by the hand
s hanging iu festoons of

a royal purple hue. The settlements made by Ogle-
thorpe in this portion of the country were the first
formed in the true spirit of improvement and colo-
With him came the great founder of Methodism
in America, Wesley, who planted his standard on
this island, and mentions their object in the follow-
ing manner: "It is not to gain riches and honor,
but to live wholly to the glory of God, as we have
come in the serene hour of peace, when the floods of
controversy have subsided, to sow the gospel seeds."
John Bartram visited St. Simon's Island in 1744,
and makes the following record of his repast with a
friend: "Our rural table was spread under the
shadow of oaks, palms, and sweet-bays, fanned by
the lively, salubrious breezes, wafted from the spicy
groves. Our music was the responsive love-lays of

as the


Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.
tPetals Pluceked from Sunny Climes.

the painted nonpareil and the alert, gay mocking-
bird, while the brilliant humming-bird darted
through the flowery groves, suspended in air, drink-
ing nectar from the blooms of the yellow jasmine,
lonicera, andromeda, and azalea."
As we approach Fernandina we are nearing his-
toric ground-Dungenness, once a most charming
and attractive place, located .near the southern ex-
tremity of Cumberland Island, the former homeof
Nathanael Greene, of revolutionary fame, where his
last days were spent peacefully, of which pleasant

.period he thus speaks: "The mocking-birds that
.4ing around me morning and evening, the mild and
balmy atmosphere, with the exercise which I find in
my garden culture." This locality seemed to have
constituted a happy close to his eventful career.
The English planted an olive-grove on this island
that succeeded well, as though the trees were indige.
noes. They used the fruit in making pickles, which
were considered very fine. Is it not the olive-tree
which the Christian should love and venerate, even
to the "hoary dimness of its delicate foliage, sub-
dued and faint of hue, as though the a4hes of the
Gethsermane agony had been cast upon it forever?"
It was at the foot of the Mount of Olives. beneath the

shadow of the trees from which it deriv

that was selected for the most mou
"The Saviour's Passion." The g
olive-tree will flourish in this climi
trees which furnished the Apostle
his most powerful allegories. The
in March, producing a'profusion

)od a

es its name,
of scenes--
,nd the wild
It was these
with one of

wild olive blooms
of pink-tinted,



Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

white, star-shaped flowers, while its polished,
green verdure, remains all the year, affording a
pact and beautiful shade.
On this island, before the late war, was sa
scuppernong grape-vine, nearly three hundred


een a

to have been plant
1", J1

missionaries. It was tnen prom
bearer, producing two thousand pc
annum, and covering nearly three
Here rests all.that remains of L
Lee, the gifted and honored dead.
of life flickered before being ex
died March 25, 1818. The decayi
and the more ruthless destruction


id by the Spanish
bounced a prolific
pounds of fruit per
acres of ground.
ight-Horse Harry
Here his lamp
tinguished." He
ng marks of time,
of war, have fear-

invaded and devastated this once revered retreat.
ent though it be, there are memories lingering
vocal amid the mutations of fortune and the
nations of war-memoris which carry the heart
to happy days and peculiar excellences which
S __ .

come not
the buria
his great

It was

of love he was al
spring should re
flinging ten tho
that his grave
friends, and tha
flowers for his r


R. E. Lee last visited Savannah

of his illustrious parent was not for-
the only tribute of respect which
heart could bestow, the last mission
Dle to perform. Did he think before
turn again, decked in her gay robes,
usand odors upon its balmy breath,
would. then be visited by weeping
Lt loving hands should twine fresh

How sleep the brave who sink to rest,
By all- their country's honors blest I.

old, supposed 1

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

We next pass
source of which
famed beautiful
These were the
had intrenched
efforts to pursu

the mouth of St. Mary's
is a vast lake, where dw
women, or Daughters o
last of the Yemassee
themselves here for pro
e them being like the

River, the
elt the far-
f the Sun.
tribe, who
tection, all

lands, which receded as they were approached.
Fernandina is situated on Amelia Island, which
is eighteen miles in length and two in width. Ves-
sels can approach the harbor any time without fear
from shoals, as the water on the bar will always fur-
nish an average of nineteen feet. Its first settlers,
as of many other places in Florida, were Spaniards,
a few of whom are remaining. During the move-
ments of the Embargo War, together with the pri-
vateers and slavers, three hundred square-rigged
vessels have beeh seen in this harbor at one time.
Another settler mentions the mounds when the
country was first explored by the Spaniards.
General Oglethorpe, like other explorers in Amer-
ica, was impressed with the coast of Florida, and
thus speaks of Amelia Island: "The sea-shore, cov-
ered with myrtle and peach-trees, orange-trees and
vines in the wild woods, where echoed the sound of
melody from the turtle-doves, nonpareils, red-birds,
and mocking-birds." Different nationalities looked
upon Amelia Island with longing eyes for many
years, coveting it for their possession.
In 1817, Gregor McGregor, a Scottish baronet--
an enthusiast on the subject of contest--came, with
only fifty followers, making proclamations and issu-
ing edicts, of more magnitude than plans for their

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

of his Hi;

, but soon retired to the quieter quarters
rhland home.

Afterward came Commodore Aury, with one hun-

dred and fifty men, on a filibustering
overpowered the Spanish troops.

expedition, and
At this time it

would have been a difficult task to find a more mot-

ley, medley crowd of residents

upon Amelia Island,

in any country than

composed of English advent-

urers, Irish and French refugees, Scotch,



privateers, natives, and


tions of such varied dispositions and


were not designed to promote harmony in any com-
munity; consequently, riots and disturbances were
of frequent occurrence.

Previous to this movement

by Aury, negotiations

had been pending between the United States and
the Spanish Government for Florida; consequently,
President Monroe and his Cabinet looked upon the
disputed property, in a manner, as their own posses-


These Spaniards, being unable to expel the

privateeri ng




United States troops, which took possession of Fer-




Majesty of Spain.

in. the


name of His

event happened

in the spring

of 1818.

On Amelia Island is situated a light-house, which

exhibits a flash

-light, one hundred feet above the

level of the sea, visible sixteen miles.

The tower is

built upon a promontory which overlooks the sur-
rounding country and the Atlantic as far as the eye
can extend.
At Fernandina the Atlantic Gulf and West India

Petals Plucked from -Sunny Climes.

Transit Railroad commences, where the gentleman-
ly officers connected with and in chargejof the road
reside. The obliging superintendent is always in
readiness here to give information upon the peculiar
facilities resulting from living on this route, as a
health location, besides being so closely connected

by steam-ships with all parts of
contains a population of about

been a

its, and, on a(
resort for mi
by persons fro
misfortunes c
dina, crippling

count of tl
any years d
im the inter
f our late.
g its energy

the world. It now
three thousand in-
le fine sea air, has
luring the summer
ior.of the State.
war fell heavily on
es and crushing its

present prospects for a time. The.rel
residents w4s confiscated and sold for
of it has been redeemed, and the rem
ing through a series of lengthy litig
when settled, are designed to decide
tax-sales generally throughout the enti
present condition of affairs places the
rather a Micawber-like condition, wai
thing to turn up in the future.
As a resort far away from the busy,
of life, this place seems peculiarly fin
being entirely surrounded by salt-wat
breeze visits the inhabitants at all
year-in summer, zephyry as the vale
or the soft winds which bore the silv
of Cleopatra through the Cydnus.
tractive feature of all in this locality i
beach, connected with the town by a

al estate of its
taxes. Some
ainder is pass-
ations, which,
the validity ot
re State. The
inhabitants in
ting for some-

bustling cares
e. The island
er, a delightful
seasons of the
Sof Cashmere,
er-oared barge
The most at-
s the beautiful
rood shell-road

two miles in length, bordering the island for twenty-


Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

one miles, and over two hundred yards in width. It
is this unsurpassed drive about which the inhabit-
ants love to entertain you at all times, until you can
see it in your dreams. A good live y-stable is kept
here, well filled with fine, fast horses, trained to trot,
or wade in the surf, allowing visitors to admire the
wonderful vastness of the most beautiful expanse of
waters which wash the Atlantic shores. At ebb-tide
the imagination cannot conceive of a finer place, the
beach being so firm that a pair of horses and car-
riage scarcely make an indentation on the surface in

passing over it.
manship, being co
interspersed with
existence. Here 1
very foam, or flit
gulls and pelican

The pavement is God's own work-
mposed of white sand, occasionally
shells, many of them the tiniest in

the happy s
across the
i luxuriate

ea.birds ride on the sil-
breezy water; the sea-
and flap their wings in

peaceful quietude, while the sand-crab takes his
walks, standing upright like a pigmy of the human
species, presenting arms in a soldier-like manner,
and never turning his back, however hotly pursued.
These are in reality very curious little creatures, re-
minding us of the Lilliputians in Gulliver's Travels.
Here the turtle comes to deposit her eggs beyond
high-water mark, and when they are hatched re-
turns to escort a family of one hundred and fifty
babies to her home in the sea. Here the bright
moonbeams dance upon the surface of the water, in
silence and solitude, until it resembles the surface
of a silver mirror. Many pretty shells are found on

this beach, of various sizes and designs, with occa-
sionally desirable cabinet specimens, which ared

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes. 27
thrown out when the waters become much agitated.
This is the spot for the jilted lover to forget his idol,
and the disconsolate lady her imaginary devotee;
for those fretted by the rough edges of corroding
care to retire and find a respite from their struggles;
the bankrupt who has been conquered in the bat-
ties of brokerage, to visit and be reminded God has
given us more treasures to delight us than the dross
which passes from our grasp like a shadow, but
which all are struggling and striving to win; the
store-house of the fathomless deep, where we can
contemplate that great image of eternity, "the in-
visible, boundless, endless, and sublime."


Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.


N leaving Fernandina we come out Amelia
River, which is formed by the tide-water
from the Atlantic. We pass Old Town,

"'\S one mile fr
look-out for
the bar, besides a few
iards. Fort Clinch is
fore we reach the St.
It is the month of Ja

us, when our tlho
ment of this coun
a strange- looking
also ponderous old
ous devices carved
sterns, the timber
many of which wei
ciless manner amc
their treasures of
tempt and satisfy
them. Vessels dre

six feet of water ar

)m Fernandina, which
piloted who take vessels
house's, the residence of
the last noticeable poi
John's River bar.
anuary-a bland breeze
ts revert to the early

try, whe

ps, w
d bei

n the Spanish
navigated the
ith sailing figu
prows, and hi
ng mahogany

e driven to pieces in a
rng the breakers, thus
silver and gold on the
tie cupidity of those
ad this bar, as those dr
e oftentimes detained v

and returning with their cargoes of

has a
nt be-


se waters;
res of vari-
and cedar,
most mer-
strand, to



g only

white caps wave their snowy plumes, as a warn
when the wind blows, which sends terror to


hearts of the timid, but the more daring exclaim, It
looks grand!






Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

As we cross the bar we are in sight of two resorts

ranged fo
ter visitor
towns, an
Saviour c
fishing i
Shad abc
fish, it is
The va
of those

rt and Fort George Island-both places ar-
,r the accommodation of summer and win-
s. Fishermen also live in these diminutive
d are engaged, like'the apostles when their
called them, in mending their nets. Shad-
s very profitable here during the season.
funds in this' river, and being a delicious
much sought after.
rious descriptions published from the pens
who visit Florida now are read by persons

of new
in their
nal obj(
tude of

to this

is crer

Settlers liv
John's River
in preference
facilities and


locality as a winter-resort, or in search
and health, as items of unsurpassed
this reason writers should be reliable
ents. In many tourists the emotional
ted so far from the'surface that it is a
r for them to be impressed with exter-

For this
ing in re
to all oth

cause we meet with a multi-

emote localities from the St.
I because visitors resort there
ter parts of the State. If the
nits were the same elsewhere,

the desire to go would be equal; but it requires the
fortitude of a Livingstone to commence a tjip into
many of the most attractive parts of Florida, with
the indistinct prospect how they are to get away
when inrtlined to make a change. The Americana.
are a. restless, roving, people, fond of varied scenery,
andwhen confined where they cannot get away, man-
ifest very much the disposition of caged captives.
Laudonnibre thus speaks of the St. John's River:

80 Petal Plucked from Sunny Climes.

"The place is so pleasant that those who are mel-
ancholy would be forced to change their humor."
This stream, with its tributaries, is the great artery
of the State, where the savage roamed at will for
nearly three hundred years after its settlement by
the Spaniards, who came in search of hidden treas-
ures, its former history being ,a page in the past.
Here this river glides before us, with its dark, cof-
fee-colored waters, and no perceptible current ex-
cept where the tide comes in, it being a remarkable
stream, unlike any other in North America. The
coloring matter it contains is not precipitated by
standing, and for this reason is attributed to a col-
ored earth through which it passes from the upper
lakes, together with the different kinds of vegeta-
tion that environ it. It varies in width from one to
three miles, and is thought by many to be an estu-
ary.. From the mouth of the St. John's to Pilatka
there are numerous bluffs, some of them ten or
twelve feet in height, with an under-stratum of
shells, on which elevations the pine-tree flourishes.
The cypress, ash, and cabbage-palmetto grow on the
banks-above Pilatka. The weeping cypress, with
its leafless, conical excrescences, called knees, and
dropsical feet, loves to be alone. It gives a friendly
greeting to the gray moss, which lives and swings
from its tallest limbs to the lowest twigs, furnishing
a complete mantle of grace to the naked-appearing
trees. This moss has no affinity for the pine or
palm, which thrives in close proximity, colonizing
and fraternizing in groups, oftentimes solitary, sigh-
ing or rustling as the sea-breeze comes to meet and

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

kiss its feathery crowns and perennial foliage.

few of the trees are deciduous, as the s
ash, and poplar; mostof the others are
the change of foliage occurring so qu
scarcely observed. The mistletoe, with
tufte4 foliage, fastens ou the oak, and'iI
parasite-a thief-for it deprives the tree
The mistletoe seeds are used as an article
the birds, and, being thus transported to

ietly it's
its green,
sa regular
of vitality.
of food by
.the forest-

trees, adhere by means of a gluten until germination
The change of flags in 1821 produced a change
with many of the citizens, when much local infor-
mation connected with the history of Florida was
lost. This province, when ceded to the United
States, was divided in two parts, called East and
West Florida. Petitions were then frequently for-
warded to Washington, with a request to have it
remain divided, as it was inconveniently large.
During the war which soon followed, many new ex-
plorations were made in the hidden hummocks and
intricate recesses of the State.
The drinking-water used in Florida does not
come from mountain-streams or'arctic regions, but
in summer, mixed with sugar and lemon-juice, or
sour orange, forms a most palatable and healthful
Land-snakes are not plentiful, as many have sup-
posed, there being very few but water-snakes, which
can be easily accounted for, as the intense heat from
the fires which sweep through the long grass every
year destroy them; then there are no rocks for their

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

hiding-places, where they coulC
Mosquitoes abound in sole p
and to the dwellers in tents the i
doubt, been received tbat the air
insects. There is a due proporti4
tions of Florida, but not more t
soil of other countries.
The climate is constantly tem
Stream, that conducts away the
turning in a submarine current,

from the North thu
salubrious influences

No month is wi
while every warm
our heads on som
Many theories
the formation of
one most general
once submerged
elblls and other
elevated position
placed there by t
afterward recedil


rear .patriarchal

laces on the coast,
impression has, no
was made of these
on of fleas. in por-
han in the sandy

pored by the Gulf
tropical heat, re-
the cooler waters

s producing an atmosphere of
.and life-renewing properties.
>ut its fresh products and fruits,
y the mocking-bird sings above
iry perch.
ve been advanced in regard to

terra firm on our continent, the
lly received being that it was all
under water-as a proof of which
marine fossils have been found in
s, which only could have been
he. sea overflowing the land, and
ig. When this conclusion is at-

trained, Florida cannot be
the land augments from th
coral insect, limulus, and

included, as eyvry
e.combined efforts (
barnacles, together

f the

the debris which is deposited upon
If. the disturbing influences along
less, the increase of land would be
winds and waves are as destructive
of these subterranean architects a

them afterward.
the shores werp
much greater, as
to the prosperity
s tornadoes and

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

cyclones to the growth of fine forest-trees. The
coral insect is constantly working in his briny bed,
making masonry which resists the action of the ele-
ment in which it is placed, thus laying the founda-
tion for islands and continents. It is the work of
these madrepores and polyps thab form reefs which
wreck so many vessels on its coast, thus making
fortunes for those who follow salvage entirely for a
The fact of Florida as a health-resort has long
been established, the proof being furnished by the
length of time consumptives who come for the pur-
pose of lingering a little longer than they otherwise

could North, and living in the enjoyment of suffi
ciently good health to pursue any lucrative vocation
their tastes may decide, is sufficient evidence of the
efficacy of the climate for pulmonic complaints. Ex-
posure in Florida, as in other places, has.its penal-

ties a
was q
and s
is bei

fixed. Near bodies of water a chilliness per-
Sthe air as soon as the sun sets, which is plainly
ptible to all delicate persons. No barometer
ver more sensitive to atmospheric variations
the feelings of a sick person; no magnet was
attracted to. steel. more suddenly than their
us sensibilities to an agreeable or disagreeable
t. This prescribing invariable rules for every
se is all a humbug; the patient is usually the
judge. The resort for invalids, when the dew
hades of night are falling on the face'of nature,
fore a pleasant light-wood fire, surrounded by
fful companions-remembering that an inter-

view of the internal emotions frequently for the sick

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

have lived for years with only
n changes from heat to cold shc

is not


are cold, get warm as s(
you are tired, stop--yo

upon it. All invalids should select
best suits their malady; then settle
determination to extract all the sw
ment in store for them which the
keeping their bodies comfortable i
their minds free from all exciting
thoughts, their hearts purified while
death comes, prepared to meet their
About ten miles from the mouth (
Laudonnibre established his Huguen
ing his fortification on a hill of '

naming it Carolin
IX., of France, n
The former site of
some degree of acc
the first point on

its banks
being the
built betw
the river.
than three
none of it

are app
only ele
een the
As For
a nature

The first lumbe
cated near the es

one lung. All
uld be avoided:
Don as possible,
ur life depends
a locality which
down, with. the
eets of content-
world contains,
n every respect,
or .unpleasant
B living, and, if
if the St. John's
ot colony, build-
'mean height,"

e, from their sovereign, Charles
ow known as St. John's Bluff.
Fort Caroline can be traced with
uracy, from the fact of this being
the river above its mouth where
reached by the stream, besides
vated spot where a fort could be
3t. John's Bluff and the mouth of
t Caroline was constructed more
1 years ago, from materials of so
e-being pine-logs and sand-
to be seen at the present day.
r-mills on the St. John's are lo-
tate of Marquis de Talleyrand,

.eight miles from Jacksonville.

The busy hum of


beneficial. Try and keep from thinking how
off you really are, as much as practicable.

Petas Plucked from Sunny. Climes. S5
industry now echoes from the shares, where pine-
logs are being sawed 'into material for making
houses, not only in Florida, but in Boston and other
Northern cities. Mr. Clark's mill, in East Jackson-
ville, received an order, after the big Boston fre,
for a million feet at one time. These mills, besides
being a source of revenue to the owners, furnish
work for the poor, and the refuse pieces fuel, while
in cold weatherr the big fires that consume the slabs
afford a fee lodging for benighted travelers; also
for those who have no good houses, and would be
unwelcome visitors in almost any place.
Twenty-five miles from theea, on the banks of
the St. John's, once stood an insignificant place,
known as Cow Ford, but now the fine, thriving city
of Jacksonville, named in honor of General Andrew
Jackson. This city is the. head-center of Florida,
where visitors can come, and stay, with no prospect
of starving, and from which place they can migrate
when and where they please, with ample. facilities
furnished them at all times for the furtherance of
their plans.
A combination of singular emotions here seizes
the Northern visitor, after being transported in mid-
winter from his frozen home to a clime where every
thing is fresh and blooming, where the market is
furnished with cabbages, sweet potatoes, lettuce,
turnips, green peas, and radishes, just gathered, be-
sides strawberries red as the blush of morn, with
bouquets of rosb-buds, upon which still lingers the
morning dew-drop.
Many persons come here with unhappy tempera-

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

ments, to whom peace and contentment in any place,
or under all circumstances, has been deficient, but

always vainly expecting to find ;happiness
on every new object they meet, Ivaiting for
pluck; but, unfortunately, it hangs so high
never reach it-when they commence abusi
thing with which they come in contact.
them constantly exclaiming, "Too much si
little to eat! too high prices for things!"

can p
we le

them to
they can
ng every
We hear
and! too

lease them. Their faces are drawn up in dis-
and their tongues ready to strike with the
n of contempt, at every person who has a good
to say in favor of Florida.
e unbroken quiet which has been with us since
ft Savannah is interrupted as soon as the steam-

er touches the Jacksonville
tuned and jostled on every
and carriage-drivers, who w
raising their whips with the

wharf. We are impor-
side by black boys, dray
orry us for our baggage,
imperious movement of

a major-general, and suddenly lowering them at
half-mast when we say, No! Then the officious
hotel-runners, who scream in our ears to patronize
the houses that employ them, until we are on the
verge of desperation, and feel as though the plagues
of Egypt could not have been worse. Most of

ing n

public criers are dirty, ragged, and
o legitimate vocation, except what
from visitors, or in drumming for

lazy, hav-
they can

houses. This city has fine accommodations, and for
that reason receives more Envy than admiration from
other Florida towns. It can furnish more than one
hundred good places of entertainment, among

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

which may be found several colossal hotels, capable

of containing tw
boarding- houses
where, no doubt,
ized. Selections
expended rapidly


r three hundred
less pretentious
nearer approxima
value received is
be made where m
slowly, according

to t

ste, also
to the
ner real-
Smay be
je incli-

nation of the visitor. Here, as in other places, we
meet with boarding-house complainers. This class
of grumblers must remember that hotel-keepers
stand fault-finding as quietly as a delinquent school-

boy his deserved punishment; they are used to it;
they expect it, and would be disappointed if they
did not get it.
The influx of visitors commences sooner some
seasons than others. The first cold blast from the
North sends the feeble invalid South to bask in the
summer sunshine of a milder atmosphere, and when
spring comes he returns home like the migratory
Jacksonville and its adjacent towns number a
population of over twelve thousand inhabitants, the
whole area being three miles long and about two
wide. The different names given to this small

space of
each oth
fifty to
say they

country looks larger on the map than in
These corporations are distinguished from
er by the names of Jacksonville, East Jack-
Brooklyn, La Villa, Riverside, Springfield,
Town, etc.-each town containing from
fifteen hundred houses. The inhabitants
were laid out into lots and named, with the

expectation of

a large increase of persons; conse-

88 Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

quently there are desirable building-spots in these
surveyed sites for growing cities, for sale at all times
upon moderate terms.
Jacksonville makes a display of architectural

r w

skill, in which are seen the improved
nineteenth century. Yards and lawns
fronting many of the residences, where
of landscape gardening may be found
harmony with the artistically-arrange4
pleasure promenades. The sidewalks

plank and brick, shaded and overhr
oaks, forming archways of invitin
from which swings pendant moss,
perennial, picturesque scene of natu
There are over twenty church-edifices

the city, where both white and
to worship in crowds. We are
statistics find the inhabitants in
itual condition than has been



nents of the
are laid out
the beauties
blending in
d walks and
are made of
ig with live-
presenting a
-% grandeur.
n and around

colored people come
happy to state these
a much better spir-
represented. How-

ever, we have no partiality for many of the doc
preached by itinerant' reformers who come

We prefer our old orthodox faith, which made us
contented while we lived, and carried us to heaven
when we died. But these new isms, such as Spirit-
ualism, Liberalism, Free-loveism, and every other
species of modernized infidelity that is now gaining
ground and receiving accessions from our Sunny
South, are designed only to delude and drown the
souls of their followers in eternal misery. The
Churches here are representatives of various creeds
and beliefs -Methodist, Presbyterian, Protestant
Episcopalian, and Roman Catholic.



---- ---

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

The Sabbath dawns in Florida with its recreations
and steam-boat excursions, well patronized by
Northern visitors, as very few appear to bring their

religion when th
Mrs. Harriet
her home in Ma
church. Dr. St
as he preaches.
ern Methodist c
the congregation
Mr. and Mrs. Ui
dose for some of

riet B.
cord or
rod of
each si
her sto

has no r

iey come South.
Beecher Stowe is here to-day from
ndarin, for the purpose of attending
owe, her husband, accompanies her
When they both entered the South-
hurch a slight rustle was' heard in
n, and a few persons left the house.
nle Tom were more than a Sabbath
the Jacksonville community. Har-
resemblance to a perpetrator of dis-
or one who has Swayed the divining-
lism with sufficient Dotencv to im-

ze herself for many coming generations
the private life of a man who, during
of his checkered existence, never carved
for his shrine. The three snowy curls
de of her fice give her a matronly ibok,
ut-built frame, well covered with flesh, a


stantial appearance.
The service was opened by a very long prayer
from Dr. Stowe, after which he preached a purely
orthodox sermon on the subject of godliness. Mrs.
Harriet had confidence in the ability of her hus-
band; she knew the discourse would be right with-
out her vigilant eye, and she went to sleep. Like
other sleepers, she nodded naturally; her digits
were concealed beneath kid covers, and thrusting at
no one. She looked the picture of content, and
was no doubt dreaming of that far-off, beautiful

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

country, where those who create dissensions and
stir up strife can never enter.
SPlaces of worship have had an existence for both
colors throughout the entire South since the country
was settled, the negroes being naturally inclined to
religion more than the whites. The African Church
has always been a full-developed institution, attend-
ed with its peculiarities and noisy accompaniments,

where the colored zealots co
their religious enthusiasm
tional feelings among other
preacher usually leads the
soul-stirring strains, manifes
times improvising a strain c
mention, if the rhyme and

uld always give vent to
by howling their emo-
s equally excited. The
singing with his loud,
ting much fervor, some-
ir two with his own in-
tune do not measure

The following is a correct copy of an original
sermon delivered by a very black Baptist brother
to a Jacksonville colored congregation a short time
previous to the Freedmen's Bank explosion, which
appears prophetic in regard to that swindling insti-
tution. The text was, "Lay up for yourselves
treasure in heaven":
"MY DEAR BREDREN:-De Lord is here to-day.

going' from de Africal

to de white folks church,

all ye
Ef yei
I'm ni

on a milk-whi
r hearts, and
r hearts are no
1 change until
his disciples
ow telling you

te stec
t right
dey ar
on d

d in de
you 're
Sdey m
3 made
e lake

de way do

ust al
of G

He kn
kin' ab
1 under
. De]
I 'spec


all cum to de house of de Lord just kase yerfriends

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

are here. While yer preacher
gate de gospel, you is looking'
see what is coming and den yo
what you will wear to-night
preaching paying' no attention t
to save yer souls.
"O my bredren, die is a fine
but we should all seek a house
maker is de great Lord! Labor

spilin' meat
"Last nig
of yer week'
de Freedme
ou '11 ever
body may g
leave it. H
Lord? 0 n

come you
de Lord!

is trying' to
down de
u 're think
when you
o me, who

street to
in' about
come to
is trying'

new meetin'-house,
e whose builder and
not for de perishin',

htwas Saturday, and you have spent most



wages and earning's
Savin' Bank, and
ee it any more in
it, or you may die
'w much did you
v bredren. when d

, dun put de
you do n't k
dis world!
, and den y
bring here
em jerudic

be sorry you have n't done m
en dey come, ef you has n't du

in' for yer blessed Jesus, den
' Come, ye blessed, home!'

dey will n,

rest in
now as
ou will
for de
ore for
n noth-
)t say,

" You must do nothing' wrong ef yer want ter git

up by dat
white ang
never cuss
thy his so8
when yer
Master in

great white throne among
els, and be one yerselves.
or drink any whisky. Paul
n to drink some wine when
e. My bredren, do n't think y
not, jest for an excuse to git a
heaven knows when yer sure

dem snow-
You must
told Timo-
he had de
er suffering'
dram. Old
enuff sick!

Can't fool him about nothing! "
Journalism in Jacksonville is commencing to rest
on a firmer basis than heretofore. The present pop-


42 Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

ulation demand more knowledge on the subject of
the country, consequently papers and periodicals

published in the interest of the
sought after. The Semi-tropical,
lished here, will be found to cont:
and reliable articles on the climate

State are much
a monthly estab-
ain both readable
and various prod-

ucts of
were ot
the win

paper, uns


g side,
e ephel
y here,

well printed, cot
found lying on ti
tent auxiliary to
The privilege
be overlooked in
ever peculiar, ap

as in son
from the
the street
from Sail
enter all

The Sun and Press is a daily d
werving in its efforts to incul
among those in power. TI
whose politics was gauged for
the war until now have been
the Republicans being in the
meral existence of newspapers
and the morning news, fresh

itaining the latest telegrams,
he breakfast-table, furnishing a
the peace and happiness of

of doing as
pear out of

ie other places, oblig
police. Celebrities
ts without creating
with his four or fou
t Lake City, take ro


from molestation
being Ku-Kluxec
woman can don
sell sugar, brown
peddle vegetables


one pleases is not to
.No costumes, how-
style, or the wearers,
ed to seek protection
or millionaires walk
any sensation. The
rteen wives, can come
oms at the St. James,

frequented resorts with the same fear

that a genuine Floridian feels of
d. Any strong-minded market-
the Bloomer costume, make and
as her own bun-colored face, and
verdant as the idea which prompt-

ed her
ters, an
than th

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.
to forsake the flowing robes of her fair
d assume the half masculine attire of
sex, without attracting any more atten
Le lazy loungers in the market-house.
are so accustomed to sight-seeing that n


ing would astonish them but an honest politician.
Unfortunately for all parties concerned, this win-
ter there is a large influx of men in search of em-
ployment, fifty looking for situations with only one
vacancy. It is well to come prepared for all exi-
gencies, and bripg a tent to stop in, provided noth-
ing better presents itself. The woods, waters, and
oyster-bars are free to all; but boarding-house keep-
ers, from the pressure of surrounding circumstances,
have a peculiarly persistent way of watching strang-
ers closely and interviewing them frequently, par-
ticularly if there is a suspicion that funds are run-
ning low with them. Camping in the open air it
this genial clime is pleasanter than would be imag-
ined by persons not accustomed to it, and is accom-
panied with more peace of mind than being dunned
for board-bills without money to pay them.
Pleasant places of resort are springing up in the
vicinity of Jacksonville, which furnish lovely drives
behind some of the teams kept in the city. Mon-
crief Springs, four miles distant, now appears to be
the most popular resort. Here the'orange marma-
lade factory may be visited-a recently-developed
branch of industry making user of the wild
oranges which flourish so abundantly throughout
the State without culture. Many other improve-
ments have been made at this place-bath-houses,

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

bowling-alley, dancing-saloon, and restaurant-all
of which contribute much to the diversion of
Visitors always form an idea of the cultivation or

ignorance of a
dead are cared
of monuments,

locality by the manner in
for, together with the van
inscriptions upon the tat

which the
ious styles
)lets, neat-

ness and taste displayed in the surroundings. Upon
this hypothesis a favorable conclusion would be
formed in regard to the Jacksonville cemetery,
which last resting-place of its citizens is pleasantly
located on a slightly elevated piece of ground be-
yond the city. It was on the Sabbath we visited it,
when all kinds of people were present.. Some of
them were much stricken with grief, while others
came for recreation. It is really very surprising
why so many persons of exceedingly low morals re-
sort to grave-yards for the sole purpose of enjoy-
ment, and the indulgence of obscene conduct and
conversation. Certainly rude sounds must jar very
inharmoniously upon the feelings of those who come
to visit and weep over the remains of their departed
Too many invalids, before coming to Florida, wait
until they have already felt the downy flappings
from the wings of the unrelenting destroyer, and
heard the voices from a spirit-land calling them, but
come too late to be benefited and take a new lease
on life. The climate should not be blamed because
the sick will stay away until death claims them.
Those who do not wait derive the same benefit in
remaining that flowers receive from gentle rains in

Petals Plucked from Sunny (limes. 45
spring-time-the atmosphere being a tranquillizer,
the pure sea-breeze on the coast a lotion and tonic
to the lungs. God grant that the genial air which
visits this peninsula may restore the health-seeking
invalids to vigor, strength, and usefulness, that their
presence may again gladden the hearts of those left
at home, now saddened by their absence!

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.


WVERY year, during the month of February,
SJacksonville has an exhibit of industries,
from all portions of the State, thus fur-
nishing visitors an opportunity for seeing
specimens of the best Florida products for
themselves, before purchasing. Another advantage
is the exchange of experience in growing the same
things, besides receiving new suggestions in regard
to those which may have failed, and, finally, it keeps
up a friendly intercourse with old acquaintances, also
enabling new immigrants to form pleasant associa-
tions, in the absence of those whom they have left
behind-thus promoting harmony, not only in a

community, but throughout
The weather-that import
was unpropitious a greater
Nature put on a wild, damp
ardor of many who had in
ever, the exhibit was very
ment. All kinds of semi-t
most perfect pine-apple tha

the entire State.
ant auxiliary-this year
Portion of the week.
face, which chilled the
tended coming. How-
good, in every depart-
ropical fruits, from the
t has flourished in any

clime, to the sweetest orange, whoso cheek had been
kissed by a golden sunbeam. P.ue wines were not
wanting to complete the convivility of the occa-
sion, or perfumes distilled from Florida leaves and
flowers, to waft odors around us, sweet as the mem-

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes. 47
ory of a first love. The industrious ladies'seut their
needle-work, some of which looked as if wrought
by fairy fingers, more than real flesh and blood.
Each succeeding year this organization gathers
strength as the State becomes more populous, and
the necessity of comparing the products from differ-
ent latitudes is made a criterion for those who wish
to examine the local products of a country. In ad-
dition to what has already been done, there is much
room for improvement, which will be accomplished
as the necessities demand, until the Agricultural
Florida Fair shall be numbered among the perma-
nent institutions, where the ingathering harvest of
tropical fruits every year will be a fixed fact, where
immense crowds shall come to look, wondering at
its magnitude, and silent with admiration before the
grandeur of its extensive proportions. The future
of the Fair, like that of the State, has not been at-
Another source of entertainment with many who
come here is yachting. The white-winged little
crafts are constantly flitting about the Jacksonville
wharves, like summer songeters in a clear sky. The
boats, in reality, have become quite indispensable to
the excitement of visitors. Those that draw the
least water, and make the best time, or with a fair
wind can sail on a heavy dew, are the class of craft
most in demand. .General Spinner, formerly of the
United States Treasury, has a fine little yacht, in
which he takes pleasure-excursions, looking much
happier than when the responsibility of a nation's
finances rested on his movements.

48 Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

but its
been s

stay in Jacksonville has been very pleasant;
surroundings furnish a poor criterion for the
lahds lying in other parts of the State.

ocean steamer Dictat
for passengers, and w
number to embark on
Her former efficient
er, has gone where b
imperil his safety. H
uppfied by a skillful sea

or is waiting at

e will be
this relial
ars or ro
however, hi
man, thus

9 P
s p

ong the
lace has
cing the

Sthe head of
and attentive
John's to-day


the air and sky

glide c
to fur

Sa nim

of Life more
)n its peaceful
led purity float
in indefinable
ng near.
first noticeable
e, is Mandarit
residence of
point many sto
nish a rratuito



the list for palatial accom-
appears overspread with a

rent mist, th
ibus of golde
igination cot
beautiful. I
bosom, while
over us like
idea of an i


the benefit
sitors come

landing, after i
fifteen miles
larriet Beech
I, as though shi
is exhibition
of those who
here thinking

rough which the
n sheen, that fills
ild not paint the
low smoothly we
e fleecy clouds of
airy forms, which
invisible presence

we leave Jack-
I distant-the
er Stowe-at
e was expected
of herself, de-
walk her do-
they are at the

same liberty
sent herself

y to i
f for

nspect her person as though she were
a menagerie, and obligated to pre-
their entertainment. Very curious

ones open her window-blinds if they cannot see her

dictator at
The St.
nd of se
in shines

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

These impudent violations of

etiquette do not meet with her app
indulging ih them must take the
membering that although patience
not always exercised.
Mandarin is quite unpretentiol
appearance. The inhabitants rai

anges and other produce
little boats to market;
stir made'by any of its r
localities in the State,
events, extending back

roval, while those
consequences, re-
:e is a virtue, it is

us in its general
se fine sweet or-

e, which they bring down in
this is the most perceptible
residents. Like many other
historic records of tragic
to the Indian wars, are yet

remembered by some of its old citizens.' The fol-
lowing is dated December 25, 1841: .
"For some time the settlers in this section of the
country had been lulled into apparent security, un-
der the belief that there was no danger to be appre-
hended, since the notorious Wild Cat and his party
were shipped to the West.
"On Monday a band of twenty-one Indians ap-
proached the settlement of Mandarin, when, after
capturing an old negro belonging to Mr. William
Iartley, lay by until night, when they attacked the
house of Mr. H., who was absent hunting. They
murdered his wife and child, also Messrs. Domingo
Acosta and William Molpus. These savages, after
committing this foul deed, plundered the house and

applied the
the inmates
The Indians
released the

torch. They
of Nathan and
had fled, they
camped near u
old negro, and

then proceeded to the
George Hartley, and as
destroyed their homes.
until morning, when they
fled. Captain Hurry, of

in any other way.

50 Petals Plucked from. Sunny Climes.
Mandarin, and a few other citizens, followed their
trail the next day for some distance, but finally lost
The settlers then gave:expression to their feelings:
"We, the citizens of Mandarin, cannot too strong-
ly urge upon Col. Worth the propriety of keeping in
this vicinity a force sufficiently strong to render to
our citizens that protection to which they are justly
entitled. Many of them had returned to their aban-
doned places, others making preparations for that
purpose; but their plans are now frustrated, as there
can be no possible security until the last Indian is
hunted out of Florida; while our troops are operat-
ing in the South, they are murdering in our unpro-
tected settlements. This is the seventh Christmas-
day we have witnessed since the Indian war has
been raging in our territory, it being now our pain-
ful duty to record it is far from being ended. The
blood of our citizens is still warm upon the billocks
and turfs of Florida, and the.wily savage roams un-
dismayed, with his thirst for the blood of fresh vic-
tims unquenched."
One noticeable feature in traveling through Florida
is the fanciful names we hear given to unimportant
places-the name being the most prominent point,
the towns so diminutive that it is difficult to locate
them with any degree of certainty. The first high-
sounding ones, after Mandarin, are Hibernia and
Magnolia, both little stopping-places, considered
quite exclusive in their associations with the world
in general and themselves in particular, where guests
are so well contented they think the fabled land for


Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

which the Spaniards searched so long is at last
Green Cove Mineral Springs, thirty miles above
Jacksonville, is a noted resort for those afflicted with
rheumatism-the temperature of the water always
being warm enough in winter to stimulate the sys-
tem and give relief to pain. Many other diseases
are also greatly mitigated. Very happy faces come
down here to look at us, which is, no doubt, attrib-
utable to'the exhilarating influences of the water
and fine fare at the hotels.
Picolata, forty-five miles above Jacksonville, on
the east bank of the river, is more famous for what
it has been than for what it is now, its former great-
ness having departed, leaving scarcely a shadow to
guide us. This was formerly the stage terminus

from St. Augustin
some importance
weekly stage runni
During Spanish t
Picolata, where o0
The following is
written over one h
structed with a h
breast-high on the
rounded by a deep
on each side, with
or roof. These j
with eight four-pc
works were built

e, eighteen miles distant, and of

as a commercial point, with a
ing to Tallahassee and St. Mark's.
times this place was called Fort
ice stood a very ancient fortress.
a description of its dimensions,
hundred years since: "It was con-
igh wall, without bastions, about
inside, with loop-holes, and sur-
ditch. The upper story was open
battlements supporting a cupola,
)arapets were formerly mounted


unders-two on each side. The
with hewn stone, cemented in

lime. The shell-rock from which it was constructed
was cut out of quarries on St. Anastasia Island, op-

V ,

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

posite St
to guard
As we

SAugustine." The object of this fort was
the passage of the river, and preserve com-
on with St. Mark's and Pensacola.
propose describing Tocoi on our return,

we will now proceed to Pilatka,
Putnam, with a population of fifte<
itants. The land on which the to
the soil being mixed with shells.
tions here for visitors are tine, wh
stay all winter, in preference tc
The Putnam House is well kept,
neat, and the whole premises in pi
now February, and the garden i
lettuce, radishes, Irish potatoes,

the county-seat of
en hundred inhab-

wn stands


s high,

The accomm
ere many con
any other p
being refreshi
perfect order.
s producing
and many c

e to
It is

vegetables, from which the
tables groan with good thi
tries to make everybody w

of the
past, w

house is supplied. The
ngs, while the proprietor
welcome The politeness

servants reminds us of the palmy days of the
hen they were trained for use, and not per-
to roam, as many do now, like untamed
seeking something which they can kill and

eat, or steal, and trade for mpney. The citizens are
very industrious and law-abiding-the town having
been settled thirty years-and never had a county
jail until recently; but, in keeping with the im-
provements of the age, they have one now which is
equal to any emergency. Among the various other
buildings, we notice a court-house, several churches,
and many boarding-houses. The principal indus-
tries are a moss-factory, sea-island cotton-gin, a
steam grist-mill and saw-mill, also a guano fish-oil
factory. Shad-fishing is profitable here in March,


Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

when large quantities are shipped. One paper-the
Pilatka Herald-publishes all the news. The editor

is called



having obtained his

title by giving descriptions of the immense num-
bers of alligators which frequented the streams, as
recorded by the early settlers, but bringing it down
to the present timp, as a visible fact, which is not


nor ever will be again,

while so many are being


every year.


we visited

the Herald

two 1

ads, sons of the proprietor, were working

like busy bees, the youngest being


and the

oldest seventeen, years of age.

They said their fa-

other was in Tallahassee, and they were


"getting out

Such enterprise is commendable.

Many of the tropical

fruits are cultivated here,

sonie of which grow to perfection, while others are

experimental, but at present very flourishing.


strawberries, luscious and sweet, are now ready for

market, on


Hart's place

which is

-the fertilizer used


weather is milder here than in other localities of the
same latitude, not on the -river, which is accounted
for by the waters of the St. John's flowing from a

milder clime, thus checking

g any proposed invasion

from Jack Frost.
A very amusing circumstance happened here this


The Catholic bishop from St. Augustine

being in town, according to his usual custom, pro-

posed to have early morning mass.

On repairing to

the church, and finding none of his members in at-

tendance, and not being i
repose of their souls and

inclined to say mass for the

bodies while

in bed

as a

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

gentle reminder of their duties he commenced pull-
ing vigorously at the bell-rope. The jingling at so
early an hour caused a consternation among the in-
habitants, who supposed it to be a fire-alarm, and,
thinking the safety of their dwellings in danger,
rushed from every street in hasty-made toilets, look-
ing for the conflagration. However, on quiet being
restored, the affair was considered a good joke.
Pilatka is the head of navigation for ocean steam-
ers, the river narrowing so rapidly soon after leaving
here that they cannot run any farther. Parties go-
ing up the Ocklawaha must always stop at this point,
as steamers made for no other purpose leave here
daily. No Florida tour would be complete without
a trip up this darrow, tortuous stream, which turns
its course so often the wonder is that it does not for-
get which way it was going to run.
The name of our boat is Okahumkee, which bears
a slight resemblance to the pictures designed to rep-
resent Noah's ark, but only in shape, not in size or
age. On account of the obstacles she has to meet
in navigation, there can be no surplus work or em-

bellishment on her
ble, the fare good
spelling power is at
ahead at the rate
owner, Col. Hart,
whose pioneer moi
will ever remain a

but she is clean and

as on any river-craft.
the stern, and sends th
of eight miles an ho
is a man of undaunted
cements in navigating
monument worthy of e

The pro-
e steamer
ur. The
this river

Twenty-five miles above Pilatka the Ocklawaha
comes in, which name signifies boggy river, or tur-
gid water, so called by the Indians.

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.




HILE in Florida, if tourists wish for a va-

V riety, let them
course of that
I lawaha. Ther
other rivers in the State,
take us over the bars. .
we enter its dark waters
ruption, when our steame
quickly, as a Florida sun
The Ocklawaha is th
much-admired St. John'
fifty to seventy-five feet

travel up the meandering
peculiar stream, the Ock-
e is no signaling here, as at
for fossilized Spaniards to
afterr describing a triangle,
without obstacle or inter-
,r glides along easily, if not
behind the-borizon.
e largest tributary of the
s River. It is only from
in width'at any point, and

navio-able all seasons of the year. Its banks are
nl ed wtnlh "'forecta nrimnval ric apnlo

of its a
not so
river r
ing of

k fU
can only be traced by a seat upon th
teamers. The banks are low, with I
bluff, accompanied by a wildness of
unvaried as to become. monotonous
uns through 'heavily-timbered lands,
sweet-gum, sweet-bay, arnd live-oa]

-a V a--



which hangs a drapery of long moss so dense it is
only visited by zephyr breezes. The swaying of
this pendant growth appears like the movements of
magic, preparing a revelation from the secret abodes
of wood-nymphs, or a debut from 'the weird form of
some dark-eyed Indian maid.

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.
The cypress-trees grow here to the height of two

hundred feet, some of them

being twenty-four in

circumference, and eight feet through at the base.
From this kind of timber spars for vessels are made,
which excel in durability any other in use.
The trees on the banks are set closely as a cane

thicket, thus obscuring all view

of the


ing country as effectually as if it were a thousand

miles distant.

It is to this

point the sportsman

resorts to indulge his propensity for killing birds,


sing songs of

as we pass;

but when

wounded, their helpless bodies fall

into the turbid

waters-the last that is seen of them being a flutter-
ing pinion, signaling their sinking condition, with

no one to pity or rescue.

The click of the rifle

heard on every side from the hands of passengers,

with the exciting


"0 there is another alli-


Sight him quick!

Kill him !"


this seems to be great sport for the huntsman, it is
not always death to the game.
As we approach the source of the river the scen-
ery is constantly changing, like a kaleidoscopic vieiv,
and although it is mid-winter the river-banks are

lined with flowers in full

bloom, as though Jack

Frost was not abroad with his withering breath, and
had killed many of their companions far away, and
buried them under his white covering, bound with
icy fetters.
Among the most conspicuous plants which we. see

now is the


aster, climbing twenty

bowers filled


or thirty feet,
supported by

woody stems, sending forth their fragrance to glad-

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

i the senses of
nature's laborat
The water-lily,
like a queen, s
et corner of the

a more ambi
with their pi
wild oranges
panorama wh
piness in the
ties and retail
Captain R
itants on tlhi
makes all the
The men exp
they need, fr&
From this pa


those who love perfumery made
enthroned on her emerald seat,
reading a snowy crown in every


tious turn,
nk petals bi
and scarlet
ich creates i
minds of al
n in imagine
ice, who ha
is the alpha
s river. H
ir contracts,

ect him t
om a suA
portion of


re clin

the air-plants
going to the
into bloom, a
combined f(
n emotions ol

is the
rm a
F hap-

1 who look on their beau-
ation their charms.
s charge of the steamer
and omega of the inhab-
e supplies all their wants,

and sells

o furnish the
rar-mill to a
the country

all their produce.
m with whatever
plug of tobacco.
are shipped sea-
a *d

d cotton, moss, oranges, vanilla, chickens, ani
These are sold in Jacksonville to obtain thei
ly supplies. The Captain goes shopping forth
ig ladies, buys their pin-backs, tilters, face-pow
and sometimes snuff-for their mothers only


For these numerous services he rarely ever receives
any thing but a smile! No wonder the man looks
thin, fed on such intangible substance!
Orange Springs, thirty-five miles from the mouth
of the river, is our first landing-place. This was
formerly a resort for invalids, on account of the min-
eral properties contained in the water. Here we
witnessed an affectionate meeting between a hus-
band and wife. The lady had just returned from

58 Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.
Jacksonville on the steamer. When she stepped on
shore, and saw her husband waiting for her, she
threw her arms around his neck and cried. Some
of the experienced passengers said she wept because
she thought of all that old fat bacon she would have
to eat after feasting so high in Jacksonville.
A log is something which our boat appears to un-
derstand. It leaps over at a single bound, then goes
crashing against the large limbs, which sounds like

e rattling of musketry, or crashing o

We met a lady
up the Ocktawaha
Not aware of the
had passed, she q

on board who, since
, has been deprived of
great change throng
quietly inquired if the

f a cyclone.
her last visit
her hearing.
h which she

had not all been removed from the river. The sound,
then, of big limbs rasping across the boat, which had
been crushed by coming in contact with it, resem-
bled thunder. The Captain changed his seat very
suddenly to go forward, while the passengers were
all busy looking after birds and alligators; but no
one asserted that navigation was without impedi-
iments, so far as last heard from. "Where ignorance
is bliss, 'tis folly to be wise."
On this river is the home of the genuine crackers.
You can see them come to the steamer when it
lands; and clever people they are, too. They ap-
pear to come from nowhere, their first appearance
being on a bateau, or little platform, by the river-
banks, where are seen standing specimens of hu-
manity so thin a mosquito would be doing a bad
business in trying to obtain sustenance from their
bloodless bodies.

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

Hoping that the mind of the

public may be re-

lived of the impression that a kind of hybrid bipeds

circulate through

the South

entirely unknown in



ocalities, called crackers, I herewith append

a description of the Northern crackers, in connec-
tion with our Southern product, taken from my own
From the Alleghany Mountains of Pennsylvania

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

s of Flor
s homo, d

possessing traits of c
the North "the lowe
ers." In the Norther
creatures ruminate w
they prefer are rem
and cities. During
tion of the season ir
toes, together with
consumed by their
them during the co
attention this crop
working out as the
neighbors through "
taters." Many of tl
sist entirely by hun
ries, for which pursi
settled habits well a

ida there exists a certain class
defined by different names, but
character nearly allied, called in
r qlass," in the South crack-
n States these poor, uneducated
without restraint. The localities

)ved from the principal towns
the summer they spend a por-
Sraising a little corn and pots.
other "garden sass," which is
numerous families to sustain
Id winter weather. The little
receives is when they are not
hired help, in assisting their
hayin' and harvesting or diggin'
hem never "hire out," but sub-

ting, fishing, or gathe
iits their wild natures
dapt them. They exc

piscatorial profession, studying the habi
finny tribe during their various stages,

with their times of ascending a
streams. Sometimes the city
spend a few days with tent and
ment these self-constituted sov
regard as a direct innovation of

el in
t of

nd descending the
folks come out to
reels, which move-
ereigns of the soil
their rights; and if

the supposed intruders escape without their tent
being burned, or their clothes stolen, during the day
when they are absent, it may be regarded as a fort-
unate circumstance. Many of these "lower class"
specimens of humanity cannot read or write, while
those who can do not often imbibe orthodox opiu-

to the sands
of the genu



Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

ions in their religious belief, but embrace theories
mapped out by New England fanatics, upon which
they try to make an improvement during the cold
winter days when they cannot be stirring out
doors." If a thaw comes they Ihnt deer and other
wild game, which is bartered fbr groceries.: Hogs
with them, as most other people, are an important
item for winter food. These animals manage to
live tolerably well during the summer on grass, be-
sides occasionally breaking into a neighbor's field
of corn or potatoes, and fattening in the autumn on
wild mast, which is plentiful.
This "lower class" have never been credited with

being strictly honest, ai
calf, or turkey, makes a
family larder, which is
scruples, no questions
cannot be classed among
olent impulse ever for
souls, it is soon frozen
Never a weary wander
is fed from their table,
nor a drop of milk giv
without collection on
made mostly of wool, it
the winters so severe t

tected. The
then color it
are made th
winter to ke
heat. There

" wimn
blue or
ey are v
ep out t
is no cl

nd frequently a
n important ad


aten by all
being asked.
their virtues.
its way into
t for want ol
rests upon tl

stray sheep,
edition to the
without any
If a benev-
their stingy
f sustenance.
heir beds, or

unless pay is expected for it,
en to pleasure-excursionists
delivery. Their clothes are
being a home product, and

aen folks
red, and
rorn thrc
he cold,

obliged to be pro-
S" weave the cloth,
when the garments
>ugh all seasons-in
and in summer the
of raiment, nor any

record kept of the time each garment is worn, it


:h ev are

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

being only removed when patching becomes neces-
sary, and a Joseph's coat among them is not an un-

common sight.

was th(
ful" is
ring ch
large q


of articulation,

twang thro
Design of t
-it was spell
their prin
anges at all
Sis a diffi
uantities of
or to fill a

been determined,
and filthy practice

the o
ed "1



not remarkable for their
communicate with a pe-.
r noses, as though that
SCow is pronounced as
v;" how, "heow." "Aw-


upon which they

Times: "Awful mean!" "Awful
nation through the nose for the old
cult experiment, as they deposit
Snuff in that organ, whether for
Vacuum in their crania, has never
but it is really a most disgusting
to witness.

The above is a correct
ern crackers, of which

have lost sight in
the South, and imp
crackers and poor
origin, and only fo
the outgrowth of a
That indigenous



ie wor
s are

ption of the North-
scribblers' seem to
ing efforts to abuse
Id with the idea that
entirely of Southern

und in that locality, they being
slave oligarchy.
class of persons called Southern

crackers receive names according to their locality.
In South Carolina and South Georgia they are
called "Poor Buckra," and in Florida "Sand Lap-
pers," or "Crackers." The Florida crackers are
supposed to be named from the facility with which
they eat corn, it being their chief article of diet,
while some few contract the habit of dirt-eating,
and have been named "Sand Lappers."
The true derivation of cracker, notwithstanding

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

all the evidence given before on the subject, is the
original word for Quaker, which in Spanish' is
cuacero, first-changed into cuaker by the English,
and again into cracker. From this we may learn
-that neither cattle-whips nor corn-cracking had
any thing to do with the naming of these people.
These crackers have few local attachments; mov-
ing twice in a year does not inconvenience them;
indeed, po earthly state of existence can be imag-
ined freer from care and less fraught with toil than
the one they lead. When settled, they are not fas-
tidious about their habitations, as the mild climate

does not require
subserve their pu
only want a roo
them. Their h
notched to fit at
times of earth, b
These tenements
beds are sunned,
men are not alwa*

close quarters; a good shelter will
rpose. Like birds of the air, they
sting-place when' night overtakes

houses are
the corners,
ut usually 1
are scoured
and every t
ys dressed i

mostly made of
the floors being
boards sawed by
I once a week, wh
:hing turned out.
n "store-clothes,

en the
" with

a corresponding outfit,

but usually


cotton home-spun.

The genuine cracker wears a

broad-brimmed hat, braided frdm palmetto, a b
jean coat and breeches, a deer-skin vest with t
left on, and a pair of stout, useful cow-skin
or shoes. He supports a verfunkempt mui
and whiskers, before which a Broadway dandy
shrink with the most intense disgust. This n
growth obscures a mouth well filled with
which were nature's gift, and the handiwork

he fur
of no

dentist-from whence is kept a constant ejecting of

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

tobacco-juice. He always has a body-guard of dogs
whenever and wherever you find him, the number
varying according to his condition in life-the
poorer the man, the larger the number of canines.
These animals are very thin, whether from a defi-
ciency in their master's larder, or the constant ram-
bling life they lead, has not been exactly determined.

shot and
named "
to flicker
a range
These pe

his master's neck i
powder-horn, while
Sure-fire," which he
, warranted to bring
of two hundred yai
ople, like the patria
which require about

a suspended a flask of
in his hands is a rifle
says was never known
down any game within
r4s, running or flying.
rohs of old, have large
Sthe same attention as

puppies or kittens. When night comes the
curl up in almost any corner to sleep, and
of day, when the early.songsters dash the d
from the grass and flowers, they are out hu
berries, or watching the birds building th(
that they may know where to find the eggs,
enterprise they are experts.
The cracker has a hearty welcome for the




which puts the blush of contempt upon those
ing a much higher degree of civilization.
thing the house contains is free to visitors

though the bi
St. James Ho
yet quantity
are always kil
number of
Your plate is

11 o

F fare bears no resemblance
>r Carleton House in Jackso
make up for quality. Chi
for company, without county
stmas holidays they have
ed with sweet potatoes and

ng for

. Al-
to the
ng the

dodger bread, or ash-cake, to be washed down with


Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

strong coffee, which they al
hand for special occasions.
attentive; but where are th
like wild rabbits. They ar

the con
little e
talk ai
says "
" heife

npany. Watch,
yes looking thr
the corners.
nicative class c
ion pertaining
s a freshly-wo
to keep time.
"dad," the mo
of his wife as


and y
)f per
to Fl

vays manage to keep on
The old folks are very
e children? Run away
e out taking a view of
rou will soon see curious
the cracks, or slipping
e crackers are a very
sons, always full of in-
orida, and as ready to
well-regulated Yankee
father'of the family is
"mam." The husband
old woman," the wife

I man," while the children are always.
Is and boys. Women among no class, of
the South, however poor, are ever called
'as one Northern writer has represented,
their conduct they are lost both to virtue

and shame. The cracker exercises his prudential
care by always keeping hogs. It is the main sup-
port of the family; and these razor-backed tourists
are constantly going on voyages of discovery, either
by land or sea. They often excite the sympathies
of visitors on account of their thin bodies, but they
possess more self-sustaining qualities thanthose who
are sorry for them, showing what hogs can do as
well as people, when thrown on their own resources.
The sea-shore swine, which receive sustenance from

the beach, can feed twice in
the tide recedes, and no
amount of fish, oysters, an
which are deposited within

twenty-four hours, when
depleted stores tell the'
d other marine morsels,
their bony frames.

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

The above is a true statement in regard to the

Southern crackers, which excites
tion of so many people who know

them, and would, no doubt,
reserving their concern for
ing, "Where little is given,
Civilization has comment
the Ocklawaha, and the r
which never tires in its eff
prints here. These new d

from the vario
as it advances

to effect a
against the
the Captain
ship from E
"Make fast!



be great
little is
ed mak
narch o
brts, is I

the commisera-
nothing about
tly benefited by
Lives, remember-
ing its mark on
f improvement,

leaving i
ents are

us landings which the steamer
through the rapid current. I
ndinr the bow of the craft

shore, wl
, with as
ingland 1
!" This

an inch in


len the command is gi
much authority as th
ad arrived on foreign

ts foot-
n order
is run
ven by
ough a

order is executed by putting a
circumference around a stake

driven in the ground.
waiting to be loaded,
"light-wood," filled wit
article of commerce is
of this commodity is o
portunity to dispose of
sketches" commence "
Nearly all the passe
taking a walk on shore
hands on board are w
trying to sell a bear-s]

Here are two cords of wood
called in cracker vernacular
h turpentine, from which the
manufactured. The vender
n shore, waiting for an op-
his pile when "the charcoal

ngers i
to see t



improve the time by
he country while the
A countryman is
some of the crowd.

These Floridians always ask more than they can get,
to see what visitors will stand.
The sun has set, and we are now entering upon a


Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes. 67

night of darkness, in a wilderness of leaves and
blooms, on the water, near thickets where the hun-
gry wolf lurks for his prey, and the bear growls
from his covert of security; where the wild deer nips
the grass and feasts from herbage green, frequenting
haunts where the hounds lose their trail, and the
foot of the civilized hunter has never trod. A
bright blaze, made from light-wood knots, is placed
in a frame on the bow of our craft, and, like the
"pillar of fire" which preceded the Israelites
through the wilderness, is our guide. Here, encir-
cled by trees whose long limbs
overlap each other so thickly
that only a glimmer of dawn is
seen through the small openings, _
our flame-lit craft winds up the
serpentine stream, and our night-
fires send out a glare which il-
lumines the darkness far as the
eye can see, while on the boughs
above our heads in silence site WHo I
the owl, with only an occasional "Who!" to let us
know vitality is not entirely extinct in these wilds.
The queer, dusky-looking figures, moving about
with their pine torches, flashing through the dark-
ness, and yelling at each other in cases of emer-
gency, when our boat appears trying to climb a tree,
remind us of the historic plutonian regions. As
we glide along, our pathway is marked by volumes
of pyrotechnic showers more numerous and brilliant
than can be conceived, which burst from the smoke-
stacks, and fall on the water before they are extin-


68 Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.
guished. Phantom-like we move, while weird forms
retire before us, but still clinging to our boat as the
connecting-link between civilized and savage life, a
thoughtless move from it in any direction being a
dangerous and hazardous experiment.
Every landing has its name, kept up as a mark of
distinction by the boatmen and settlers, but unknown
to history.

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.
t >


ANY incidents of travel are
different savants, and those
pretensions, who circulate i
country for various purposes;
lowing stands without a paral


nine fitct, so far as last heard from, in th
As we entered the famous Silver Spi
morning, about 4 o'clock, on the steamer
kee, another boat that had arrived sligh
vance of us was anchored very near our
place. Upon the bows of each were burn
light-wood fires, the reflection on the wa
only comparable to the: magic movement

chautment, while the shore, en
est-trees, embowered the whole

elated by
ough the
ut the fol-
as a gen-
e wilds of

rings this
tly in ad-
ing large



circled with t
in a sylvan r

where Diana herself might repose, and b
for the more exciting amusements of
One of our gentlemen-passengers, upon

ie ref

of en-
all for-

the chase.
being sud-

denly aroused from his sound slumbers, opened his
blind for the purpose of taking observations of the
outside world. At the same instant a very fresh
morning breeze fanned his brow, causing him to
make a most convulsive sneeze-which effort being
too much for his artificial superstructure, all his
upper teeth were ejected from his mouth into the

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

water. U-pon the return of his wandering thoughts
from the vision of beauty before him, he was again
,apprised of the stern realities which would have to
be met and faced without the valuable accessories

.for administering to his comfor
mastication of Florida beef-
dawned, sympathetic friends g
with words of condolence, whi
experts in the art of descend
fluid, without being drowned,
niition. They all went'dowh
turned without the lost treat

teeth. Soon
gatheredd arou
le the service
ing into the

y in the
as day
nd him
as of all

were called into req-
repeatedly, ,and re-

spliced, armed with instruments of vari
with which they rAked and dredged for
toothless success. Larre rewards w

while ho
zero, and
only one
the truan
end of a
amid the
joy of the


pe in the heart of the owner
expectation stimulated the m
artisan, who finally succeeded
t grinders by fastening a tin s
forty-foot pole, and bringing
congratulations of friends an
e owner, who gave the persev

Poles were
ous designs,
hours, with
ere offered,
sunk below
ovements of
in securing
coop on the
g them out,
d the great
ering negro

his proffered reward-ten dollars. The first invest-
ment made by the colored individual was two bits
for tobacco, which he could chew without the aid of
foreign intervention.
The most noticeable point on the Ocklawaha is
the Mirror of Diana, or Silver Springs, which is the
source of this river, where, from the depths of some
invisible cavern, boils up a large body of water,
gathered from far away, forming a succession of
springs nine miles in length, with an average depth



Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

of thirty-five feet.
terranean depths
streams pure as an
bright and beauti
light. This spring
who travel through
was to the land
rounded by trees,
drafts or plans of a
Architect of the u

These waters rise from the sub-

of the earth, with
angel, clear as the
ful as the radiance


g is to the campers
h the country what
of Samaria. It is
forming columns
architectural skill, exe
universe. More than

their crystal
ioonday sun,
of heavenly
and movers
Jacob's Well
entirely sur-
unknown to
.ept the great
thirty years

since, the land around this spring was entered as a
homestead by a relative of that memorable martyr,
John Rogers. Mr. Rogers, with whom we had the
pleasure of conversing, said its present appearance
was the same as when he first saw it-the water be-
ing so clear that looking down in it appeared like

the sky above it:

depths, look which
The basin is lined
lies in ledges on th
ices of which dart c
size; but no hook,
concealed, can lure
sionally captured wi

he could see no difference in
way he would, up or down.
with a grayish limestone, which
e bottom, from under the crev-
ut patriarchal fish of immense
however delicately baited and
them to bite. They are occa-
th lines by striking which cus-

tom was practiced by the Indians, "
poised they threw the spear." At n



i sun-

beams kiss the placid surface of this crystal fluid,
while they are reflected by the transparent waters,
which tremble and shimmer with resplendent glo-
A sunset viewed from this Mirror of Diana fills
the imagination with emotions of grandeur, to be


Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

remembered as past joys, where descriptive
are inadequate to the task. The parting ray
Sol shine upon the vast forest of tall trees,

with Spanish moss
the fragile texture
tangible substance;
the stars raise their
of this land-locked
of its past history,
The following lej
tional Repository, s
what might have I
for the benefit of t
"A long time al


suspended in mid-air, rese
of some fairy realm more
; or when twilight deepen
eyelids, and peep into the


s of old
than a
s, then

tery, which reveals nothing
or origin.
, which appeared in the Na-
so much in keeping with
a reality, we have copied it
who are fond of legendary

go, when Okabumkee was king

over the tribes of Indians who roamed and hunted
around the South-western lakes, an event occurred
which filled many hearts with sorrow. The king
had a daughter named Weenonah, whose rare beau-
ty was the pride of the old man's life. Weenonah
was exceedingly graceful and symmetrical in figure.
Her face was of an olive complexion, tinged with
light brown, her skin finely transparent, exquisitely
clear. It was easy to see the red blood beneath the

.pulses o
was the
the hair
rows, th4

and often it blushed in reap

f a warm and generous


crystal of the soul-clear
and defiant, according to h
was the glory of the womar
plume, but shot with gleam

e large m

rich abundance.

onse to the
ture. Her
and liquid
er mood.
i. Dark as
s of sacred

asses, when free, rolled in tresses of
The silken drapery of that splendid


Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

hair fell about her 'like some royal cloak dropped
from the cloud- land's rare and radiant loom.'
Weenonah was, in truth, a forest-belle-an idol of

the braves--a
of her by the
or smoked ar
coveted prize,
each other as t

id many were the eloquent things said
red men, when they rested at noon,
ound the evening fires.' She was a
while chiefs and warriors vied with
to who should present the most valua-

ble gift, when her hand was
her father. But the daughter
loved Chuleotah, the renowne
dwelt among the wild groves
"The personal appearance
scribed by the hieroglyphics
- no other than prepossessing.
style suitable to the dignity o
some, well-developed, he was
the very ideal of manly vigor.

that between
tribes, there

were enemies.
Chuleotah had ga
child, he at once
A war of passion




sought, from the king,
r had already seen and
d chief of a tribe which
near Silver Springs.
of Chuleotah, as de-
of that day, could be
He was arrayed in a

f a chief. Bold,
to an Indian m
But it was a sad

old chief and the youn
long been a deadly f
When Okahumkee le
ined the affections of
declared his purpose
was soon opened, and
heard to international

g, and



his beloved
of revenge.
carried on

nor had mi
she return
her people,
the dripping


weeks passed away before the noble
slain-slain, too, by the father of

Her lover dead! Poor Weenonah! Will
to the paternal lodge, and dwell among
while her father's hand is stained with'
igs of her lover's scalp? No; she hur-


Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

ries away to the well-known fountain. Her heart is
there; for it is a favorite spot, and was a trysting-
place, where herself and Chuleotah met. Its asso-

ciations are all
past, while on
pale ghost of
come. 'Yes,
will follow wl
flowery land.'
of the maiden
which she nov

made sacred by the
the glassy bosom
Chuleotah stands
my own, my beloved
ere thou leadest,
Thus spake the w
. It is not a mer
r contemplates; it i

e memories of the
of the spring the
beckoning her to
d one, I come. I
to the green and
ill, if not the lips,
3 common suicide
is not despair, nor

a broken heart, nor
cause she is sick of
faith is, that by an
join her lover on t
strange glory has i
"The red clouds


loss of reason; it is not be-
world, or tired of life. Her
of self-immolation she will
spirit-plain, whose far-off,
for her such an irresistible

of sunset had passed away from

the western skies. Gray
but they soon melted and
shone through the airy blu
with more than common
silvered the fountain. All
winds, that sighed and m

ing into
still pro
mass of
Ibr her,


Then came W
where, gazing d
the clear,'green
Sharp hollows,
founder depths
rock, was her


ists came stealing
appeared, as the
The moon cami
illiancy, and her
'as still, save the n


lown, sh
. Forty
bed of d

through the

e out

to the side of the
e could see on the
of limestone, slop-
here and there into
feet below, on the
leath-easy enough

as before she could reach it the spirit must

have fled.


rocks on

floor could

w w

Petals Plucked froni Sunny Climes.

therefore produce no pai
For a moment she paused
then met her palms above
leap she fell into the whel
"Down there in the spr
ished by the attrition of
with purple and crimson,
diations, as if beams of th
tropical sunset, had bee
among them. Now, marl
ments of moss. or fresh-w;

fro to the motion of the
ened braids of Weeno
gives us such beautiful


n in that beautiful form.
on the edge of the spring,
her head, and with a wild

ming waves.
ing are shells, finely pol-
the waters. They shine
mingled with white irra-
le Aurora, or clouds of a
n broken and scattered
k those long, green fila-

water algae, swaying to and
aves; these are the loos-
h's hair, whose coronet
ruscations, sparkling and

luminous, like diamonds of the deep, when in the
phosphorescence of night the ocean waves are tipped
with fire. These relies of the devoted Indian girl are
the charm of Silver Springs. But as to Weenonah
herself-the real woman who could think and feel,
with her affections and memory-she has gone to
one of those enchanted isles far out in the western
sea, where the maiden and her lover are united, and
where9 both have found another Silver Spring, amid
the rosy bowers of love eternal."
Thus runs the Indian legend of Silver Springs, in
The following description of Silver Spring, writ-
ten by Prof. John Le Conte, although entirely di-
vested of myth and mystery, contains truthful facts
that continue to invest it with a charm which stirs
the current of our thoughts as no other natural
scenery in the State:




Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

"This remarkable spring is situated near the cen-

J d r -

ter or Marion county, in
latitude 290 15' north, an
It is about five miles north
seat, and nearly in the ax
equally distant from the

the State of Florida, in
d longitude 820 20' west
i-east of Ocala, the county-
is of the peninsula, being
Atlantic and Gulf coasts.

Its waters are discharged by a short stream bearing
the same name, which, after running about six miles,
unites with the Ocklawaha, a tributary of the St.
John's River. The stream takes its origin in a deep
pool, or head-basin, which is called the Silver Spring.
This basin is nearly circular in shape, about two
hundred feet in diameter, and surrounded by hills
covered with live-oaks, magnolias, sweet-bays, and
other gigantic evergreens. The amount of water
discharged is so large that small steamers and barges
readily navigate the-Silver Spring, up to the pool, or
head-spring, where there is a landing for the ship-
ment of cotton, sugar, and other produce. These
-steamers and barges make regular trips between the
Spring and Pilatka, on the St. John's. The boat-
men informed me that at its junction with the Ock.
lawaha more than one-half the water is contributed
,by the Silver Spring stream. This stream, for about
two miles from its source, varies in breadth from
forty-five to one hundred feet, and its depth in the
shallowest parts from ten to fifteen feet, its average
velocity being about two miles per hour. The flue.


tuations of water-level in this spring seem to be con-
nected with the season of rains, but never varying
more than two feet. The commencement of the
rainy season changes from the 15th of June to the


Pelals Plucked-from Sunny Climes.

to b(
are s
not 1

tion o
all en

of July. The waters of the spri
about the middle of the season
,and attain their maximum heig
nation. The maximum depth of
L constituting the head of the aprin
e not more than thirty-six feet in

e from which the water boils up; t
in the central and deep parts of the
to be about thirty feet. Inasmuch a
itative determinations, however easi
Idom resorted to by the unscientific
e surprised that its real depth fall
of its reputed depth. In South Ca
ted depth was variously stated at
red and twenty to one hundred an
the smallest estimate in. the vicil
g was forty-five feet! This affords
f the general law, that the accuracy
nents bears an inverse proportion
from the point of observation-pro


nations from centers, following

ng begin to
of summer
ht about its
water in the
g was found
the deepest

he general
Sbasin was
Ls accurate
ly applied,
, we need
s very far
rolina, the
from one
d fifty feet,
nity of the
an illustra-
of popular
to the dia-
bably, like
the law of

inverse squares.
"Doubtless, the greater portion of the water which
flows in the Silver Spring River is furnished by this
principal or head-spring; but there are several trib-
utary springs of similar character along the course
of the stream, which contribute more or less to the
volume of water. These usually occur in deep ba-
sins, or coves, along the fhargin of the stream' The

depth of one of these
dred yards below the
thirty-two feet in the

coves, sit
head- sp

uated about two hun-
ring, was found to be
in the limestone bot-



Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

tom from which the water boiled; in other deep
parts of the basin the depth was about twenty-four
feet. The 'Bone-yard,' from which several speci-
mens of mastodon bones have been taken, is situated
two miles below the head-spring, it being a cove, or
basin, measuring twenty-six feet.
"The most remarkable and really interesting phe-
nomenon presented by this spring is the truly extra-
ordinary transparency of the water-in this respect
surpassing any thing which can be imagined. All
of the intrinsic beauties which invest it, as well as
the wonderful optical properties which popular re-
ports have ascribed to its waters, are directly or in-
directly referable to their almost perfect diaphaneity.
On a clear and calm day, after the sun has attained
sufficient altitude, the view from the side of a small

boat floating on the
center of the head-sp
scription, and well ca
impression upon the
and configuration of

basin i
at suc

is as
, and

the atmo

surface of the water, near the
,ring, is beautiful beyond de-
iculated to produce a powerful
imagination. Every feature
F the bottom of this gigantic
visible as if the water was re-
'sphere substituted in its place.
of the bottom of this pool is

d with a luxuriant growth of water-grass and
ic moss-like plants, or fresh-water alge, which
a height of three or four feet. The latter are
in the deepest parts of the basin. Without
the development of so vigorous a vegetation
h depths is attributable to the large amount

of solar light which penetrates these waters. Some
parts are devoid of vegetation; these are composed

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

of limestone rock and san
pearance. The water boil
limestone; these crevices 1
comminuted limestone, in
rents of water by the local
duced by the agitation of

id, presenting a white ap-
s up from fissures in the
)eing filled with sand and
dicate the ascending cur-
milk-like appearance pro-
their contents.

"These observations were made about noon, dur-
ing the month of December-the sunlight illumin-
ing the sides and bottom of this remarkable pool,
brilliantly, as if nothing obstructed the light. The
shadows of our little boat, of our hanging heads and
hats, of projecting crags and logs, of the surround-
ing forest, and of the vegetation at the bottom, were
distinctly and sharply defined; while the constant
waving of the slender and delicate moss-like alga,
by means of the currents created by the boiling up
of the water, and the swimming of numerous fish
above this miniature subaqueous forest, imparted a

living reality to the
ten. If we add to
striking, 'that obje
water, when viewe

scene which can never be forgot-
this picture, already sufficiently
cts beneath the surface of the
d obliquely, were fringed with

the prismatic hues, we shall cease to be
the mysterious phenomena with which
nations have invested this enchanting
sides the inaccuracies which have been
in relation to the wonderful properties o:
On a bright day the beholder seems to

surprised at
vivid imag-
spring, be-
f its waters.
be looking

down from some lofty air-point on a truly fairy scene
in the immense basin beneath him-a scene whose
beauty and magical effect is vastly enhanced by the
chromatic tints with which it is inclosed.

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

"Popular opinion has ascribed to these waters re.
markable magnifying power. In confirmation of

this, it is coi
Herald can be

read at


New York

the deepest parts of the pool.

It is almost needless to state that the waters d
possess this magnifying power; that it is onl
large capitals constituting the heading of this
which can be read at the bottom, and that th
traordinary transparency of the water is abund
sufficient to account for all analogous facts.

riety of careful experiment
of testing this point, by s

brick attached to a father
what depth the words coi
tically. Of course, where
letters were distorted a
Numerous comparative
executed in relation to 1
same cards could be read
these experiments may b
-namely, that when the
size-say a quarter of an
a clear, bright day, they
great a vertical distance
water as they could in the

stances cards were read
contents at depths varyi

The comparative experi
in air and water serve to
of the wonderful diaphal
than any verbal descripi
"Some have thought

o not
y the
e ex-
A va-

its were made, with a view
ecuring printed cards to a
ning-line, and observing at
uld be read when seen ver-
i looked at obliquely, the
nd colored by refraction.
experiments were likewise
the distances at which the
in the air. The results of
e announced in a few words
letters are of considerable
inch or more in length-on
could be read at about as
beneath the surface of the
3 atmosphere. In some in-
by those ignorant of the
ng from six. to thirty feet.

ments in reading the cards
convey a more distinct idea
nous properties of the latter
there was something myste-


Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

rious in the fact that objects beneath the surface of
the water, when viewed obliquely, are fringed with

prismatic hues.
physicist that suc
ical consequence
by refraction. 0
objects on a dark

tile top,
the colo
jects on
ing and


nd were
nd red
ig was
ed optic

fringed with b
at the bottom,
reversed for da
being exactly
aal principles.

probably from



d the
lue at
k ob-
n ac-
n the

two causes

first, because th

extraordinary transparency of the

water rendered subaqueous objects highly luminous;
and secondly, because the gigantic evergreens which
fringed the pool cut off most of the surface reflection,
which would otherwise have impaired the visual im-
pression produced by the more feeble refracted and
dispersed rays proceeding from the objects-the
shadow of the surrounding forest forming a dark
background, analogous to the black cloud on which
a rainbow is projected."
The land improvements near the springs are not
particularly fascinating. There are two landings
about one-half mile distant from each other, called
Upper and Lower. At the Lower Landing is a large
turpentine distillery, the property of Messrs. Agnew
& Co., where thirty barrels of turpentine and one
hundred of rosin are manufactured monthly. The
Upper Landing has a large ware-house, usually well
filled with goods from steamers, to furnish the back

It is unnecessary to remain
h a phenomenon is a direct
of thelaws of dispersion of
observation has proved that

with orange a
r of the fringil
a white groun
e with recognize
case, the phen

omenon is remarkably

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

country, together with produce for shipment to New
York and many other points.
Mrs. F. A. House has a dry-goods store in the

vicinity, and a small

appearance. A
winter, but we
could be derived
water from the
compensate for t
the transparent 1
a man with mu
doubt, caused




orange grove of
rding-house is k
unable to stat
drinking the st
ing, unless the

very promising
ept open in the
e what benefit
rong limestone
scenery would

lack of life-giving properties in
d. A bar-room is kept here by
-inflamed eyes, which are, no
imbibing his villainous com-

pounds too freely, in the absence of better-paying
Tourists wishing to visit Ocala can be accommo-

dated with
Ocala is a n
among the
grand water
good hotel
about forty

a conveyance on reasonable terms.
ice little town, six miles distant, nestled
hummocks, embowered in a growth of
r-oaks, orange-trees, and ornamental
It is the capital of Marion county. A
is kept here by Mr. E. J. Harris, where
boarders can be accommodated. In the

center of the park stands
house, while churches of v
in the suburbs. It is a c
the country people many r
This locality is describe
fertile region of country v
also acorns, grapes, and
Spaniards entered upon

a very creditable court-
rarious creeds are located
central business resort for
niles around.
I by De Soto as being "a
there maize is abundant,
plums." Near here the
the territory of a chief

called Vitachuco, who received them with demon-
strations of hostility; "where a bloody battle was

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

fought between two lakes on a level plain, when
two hundred warriors plunged into the water, and

remained without touching land for twenty-
hours." Ocala has a population of several
red inhabitants, which have more the appear-
of enjoyment than those of any other town in
tate. The climate being so mild, no arrange-
s are made in the stores and offices for warm-

ing; consequently wh
camp-fires are built ar
which are gathered m
faces, of all professit
find them, taking a c(
a Stoic, knowing it is
of Northern aggressi
will soon waft away.


a cool morning comes, little

ound the public square, before
lany happy, contented-looking
ons, accepting things as they
)ol breeze with the firmness of
only of short duration--a kind
on, which the warm sunshine
As the fragments of lost fort-

unes float by them, they do not settle into apathy
and despair over the wreck, but all seem resigned to
their fate, trying to be as happy as the force of cir-
cumstances will permit. They are mostly persons
of fine mental culture, besides being the best, most
hospitable people in existence; indeed, their society
seems like an oasis in the desert of this cold, selfish
The lands around are gently undulating, with an

It was for
county in
groves, an
amount of
and sirup

of rolling hummock and first-class pine.
merely considered the most productive
the State, containing the best orange
d before the war raising the largest
sea-island cotton, besides oranges, sugar,
in abundance. Many planters became

discouraged during the late war on account of in-


the S


Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

ability to work their large plantations, and aban-

doned them. These ferti
in lots to suit colonists, o0
tiers. An average of two
to the acre can be produce
alluvial, and porous, cont
and other fertilizers, which
cuperation when not being
abounds, covering the earl
and, drifts, indicating a cl
be purchased at from five
Marion county is call

is now
from tl


being the


on each side, until
cultivated land.
e fact of numerous

on the surface,
shells, oysters,
unknown to th
was proportion
the earth tremi
ing story is re
animal during

together wi
e present g
ate to his I
)le with sou
lated in re

tne pioneer


are for sale now

r accommodate single set-
thousand pounds of sugar
1d here. The soil is dark,
aining phosphate of lime
h possess the power of re-
ig cultivated. Lime-rock
th in the form of boulders
ay soil. Good lands can
to ten dollars per acre.
ed the back-bone of the
'r from which the waters
what was the ocean's bed
This theory is confirmed
s fossil remains to be seen
of fish, birds, alligators'-
ith the bones of an animal
generation; but if his voice
body, he must have made
nd. The following amus-
ference to this mammoth



which first navigated the Ocklawaha River:
One morning early, as the gray dawn was stealing
through the shades of night, the inhabitants were
aroused from their slumbers by an unusual noise.
An old hunter named Matt. Driggers, whose ear was
ever on the alert for the scream of the wild cat, the
howl of the wolf, the yell of the panther, or the
growl of the bear, rushed out, exclaiming, "What on
airth is that?" The sound was repeated, when


.9* --'- -, rr~ *,Fyfl'raJrx p: dWVi7$ 7 '

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

Matt. convulsively grasped his
blew a blast from his stentorian


a vast



hunting-horn, and

ungs which


hounds came whining about him

ry. His
, anxious

for the

hunt. Taking down his rifle "Dead Shot" from
the hooks, he mounted his lank steed, and rode with
haste to the nearest neighbor, Pat Kennedy. "Hel-
low, Pat! you in thar asleep, and the devil un-
chained in the swamp! Hark now do n't you hear
him?" "0 Matt., that's nothing' but one of those
old masterdons! You know we dun seed his bones
where he was drowned in the Wakulla Spring."
"I dunno, may be so; one thing sartain, he's a
mighty big varmint, an' his voice is curoser than
any thing I ever hearn afore in my time." But,"
says Pat, one thing sure: there is nothing ranges
these parts but what my dogs and 'Kill Quick' can
bring down." Summoning all his dogs, he was
soon on his way with Matt. Driggers to the house

of the next frontie
of hounds and the
ran like wild-fire

rsman. Attracted by t
blowing of horns, the e
throughout the entire

he baying

hood, until all the settlers were collected.
After reviewing his comrades and counting his
dogs, Matt. Driggers, confident that the full force of
the country was mustered, then rode bravely through
bushes and swamps, fording creeks and swimming
lagoons, in pursuit of the great "varmint." When
he imagined they were sufficiently near, he ordered
the dogs to be put on the trail. Simultaneous with
this movement came another shrill echo from the
supposed huge monster, which sent the dogs cower-

~. .I


Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

ing to their masters, at the same time unnerving
the courage of the bravest hunter. A look of su-
perstitious awe was depicted upon every counte-
nance, and none dared advance a step farther except
Matt. Driggers, who, bolder than the rest, led the
way, saying, "Come, boys; if the dogs are scared,
we will follow by the sound!"
Winding their course cautiously through the val-
ley, they followed in the direction of the strange
sound, until they reached the basin of Silver Springs,
where they found a curious-looking craft discharg-
ing cargo. The hunters commenced making inquir-

ies if they had heard that
ing through the valley, at t
and trying to imitate, its
ability. The Captain, to
then told and illustrated to
about which they were so
steam-boat whistle!
Sometimes, the water be

,he sa

monster while pass-
me time describing,
to the best of their
great satisfaction,
that the great noise
excited was only a

iing too low for steamers

above Silver Springs, visitors are deprived of a great
pleasure in not seeing this portion of the country,
barges and slow coaches being the only medium of
communication. However, this inconvenience will
soon be overcome by a contemplated railroad.
Large portions of the country in this locality are
yet open to homestead settlers, where all good peo-
ple will receive a hearty welcome.
As we leave the river and springs, the scenery
changes from trees and foliage to fertile prairies and
long marsh-grass, which sways in the breeze like
troubled waves. Here the huge alligators luxuri-

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes. 87
ate and crawl about in peaceful security, swallowing
their light-wood knots before commencing to hiber-
nate in winter, which precaution is said to be neces-
sary, that their diaphragms may not contract during
this torpid state.
In these wilds the palmetto rears its crowned head
in solitude, and the wild orange matures its golden
fruit, kissed by an eternal spring-time. This is the
home of the curlew, plume-crane, blue heron, fish-
hawk, royal king-fisher, mocking-bird, paroquet,
red-bird, blue-peter, water-turkey, limkin, and duck
-all of them God's free birds.
Our steamer has now commenced making its
pathway through wide, deep lakes, and we are one
hundred and fifty miles above Pilatka. In these
waters are found a great variety of fish-pike, trout,
bream, perch; while in the surrounding country live
the black bear, wild cat, deer, gray fox, squirrels of
all kinds, and wild hogs.
The first body of water is Lake Griffin, twelve
miles long; Lake Eustace, of less dimensions; then
Lake Harris, fifteen miles in length, seven miles
wide, with an average of water thirty feet in depth.
The tide of immigration is concentrating on this
lake very rapidly.
The following incident is related as having oc-
curred among the primitive inhabitants in this por-
tion of the country, when priests were not always
waiting in the church to administer the rites of
matrimony to willing lovers:
A devoted suitor, having made the preliminary
arrangements for the celebration of his nuptials, set

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

out in search of an official to perform the ceremony.

He, never having been initiated
of matrimony before, ignorantly
person he met where he could
man replied there was no sheriff
"Why do you wish for him?"
married, sir." "0 you want the
"Do you know where a preac
thought the sheriff would do
preacher has gone on the circ
good deacon lived near, he repai


into the mysteries
inquired of the first
find a sheriff. The
nearer than Pilatka.
"I'm going to be
squire, or preacher."
her lives, then? I
as well." "The
auit." Knowing a
red thither as a last

t. Finding the deacon at home, he related to
in tremulous tones, his disagreeable condition.
deacon informed him that marrying did not
within the pale of his jurisdiction. "But I
be married," replied the intended bridegroom.
deacon reDlied. "ImDossible. sir!" "Well.


can't you marry us just a little till
comes home? "
irg, fronting partly on Lake Harris,
town; has a post-office, court-house, Mas

hall, hotel, private boarding-h
cotton-gin, grist-mill, lumber d
A sugar-cane mill is in oper
which is a centrifugal sugar-d
the State. This mill can turn
day. Every thing produced
market, as boats pass almost
the settlers to change all their
from a bale of cotton or moss


houses, church, steam
Dressing machine, etc.


connected with

ryer, the only one in
out fifteen barrels per
here finds a ready
daily, which enables
* surplus into money,
to a dozen eggs.

When Colonel Hart's little open boat and engine
first came up to dredge out the barnets and swamp-

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

grass, the natives gathered around him, thinking it
was a cook-stove.

The India

wading in
at the en
and child
making a
abled their
In this
proach tr
log menti
Florida is


ns traveled through these swamps by
e water, and using a cow-hide fastened
to transport their provisions, women,

ren, which
trail that 1
r friends or
vicinity we
tgic ground
oned by De
still to be

they drew after the
asted several days, w
foes to follow them.
find historical relics,
s. A portion of the


way, several hundred yards
from which the Indians ex
near which yet remains a

m, thus
which en-

and ap-

3 in his travels through
; also an artificial cause-
in length, made of shells
traced food and pearls,
portion of one of those

immense mounds, supposed to be the residence of
the Cazique.
Lake Dunham is the last in the chain of these in-
land waters, upon which is situated Okahumkee,
two hundred and twenty-five miles above Pilatka.
It is the terminus of navigation.
The Ocklawaha River was the memorable place
where the Payne's Treaty Landing was drAwn up,
and between the terminus of this chain of lakes and
the Withlacoochee River are located the tragic
grounds of General Thompson's murder and the
Dade Massacre.

1 .~ .

Petcls Plucked from Sunny Climes.


YHE early history of Florida Territory, soon
after it came into the possession of the
United States, being written in characters
of blood for years, it is considered both
appropriate and interesting to intersperse
a sprinkling of historical facts in this work, to the
authenticity of which some now living can testify.
The Indians were intensely opposed to emigrat-

ing West, as that country offered
means of idleness as Florida, where
as little solicitude as the buzzards t
above their heads-while in Arkani
have to work They were a race (
fishermen, with no habits of indust
the surface of lakes and rivers, with
locating as the watery inhabitants th
The movements of the Indians

them no such
they lived with
,hat lazily flew
sas they would
>f hunters and
try, gliding on
as little idea of
ey captured.
and American

troops, encumbered with their wagons, or a field-
piece, compared unfavorably with the agile foe they
had to meet in warfare, who could swim the streams
and leap over the logs of the wide forest, and vanish,
like the whooping crane, that made its nest at night
far from the spot where it dashed the dew from the
flowers and grass in the morning.
One of the occasions of the Seminole war, like our
own late struggle, was on account of the fugitive

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes. 91

slaves, which the Indians harbored, instead of re-
turning to their owners, or permitting their masters
to come and get them.
The following is a correct copy of an interesting
document, to which frequent reference was made
during the Florida war, as a compact which had
been violated. We have transferred it as an item of
interest. As the whites found the Indians becom-
ing troublesome neighbors, this treaty was drawn
up in order to rid the country of them-its violation
being the true cause of the war:
Treaty of Payne's Landing, concluded May 9, 1832, and rati-
fied April 12, 1834.
ARTICLE I. That the Seminole Indians relinquish to the
United States all claim to the lands they at present occupy in
the Territory of Florida, and agree to immigrate to the coun-
try assigned to the Creeks, west of the Mississippi River-it
being understood that an additional extent of territory, pro-
portioned to their numbers, will be added to the Creek coun-
try, and that the Seminoles will be received as a constituent
part of the Creek Nation, and be readmitted to all the privi-
leges as a member of the same.
ART. II. For and in consideration of the relinquishment of
claim in the first article of this agreement, and in full compen-
sation for all the improvements which may have been made on
the lands thereby ceded, the United States stipulate to pay to
the Seminole Indians fifteen thousand dollars, to be divided
among the chiefs and warriors of the several towns, in a ratio
proportioned to their population, the respective portions of
each to be paid on their arrival in the country they consent to
move to: it being understood their faithful interpreters, Abra-
ham and Cudjo, shall receive two hundred dollars each of the
above sum, in full remuneration for the improvements to be
abandoned, now cultivated by them.
ART. III. The United.States agree to distribute, as they ar-

92 Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

rive at their homes in the Creek Territory, west of the Missis-
sippi River, a blanket and home-spun frock to each warrior,
women and children, of the Seminole tribe of Indians.
ART. IV. The United States agree to extend the annuity
for the support of a blacksmith, provided for in the sixth ar-
ticle of the treaty at Camp Moultrie, for ten years beyond the
period therein stipulated; and in addition to the other annui-
ties secured under that treaty, the United States agree to pay
three thousand dollars a year for fifteen years, commencing
after the removal of the whole tribe-these sums to be added
to the Creek annuities, and the whole sum to be divided, that
the chiefs and warriors of the Seminole Indians may receive
their equitable portion of the same, as members of the Creek
ART. V. The United States will take the cattle belonging
to the Seminoles, at the valuation of some discreet person ap-
pointed by the President, and the same shall be paid for in
money to the respective owners, after their arrival at their
new homes; or other cattle, such as may be desired, will be
furnished them, notice being given through their agent of
their wishes on this subject, before their removal, that time
may be afforded to supply the demand.
ART. VI The Seminoles being anxious to be relieved from
certain vexatious demands for slaves and other property, al-
leged to have been stolen and destroyed by them, so that they
may remove unembarrassed to their new homes, the United
States stipulate to have the same property investigated, and
to liquidate such as may be satisfactorily established, provided
the amount does not exceed seven thousand dollars.
AaT. VII. The Seminole Indians will remove in three years
after the ratification of this agreement, and the expenses of
their removal shall be paid by the United States; and such
subsistence shall also be furnished for a term not exceeding
twelve months after their arrival at their new residence, as in
the opinion of the President their numbers may require, the
emigration to commence early as practicable in A.D. 1833, and
with those Indians at present occupying the Big Swamp and
other parts of the count* beyond, as defined in the second

Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

article of the treaty concluded at Camp Moultrie Creek, so
that the whole of that proportion of Seminoles may be re-
moved within the year aforesaid, and the remainder of the
tribe, in about equal proportions, during the subsequent years
1834 and 1835.
Done at Camp at Payne's Landing, on the Ocklawaha River,
in the Territory of Florida, May 9, 1832.
JAMES GADSDEN, Commissioner, [L S.]
and fifteen Chiefs.

Osceola figured

conspicuously during the


history of our




consider the following statements connected with
his movements as items of unsurpassed interest to

those who are

more fond

of facts without fiction

than the wondrous

legends of any day-dreamer.

The mother of Osceola belonged to the Red Stick

tribe of Indians, a branch of the Creeks.

She was

married to Powell, who was an English trader among
the Indians for twenty years, and for this reason he

is sometimes called Powel

instead of Osceola.

was born in the State of Georgia, on the Tallapoosa

River, about the year 1800.

In 1808 a quarrel oc-

curred among the Indians of the Creek tribe, when
the mother of Osceola left, taking him with her, and

retiring to the Okefinokee Swamp.

Powell remained

in Georgia, with his two daughters, and emigrated
to the West with them.
In 1817 Osceola retreated before General Jackson,
with a small party, and settled on Pease Creek. A
few years afterward he removed to the Big Swamp,
in the neighborhood of Fort King, uniting himself

with the Micosukees.

The greater portion of his

life was spent in disquietude, when there was nei-

94 Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

other peace nor war, but depredating in various
ways. He was opposed to the Payne Treaty, de-
claring he would fight before signing it, or kill any
of his followers who made a move toward its ratifi-
When the Indians held a council at Fort King,
consisting of thirteen chiefs, only eight of them were
willing to leave for the West. Hoithlee Mattee, or
Jumper, a sworn enemy of the whites, who was
called in their language "The Lawyer," and for
whom General Jackson had offered a reward of five
hundred dollars, rose in their council, with all the

dignity of a Roman orator, after which
his intention in thundering tones: "
no good feeling between Jumper and t
Every branch he hews from a tree oi
limb lopped from HoiJhlee's body.
water that a white man drinks from ou
much blood from Hoithlee's heart."
After the return of Charlie Ema

he announced
I say there is
he white man.
n our soil is a
Every drop of
ir springs is so

Itha from

West, who was the most intelligent of their chiefs,
he met with the whites in council, that he might
give expression to'his opinion: "Remain with us

the r

" said he to the
'elation of paren
e-it is gentle as
derly among us
ns, but no blood
sd that if we met

whites, "and
t and child to
arrow-root an<
have committee
has been spill
a brother's blo

be our father;
each other is
I honey. The
td some depre-
led. We have
od on the road,

or even found his dead body, we should not believe
it was by human violence, but that he had snagged
his foot, or that a tree had fallen upon him; that if


Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

blood was spilled by either, the offender should an-
swer for it."
Previous to this period the Indians were lords of

soil, and considered themselves located i

n a land

of undisputed titles, as entirely their own property,
by right of possession, as though they held registered
The following is an effort at Indian poetry, de-

scriptive of their condition previous to hosti


We were a happy people then,
Rejoicing in our hunter mood;
No footsteps of the pale-faced men
Had marred our solitude.

Osceola was not tall

, but of fine figure and splen-

did physique, his head being always encircled with
a blue turban, surmounted by the waving tafa blste,
or black-eagle plumes, with a red sash around his


was a time-server, a self-constituted

agent, and a dangerous enemy when enraged. In
1834 the United States survey corps, while camping
at Fort King, was visited by Osceola, Fred L. Ming

g the captain.

Indians always show their friend-

ship by eating with their friends.

On this occasion

he refused all solicitations to partake of their hospi-
tality, and sat in silence, the foam of rage resting in

the corners of his mouth.

Finally he rose to retire,

at the same time assuming a menacing manner, and,
seizing the surveyor's chain, said: "If you cross my
land I will break this chain in as many pieces as
there are links in it, and then throw the pins so far

you can never get them again.

" Like most of his


Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

race, he
the chief
people hi
have utte

be bro
let th

was possessed of a native eloquence, the
; of which is a specimen, after the Payne's

Treaty was framed and sign


e flow

"There is little
agreed in coui
Sit; it is well;
I speak; what
ng worthy of w

ers be


e more to be
icil; by their
it is truth, ar
I say I will d
ords. If the
; the stately

by some of
said. The
chiefs they
id must not
o; there re-
hail rattles,
oak of the

forest will lift its head
towering and unscathed
The whites continued
the treaty to be enforced
ued opposing it in ever
nature that the weak sh
this reason the Seminole
as their friends, but fei
Thompson, the Agent, 1
that they had made a pr
Messages were also son
much debating said he

afterward General
come up and sign t
moved the indignal
pitch of desperation
General Thompson
the Big Chief, in W'
better. He replied

than for you
treaty, as if

" and, r
to mak

to the sky and the storms,
urging the stipulations of
urging the stipulations of

ile the

ry way. It
)uld suspect


Indians contin-
is a law of our
the strong; for

1 not regard the Creeks
them. Captain Wiley
reminding the Indians
3e to leave for the West.
Micanopy, who, after
Id not go. Some time

Thompson ordered
he emigration list, w



n of this savage to t
and he replied, "I
en told him he had 1
hington, who would
'I care no more f<
pushing up to the
e his mark, stuck

Osceola to
ich request
the highest
will not."
talked with
teach him
r Jackson
his knife

through the paper. For this act of contempt he
was seized, manacled, and confined in Fort King.



Petals Plucked from Sunny Climes.

When Col. Fannin

mutter, "The sun is
the hour; the Agent h
After he was first impr
soon manifested signs
interpreter, promising,
come back when the

bring with him
paper-which pi
take was made i
he had then bee
ure would have
the white man,
strange compoi

arrested him he was heard to

overhead, I shall remember


one hun
promise wa
n releasing
n sent W
been spi


his day, I will have mine."
nod he became sullen, but
penitence, and called the
his irons were taken off, to
i was high overhead, and
dred warriors to sign the
is fulfilled. The great mis-
g him from Fort King. If
est, much blood and treas-
ired. He had one talk for

and another for the
nd of duplicity at


After his release he commanded h
have their knives in readiness, their
with plenty of powder in their pouc
menced collecting a strong force,
sleeping until it was done.
The first direct demonstration of
on June 19, 1835, near what was cal
Town settlement, at which time .t


red-being a
d superiority.
is warriors to
rifles in order,
hes, and corn-
not eating or

hostility was
led the Hogg's
ne Indian was

killed;, another fatally injured; also three whites
woundd The fray commenced by some whites
whipping a party of five Indians, whom they had
caught in the act of stealing. Private Dalton, a
dispatch-rider, was killed August 11, 1835, while
carrying the mail from Fort Brooke to Fort King.
This was an act of revenge for an Indian killed in
a former encounter. Dalton was found twenty miles
from Fort King with his body cut open and sunk in
a pond. The Indians commenced snapping their

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