• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Introduction
 Kentucky forests and caves
 Crossing the Cumberland Mounta...
 Through the river country...
 Camping among the tombs
 Through Florida swamps and...
 Cedar Keys
 A sojourn in Cuba
 By a crooked route to Californ...
 Twenty hill hollow
 Index






Group Title: thousand-mile walk to the Gulf
Title: A thousand-mile walk to the Gulf
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055550/00001
 Material Information
Title: A thousand-mile walk to the Gulf
Physical Description: xxvi, 219 p. : illus., facsim., map, port. ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Muir, John, 1838-1914
Badè, William Frederic, 1871-1936 ( ed )
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: 1916
 Subjects
Subject: Botany -- Southern States   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Southern States   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- California   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Edited by William Frederic Badé.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055550
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000036409
oclc - 00366239
notis - AAE0549

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover
    Frontispiece
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Illustrations
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Introduction
        Page ix
        Page x-1
        Page x-2
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii-1
        Page xviii-2
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
    Kentucky forests and caves
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 2a
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13a
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Crossing the Cumberland Mountains
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 20a
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 30a
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Through the river country of Georgia
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 54a
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 58a
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Camping among the tombs
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 68a
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Through Florida swamps and forests
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 90a
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 114a
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 118a
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Cedar Keys
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 126a
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 134a
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    A sojourn in Cuba
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 148a
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
    By a crooked route to California
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
    Twenty hill hollow
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 194a
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
    Index
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
Full Text









Jarge japtr edition


A Thousand-Mile


w


ak


the Gulf

































A Florida


Sunset


From


a watercolor


Ame/lia


M. Watson






A


Thousand- Mile


Jr


alk


the


Gulf


By
John Muir


Boston and New Tork


Houghton Mfflin Company
ip16








'--4--
/.


COPYRIGHT, 1916, BY HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY


ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


FIVE HUNDRED AND FIFTY COPIES
OF THIS LARGE-PAPER EDITION
WERE PRINTED AT THE RIVERSIDE
PRESS, CAMBRIDGE, IN OCTOBER, 1916.
FIVE HUNDRED COPIES ARE FOR
SALE. THIS IS NUMBER a-


















Contents


INTRODUCTION


S Ix


I. KENTUCKY FORESTS AND CAVES

II. CROSSING THE CUMBERLAND MOUNTAINS .

III. THROUGH THE RIVER COUNTRY OF GEORGIA


S. 47


IV. CAMPING AMONG THE TOMBS


S 66


V. THROUGH FLORIDA SWAMPS AND FORESTS


VI. CEDAR KEYS .

VII. A SJovUn IN CUBA .


* 5 123

* 143


VIII. BY a CROOKED ROUTE TO CALIFORNIA


IX. TWENTY HILL HOLLOW

INDEX .


S. 169


. 5 192

* S* 213




















Illustrations


A FLORIDA


SUNSET


Hand-colored


Amelia


Photograevure
r. Watson


Frontispiece


JOHN MUIR


ABOUT


From a photograph by


Bradley &


Rulof/on,


Francisco,


INSIDE


COVER


OF HIS WALK


AND FIRST PAGE OF MR. MuIR'S


TO THE GULF


JOURNAL
xiii


From the original


SHOWING


ROUTE


OF WALK


KENTUCKY OAKS


From a photograph by


Theodore


ENTRANCE


TO MAMMOTH


CAVE


From a photograph.
Railroad


By courtesy of the


Louisille and Nashville


PAGES I8 AND


OF THE JOURNAL,


MEETING WITH THE OLD


TENNESSEE


WITH


SKETCH


FARMER


OF
0


From the original


THE CLINCH RIVER, TENNESSEE


From a photographs
Railroad


courtesy


Louiswille


4 30
and Nashville


A SOUTHERN PINE


From a photograph


Herbert


Gleason


SPANISH


Moss (


Tillandsia)


From a photograph


IN BONAVENTURE CEM


From a photograph by


Herbert


ETERY,


Herbert


f. Gleason


SAVANNAH


W. Gleason


BY THE


ST. JOHN'S


RIVER IN EASTERN FLORIDA


From a photograph by Herbert W. Gleason

[ vii ]


From a water-color


by Miss


I1


. 54


68


90












Illustrations


A FLORIDA PALMETTO HUMMOCK, OR


HAMMOCK"


. 114


From a


photograpA


Herbert


K. Job


PAGE


OF JOURNAL WITH


SKETCH


SHOWING


PALMETTOS


DIFFERENT


STAGES


OF DEVELOPMENT


From the original


A SHELL


MOUND


AT CEDAR


KEYS,


FLORIDA


From a photograph


LIME


KEY


From Mr. Muir' sketch in




MORRO


CASTLE


AND ENTRANCE


TO HAVANA HARBOR


From a photograph


TWENTY HILL HOLLOW, MERCED


COUNTY,


CALIFORNIA


Mr. Muir


Smith


S26


S 34


sketch by


From a


. 8











Introduction

'OHN MUIR, Earth-planet, Universe."--


These words


are written


on the


inside


cover of the notebook from which the con-


tents of this volume have been taken.


They


reflect the mood in which the late author and
explorer undertook his thousand-mile walk to


the Gulf of Mexico a half-century ago.


does


refreshingly


cosmopolitan


No less
address,


which might have startled any finder of the
book, reveal the temper and the comprehen-
siveness of Mr. Muir's mind. He never was and
never could be a parochial student of nature.
Even at the early age of twenty-nine his eager
interest in every aspect of the natural world had
made him a citizen of the universe.
While this was by far the longest botanical
excursion which Mr. Muir made in his earlier


years, it was


by no means the only one.


botanized


Ontario,


around
through


Great


parts


Lakes,


Wisconsin,


[lx]







Introduction


Indiana, and Illinois.


On these expeditions he


disciplined


himself


to endure


hardship,


for his notebooks disclose the fact that he often
went hungry and slept in the woods, or on the
open prairies, with po cover except the clothes
he wore.
"Oftentimes," he writes in some unpublished


biographical notes,


"I had to sleep out with-


out blankets, and also without supper or break-


fast.


But usually I had no great difficulty in


finding a loaf of bread in the widely scattered


clearings of the farmers.


With one of these big


backwoods loaves I was able to wander many
a long, wild mile, free as the winds in the glori-
ous forests and bogs, gathering plants and feed-
ing on God's abounding, inexhaustible spiritual
beauty bread. Only once in my long Canada
wanderings was the deep peace of the wilder-
ness savagely broken. It happened in the maple
woods about midnight, when I was cold and my


fire was low.


I was awakened by the awfully


dismal howling of the wolves, and got up in
haste to replenish the fire."































































































JOHN MUIR ABOUT 870








V
b-








Introduction

It was not, therefore, a new species of ad-
venture upon which Mr. Muir embarked when


he started on his Southern foot-tour.


It was


only a new response to the lure of those favor-
ite studies which he had already pursued over
uncounted miles of virgin Western forests and


prairies.


Indeed, had it not been for the acci-


dental injury to his right eye in


the month of


March, 1867, he probably would have started


somewhat earlier than he did.


In a letter' writ-


ten to Indianapolis friends on the day after the
accident, he refers mournfully to the interrup-


tion of a long-cherished plan.


he writes,


"For weeks,"


"I have daily consulted maps in lo-


eating a route through the Southern States, the
West Indies, South America, and Europe a
botanical journey studied for years. And so my
mind has long been in a glow with visions of the
glories of a tropical flora; but, 'alas, I am half
glories of a tropical flora; but, alas, I am half


blind.


My right eye, trained to minute analy-


sis, is lost and I have scarce heart to open the


', other.


Had


journey been accomplished,


the stock of varied beauty acquired would have








Introduction

made me willing to shrink into any corner of
the world, however obscure and however re-
mote."
The injury to his eye proved to be less serious


than he had at first supposed.


In June he was


writing to a friend: "I have been reading and


botanizing for


some weeks, and find


that for


such work I am not very much disabled. I leave


this city


[Indianapolis]


home


to-morrow,


accompanied by Merrill Moores, a little friend


of mine.


We will go to Decatur, Illinois, thence


northward through the wide prairies, botaniz-


ing a few weeks by the way.


. I hope to go


South towards the end of the summer, and as
this will be a journey that I know very little
about, I hope to profit by your counsel before
setting out."
In an account written after the excursion he
says: "I was eager to see Illinois prairies on my
way home, so we went to Decatur, near the
center of the State, thence north [to Portage]


by Rockford and


Janesville.


I botanized one


week on the prairie about seven miles south-








Introduction.

west of Pecatonica. ... To me all plants are


more precious than before.
better, nor worse. A cloi


My poor eye is not
id is over it, but in


gazing over the widest landscapes, I am not
always sensible of its presence."
By the end of August Mr. Muir was back


again in Indianapolis.


He had found it con-


venient to spend a


"botanical week"


among


University friends in Madison.


So keen


was his interest in plants at this time that an


interval


hours


spent


Chicago was


promptly turned


to account


m a


search for


them.


"I did not find many plants in her tu-


multuous streets," he complains; "only a few
grassy plants of wheat, and two or three species
of weeds, amaranth, purslane, carpet-weed,


etc.,


- the weeds, I suppose, for man to walk


upon,


wheat


to feed


him.


saw


some


green algae,


but no mosses.


Some of the latter


I expected to see on wet walls, and in seams on


the pavements.


facturers'


But I suppose that the manu-


smoke and the terrible noise are too


great for the hardiest of them.


I rish I knew
I wish I knew


[ xiii ]








Introduction


where I was going.


Doomed to be


'carried of


the spirit into the wilderness,' I suppose. I
wish I could be more moderate in my desires,
but I cannot, and so there is no rest."
The letter noted above was written only two


days


before


started


on his


long walk


Florida.


If the concluding sentences still re-


flect indecision, they also convey a hint of the


overmastering


impulse


under


which


was


acting.


The opening sentences of his journal,


afterwards crossed out, witness to this sense of
inward compulsion which he felt." Few bodies,"


he wrote,


"are inhabited by so satisfied a soul


that they are allowed exemption from extra-


ordinary exertion through a whole life."


After


reciting illustrations of nature's periodicity, of
the ebbs and flows of tides, and the pulsation
of other forces, visible and invisible, he observes
that "so also there are tides not only in the af-
fairs of men, but in the primal thing of life it-
self. In some persons the impulse, being slight,


is easily obeyed or overcome.


But in others it


is constant and cumulative in action until its
[ xiv ]








Introduction


power is sufficient


to overmaster


impedi-


ments, and to accomplish the full measure of its


demands.


For many a year I have been im-


pelled toward the Lord'


South.


tropic gardens of the


Many influences have tended to blunt


or bury this constant longing, but it has out-
lived and overpowered them all."


Muir'


love of nature was so largely a part


of his religion that he naturally chose Biblical
phraseology when he sought a vehicle for his


feelings.


No prophet of old could have taken


his call more seriously, or have entered upon


his mission more frevently.


During


the long


days of his confinement in a dark room he had


opportunity for much reflection.


He concluded


that life was too brief and uncertain, and time
too precious, to waste upon belts and saws; that
while he was pottering in a wagon factory, God
was making a world; and he determined that,
if his eyesight was spared, he would devote the
remainder of his life to a study of the process.
Thus the previous bent of his habits and studies,
and the sobering thoughts induced by one of the








Introduction


bitterest experiences of his


combined


send him on the long journey recorded in these


pages.


Some autobiographical notes found among


papers


furnish


interesting


additional


tails about the period between his release from
the dark room and his departure for the South.


"As soon as I got out into heaven's


says,


started


on another


long


light," he
excursion,


making haste with all
mind with the Lord's be


for any fate, light or dark.


my heart to store my
eauty, and thus be ready


And it was from


this time that my long, continuous wanderings


may be said to have fairly commenced.


I bade


adieu to mechanical inventions, determined to
devote the rest of my life to the study of the


inventions of God.


I first went home to Wis-


consin, botanizing by the way, to take leave of
my father and mother, brothers and sisters, all


of whom were still living near Portage.


I also


visited the neighbors I had known as a boy,
renewed my acquaintance with them after an
absence of several years, and bade each a formal
[ xvi ]








Introduction


good-bj
I said,


ye.


When they asked where I was going


'Oh! I don't know just anywhere in


the wilderness, southward.


I have already had


glorious glimpses of the Wisconsin, Iowa, Mich-
igan, Indiana, and Canada wildernesses; now


I propose to go South and


see something of the


vegetation of the warm end of the country, and


possible


to wander far enough into South


America


to see


tropical vegetation in all


palmy glory.'
"The neighbors wished me well, advised me


to be


careful


health,


and reminded


me that the swamps in the South were full of


malaria.


I stopped overnight at the home of


an old Scotch lady who had long been my friend


was


now


particularly


wis es and advice.


motherly


in good


told her that


was


sauntering along the road, just as the sun was
going down, I heard a darling speckled-breast


sparrow singing,


'The day


's done, the day


done.'
plied,


'Weel, John, my dear


laddie,'


'your day will never be done.


she re-


There is


no end to the kind of studies you like so well,


xvii


I








Introduction


but there's


an end to mortals' strength of body


and mind, to all that mortals can accomplish.
You are sure to go on and on, but I want you


to remember the fate of Hugh Miller.


She was


one of the finest examples I ever knew of a kind,
generous, great-hearted Scotchwoman."


formal


leave-taking


from


family


neighbors indicates his belief that he was part-
ing from home and friends for a long time. On
Sunday, the Ist of September, 1867, Mr. Muir
said good-bye also to his Indianapolis friends,


went


by rail


to Jeffersonville,


where he


spent the night.


The next morning he crossed


river,


walked


through


Louisville,


struck southward


through


the State of Ken-


tucky.


A letter written a week later "among


the hills of Bear Creek, seven miles southeast


of Burkesville, Kentucky,"


shows that he had


covered


about


twenty-five


miles


a day.


walked from Louisville,


he says,


"a distance


of one hundred and seventy miles, and my feet


are sore.


But, oh!


I am paid for all my toil a


thousand times over.
[


I am in the woods on a








- .. -- -


-. -
tn2x


At' *~


INSIDE


COVER AND FIRST PAGE OF MR. MUIR'S JOURNAL
OF HIIS WALK TO THE GULF








Introduction

hilltop with my back against a moss-clad log.
I wish you could see my last evening's bed-


room.


The sun has been among the tree-tops


for more than an hour; the dew is nearly all
taken back, and the shade in these hill basins
is creeping away into the unbroken strongholds
of the grand old forests.


"I have enjoyed


trees and


scenery of


Kentucky exceedingly.


How shall I ever tell


of the miles and miles of beauty that have been


flowing into me in such measure?


These lofty


curving ranks of


lobing,


swelling hills,


these


concealed valleys of fathomless verdure,


these


lordly


trees with


nursing


sunlight


glancing in their leaves upon the outlines of the
magnificent masses of shade embosomed among
their wide branches these are cut into my
memory to go with me forever.
"I was a few miles south of Louisville when


I planned my journey.


I spread out my map


under


through


a tree


and made


Kentucky,


my mind


Tennessee,


Georgia


to Florida, thence to Cuba, thence to some part
[ xix








Introduction

of South America; but it will be only a hasty


walk.


I am thankful, however, for so


much.


My route will be through Kingston and Madi-


sonville,


Tennessee,


and- through


Blairsville


Gainesville,


Georgia.


Please


write


at Gainesville.


I am terribly letter-hungry.


hardly dare to think of home and friends."
In editing the journal I have endeavored, by
use of all the available evidence, to trail Mr.
Muir as closely as possible on maps of the sixties


as well as on the most recent state and


graphical maps.


topo-


The one used by him has not


been found, and probably is no longer in exist-


ence.


Only about twenty-two towns and cities


are mentioned in his journal.


This constitutes


a very small number when one considers the


distance he covered.


Evidently he was so ab-


sorbed in the plant life of the region traversed
that he paid no heed to towns, and perhaps
avoided them wherever possible.
The sickness which overtook him in Florida
was probably of a malarial kind, although he


describes it under different names.
[ixxl


It was, no








Introduction

doubt, a misfortune in itself, and a severe test


for his vigorous constitution.


But it was also a


blessing in disguise, inasmuch as it prevented
him from carrying out his foolhardy plan of


penetrating


tropical


jungles


South


America along, the Andes to a tributary of the
Amazon, and then floating down the river on


a raft to the Atlantic.


As readers of the jour-


nal will perceive, he clung to this intention even
during his convalescence at Cedar Keys and in


Cuba.


In a letter


dated


of Novem-


ber he describes himself as "just creeping about


getting plants


and strength after my fever."


Then he asks his correspondent to direct -let-


ters to New Orleans, Louisiana.


to go there," he writes,


America.


"I shall have


"for a boat to South


I do nbt yet know to which point in


South America I had better go."


His hope to


find there a boat for South Arperica explains
an otherwise mystifying letter in which he re-
quested his brother David to send him a cer-
tain sum of money by American Express order


to New Orleans.


As a matter of fact he did not


xi ]








Introduction


Louisiana


at all,


either


because


learned


that no south-bound ship was avail-


able at the mouth of the Mississippi, or because
the unexpected appearance of the Island Belle


in the harbor of Cedar
change his plans.


Keys


caused him


later years


Muir


himself


strongly


disparaged the wisdom of his plans with respect
to South America, as may be seen in the chap-
ter that deals with his Cuban sojourn. The


judgment


there


expressed


was


lead-penciled


into his journal during a reading of it long after-


wards.


Nevertheless the Andes and the South


American


forests


continued


to fascinate


imagination, as his letters show, for many years
after he came to California. When the long de-
ferred journey to South America was finally
made in 1911, forty-four years after the first
attempt, he whimsically spoke of it as the ful-
fillment of those youthful dreams that moved


to undertake his


thousand-mile walk to


the Gulf.
Mr. Muir always recalled with gratitude the


xxii I








Introduction


Florida friends who


nursed him


through his


long and serious illness.


ing through


In 1898, while travel-


the South on a forest-inspection


tour with his friend Charles Sprague Sargent,
he took occasion to revisit the scenes of his early


adventures.


It may be of interest to quote


some


sentences


from


letters written


at that


time to his wife and to his sister Sarah. "I
have been down the east side of the Florida
peninsula along the Indian River," he writes,
"through the palm and pine forests to Miami,


thence to Key West


keys stretching out towards Cuba.


southmost
Returning,


I crossed over to the west coast by Palatka to
Cedar Keys, on my old track made thirty-one


years


nursed me


Hodgson


in search


'through my long


died long


Hodgsons
attack of


ago, also


who


fever.


eldest


son, with whom


used


to go boating among


the keys while slowly convalescing."


He then tells how he found Mrs. Hodgson
and the rest of the family at Archer. They had
long thought him dead and were naturally very
[ xxiii ]








Introduction


much surprised to see him.


Mrs. Hodgson was


in her garden and he recognized her,
the years had altered her appearance.


though
Let us


give his own account of the meeting: "I asked


her if she knew me.
'tell me your name.'


'No, I
'Muir,'


don't,' she said;
I replied. 'John


Muir?


My California John Muir?' she almost


screamed.


I said,


, John Muir; and you


know


promised


to return and


visit you in


about twenty-five years, and


though I am a


little


- SIX


or seven


years-I've


done


the best I could.' The eldest boy and girl re-
membered the stories I told them, and when
they read about the Muir Glacier they felt sure


it must have been named for me.


I stopped at


Archer about four hours, and the way we talked


over old


times you may imagine.


From Sa-


vannah, on the same trip, he wrote: "Here is
where I spent a hungry, weary, yet happy week
camping in Bonaventure graveyard thirty-one


years ago.


Many


changes,


am told, have


been made in its graves and avenues of late, and
how many in my life!"







Introduction

In perusing this journal the reader will miss
the literary finish which Mr. Muir was accus-
tomed to give to his later writings. This fact
calls for no excuse. Not only are we dealing
here with the earliest product of his pen, but
with impressions and observations written down
hastily during pauses in his long march. He ap-
parently intended to use this raw material at
some time for another book. If the record, as
it stands, lacks finish and adornment, it also
possesses the immediacy and the freshness of
first impressions.
The sources which I have used in preparing
this volume are threefold: (I) the original jour-
nal, of which the first half contained many in-
terlinear revisions and expansions, and a con-
siderable number of rough pencil sketches of
plants, trees, scenery, and notable adventures;
(2) a wide-spaced, typewritten, rough copy of
the journal, apparently in large part dictated
to a stenographer; it is only slightly revised,
and comparison with the original journal shows
many significant omissions and additions; (3)
Sxv ]








Introduction

two separate elaborations of his experiences in


Savannah when he camped


there for a week


Bonaventure


my work
materials


fidelity


upon


was


with


graveyard.


prunary


impressed


which


Throughout
i secondary


with


adhered


scrupu-
to the


facts and impressions set down in the original
journal.


Readers of Muir'


writings need scarcely be


told that this book, autobiographically, bridges


period between


The Story of my


Boyhood


and Youth and My First Summer in the Sierra.
However, one span of the bridge was lacking,


for the journal ends with Mr. Muir'


arrival


in San Francisco about the first of April, 1868,
while his first summer in the Sierra was that of


1869.


By excerpting from a letter a summary


account of his first visit to


Yosemite, and in-


cluding a description of Twenty Hill Hollow,
where he spent a large part of his first year in


California,


the connection is made complete.


The last chapter was first published as an ar-


tide


the Overland


Monthly


July, 1872.


xnV j








Introduction


A revised


copy of


printed


article, found


among Muir'


literary effects, has been made


the basis of


the chapter on


Twenty Hill Hol-


low as it appears in this volume.
WILLIAM FREDERIC BADE


















0 COLUMBUS


frFIrr SONVILLE
fLOS VIL L E
0 FRANKFORT
ELIZA8ETHTOWN


ASGOW JUNCTION


0
CHARLESTON


I


\ I


,' V I R G I N I A


BURKESVILLE


JAME TOWN


NOR


TH


E/l N


MADOS


U I

a I

-I


I

-I
cV)



I


I


0
MONTGOMERY


- -


KINGSTON
. E E
PHILAOW
c


X BLAIRSVILLE
\


LIN A


ULE
CX


O F
/C


ROUTE


JOHN MUIR'S


WALK TO


THOUSAND


THE


GULF.


NOTE:
BY RAIL FROM INDIANAPOLIS TO JEFFERSON
BY BOAT FROM SAVANNAH TO FERNANDINA.


INDIANAPOL/S
\


A PHIA
A ROLJ


MURPHY


I N


NTA
THOMSON


O
COLUMBIA
CAR


0 MACON


OR G
SAv


I A










Thousand-Mile


[V


2lk


the


Gulf


CHAPTER


KENTUCKY FORESTS AND CAVES
HAD long been looking from the wild woods
and gardens of the Northern States to those
of the warm South, and at last, all draw-


backs overcome, I


set forth [from Indianapo-


lis] on the first day of September, 1867, joyful
and free, on a thousand-mile walk to the Gulf


of Mexico.


[The trip to


Jeffersonville, on the


banks of the Ohio, was made by rail.]
the Ohio at Louisville [September 2]


Crossing
, I steered


through the big city by compass without speak-


ing a word to any one.


Beyond the city I found


a road running southward, and after passing a
scatterment of suburban cabins and cottages I


reached


the green woods and spread out my


pocket map to rough-hew a plan for my journey.
My plan was simply to push on in a general








A Thousand-Mile


alk


southward


direction


the wildest, leafiest,


and least trodden way I could find, promising


the greatest extent of virgin forest.


Folding my


map,
press
tucky


shouldered


little


strode away among the old


oaks,


rejoicing


splendid


plant
Ken-


visions


pines and palms and tropic flowers in glorious
array, not, however, without a few cold shad-


ows


loneliness,


although


great


oaks


seemed to spread their arms in welcome.
I have seen oaks of many species in many
kinds of exposure and soil, but those of Kentucky
excel in grandeur all I had ever before beheld.
They are broad and dense and bright green. In
the leafy bowers and caves of their long branches
dwell magnificent avenues of shade, and every
tree seems to be blessed with a double portion


of strong exulting life.


Walked twenty miles,


mostly on river bottom, and found shelter in
a rickety tavern.


September


Escaped


from


dust


squalor of my garret bedroom to the glorious
forest. All the streams that I tasted hereabouts




















































KENTUCKY OAKS








Kentucky


Forests


and


Caves


are salty and so are the wells.


Salt River was


nearly dry. Much of my way this forenoon was


over naked limestone.


After passing the level


ground


that


extended


twenty-five


or thirty


miles from the river I came to a region of roll-


ing hills called Kentucky Knobs


- hills of de-


nudation, covered with trees to the top.


of them have a few pines.


Some


For a few hours I


followed


farmers'


paths,


soon


dered away from roads and encountered many
a tribe of twisted vines difficult to pass.
Emerging about noon from a grove of giant
sunflowers, I fouAd myself on the brink of a


tumbling


rocky stream [Rolling


Fork].


not expect to find bridges on my wild ways,


and at


once


started


to ford,


when


a negro


woman on the opposite bank earnestly called


on me to wait until she could tell the


"men


folks"


to bring bme a horse -


that the river


was too deep and rapid


to wade and that I


would "sartain be drowned" if I attempted to


cross.


I replied that my bag and plants would


ballast me; that the water did not appear to be
[3]








rbhousand- Mile


W


alk


deep, and that if I were carried away, I was a
good swimmer and would soon dry in the sun-


shine.


But the cautious old soul replied that no


one ever waded that river and set off for a horse,
saying that it was no trouble at all.
In a few minutes the ferry horse came gin-
gerly down the bank through vines and weeds.
His long stilt legs proved him a natural wader.
He was white and the little sable negro boy that


rode


him looked like a bug on his back.


After


many a tottering halt the outward voyage was
safely made, and I mounted behind little Nig.
He was a queer specimen, puffy and jet as an
India rubber doll and his hairwas matted in sec-


tions like the wool of a merino sheep.


The old


horse, overladen with his black and white bur-
den, rocked and stumbled on his stilt legs with


fair promises of a fall.


But all ducking signs


failed and we arrived in safety among the weeds


vines of


rugged bank.


A salt


bath


would have done us no harm. I could swim and


little


Afric looked as if he might


float like a


bladder.








Kentucky


Forests


and


Caves


I called at the homestead where my ferry-
man informed me I would find "tollable" water.


But, like all the water of this section
have tasted, it was intolerable with salt.


that I
Every-


thing about this old Kentucky home bespoke


plenty, unpolished and unmeasured.


The house


was


built in


true Southern style, airy, large,


and with a transverse central hall that look-s


a railway tunnel, and


heavy rough


out-


side chimneys. The negro quarters and other
buildings are enough in number for a village,


altogether


an interesting


representative of


genuine old


Kentucky


home,


embosomed in


orchards, corn fields and green wooded hills.


Passed gangs of woodmen


hewing


grand


engaged
oaks for


market.


Fruit very abundant.
scenery all afternoon.


Magnificent flowing hill
Walked southeast from


Elizabethtown till wearied and lay down in the
bushes by guess.


September


The sun was gilding the hill-


tops when I was awakened by the alarm notes
of birds whose dwelling in a hazel thicket I had










disturbed.


CWalk


They flitted excitedly close to my


head, as if scolding or asking angry questions,
while several beautiful plants, strangers to me,


were looking me full in the face.


tanical discovery in bed


The first bo-


This was one of the


most delightful camp grounds, though groped
for in the dark, and I lingered about it enjoying
its trees and soft lights and music.


Walked tef miles of forest.


Met a strange


with


willow-looking


leaves.


Entered


sandy stretch of black oak called "Barrens,"
many of which were sixty or seventy feet in
height, and are said to have grown since the


fires were kept off,


forty years ago.


The farm-


ers hereabouts are tall, stout, happy fellows,


fond


guns


horses.


Enjoyed


friendly


chats with them.


Arrived at dark in a village


that seemed to be drawing its last breath.


guided to the "tavern"
tremely accommodating


Was


by a negro who was ex-
. "No trouble at all,"


he said.


September


5. No bird or flower or friendly


tree above me this morning; only squalid garret
[6]


SThousand- Mile








Kentucky


Forests and


Caves


rubbish and dust. Escaped to the woods.


Came


to the region of caves. At the mouth of the first
I discovered, I was surprised to find ferns which
belonged to the coolest nooks of Wisconsin and
northward, but soon observed that each cave
rim has a zone of climate peculiar to itself, and


it is always cool.


This cave had an


opening


about


ten feet


in diameter,


twenty-five


feet perpendicular depth.


A strong cold wind


issued from it and I could hear the sounds of


running water.


A long pole was set against its


walls as if intended for a ladder, but in some
places it was slippery and smooth as a mast and
would test the climbing powers of a monkey.
The walls and rim of this natural reservoir were


finely carved and flowered.


Bushes leaned over


it with shading leaves, and beautiful ferns and
mosses were in rows and sheets on its slopes


and shelves.


Lingered here a long happy while,


pressing


specimens


printing this


beauty


mto memory.


Arrived


about


noon


at Munfordville


was


soon discovered and examined


Mr. Mun-








Thousand-Mile


Wi


ilk


ford himself, a pioneer and father of the village.
He is a surveyor has held all country offices,
and every seeker of roads and lands applies to


him for information.


He regards all the vil-


lagers as his children, and all strangers who en-


ter Munfordville as his own visitors.


Of course


he inquired my business, destination, et cetera,
and invited me to his house.
After refreshing me with parrss" he compla-


cently covered


table with


bits of


rocks,


plants, et cetera, things new and old which he
had gathered in his surveying walks and sup-


posed to be full of


scientific interest.


He in-


formed me that all scientific men applied to him


for information, and as I


was a botanist, he


either possessed, or ought to possess, the knowl-


edge


was


seeking,


soI


received


long


lessons concerning roots and


herbs


for every


mortal


Thanking my


benefactor for


kindness, I escaped to the fields and followed a
railroad along the base of a grand hill ridge. As
evening came on all the dwellings I found seemed
to repel me, and I could not muster courage
[ 8 1








Kentucky


Forests


and


Caves


enough to ask entertainment at any of them.
Took refuge in a log schoolhouse that stood on
a hillside beneath stately oaks and slept on the
softest looking of the benches.


September 6.


Started at the earliest bird song


in hopes of seeing the great Mammoth Cave


before evening.
an ox team. I


Overtook an old negro driving
tode with him a few miles and


had some interesting chat concerning war, wild


fruits of the woods, et cetera.


said he,


"Right heah,"


"is where the Rebs was a-tearin' up the


track, and they all a sudden thought they seed
the Yankees a-comin', obah dem big hills dar,


and Lo'd, how dey run."


asked him if he


would like a renewal of these sad war times,
when his flexible face suddenly calmed, and he


said with intense earnestness,


no mo wa, Lo'd no."


"Oh, Lo'd, want


Many of these Kentucky


negroes are shrewd and intelligent, and when
warmed upon a subject that interests them, are
eloquent in no mean degree.
Arrived at Horse Cave, about ten miles from


the great cave.


The entrance is by a long easy








Thousand-Mile


slope of several hundred yards.


Walk


It seems like


a noble gateway to


birthplace of


springs


and fountains and the dark treasuries of the


mineral kingdom.


This cave


in a village


[of the same name] which it supplies with an


abundance of


cold


water, and


that


issues from its fern-clad lips.


crowds of


In hot weather


people sit about it in the shade of


the trees that guard it.


This magnificent fan


is capable of cooling everybody in the town at
once.
Those who live near lofty mountains may
climb to cool weather in a day or two, but the
overheated Kentuckians can find a patch of cool


climate in almost every glen in the State.


The


villager who accompanied me said that Horse
Cave had never been fully explored, but that it


was several miles in length at least.


He told me


that he had never been at Mammoth Cave -
that it was not worth going ten miles to see, as
it was nothing but a hole in the ground, and I


found that his was no rare case.


He was one


of the useful, practical men too wise to waste







Kentucky


Forests


and


Caves


precious time with weeds, caves, fossils, or any-
thing else that he could not eat.


Arrived at the great Mammoth Cave.


I was


surprised to find it in so complete naturalness.
A large hotel with fine walks and gardens is


near it.


But fortunately the cave has been un-


improved, and were it not for the narrow trail
that leads down the glen to its door, one would


not know that it had been visited.


There are


house-rooms


halls whose entrances


give


but slight hint of their grandeur.


And so also


this magnificent hall in the mineral kingdom of
Kentucky has a door comparatively small and


unpromising.


might


pass


within


a few


yards of it without noticing it.


A strong cool


breeze


issues


constantly


from


creating


northern climate for the ferns that adorn its
rocky front.
I never before saw Nature's grandeur in so
abrupt contrast with paltry artificial gardens.


fashionable


hotel


grounds


are m exact


parlor taste, with many a beautiful plant cul-


tivated


to deformity,


and arranged


in strict








rhousand-Mile


Wt


alk


geometrical


beds,


whole


pretty


affair


laborious
beauty.


failure


with


Divine


The trees around the mouth of the


cave


are smooth and


bent


forward


at the bottom,


then straight upwards.


Only


a butternut
branches, to


seems,


its angular


sympathize with


knotty


belong


the cave,


with


a fine


growth


Cystopteris


and Hypnum.


Started for Glasgow


Junction.


Got belated


in the hill woods.


Inquired my way at a farm-


house and was invited to stay overnight in a


rare, hearty, hospitable manner.


Engaged in


familiar running talk on politics, war times, and


theology.


The old Kentuckian seemed to take


a liking to me and advised me to stay in these
hills until next spring, assuring me that I would
find much to interest me in and about the Great
Cave; also, that he was one of the school offi-


cials and was sure that I
school for the winter term.


could


obtain


their


I sincerely thanked


him for his kind plans, but pursued my own.


September 7. Left


the hospitable Kentuck-
1i







































































ENTRANCE T(O MAMMOTH CAVE








Kentucky


Forests


and


Caves


ians with their sincere good wishes and


bore


away southward again through the deep green


woods.


In noble forests all day.


for the first time.


Saw mistletoe


Part of the day I


traveled


with a Kentuckian from near Burkesville. He
spoke to all the negroes he met with familiar


kindly


greetings,


addressing


them


always


"Uncles" and "Aunts."


All travelers one meets


on these


roads,


white


black,


male


female,


travel on horseback.


Glasgow is one


of the few Southern towns that shows ordinary


American


night


with


well-to-do


farmer.
September 8. Deep, green, bossy sea of way-


ing, flowing hilltops.
bacco fields scattered


Corn and cotton and to-


here and


there.


I had


imagined


that


a cotton


field


in flower


was


something magnificent.


But cotton is a coarse,


rough, straggling, unhappy looking plant, not
half as good-looking as a field of Irish potatoes.
Met a great many negroes going to meeting,


dressed in their Sunday best.


Fat, happy look-


ing, and contented. The scenery on approaching








rhousand-1Mile


W4


alk


the Cumberland River


becomes still grander.


Burkesville, in beautiful location, is embosomed
in a glorious array of verdant flowing hills. The


Cumberland must be a happy stream.


I think


I could enjoy traveling with it in the midst of


such beauty all my life.


This evening I could


find none willing to take me in, and so lay down
on a hillside and fell asleep muttering praises
to the happy abounding beauty of Kentucky.


September p. Another


day in


the most


vored province of bird and flower. Many rapid


streams,


flowing in


beautiful flower-bordered


caiions embosomed in dense woods. Am seated
on a grand hill-slope that leans back against


the sky like a picture.


Amid the wide waves


green


wood


there


are spots of


autumnal


yellow and the atmosphere, too, has the dawn-


ings of autumn in colors and sounds.


The soft


light of morning falls upon ripening forests of
oak and elm, walnut and hickory, and all Na-


ture is thoughtful and calm.


Kentucky is the


greenest, leafiest State I have yet seen. The
sea of soft temperate plant-green is deepest here.








Kentucky


Forests


and


Caves


' Comparing volumes of vegetable verdure in


different countries to a wedge,


the thick


would be in the forests of Kentucky, the other


in the lichens and mosses of the North.


This


verdure wedge would not be perfect in its lines.
From Kentucky it would maintain its thickness


long and


well in passing the level forests of


Indiana and Canada.


From the maples and


pines of Canada it would slope rapidly to the
bleak Arctic hills with dwarf birches and alders;
thence it would thin out in a long edge among


hardy


lichens


liverworts


and mosses


the dwelling-places of everlasting frost.


Far the


grandest of all Kentucky plants are her noble


oaks.


They


are the master existences of her


exuberant forests.
dise of oaks. Passe


Here is the Eden, the para-
ed the Kentucky line towards


evening and obtained food and shelter from a


thrifty
use of


Tennessee farmer, after


he had made


the ordinary anti-hospitable


argu-


ments of cautious comfortable families.


September


1o. Escaped from a heap of un-


cordial kindness to the generous bosom of the
[Is]










woods.


Walk


After a few miles of level ground in


luxuriant tangles of brooding vines, I began the
ascent of the Cumberland Mountains, the first
real mountains that my foot ever touched or


eyes beheld.


The ascent was by a nearly regu-


lar zigzag slope, mostly covered up like a tun-


nel by overarching oaks.


But there were a few


openings where the glorious forest road of Ken-


tucky was


grandly seen,


stretching over


and valley, adjusted to every slope and curve


by the hands of Nature


- the most sublime


and comprehensive picture that ever entered


my eyes.
hours a


Reached the summit in six or seven


strangely


long


period


up-grade


work to one accustomed only to the hillocky
levels of Wisconsin and adjacent States.


Thousand- Mile











CHAPTER II
CROSSING THE CUMBERLAND MOUNTAINS
HAD climbed but a short distance when
I was overtaken by a young man on horse-
back, who soon showed that he intended to
rob me if he should find the job worth while.
After he had inquired where I came from, and
where I was going, he offered to carry my bag.
I told him that it was so light that I did not
feel it at all a burden; but he insisted and coaxed
until I allowed him to carry it. As soon as he
had gained possession I noticed that he gradu-
ally increased his speed, evidently trying to get
far enough ahead of me to examine the con-
tents without being observed. But I was too
good a walker and runner for him to get far.
At a turn of the road, after trotting his horse
for about half an hour, and when he thought he
was out of sight, I caught him rummaging my
poor bag. Finding there only a comb, brush,
towel, soap, a change of underclothing, a copy
[171








Thousand-Mile


W


zlk


of Burns's


poems, Milton's Paradise Lost, and


a small


New


Testament, he waited


handed back my bag, and returned down the
hill, saying that he had forgotten something.
I found splendid growths of shining-leaved
Ericacee [heathworts] for which the Alleghany


Mountains are noted.


Also ferns of which Os-


munda


cznnamomea


[Cinnamon


Fern]


largest and perhaps the most abundant. Os-
munda regalis [Flowering Fern] is also common


here, but not large.


Wood's and Gray's


Botany Osmunda cinnamomea is said to be a


much larger


than


Osmunda claytoniana.


This


found


to be


Tennessee


southward, but in Indiana, part of Illinois, and


Wisconsin


the opposite is true.


Found


here


the beautiful, sensitive Schrankia, or sensitive


brier.
with


It is a long,


dense


heads


prickly, leguminous vine,


small,


yellow


fragrant


flowers.
I Alphonso Wood, Class-book of Botany, with a Flora of
the United States and Canada. The copy of this work, carried


by Mr. Muir on his wanderings, is still extant.
is that of I862.


The edition








The Cumberland Mountains

Vines growing on roadsides receive many a
tormenting blow, simply because they give evi-
dence of feeling. Sensitive people are served
in the same way. But the roadside vine soon
becomes less sensitive, like people getting used
to teasing -Nature, in this instance, making for
the comfort of flower creatures the same benev-
olent arrangement as for man. Thus I found
that the Schrankia vines growing along foot-
paths leading to a backwoods schoolhouse were
much less sensitive than those in the adjacent
unfrequented woods, having learned to pay but
slight attention to the tingling strokes they
get from teasing scholars.
It is startling to see the pairs of pinnate
leaves rising quickly out of the grass and fold-
ing themselves close in regular succession from
the root to the end of the prostrate stems, ten
to twenty feet in length. How little we know as
yet of the life of plants their hopes and fears,
pains and enjoyments!
Traveled a few miles with an old Tennessee
farmer who was much excited on account of the
[ 19]








Thousand-Mile


WV


a7k


news he had


England,


heard.


Ireland, and


"Three


Russia, have


kingdoms,


declared


war agin the United States.


Oh, it's terrible,


terrible,"


said he.


"This


big war coming'


quick, after our own big fight.


Well, it can't be


helped, and all I have to say is, Amerricay for-
ever, but I'd a heap rather they did n't fight."
"But are you sure the news is true?" I in-


quired.


"Oh, yes, quite sure,'" he replied,


"for


me and some of my neighbors were down at the
store last night, and Jim Smith can read, and
he found out all about it in a newspaper."
Passed the poor, rickety, thrice-dead village


Jamestown,


incredibly


dreary


place.


Toward the top of the Cumberland grade, about
two hours before sundown I came to a log house,
and as I had been warned that all the broad
plateau of the range for forty or fifty miles was
desolate, I began thus early to seek a lodging
for the night. Knocking at the door, a motherly
old lady replied to my request for supper and
bed and breakfast, that I was welcome to the
best she had, provided that I had the necessary
[ 20 ]










































4

-i1


..































PAGES iS AND uq OF THE JOURNAl., WITH SKETCH OF

MEETING WITH THE OLD TENNESSEE FARMER








The


Cumberland


Mountains


change to pay my bill.


When I told her that un-


fortunately I had nothing smaller than a five-


dollar


greenback, she said,


"Well, I'm sorry,


but cannot afford to keep you. Not long ago
ten soldiers came across from North Carolina,
and in the morning they offered a greenback
that I could n't change, and so I got nothing for
keeping them, which I was ill able to afford."


"Very well," I said,


"I'm glad you spoke of


this beforehand, for I would rather go hungry
than impose on your hospitality."
As I turned to leave, after bidding her good-


bye,


evidently


pitying me for my tired


looks, called me back and asked me if I would


like a drink of milk.


This I gladly accepted,


thinking that perhaps I might not be success-
ful in getting any other nourishment for a day


or.two.


Then I inquired whether there were any


more houses


on the road, nearer


than North


Carolina, forty


or fifty miles


away.


"Yes,"


said,


" it's


only two


miles


next


house,


beyond


that there are no


houses


that I know of except empty ones whose own-
[21]








Thousand-Mile


[W


i/k


ers have been killed or driven away during the
war."
Arriving at the last house, my knock at the
door was answered by a bright, good-natured,
good-looking little woman, who in reply to my


request for a night's lodging and food, said,


"Oh,


I guess


I think you can stay.


Come in and


I '11 call my husband.


"But I must first warn


you,


" I said,


"that I have nothing smaller to


offer you than a five-dollar bill for my enter-


tainment.


I don't want you to think that I am


trying to impose on your hospitality."
She then called her husband, a blacksmith,


who was at work at his forge.


He came out,


hammer


in hand,


bare-breasted,


sweaty,


grimed, and


covered with


shaggy


black


hair.


In reply to his wife'


statement, that this young


man wished to stop over night, he quickly re-


plied,


"That'


all right; tell him to go into the


house." He was turning to go back to his shop,


when his wife added,
any change to pay. I
than a five-dollar bill."
[2


'But he says he has n't
ie has nothing smaller
Hesitating only a mo-
2z








The


Cumberland


Mountains


ment, he turned on his heel and said,


to go into the house.


"Tell him


A man that comes right


out like that beforehand is welcome to eat my
bread."


When he came in after his hard day's


work


and sat down to dinner, he solemnly asked a
blessing on the frugal meal, consisting solely of


corn bread and bacon.
table at me, he said,


Then, looking across the


"Young man,


what are


you doing down here?"


I replied that I was


looking


at plants.


"Plants ?


What


kind of


plants?" I said,


"Oh, all kinds


grass,


weeds,


flowers,


trees,


mosses, ferns,


- almost every-


thing that grows is interesting to me."


"Well, young man,


" he queried,


"you mean


to say that you are not employed by the Gov-


emrnment on some private business?"


"No," I


said,


"I am not employed


by any one except


just myself.


I love all kinds of plants, and I


came down here to these Southern States to get
acquainted with as many of them as possible."
"You look like a strong-minded man," he re-


plied,


"and surely you are able to do something







7housand- Mile


W'


alk


better than wander over the country and look


at weeds and blossoms.


These are hard times,


and real work is required of every man that is


able.


Picking up blossoms does n't seem to be


a man's work at all in any kind of times."


To this I replied,


"You are a believer in the


Bible, are you not?"


"Oh, yes.


"Well, you


know Solomon was a strong-minded man, and
he is generally believed to have been the very
wisest man the world ever saw, and yet he con-


sidered


it was worth


while


to study


plants;


not only to go and pick them up as I am doing,
but to study them; and you know we are told
that he wrote a book about plants, not only of
the great cedars of Lebanon, but of little bits of
things growing in the cracks of the walls." 1


"Therefore,


see that Solomon differed


very much more from you than from me in this


matter.


I'11 warrant you he had many a long


ramble in the mountains of Judea, and had he
a The previously mentioned copy of Wood's Botany, used
by John Muir, quotes on the title page I Kings iv, 33: He
spake of trees, from the cedar of Lebanon even unto the
hyssop that springeth out of the wall."








The


Cumberland


Mountains


been a Yankee he would likely have visited every
weed in the land. And again, do you not remem-


ber that Christ


told his disciples


the lilies how they grow,'


to 'consider


and compared


beauty with Solomon in all his glory?


their
Now,


whose advice am I to take, yours or Christ'


Christ


says,


'Consider


lilies.'


You


'Don't consider them. It is n't worth while for
any strong-minded man.'"
This evidently satisfied him, and he acknowl-


edged that he had


never thought of blossoms


that way before.


He repeated


again


again that I must be a very strong-minded man,
and admitted that no doubt I was fully justified


in picking up blossoms.


He then told me that


although the war was over, walking across the
Cumberland Mountains still was far from safe
on account of small bands of guerrillas who were
in hiding along the roads, and earnestly entreated
me to turn back gnd not to think of walking so
far as the Gulf of Mexico until the country be-
came quiet and orderly once more.
I replied that I had no fear, that I had but
[25]








Thousand-Mile


W


alk


very little to lose, and that nobody was likely to
think it worth while to rob me; that, anyhow,


I always had good luck.


the morning


repeated the warning and entreated me to turn
back, which never for a moment interfered with
my resolution to pursue my glorious walk.


September


ix. Long


stretch


of level


sand-


stone


plateau,


lightly furrowed


dimpled


with shallow groove-like valleys and hills. The
trees are mostly oaks, planted wide apart like


those in the


Wisconsin woods.


A good many


pine trees here and there, forty to eighty feet
high, and most of the ground is covered with


showy flowers.


Polygalas


[milkworts], solida-


goes [goldenrods],


asters


were


especially


abundant.


I came to a cool clear brook every


mile


or so, the banks planted


with Os-


munda regalis, Osmunda cinnamomea, and hand-


some


sedges.


larger


streams


were


fringed with laurels and azaleas.


Large areas


beneath the trees are covered with formidable
green briers and brambles, armed with hooked


claws, and almost impenetrable.


Houses are


[z26








fle


Cumberland


Mountains


far apart and uninhabited, orchards and fences
in ruins sad marks of war.


About noon


my road


became dim and


last vanished among desolate fields.


Lost and


hungry, I knew my direction but could not keep


it on account of the briers.


My path was indeed


strewn with flowers, but as thorny, also, as mor-
tal ever trod. In trying to force a way through
these cat-plants one is not simply clawed and
pricked through all one's clothing, but caught


and held fast.


The toothed arching branches


come down over and above you like cruel liv-
ing arms, and the more you struggle the more


desperately


entangled,


your


wounds deepened and multiplied.


has plant fly-catchers.


The South


It also has plant man-


catchers.
M After a great deal of defensive fighting and
struggling I escaped to a road and a house, but


failed to find food


or shelter.


Towards


sun-


down, as I was walking rapidly along a straight
stretch in the road, I suddenly came in sight of


ten mounted men


riding


abreast.


They un-








Thousand-Mile


We


ilk


doubtedly


seen


me before


discovered


them, for they


had stopped


their horses and


were evidently watching me. I saw at once that


it was useless to attempt


to avoid them, for


the ground thereabout was quite open.


I knew


that there was nothing for it but to face them


fearlessly,


without showing the slightest sus-


picion of foul play.


Therefore, without halting


even for a moment, I advanced rapidly with
long strides as though I intended to walk through


the midst of them.


When I got within a rod or


so I looked up in their faces and smilingly bade


them "Howdy."


Stopping never an instant, I


turned to one side and walked around them to
get on the road again, and kept on without ven-
turing to look back or to betray the slightest
fear of being robbed.
After I had gone about one hundred or one


hundred and fifty yards, I


ventured a quick


glance back, without stopping, and saw in this
flash of an eye that all the ten had turned their
horses toward me and were evidently talking
about me; supposedly, with reference to what








The


Cumberland


AMountains


my object was, where I was going, and whether


it would be worth while to rob me.


They all


were mounted on rather scrawny horses, and all
wore long hair hanging down on their shoulders.
Evidently they belonged to the most irreclaim-


able of the


guerrilla bands


who, long accus-


tomed to plunder, deplored the coming of peace.
I was not followed, however, probably because
the plants projecting from my plant press made


them


believe that I was a poor herb doctor, a


common occupation~in these mountain regions.
About dark I discovered, a little off the road,


another house, inhabited by negroes,


where I


succeeded in


obtaining a much


needed meal


of string beans, buttermilk, and corn bread. At


the table I


was seated in a bottomless chair,


and as I became sore and heavy, I sank deeper


deeper,


pressing


knees


against


breast, and my mouth settled to the level of my


plate.


But wild hunger cares for none of these


things, and my curiously compressed position
prevented the too free indulgence of boisterous


appetite.


Of course, I was compelled to sleep








Thousand- Mile


Wv


llk


with the trees in the one great bedroom of the
open night.
September 12. Awoke drenched with moun-


mist,


which made


a grand


show,


as it


moved away before the hot sun.


Passed Mont-


gomery, a shabby village at the head of the
east slope of the Cumberland Mountains. Ob-
tained breakfast in a clean house and began the


descent of the mountains.


Obtained fine views


of a wide, open country, and distant flanking


ridges and spurs.
[Emory River], a


Crossed a wide cool stream
branch of the Clinch River.


There is nothing more eloquent in Nature than
a mountain stream, and this is the first I ever


saw.


Its banks are luxuriantly peopled with


rare and lovely flowers and overarching trees,


making one of Nature's


pitable places.


coolest and most hos-


Every tree, every flower, every


ripple and eddy of this lovely stream seemed
solemnly to feel the presence of the great Cre-


ator.


Lingered in this sanctuary a long time


thanking the Lord with all my heart for his
goodness in allowing me to enter and enjoy it.
[o30 ]



















































' I, \NEKSI'KE


TilI, < I.I M II RIl -,R








flhe


Cumberland


AMountains


Discovered two ferns, Dicksonia and a small


matted
South.


polypod


trees,


common


farther


Also a species of magnolia with very


large leaves and scarlet conical fruit.


Near this


stream I spent some joyous time in a grand
rock-dwelling full of mosses, birds, and flowers.


Most heavenly place I ever entered.


The long


narrow valleys of


the mountainside,


all well


watered and nobly adorned with oaks, magno-


laurels,


azaleas,


asters,


ferns,


Hypnum


mosses,


Madotheca


[Scale-mosses],


Also


towering clumps of beautiful hemlocks. The
hemlock, judging from the common species of


Canada,
conifers.


I regarded as the least noble of the
But those of the eastern valleys of the


Cumberland Mountains are as perfect in form


and regal in port as the pines themselves.


latter abundant.


The


Obtained fine glimpses from


open places as I descended to the great valley
between these mountains and the Unaka Moun-


tains on the state line.


Forded the Clinch, a


beautiful clear stream, that knows many of the
dearest mountain retreats that ever heard the








Thousand- Mile


Wt


alk


music of


running water.


Reached


Kingston


before dark.


Sent back my plant collections by


express to my brother in Wisconsin.


September


Walked all


day across small


parallel valleys that flute the surface of the one


wide


valley.


These


flutings


appear to


have


been formed by lateral pressure, are fertile, and
contain some fine forms, though the seal of war


is on all things.


The roads never seem to pro-


ceed with any fixed purpose, but wander as if


lost.


In seeking the way to Philadelphia [in


Loudon County,


Tennessee], I was told by a


buxom Tennessee "gal' that over the hills was
much the nearer way, that she always went that
way, and that surely I could travel it.


started


over


flint-ridges,


soon


reached a set of enchanted little valleys among
which, no matter how or in what direction I
traveled, I could not get a foot nearer to Phila-


delphia.


At last, consulting my map and com-


pass,


neglected


directions


finally


reached the house of a negro driver, with whom
I put up for the night. Received a good deal of








The


Cumberland


Mountains


knowledge which may be of use should I ever
be a negro teamster.


September


Philadelphia is a very filthy


village in a beautiful situation.


More or less of


pine.


Black oak most abundant.


hexagonopterum


Aspidium


Polypodium
acrostichoides


[Christmas Fern] most abundant of ferns and
most generally distributed. Osmunda claytoni-
ana rare, not in fruit, small. Dicksonia abun-
dant, after leaving the Cumberland Mountains.
Asplenium ebeneum [Ebony Spleenwort] quite
common in Tennessee and many parts of Ken-


tucky.


Cystopteris [Bladder Ferni, and Asplen-


ium filix-fcemina not common through the same
range. Pteris aquilina [Common Brake] abun-
dant, but small.
Walked through many a leafy valley, shady


grove, and


cool brooklet.


Reached Madison-


ville, a brisk village.


Came in full view of the


Unaka Mountains, a magnificent sight.


Stayed


over night with a pleasant young farmer.
September 15. Most glorious billowy moun-


tam scenery.


Made many a b4lt at open places








A Thousand-Mile


to take breath and to admire.


Walk


The road, in


many places cut into the rock, goes winding


about


among the


knobs and


gorges.


Dense


growth of asters, liatris,1 and grapevines.


Reached


a house


before


night,


asked


leave to stop.


"Well, you're welcome to stop,


said the mountaineer,


"if you think you can


live till morning on what I have to live on all


the time."


Found the old gentleman very corn-


municative.


Was


favored


with


long


"bar"


stories,


deer


hunts, etc.,


the morning


was pressed to stay a day or two.


September


take


you,"


the highest


ridge


the country,


where


you can


see both ways.


You will have a view


of all the world on one side of
and all creation on the other.


the mountains
Besides, you,


who are


traveling for


curiosity


wonder,


1 Wood's


Botany, edition of I862, furnishes the following


interesting comment on Liatris odoratissima (Willd.), popu-


larly known


as Vanilla Plant or Deer's Tongue: "The fleshy


leaves exhale a rich fragrance even for years after they are
dry, and are therefore by the southern planters largely mixed
with their cured tobacco, to impart its fragrance to that
nauseous weed."








Tihe


Cumberland


Mountains


ought to see our gold m
and went to the mines.


I agreed to stay


Gold is found in small


quantities


throughout


Alleghanies,


many farmers work at mining a few weeks or
months every year when their time is not more


valuable for other pursuits.


In this neighbor-


hood miners are earning from half a dollar to


dollars


a day.


There


are several


large


quartz mills not far from here.


Common labor


is worth ten dollars a month.
September I7. Spent the day in botanizing,


blacksmithing,


examining


a gnst


mill.


Grist mills, in the less settled parts of Tennes-
see and North Carolina, are remarkably simple


affairs.


A small stone, that a man might carry


under his arm, is fastened to the vertical shaft


a little home-made,


boyish-looking,


back-


action water-wheel, which, with a hopper and
a box to receive the meal, is the whole affair.
The walls of the mill are of undressed poles cut


from seedling trees and


there is no floor,


lumber is dear.


No dam is built.


The water is


conveyed


along


some


hillside until


sufficient


[ 35








rhousand-Mile


[t


ak


obtained,


a thing


easily


done


mountains.


On Sunday you may see wild, unshorn,


combed men


coming out of


the woods,


each


with a bag of corn on his back.
a bushel is a common grist. Th


From a peck to
iey go to the mill


along verdant footpaths, winding up and down
over hill and valley, and crossing many a rho-


dodendron glen.


The flowers and shining leaves


brush against their shoulders and knees, occa-
sionally knocking off their coon-skin caps. The
first arrived throws his corn into the hopper,


turns on


the water,


goes


to the


house.


After chatting and


smoking


he returns to see


if his


grist


is done.


Should


stones


empty for an hour or two, it does no harm.
This is a fair average in equipment and ca-
pacity of a score of mills that I saw in Tennes-


This


one was


built by


John


Vohn,


who


claimed


that he could make


it grind


twenty


bushels a day.


But since it fell into other hands


it can be made to grind only ten per day. All
the machines of Kentucky and Tennessee are


see.








The


Cumberland


Mountains


far behind the age.


There is scarce a trace of


that restless


spirit of


speculation


inven-


tion so characteristic of the North.


But one


way of doing things obtains here, as if laws had
been passed making attempts at improvement


a crnme.


Spinning


and weaving are done in


every


one of


these


mountain


cabins


wher-


ever the least


economy.


pretensions are made to thrift
The practice of these ancient


arts they deem marks of advancement


rather


than of backwardness.


"There


's a place back


heah,"


worthy


entertainer,


"whar


there 's a mill-house, an'


still-house, an


a store-house, an'


a spring-house, an' a blacksmith


shop


- all in the same yard!


Cows too, an'


heaps of big gals a-milkin' them."


This is the most primitive


country


I have


seen,


primitive


in everything.


remotest


hidden parts of Wisconsin are far in advance of
the mountain regions of Tennessee and North


Carolina.
fashioned
losopher


But my host speaks of


unenlightened


times,"


light of


"old-
a phi-


civilization.







Thousand- Mile


W[


alk


believe in Providence," said he.


"Our fathers


came into these valleys, got the richest of them,
and skimmed off the cream of the soil. The
worn-out ground won't yield no roastin' ears


now.


But the Lord foresaw this state of


fairs, and prepared something else for us. And


what
these


Why He meant us to bust open


copper


mines and gold mines, so


that


we may have money to buy the corn that we
cannot raise." A most profound observation.
September 18. Up the mountain on the state
line. The scenery is far grander than any I


ever before beheld.


The view extends from the


Cumberland Mountains on the north far into
Georgia and North Carolina to the south, an


area of about five thousand square miles.


an ocean of wooded,


Such


waving, swelling moun-


tain beauty and grandeur is not to be described.
Countless forest-clad hills, side by side in rows


groups,


sunshine


seemed


to be enjoying the


remaining


motionless only


cause


they were so eagerly absorbing it.


were united by curves and slopes of inimitable
[38 1







The


Cumberland


Mountains


softness and beauty.


Oh, these forest gardens


of our


Father!


What perfection,


what divin-


ity, in their architecture!
mysterious complexity of


What simplicity and


detail I


Who shall


read the teaching of these sylvan


pages,


glad brotherhood of rills that sing in the val-
leys, and all the happy creatures that dwell in
them under the tender keeping of a Father's
care?
September. Received another solemn warn-
ing of dangers on my way through the moun-


tains.


Was told by my worthy entertainer of a


wondrous gap in the
vised me to see. "It


mountains which he ad-
is called Track Gap," said


"from the great number of tracks in


rocks


- bird


tracks, bar tracks,


hoss


tracks,


men tracks, all in the solid rock as if it had been


mud.


Bidding farewell to my worthy moun-


taineer and all his comfortable wonders, I pur-
sued my way to the South.
As I was leaving, he repeated the warnings of
danger ahead, saying that there were a good
many people living like wild beasts on whatever
[391








Thousand- Mile


[


ilk


they could steal, and that murders were some-
times committed for four or five dollars, and
even less. While stopping with him I noticed
that a man came regularly after dark to the
house for his supper. He was armed with a gun,
a pistol, and a long knife. My host told me that
this man was at feud with one of his neighbors,
and that they were prepared to shoot one an-


other at sight.


That neither of them could do


any regular work or sleep in the same place two


nights in succession.


That they visited houses


only for food, and as soon as the one that I saw
had got his supper he went out and slept in the


woods,


without of


course making a fire.


enemy did the same.
My entertainer told me that he was trying
to make peace between these two men, because
they both were good men, and if they would


agree


to stop


their


quarrel,


they


could


then


both go to work. Most of the food in this house
was coffee without sugar, corn bread, and some-


times bacon.


But the coffee was the greatest


luxury which these people knew.


The only way








rhbe


Cumberland Mountains


of obtaining it was by selling skins, or, in par-


ticular,


"sang," that is


ginseng,1 which found


a market in far-off China.
My path all to-day led me along the leafy


banks


Hiwassee,2


a most


impressive


mountain river.


Its channel is very rough, as


it crosses the edges of upturned rock


strata,


some


them


standing


at right


angles,


glancing off obliquely to right and left.


Thus a


multitude of


short,


resounding


cataracts


produced, and the river is restrained from the
headlong speed due to its volume and the in-
clination of its bed.
All the larger streams of uncultivated coun-
tries are mysteriously charming and beautiful,


whether


flowing


mountains


through


swamps and plains.


Their channels are inter-


I Muir's journal contains the following additional note:
"M. County produces $5ooo worth a year of ginseng root,
valued at seventy cents a pound. Under the law it is not al-
lowed to be gathered until the first of September."
P In his journal Muir spells the name "Hiawassee," a


form which occurs on many of the older maps.
probably is derived from the Cherokee Indian "


The name
Ayuhwasi,"


a name applied to several of their former settlements.







'Thousand-Mile


We


ilk


estingly sculptured, far more so than the grand-


est architectural works of man.


The finest of


the forests are usually found along their banks,
and in the multitude of falls and rapids the wil-


deness finds a voice.


wassee,


Such a river is the Hi-


with its surface broken to a thousand


sparkling


gems,


forest


walls


vine-


draped and flowery as Eden.


And how fine the


songs it sings!
In Murphy


[North


Carolina] I


was hailed


by the sheriff who could not determine by my
colors and rigging to what country or craft I


belonged.


Since the war, every other stranger


in these lonely parts is supposed to be a crimi-
nal, and all are objects of curiosity or appre-


hensive concern.


After a few minutes'


conver-


station with this chief man of Murphy


was


pronounced harmless, and invited to his house,
where for the first time since leaving home I
found a house decked with flowers and vines,
clean within and without, and stamped with
the comforts of culture and refinement in all
its arrangements. Striking contrast to the un-







The


Cumberland


Mountains


couth


transitionist


establishments


from


wigwams of


savages to the clumsy but clean


log castle of the thrifty pioneer.
September o20. All day among the groves and


gorges of Murphy with Mr. Beale.


Was shown


the site of Camp Butler where General Scott


had his


headquarters


when


removed


Cherokee Indians to a new home in the West.
Found a number of rare and strange plants on


the rocky banks of the river Hiwassee.


In the


afternoon, from the summit of a commanding


ridge, I


obtained a magnificent view of blue,


softly curved mountain scenery.


Among the


trees I saw Ilex [Holly] for the first time. Mr.
Beale informed me that the paleness of most


the women in his neighborhood,


mountains in general hereabouts,


was caused


chiefly by smoking and by what is called "dip-


ping.


" I had never even heard of dipping.


term simply describes the application of
to the gum by means of a small swab.


September 21. Most luxuriant forest.


snuff


Many


brooks


running across


road.


Blairsville








A 7bousand-Mile


[W


alk


[Georgia],


which


passed


forenoon,


seems a shapeless and insignificant village, but


grandly encircled with banded hills.


At night


was


cordially


received


a farmer whose


wife, though smart and neat in her appearance,
was an inveterate smoker.


September


covered with soil,


Hills becoming small, sparsely
. They are called "knob land"


and are cultivated, or scratched,


of one-tooth cultivator.


with a kind


Every rain robs them


their


fertility,


while


bottoms


are of


course correspondingly enriched.


About noon


reached


way to the sea.


mountain summit


is called


Blue


on my
Ridge


before


it lies


a prospect


very


different


from any I had passed, namely, a vast uniform


expanse of


dark pine woods, extending to the


sea; an impressive view at any time and under
any circumstances, but particularly so to one
emerging from the mountains.
Traveled in the wake of three poor but merry
mountaineers an old woman, a young woman,
and a young man who sat, leaned, and lay








The


Cumberland


Mountains


in the box of a shackly wagon that seemed to
be held together by spiritualism, and was kept
in agitation by a very large and a very small


mule.


In going down hill the looseness of the


harness and the joints of the wagon allowed the
mules to back nearly out of sight beneath the


box, and


three who occupied it were slid


against the front


boards


in a heap over the


mules'


ears.


Before they could unravel their


limbs from this unmannerly and impolite dis-
order, a new ridge in the road frequently tilted


them with a swish


a bump


against


back


boards in a mixing


that was still more


grotesque.


expected to see man,


women, and mules


mingled in piebald ruin at the bottom of some


rocky


hollow,


they


seemed


to have


confidence in the back board and front board


of the wagon-box.


So they continued to slide


comfortably up and down, from end to end, in
slippery obedience to the law of gravitation, as


the grades demanded.


Where the jolting was


moderate,


they


engaged


m conversation


[451








A Thom

love, marriage,


sand-Mile W

and camp-meeting, a


llk

According


to the custom of the country.


The old lady,


through all the vicissitudes of the transporta-
tion, held a bouquet of French marigolds.
The hillsides hereabouts were bearing a fine


harvest of asters.


Reached Mount


Yonah in


the evening.


Had a long conversation with an


Methodist


slaveholder


mine owner.


Was hospitably refreshed with a drink of fine
cider.


u












CHAPTER


THROUGH THE RIVER COUNTRY OF GEORGIA
f EPTEMBER 23. Am now fairly out of


the mountains.


Thus far the climate has


Snot changed in any marked degree, the
decrease in latitude being balanced by the in-


crease in altitude.


These mountains are high-


ways on


which


northern


plants may extend


their


colonies southwarl.


plants of


North


South


have


many minor


places of meeting along the way I have trav-


eled;


but it is here on


the Alleghanies


that the


: southern
greatest n


slope


lumber of


hardy, enterprising representatives of the two
climates are assembled.
Passed the comfortable, finely shaded little


town of Gainesville.


The Chattahoochee River


is richly embanked with massive, bossy, dark
green water oaks, and wreathed with a dense
growth of muscadine grapevines, whose ornate


foliage, so well adapted to bank


embroidery,


[471








"Thousand- Mile


W


zlk


was enriched with other interweaving species of


vines and brightly colored flowers.


This is the


first truly southern stream I have met.
At night I reached the home of a young man


with


whom


worked


Indiana,


Prater.


He was down


here on a visit to his


father and mother.


This was a


plain


back-


woods family, living out of sight among knobby
timbered hillocks not far from the river. The
evening was passed in mixed conversation on
southern and northern generalities.
September 24. Spent this day with Mr. Prater


sailing


Chattahoochee,


feasting


grapes that had dropped from the overhanging


vines.


This remarkable species of wild grape


has a stout stem, sometimes five or six inches
in diameter, smooth bark and hard wood, quite
unlike any other wild or cultivated grapevine


that I have seen.


The grapes are very large,


some


them


nearly


an inch


diameter,


globular and fine flavored.


Usually there are


but three or four berries in a duster, and when


mature


they drop off instead


decaying on


[48








River


Country


of Georgia


the vine.


Those which fall into the river


often found in large quantities in


the eddies


along the


men
wine.


bank,
boats


where they are collected


sometimes


made


I think another name for this grape is
cuppernong,1 though called "muscadine"


here.


Besides sailing on the river,


we had a long


walk among the plant bowers and tangles of
the Chattahoochee bottom lands.


September


family.


5. Bade good-bye to this friendly
Prater accompanied me a short


distance from the house and warned me over
and over again to be on the outlook for rattle-


snakes.


They are now leaving the damp low-


lands, he told me, so that the danger is much
greater because they are on their travels. Thus
warned, I set out for Savannah, but got lost
in the vine-fenced hills and hollows of the river

a The old Indian name for the southern species of fox-
grape, Vitis rotundifolia, which Muir describes here. Wood's
Botany listed it as Vitis vulpina L. and remarks "The va-
riety called 'Scuppernong' is quite common in southern
gardens."


[491








Thousand-Mile


W


alk


bottom.


Was unable to find the ford to which


I had been directed by Mr. Prater.


then


determined


to push


regardless of roads and fords.


on southward
After repeated


failures I succeeded in finding a place on the
river bank where I could force my way into the


stream through the vine-tangles.


I succeeded


in crossing the river by wading and swimming,
careless of wetting, knowing that I would soon
dry in the hot sunshine.


Out near the middle of


river


found


great difficulty in resisting the rapid current.
Though I braced myself with a stout stick, I
was at length carried away in spite of all my


efforts.


But I succeeded in swimming to the


shallows on


farther


side,


luckily


caught


hold


a rock, and


after a rest


swam


waded ashore.


Dragging myself up the steep


bank


by the overhanging vines, I


spread


myself, my paper money, and


plants


Debated


with


myself


whether


to proceed


down the river valley until I could buy a boat,
[ so]








River Country of Georgia


or lumber to make one, for


a march


through


Georgia.


a sail instead of
I was intoxicated


with the beauty of these glorious river banks,
which I fancied might increase in grandeur as


I approached the sea.


But I finally concluded


that such a pleasure sail would be less profit-
able than a walk, and so sauntered on south-


ward as


abundant.


soon


was


Lodged at a


Rattlesnakes


farmhouse.


Found a


few tropical plants in the garden.
Cotton is the principal crop hereabouts, and


picking is now going on merrily.


bolls are now ripe. Those
are green and unopened.


Only the lower


se higher on the plants
Higher still, there are


buds and flowers, some of which, if the plants


be thrifty and the season favorable,


will con-


tinue to produce ripe bolls until January.
The negroes are easy-going and merry, mak-
ing a great deal of noise and doing little work.
One energetic white man, working with a will,


would


easily pick


as much


cotton


as half


dozen Sambos and


Sallies.


The forest here is


almost entirely made up of dim-green, knotty,








7Thousand-Mile-


W


7lk


sparsely planted pines.


The soil is mostly white,


fine-grained sand.
September 26. Reached Athens in the after-
noon, a remarkably beautiful and aristocratic
town, containing many classic and magnificent


mansions of


wealthy


planters,


who


formerly


owned large negro-stocked


plantations in


best


cotton and


sugar regions farther south.


Unmistakable marks of culture and refinement,


as well as wealth,


were everywhere apparent.


This is the most beautiful town I have seen on


journey, so far,


and the only one in


South that I would like to revisit.
The negroes here have been well trained and


are extremely polite.


When they come in sight


a white


man


on the


road,


goes their


hats, even at a distance of forty or fifty yards,


and they walk bare-headed until he


is out of


sight.


September


Long


zigzag walk amid


plantations, a few of which are still cul-


tivated in


the old way by the same negroes


that worked


them


before
[ 52 1


the war,


who








River Country of Georgia

still occupy their former "quarters." They are
now paid seven to ten dollars a month.


The weather


lightly
thirsty


shaded,


is very
lowland


discovered


on these


levels.


a beautiful


When
spring


sandy,


very


sandstone basin overhung with shady bushes
and vines, where I enjoyed to the utmost the


blessing of pure cold water.


Discovered here


a fine


southern


fern,


some


new


grasses,


Fancied that I might have been directed here


by Providence,


while fainting with thirst.


is not often hereabouts that the joys of cool
water, cool shade, and rare plants are so de-
lightfully combined.
Witnessed the most gorgeous sunset I ever


enjoyed


bright world


of light.


sunny South is indeed sunny.


Was directed by


a very


civil negro to


lodgings for the night.


Daily bread hereabouts means sweet potatoes
and rusty bacon.


September


water oak


abundant


on stream banks and in damp hollows.


are becoming tall


Grasses


cane-like and


[I ss53








thousand-Mile


W


alk


cover the ground with their leaves as at the


North
now.


Strange plants are crowding about me


Scarce a familiar face appears among all


the flowers of the day's walk.


September 2g.


To-day


I met a magnificent


grass,
superb


ten or twelve


panicle of


m stature,


glossy purple


with


flowers.


leaves, too, are of princely mould and dimen-


sions.


Its home is in sunny meadows and along


the wet borders of slow streams and swamps.
It seems to be fully aware of its high rank, and
waves with the grace and solemn majesty of


a mountain pine.


I wish I could place one of


these regal plants among the grass settlements


of our Western prairies.


Surely every panicle


would wave and bow in joyous allegiance and
acknowledge their king.
September 30. Between Thomson and Augusta
I found many new and beautiful grasses, tall


gerardias, liatris,


club mosses, etc.


Here, too,


northern limit of


the remarkable long-


leafed pine, a tree from sixty to seventy


height,


from


twenty


to thirty


inches


[ 54]


.*




































































A SOUTHERN: PINE








River Country


of Georgia


diameter, with leaves ten to fifteen inches long,
in dense radiant masses at the ends of the naked


branches.
resinous.


The wood is strong, hard, and very
It makes excellent ship spars, bridge


timbers, and flooring.


Much of it is shipped to


the West India Islands, New


York, and Gal-


veston.
The seedlings, five'-osix years old, are very
striking objects to one from the North, con-


sisting,


as they


straight,


leafless


stem, surmounted by a crown of deep green


leaves,


arching


spreading


a palm.


Children fancy that they resemble brooms, and
use them as such in their picnic play-houses.


Pinus


palustris is


most abundant in Georgia


and Florida.
The sandy soil here is sparingly seamed with
rolled quartz pebbles and clay. Denudation, go-
ing on slowly, allows the thorough removal of


these clay seams, leaving only the sand.


Not-


withstanding the sandiness of the soil, much of
the surface of the country is covered with stand-
ing water, which is easily accounted for by the
[ss551








Thousand-Mile


W,


7ak


presence of the above-mentioned impermeable
seams.
Traveled to-day more than forty miles with-


out dinner


or supper.


No family would re-


ceive me, so I had to push on to Augusta.


Went


hungry to bed and awoke with a sore stomach
- sore, I suppose, from its walls rubbing on


each other without anything to grind.


kindly directed me to


A negro


hotel, called,


I think, the


Planter's.


Got a good


bed for a


dollar.


October


I. Found


a cheap


breakfast


market-place


then


set off


along the


Savan-


nah River to Savannah.


Splendid grasses and


rich, dense, vine-clad forests. Muscadine grapes
in cart-loads. Asters and solidagoes becoming


scarce.


Carices [sedges] quite rare. Leguminous


plants abundant.


A species of passion flower is


common, reaching back into


Tennessee.


It is


here called "apricot vine," has a superb flower,
and the most delicious fruit I have ever eaten.


The pomegranate is


cultivated


here.


fruit is about the size of an orange, has a thick,
I561








River


Country


of Georgia


tough skin, and when opened resembles a many-


chambered


translucent


purple


candies.
Toward evening I came to the country of one
of the most striking of southern plants, the so-


called


"Long


Moss"


or Spanish


Moss


[Til-


landsia], though it is a flowering plant and be-


longs


to the


"same


family


as the


pineapple


[Bromelworts].


The trees hereabouts have all


their branches draped with it, producing a re-
markable effect.
Here, too, I found an impenetrable cypress


swamp.


This remarkable tree, called cypress,


is a


taxodium, grows large and


high,


remarkable for its flat crown.


The whole forest


seems almost level on the top, as if each tree


had grown up against a ceiling,


or had been


rolled


while


growing.


This


taxodium


only level-topped tree that I have seen. The
branches, though spreading, are careful not to
pass each other, and stop suddenly on reach-
ing the general level, as if they had grown up
against a ceiling.








Thousand- Mile


[


71k


The groves and thickets of smaller trees are


full of blooming evergreen vines.


These vines


are not arranged in separate groups, or in deli-


cate wreaths,


but in bossy walls and heavy,


mound-like heaps and banks.


Am made to feel


that I am now in a strange land. I know hardly
any of the plants, but few of the birds, and I
am unable to see the country for the solemn,


dark,


mysterious cypress woods which


cover


everything.
The winds are full of strange sounds, making
one feel far from the people and plants and fruit-
ful fields of home. Night is coming on and I am


filled with indescribable loneliness.


Felt fever-


ish; bathed in a black, silent stream; nervously


watchful for alligators.


Obtained lodging in a


planter's


house among cotton fields.


Although


the family seemed


to be pretty well-off,


only light in the house was bits of pitch-pine
wood burned in the fireplace.


October


2. In the low bottom forest of the


Savannah River.


Very busy with new speci-


mens.


Most


exquisitely


planned


wrecks


[ 58




















































































s'P\Nis l


MINS


1 7'///'// A, d








River Country

Agrostis scabra [Rough H


Georgia


air Grass].


Pines


glorious array with open, welcoming, approach-
able plants.
Met a young African with whom I had a long


talk.


Was amused with his eloquent narrative


coon hunting, alligators, and many super-


stations.


He showed me a place where a rail-


road train had run off the track, and assured
me that the ghosts of the killed may be seen
every dark night.


Had a long walk after sundown.


At last was


received at the house of Dr. Perkins. Saw Cape
Jasmine [Gardenia florida] in the garden. Heard


long recitals of war


happenings, discussion of


slave question,


and Northern


politics; a


thoroughly characteristic Southern family, re-


fined


in manners


kind,


immovably


prejudiced on everything connected with slav-
ery.
The family table was unlike any I ever saw


before.


It was circular, and the central part


of it revolved.


When any one wished


to be


helped, he placed his plate on


the revolving


[591








Thousand-Mile


WT


alk


part,


which was whirled around


to the host,


and then whirled back with its new load.


Thus


every


plate was


revolved into


place,


without


the assistance of any of the family.


October


"pine barrens"


most


day.
apart


Low, level, sandy tracts; the pines wide
; the sunny spaces between full of beau-


tiful


abounding


grasses,


liatris,


long,


wand-


like solidago, saw palmettos, etc., covering the


ground


garden style.


Here I sauntered


delightful freedom, meeting none of


the cat-


clawed
toms.


vines,


or shrubs,


of the


alluvial


Dwarf live-oaks common.


Toward evening I arrived at the home of Mr.


Cameron,
bands of


a wealthy


slaves


planter,


at work in his


who


large


cotton fields.


They still call him "Massa."


He tells me that


labor costs him less now than it did before the


emancipation of the negroes.


When I arrived


I found him busily engaged in scouring the rust
off some cotton-gin saws which had been ly-
ing for months at the bottom of his mill-pond


to prevent


Sherman's


bummerss" from








River Country of Georgia


trying them.


The most valuable parts of the


grist-mill


cotton-press


were


hidden


same way.


Sherman,


said,


"should


come


down


now without his


army,


he would never go back."
When I asked him if he could give me food


and lodging for the night he said,


"No, no, we


have no accommodations for travelers." I said,
"But I am traveling as a botanist and either
have to find lodgings when night overtakes me
or lie outdoors, which I often have had to do in


my long walk from Indiana.


But you see that


the country here is very swampy; if you will at
least sell me a piece of bread, and give me a
drink at your well, I shall have to look around
for a dry spot to lie down on."
Then, asking me a few questions, and nar-


rowly


examining


said,


"Well,


it is


barely possible


that we


may find a place


you, and if you will come to the house I will


ask my wife.


his wife'


Evidently he was cautious to get


opinion of the kind of creature I was


before committing himself to hospitality.








Thousand-Mile


Wr


alk


halted me at the door and called out his wife,
a fine-looking woman, who also questioned me
narrowly as to my object in coming so far down
through the South, so soon after the war. She
said to her husband that she thought they could,
perhaps, give me a place to sleep.
After supper, as we sat by the fire talking
on my favorite subject of botany, I described


the country I had
cal character, etc.


passed through, its botani-
Then, evidently, all doubt


as to my being a decent man


they both said


vanished, and


that they would n't for any-


thing have turned me away; but I must excuse
their caution, for perhaps fewer than one in a
hundred, who passed through this unfrequented


part of the country,


were to be relied upon.


"Only a short time ago we entertained a man
who was well spoken and well dressed, and he
vanished some time during the night with some
valuable silverware.""
Mr. Cameron told me that when I arrived
he tried me for a Mason, and finding that I was


not a Mason


wondered still


more


that I







River


Country of


Georgia


would venture into the country without being
able to gain the assistance of brother Masons
in these troublous times.
"Young man," he said, after hearing my talks


on botany,


that your hobby is botany.


My hobby is e-lec-tricity.


I believe that the


time is coming, though we may not live to see
it, when that mysterious power or force, used
now only for telegraphy, will eventually supply


power


running


railroad


trains


steamships, for lighting, and, in a word, elec-
tricity will do all the work of the world."
Many times since then I have thought of


the wonderfully correct vision of


this Georgia


planter, so far in advance of almost everybody


else in the world.


Already nearly all that he


foresaw has been accomplished, and the use of


electricity is being extended more


every year.
October 4.


more


New plants constantly appearing.


All day in dense, wet, dark, mysterious forest
of flat-topped taxodiums.


October


Saw the stately banana for the


[63 i




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