Table of Contents
 General information
 The story of Key West
 What to see in Key West

Title: Key West
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055584/00001
 Material Information
Title: Key West
Alternate Title: Key West guide
Physical Description: 95 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Federal Writers' Project of the Work Projects Administration for the State of Florida
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: S.l
Publication Date: 193-?]
Subject: Description and travel -- Key West (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
History -- Key West (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: Typescript for the Federal Writers' Project.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00055584
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002035000
oclc - 33232175
notis - AKM2725

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    General information
        Page i
        Page ii
    The story of Key West
        Page 1
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    What to see in Key West
        Page 72
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Full Text



List of Il.ustraticos and Mapa

General Information

The Story of -Ky West

What To See In Key West -

The Fort Jofferson National Yomanent




it ..) V






Steamship Piers Peninsular and Occidental S.3. Co. Pier
at loarhern and of Caroline Street, Semi-weekly sailings
between Port Tampa, Xey West and Havana
Aiotst Submarine Basin. Pan-Aaerioan Airways Co., Ino.
Yaoht Basins In the U.S. HNvy ub-marine Basain Prevailing
Dip= 9 7eet, -Rate one cent per foot over all per day.
B tation~~ Florida Uot Linesa Corner Duval Street and
01timr Lane.
Teaeeaba Stand at corner of Duval and FloPadg Streetes
Fare, 26 and 50 Oents per persae.
Trffte Reglations a Dtsval Street, .and Fleming Street be.
twoen WItfhead and Simonton Streets are one way streets.
Looe for signs.
Information Bureau: The Key West Administration, PEA, Ad-
miniatration Bldg1., saval Station, Eaton Street*
Am~uements and Recreationt Two motion picture theaters on
D~val Street.- aneea at Sociedad Cuba (Cuban Club) and
various night oluba as advertised in daily ne.ws-vper.
tsisol Concerts by the Key West Hospitality Band as an-
nouoed. Frequent recitals by the pupila of the Convent
of 1 uary nLaculate music department.
Athletic Fields t Navy oield foot of Caroline Street and
Zield in Bayview Park* Baseball and Dias~mdball games
throughout the year
%in i Submarine Basain Pool en Roosvelt Boulevard,
Nowt Beach and Rest Beaoh* CCabna -avaslable at Rest Beaoh
S7se6ats per day and 615.00 per snib
Courts a Two cement ao n WBhw Park, free*
ia iC F n aa sat omna. tfer guests of *te
and Sunday afternoon 7
SoL A nine-hole m= ioipal oeMl8ai- Island is open
sitars, O100 for a a ,100 per Month saa
a 2560 family rate per saon 60 cents far t
nie holes# 75 cents for eightes 0ho s +

r'=+ .+.i
; -' ,

Fiahingt FPr any of the bridges or piers. Boats for deep
sea fishing |290 per day at lulf, Thompson and P.E.C.
Saillin ind Boati1ng Ctbcoats are rented at Rest Beach,
50 # per hour, 530 per day; skiffs, 250 per howr, 75W
per day*
Sikeet Shqetians Arrangements are made through the manage.
ment of the *aa Marina Hotol.
Annmml 61ventI Orito do Yara", Cuban National holiday
s0el"bati n, -oteber 10. Cuban naval vessels akae an
offi-ial visit fr the week of the celebration. "L
Seman Alegre"' held during February. One of its features
is .an outdoor oamie opera*



tioe in one of the hotels, I.._- ft 1.,
S- -L -t Et
e In one of the _ot ^. .......lP

Key West is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf
of Mexicoe V-- _I Froei it the populace has
gotten its living whether fre "wreaking", oosaercial fishing
or guiding parties of sportsmen. -b- -. ak a
4--u t-.1 bj _Especially Jist before sunset when are dis-
played the colors of the rainbow and the sea, golden reds and
deep blues, mauve and indigo, golden splashes, dark browns, and
finally a great ball of fire as the sun sinks rapidly froa
sight into the sea.
Then the numerous reef lights begin to twinkle., l
; 'l .. ...i-- protecting passing ships fri e *
treacherous reef*
Key est Sets ites- ag the 8pUeieh 2Cao Iose
so named because ef the quantities of htawn bones fend
on the island by early visto e *s
to those who are seaoeieas Sa of the Suediately visible
it will seem at first a rather dilapidated city. Snall native

shacks and balconied houses, though luminous i'the sun are grey
and unpainted. But these old houses deserve respect, for they
have withstood mazn a hurricane. Many of them are of cedar and
mahogany, the framework put together with trenails, or wooden
pegs by ships' oarpentersa Another feature of the loses is
their lack of ohianeys, fireplaces being eensidered nneces-
sary in a sub-tropical city which has never had a frost. The
shabby appearance of the houses ai somewhat softened by the
wealth of surrounding tropical shrubbery.
The dcLirating feature of Key West is the trio of steel
masts of the United States Naval Radio Station. Visible for
miles on land and sea, these towers seem to Give a hint-not
only of the past but of the present, and, Key 'aest hopes, of
the future*
For the "cest parts of Key West's water front prop erty are
owned by the United Otates government. Prom its establishments
many Key testers have derived their. livelihood.
The United States Naval Station one teemed with activity,
its harbor filled with ships, its shops hmumed with industry,
its barracks housed officers, marines, sailors. ow it stands
aiaest deserted* A few sailors opeate the radio station* A
ftw laborers keep the beautiful pgreas Ia orders
Pert Taylor ones a three.4inred trtiftiation is now aere.
ly a saer camping ground for the iFerndsa national Quard,
-The Onited States ay Barracks onee boused a reSgient of
troops. Now Just enough men are there to keep the p oe from
toe much decay and dilapidation.

The virtual abandonment of thcse stations wrough havoc
an the people of Key West. 'lindreds of government employees
were thrown out of worZk and bhe buaircss of the city lost the
trade of soldiers and sailors.
Lespair and poverty so gr.pped the city aroe sa than oth6r
parts of the country affected by the depression that the gov-
ernmental relief organization hd to asasae for a tie the en-
tire burden of relief and of municipal goverrna nt Ae. Ab -

Abandoned cigar factorlos with their attendant satellites,
the workers cottages, are mute evidence of a once thbrving in-
Henry *. Plagler~* thirteen acre Trumbo Island. ie almost
deserted. Failing to acquire property for h.i railway termiLal
he made land by pmsping marl from the sea., lo loe do trains
arrive and depart since the destructive hurricane of September
193 carried away miles of track*
The citizens at Key Test seem to belong to its exotic set.
ting of ilsand eity, tropical shrubbery and erytal Pea i.b
S'Most. otf Wh white

people a r e the Bahamas and Cuba, The Buaamdans ft British
origin were attt noted the opportunity for a '.liC ed by
wrecking. G bans eare to escape Spanish peraeosta espeoially
in 2869, when rebelliae broke out in' Cuba 9T poeg al eame
Frem the Bahamas and Cuba. So 7ey West has for se 1 genera-
tions sed two languages English and Spanisho At te eastern
end of Duval Street where many Cubans live, English i seldom-

On Duval Street is the imposing building of the Ssn Carlos
Institute, built and maintained by the Cuban government. It
houses a Spanish-speaking school zw.ose support comes from Cuba.
The large Spanish-speaking population sives the visitor an Ia-
pression like that of a foreign oi,
Several restaurants specialize in sea food. Turtle stest,
yellowtail, jewfish, orkvwfsh.or 1lorida lobster are favorites.
Spanish foods such as enchilade, arros con pollo,(chicken and
yellow riee), black beans and rice, boliche roast help to form
an unusual meain
The weather-beaten fish piers, battered and broken hulks
of vessels form a vivid contrast with the trim yachtschses
i .. -.-'ng at the submarine basin.

Key West has dielined greatly in populat*Ci since 1920, due
to a number of factors closing of government establishmentas
re'-'oval of industry to larger cities and destruction of the rail-
way by hurricane in 1935,
Key 'est has no street cars, no bus system. Private motor
cars, r few taxicabs and anybieyles are the means of traMis
portattan .sib.U
dispensed with.
The original residential section was in bbe western past fr;
the island. Its 43A boip- ar. gradually being restored At o p. .
sent the newer build l are In the central part of te isl.ead
most of them being *etufied bungalows* beyond li3s ad ande*
velopeds msrsby sectiem awaiting drainage and development
With the passing years the city has changed but little.
Most of the streets are still unaved, no sewer system is in op-
eration, rain water stored in cisterns still supplies the city,


fishing boats ~.anded down frmn one generation to another still
Until recnti'j little ".as _oaae in making 'ey lest's charm
knoim to winter visitors. In 1934 the Federal emergency Relief
Admitnitrttiaon sn to exploit its possibtl Seos. Dbit it has
nane ef the glamour of the usual type of resort. Its paee Is
slew* annag, teorrorro'a seae to be its motto. Again the Latin
inflnenc, conbinod with the tropical olitate bas its effect.
Invigorating sea breezes, brilliant sunshine, the absence
of the hustle of larce cities all this eaobine to make the is-
land/denar ~o its natives who dread to leave the city. -he via.
itor soon becomes infected with Key Testls atsosrhere and nzw
who ome for short visits prolo ng their stay, and go away to
Fet'un to Koy 1ost.

Key est lies at the southeastern point of the United
States, i fact at the southessbern point aof 'orth Acsrica.
It is on the trade route between Enrope and
the eastern part of North America on the hand andb the
Pana=a and Hioaragna Canals en the other, and also at the
trade route between all of North A.esie* n one side ad all
a South America n the other \
Only two other cities in the Wed aare stialav l situated
with respect to continents* The oe s Gi ibaltar at the south
western point of Europe lying on the trade reutee between rope
and the Sues Canal, and between Bope and Africa. bhe other is

Singapore 1ying at the southeastern point of Asia and on the trade


routes between the Suez Conal and eastern Asia, and al o between
eastern Asia and AustrPalasia,
Key Yoest lies an one of the chain keys extending in a
southweaterly direction frn Florida Ga pe Sable and I imzs are
directly no~thtat of Key West at distanoes of 60 and 130 ailes
respectively, while Havana lies to the south-southwest at a
distance of 90 nautieal miles. Its latitude is 24 533 North,
and longitude is 810 482 West*
The land area of Key West is about 35 miles long by'a mile
in width. It is surrounded by extensive s1aoal waters 1n which
now land could be made by filling as was done by the FPorida
East Coast Railway in rakicig w'iat is own as Trmabo Island.
Like -most of the o aer iedjs -n te Iozida s reef, Iey .esat
originally had a high ridge extedin l_21on its water front o
the' oean aide here the deepest water lies and sloping
':q ~ to ponds and lagocns. Beyond t:'ese lay the high bhfanmok
lands, The high ridge on the 'water side was selected as the site
of the city, and bare, until the growth of the oameorqial life
of the city and the development of the UOited States Nval Sta-
_tion the finest reidences were situated In the soi western
Porti eat the ldland was a lagoon; beginning Sa a inp and
continuing nearly, parallel with the beach it otsosed Ihitehead
street near Saeh ie street and joined the oeoe near the northern
end of Staitm Stareet.

The getest pyical asset of Key West is its barbdr. Key
;est enjoys the distinction of havinG the only natural deep


harbor in south Florida. Practically no money has ever been
spent on the three major entrances to the south and only a 4la-
tively small amount of about one million dollars in ', evening the
northwest entrance. Above all, the harbor-and all of ti e major
entrances are selftmaintaining and cannot be closed*. i a sec-
tion where other natural harbors do not exist and where artifi.
cial. channels are subject to silting and to acoplete closure
during high vinds, the inprtance of bhe w.narbor of Key Vest can-
not be over estimated. ..--
The outer reef lies about six miles south of Key 'lost. The
main channel cuts through the. reef with a depth of 30 fbet and
enters an indefinitely large anchoarae area here the depth
ram on fr.c 55 to 40 feet. The 30-foot channel then passes
through an inner reef and enters another large anchorage area
having depths of 31 to 35 feet. Fram this area the channel
passes alone the western and of Key 1,est c.rr-ring a natural minimum
depth of 28 feet to Nano-f- War Harbor. whichh is the lo ical are&
for port development Te aortheawt' channel leads frot the west-
ern end of Key Iest to the northerly reef oarryin a present dep ",
of 18 feet.* !
The Florida keys mry be divided into tuo aeetiL: the atpper:
keys formed of coral reef 1aesteae, and the lower keyi, ths -
south of Bahia Hoada Inolatiad Ky Test, whiah are forced of
oolitio limestone M-Th. litie foirmation which bas bea blemn
or washed in consists of iay little balls of liae ccnm ed


The cllmiate of 6ey .eat has attracted travellers Fram 6o
time of its settlement. On Nonember 16, 1823,
Oamedore :oerB n uty at Key est, wrote to the Seretary
of the Navy,
"Pran the little experience I have had, ms opie-
ion Is. that the climate is similar to that of -
the "'seat Indis Islands generally, that its air
is perhaps less salubrious than eoae, but more
so t;ia others; and notwiths tending the ob-

jections tuha may be urged against it, an ac-
count of peculiar defeats arising frim its sur.
face, and tieo -any salt and fresh water poyds
w>-ich it 1i said to contain, still, that it la
fro tL-oe sxcellnce of its harbor and its pe-
culiar station on the map of the, desten Semi-
sphere, too important an object to be suffered
to r'e ain. mnoccupied and unregrded, for, ad-
i-ltt-nr. its climate in Its present unimproved
state, it is, notwithstanding, susIeptible of
being so improved, or at least, thddangers at-
tondirg it seo uoh di ird hed by artificial
means, as to render the obJe.ttes t it, if ot
barmless, at least comparatively iaill
The "defects rising frem its swfaOe have ln; since been
obliterated, and although there have boen pidenic 's.n the remote
past,the island is now considered one. of the health st in the
east Indian sub-tropical region.


Dr. John Earvey K3oll2. of 'battlc 0'cok, Michia n, hao said,
"To one r no rialio3s o live a dremerd years o. uoe,
Florida offers -ore advantages than other stat as ,
Key West is located in the sub-tropical section Florida.
Its peculiar, geographical position creates an ideal lth re-
sort, where -baly ocean breeeas fron over thousands o' miles of
open wnter keep the air pure ad clean at all times the year.
Key YWest isa ool in siumer and warm in winter, giving a most
equitable temperature. :Iere the asnlight is richer i violet rays
cdue to the entire aboonce of smoke and dust filma in he air, and
the relative position of the city to the sum, at all time of the
year. During the year 1904 there were 3,141 hours of asunhine,
71% of the possible total nm-nber, the hijheat recorded by the U.S.
Weather Bureau
In no other city are ? ahe vcaiaticn of temperafte in winter
and sauner confined to s-.ch narr-or limits as here* Iring the
year 1935 the lowest temperature recorded was 653, al- the highest
o o
93 the-total variation being but 40 The Maxime mean temperature
for the year wa 90, 1~ the minimn 300.
Since the eabli nt of t- e weather Buesa i Su 'no
frost has beea recorded*
Rainfall Ui adequate at all time, most of the aoip
station oca eTag during the amothb oafJU e, J tl, l* ao d SOp-
tember. There 1 pSleat7 of dew, which is a small be enantant and
important seirvie eto moisture in tropical countries.


ey 'eat :2as suffered zrom tropical ro-jaicanes. 'hese ooccm
during the months of August, September anr October, au' are sel--
dam of destuct?-on force.
2ho only re-ains of the arborous -art of the old hzamook onee
existent on Zey Test ar" ooastcaial tree of
Jamaica %'dotood (Xchltlrt'oothia pinCip'la), allw co:!I ia
americana), blolly (Tarrubia lnlgifolia) and two lknds of stepper
(Eugeniai ) il- tVe nofithwesaten parsi omi tlo city altng Roosevelt
Boulevard are swva-py soctlons. How t"o ".,_.laci. manoe (Aviennma)
nitida) and tho buttonwood (Onocserpus .ccta) f-oTri h.
Ajaiost all other plant life i the ct. hnmo been introduced

by wind, ',ids, ;avos ar.d the inhaT -itnts of tie izllasd. tropical
plants in -ro.us.on miy -be peen ev~ciT.crf) /ut the aual tourist
who frequents only the rain streets oi the city ill Biss the finest
of there~ he narrow and sometimee %)4 iindina lanes md alleys cn-
coal a ,rnat wealth of floral beauty. One -narrew by.. ay, SPwo
Lane, is lined with or'otos, boug~a illoe, hibiscus, and other.
shrubbery. Another, Galveaten Lane, 'L~,da aOmCt ,Ono t in a eaor
plete circle and high beasd feunes partially conceal oe ofe the
large benanae grorvel.
The bougainvilleS fearisahe throutgout the entire year lto
different ahades, the magentas prple, the violet r_- e fIthe tn4
the rose red*. Pr e y oane untlmt late 63eptember the ra 8
poinciana bloam abundantly* Three different kinds freagipmi

Maa be seen. During the Ohristas season poinoettiad are every*
where found in great quantities.


Tropicalc f ral;.,o _ow i.n ioqr -rietioes Mi~e limited qrea

of the O!ity prcludas cultivation of fruits an ca ocercial
seales But wo 2LAd ccaanuws in JIM abicIana, brewifruit, dates, ba.
nanas, avocado pears, nrangooe, imes, pinsepploa, soursWop, sapo-

dillan, SpeQ1is:2 lmeaq, TuB'J-s cafl papwss. Limo rao Inoa7 Sn
beck yards "t1hAO ot ~hO city. One of the moo-.,eudoi-i1 of

fruit trees L9s tho date pgia which flourishes grotwesly. It in-
more crnacx4ktO-a, tlian useral, the fruit being li-lle utilized. A
rare speclmon ia the aui.nao treeo wbihh is found In ., ta3

Station. Anotller~O rarity Iss th;b "travellorstt paclra7 nour~T.~ e~-c
of fbiteliead and ''irr' 'jtrcs.

Just ott&..ie tkte ltt !.imilis under the dirc n ion tile
Flozida 'jorim _'1oGL'esa ht:,aitc.c nas 'oeon s ioed a Sota.

nioa2. rden -jaere mari-y rariaties of tropictal P1.ts ; 'o JOlng

propegated, =nother activity of the now deal is the belwatiflaticM
of thie city streets. ::a-2J trees, mostly mhogaTr. are ba5nk; planted.

Animl lifo within the city of Wey West Is sarnt;yt. Cranes
and doves are found, and along the bhores o8eoantlts,
rebh hens, plovers, gulls, terns, pelioeds, and the Ovier-opssat

manet..wer bird* Along the Clmtry Read Obicken hawks are "fr
qmnt2ly cSLot.

Oocasionally one finds a rat2tesnkeAn the sli-iar-ery sroun the
Old Nartello .".orns, and sometimes the waelativeyv hrailess chicken

analm is encountered* But small gem such a* opposeiur, raccooon
and rabbit, Voumd on the kegr to the ncith, is entirely absent

from Key '!Jest'.


'The waters surround-inc,: the iLty and island teem'with hur.drpds

of varieties of flahe. Theo nitcd 3ta-to urcau of ?iah riesa as
published an exhaustive list. he 1ost d.stinsuishes two classes
of reef fishes the smaller copi'isLn, foI the most part, nrtats,
snappers, 7ollowta-l, )or'kish, ?or ies (locally called aaptist
preacher), turbot, Jacks and small Iroupors
The larger reef fish consist mostly of groupers, jewfish,

hogfish, nuttonfish, large porgies and large srappers.
The waters abound in tae Florida lobster or crawfzSjh. Stone

crabs are relatively few in number.

.. -, -

"On Sunday, the da;; oa '-e i'eajt of thie aoly apipit,
the '15th of ay7 (151.) .l e -'an a~ln the ooast iof
rocly islots ton lea~lses, as fir aa the two white
rocky Islets. -l This line of i3lands and ooaly
islets they gave to naim of Los %artires beca"oe,

seen from a distance tOe rocks as they rose ft View

appeared like men who were sufferings and the naae
remained fitting, because of the nray that bae"
been lest there snoe"*

Thus the histelran Lrerrar describes Ponce de Lceea voyage
past the Plerida Keys. The roantio adventurer had filed to find

the fabled fountain of youth at SAint Augustine where he had been

-- ; "
Historia General de los hechoa de' los Castellanoe las Ielaas
tierra firae del asr ocean. *Antonio Herrara. Tro Floraene P.
Spofford. In Library of congress. quoted by '.P.Davia. History
of Ponce de Leon's Voyage to Florida in the Plorida historical
Society Quarterly, v.14, no.l, Jul 1935.


mnr 2&st; 2c ..&y 3; iGd clsI~ed theo 12=d -c~ --pnI. a:741 bad

given it itj U'1oida fromi the Foao-t o ox -l0w6Ps, t*AO Spanish
name for DQtc' Daj. It it 12 U ikeJ y iM t I7on C Leon explored
eSy -'Oat as tZo 73 muade such a dil-snal Uiipreeoim n % o .

In 1206 Pcdro Ter~endeu do AvlJ, tA;ci -lartado treaded the
mu-ze of t-E zFlorida Keys in an effort to 2firA a channel ifror tVe

Spua;a; ~za~c-ic~ ~l;1tete !Penendes pmay !ave visited Zo7 !est during

this trip, but h ha zy geographical conceptions & (1d ro4 Include

u,;1izat-on o f Xy foet's Potentialities*
1:ot until 1700 la there definite evidtnee of halbAltgioc on

the little island* Invasions of the Indiun allies of thie -ritish
drovo t"Lie tribe of Caloosa Indians, io -Zra3nrero17 ithld the tip of
tba peninsula, d'sn the line of keys to thie Yatecurbeem Fey Vasia

and Cav.sc. Even this Key gest settlement disappeared after

1763; when Tiorida fenl into English kandgiwar wais made on the
%aloosas, 1n:j -uero slaughered, the rest fled to lavaznae
rihio -attle ma be the explsnent---on of the name 2 Russo*

Mr, 7:A11mm !. Tittehead who cEaM to Ien "ost in 1328 tritess
"it is probsbleotat1, frca the time of the first

visit oL fonaoe Oe Lem until the session of the
Floridas to the Qditod atate., the islands or
keys, as th-ey nre termed ( a corruption of the
Spanisla -sord Cay) which extended In a south. I

wv3storly x!.rection fraom C oFlrida, "cise cxi2y1

resorted to b7 the aborigines of the countr~,j
t Pe p-'ot-eal crewi with w-hC the nePhtorjinz

seas were !zfested, and the f isher-ren (many

of Lern izlom "ti Auustine) who were engaged


in supplying the market of Havana from the
tjinny tribes' that abound in this vicinity.
Of the occasional presence of the first, we
have evidence in the marks of ancient fortio
fixations or mounds of stones, fownd in various
localities (in one of which, opened srm time
since, human bones of a large ai were discov-
ered), and tradition has in addition berught
down to us notices of them which deserve all the
credit conferred upon the same authority, in
other parts of the country. The oldest settler
in this part of the country, one whose residence
in the neighborhood of Charlette Harber dated
back to about 1775, used to say, that in his
early years (probably about the eoenement of
the eighteenth century) the Indiana inhabiting
the islands along the east and these ae the
mainland were of different tribes, and as the
islanders frequently visited the mainland for
the purpose of hunting, a teud aroe between
the two tribes, and these frM te amntrand
having made an irruption late Mt islands, their
inhabitants were driven fr island to island,
mitil they reached Key West. ere, as they
could flee no farther, they were esplled to
risk a final battle, which resulted in the al-
most entire extersinatien of the islanders


Only a few escaped (and that by a miracle, as
they embarked in canoes upon the ocean) whose
descendants, it is said, are known to have
been not with in the island of Cuba.
UThia sanguinary battle strewed this island
with-beame, as it is probable the conqueror
tarried not to couit the bodies of the dead to
the pound, hence the name of the island Oay
Hueseo which the English, with the same facili.
ty which enabled them to transform the name of
the wine Xeres Sece into Sherry Sackt eerr
erupted into Key West. That the harbor of Key
'.gst was the occasional resort of pirates has
Seen proven by the evidence of many who were
connected with thea in their lawless depreda-
tiom, and by the discovery of hidden articles
that could ely have been secreted by them.'
Irs another seoure coes a tale at archaeological remains
on Key westl

elies aof Bropean *emupation are feouud 4 X
West as well as n ome of the neighboring -boeys
steo Valls remains of earthworks and the 0ik,
with indications that the island was well O-fe
to the pirates who frequented these waters duriag
the 18th Oentury and had not wholly disappeared
when Florida passed into possession of the united
States.' *

(* See bottom of next page)


However, frrm a partial investigation by the Smithsonian In-
stitutian of similar r strueturne n islands to the north of Ke,
West, it is thought that aush momentss are of aboriginal origin*
CBandra Carl Van Paulsea, U1O5.0.0 definitely says that sa ar.
ohaeologist took his fr tes u an a trip down the keys and showed
him that about every thirty alles a monument or mound appeals.
This is supposed to be the work of the Indians, thirty miles being
a day a journey, at the aat which a village or eoap was loeate4
The remains found in Iey Wes*, which have entirely disappeared
are thought to have been the last of these villages or eamp sites
before the voyage to Cuba was began. All such ruins in this see*
tion ef Florida are looally spoken of as pirate monuments.
After the Indian evaeuatien the pirates camer in full foree
Of their operations little is on record, and only vague tradition
deals with the boisterous bueeaneer settlements. Definite ene gh
however, are the exploits of O edore David Porter, who in 1882
established a base and waa ameesaful in driving out the pi-ateos

Ih 1783, Florida paia beaew Spanish. August 26, 1816.
uean Pable Salas, ar yag afflet r was given the island of Ca .
Masse by Dan Ju de atrao, Oevernor of larida w*ia oeasid. at .
et the several aersvie roadia by hia at ditfevent timt s i
in th Royal Artillery Ops stationed at this ftt, as well a
servieea rendered Tveloatiy amnd without pay at the eofiee ef t .
secretary muder year sdiaW "atian." alas evidently kne a ee.
thing when he saw it, and he mst have had definite information

rom.i-a torica Key we by Jeie FiWer flrke In t Fl-
rida Motorist, Odtober 1934.


about Cayo Hueso, ether from personal observation or from reports
of explorers. However, he did nothing with the island until 1822.
In 1818, Mr. John W* Simonton a merchant of Mobile, Alabama,
had been shipwrecked in the Bahamaso The ship on which he had
taken return passage to Mobile lay at anchor for several days in
Key West !arbor, giving him an opportunity to explore the island.
Tr 1Sieatatn went to Havana in 1881, where 'e met Salas. On 19
Deoseber Salas offered to sell his Key West and on 19 January
1888 the sale was consummated for the s t of v8,000.
It seems that Salas has already made a conditional sale of the
island to a Mr. John B. Strong who in turn sold out to Mr. John
Geddes. The peace of the infant om anity was rudely disturbed when
a party sent by Geddes to take possession arrived. his group
was supported by Captain Hamersley of the United States Schooner
"Reveng". It took a lawsuit to settle the rival olaUis, the re-
sult being that Salas gave Geddes four aeres of land at "Big
8p1rg,. mast Florida" in order t. seeno the island to the Sim nts
interests. ~hen Florida was ended to the. tited States by Spain,
the teWitorial oomissioners who had been appointed decided that
itle to all lands legally derived fthegm alas and i8monten was
'valid This was later ecatofi d by Congress, thus forever set.
tlag the matter of ancient titles toe sy Is t property.
fIy test's first settlers eae tfrw r Carolina and "t.
Augustine, Virginia, Rhode IsXlaa lew lerk and Urneotieut. Many
wer people of culture, others oa because there was no court or


modes of legal restraint. They did pretty much as they leased and
until the establishment of the United States Superior Court the
settlement was more or less lawlessa

Few settlers oame froa the Bahemas before 1836* AMaMagt the
earliest are foud the names of Curry, Xep, Albury, Lie.* In 1856,
Williama favin for many years judge of the United States Superior
Court, came to Key West from Charlesten. At that txle, he writes,
the semnunity insisted of almost four hundred seules
Later masy settlers frou the Bahamas came to South rieida,
and settled on the Upper Keys as we as an = ey West. Sae of these
have a romantic past. In 1649, there was founded In Londen a
company known as the Bleutherian Adventures. In the middle of
the eighteenth century they migrated to the Island a Oigates
which they renamed xleuthria where 'every man might enjoy his own
opinte or religion without control or question"* A amber of
alcontents frm the Island of Berauda joined theoe tEy engaged
in agriultuwe and in preying on passing ships*. Me daeee6 nta
of these pe termoed one of the largest 'groups igraetng to Xey
The slaughter or Majo Dade and his troop and 6t e IMdlans
masaeres on h paper keys seriously alaraed th little ettleent.
iaajor Iae bad bem in omand of the arWn/Miy lt. On
15 Deeaeber 18 8, he sailed for Tampe, and froh rea attempted to
mareh to Fort King Only one man of his oumaed est me hundred

-19 -

fifteen officers and men escaped the attack of the Indians.
The attack on the Cape Florida lighthouse and the death of
a number of Key West *oitiens on Indian Key at the hands of the
Indiana had their effect an Key West. About two hundred fugi
tiTes had cone to Key West fot safety. The oitisens fearing
that the Indians would move southward organized a land patrol.
A water patrol circumnavigated the island each night* A ship
was chartered and sent to Havana to buy arms and ammunition
and to ask help of any American naval vessels which right be
there* In response the frigate *Constitution" and the sloop
of war "St Louis" came to Key West to protect the om unm~y
One of the largest racial groups in Key 7est consists of
the Cubans* Cuba being only ninety ailes from Key West, it
naturally follows that from the settlement of the island there
would be saoe Cuban mip atiemn Spaniards as well as Cubans
came and settled here. But the great Cuban population came to
Key West in 1869, after the Bayae uprising, when Carlos Man rl*
do Cespedes began the moemsont ter freedom from Spain*. The
cruelties of the Spanish toops caused many to flee to Key Vest
Then, too, Vieento Nart a s Thor moved his cigpr factory -
to eey West, to be followed y other manufacturers. This breagh
additional Snigrants fi Oubsa. ey West became the center oS
Spots against the Spanish gnverwnt.
'- "^


During the oarly days of the city# political interest can-
'tered n local contests and elections, rather than in state and
national pol cilos. The predominating interest was southern and
Key West sent delegates to the it. Joseph convention in
18s8 whioh framed the constitution toder which Florida was ad.
fitted to the Unio n n 1845.
In 1860, it became clear that the m aority of the oitisens
were opposed to the Federal Union. Meetings were held and del-
egates sent to the Tallahassee convention which eot in 1861 to
consider the danger of the state remaining in the Pederal Union.
The presence of a large number of troop in the city, and
the arrival of others to reinforce the garrison at Port Taylor
destreped all hope of Key West being a prt of the Confederacy.
The military controlled the situation, tried to prevent the free
discussion of the issues and refused to alleo perseas to hbld
msgisterial offices who would not take the oath of allegiance to
the Federal Union.
Key West suffered little daag the reeonsatrueon period
oe& a time the republican party was dmenant in Key West. A

pnllt in the Domeerati ranks enabled te Bp blieans to eleot
a ere sheriff and a county JudgeS I JvgAs was removed by the
Swngerfor for alfeasanoe in offtesi bat the sheriff served his
,: te-* ,',



No mall part of political activity in Key West was played
by Cubane. Some became citizens and held public office. Several
of them represented the county in the state legislature,' In
189, when .the Republican and Demoorat parties were about even-
ly divided the Cubans held the balance of power The majority
were roa or less indifferent and voted from consideration of
race and friendship.
The chief political interest of the Cubano was Cuba. Po-
litioal olubs were organized, cigarmakers contributed a part
of their wages regularly for a free Cubas Although the Cuban
Revolut lary Junta bad its headquarters in New Yora, it de*
ended largely on Key West for funds. Americans also contri-
uted& A ley "est Collector of Custes was removed fra office
because he donated $100 to the Chban cause.* hitl Cubats final
liberation, Key est was a hotbed of revolutionary activity.
Pilibautering expeditions were outfitted bhre and sent to Cuba.
Visits oa fuban leaders such as General leleloir Agasrra, Uax
ite Gnes, Antonio Macee and Jose. arti kept enthulasa at a
high pitcb.
(Tn 18e0, ansale Oastanen, editor o a spanish newspaper in
Naveai pointed insulting and libelous emirt asbot Senr Roye,
Sditer at the Key west newspaper I eedas oRle responded
that Oaeteen knew that Reyes could not seie to Havana to call
bhi to aeount, Castanoe then ee to ly Wet, taking his life
nl his heads. Upon Castanonts arrival Reyes declined to fight.


A oamittee of Cubans visited Castanon at his hotel* Tbe aorridors
and street wer e owded by an excited mob. Pistol shots rang oat
and Castanon fell orallyy wounded. The murderer was eondealed
by his friends and later escaped to South Ameriea,
Cubans still maintain an active interest in the polities
of their native land A great orowd gathered at the dboa when
the wife of the deposed resident Maabade arrived with her party
and went north by rail Trouble was expected, but the Pla'rda
National Guard, encamped here, was called out to preserve'ordero

Lieut 14C OPerry, U.SeoN. Commander of the tited States
Schooner, "Shark', visited tey 'eat in 1822 and hoisted the
United States flag, proelai ing the sovereignty of the hited
States over this and neighboring islands. Since that date
Key West has always been a naval and military station
In 1888, Oeaedore David Porter, in command of a squadrea
of vessels charged with ridding the West Indies of the piwatee
known as the 'BoethrenMa the Ceast established a naval depet at
Key West, and made it hie base of opetatias. rr pla s to
destroy the pirates 4 been futile. Porter adopted =a estieWy
new pia*. fte seint arth his useless big frigates, 'and .eaeia
a fleet at twentyem light TG schemers sad ftv We
eared barge*. An ed M. Tewk team ferry beat wa gUse to Wt
the barges until they fell in with the buooaneers. Bf eaptube
and destroyed a number of their vessels. The pirates made their


final rendezvous in the Isle of Pines. Here Com.odore Porter deo
stroyed all except a few ships which escaped to the Port of Fa.
jardo, Porto Rleo. The bueeaneers paid tribute to the Spanish
government, never attacked their vessels, and were in return pro-
teoted by Spain. Porter demanded the surrender of the few who
escaped and when the Spanish authorities refused, be sent a
punitive expedition ashore* This ended piracy in the Carib.
bean Sea*
A diplomatic protest by Spain resulted in porter's court.
martial and suspension for six months. Thereupon he resigned
from the navy and took series in the exican Navy and later
the Turkishe He was appointed Oonsular agent of the United
States in Purkey where he died in 1843.
In a letter written in 1839, Porter told the Secretary of
the Navy that 'The advantages of Key Wests location a a mili-
tary and naval station has no equal except Gibraltar.
1."It comands the outlet of al trade from Ja.
maica, the Caribbean Bea, the Bay of Hondtras and
the Gulf of Meso,*1
2. 'It protects the outlet and aleb ef all trade
of the Oblf f Mexise, the whele western country
of Louisiana and ftrida.
3 "It holds in subjetiem the trade of COubes
S 4 "it is a oheek to the naval forces of whatever
nation may hold Oubae It is to Oba what Abwpl*
tar is to Coeta,"


SDespite such a report an Key West, not ntilt 1856 did the navy
Department begin to build a depot and storehouse at the corner of
White and Pront Streqet This remained incomplete until the out-
break df the Civil War.
DaIng the Civil War, a large nuber of United States vessels
were stationed here. Two hundred ninety-aine captured bleekade
runners were brought into Key West and disposed of In the Admiral-

ty Comrte
n 1874, on account of anticipated trouble with Cuba, the
North Atlantic Fleet and most of the South Alantle and BHro-
pean Pleets were stationed in Key West, making a total number
of 26 vessels of every description under eemand of Rear-AA.
airal A L Oane. Commander P.A.Parker was detailed for ape-
eial duty as Chief of Staff to superintend the grand naval
drill* 40,000 men were landed on the South Beash abd eer-
eised in skirmish and battalion drill.
.LeuMteant Robert E. Peary, U.8., who later discovered
the eNrth Pole, spent a year at Key West* hader bhi direction
In 1881, the wharf was rebuilt and a stes4 mi o trusted.
1inee tat date the Naval ta tion d Addition.
al -wepf was asquireed, buildings and brVt aeoted. Ia -
ehIne 0@0p- earmandantts quarters, eank ol bias h previou-ly
been Ibult
During the Spanisbh-Amrican War the mstire eriea fleet
was based here. Prom Key West the illfated Maiae went to Teor
tuaas for snmioeuvres, and thence sailed to Havana. It was Key

lest's telegraph a8ttion which first heard of the tragedy~ The
U.3S., Lighthouse Tender "Mangrove", sailing froi Key West, mw
one of the first beats to reach the scene on the earning follow.
ing the explosion* The "Mangrove" brought back injured and dead.
The Sey West Cametry has a section where are buried viotims of
the Maine, and soldiers who died of Wvound and illness in Key
The year 1906 marks the opening of the United states Radio
Station, one of the important links in the Navyts Cemnloeation

The submarine bai n was built and a naval training station
established during the World War*
During this period Key Aest's population was at ift peak,
swelled by the large number of offioer and men stattieod hase.
Band ooneerts, dress parades, ball and parties made for a
brilliant social life* Many of the officers and ae married. ey
east girls, some of whom aseomspanied their husbands to static es
for from home.
In 109, the Naval Staticn was placed on an insotive baie -
only one oa losiatean offleer and a few m n to operak the, r te
statisf being aitanesedl e
At present (19W) extensive repairs A being ne" t 1i-
inge and equipment. he rotting wood piers of the v alu
base are being replaEed by steel and concrete struetWsee

The post of the hited States Army was established in Key West
in 1831, when Major James N. Glassel in connand of two companies
of infantry established a camp en North Beach the site of the
present army poet. A tract et land was set aside for the aill-
tary by the owners of the islad and later addition were made
to this grant* By the charter of 183 all jurisdietion over
this property was needed to the waited States. Various buildings
were erected and replaced as they were damaged by fire and hure
The greatest military building was the construction of Fort
Taylor, begun n 18468 But disaster oame the following year when
the completed work was entirely destroyed by hurricane. However,
the work was resuaed and in 1801 the unfinished fortifioations
were occupied by Federal troops Part Taylor was double ease-
mated briok fort of the Baubantypeo ]h 1861 the government
began the construction of two lartelle Towers en the water o
edge an additional probeotien foe the military establishment,
They consisted of a oftadels about forty feet high, surrounded
by asemates, and parapets reifored with sand eabazienets. :
Modern armaaet has less sainoo ad them usele as# a means of
At the sae time tat Fert Tayo was being ota treted, eo.
S -. "' -" ",,, '
of the largest forts s the semtry was being buit en eGa rdesn Xy
Dry Tertugaa sixty ailes i outes et. et Key West. Begun in 1846,
and carried an spasmodieal2 through the Civil War poered Pert .

Jeffersen is a hexagonal structure nearly half a mile in peri-
meter with an angular bastion at each of its six corners. The
original plan called for an armament of 460 .guns. Wen it is
recalled that the eno--ouva quantltice of brick and granite had
to be brought by sailing vessels from Maine and Vmont, the
vastness of the undertaking is amazing. Key West is the nearest
city to Port Jefferson; the history of the fort is almost a part
of that of the city. Fort Taylor and Fort Jefferson were expected
to control the Caribbean and Gulf as outlined by Coanodore Per.
ter in I858
During the Civil War General Jaeas MN Brannon commanding the
barracks had a rough road out to connect with Fort Taylor, so
that troops would not have to pass through the oity~ Over this
road at night, the entire garrison was marched to Fort Taylor
and took possessia n of it. It was expected that the oitisens
would make an attack on the fort, but this did not materialize.
SThe fort was further strengthened in perselnel by the arrival in
ApriX 28M1 of the 5th United States Artillery in ommand of ajeo
FPenehe He had been stationed in Texas, end to avoid surrende
had taken his coa-and to Pent Isable and backed for Key West
is ai9Alv*l destroyed all hope that the eity would Sall into the
bands i tb seoessionists
An wdT issued from the seadquartersa tho UI artnat oft,
the Saoh n Ja nuary 29, 2865 4iected %at all e W eastern who
had ear relation in the Goaederate AnOms, and all who bad de-
olined to take the oath of allegiance to the tnion or who had


spoken a disloyal word be deported to Port Royal, 3outh Carelina,
to be played within the rebel lines. Colonel Joseph 8, eorpan
who Teoeived the order prepared to obey. About s:L hundred per*
sons were selected tfr depwtation fhe town seethed with eex
eitement and indignation Union sympathisers as well as seeess
sionists were included, Property was being sold, women and bcil-
dren trying at the thought of being sent oft to join the relbelse
The Union men at Key West sent a protest to lashington and bolonel
T. H. Good former camanding officer !.ere was ordered to go back
to Key Vest with authority to suspend the order if he saw fit. Be
arrived on the same day that the transport was about to sail \with
those aboard to be banished frao their bomes. Colonel Good ays
pended the order amuh to the joy of -.c whole connunity.

Key West's present military establishment consiats of ten\
offers and about forty men, a skeleton force to care for the
barracks, ort Tayle and its guns. --Cch siuer a part of the
Florida National Guard eneampa at d'ort Taylor.

Key West was tise ineorporated in 1828; first as a acty an \
later in the year as the town of Iey .est, # The government was,
-ested in a board of seven town councilmen to be elected by the
free white male peiroas oer the age of twentyae who .had liVed
three whole smaths within the city limits. The harter athorised
the levying of license tXes but carried no authority t tao
real estate. The Iape landed proprietors were opposed to soh \
a tax as the major part of their proper t was unproductive and


they were donating lots to settlers to induce them to oome to Key
In 18W2, the Territorial Couhoil replaced this town charter
with an incorporated Oity charter This provided for the election
of a mayor and six ounoiltmen tfelve months residence was require
ed for voters. %'ia charter authorized a tax on real estate and \
also a per-capita tax on free noooes, mulattees and slaves*

This charter was abolished in 1835, but when the eitisens
protested to the Congreesional Committee on territory the ehas-
ter was restored in 1856*
The charter authorized the levying of occupational taxes
which caused a controversy amongst the business men of the city
who had once paid the tax*. Theyprotested against ppaying an
annual occupational tax, This squabble resulted in the loss to
t-e city of Mayor oA.TVhitehead who upon bein3 defeated by an
undesirable candidate left the city*
After the emission of Florida as a state into the Union,
another charter was adopted la 1846 to give way in 1869 to an
incorporation under the General Aet of Inoorporation !fov Citiea
At this time several attempts were made to extend the lilts of
the oity to include the entire iamad, but as people living
outside the city liaits failed to see what advantage they waoulda
receive for the taxes they would have to pay, the attempted ez ,

pansion failed.
In 187, a city hali was built which Vas destroyed in the-

great fire of 1886; it was replaced by a brick structwe which
is still in use.
The state legislature in 1889 granted a special charter to
the eity and included the entire island with the oity limits
The government was vested in nine ocemiassaUeM appointed by
the governor the president of the commissioners being the mayor.
This charter authorized a bond issue for paving and grading,
streets. The charter was amended in 1891 te provide for the
appoitaient of the mayor by the ecoaissioners who should not be
one of their body ThiA amendment also provided for the elect.
tin of other city officials who had formerly been appointed.
In 1907 a new charter was granted which ftm time to ties has
been saended* Several attempts have been made to combine oity
and county governments but these have not been suseessful,
Pr? its settlement and even be retihings has been one of
Key Westts principal industries. In the early
days t thsniaesteeth oentury, fishermen fresh at 'auSti'ne
oane to Xr West and the oath was taken to Bavanm for sale. Se
of these sa settled here and carried on the trade.
tfh fisherments equipment and their metheda of fishing and
disape a et their eatehes are maetieally te ease as they were
40 oe O yes ago. Iasy of the small beat une in use are at
least 40 yards old. The greatest change In beats has been the
astallatian of a gasoline engines


Most of the wholesale trade is c rried on from Hovember to
April when about 90 per cent of the annual cateh if fish is taken.
All wholesaling is done by one local fish house.. The same dealer
owns a number of boats which are assigned to the fishermen who
share the profits with the owner. Sace fishermen own their wn
boats. The boats seldom travel far froa land and are used
chiefly on nearby reefs, which are, nuncrous about Key Westk
3octa are equipped with ~ells. A fishing boat would be
quite useless for reef fishing in this region, as the fish would
spoil long before reaching the market. Ice is used to preserve on.
ly those species wbich do not live in confinement, such as smal
let, kingfish and Spanish mackerel. The 'well is carefully on-
structed of 2 to 4 inch lumber, according t the sise of the beat,
and the seams are oalked with the same care that is given te the
outer hull. At the base the four sldes fit snugly with theo eam
tour of the boat and converse towards the top like a fulorm -of a
pyramid, which the well diBgramreatloally resembles*, 'te of
the well fits flush with the deck and is covered with a trap.di,
which is removed duing actual fishing. The floor of the wel
which is part of the hull, is pierced with Ameroavs sBei t
to permit a constant interchange at water* All the tish is
dome with hand liA*s. Bait used is crawfish, aullet or
Pra.tically all smiler fish are kept alive in these wlls*
At the dock .they are transferred to fish oars, whne tb e a
sold direct to the oansmer. The housewife goes to the m kt en
the dooks and selects what fish are wanted fruo the ars They


are removed with a dip net, killed and dressed without the heads
being removed. This method ef aketing inrswes fresh fish at all
times and elimnates iing. A well steeked live ear is a pretty
sight as man7 of the reeo fish awr beantitflly oolered
During the winter months, -fa IWvember to April, kingfish
and mallet ae shipped in large quantities to northern and west-
oer markets. The fishing fleet operates eat of Key West, or out
of ley Vaeas, depending upon whee the fish are fo nd Tey are
taken to the dook, leaned, ied and peaked in barrels for ship .
ment. The equipment conlata of bi y cotton trolling lines,
wire leaders, and metal squid hooks. At least two men are re-
quired to man a boat, one to attend xeolusively to fishing and
one to manage the beat and fish when opportunity offers. Two
or more lines are trolld, slipknots are made in the lines, and
when one of these pulls out it is a good indi ation that a fish
has been taken. Strips of flesh out frt the fish first taken
oa a bhae squid are used ft belt.
For the Spanish maokenr fishew gill nets are used, eot
of the fishing is done between pa et and unrm ie hen the fish
ae more apt t*o gill e l V a t In b d rkness, than the daI
time when they ean see the a* i A eow io two fishlnn soe*
times make large oateheos A seerhI h ist used to find the ftiSh--'
They ae surrounded as wapil4y as pesible and deries enoirel
the net, splashing the water to fri&ten the fish into gil liag


fhe fishing industry has suffered a uh during the past ten
years The destruction of a large section at the Flrida East
Coast Railway and it. abandonment lited the means of shipment.
At present fish landed at Key .acas are sat to Miami by truck
Those brought into Key West are shipped b beat The fors r
fishing trade with Havana was ended upo campleti n of a higbhay
aerees the island of Cubas This enables aOben fiabhrn en the
sauth shaee it Ouab to send their fish to the Havana market, eli '
inating the trade with Key West.
The Flerida splza lobster, onemaly called tawfish is found
i abumdane off the shoes of Key Watt Boats s3ldm go aore
than a mile frm shore to fish for them. Th watish resembles
the northern lobster, the chief diifferee being its very long
legs, long whip*like antennae stdde with pines and absentee of
the great laws It is used as food and alse for bait
Three methods are employed for taking weafish trap-
pink "ball ing, and striking, te metbdd of trapping is sa-M
ilat to that used for the northern lebeter The trap are baited
wit fish sad emptied frma tie to time, n a s m I seale this
pethed ha been suoeestaulf as yet no aou oas Wpeelised in

ml3 ng' faiethig is done ehblef2 at WiON twO ma woeiTag I
ogee. A mall flatboat is used, with a billy set sad lantern*.
The bully net resembles a dip net, but differs a aing the ire
pop pla d at right angles to the pole. The later is set In
the beow the beat. One man runs the beat, the other bullied the
araVfish standing in the beats sten*.


The third method is striking or spearing with what is locally
known as grainss, a two.tined barbed spear, mounted an a pole which
may be fifteen or wre teet in Uength, The animals caught by this
method do not survive log nd the fishermn remain out too
long there Is da ger of the oatch spoling. The man using the
grains has in his left bend a water glaess This is a wooden buek
et with its bottom replaced with glass. The oprater holds it In
the water, thrusts bt head into the bucket and so is enabled to
see the orawfish whn the water is choppy. This method t f fishing
is used in the daytbiaw
Stone crabs fomerrl found in abundance are rare and selde
seen in Key West markets. Considered a great delioae they oe -
mand a high prisee oew fishermen specialize in oatehing ltm, and
they are mostly taken tiaidentally with orawfishe
lost of the turtles in the Key West market oeme in fishing
sohooners fre Gran C ayan. These fly the British flag# and eateh
their turtles dhie off the coast of Central Aeriea. They
are brought to Key uet and transferred to turtle erawlm sag
moved, and butchered as required. Turtle steaks ar po Ylar a

considered fiae tee -sall joup cAnnery is operated iln on*
neotia with the bsta pi
Frieats apeage iaustiy became cmw iay yr pr ent
1849, when a cargo of sponge was sent to lew TTYor .atil Ul1,
Key west bad a pstaoea ml nop*2 of the trade in tohe hitd tets

At that tire a small market was established at Tarpma Spainge


where the method of taking spoage by diving in helaeta and suits
relegated Kee West to a poor seeende Key West spengers use a
three-tined hook attaohod at right angles to a pole scaetimes as
long as thirty feet. With the help of a water glass the fisherv
men hooks the sponge working ftre a 6 to 15 feet dry. The spenges
are cleaned and graded by itse and variety and strung in bunehe *
a piece of cord 4 5/6 inahea in length being strung with spoxge4
placed end to end. ra tim to time the bnehes are sold by
auction, the buyers being representatives of wholesale houses.
The sponges are prepared for market by the wholesalers by furt
their cleaning and clipping*
The eonch of Key West is used to a limited extent as food.
It is found in shallow water near the ohae and easily captured
with a sponge hook or by hand. The animal averages a pound in
weight, and is encased in a thiek shell. Choice speoinens of the
hell are sold in curio hopes The eonehe ae removed froa the
shells and atrung on small stick~. ade into salad, ohewder, we
fried, it is used chiefly leeally little being exported.
One f Key Westts earliest Inadrstes was "wreaking. Al.
though it has been alleged thet lesi mate*s of wrecking vessels
lured ahip to destreti n en the PUidd ree, the greater par
of the industry was legitimate* Oa lbbraary 23i "74,
Cengess passed a law requiring the mater of a wrWaekiag -ve f t
have a lieoone frame the* jud e the Oated States Oeit in the
Southern Distriet of leldae after be had satisfied the judge
that his vessel was seaweartb and equipped for the business of

saving ships in distress and their cargoes and that he hSlael
was trustworthy and innocent of any fraud in relation to prop
erty saved on ship wrecked on the coast.
In 1888 Cogress established at Key West a territorial court.
It eabraeod admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, and was partly
intended to prevent the praotie of wrecking vessels taking sal.
vaged ships and goods to aMsau and Havana for jurisdiction
reoks on the reef were responsible for the settlement here
of saw of the town's earliest oitiszeas.e I"l -l* nir ft

I -el -LAD Wnn tanmme ImCe.ol4 1 m a -4 -
-- -- Pw l A R -
Wreoking vesels are kept well supplied and would safeties
lie at night in a safe anchorage, cruising during the day en the
lookout for wrecked Vessels. Or they would lie in pert at anchor
to be ready to make a dash for a vessel in distress. In 1835,
there re twenty or more vessels engaged in the businsea in Iey
West. The first to arrive on the soene by rule established by
the united tates Court became wrecking \aMbt and bad charge e
salvage epesti ne for which he received a~ e ll atiem.
A BrtheW SXan, losal preacher aad m ad mater f a
wre"lg vesel was oe day preaching ea t tNet, eaew ye not
that they vfeh run in the raise run all, but eas meeiveth the
print e *ea that ye may obtain." Frcm hb plpit he sighted
a vessel it distress Knoewlag that it bhe pe the warning the
congrgatien would rn out and that probably somebody would reah
the week before hia, he strode to the dor still preaching. The


turning he4 gave the well-known yell "Wreck ashore. Now we will
all run a race and see who reeiveth the prise,"
A wrecked ship and its eargo were sold in Xe' West under .the
oourtfs direction, and the paroeeds properly distributed. Buyers
from Havana, Mobile, Charleston and sometimes from ew Tork at*
tended large sale. Seme of the ri hest cargoes were disposed ea
here, and thoesandf ef dollars in duty paid to the govermpets
The system of ree lights begun by the government in 188,
was the beginning eo the end of the working business. Light,
houses in Key West sad rW ga had been established in the early
it present one large vessel belonging to a oamercial oaem
pany is stationed here, and is sufficient to eare for the few ships
which are distressed na Key West and nearby waters.
The first eigar factory in Key West was established by Wr.
Willjaa H. Wall in 1io --'be business employed abeut
fifty workmen and was destroyed by fire in a1 89. ThiaLgs f
tory is probably the first to be established in the bited states.
Tebacee was imported from Oba, duty en tobacee being far bel 4
that oa oign rar-ae la Baatv .
Between 2881 Sai $ O8, several small faetwries were Opewate
in xey est. Drag W Uater yearyear ee the rebellU ia O i
against the Spaia nr e sad the migration of any kubea to A l:
West. During the early part ef 1869, Vieente Martines T1 m .
his entire oetr bUsine" to Key West and tended th ta teryo
B1 Prineipe de Gale. He was followed by other anuamtatuert


and ey 'est's reputation as the Peateot elear-Ba7ana oigar man-
ufacturing place in the United States dates fro these foundas
tionsa A trade edition of the Key West oqutor*Demoorat, pub-
li hed in 18,0, carries pictures of tbmerous large factories.
Today a few of these fatoi- stdml punt and deserted.
Soae had been destroyed by the great kIw t m dfter the
file Senor Ther moed his factory to pa, induced by attrpjtive
,offem of that city.
But by far the greatest blw to Indus which finally
destroyed it as far as ley West was e ee d, ge ew out of labee
troubles. Seidenburg and Campany Mae Ia Rosa paneola" ene
of the finest brands of cigars. In that factory bepn in 1894
a series of strikes which seemed to a regular part of the
cigar industry. These strikes oontiued and spread to other
factories. In one factory fifteen separate walkouts took place
in one day. One of then war beoaus the drinking wateo ecoler
had been moved across the roeae
Owners in despair attempted to relace Cban labIr with
Spaniards. Threats were made paaist the lives of any apmniaud -
lwe eight ee. o The Cubans, In. the tiek at reeluti
ting against Spain, were fearful t .the efeet that a
nmber of Spaniards would have a th sewee of the re

A committee of Lcy Weat eltiaes eat to Havens to asswe tLhe
Captain General that any Spa niao to Key West wet4d b 1
protected. This gave the Cuban Junta in Bew York opportunity t
eeaplain to the United Sates Atterney Geaeral and the Seoretary
of ztate that the Key West eamittee had violated the contract


labor lawv of the United States. Court action resulted and al-
though the committee was vindicated, several faetories moved to
Tampa, the latter city taking advantage to the spirit st dis-
satisfaotist in Key West.
Althouo several of these manufacturers returned to Key West,
the recovery was eS short duration. IMahine manrtoture of cheap-
er eigars, artificial climatic conditions in northern factories,
together with the large increase of cigarette eeasptin our-
tailed the sale et/Havana eigarso

Today all the factories which made the fine grades of igars
are closed* All that is left are a few small "bukeye" factories
operated by nes or two men
Itirely obsolete is the attempt to anufasetue salt by eva-
poratie oS sea water. An early as 1830, a part at
the sothern part of the island was leased. A large pewr~i
of the property was always under water, and all was subjet to
overflow at ordinary high tide. Compartaans er"p~eas eoe han
dred feet by fifty feet were separated by oal walls, ad a
system et gtes arranged to let n water. As tis evaperated more
water werla be let in and weaSml be gathered be*
fteo the be~stai eat e rai seasen.
Vaserm eampaies aquired the bosinas fla twa bat hburi-
eanes, lae1 et slave labor after thel Oiil War, a ee6 y rains
ended all at to aak* salt by selar evapratia. -
Ittil 1M Key Westts nly meas t eomi eattio with the
mialand was by steamship. The earliest postal service
Was established in 1889 when a small sailing vessel brought ri1


from Charleston to Key Wet. This service was replaced by a
route from St. Marks te Key oWet. Later a steamship serviee was
established between Chrlesten and Key Weost This bi-weekly
service continued to the beginnag of the Civil War.
Sailing vessOel and stemhips brought mail, earsg and
passengers to and frei the eiy, but service as irregular and
impeoreeot. I 13TS, allory & 0npany iInaugm-ated series between
wew Tik, Key Weat and Galveste. The 2Cydaeallery Li as til
eentinue to send freight vesels into Key West, but passenger
service was discontinued several years ago

In 188E came irregular rns between Key est, Havana and
Port Tampa, Vhieh bas been continued by the Peniasular and Oee
dental Steamhip Cempany sine' its organisation in 1900 by
Henry t. Flagler At jesent there are two trips a week between
Port Tempa, Key West and Havana
lagler's visioa vent further than Key West. ith the *es
tablia ment of Cuban indepeandeac and the suretj of en Inereaoed
volume ef trade, Key let deeme destined to assm a parmaeat
plaee amog eomlereial cities. As far beak as 1866 a sawye
bad been mde with the is oft emeneoting Key West with the alala
land by railway Sla 1906 mWy N Plagler annoueed his IUates
tioe or making that eldea &ref a reality. Ne did seven years
later the lerida Mst Oeaet Ra~tly stretched to the Key West
terminal where ofrries traspe te loaded freight ears to ad
from Havanat passenSg beats earied hundreds of tourists Tbis
swelled ctumeree'with Cub

-. I j *

Another artery linking Key West with the mainland was the
Overseas Highway. Bonds for road and bridges were issued in 1925,
in the height of the Florida real estate been In 1928 the roads
and bridge were complete, and with the addition of two ferry
hauls it was possible to meter between Key West and tanland.
During the winter to 1934, the Pan*Amoeiean Airways began
saerplane service from Mimi to Key West whioh continued through
the fOllowing spring. After the destrutive hurricane at Sept-
ember 2 195, service was reseie, ainee then planes arrive
and depart on three days eah week.
The World War added to Key Westas rea'tige as a naval base*.
Patrol vessels, petrol planes, dirigibles and observation balloons
were stationed at .ey West to t fege all oen attempts at pr~o
during lexioan oil* A msumarine base was built. In those stren-
uous times the city was packed with people; soldiers and sailors
mingled with the throng on the saturday night prasenades, at
danees, theatres, ente~taimentsi Svm steek companies fre
Cube flerijshed in receptive Key West verybd paid ourt to
the eddess at ehanee in mee fem er a~theoo And naturally eneagh
the pegwth at less repatble seete s at the ton was oneseatant
with anioipal proper s.
During prehibitien days thUe XZaaad O10 only ninety iles
feM oba, was wide open* Rum runamr he thke every little o ano
nel ade life miserable for gevsa~it a tieals, and esitiag
banoees brought to mind filibustering activities of another oem



Meanwhile, the' ity was coming to lean more heavily' an gov-
ernmental osneyT Although Pat Taylor was reduced in 1899 from
a thre-tierd fortification to little aore than a fair asied
battery, the reduction took the forn of modernization and a sys-
tem of supplementary7 oast/baettwe. made the soutlarestern shoe
bristle with guns. The naval station bussed with activity, and
warships ere Key West s skyscrapers. District Coast Guard
headquarters were in Key West.
Profitable business ame from these allied scores. Yet the
fact remained that the cigar industry, whioh formerly empleyed
lose to ton thousand individuals, was mude.rined. The sponge
industry that had started in 1849 with a cargo of that's oesodity
dumped into the lew York market, and which had risen during sue.
feeding years to'a point that the key ground yielded 90 per
cent of the' Uited Otatest catch, by 1900 was challenged.
-The bo n in the early 1920's offered a short respite. Rise
ing real estate values led to land recalaatio and partial devel-
opment aleng the north end of the island. But the bee inlated
the ballet to the beating point, and the pressae at national
depressia a few years later deflated it edrplet l
Spoeno prles tfell only a few buckeyee (sa.ar fpg r taoe
tories) eariaued settled renditions in Ou4a pin ew OGrlens
ompetitia in trenportatien freight to that Repbl pat a
cheek on Xy. West busaess. Steamer lines da ppe I sy ast as
pert ot 6al)1 the increased tariff took the preoft frte a newly
started pineapple inning Industry; depression destreyed rket
for fish products; -what little tourist there was, vanished*


Then oame a reduction in governmental expenditure on the
Key Wst defense stations. What w~s formerly a regimental post
abrunk to a force of 40 offers and renj in 1932 the Naval Sta.
tion was put on the inactive liat Coast Guard headquarters wore
Nor was there hope for the future. The cigar industry wma
irretrievably lost reeperatien of fishing and sponging indus.
tries required time; it was doubtful that Key West could regain
lost ground in freight transportation to Cubs; and as a tourist
resort, the city was too little known to expect nor was it
prepared to handle a suffi ontly numerous influx of tourists
when the winter again brought profitable seasonal migration
As the demand for workers diminished, immigration was not in the
ratio. Key West was bloated with a population for which there
was insufficient eeonomie basis. The upshot of the matter, was
that nearly 50 percent of the 18,000 Inhabitants wre depend-
ent upon relief.
Piled atop these misfrt ueo was the faot that UKy Ust
had defaulted several times n the payment pf both principal
and interest en its be aa det, and had boon unable to pay usal
aries of its officers aa eplqos unable to defray the eap, o
ssea of normal mnmicipal ctbt -

Realising their la e roe oo eas to cope with sueh a per-


found emorgenoy, in July 1984 the oity and county officials in
Key West adopted resolutions placing the administration of af-
fairs in the hands of the State Governer. He in turn shifted
the responsibility to the head of the lerida eorgemoy Relief
The Administrator studied Key West's prebli and began what
he called frankly an experiment the rehabilitation of Key West
as a tourist resort. The proposed program, however, had to be
pushed over seemingly unsuraountable obstaeleos Key West, onoe
a center of industry, had few tourist aoeemedations; isolated
as it was, .the city had in man respects be"n left behind in
the march of progress the few places avai sle to prospective
tourists were often old fashioned and even inconvenient. But
in the Administrator's eyes, nuch of this apparent disadvantage
was appealing. Certain things, nevertheless, had to be done,
and to do then Key Weaters oooperated wholeohartdly. seeing in the
program a their salvation. Citizens voelntored irly 3,000,000
heurs of free labor, and actually contributed that mount; the
city wa leaned upg Key Westers made lapvremoenta in their
hoes and prepared to house teurists.
e unique experiment lent itselt well to publicity, and
during te winter season of 1984 8 tou~M sts sea in 4 the
hundred aooe because they w Key West o f same ot of
eurieity, saoe because they learned tf the fiet time aout


Key West't natural attlantions subtropical oliate, year
round swimming, unstrpassed fishing. Key West's morale wL
Then before the beginning of the next season the disas-
torous Labor Day hurricane swept over the middle ke, leaving
Key West mndamaged, but taking with it miles of railroad fill,
and hundreds ot lives When Key Wesj took took, they found
no more train whistles would sound on their island, and a means
/of transportation which had brought in 17,000 passengers the
previous winter was disrupted. Airways and ferries oould not
handle an equal voluam of traffic day after day during the fel.
lowing season did they trn away passengers. Notwithstanding
the season was successful beyond expectations,
Today Key Wet is on the eve of a new era In spite of its
hundred year history as a community, the oity Is still adeloseent *
uncertain as to veeotione As she was abandoed by Pederal agen-
oles, so are yderal agencies trying to give her new nans oe
livelihood. ani eat iaprovements to the aity proper a average
system, swidag peolp .reereation enterss, these thidap rdr
the town morw atteetio as a reserto. IoO valuable et a 1Is
the oenverom l o the abandoned railway viaduets tino a thr
higmhay over the rWnin seas to Key West, a step that sh ld
relieve the eityo sedition of isolatie make available the
known reseuree end enable Caye .Eies to take its deservedly


prominent place in the circle of prosperous Florida cities.
Isolation played a great part in Key lest's social history
until the railway came in 1919 and the Overseas highway in 1926.
Feor generations of isolation/ed its effect on the mental and
social outlook of the inhabitants* Key Westers think first, last,
and always of Key West. The nuanb of persona'who have never been
off the rook is surprising.
Then, too, the various racial groups which comprise the
have all made their
population jIanza .t- ts contribution to the uniqueness of life
in Key West. The "Conochs fro the Bahamas, Latins, froa Cuba,
Negroes from both Bahama and Cuba each preserves charac-
teristiso peculiar to its eon group~ Key Western call each
other Conchs, but they resent the ame when 'strangers' apply it
to them.
Fishermen and ships' earpe- a, who have always formed a
large part of the population gth in various places lightly,
Their world is the soa. It i .of ~ see they speak and their
iiggrounda. niet a y be found on the street
Saiother 'wa
near Garrison Bight. Othbsv t e xAam of the water .
froat eates or coffee abshps. e a, dr pping and adding
fa h's, substituting w fer tv *.,a all these quaint habo
its of speech sake a pie and abaraing patois
There are no tea rooa ia a aa, but there are coffee


shops* And these thrive on serving Goffee only, with a snall
piece of buttered Cuban bread or a biscuit, Oecasionally is a
sandwich or sweet oake called for. And it Is strong black Cuban
coffee sweetened with sugar and copious quantities of sweetened
sendensed ailk*
Ihe empty tins have an interesting use) the local youth
eolloot them for sale at two cents a dosen to the coffee shops.
There they are filled and sent out to the worol nmen in the
streets, offices, fish wharves. Coffee is drunk at all and any
house of the day and night* .s uB bh .

A Key West bellboy may bring coffee to the guest's room
in one of these ever-present tins. I he has more than two
loans, they are carried in empty cigarette oartens.
These coffee shops constitute a social institution. In
them one may find the judge of one of the courts at one table
and a laborer or a fisherman at the next* Newspapers are here
to reOad problems of the day ae isoussed recent local hap-
penaings a re viewed.
ey west s an outdoor town dting meet Oe the year. On
bet Uwme afternoons people stay in door as ameh.as possible
the siosts of the tropics is in order Drinag the evenings vis1
its ter friends, quiet relaxation on pissaa, "red shawalings
(g eeip) eooepies m m and women both.
Walk down Duval Street on any aturday night. The whole


town is there. The promenade is froe Eateo Street, to Southard
Street, up one aide of the street and down the otlir* Eveobody
is in his best clothes. On Saturday nights n 6od. sees to, sty
at home, all are out to seo and be seen. The stores aie roie
with life; music pours fru the open front oafres. Mes. Pages
ice area parleur with its open front makes a good vantage
point to view the eroed. At Kress# corner crowds gather 4ad the
sidewalk is janed. Beautiful girls, ay7 young dandies, staelj
matrons, old men all these are greeting one another. A bnd\
in heard in 'he diotane.* Friendly banter is flung back an4
forth. The gossip of the week is rehashed
On Sunday, Tuesdays and Thursdays upon arrival and 4de
pasture of the plpae a Cuban rhnaba band plays on the Pan-Amer-
iean landing barge*
On Wednesday afternoon almost every radie in town is going
full blast. "0Onoo Nil seisolentos aesentiouatroe (5674), in a
childish votee. Answer another childish voioe, "ineuenta poese
($50). "Deces i oeoh teintes veintiune (12881). 'h esinuemta
po s* ($t0,)* Oohe Ul noeeeientos veintisiete' (8086). "Oies
poees' (100).
The isiter needs to be told that it is the wee k2p Oe an
National letter. The ibps frm the orphanage e arae saag
the winning nmbe in Ha vana as they draw them fre the eage,
the prises as they roll out of another cage. Key West listens



because Key West bets on the last two digits of the three capital
prise numbers. Then,. too, soe ay have a "piece" of a winning
ticket which may net $1400. ;
Tuesday and aturdays ne Key West bolita days. Bets are on
nnbers from one to one hundb d, placed in any one of the many
houses. A house bets other house** nanbers as well as its own.
A grapevine telegraph new caome into play. Over back fences
nay be heard, "Qua numere tire al Alt" and the answer "Cinouenta
y cuatre. (What number did the Alley throw? Fifty-four.) The
name "bolita comes form the Spanish verb "tothrow', referring
to the tossing of the bag eontaining the balls carrying the
number. Dreams play a part in cheesing a number to bet, es-
pecially amongst Negroes*. ach dream has its peculiar number
and the dream book is consulted before the ticket is bought.
Belita is, of core, illegal, but is played wherever Cubans are
found. Nearly all Key estere aind/isiters play it.
Such sounds and sighted give the visitor the illusion thit
be is in a foreign town. Add to thee the sight of a ahamrian -
ege carrying a lead balaused m- her head and the illusion is
heightened. Key West's NepN g / sOet along Whitehead Street
teeas with life and laugahere ae ea lModay night at Disxe
Hall a dance is usually in fUll swing Ierday is the night probe
ably because it is most eanvelet tee domestic servants A
block further along is an ~p1-1a ea fe, its rtained booths
rivalling in elegance those in other sections of the city.


Here, too, one hears eat obia" a form of vdodoism, or of
"nanige an African secret society via Cuba. Not infrequent is
the voooodong of a Negro and his consequent death.
Again if luck is present a Negro street dance ma7 be seen
in all its primitive sensuousness.
A local custom.which has been perpetuated is the respect
paid to a passing funeral. A3l trafie stole Ken and boys bare
their heads. Radios are turned off and doors of business places
are closed until the cortege has passed. It is not unusual, eso
pecially among Cubans, for the family to move to another house
after the funeral.
As the emigrants to Key West brought with tihe their own cus-
tous and habits of living, so they eling to theli
foods* In Key West the Cubans continued the onutoa of hav!'j
coffee and bread early in the morning. Wwok in the cigar
factories stopped about nine and a heat breakfast was eaten.
In the afternoon about three came dinner, and in the evening
a light mal
Kiey Wet lives largely a foods frm Sea Pish is
always pleatit l, *Grumt, grits and gray s- wag has said
is the favorite dishes But the soemn gpat s- deliciouss
eating and Is not to be despised*
Orawih is usually pleatifq and empel t averably with
the sereorn lobster. It is eooked in a variety at ways, boiled,
made lnte salad, or the hbt, peppery Cuban oenehlade. The pris-
eners in the Nnroe County Jail have been Inem to eemplain be-
cause they were served too much lobster


Turtle steaks are always found on a restaurant meau, as well
as turtle soup. The beat makes an excellent substitute for veal
or chicken* Key West's sall soup cannery, following the recipe
of a famous French hoef, cannot supply to the northern market
enough clear turtle soup to meet the demand.
Yellow tail a la ninuts is one of the delicious pan fiaheos
Jewfish steaks, bake stuffed mutton fish or grouper, fish chowder,
kingfish and Spanish mackerel in the winter season, make a great va-
riety of fish cookery possible. And fortunate is he who can find
stone orabs, rarely seen in the markets, one of the delioaoies un-
known in the north.
Cuban dishes abound. Boli6hi roast, alcaporade, a deli
oious beef stew prepared with Spanish olives, raisins, and other
ingredients black beans tith rice; arrest can polle,(ehieken and rioe)
prepared with saffron and pinentos; garbanse soup nade at Cuban
beans, potatoes sausage, cabbage; all thOse add to the sest at
eating in Key West.
The variety of tropical fruits seems unlimited. I few
which are readily obtainable are the soursoe whose white eat
is made into a deloUici drink and is also used as an lee
oreas flavor avosadO pear, here used in quantities as a ve#o
table and not in a eager salad such as is found in the aWth
pineapplesa sugar apples; sapedillas, with their dark pepper
mintflavered at ases and guavass mausy, on of e ftaoat
flavoed fruits; see grapes made into excellent Jelly; plantains)
fried a golden brown Coeenut milk f re the green freshly picked

fruit or the soft white meat eaten with a spoon, or in ice aream
is entirely different from the dried variety of commerce.
Hot all these dishes and foods can be obtained in res-
taurants. But at the Key West Public Library may be obtained
a cook book, published by the Key West Wemena Club, which con-
tains recipes of moat of them.
The oldest religious organiation in Key West is Saint, Paults
Epiasopal Church. Prior to 18S1, services were oo
easionally held by a visiting ole gymn. A meeting of the i T isens
held on March 7 of that year decided to apply to the Bishop ef
New York for a resident priest.' his effort failed, but a
elergyman came the following year and founded the parish. In
1838 the first church building was started on the oarner of Eaten
ind Drval Streets where the present difice stands. The property
was given to the parish on condition that'the lot be used for
ohbroh purpose and the pewa in the wesoh be free". On the 27
third of larch 1839, the ehuroh wa s far o mpleted that the
pews were sold at auotim l
Saint Peter's Ob Ch r h was n i 819, fio the oaleed
people who emigrated from the Basasr. several bglish ais-
sienary priests have servd this parih
Roman Catholic pietst fren awna eoeasionally bhld ser*
vices in Key West. In 1862 was dedieated the Church* of Saint
lary Star of the Sea. The first resident priea t oam in 1862.


The first church was on Duval Sreet near Eaten and when it was
destroyed by fire in 1901, the present building on Division
Street wR weeted and dedicated in 1905 The Jesuit Fathers
serve the perish*
Iothodisa asme to Key West via the Behanae, the first eonQ
pregatie being as late as 1848/almost entirely aemposed of per*
sons free the British West Indies.
Other deneminatione established congregations at later
dates, and at present fourteen places of worship exist, repre.
renting eleven different religious bodies.

The first school in Key "est was conducted by the Rev.
Alva Bennett, Rector of Saint Paul-s Churoho The town meeting
which requested the services of a clergyman had stipulated that
he was to oenduct a school. Until the establishment in 1870,
of the free public shoo shosystem, edeation was in the hands of
private citisens
*' SCHOOLS was
The Omvent of Mary Imaculate on DIvisa twmO 'erected
in 1878 by the Sisters of the Holy laae of Jesus and ary, who
eame to Me West in 1868 fros Canada. Sinoo then th sisters
have conducted it as a boarding and day soeeel for Sirls. They
ale maintain e6hools tfo boy and for selened 34le-a Duro
ing the spurai amrwisa War the school vwas ale et-dt its
buildings used as a naval bespital.


Key West has nuer ou social and fraternal organizations
amongst them the Key West Woamsnt Club, the Rotary Club, Gar-
den Club and kaerican Legiaon The Masons are represented by
two lodges, Ameriesa and Ouban3 There are also chapters of the
Rose Oroiz degree and Consistory* The Elks, Knights of Pythias,
Odd Fellowas Red ~ln Golden Eagles, Knights of Celubus are
ease of the secret orders having organizations in Key West,
The Sociedad Cuba maintains a large clubhouse an Daval
Street. It is a mutual beneficial and social orgamisatien, hav-
ing recreational facilities and assisting members in times of
illness and other distress A similar organisation Centre As.
turiano has a membership chiefly composed of Spaniards.
Fishing opportunities at Key West are the finest in the
world. There are hbdreds of varieties in local
waters and nowhere else may one find fishing superior W t
obtainable within thirty miles in either diredtion mep the eity.e
Games species mauh as tapon, sailfish, amberjaek, dolphin
baeite, barrae da and marlin together with hundreds af ref
fishes afford sport a plenty fr the meet diseoriuasto angle
Fishing eriseras wi ekpart guides are available. Baets
are kept in first e2las esadition and furnish all taekle nAsee
sary. Guides will bait hoeks, direct anglers to the beet fishing


ground* and do everything in fact except put the fish on the hook.
He who baits his hook in Key West never knows what he will
bring to gaff, fish run from one to one thousand pounds and even
Anglers agree that the subptropioal ooean around Key West
holds orafty- and courageous monster of the deep that will tax
the strength, skill and enduraneo of any angler before being
sueessfully landed
Throughout che year excellent fishing in obtainable in all
of the channels coming through from the outside and trestles
and bridges offer fishing opportunitiess that are incomparable.
When game fish are mentioned to visitors the remark usually
brings to mind tarpon and sailfish and rightfully so. These two
sport fish cannot be equalled for aerial acrobatics and spee-
taoular runs. The natural home of these gamesters is in Key
test waters. The aberjaek. is also considered a red-wreeker
without any superior and is classed by many of the old-tiners
ashe superior 0of even the tarpon.
Most of the anlrs who visit Xe West eem here with the
eqaoeSs purpose of ezperinIingbhe thrills attendant upen the
battles with these giants where te have fittytifty thane -
during the encounter and the agler in tn open and deep water
is teored te exhibit skill and a drnce ir n landin their quarry.
The element of chanee appeals to every sportsman and has a
great influence in bringing hia baeek Umb and again. The aerial


trick is only one of the many known to the tarpon for their quiek
turns and long runm and sudden racing toward the boat means a
lost fish if not properly handled.
1hile many waters of the upper keys havebeen depleted of
game fish this .alet virgin stretch from Loei KTe to Key West
abound in fish of all kids. The landlnbber has als found
that be can oatoh fish sueoesefully from the bridges, doeks,
and ebannel banks along the automobile highway Wita over 600
varieties et fish in Key West waters certainly it cannot be con-
sidered other than an Anglers' Utopia, and the Pisinbg Capital
of the Vorld.
Golf players are welcomed at the 2unieipal GOl
Course of nine holes on Stock Island Just outside the eiy -
limits on the Overseas Highway.
In the sub-tropial climate of Xey West, swimming is pos-
sible throuhut the year. The local paoplace
does not sna in the winter, but visitors frm the r
find deep water sawiaing in the submarine basin or th peel ea
Reaesvelt Belevarde Rest Beach with it& @beaSba elaq South
Beeah at the eastern end of Dtval Street are pep slet#ag

At Res l eah may alse be fond rowbeats aa s bts
Pra thse a ahert distance from here eielleUtt
.betts fishingway b beada
.bttom fishing may be had.


For tennis players there are available .twoe coerete
courts in Bayview Park. Duing the winter season
matches are held on muday aft onoons an th eolay coTmii
the Casa Marina BHtel*
Skeet and trap shooting near the end 8SEin SOOT331
of White Street are obtained through the management et the
Cass marina Hotel.
An inducement to the bleyelist is the sizxile eeurse
Sof protected concrete roadway on Roosevelt
Boulevard, which is oeestantly swept by an invigsea" i se
breeze. The road swings in a great are around the eastern
end of the island; the tmurequ e waters of the Atlantic and
Gulf stretch out beyond Moonlight nights are especially
beautiful an the boulevard*
Roller skating can be indulged in at the
Coral Isle Casina. Parties are sometimes eganiset for aaizz
on the broad pavements of Reosevelt Beolevard.
The eabense an Rest Beah, under the charge a the
Pederals nerenyr ReliU t Adnoiatration Bousin Deso tent are
reserved during the ase fer the ase ef winter Aba
residents. aa sped, a w atire day hee in the sin. *
oabsna are ideal pad for evening pilnies.
Key Wests* two movig pietur houses are le.
ated on Duval Street-. l re are advertised each d in
local newspaper.


For those who like to dane several exeollent floors are-
provided. Pena't "Oarden of eoses' has a newly built
dancing ball* An orchestra is there every Saturday nighT ait-
urdays and Sundays are dancing nights at the Habanasladrid Club
open-air patio) Wednesdays and Saturdays at Raults Club en Roose-
velt Boulevard. Sloppy Jooe' bar on Green Street with its
Silver Slipper danoe hll frequently has a;.gre orchestra. Fleer
shows are presented at times The Soeeided Cuba has a dance each
Friday night*
Baseball is an allyear round game in Key
West Games are played by local league tem on Sundra aEfte
noens at the Hiavy Field
Several teams sponsored by various business
houses play dismondball alamet nightly on a flooNighted neId
in Bayview Park,
T'he Hig School basketball team has frequent
intra.mural games and several pnae webh season with oet*r--
town teams in the high soholl giaasuie
The "Key West Citisma is published e*eh
evening except Sunday and inolea all Inws of the alsy eme
tf the rummoras lays goag the eas in a. small to.m The p pO
prietor has a standing apea t te topay the publie libay .$o00
eadh day the sun fails to Ihbie up to te time it goes to p"eeo .

.------ 1,


Beginning in 1934, a number of artists employed by the
Public Works of Art Project were 'brought to Key West for the pur-
pose of assisting in making bey "estse attraebies krown to
prospective visitors. NMuh of the work of these visiteos took
the for at advertising, their painting being epredneed on
postal cards and fl booklets, and in travelling ezhibites They
a'se painted aurals far public and semi-publie places and some
of their work may be seen at the Aquarit, Dela2niee Restaurant,
Ramoninla Restaurant, Raults Club, Star Cafe, High Sohel Auditor-
im, and Key West Drug Company* For a time a 1ey West Art Gal-
lery was maintained in one of the houses of the city. Winslow
Homer was a frequent visitor to Key 7eat between the years 1888
and 190*6 S8me of his Key West paintings are "Bauling In Anchof,
"A Egthe"PT"Taking on 'et Provisions", "Pishing Beat 'Ky West',
and"Pasls in the Stork".
Writers who like the Isolation of Key West frequently cre
here tof work and recreation, Foremost is Ernest siengVway a .
devotee of deep sea fishing who maintains a perwaet residenee
in ey West .
Noe Key West Hospitality Bead gives Satriesy aht enoerts
en the premises adjoining the Ia Canoba Bet*el fte Wba plays
also at mtaaipal functions and holiday eelebuatiate
Fer the past two years an opera gra oup,, di vista of the
Federal itsle Project has given open-a1 perfemanees of Gilbert


and Sullivants aPirates of Penanoe", L his same group has sung
the opera several times in Mia i, once for broadcasting. Concerts
are frequently held.
The Convent of Mary a~moulate has a fine school of music
under the direction of wellotrained teachers. Several times during
the year concerts are given by the sisters# pupils.
Key West architecture is essentially a domestic, wooden
architecture, and therein bas departed little fron construction.
1l practices of earliest times Prom the very beginning of
Nordio occupation in the first part of the nineteenth century,
builders used what material they cou.d find salvaged litber,
or inported Pensaoola pine, oooaaional cedar or hardwoods fro
upper keys and Cuba*
Not until 1844 did masonry make its appearance on the Is-
land, but in that memorable year schooners brought great eargoe
of cement and briek, all for conatruction of eort maylor. Dke*
ing the Civil Uar were : ised the brick piles of the Martello

Towers; ,a heavily buttressed coal shed, now converted into Light
house Depeartent h.adqvuar s, was put up abe t the sae tta i -,
But these things were pt mmeatal enterprise, and Key Westey sr t.
did not abandon their amher belt and mortise and tenoa j *ate -
.for the awe massiw MraMao ri -i .

Even when the passing years brought uasaen ablb prosperity
few builders adopted masonry oonstrueation, and as a result,


architecture in Key West remain, with but a few exceptions
erected in compara ely recent years, purely wooden. :Jhen the
big fire of 1886 raised half of Key West, ore than one individ-
ual lamented the fact that new strusturee, hastily thrown up,
were less stable than the old, and certainly no less disreputable
in appearances Nevertheless, it was the great fire that made
rKy Weaters realize their need for a more permanent type of pub-
lic bualdins and it was after that date thWrey Wegt archi-
tooture became a study in oontrasts.
On an island of limited area where architectural style is
deternned by the medium of construction no less than olimatio
conditions which depart from domestic arohiteotonics in both
style and materiall are as prominent as a sore thuab. Such is
the ease in Key W'est; domestic architecture is almost entirely
of wood, public buildings almost entirely of stone. Were it not
for the fact that Key West architecture soon weathers to an ex*
treawly ancient appearance, the contrast would be the more strl w
inug But the salt air has softened the Offset and somehow one
tfals that Island city architecture evoed as naturally as the
island itself.
the 1886 fire epened Opportuity*s doer for an Iriasbn
fre Bal ob.l, Gomty s own, who oane toe Asrea, enlisted
with the northern oause, and found iaselt ln ley West when the
0ivil War ended. 1illiam Kerr be was, and be fell in love with
Key West, so there he stayed* And it was this gruff old Irish.


man who built the Convent of Xary Ilmaeulate, with its beautiful
dormered mansard roofs and central tower. He built the first
'ethodist Church of distinctly old-world feeling under ita
spreading/larel Be introduced Key Meat to Resanesques
Old Bill Xerr evidently truck while the iron was bot. 3y
the end of 1891 he had completed Key West's thiee red briek
publico building fs t old Post Office, the City Hall and the
County Court Epuae. He did them all in the currently popular
style probably at the behest of local oitisenry.
Of his ~pblio achievements, possibly the old Poet Office

which now serves as Naval Administration Building is the most
imposing* Located at the entrance of the Key West Naval Station,
just at the foot &' Greene Street, the edifice is massively de-
aigned in red briok# Somehow it fit snugly into Key oest's past.
Completed in 1888, of that Rananesque revival style introduced
by Architect Richardson in the last century, it seems a manu-
ment to Key 'Restts glamorous history her most hale and hearty,
if not moet beautiful days. The building has, perhaps by its
long asooeati, with hustle and bustle, shrewd trader and ship.
pens, a ditinatly provincil flavor, just tas it H- o had
placed itsa irawdisable stamp upon every sraer of btlok 0 Mo.
where alWs vald the peculiar lines of the trU w blend nto
the saurowmdings as these do In Key Weat and anew else would
the wide eav appear ae eaaslly at hore as a Key West,
Pulling form the foundations, and. see paradoeical n a


rook island where foundations usually are placed upon naked bed-
rook* But the structure was erected near the water where a nost
stable foundation ~ as required.
There appears to be a basement, which would oerta-'nly be a
curiosity on lowlying Key West where the water level is so lose
to the surface, but actually the building is placed higs o supn
porting pillars, and there is nothing more than a small cellar
to house necessary machinery. In ccaon with other governmental
architecture in Mey West, the Old Post Office has fireplaces,
which are somewhat of a curiosity in the southernmostoity with
its ohinme7less houses The plan, vilth the exception that it is
not syCmetrlcal, has no particular distinction.
The tile roof is of intercat. Almost Japanese are the sloping
lines of the eaves, tut in Key West the eaves provide'net only
ample shade, but fore efficient conductors for the rainwater-saving
With a m inmum of decoration the projecting facade poeseosse
an appearance of ornateness that contrasts rather streagly with th
squat, havy portice Co0lms holding ftha ftt elevatie. 8slo
metrieally on either side of the facade appear the wings of the
main plan, which by heir leng roof lines and the heavy. adew
east by the overhanging eaves, anage to attain an appearance
of heaviness and subdued bheigt incongruos t tthe pcitnent
facade, where an impression ef height, broksq only -by herisan-
tal bands, is carried ont in three progressively smaller tiers
of semeeircular arched openings Above the three portie arches,

and covering the area to the sills of the second story openings,
are courses of terra ootta; evory tile is moulded as a square,
"and in the center of each square is a depression which may be
likened to nothing better than the imprint of a concave whiskey
bottle bottom* At the peak of the gablo is more terra ootta
decoration, unfortunately at such a height as to be lost to the
The City lall on Greene Streetlin il L b; t; aiab
". E *
structure, with a minimin of simple decoration. The two-story
building is not at all in the grand manner, and the entrance
tower is by far the outstanding architectural element, although
the work does have suoh ar hiteotoani peculiarities as segmental
arch openings on the side. elevation, round arches in the front,
and pointed arches over the clocks in the attached tower, or the
campanile. .i the entrance point the architect conem ntrated his
attention* An outside oonorete stairway leads fr o street level
to a double entrance midway between first and second stories.
Wrought iron gttes screen the rectangular opening, and bear medal
1lps with the date 1891 thereone ntrod~ction of these gates
appears almost a concession to the latin element in the city
the idea is essentially ot the soutbh6n counties. Eept to 'Key
Weat, the.gates are not uique, bhut they serve excellently well
Their intended purpose that of emapasiing the entrance, and
whether or not ppla4ees realize the faot that the screens have
a very definite purpose, they do leave them closed far enough

- 3 4.

to parry out decorative functicns. From this halfway landing,
the stairway continues directly to the main floor, where, by
reason of the fact that the entire ground floor is devoted to
fire station and Jail, are located the spacious court room and
city off'ioea
The exterior of the campanile is typical of Kerr's design..
Reotangular in plan, it is carried up an additional story in pro-
gressive heights marked distinctly by projectirg, eavcalike cordons,
to terminate in Kerr's particular adaptation of a mansard roof*. he
four clock faces are set in projecting dormers, neatly designed with
small attached pilasters suppating pointed arches* Corners of the
roof curve upward in dome manner to a lookout platform r r 'mirador
that is definitely Key Westian, and reminiscent of Key Westts his-
tory as a wrecking center. On the platform is the ancient fire bell.
In 1890 Kerr completed the imposing County Court House. Of
red brick and in a traditional county court house style, yet the
building has individuality, Much rore formal than the ity Ball,
it is finsly proportioned, syamretrical, and today the heavy
portico shows advantage through the shadows of waving eeo.*
nut palas, while toe look tower, surioiented by an obeevation
platform. measures nearly a hundred feet from the ground beow,
and is conapticuouy'-/ from any -Part of the city* he twoietix*
structure, to Ihish buttesses were added in 1984# is spacious
in its sym&t*y. It .i by no means unique, but it does stand
almost alone among Key West architecture.- It possibly is


oloser to the classic than other buildings in the city where
there appears to be a bit of classic proportion in almost every
The front elevation in perhaps a hundred feet long, two
stories high with Rmasnesque opening. The el e ornament is
graceifl structural brackets connecting cornice with eaves, and
a row of eube-like dentils separating heavy naoldinLg on the
eosrn~ om but under the shadow of the overhanging eaves, muh of
this decoration is lost in the wide wooden band of the gray*
painted eorniae. Spaced between the brackets are earned ele.
ments resembling winged balls, but these are on aueh a sall
scale that they are inconspicuous.
The classic portieo, which form the main element of the
frent elevation, S of almost interest. Covering a third of
the front elevation, it is kept in prepertion by the simple de-
vice of making it two definite stories. Rising tram a leow on-
woete perch, four Dorie oolumns support a heavy send story
baloesn, which is enolesed by a weighty iron rail, likewise in
a simple design squares and iroleos. Pr this balcony fol
aere Deare eel as reach to a wasuive peditant eat auh elpasie
anner that it laoks enly a t iese tfr eoletsmess. Suh d e
eorate, nevertheless would make the rest t the straturet .
lose by e mparisea, us Arehitect ,la put in netting more than
two breakets, which, though they intetupt% the sapfng lnes of
the poeimnt, do carry out the vertiea.i d provide a pleas-
Ing lead to the tower above.


The sleek tower ia remarkably similar to the City Ball aan-
paline, although it is higher and the roof is octagonal.
With its large Cuban population, naturally Key West areha
itecture shows the influence of the Latin element.
SanCarelos astitute Patriotice y Doent., one of the few
fireproof straotesr in Key Weat, is an excellent exaple, and
from an historical point of view, perhaps the moat monmentall
In,1870 the Cubans in Key West found the Club Atanee, with the
prime object in view of lending support to the revolutionary
movement in their oppressed native land. By the next year, the
organisation had beemoa the San Carlos Club, named in honor
of Carlos Manuel do Ceapedesa the patriot who in 1868 had raised
the cry for freedom at the little town of Yars in the province
of Casguey. Te little wooden San Carlos building, then leea-
ted in the alley off Floing Street, was the soene of enthusias-
tie rallies. Tm ease the 1886 fire that destroyed the build
in. A new Veeden structure was erected an the present siteo
Duval Street between Pleing and Southard, and in 1914 was built
the present editee.
The desli of rwaneisoe Centuria, the tweootery buidinUg
is of steel, hbllo tile, conrete sad attucee se oLf tshe fler
ing is Xajelies tile Iperted fNo Spain -via oCub. A the D.
temporary Spanish styl, the edifie is noteworty Mal ftor
its ornate Spanish p aeade, quite suitable for the u nnt
that it is to ouban patriotic activity.


The question has often been raised as to why ~are Key West
builangs are not of the native ree. The answer is simple. At
Key Wes$, the water table is so olse to the srfaee that every
excavation of say depth leaves a water hole. And, of course
land on the small island is at a prV.alm PLathermore, quarry

ing and transportation expenses from the upper keys quarries

while not prohibitive, render it expedient to utiliso cheaper
material far everything less than an Imposing struetwoe of Intend
od permanency
Such a building is the oenmental US8. Custen Beuse and Post
Ofiee, occupying a good portion of the blook at Stienton and
Caroline Streets. Completed in 1950, this modern edifice combines
beauty and utility. Coral rof limestone quarried an the keys
was laid in ashlar course on a granite base, and proves here its
wonderful adaptability for thermal arebiteeture. The stone oeme
white from the quarry, weathers to an ivory eoles and omenad
ble hardness.
The admirable plan of thi tweotory building swods
patio. Opening frmes are to al ma alloy, aad above the mat
entrance opening an Sa$ona eSt yo is an area filled by a g4il
of the same metal. .The opo-g, aMW placed sywmetrisally "a
reeessed to gi e the Imprage ia ef .uraeVe vertically) between
thbm are fluted p4.lasters with eapitale deeerated I4a l relief,
precast probably of Indiana 1- emseoe marble and keystone dust.


The ffeBet is that of a many-oolored Grook temple. A flowing
floral decoration in the modern n nterpretation of elaseio foz'
a frieae nder the oorniee run a needed band.
Of certain architectural signifieanee is the Iy West trop-
leal aqsariu at the foot of Greene Stret, next the LIhthouse
Department Building. This unusual struaure, eempleted in 1934
by Federal tergeney Rolief Afdinistraticn, is reputed to be
the worlds enly open.air aquar im Its simple nd effieOint
design~ touted in poured eonerete, lays no claim to pretentions,
and depends for its effectiveness an the natural beauty of the
surrounding greenaard a er a shady pala groe and the ooloe%
ful tropical swarming in the tanks that surround the patio.
The facade is a silhouette, with roof lines sweeping gracefully
from center Ihight of thirty feet to corner pilasters ten feet
lower* The arched opening in the center, screened with ornate
wooden ptes of Spanish Renaissance feeling, ishe most ipes-
ing eature of the building. On either side and rivaling the
entrance in width, is an arohed window opening in bold relief
at the enter of the facade are bleek letters spelling AQWR-
RI t", Above, prpeortionately spaeod over the th ae arue~ f
the first .stry are two urr and with the pessiblo ptimm
of the rtes, the sole dseration a single nedelled fish.
Spanrels t all openings ere bereft of srnamat. Within the
height'f the front elevation are office and laboratory Tank
and pumping machinery make up We r Inder of the rectangular


The patio, however, is the really arresting feature; seen
from the entrance, the long court is a kaleidoosope, with flowers
and reflected snmlight fro the sparkling water of a dancing
fountain between two oval pools* Around the patio is an aroade
of graceful antique wooden columns to shade the pronadej rays
of sandhine that make the finn specimens sointillate in all
of their glorious *eloring filter through the big surrounding
tanks. On either side of the entrance, under the arcade, are
two Criai frescoes portraying the industry of local fishermen.

Key West is no city for skyscrapers; big passenger steamer
dwarf the low building ely the lighthouse, La Cencha Hetel,
Sand the ethereal steel radio towers rise above the masts of the
vessels. Business architecture in the older seotions ef the
town are always wooden; in the present business district, aleog
Dravl street, fireprof construction is required, but there is
no oity ordinance demanding that Key Wet build higher than
two stories.
Te majogrty of..te building are quite ordinary, Sad be"s
now one busaeas new other. The twentieth century ha M
the oarnerstaone laid feor the maest notable of the aeaglsaate
but there are a few that date back to the day of the 1i ie
and there As at least o revera to t the old style weeAom ar
iteoture that prevailed i. Civil War times
Marine hardware has ever been a staple business in ey West.
Curry's Seona EsdHaare stere fell before the BIg Fire, wa rne
built in 188W, and still stands as a monument to the ability at



Thomas Ruasel, carpenter, who conceived the building as a rect.
angular mass depending for beauty upn a faoade embellished by
poerhes, and urnmounted by high oupolas from which still wave
the Stars and Stripes. The struetnre, which to this day shelters
Ourryfj Sens' business, is in excellent repair, and a fine exzale
of eighteenth eentuty wooden architecture, readily identified
as such by the tfoofoorawnof the facade. Cury See is an in-
stitution in Key West, while the two-etory building, heightened
by the cupolas and the brave flag, is a rbarbr landmark as
luoh a part of the water feont as the dooks themselves
El Pre Banoo laeioasl a T he FirM t National Bank is
another building attributable to Latin influence. Built about
1900 within the acute angle at the corner of Duval and Front
Streets, the plan of this two-story building is in the shape
of a triangle, with main entrance at the point of the north-
eastern angle. Above the doorway is a hbangula tower, sla-
ulating a lantern, piered on one side with a long narrow open-
ing, and covered by a pointed raoo But neither tower nor the
unique plan eonstitibs majow saififeanee. The stre tust is
built in alternate hands of red and yel brisk a high as the
renaidarchod seooad stay window rtw thee to the dentils eat
the corniee is an area eovred with goestrie design traeOd ia
yellow brick on the darker baekgrbp And not content with .
the bizarre effect thus obtained, the arehitoet added to the
eastern facade a deeorative wooden baln rpmning nearly the
full length of the building. Heavy extended beams, out into
ornate bracket, support the thin balustrade and slender round

eolmns that hold the sloping rooft and the yellowSpainted
whole is silhouetted in all its fine detail against the dark
red of the sustaining brick wall.
With the exception of certain government building which
derive their'water supply frm a ooman resarvei a2lost every
Key Wgst structure has its own water distribution system. Rain-
water is conducted into oisterns, usually built eonvniently
near, perhaps even in the foundations Well water, brackish at
times, can be used for general purposes And, of course, each
unit has its own sewelage system The IFA prejeet now operating
in Key West provides for asaatroction of. sewerage ollectors
and water distribution system, and when completed will add meoh
to Key West's attractabilitieso

The city of Ky West has never had annrganisation of arch-
iteots, but there are, of o aroe, definite building requirements
similar to those obtaining in ibher u rida eities*. Beoes must
have fireperf roof s, and on V1Val Street satMmeet at Angela
(whiab s the business distrWio) building walls t be conatrueted
of fiereot material.
Weed still remains the 4i important uald nog material in the
Island eity, in spite of the fact that he bowr la te twenties

brougt in a few stuooo a tures of the Upaish style generally
adopted by Sth lord a a htets.t For s a tie, building has
been relatively meager, due to the oity's eaeeneie condition, but


very recent developments indicate that domestic arohiteoture, at least,
has forged ahead to a pint where it shows distinct p ra iso in its

utility plan and adaptability t tthe eliate. Trend seems toward
poured onojete construotiso in the modern style, dependent for
its tffeot upon uss proportion and placement of openings rather
than decorative elements. The modern house with large abhttered
opening, a mm pereh, and airy rooms, benefits fully froi the
salubrious Gulf breases, and yet provides a heating system
for the days when cold northern blow whereas the old Key West
ohimnoyless house is provided with no heat at all.

The ahars of Ke West, it will be found, cannot be attributed
to any ne thing. Many of its points eo interest are listed here
in travel order, but it should be reebered that the eitys per
sonality osanot b felt ba bilising a sight-oeeing to, or in
seeing only the places haeh are listed., Fer when thQ have all
been eeon, the essenee ef Ke West remains something to be tfet
only after days and weak ea toplatia.
The number of -tht pesagraph whbih fellow aoIespd to
thlee an the map fteag pag
TWBS IiAID, en the theran end atf airline eet, maue of mar
paiped p fren the 0ean, iathe site of the yellow termnal bid.
wings of the Fl id ast Ceast railway Company. Rail service oeamed

when a large section of the right-3f-way was destroyed by the hurri-
oane of September 2, 19635 Here also the docks of the Peninsup
law and Ooeidental Steamship Company Fomorly passenger stopped
fr train to stesaship for the shot voyage to Havana. The S8.S
*Cuba' makes two trips weekly between Pert Tampa, Key West and
Havana. The ear ferries, which earry twenty-eight loaded freight
ears to Havana have been transferred to Port Everglades.

THE "JOHN W, ATEI S', a tweo-ated sahoener is usually at anchor
off the Florida ast Coast Desk. Built in 1888, this venerable aft
still functions as a cable repair beat Here also are moored small
fishing and small spending beats

THE MUNICIPAL SP01N3 DOCK, at the and of Grinnel Street, in years
past was one of the busiest spetsee the island. It still remains
a place of interests The present dook was built with funds of the -
Civil Works Adainistratio during the winter ~o 195335-. but apeng
fishing and trading has been going n for nearly a century in K
West. The trading reabh4 its peak shrtly before the ta t t
the centOuy, and the auetiae teUdy I still woeth seeing Spange
dealer eem her tfrim TI l sad other eities to pohabse the
animal, and the ~vw Getrived by ey West sponges- til .play.
an important part in the soeemae lie at the a tL.e At e4
tie the yield had a value of mee than t5,000 annually, but
today the crop is werth Iss, than hlat that amount


The method of selling is unique. The auatien is carried
on in oemprative .ailenoe, as the buyers are m of experience
and require no advice as to the value of the various lots of
sponges. The hour before the sale is spent by the byer in
exau ning the nerohandise and Making nete of the highest prices
they will pay per bunah for each of the various lts. Daming
the male tohe autioneer announoe the number of bunehes in the
lot being offered and reeoooe the offer of eaoh bidder written
an a small piece of folded pape. The highest bidder is a-
warded thep'-onges without argument, provided the owner eoasidt
era the amount uff oibent. No mere ceremony enter into a

$5,000.00 sale than one of $5600. The prices paid for any one
variety of sponge may vary considerably according to quality
and sioe.
4TUPRTMBv some of thea hundreds of years old, three or four
feet aerees the shell, and weighing several hdred peunds
apieoo, o ay be seen in four large crawls at the e ed it Mar-
garet Strot. These reptiles are brought te Key West seOv
eal tims l fear by turtl beats manead,by the natives at .
Ith tutlee are oauSht eft the ee t ef Oentrl -
a tb orn oa of t he diUeai e ain rXe Weet diet~

Propel prepared the fleah dakte fine steaksI A =Uall oeaa
ning' ate ry near the erawls makes eleCa turtle soup Reuh in
demand sumagt opilereas The turtles are buto eed in the
afternoon about 3s 0,


5. T-E ICE PLAITT, near the t-rtle crawls, is probably one of
few in the country i1n *.hi.zh ice is r:ade from distilled
sea water. The press is the smoe as that used In shipy.
Key Wet' water apply saoeties fails, pqgtable water
being obtained by preserving rain water in oisterna. ho
water from the melting ice ia used by ay for drinkng

6. TROMOP80S AR3IE OBIO SHOP. Margaret Street near James
Street, is a embination souvenir shop snd mosemI he .
genial preprieter welcomes visitors and has ny ourious
tales of the seae which he never tires of rehearsing beo
visitor will find displayed many speciaens of sea life
rarely met with & ordinary fishing.

7. TEE FISH MAI.B, at the foot of Elisabeth Street, offer
for sale live fih swAming in orates, locally called tfish
oar". he buyer selects his fish and it is taon aot of
the ear with a dip nt, killed and dressed lmOdately
Tied to the des a oe the beats of the petty fiaheoma, ad
the fish ar seA directly from the wells ot th bates
The fishag beats muually o into per t fea in the
afternoon WThis a good time to be present, for saomtimea
m1ngal speeiasa ase brought in*


8. TH HABAMA-MADRID CLBeornewr Front and Duval Streets
with a spaolous patio, offers the visitor an eportumity
to ena j nightu-lub life* The tile in the dance floe
is of Cuban design and ansfaetmo and was i prted to
Key West especially for the Babeanmadrid 0Club

9, 11 KEY WErT TROPICAL OM1r AIR 'aUARIW. at the foot oe
Whitehead Street, ethibits narino life of all Mknad
Brilliantly colored tropical fish play in the tanks, the
atmosphere of which is as nearly natural as possible More
than a doson years ago Ir. Robert 0 Van Duseas Superins
tendent of Philadelphiao s Pairaount Park Aquarium, began
dreaming of, such an aquarium in Key West. Many northern
aquariums sent to Xey West for speoimens of tropical fish,
and it was on one of his trips that Dr. Van Deuson first
saw the possibilities In Ky West for an open air oeshibit
,The salt water pulses through the tanks, and under th do*.
rightful wamth of the sm, no artificial beat is needed
for tho aorlao daonisa

10. THE a7TH PISaIO IJ 1 UPmtagRat aMdJ laMA s
riM Superintndent WV Dwme rtt has arrand an ez.
hibit shoSang the evelutien So the lighthouse services de
ing the past entwury i4hthose models oS the present sad
past are displayed, as vl as other aids to avigations
Three vessels are kept in a2aoet constant serve to make
the channels safe for shippini The perfect establishment




of lighthouses, lighted buoyed, stakes, and other aide to
navigatio brought to an enu one of the oity's lucrative
oeupations, salvaging wreaked ships and their sargoes.

11. TH UNITED STATES AV TAINAVAL. TIO reea and Preat Streets,
is noted fer the beauty of its tropical foliage. Although
the iteo4 States Navy maintains statims In other trepisal
localities Cavite, Ouan, Samoa, Hawaiian Islands and the
Canal Zene none of these is. as attractive as the Naval
Station at Key Westo
Most avy Yards are busy beehives of activity with rivet-
ing hamers dinning in one ears, sparks fre electric
Swelling showerin arodud, and other noises and sight ato
industrial activity. Not so with the Naval Station at ey .
Wfetj it loeks more like a botanical garden and is usually
as quiet as ane.
The nly active part of the Naval Statio is the re oie ataw
-.tiom whioh was established in 1906 and was at that tim ae
/ best equpped and most iapertant stations in trhe. ountr
It still retains mahb of its tipains as a 11nk l the
Navyti eom nioatim asyrte. The first t saiht loh
wmt* the eye of a tourist open appresaebag E West is the
grap'f .tall graefutl towers oa the radie seatieU
The mlohinoe shov, foundl-ies, sstordesoe and other build
ing are closed with stem shutters an vad s and does,
and aly maintenance work is undertaken by the reduced pert


sonnel attached to the Naval Station. However, the build-
ings are well preserved and painted and the grounds ae
well kept. Maky naval officers during the past years have
had trees and shrubs, brought in from other naval station
at Panama, Ow,9 onolue l and Manila, t add t the already
numroeua varieties native to the Florida eys*.
The Naval Station weloems visitors from 8 00 A.ko to
4s00p.u. daily, including Smuday. The Station requires,
however, that all cameras and firearms be left with the
watehman at the atan gate.
Opposite the entrance gates of the Naval Station In a trim
angle is a monaent erected to the officers and men fe the
Federal frees who lost their lives in the Civil War.
Romanesque building Just outside the naval station gates
houses the radio station. It was formerly the post office
customs house and federal court house.

22. THE ,ARIUM HOSPAL. hent and t~na Streets, was established
in 1844, Just prir to the outbreak of the oxietan Ware. T
hospital is mntalne by te Depart ent t Mthe beaus a '
Public HealMth Sevl the treatment f the ill sad Ia
ured otfices ad a of the merbhant marine serviOes We,
sels passing sead mesags requesting that their s tk
injured be taken eft and brought to this hospital* Nation.
ale of all entries maw treated. A vessel to the sast
guard, perhaps a plane or a private vessel goes to the eU


sistanee of the siok sailer and brings him to the hospital.

13. THE UBMARINE BASHI, to the res of the Marine Bospital and
adjoining the Navy Yard, with its sea wall and finger piers
was established during the world war. Afterwards it lay neg-
looted for years until its wooden piers were in a rotting
condition. At present, as part of the "new deal! recovery
program these piers are being reoenstraoted of steel. e
subTarine basin is being utilised as a yaoht basin, and in
the winter months many lwurious privately owned yachts
moor hoer At one of the pierce i moored the landing barge
of the Pan-Ameierian Airways Planes flying between Key West
and 'iamsi,ras well as planes of the Coast Guard arrive and
depart here
In the submarine basin grounds may be seen a grove of about
300 mahogany trees, whih have been planted by the eitiseao
of Key West.

146. PBBA'8 'OARDWr OP RO t Maaeale Lane, in the rear of the
court house is the sw.anset base At all Key West has to
offer. A nelO drawing ball also hbusea the bare
People of eveOy ateit gathe b hee Quiet during the week,
the crowd gathered oa saturday night

15. MRIC, 8 SPO CT Pleasing and iteheaod Streets is tIhe
immediate destination ao the speoges .bought at auction at
the auction at the oniipal spenge deok. The buoar cleans
stores, grades and paeks the sponges in bales, and they awe
then ready for shipment to market.


1., THE MONfRO COT TYCOTRT HOU in the square bounded by
Southard, Whitehead, Fleming and Thomas Streest replace
an earlier structure pulled dow n in 18. It is built on
property -belaging legally to the oity of Key West. In the
same square is the county jail, one of the eloeaest and most
comfortable in the state. Prisoners are allowed at times to
go to their homus for dinner, or to the movies,

17. JOHEORO S "ROPICAL OROYE, is. entered through a lane on the
~w- West side of Whitehead Street, between Anglea and Petrenia
Streets. Aomngst other tropical plants may be seen one of
the largest sea grape trees on the island.

18. mRuBT m f WAt author and sportsman, lives in the iran-
psutieoed house on the corner of Olivia and Whitehead Streets
A number t years age he passed through Key West and spent
a day awaiti4 travel emnneotions. He felt the mageotie ohar
of the city, bought the ld house which was built just after
the Civil uar, and hp asks Key West his permanet residenee
The house and grounds are not open,t tbohe.p* Le ter the em:
or lives hove ti write and fish and wants as distwbifag in1

19. THa mi asT &aasah, Uhitehead street near Driaini
Stret, .which As epen to the publie frtm 8*4A to 6 P9,10
is me habundre L high from base to peak the light is
91 feet, and the observation platform 84 feet It is a


buff, cynical, concrete tower with a lantern of 11,000
handle power visible 15 miles The frsat lighthouse was
boilt in 1825 on Whitehead Street, where Fort Taylor new
stands, and was washed away in the 1848 storm. The preas
eat lighthouse was put into operation that year. The
view from this lighthouse is ineamparable. The whole city
and its environs are spread beneath in a beautiful panerams.
The large aviary of Superintendent I. W. Deaeritt makes aa
interesting background for the lighthouse

20O FORT TAYLOR, entered fre Angela Street, has occupied an
intimate part in the history of Key West. Conatruetion'
was begun n 184 The foundations were scarcely laid
nearly a hundred years age when one of the worst hurricanes
that ever struck this island City was experienced* te en-
tire fort of today was built following that atom of 18468
Unfinished, it was hurriedly occupied by Union forces at
the beginning of the Otvil War, and the finest aromant f
the period 8was U ted. Bedued from tree tiers in 399 .
it new has aode= paSt, sad each sumer the 265th wt O
Artillery, ersi e aia al Sard, eneaup hbret a t PF
open each ay to tisit s.

21. A RARE TRAVTORI LAM can be seen near the Gorner t
Whitehead and Virgiia Streets. Its fraods inevar ly petat
north and south and in dieert lands travellers eotenw tap


the trunk and derive sufficient water to continue their jour-
ney* The tree thus serves tho desert wanderer in two way,
giving aid to direction and furnishing water to the thirsty

22. COSL PAR,. awthitehead Street at the water's edge, wa
established en municiapl property by the Key West Woments
Club as a bird sanctuary Coconut palas and other tropical
plants and shrubbery contrast with the conch shells and
pieces of coral which decorate its walks and benches*

23, TIf SMALL C aEUT OABLE 88D, adjoiing the parkP fro which
the cable to Cuba begins is located at the southeafost
point in the United States.

24. TRE SODm0UTHMOST DHOE in the United hates, at the end of
Iwval Street, is the residence of S.* J. Vining Harris,
widow fa the late Judge of the Criminal Oeurt A private
residence not open to the public.

5. OCPAL ISLEg QAU-IC at the bottom af Smeatea Street, was
Ina ey West's palq days the gathering place af the elite
e Key West Equipped with bath house sad bathing faeil
itiee as well as a dancing paviisa, the do e ef the oty
brought about its ruin. Attempts bav bee ma e to pat
the plaoe into repair for further use* At present an oe-
Sasimnal dance is held there, and roller Mstifag is ina
dulged In.


26. CATOVIXI3 in the neighborhood of Simonton and United

Streets, consists of a nrmber of small, shabby cot-
tages built as part of the undertaking of Eduardo I.
Cato, the tycoon of the cigar industry. Mr. Cate also
owned the trolley system, long sinoe abandoned, as well
as his cigar faeto7ry The cottages were once brilliant-
ly painted and occupied by the Cuban cigar makers ae
namigrated from Ouba beginning in 1869. At present they
are for the most part in a state of ruin.

27. TE NA.TURAL CORAL Hoa corner' of Reynolds and Sauth
Streets, is pointed out as a curiosity because it Is
the only structure on the island built of surface reek
taken from the crust of the island.

28. A TROPICA LL L ARDl,. at the corner of Seutmard aM
Francis Streets, will delight those interested in plants
ere are being developed for transplanting a great variety
of tropileal arubs and plants Some of the writes are
the beautiful anid.bloozIng eeOeu, manstws delislea
and beautiful speiaens of rote .

9o. THE CAOA M ARIIA MW Renolds Street and a nt4el Aev. .
mne, is part of Beiry M. 12agler' system af railIways di
hotels. Bet in spacious and beautiful grounds it has its
on private beach* The hotel is open from Doeember to warmX



90. THE RUITS OF THE VSR T MARTELLO TOWs are near Roosevelt
Boulevard (naned for the inoebvent President after the
Florida BEergenoy Relief Admiistration took over the of-
fairs of the city and oointy)j This is one of the two fine
forts of this kind to be fout d aI Key lest. The tower
derive their name from the t epo of construction aqd their
use usually a asall oireu r fort with very thick walls,
built chiefly on seacoasts to prevent the landing of the
enemy. In years pat, they were an integral part of the
United States Anr coast defensro Authorities differ as
to the origin of the name artello Some awy it is de-
rived from the hamer (Italian, martelle) :,ed to strike
the alarm. Another says the type was so named for a fort
of this kind on the east of Owesie which was used sue-
oessfully in resisting an invasion tf the Bieish in 1794,
while the name also is attributed te a OCeofeas who designed
the structure. It is known that this type of at~aotumo was
used as early as 1S41. te two toweras In ey Wt were
started in 1861. ,

31S T~aI sNET SSS, at the foot of hlte Street, are 'jder the
management of the Oea laf HM Setal

38. REST BEACH, with its pa3aoeedsed *bnaen is the place f
rendezvous for the winter reslents. This is the plae '
on the island for the mbinai of s bthg and i
on the island for the eesbinatia .of katmbathlng end eruap-
'* #


ship* The water is shallow for quite a distance* out, and
safe for children to play in unwatched.
33. TS SALT POED., on Roosevelt Boulevard, once were the
scene of an important Iey 'est industry. Salt pans
were located in the lowlands, flooded with salt water
which evaporated in the sun to leave buhbels of salt.
In the 18701 a- hurricane destroyed the system, and it
was never rebuilt*

34. THE EAST MARTELL TOWER. an Roosevelt Boulevard, is the moat
beautiful and imposing of Key West's old forts. It is
one of the finest samples of an old fortification in
the country. It was built in 1881, and a me of the old
Irish bricklayers who constructed its handesme arches
settled down in Iby West and founded families. The tow-
er was abandoned long ago-and is now in partial ruins,
but its beauty remain. The key to the Bast fewer asy
be obtained at the adjacent airport.

as, sTE PAN.AMIOCAB WSAR S PIM, is 'aear the Mat Nartl.
l Tower. The first internatisa flight firs the trited
states was mades Xtr here, with Havana as the destination*
The airport is still maptained by Peao tetiet Airaas,
and nearly all l1d planes bound for Key est alih here.

36. RAULWS CLUB an Roosevelt Bouleward, is the source of the


tallest fish story known to the lirth American eantinent.
Ripley ia "Believe it or not" and Lfwell Themas, radio
news commentator have told the atory of the demaetioated
fish which oeme when allied to the side of the pool In the
rear of the olub, and take food froa the owners hands*
The oest wnderful-part of the demonstration is the "side
scratching" Without other persuation than the praise at
a morsel, a snapper, grouper, mttonfish or amt of the
other varieties will swri immediately to a roek, lying a-
bout two inches under the water and stretch himself upee
it, while the demonstrator strokes his side*
The fish appear to enjoy it, lolling easily under the
hand of the demonstrator. If the water is low, due to
the oaprioes of the tide, the fish ray have difficulty in
obta-ning enough air* If so, it flops off the rook,
swims for a minute or two in its native element and then
comes back to the reek f r the sidestroking 6peratiem
toa be completed
The reward is aluei a cheice morse of feed wMaeh the
demonstrateN holds an inch or so above the fishes head.
FPm its reolining peeitioen it will flop in air teo nateh,
it from the band et the demonstrate. However, it dee'
not seem to regard the morsel as a reward for it obe~
dienoe, but as an added kindess.
Since its fame has been spread abroad, naults aquarium
and it is not infrequent to hear visitors to Key West
has become ean of the show plaoos of Key Westjwhen they
first alight from the plane or boat, say, "PiMt of a2,.


I want to see those trained fish I've heard so much about."
The club itself is attractively deeorated with electrically
lighted shells, eases of marine curies, hangings made 'o
fish nest. On the walls are painted attractive and start.
1ag murals, iaring the winter season a dinner dance on
Wednesday night features Cuban onisines The Saturday night
danee is a regular feature of Esy West life*

and County Road, was established thirtyr.ee years age on
land devoted to the government by publieaspirited oitisens.
A condition was that in the event the station were abolished
the property woual revert to the original neras. A dos-
en or so years ago, the Federal Ooverment withdrew its
active operation of this UV 8. Biological Statie, and.
in 1950 by congressional nation the property was retwned
to its donors. The Station contains a ngbhe of beauti.
ful tropical plants.

38. THU RADIO 8ATIGO, adjacent to the bielegial station
ia now used as a part tf the into eroewIeati system
the lighthouse service of the Departwt eof oiMeoe
Orginally, the radio station was emd and operated by
the V 8. avy, but several .years age was transferred to
the lighthouse service,

80* HA M1,-rTAL AtFTABLi? A .-B-ARTR-, 2EBAIt


39. A BOTANICAL OARPB established as a pert of the rehabilE
station pro'grP a i located on Steek Island, Jtut over
the Soek Islead Bridge, a narrow road to the right leads
to the Botanical GOrden. Here several attractive frame
buildings have been erected for nursery and potting shedas
HRndreds of varieties of tropical plants and trees are
being g ted. A narrow blamed trail winds through
Sa -base.ek hU Ia Vhere trees and plants Indig-
enous to the keys have not been distasbed.

40. TIE WICIRAG QOIP OOB88, near the Botanical Garden, in
a dittfcult nine hole course. It is unique in that the
player tees off in sight of the Gulf of exaiee, and at the
eighth hole leoks at the A lantio Ooean*
The Key 7est Counery 012b is the scene of entertainments
t"a Lc .r 9fW i IMll ft yd -0- L t b of

^meee 41 Ui" *&WuFniatji p Aplw I f lim H f

41. A PtnILO S1'I'1 POOL located an Roosevelt BoeAiever,
has been formed tnere marl has been ezeavated ter paying
roads. be ertlet to the pool is equipped with heavy
wire gates se that the tide freely fleos in and out .
he gates keep eat undesirable marine life fotnd in the
opes water. There are no dressing rooms Bathere arrive
in w n uit ready for the water
In sviaing builds reedy for the water.


42. CIGAR FACTORI_ gaunt and fire-swept, viewed from
Roosevelt Boulevard, are reminders of an industry which
at ane tine employed 10,00 workers.

43. AI _M OCm GARRIS BIamR at the right on Roosevelt
Boulevard is the ideal hrrioane shelter for sall craft,
and doaqns of small beats drop their moorings there the
year round. Almng the ahorea the scene i typical and
picturesque, with dinghies and sloops dran up on North
Beach between the boathou.ses The artist or photographer
finds the spot ideal.

44. BAVIEW PABE. which is at the terminus of the boulevard
is the city'* chief recreation center. Baseball games,
diamond ball in the late afternoon, and at night under
floodlight, tanniss and a playground for children are
some of its features* The Key West Hospitality Bnd gives
ooncerts here. Public eetiags and political speeohea
take place bhre. n me e raer stands a meant to the
New York Velanthrs of the Federal AIe who wee statieoad.
here during the Civil W1r A site has baen selaeed b
the Cuban GoveratM t Oa whih it will wrot a aimm- t tU
Josi Marti, Cuba patrit Md revoli ti4st.

45. ilCDES UPUTAT or CaS del Pobre, on VirPgii Strut
between White and Georgia Strat O was founded by a group
of citizens in 19311 t oare for the indigent poor. Patho


and heroism figure in its history, and the building
itself is interesting. At present it serves as a
permanent home for ill and lonesome unfortunates.

46. THB DIVISICB STBBET RANl SCID, eaorner White and
Division Streets, is one of the several schools in
Key West. A high standard i maintain by the school
syste here, and it is recognized as one of the best
in the State.

47. THE U.S.AR BARRACKS. White, Angelal Eaton Streets and
Palm Avenue, waa established nearly a hundred years ago
Some 80 years ago the Govez~ent, constructed a road
leading from the Barracks to Fort ay lor. The reserva-
tion is -spacious and cool, and within the walls can be
seen one of the finest specoiens of oactus on the entire
island, It is near the Southard Stret entrance to the

48* TIE E T s CiET t~E. main n trance Margaret Street
near Pasover Lane, one section is devoted to soldiers
and sailors who lost their lives en the U.8.8. Maine
Another sectie is devoted to C bea patriots who lest
their lives fo the Cuban eause dmarg 6t Speniash
American War* Ey West was the refuge f mray of the
instigators of the Revolutieon Soe ethe earliest
settlers are buried here*


49. THE CVWT OF TH e ARY ITMATCULAMB on Division Street,
between Simonton and Margaret Streeta, is one of the
moet delightful and restful spots on the island. The
foundation of the original building were laid in 1878,
The Sisters at the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary, a
Canadan organisation, having established its first school
ten year earli a he er at WhUitaeheaad and Division
Streets* n 1904, the building was enlarged to more than
twice its original soie in a style of architeotor unusual
for Key Weat At one time it uwa considered the handsomeat
educational building in the State of Florida Many of the
Sisters perished while on duty as nuases during the yellow
fever soourge of 18980 During the Spanish-Ameriaon War,
the Conventg two school buildings, and the personal services
of the Sistsrs as nurses were placed at the dispositioa of
the U. 5. Navy* At the Convent, also, is a surprisingly
couplets and interesting muaum, with a arguee collection
of shells and mmay rae pieces, gifts from former patram
of the Cosnvent Classes are conducted in variofs aoadei
subjects, ad may of the patrons are dran froa Protatant
foilies here.


Ta MMG I inL m Siaonten, Divisaion d Dal Streetas'
whieh tha Shiteewar passes near the Cmnvest it ea of the-
more recent sirmments in the City of Say Vest. aOh 4ay
the playroud is the scene of mah activity maet of which
is under the saperision of trained playground directors


61. TBU BY WEST PUBLIC I.rB aI oorner Duval and Virginia
Streets, is maintained by the Key West Woman*' Club,
Operating with limited funds, the oelb keeps the library
open from 4 P.M. to 7 P.M. In the rear of the library
building, adjoining the garden, is a slat-house for. sed-
lin where quite an extensive nursery is maintained.

6b. SAN CARB INlfITE. (tba Carlos Intitu PatB otioo
y Dooente), on Duval Streets above the Palaoe Theatre
is a place to be seen by the visitor in Key West. The
theatre formerly was the Cuban Opera House. The present
building was dedicated october 10, 1924, the date of the
fifty-sixth celebration of "E1 &rito de Yara", Cuban
national holiday omaenorating th first ory for freedom
from the oppression of Spain. It was built by the Cuban
Government, and the upper floor a well as a daily grade
school for the Cuban children i still maintained by it.
The Cuban Consulate also has its offices in the building*
The struoture is a splendi4 example of modern Spanish
architecture. Note the glass panel showing part of the
original oora,, stone, and the besatitl afI 4 tiles
brought froe Spain to Baelliah the interior of the building.

53*. NISS NAr X1U* livea sa onts t Straet near emring StrO t '
in one of the oldest houses on the Asand She taught in
the Key lWst schools ater i years. Three generation at
families have been under her tutelage. When the lorida


Emergency Belief Administration began it rehabilitation
program in the Island City, letters poured n from vari-
ous parts of the country, expressing the hope that Mis
Dunm's house, one of the oldest on the Island, would be
restored and ade a city shrine. Early in the smer of
1936 this work was aooamplished, and all the early archi-
tectural effect embodied in the typical little house was
preserved* The house with Miss Dunn still residing within,
stands as a monument to the appreciation of the students
who once received their training from the now retired school

54. m WEST'S BAHAMA HOsfiBS corner Eaton and William Streets,
stand side by aide, the Bartlum residence an Eaton Street,
and the Roberts home on William Street* The first was
built on green Turtle Key, Bahama Islandsa by Captain Joe
Bartlum in the early part of the nineteenth century, and
when the family decided in the early thirties to adapt
Key West as their future hoe, the house was taken apart,
loaded aboard a schooner and rebuilt on its present site.
The Roberts place was likewise brought frtm the Babamas by
Captain Diok noberts, the owner.

The Bama bousee are reputedly constructed entirely of
white pine. hapretentious as they ar, ty have a saple
digity -and possess the provincial GeorgiMC ab rasteristie
of oomfort. Different from moat Key west nbildings are


the low ceilings, but typically Key West are the delicate
balustrades on the porches, the large shuttered openings
and the roef with its two gables athwart the length of the
These are private residene, netot oen t he public.

SAIT PAUL'S CHIRC corner D l and n Eaton Streeta, is the
oldest religious organisation in the city, having been
organized in 1832. The present ornate building is most
imposing, and its stained glass windows are worthy of

THE SHAL PARK. adjoining the La Concha Hotel on Duval
Street, is the scene of Saturdaymight band concerts.
Public rest rooms are in the rear,of the park.

THE WATLINGTC HCMEI Duval Steet between Eaton and
Caroline Streets, is built largely of oedar, reputedly
the oldest house in Key Weet, It was erected about 1828
en Whitehead Street, but may years go was removed to
its present location. An interetiag eld DUtoh oven is
in the back yard.
his if a =iate Ere e t oen to te Publio

2U XE! We s ES PITALITY H m the ground floor of the
lk*#* Clubhouase on Duval Stret, is *pen to visitors, who
can spend restful hours there plying games, or meeting
other visitors in Key Vest*


59. cTE CABDrLIPE Ml H ,R corner Dual and Caroline Streets,
is an exoellant ample of the period n which were built

some of Key Veat's dignifi d and omodious homes.
During the tie of the Florida Bergenoy .Belie Adainis.-

tration*s operations in Key Wests It housed a collection
of paintings by artists of the Publio Vorks ot Art Project.

60. THE OLD ISLAND TADING PS0T at the head of Dva.l Striet
is repeated tre site of an ndian trading post. Auotions
were held here in later days for Key West was at the

point of a triangle in the courses of coastwise ships.
Today the old tradition of the post is keppt alive by
maintaining an interesting took of souvenirs and handi-

oraft work. In addition to local handicraft products,
exotic souvenir from other countries may also be pur-
ahased, as well as drawings, paintings, and blo rants.
There is a laing library, and an exhibit of old and

valuable objects from many lands.



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