• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Title Page
 Frontispiece
 Dedication
 Preface
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Prologue
 Unit I. The old world and the new...
 Unit II. Discoverers, adventurers...
 Unit III. French and Spanish settlements...
 Unit IV. Florida under the Spanish...
 Unit V. Florida under the United...
 Unit VI. The Florida Indians
 Unit VII. The growth of Florid...
 A pronouncing vocabulary
 Bibliography of sources














Title: History of Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055547/00001
 Material Information
Title: History of Florida
Physical Description: xiv, 303 p. : front., illus. ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Fairlie, Margaret Carrick
Kingsport Press ( Publisher )
Publisher: Priv. print. Kingsport press
Place of Publication: Kingsport Tenn.
Publication Date: 1935
 Subjects
Subject: History -- Juvenile literature -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Textbooks -- 1935
Bldn -- 1935
Genre: Textbooks
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Tennessee -- Kingsport
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055547
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000642051
oclc - 01371015
notis - ADH1849
lccn - 35005858

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
    Frontispiece
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Dedication
        Page v
        Page vi
    Preface
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Acknowledgement
        Page ix
        Page x
    Table of Contents
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Prologue
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
    Unit I. The old world and the new world
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Unit II. Discoverers, adventurers and explorers
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
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        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Unit III. French and Spanish settlements in Florida
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
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        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    Unit IV. Florida under the Spanish and English flags
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
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        Page 139
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        Page 141
        Page 142
    Unit V. Florida under the United States flag
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
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    Unit VI. The Florida Indians
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
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    Unit VII. The growth of Florida
        Page 235
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        Page 293
        Page 294
    A pronouncing vocabulary
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
    Bibliography of sources
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
Full Text








HISTORY OF FLORIDA





HISTORY OF FLORIDA

BY
MARGARET CARRICK FAIRLIE
Principal of Norwood School
Jacksonville, Florida


[W'Y~j


PRIVATELY PRINTED
1935


i~Ei

















1


ATHORE, SON OF SATURIOUA (SATURIBA), SHOWING LAUDONNIARE SOME INDIANS WOR-
SHIPPING RIBAUT'S COLUMN
From the narrative of the artist Le Moyne who accompanied LaudonniBre in 1562.
Engraved and published by De Bry of Liege, 1609.






























COPYRIGHT, 1935, BY
MARGARET CARRICK FAIRLIE


All Rights Reserved




























S **:;'* '. ."*;* .
P-r'ed0 jd'f Bu d:i'i :,, U.S.A. by
.KIVGSPORT PRESS,* K rr,*.TENNESSEE
.* *
** S *
**

S* ** S* .*
, ; S. S S 5 : *:_ 5
S S **



















To THE MEMORY OF
MY FATHER AND MOTHER
JAMES MITCHELL FAIRLIE
and
MARGARET MILLER FAIRLIE


q -6 -









PREFACE


These stories were written to supply a great need
and an insistent demand for authentic, historic
facts in story form suitable for use in the elemen-
tary grades of the Florida Schools.
The teaching of history should begin with the his-
tory of the State in which the child lives and cer-
tainly no State in the Union has a more romantic,
colorful and thrilling history than Florida.
This material was selected and compiled with
great care, much of it from original sources. It was
written for children with their limitations in mind
and was tried out in their classrooms. The vocabu-
lary is suited to their years and understanding.
When used as supplementary reading, these
stories may serve to correlate history with English,
for if a child is given plenty of interesting subject
matter, the oral and written reproductions of the
stories will be a natural outcome of his wish for ex-
pression.
Each story should be developed by the teacher and
read in the classroom. After a period of study, or
perhaps on the following day, the oral questions may
be used. A written exercise may succeed the oral
drill.
The objective tests may be enlarged upon and
vii





PREFACE


supplemented by the teacher, then used as seat
work.
Interesting anecdotes and personal touches add
to the pleasure of the pupils and both lighten the
facts that form the basis of the text and fix them in
the mind of the learner.
The author's aims have been:
1. To show the relation of the discovery of Florida
to earlier history of other peoples and coun-
tries.
2. To teach certain facts of Florida history.
3. To make these facts interesting and pleasing.
4. To provide for a steady growth in comprehen-
sion, skills and an increased vocabulary dur-
ing the year's work.
5. To create in the hearts of the pupils a love for
their State and an appreciation of its worth
and beauty.
6. To arouse a desire to do something to make
their State better and more beautiful be-
cause they have lived in it.










ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The author wishes to acknowledge gratefully her
indebtedness to the following:
Dr. Kathryn T. Abbey, Head of the Department
of History in the Florida State College for Women,
who supplied research material for a number of
chapters; T. Frederick Davis, Historian, for helpful
suggestions; R. C. Marshall, Duval County Super-
intendent, and Mr. H. E. Spaulding, General Super-
visor, who read the manuscript and encouraged its
publication; Mr. Carl Bohnenberger, Assistant
Librarian of the Jacksonville Public Library, for
courteous and untiring help in securing source ma-
terial; Miss Cora Miltimore of the University of
Florida and Mr. W. T. Cash of the State Library at
Tallahassee for assistance in their libraries; Dr.
James A. Robertson, Secretary of the Florida State
Historical Society, for the use of valued prints; the
authors of the books contained in the bibliography
and the contributions by interested friends of rare
photographs and timely suggestions.







CONTENTS
UNIT ONE
THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW WORLD
CHAPTER PAGE
I. EVENTS LEADING TO THE DISCOVERY OF THE NEW
WORLD 3
II. THE DETERMINATION OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 10
III. SEEKING A ROUTE TO INDIA, COLUMBUS FINDS
AMERICA 19
UNIT TWO
DISCOVERERS, ADVENTURERS, AND EXPLORERS
IV. JUAN PONCE DE LEON, THE DISCOVERER OF
FLORIDA 29
V. PANFILO DE NARVAEZ AND HIS SEARCH FOR GOLD 34
VI. HOW THE INDIAN MAID SAVED JUAN ORTIZ 43
VII. HERNANDO DE SOTO, SPANISH EXPLORER AND GOLD
SEEKER 48
VIII. THE DISCOVERY OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER 55
IX. TRISTAN DE LUNA ATTEMPTS A SPANISH SET-
TLEMENT ........... 61
X. THE HARDSHIPS OF DE LUNA'S EXPEDITION 68
UNIT THREE
FRENCH AND SPANISH SETTLEMENTS IN FLORIDA
XI. THE FRENCH HUGUENOTS COME TO FLORIDA 77
XII. STORIES OF MENENDEZ AND RIBAUT AND THE
FOUNDING OF ST. AUGUSTINE .. 87
XIII. THE REVENGE OF THE FRENCH BY DOMINIQUE DE
GOURGUES 97
UNIT FOUR
FLORIDA UNDER THE SPANISH AND ENGLISH FLAGS
XIV. THE SPANISH MISSIONS 109
XV. NEIGHBORHOOD QUARRELS 117
xi





xii CONTENTS

CHAPTER PAGE
XVI. FLORIDA DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR .125
XVII. HOW BERNARDO DE GALVEZ TOOK PENSACOLA 135
UNIT FIVE
FLORIDA UNDER THE UNITED STATES
XVIII. THE UNITED STATES AND THE FLORIDAS 145
XIX. GENERAL JACKSON IN FLORIDA .. 153
XX. FLORIDA IS ACQUIRED BY THE UNITED STATES 161
XXI. THE FIRST CIVIL GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA 169
XXII. HOW TALLAHASSEE WAS FOUNDED 176
XXIII. THE STORY OF THE LAFAYETTE LANDS IN FLORIDA 184
XXIV. FLORIDA PLANTATIONS .. ... 191

UNIT SIX
THE FLORIDA INDIANS
XXV. THE FLORIDA INDIANS .. 201
XXVI. THE SEMINOLE WAR, ITS CAUSES AND RESULTS .209
XXVII. GAY COACOOCHEE, KING PHILIP'S SON 215
XXVIII. COACOOCHEE'S ESCAPE FROM THE FORT AT ST.
AUGUSTINE .. 221
XXIX. OSCEOLA, THE GUIDING SPIRIT OF THE SEMINOLE
WAR .. .. 227

UNIT SEVEN
THE GROWTH OF FLORIDA
XXX. HOW FLORIDA GREW AND BECAME A STATE 237
XXXI. HOW FLORIDA HELPED THE CONFEDERACY .244
XXXII. THE LATER GOVERNMENT OF FLORIDA 253
XXXIII. SEMINOLE INDIANS OF THE PRESENT TIME .260
XXXIV. THE MOUNTAIN LAKE SANCTUARY AND SINGING
TOWER 270
XXXV. FLORIDA TODAY .. 279






PROLOGUE


Children, as these tales you read,
Many things you'll learn and heed;
Why this State in years gone by,
Had so many flags to fly.
You will learn that Spain of old,
Took the lead in search of gold.
When Columbus led the way,
Others followed, brave and gay.
Soon Spain's ships roamed everywhere,
Laden down with treasure rare.
Then explorers came and went,
Conqu'ring, plund'ring, they were sent.
Huguenots with Jean Ribaut,
Crossed in sailing ships so slow;
Hoping here to settle down,
Building for the French a town.
Spain's Menendez came, and he
Wrecked the hope as you shall see;
Then St. Augustine was planned,
By Menendez and his band.
Now this place has won renown,
For it is our oldest town,-
Fifteen hundred sixty-five,
None of you were then alive.
xiii





PROLOGUE


Ortiz, Gdlvez, Jackson too,
All these stories wait for you;
Lafayette and Prince Murat,
You'll enjoy and shout Hurrah!

Grant, Duval and Richard Call,
How you shall admire them all;
Tales of old plantation days,
Tales of Indians and their ways.

When these stories you have read,
Keep in mind that it is said;
Spain and France and England too,
Helped to build this State for you.

Children, you must do your part,
Serve your State with hand and heart;
Make it greater, just because
You've been loyal to its laws.



















UNIT ONE
THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW WORLD
CHAPTER I. EVENTS LEADING TO THE DISCOVERY OF THE NEW
WORLD.
CHAPTER II. THE DETERMINATION OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS.
CHAPTER III. SEEKING A ROUTE TO INDIA, COLUMBUS FINDS
AMERICA.







FOREWORD


Even in the fifteenth century the people of Europe
traded with the nations in the far-away East. This
trade brought riches and prosperity to the mer-
chants and also to the great cities of Europe.
When the Turks conquered the land through
which the merchant traders passed in going East,
this business could not be continued. The Turks
tried to close the old trade routes and made travel
too dangerous. But the people in Europe wanted to
buy the spices, jewels and 'silks of the East so other
routes had to be found.
Christopher Columbus loved the sea and had
sailed on many ships to many places. For years he
studied the maps and charts of the known waters
and talked with old sailors and geographers about
finding a new way to reach India. Finally he de-
cided that the earth was round like a sphere and not
flat as most people believed. But, unfortunately, he
had no idea it was so large. He thought that China
could be reached by sailing west from Spain after a
short voyage.
After years of failure, the determination of
Columbus finally brought him success and he was
able to interest Queen Isabella of Spain in his plans.









CHAPTER I


EVENTS LEADING TO THE DISCOVERY OF THE NEW
WORLD








TRADE ROUTES TO THE EAST
THE FOUR VOYAGES OF COLUMBUS

Trade in the Olden Time. In the fifteenth century
the trade and commerce of Europe was carried on
with India, Cathay (China), and the Islands of the
East. In those countries were found the rich spices
of cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, ginger and pepper
which the people needed to give taste and flavor to
their rather coarse food, for they had no sugar as
we have.
Not only spices, but pearls, jewels, velvets, rugs,
ivory and fine cotton cloth were bought by the
traders and in return they gave woolen goods, linen
cloth, glassware and thread. The merchants also




HISTORY OF FLORIDA


brought with them gold and silver coin to exchange
for the riches and wealth of the eastern countries.
Wealth of the Traders. The long dangerous
journey over the mountains and plains of Asia took
months and years to travel. The sea route through
the Indian Ocean, the Red Sea and other waters took
even longer.
The merchants, however, did not mind, because
they could charge any price they pleased in Europe
and they soon became very wealthy.
It is said that one pound of cloves brought them
the price of two cows and everything else was just
as expensive.
Routes of Travel. This trade and commerce was
carried on through different routes. The countries
on the Mediterranean Sea used the overland route
from Greece by caravans and camels.
Another way went around the Black Sea, the
Caspian Sea and over the vast extent of country to
Cathay, while the Egyptian traders from Alex-
andria followed the old, old route of the Phoenicians
to the city of Tyre, then passed through Persia to
India and the far East.
The Centers of Trade. This trade had been carried
on between Asia and Europe before history was
written, and the comfort and fortunes of the
European people depended on the goods that were
brought from these Eastern countries.
Constantinople was a great center of this trade
until it was captured by the Turks in 1453. Goods




EVENTS LEADING TO AMERICA'S DISCOVERY 5
were brought there by caravans and sent all over
the known world. Alexandria, Venice and Genoa
were other shipping ports on the Mediterranean
Sea.


7 r ,rnmr Courtesy Metropolitan Vusneuii of Art
THE GRAND CANAL AT VENICE

Marco Polo. For many, many years nothing was
known of these eastern lands. The Romans wore
silken garments from China but they had an idea
that silk grew on trees.
In the thirteenth century a rich family named
Polo lived in Venice, Italy. The Polos were mer-
chants who had a business house in Constantinople.
The two brothers, Nicolo and Maffeo Polo, were
great travelers and had journeyed to Russia, India
and Cathay, seeking goods to sell in Europe.
About the year 1269, these two brothers decided




HISTORY OF FLORIDA


to make another trip to the East, this time they took
with them young Marco, the son of Maffeo. It was
1275 before they reached the kingdom of Cathay
and met the ruler Kublai Khan.
The Book of Marco Polo. We have no time now to
follow the travels of Marco Polo, but after a life of
strange and wonderful adventures, he had the story
of his life written. This is now believed to be one of
the most famous books of that time. It gave the
people of Europe the true facts of the eastern na-
tions, and told of the great sea that washed the
shores of Cathay.
However, very few people believed these stories.
Some said they were only fairy tales and others
called them lies.
Trade Routes Almost Closed. In 1368 another
family of kings ruled over Cathay. At that time
also, the Turks began to cause trouble and wished to
conquer the world. After they had captured Con-
stantinople they tried to close it to trade and com-
merce. The Mediterranean Sea became unsafe to
navigate and all routes to the East were both ex-
pensive and dangerous.
The Result. But the more difficult it became to
reach India and the Spice Islands, the more deter-
mined the merchants were to find new routes to +he
East. The loss of trade brought great distresL to
the large cities and the finding of a new route to
India soon filled the thoughts of both men and na-
tions.




EVENTS LEADING TO AMERICA'S DISCOVERY 7
The Terrors of the Sea. In those days the Atlantic
Ocean was called the Sea of Darkness and the stories
that were told of its dangers were enough to dis-
courage the bravest sailors. They could see the ships


THE TERRORS OF THE SEA
(An imaginative drawing)

gradually go down and disappear in the distance
and they believed that if they sailed too far west
they could never sail back again.
in sailing south the heat became so great that it
was almost unbearable. It was said that by and by
the waters boiled and that no human life could exist
in the boiling ocean. Moreover, the sea was sup-




HISTORY OF FLORIDA


posed to contain sea-serpents, dragons and other
monsters too awful to imagine.
Prince Henry of Portugal. Prince Henry of Por-
tugal, called the Navigator, was a great lover of the
sea that bordered the shore of his country. He spent
his life in the study of astronomy, mathematics and
navigation.
He himself went to northern Africa and he sent
out many ships to try to reach India by sailing south,"
then east.
Prince Henry believed that India could be found
by sailing around Africa. He trained commanders
of the ships himself and inspired them with the true
spirit of adventure.
How Spain Became Interested. In the meantime,
Spain was busy driving away the Moors, and her
rulers had little time to spend in finding new routes
to India. In our next story we shall find how her
rulers became so interested that they fitted out three
ships and sent them to find a new route to India and
Cathay by sailing west. r
These ships were under the command of Chris-
topher Columbus, who believed that the world was
round and that by continuing to sail west he could
finally reach the islands of Cipango and the sea that
lapped the shores of Cathay, as described in the book
of Marco Polo.
EXPLANATORY NOTES
We are now living in the twentieth century, but in the year
2000, we shall enter upon the twenty-first century. In the same





EVENTS LEADING TO AMERICA'S DISCOVERY 9

way, the year 1492 was, in the fifteenth century, a most interest-
ing and eventful period in the history of the world.
The territory of South China was known as Cathay in ,the
Middle Ages. The Spice Islands were the Molucca Islands in
the East Indies and Cipango was the country of Japan.
Questions to think about and answer:
1. With whom did the people of Europe trade at this time?
2. What did they sell to these people? What did they buy?
3. Why were the traders so wealthy?
4. Name the chief centers of trade.
5. Who was Marco Polo? Do you like him? Why or why
not?
6. Tell where he went and why.
7. Why is his book of value?
8. What did the Turks do to the Eastern trade routes?
9. What was the result?
10. Why were sailors afraid of the Sea of Darkness?
11. Who was Prince Henry and what did he do?
12. What interested the Spanish Rulers at this time?
13. Whom did you like best in the story? Why?
/
Something to do:
1. Write a paragraph telling in what countries Genoa, Venice
and Alexandria are to be found and in which city Marco
Polo lived.
2. Read in other books about Marco Polo's travels. Bring
a report to the class of this interesting man.
3. Make a poster showing the sky, ocean and monsters of the
deep.









CHAPTER II


THE DETERMINATION OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS

Christopher Columbus. Christopher Columbus was
born in Genoa, Italy. His Italian name was Chris-
toforo Colombo. His father was a cloth weaver but
his people had been sailors for many years. Even
when he was a little boy Christopher loved the sea
and spent much of his time among the sailors, as
they worked on the ships that lay by the docks at
Genoa.
His Early Training. When he was only ten years
old, his parents sent him to a school where he
learned all about ships and how to sail them. When
he was fourteen, he was made very happy by being
allowed to go to sea as a sailor boy.
Christopher loved to make pictures of the waters
on which he sailed. These pictures or maps were of
great value, for the captains of ships used them as
guides, so the young boy made some money out of
them. These maps were called charts. No captain
ever left a port without a chart of the sea on which
he was to sail, if one could be found.
Columbus as a Young Man. In those days most
people believed that the world was flat and that if
anyone went near the edge he would fall off into
10





DETERMINATION OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 11


"',l'atiano Del Pionrbo


Co~~ir(e'y Jtr(,0,1lilu 3iust- of A,-t

CIIIIISTOPIIER COLUIMBIUS




HISTORY OF FLORIDA


space. But Columbus and other thinking people
believed that the world was round, although they
had no idea of its great size.
They thought that there was only one piece of
land and one sea and Columbus was sure that if he
sailed west from Spain he would reach India and
the other countries of the East.
Reasons for His Belief. Columbus had heard many
tales that helped him in this belief. He knew that
land had been reported as having been seen in the
far west by sailors from the north and that strange
trees had been found floating in on the tide after a
storm.
He had read the book of Marco Polo and thus
knew of the sea that lapped the eastern shores of
Cathay.
Columbus had sailed the seas all his life and had
stopped at almost every known port. It is said that
he had made voyages as far north as England and
had sailed down the coast of Afrida to the equator.
Columbus Tries to Interest Others in a Western
Route. For ten years Columbus tried in vain to in-
terest different countries in his ideas, but in spite
of the great need of finding a new route to the far
East, he could find no one willing to fit up vessels
to take him across the unknown sea and thus prove
what lay beyond.
It was several years before the rulers of Spain
would even listen to Columbus, and when they did
consent to do so, they and their counsellors all




DETERMINATION OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 13
agreed that his ideas were only foolish dreams.
In this first interview, Columbus asked to be made
governor of any land that he might discover, and
said he wished to keep one-tenth of all gold, silver or
precious stones that might be found. King Ferdi-
nand, however, was not interested and would make
no promises of any kind, so he dismissed the Italian
sailor who had such queer notions about the shape
of the world.
The Spanish Rulers. In those days Spain con-
tained the two kingdoms of Castile and Aragon, the
first ruled by Queen Isabella and the second by King
Ferdinand, her husband. They were known as the
Catholic Kings.
The Moors occupied a third kingdom in the south
of Spain and the Spanish Kings were spending their
wealth and energy in conquering these people and
driving them out of the country. 4
Therefore, they had no money to spend in fitting
out ships, and at that time they had little interest in
finding a new route to India.
Columbus Decides to Try France. But Columbus
knew how eager the nations of Europe were to buy
the spices and treasures of the East. He knew also
that great honor and wealth awaited the country
that would provide funds for the adventure, so he
determined to interest the king of France in his plan
of finding a short western route to the East.
The Convent of La Rabida. As he had almost no
money, Columbus bravely set out on foot for France




HISTORY OF FLORIDA


with his little son Diego as a companion. When
near the town of Palos in Spain, he stopped at the
convent of La Rabida for food and shelter.
The Prior. Columbus talked with the prior of the
convent and told him of his troubles and disappoint-


I ,,,,, .Ientonr f,.,z;ie, Tol. I, No. 13
C'OMI.I MS BF IEl: FERDIN\ANI) AND ISABELLA.

ments. The good priest believed the story and of-
fered to help the traveler. "I know Queen Isabella
well," he said. "Don't go to France for a few days.
Tarry here while I visit the queen myself. It would
be a great pity for any country but Spain to dis-
cover a new route to India." "I will gladly wait,"




DETERMINATIONN OF CHRISTOPHER COL(.LMBUS 15
aid Columbus, "for it is a weary journey to
France."
Through the influence of Juan Perez, the good
prior, Columbus met the queen of Spain and had a
talk with her.
Columbus before the Rulers of Spain. Isabella
loved Spain and wanted it to become a great nation.
She was deeply moved by the earnestness of Colum-
bus, but Ferdinand said, "I have no faith in this
man's dreams. Our fleet is now safe and sound in
the Mediterranean Sea. If it goes on this wild
search over the unknown waters, down one side of
the globe that he talks about, how do we know that
it will ever be able to sail up on the other side where
lie thinks India will be found?
"I shall never consent to spend money on such a
foolish journey, for I do not understand his charts
and maps."
Castile and Aragon. Now Ferdinand was king of
Aragon. His wife Isabella .was not only queen of
Aragon, but she was also queen of Castile in her
,\\n right. She therefore had power and authority
1l, tell Columbus that she had faith in his story and
would d give it her earnest attention.
Again Columbus Waits for Many Months. After
iA!,nths of heartsick, weary waiting, Columbus was
c-lled before the Catholic Kings for another talk.
Shiey told him that they were again interested in his
a:n because of threats from the Mohammedan




HISTORY OF FLORIDA


Ruler of Egypt. This ruler was angry because
Ferdinand and Isabella had made war on his
brothers, the Moors, who were Moslems and not
Catholics.
Now Ferdinand and Isabella were both good
Catholics and they asked Columbus if he would help
in a crusade to rescue the Holy Land from the
enemies of Christ. In return they promised to fit
out ships for his westward voyage.
As Columbus was very religious himself, he gladly
said, "I shall give all my profits to your crusade to
rescue the Holy Land and the city of Jerusalem."
Columbus Waits Again. Nevertheless he had to
wait over seven years before any definite promise
was made and papers signed. These were years of
poverty and suffering, for he had to depend on the
sale of his maps and charts to keep his family from
starvation.
He also had to endure the hoots and jeers of the
ignorant and spiteful as he passed along the streets,
because his ideas were so different from theirs.
How the Funds Were Raised. Columbus had many
friends who not only honored and respected him,
but who believed in his plans and had faith in his
wisdom and knowledge.
These friends contributed toward the undertak-
ing and lent money to the great discoverer. We are
told that Columbus raised in this way one-eighth of
the money that he needed.
It is said that Queen Isabella pledged her jewels





DETERMINATION OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 17

and her kingdom of Castile as security for the rest
of the funds for the small fleet that set forth on the
great adventure.
She had faith in the Italian, sailor, and she also
wanted Spain to have the honor of finding the new
route to India.
EXPLANATORY NOTES

The New World was named America because Americus Ves-
pucius, while on a voyage of exploration with others, claimed to
have discovered a New World in 1501. This is now known as
South America.
He wrote letters telling of this voyage, and the geographers
of that time named the land America in his honor. Later the
name America was given to both North and South America al-
though Columbus had discovered the North American continent
in 1492.
However, Columbus is also honored in many ways, for cities,
rivers, counties, streets and ships have been given his name,
while a great university and the District where our capital is
located bear the name Columbia.
Questions to think about and answer:
1. Where was Columbus born? What did he like to do as
a boy?
2. When did he go to sea and what did he like to make?
3. What ideas did people then have about the shape of the
world?
4. Why did Columbus think the world was round? Why
did he think India was west of Spain?
5. Who were the Spanish rulers at this time?
6. What did they think of the ideas of Columbus?
7. To what nation did Columbus decide to go now?
8. What happened at the convent of La Rabida?





HISTORY OF FLORIDA

9. What do you like best about Columbus?
10. Whom do you like best in the story? Why?
11. Which is best, to find a new route to India or discover a
new world?
Something to do:
1. Make a collection of pictures of Columbus. Read in other
books the story of these pictures and tell what you have
learned.
2. Find and read other stories about Columbus. Bring back
a report to the class.










CHAPTER III


SEEKING A ROUTE TO INDIA, COLUMBUS FINDS
AMERICA

Columbus Leaves Spain. After waiting nearly
eighteen years, Columbus at last set sail on the un-
known sea in three small vessels called the Pinta,
the Niia and the Santa Maria.
Full of faith and hope, the brave navigator left
Palos on the third of August, 1492. On the three
ships he had one hundred twenty persons with food
and supplies for one year.
It was hard to secure enough sailors to man the
ships, but debtors and criminals were released from
prison when they promised to go with Columbus.
The Fears of the Sailors. We can hardly imagine
how much courage and determination it took to
start on such a journey. The sailors had been told
that great monsters came up out of the deep and
devoured everything in sight. Their friends also
warned them that when they reached the edge of the
world they would fall off into space.
Another tale, which frightened the poor men, told
of spaces of boiling water they would meet and of
fogs so thick that no ship could sail with safety.
The Spirit of Adventure. Nevertheless, filled with
19





HISTORY OF FLORIDA


the spirit of adventure, away they Sailed on the un-
known ocean to see what they could find.
When out of sight of land a new terror appeared
in the hearts of the ignorant seamen. They became


Fromn Mentor Magazine, Vol. I, No. 13
COLUMBUS' FLAGSHIP, THE
".ANTA ARIA"


afraid of the gentle trade wind that carried them
westward so steadily from the shores of Spain.
"How shall we ever return?" said one sailor to
another, "Day after day the wind never changes its
direction." The Commander, however, calrhed their





SEEKING INDIA, COLUMBUS FINDS AMERICA 21
fears and encouraged them with promises of wealth
and fame.
The Ships Sail On and On. Day and night the ships
sailed west, but no signs of land appeared. The
sailors became restless and then alarmed; they even
begged Columbus to return to Spain. Some plotted
to throw him overboard when he refused to give up
the journey, but again Columbus kept control.
Land Ahead. At last, after. seventy-two days of
sailing, sea weeds were seen on the water, then birds
appeared, and there was great excitement on all
three of the ships, for Columbus had offered a prize
to him who would first see land.
On the eleventh of October a moving light was
seen, and land was discovered at two A. M. on Octo-
ber twelfth, by Rodrigo de Triani.
The Landing. Dressed in complete armor, Colum-
bus and his followers went ashore the next morning.
Carrying the royal banner of Spain with its colors
of red and gold, the company proudly rowed to the
sandy shore.
On reaching land they first knelt and kissed the
ground, thanking God for his goodness and mercy
in bringing them through storms and dangers to the
shores of the far East; for all believed that they had
reached India, the land of their dreams.
The flag of Spain was planted and the brave old
sailor took possession of the country in the name of
Spain.




HISTORY OF FLORIDA


The Natives. The natives soon gathered around in
wonder and curiosity. Columbus gave them beads
and trinkets, which pleased them very much. They
gave signs of friendship and believed for some time


John randerryn


Courtesy Handy Studio, Wnashinlton, D. C.


ARTIST's CONCErPTION OF TIlE .LANDING OF COLUMBUS
National Capitol, Washington, I). C.>

that the white men had been sent by their Great
Spirit. ;
Naming the Country. As Columbus felt sure that
he had reached India, and as he had sailed due west,
he called the place the West Indies, and the natives,
Indians. He named the island where he landed San


6"""'




SEEKING( INDIA, COLU1MBUS FINDS AMlERICA 23
Salvador, now thought to have been one of the
Bahama Islands.
Cruising Around. Some time was spent cruising
around among nearby islands, for Columbus was
most anxious to find the rich cities of Kublai Khan
about which Marco Polo had written.
Not being able to find these cities, Columbus de-
cided to return to Spain and try to raise money for
another voyage.
The Homecoming. The travelers received a won-
derful welcome from the town of Palos. The city
hells pealed for joy, and the people came out in im-
mense crowds to meet and greet those who had
sailed across the Sea of Darkness.
The Second Voyage. Soon another expedition was
fitted up; this time Columbus was given seventeen
vessels and fifteen hundred men and sailors. We
are told that so many wished to join in the second
adventure that he could not take them all.
On this second voyage Columbus discovered Ja-
maica and Porto Rico. He also founded a colony in
Haiti, which he called Hispaniola or Little Spain.
The Third Voyage. In 1498 Columbus made a
third voyage to the New World, but now he had
only six ships, because the rulers of Spain were dis-
appointed that the rich cities of the East had not
leen found. Again he failed to reach the mainland
,f' North America, although he landed on the coast
ft South America.
At Haiti. On visiting the colony at Haiti, he found




HISTORY OF FLORIDA


the men in the midst of an angry quarrel. Boba-
dilla, the new governor, had reported to Spain that
the colony had been managed very poorly and
blamed Columbus for things over which the dis-
coverer had no control.
When Columbus arrived in Haiti, Bobadilla had
him arrested and put in chains; later, he placed him
on a ship and sent him to Spain, disgraced and dis-
honored.
Columbus Returns to Spain. The officers on board
the ship keenly felt this insult to the brave old man
and wished to remove his chains. This, however,
the proud commander refused to have done, saying,
"I want the people to see how I have been treated."
The Spanish Rulers Displeased. When the ship
arrived in Spain, the Spanish rulers, Ferdinand and
Isabella, were greatly displeased to see the explorer
in such a state, and they ordered the chains taken
off. But the rulers gradually lost interest in the
New World and its discoverer, as he had failed to
find the rich cities of the East and had brought
Spain no wealth in gold and jewels.
The Fourth Voyage. Columbus now wished to
make another voyage, still hoping to find the gold
and spices of the East Indies. For this purpose he
had four vessels fitted out and with his old courage
he set forth again. On this voyage he sailed across
the Gulf of Mexico and along the coast of Central
America; but John Cabot had now reached Canada
while sailing under the English flag.





SEEKING INDIA, COLUMBUS FINDS AMERICA 25
Disappointed, the forlorn old sailor returned to
Spain, weary and miserably poor. He found that
Queen Isabella had passed away, and almost broken-
hearted, the dear old man died in his seventieth
year. He never realized that he had discovered a
new continent.
Columbus Honored. After his death a beautiful
monument was built over his grave on which were
engraved the following words: "To Castile and
Leon Columbus gave a New World."
Later his body was removed to Santo Domingo
and was buried there in the great cathedral, so that
his memory is now honored in the land he dis-
covered.
In song and story, the American people honor and
revere the name of the man who, amidst great peril
and danger, continued in his efforts and in spite of
every obstacle finally proved the truth of his opin-
ions.
EXPLANATORY NOTES
In order to understand the fright of the sailors at the con-
stant blowing of the trade winds, we must remember that their
ships were sailing vessels dependent on the winds for their
power.
The Turks possessed the Holy Land for hundreds of years,
but during the World War Palestine was captured by the
British.
The Indians of Peru and Mexico were more civilized than
those of North America. They had valuable mines of gold and
silver and the Spanish conqierors, Fizarro and Cortes, made
Spain rich by conquering these counties ard taking away their
treasures.





HISTORY OF FLORIDA


Questions to think about and answer:
1. How many years did Columbus wait before he had his
ships?
2. How did he get some of his sailors?
3. What were the names of the ships?
4. Why were the sailors afraid of the trade winds?
5. When did Columbus land? What did he name the coun-
try and why?
6. What did Columbus do now? For what was he hunting?
7. How was Columbus received on his return to Spain?
8. Tell about his second and third voyages.
9. Why did he now return to Spain in chains?
10. What shore did Columbus reach on his fourth voyage?
11. Tell of the death of Columbus and his monument.
12. Did Columbus leave the world better for having lived
in it?
Something to do:
1. Write a paragraph telling how Columbus is honored in
America.
2. Pretend you are Indians on the shore watching the coming
of the ships of Columbus. A reader describes the scene
as the pantomime is acted.
3. Make a poster showing the ships of Columbus sailing to
America.









.6 : :

O e J Q
















UNIT TWO

DISCOVERERS, ADVENTURERS AND EXPLORERS

CHAPTER IV. JUAN PONCE DE LEON, THE DISCOVERER OF
FLORIDA.
CHAPTER V. PANFILO DE NARVAEZ AND HIS SEARCH FOR
GOLD.
CHAPTER VI. HOW THE INDIAN MAID SAVED JUAN ORTIZ.
CHAPTER VII. HERNANDO DE SOTO, SPANISH EXPLORER AND
GOLD-SEEKER.
CHAPTER VIII. THE DISCOVERY OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER.
CHAPTER IX. TRISTAN DE LUNA ATTEMPTS A SPANISH SETTLE-
MENT.
CHAPTER X. THE HARDSHIPS OF DE LUNA'S EXPEDITION.




FOREWORD
We will now read of those who sought wealth
and fame in the New World discovered by Co-
lumbus.
Ponce de Leon discovered Florida while exploring
for new lands north of the West Indian Islands ac-
cording to the patent signed by the Spanish king
in 1512. As stated in the patent, the object was to
search for gold and when found, the gold mines were
to be worked by native Indians used as slaves.
However, eight years later he was wounded by In-
dians while seeking a place to make a settlement in
Florida.
Among other adventurers came Pizarro and
Cortes who conquered the countries of Peru and
Mexico. These conquests brought vast treasure to
Spain while the adventurers made fortunes for
themselves. De Narvaez and De Soto imagined
that Florida also had mines of silver and gold and
the experiences of these gold-seekers are most
thrilling.
Tristan de Luna was sent by the Viceroy of
Mexico, not to seek gold but to build a Spanish col-
ony and make the Indians Christians. Spain
needed a harbor and seaport in Florida where her
treasure ships could get supplies for their home-
ward voyages. The explorers found to their sorrow
that it was not easy to make a settlement in an
uncut wilderness where food was as scarce as gold.
Nor were the Spaniards successful in making the
Indians Christians for they preferred to worship
their Great Spirit in their own way.









CHAPTER IV


JUAN PONCE DE LEON, THE DISCOVERER OF FLORIDA
The Longing for Fame and Wealth. Ever since
men and women have lived on this world of ours,
they have tried to find health, wealth and fame; for
if people are well and have enough money to buy all
that they need, if they have become famous they
should be happy and contented.
Juan Ponce de Leon. Juan Ponce de Leon was a
Spanish soldier who came to Florida seeking fame
and wealth.
Like many Spaniards, he had been greatly inter-
ested in the new route to India sought by Christo-
pher Columbus and he arranged to go on the second
voyage with the well known sailor. Later, the
Spanish king appointed him governor of the island
of Porto Rico.
The Fountain of Youth Myth. While living in the
West Indies he probably often heard the Indians
speak of another island to the northward called
Bimini where great riches and a wonderful spring
of water were said to be found. Furthermore, it
was said that all who drank of this spring were
healed of their diseases and could even hope to live
forever.





The Patent. On February 23, 1512, the king of
Spain granted Juan Ponce a patent permitting him


SLtl


to search for the mythical
patent speaks of the object
ing a search for gold and


island of Bimini. The
of the expedition as be-
provides for the king's


Ifi-A-N P01"(1l: I~:I~v~




J1 UAN- N )N( A.:I 1)E IJ( )N\


share. The native Indians were to be made slaves
and put to work in the gold mines.
The Plans. We are told that Ponce fitted out three
ships at his own expense, to seek and find the island
of Bimini. The vessels set out from San Juan
(Porto Rico) on March 3, 1513, and sailed first to
what we know as the Bahama Islands. Bimini was
supposed to be one of this group.
The Voyage. Sailing to the northwest the brave
explorer continued his journey until land was
sighted. Ponce de Leon must have felt very happy
over finding at least one part of the Indian legend
true.
On April 2, the eager Spaniard anchored near
land several miles below the mouth of the St.
John's River.
He Takes Possession. On landing, he took posses-
:iun of the new country in the name of the Spanish
king by planting the flag of Spain on the sandy soil
;nid declaring the land to be now under Spanish
irule.
The country was level with many pretty views of
`col woodlands and as it happened to be the Easter
-Oason, which is called Pa.scua Florida by the Span-
airds, Ponce de Leon named it Florida.
The Search Continues. Continuing his voyage, the
determinedd Spaniard turned his ships around and
ailed to the south. He followed the coast line of
ie country and passed around the end of the penin-




32 HISTORY OF FLORIDA
sula, then sailed north. He was now sure that he
had discovered a very large island, but he still did
not find the things for which he was seeking.
His Return. Sad and weary, Juan Ponce de Leon
returned to Porto Rico and thence to Spain where
he received honors from the king and a royal grant
to the new land. He was now given permission to
found a Spanish colony in Florida.
His Second Attempt. He spent his entire fortune
in fitting out ships for a second voyage and landed
on the southwest coast of Florida with a company
of settlers.
Soon after the colonists reached the shore a fierce
tribe of Indians attacked them and the brave ex-
plorer was severely wounded in the thigh by an
arrow.
His Death. His men helped him to reach one of his
ships and they all sailed for Cuba at once. Here
Ponce de Leon died in a few days, having won fame
as a discoverer of new territory and renown as a
brave and worthy explorer.

EXPLANATORY NOTES
If any white man discovered Florida before Ponce de Leon,
no record of it has ever been found, so it is generally believed
that he was the first to discover this land. Of course the In-
dians had made the country their home for an unknown period
of time.
No doubt Ponce de Leon had heard the mythical story of the
Fountain of Youth, for he left one of his vessels to continue the





JUAN PONCE DE LEON


search for the island of Bimini among the Bahama Islands after
his return to Porto Rico. When this ship finally reached Porto
Rico neither gold nor fabled fountain had been discovered.'
Pascua Florida means the day of The Festival of the Resur-
rection (Easter), commonly called The Festival of Flowers,
which in the year 1513 was on March 27.
Questions to think about and answer:
1. Who was Ponce de Leon? What office did he hold in
Porto Rico?
2. Why was he interested in the New World?
3. What legend did he probably hear?
4. Who gave him permission to search for the island of
Bimini?
5. How many ships did he fit up and who paid for them?
6. Where did he land and why did he name the place
Florida?
7. For what country did he take possession?
8. Where did he now sail?
9. Did he find the things for which he was seeking?
10. Tell of his second voyage. How was he wounded?
11. Why should we honor Ponce de Leon?
Something to do:
1. Draw a map of Florida and mark the places near where
Ponce de Leon is supposed to have landed.
2. Build a map of Florida on the sand table. (Equal parts of
flour and salt mixed with a little water make a workable
mixture.)
1The Florida Historical Society Quarterly, July, 1932. Article by T.
Frederick Davis. p. 5.









CHAPTER V


PANFILO DE NARVAEZ AND HIS SEARCH FOR GOLD

Panfilo de Narvaez. Panfilo de Narvaez was a
Spaniard who was born at Valladolid in 1480. He
was a great traveler and adventurer and while he
was in Cuba he helped Velasquez, the Spanish gov-
ernor, in many ways.
Hernando Cortes. About this time, another great
adventurer named Cortes was gaining riches and
honor in Mexico, the land of the Aztec Indians.
These Indians were very intelligent and possessed
a civilization far in advance of some of the Euro-
pean countries.
Cortes and his army were marching through the
country conquering the Indians, seizing and rob-
bing their temples, destroying their beautiful cities
and taking possession of a vast amount of gold and
jewels.
The Jealousy of Velasquez. In 1520 Velasquez,
jealous of the success of Cortes, fitted out a fleet
of eighteen ships and chose Panfilo de Narvaez as
Commander. He gave Narvaez orders to sail to
Mexico and march inland until he found the ex-
plorer.
On reaching Cortes he was to tell him that there





PANFILO DE NARVAEZ


was now another head to the Mexican army of dis-
covery and conquest, as the king of Spain had
appointed Velasquez adelantado (governor), with
full power and authority. He was also to explain
that the governor had appointed Narvaez to repre-
sent him in Mexico.
Cortes Attacks Narvaez. On hearing of the arrival
of Narvaez and his fleet of ships, Cortes left Mexico
City in charge of one of his generals. With a small
force of men he marched to the coast where he was
joined by other troops.
In the midst of a terrible rainstorm Cortes sur-
prised Narvaez and completely defeated his army.
Narvaez was wounded in the eye and taken pris-
oner.
Some time afterward Narvaez returned to Spain,
where he persuaded King Charles that Florida was
like Mexico in possessing mines of gold and silver
and if he were allowed to, do so, he would like to
secure this wealth for Spain. So King Charles ap-
pointed him Governor of, Florida and gave him
permission to settle the land and rule over it for
Spain. All natives were to be forced to become
Christians and obey the laws of the Spanish King.
Narvaez Begins His Adventure. Narvaez began
his adventure in June, 1527, and sailed first to the
West Indian Islands. Here he lost two of his ships
in storms and many of his men refused to continue
the journey.
In April, 1528, he was again ready to sail to





HISTORY OF FLORIDA


Florida with four hundred men and eighty horses.
He landed at Tampa Bay or possibly what is now
known as Clearwater Bay, sending one ship back
to Cuba to report his safe arrival to his wife.


*a : _
Courtesy Florida State Historical Society, by Dr. J. A. Robertson, Secretary
MAP OF TAMPA BAY (Eighteenth Century)

Narvaez Explores the Country. Leaving one hun-
dred men on his remaining ships, he sent them
north, to sail along the coast until they met again
at a certain bay known to some of the party.
Then with three hundred followers and forty
horses he began his march, going towards the
northeast.
Narvaez thought that he was only a short distance




PANFILO DE NARVAEZ


from Mexico and that he could explore the sur-
rounding country, question the Indians as to the
place of the nearest gold mines, and meet his ships
in a week or so.
Gold Ornaments Are Seen. As the company
traveled northeast, they met Indians wearing orna-
ments of gold. On being asked by signs and motions
where the gold was to be found, the Indians replied,
"Apalachee, Apalachee!" and pointed directly
north.
Narvaez's Treatment of the Indians. Narvaez cap-
tured some of these Indians and not only compelled
them to act as guides but also made them slaves.
As the days went by with no signs of gold mines,
he became more and more cruel and unjust to the
Indians whom he met.
His plan had been to compel the natives to fur-
nish food for his men, but he passed very few
villages and found but little food anywhere. His
company was almost starving when the Indian
town of Apalachee was finally reached.
In Apalachee. This town was only a small Indian
village with no gold mines and almost no corn. It
is thought that the Indians must have directed
Narvaez to the head waters of the Apalachee River,
but the Spaniards marched to the village of the
Apalachee Indians near the present town of Talla-
hassee.
Their Welcome. Here the natives were fierce and
warlike. They did not welcome the strangers nor




HISTORY OF FLORIDA


would they help them in any way. Narvaez re-
mained in the little village about twenty-five days,
tormented daily by the warriors, who were doing
all they could to make him move away.
Each day the commander found his band of fol-
lowers growing smaller and smaller, for many who
escaped the attacks of the Indians became seriously
ill.
In Aut6. Being told that food for both men and
horses was plentiful in AutO, Narvaez decided to
take the nine days' journey to that place. It was
near the shore bordering the Gulf of Mexico and
probably some of the men hoped to hear news of
their friends. On reaching Aut6, however, nothing
was seen but smoking ruins, for the Indians had
burned their town and fled.
Apalachicola Bay. Another day's travel brought
them to Apalachicola Bay where Narvaez expected
to find his ships. But no trace of the vessels could
be found and the men begged to be allowed to build
boats and try to reach friends in Mexico.
Primitive Boat Building. The task was almost
beyond human skill, but Narvaez had nothing better
to suggest, so all went to work with wonderful
courage and determination. They had neither tools
nor materials, but the men worked desperately for
six weeks. Trees were cut down and shaped by
hand, a forge was built, and bolts, bars and nails
were made from swords, helmets, shields and other
things made of iron and steel.





PANFILO DE NARVAEZ


Ropes were made from the fiber of the palmetto
palm, clothing was cut up for cloth with which to
make sails, and necessity made them think up ways
and means to meet their needs.


^ P 7mnexzaukz


From Green's HISTORY or FLORIDA
ROUTE OF NARVAEZ
S. R. Santa Rosa Island
S. Savannah River
----- Route of Narvaez

The Fate of the Boats. Needless to say, boats built
under such conditions were very frail and unsea-
worthy. When finished they were loaded with
forty-five men in each and the five boats with their





HISTORY OF FLORIDA


precious cargo of human lives set sail on the Gulf
of Mexico.
On reaching the mouth of the Mississippi River,
two of the boats were overturned by the rushing
waters of the mighty stream, and all on board were
lost. The other three were also wrecked along the
coast, and the sailors were either nearly all drowned
or killed by Indians.
Four Survivors. Three sailors and the treasurer
of the expedition were taken prisoners by the native
Indians. After suffering great hardships they es-
caped and traveled toward the west.
Wandering for years, the men finally reached
their friends in Mexico and the treasurer, Cabeza
de Vaca, wrote the story of their adventures on his
return to Spain.
Narvaez's Ships. Two of Narvaez's original ships
followed the coast line of the Gulf of Mexico back
and forth for over a year, vainly searching and
looking for the lost men, but until the four survivors
of the expedition reached Mexico, nothing was ever
heard of them.
We see, therefore, that the early attempts of the
Spaniards to colonize Florida ended in failure and,
until De Soto arrived ten years later, the Indians
remained in full possession of the land they loved
so well.





PANFILO DE NARVAEZ


EXPLANATORY NOTES
After the discovery of the New World by Columbus, other
nations took more interest in what might be found in the West
and new discoveries kept the map makers busy.
Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean, Magellan sailed around
the globe, John Cabot discovered North America for England,
and many other travelers and adventurers returned with won-
derful tales of new lands and peoples.
Pizarro in Peru, South America, and Cortes in Mexico, con-
quered these nations and brought untold treasure to Spain and
the Spanish kings. Peru and Mexico were rich in silver, gold
and jewels and their people were civilized and hard-working In-
dians.
Now we are to learn of another Spaniard who imagined that
Florida would in the same way make him wealthy and famous.
Questions to think about and answer:
1. Who was Panfilo de Narvaez?
2. Who was Cortes? Where was he at this time?
3. Who was Velasquez and why was he jealous of Cortes?
4. Who sent Narvaez to Mexico? What was he to tell
Cortes?
5. How did Cortes get rid of Narvaez?
6. Why was Narvaez appointed governor of Florida?
7. Where did Narvaez land in Florida? What did he do
with his ships?
8. What was Narvaez seeking?
9. Where did Indians say it might be found?
10. How did Narvaez treat the Indians?
11. Where did these men get materials with which to build
boats?
12. What happened to the boats? How many men survived?
13. What were Narvaez's ships doing all this time?
14. Did Narvaez find what he wanted?
15. What part of the story did you like best and why?





42 HISTORY OF FLORIDA

Something to do:
1. Write the story of the building of the boats and the result.
2. Make a raft out of twigs.
3. Write five unfinished sentences on this story for your class-
mates to finish. Exchange papers and see who makes
the best score. Correct all mistakes.










CHAPTER VI


HOW THE INDIAN MAID SAVED JUAN ORTIZ

The Arrival of Narvaez in Florida. When Panfilo
de Narvaez reached Tampa Bay in 1528 he sent one
















Courtesy Burgert Bros., Tampa
TAMPA BAY (Near Tampa)
of his ships back to Cuba to inform his family that
he had reached Florida and all was well.
The ship was at once fitted out with additional
supplies for Narvaez by his wife who hoped that it




HISTORY OF FLORIDA


would reach Tampa Bay before he began his march
to the north. When the ship arrived at the bay,
nothing could be seen of the explorer, but some In-
dians beckoned the Spaniards to the shore.
At Tampa Bay. Thinking they were about to re-.
ceive a message from Narvaez, two young men
went ashore in a row boat. They had no sooner
landed than the Indians seized and carried them to
the chief of the Indian village.
Hirrihigua was the name of the Indian chief,
whose village occupied the site of the present city
of Tampa. He had been badly treated by Narvaez
and he longed to avenge his wrongs on any of the
hated white race with whom he came in contact.
Juan Ortiz. Juan Ortiz was the name of one of
these captives and he saw his companion tortured
and put to death. He himself was then bound and
placed over a fire, when the attention of the chief's
daughter was brought to the pitiful sight.
Running to her father and weeping bitterly, the
young girl pleaded for the life of the innocent lad.
Hirrihigua gave him up and the young man was
quickly unbound and taken to the hut of the girl's
mother. Here his burns were dressed and he was
cared for until they healed.
The Hatred of the Indians. But the Indians could
not forget the cruelties of Narvaez to their friends
and Ortiz's life was in constant danger in spite of
the chief's daughter and her influence.
Now Ortiz was only eighteen years of age and, as





HOW THE INDIAN MAID SAVED JUAN ORTIZ 45
his people in Seville were of the better class, he was
neither accustomed to hardship nor hard work.
Tortured. The Indians delighted in seeing him
miserable and unhappy and everyone tried to keep


THE RESCUE OF JUAN ORTIZ
(An imaginative drawing)

him on the run from morning until night. He
brought water and wood and was the slave of the
Indian village. If he stopped to rest even for a few
moments, some one would use him as a target for an
arrow.
When night came he would throw himself on the
floor of his hut, too tired to move. But the wife





HISTORY OF FLORIDA


and daughter of the chief would secretly bring him
food every evening.
As Cemetery Guard. He was later given charge of
the Indian cemetery and had to guard it night and
day from the wild animals that roamed through the
forest which surrounded the place.
The Indians in those days placed the bodies of
their loved ones in boxes made of split palmetto
logs. These boxes had to be watched to prevent the
bodies from being carried away.
A Thrilling Experience. One night Ortiz heard a
noise among the bodies; he could see nothing, but
he aimed several arrows in the direction of the
noise. Next morning he found that he had killed
a large wild cat.
He dragged it to the village and for a while the
Indians were a little kinder to him, but only for a
short time.
Ortiz Goes to Mucoso. The Indian maid was sorry
to see the boy so unjustly and cruelly treated and
therefore she persuaded him to go to the tribe of
her betrothed whose name was Mucoso. She knew
he would treat him kindly for her sake.
She herself showed him the way one dark night
and sent word to her friend to look after the young
lad and protect him from her father's hatred.
Hirrihigua's Revenge. Hirrihigua was very angry
when he found that Ortiz had fled, and he sent word
to Mucoso that he would not permit him to marry
his daughter until he returned the white prisoner.





HOW THE INDIAN MAID SAVED JUAN ORTIZ 47

But Mucoso kept his word to the Indian maid and
Ortiz stayed with him until he joined the company
of De Soto eleven years later.
The Death of Ortiz. Ortiz was of some help to De
Soto as an interpreter, but as he knew only one
Indian language De Soto had to depend on other
ways of talking.
Ortiz died west of the Mississippi River before
the brave explorer himself passed away.

EXPLANATORY NOTES

Hirrihigua ruled over the Indian Province of Hirrigua. He
was also known as Ucita. His daughter's name was Ulelah.
Questions to think about and answer:
1. What did Narvaez do when he reached Tampa Bay?
2. Why was this ship returned to Tampa?
3. What happened to the young men? Who was Juan Ortiz?
4. What did the Indian chief do to the young men?
5. Who saved Ortiz and why?
6. Why did the Indians hate the white race?
7. How was Ortiz treated?
8. What did the Indian maid do about it?
9. How was her father revenged?
10. Who was Mucoso?
11. Who rescued Ortiz from the Indians?
12. Why was he of help to him?
13. Whom do you like best in the story? Why?
Something to do:
1. Write the story of Juan Ortiz in your own words.
2. Model a ship out of clay.











CHAPTER VII


HERNANDO DE SOTO, SPANISH EXPLORER AND
GOLD-SEEKER


From Fairbanks' HISTORY OF FLORIDA
HERNANDO DE SOTO


Hernando de Soto. Don Hernando de Soto was
born in Xeres, Spain, in the year 1496. When
quite young he came to live in the West Indian
48




HERNANDO DE SOTO, SPANISH EXPLORER 49
islands, and the governor sent him to join Pizarro
who at that time was trying to conquer the country
of Peru for Spain.
De Soto was a brave, fearless soldier, and he was
soon made second in command of the Spanish army
in Peru. Later he returned to Spain and married
Dohia Isabella de Bobadilla, the daughter of the
West Indian governor.
His Promotion. The king'of Spain now appointed
him governor of Cuba and Florida, and when he
sailed from Spain on April 6, 1538, he brought with
him a great fleet of ships.
He Sails for Cuba. The young bride, Isabella, ac-
companied her husband who had with him one
thousand fighting men, three hundred fifty horses
and twelve priests.
De Soto landed at Santiago de Cuba, where he
was feasted and welcomed by the Spanish colony.
He stayed there several months when the vast com-
pany moved to Havana in order to secure stores for
the journey to Florida.
Off for Florida. At last everything seemed ready
and, leaving his young wife to act as governor dur-
ing his absence, De Soto departed for the land where
he hoped to find another great fortune.
Having been with Pizarro in Peru he had seen
many Indian towns of great wealth. He knew of
the rich mines in the mountains of Peru and he
imagined that Florida also must contain such
mines.




HISTORY OF FLORIDA


He therefore expected to return with his ships
laden with treasure not only for himself but also for
his king.
De Soto Lands in Florida. The travelers landed at
what is now known as Tampa Bay in May, 1539.
They were well pleased with the beauty of the
country and both men and stores were unloaded as
quickly as possible.
De Soto then ordered the ships to return to Cuba
so that no one could turn back from the great ad-
venture.
The Indians. An Indian town was found at the
head of Tampa Bay but the Indians were warlike
and objected strongly to being conquered.
When the Spaniards tried to learn where gold
and silver could be found, the Indians let the ex-
plorers think that they were found farther north
and not on their land.
One day one of the soldiers heard an Indian call
out "Seville, Seville!" As this is the name of a city
in Spain, he was brought to De Soto.
Juan Ortiz. "I am not an Indian, I am a
Spaniard," said the man to the commander. On
looking at him more closely, De Soto saw that he
was a white man tanned by many years of sun and
weather.
The man had forgotten much of the Spanish lan-
guage but after a while it was learned that he was
Juan Ortiz, that he had been on one of the ships
sent to the relief of Narvaez, and that he and a





HERNANDO DE SOTO, SPANISH EXPLORER 51

friend had been called on shore by some Indians
and captured.
De Soto had heard of this capture and was glad
to meet Ortiz, so when the young boy asked to be
allowed to join the Spaniards, De Soto told Ortiz
that he would be glad to have him.


From Fairbanks' HISTORY OF FLORIDA
THE ROUTE OF HERNANDO DE SOTO
M-Mauvilla
C-Cufitatchique
S-Savannah River

The March through the Country. Having such a
large body of men and horses to move, burdened
with so many loads of stores and baggage to haul,




HISTORY OF FLORIDA


hindered by his drove of hogs, De Soto's progress
was very, very slow.
For nearly a year the brave company marched
through forests, tangled woods and matted vines,
over lakes and rivers, through swamps and bogs,
fighting constantly with bands of Indian warriors.
As they plodded on day by day many of the men
became ill and some died of fever and malaria,
while all were discouraged and worn out.
"Let us return to Cuba," they cried, "there is no
gold here." But De Soto firmly said, "No, I shall
never turn back."
The Hunt for Gold. As each Indian town was
reached the Spaniards were told that the gold was
farther north. Probably the Indians thought this
was the easiest way to get rid of them. It also
saved their food and stores for De Soto helped him-
self whenever he could do so.
Through Georgia and South Carolina. In 1540 the
company turned northeast and guided by captured
Indians they marched through Georgia and into
South Carolina. On the Savannah River they came
to an Indian town governed by an Indian queen.
This queen was very kind to De Soto and his
weary, starving men. She gave them food to eat
and had many of her people leave their houses in
the village, so that the Spaniards might have
shelter.
She allowed them to visit the sacred place where
the great warriors of her tribe were buried and





HERNANDO DE SOTO, SPANISH EXPLORER 53

even permitted them to take from the caskets many
measures of beautiful pearls.
Indian Temples. Here also were the sacred
temples filled with wonderful furs of great value.
The greedy Spaniards helped themselves to every-
thing and soon had a large stock of expensive skins.
But De Soto found that the much talked of gold
that the queen was supposed to possess was only
brightly polished copper.
De Soto's Gratitude. The Spaniard repaid this
kindness by capturing the Indian queen and her
maids, forcing them to lead the way to the next
Indian town. As Juan Ortiz was not familiar with
this part of the country, this was De Soto's plan of
finding his way through the trackless forests.
Fortunately, the queen and her maids escaped
one night and were never seen again by the Span-
iards.
EXPLANATORY NOTES
For ten years the Indians were left in peaceful possession of
the land of Florida, but during that time Cabeza de Vaca had
talked of the wonderful country through which he had passed
while with Narvaez, and many Spaniards were filled with a de-
sire to conquer so fair a territory.
Hernando de Soto had returned from Peru to Spain a rich
man, and now wished to add to his honor and wealth by finish-
ing the conquest of Florida.
The name of the Indian queen was Cofachique, the attractive
young widow of a chief. After his death she became the ruler
of the province of Cufitatchique on the Savannah River about
twenty-five miles below Augusta.





HISTORY OF FLORIDA


Questions to think about and answer:
1. Where and when was De Soto born?
2. Where did he go and whose army did he join? Whom
did he marry?
3. To what office was he appointed and to what place did
he sail?
4. Where did he plan to go and what did he expect to find?
5. Where did he land in Florida and what did he do with his
ships?
6. Tell of his finding Juan Ortiz.
7. Why did the Indians send him farther north?
8. What did Dc Soto's men now want to do? Was he
willing?
9. What did they find on the Savannah River?
10. How did the Indian queen treat the travelers?
11. How did De Soto repay her kindness?
12. Whom do you like best in the story and why?
13. What mistakes did De Soto make?
Something to do:
1. Write the story of De Soto and the Indian queen.
2. Choose a character in this story, describe yourself to the
class and let them guess your name.









CHAPTER VIII


THE DISCOVERY OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER

De Soto Continues the Search for Treasure. De
Soto now marched northwest, then southwest
through many Indian villages and towns. He


31& J


I ,'or Mentor Magazine, Vol. I, No. 22
THE AMISSISSIPPI RIVER


found some of them friendly, and tribes near the
Tennessee River and at Coca (Coosa), Alabama,
gave him chickens, fruit, and dogs to show this
55




HISTORY OF FLORIDA


friendly feeling. However, most of the Indians
were ready to fight for their possessions and De
Soto often had a hard time to get food and guides.
The Spaniards were now in rags, wearing skins
for clothing and glad to have any covering for their
worn-out feet. Food was hard to find and they
were in no shape to stand the coming winter.
The Battle of Mauvilla. A fierce Indian chief,
named Tuscaloosa, planned to trap and defeat De
Soto in the Indian town of Mauvilla on the Ala-
bama River. This town is said to have given its
name to the city of Mobile.
A terrible battle was fought here and although
the Spaniards won, it was with a fearful loss of men
and treasure. Thousands were slain, the town was
burned, and De Soto lost his hoard of pearls as well
as much of his baggage.
Further Adventures. The determined explorer
now heard that some ships sent by his wife from
Cuba were searching for him near this part of the
coast. De Soto, however, being still eager to con-
quer the country and find a fortune, did not even
tell his men that the ships had arrived.
On and on they marched, through Alabama and
Mississippi, toward the northwest, fighting Indians
and enduring fearful hardships, until they finally
reached the banks of a mighty river known to the
Indians as the "FATHER OF WATERS."
The Mississippi. Here the tired and worn-out
travelers made some rude rafts and crossed to the





DISCOVERY OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER


other side of the river, hoping to escape from the
fierce Indian tribes; there they found other tribes
just as warlike.


IW,. H. Powell


Courtesy Handy Studio, Washington. D. C.
THE DISCOVERY OF THE MISSISSIPPI
(An artist's conception)


The city of Memphis now stands near this spot,
and we should honor De Soto for the wonderful
courage and determination that resulted in the
discovery of this greatest of rivers.
Their Condition at the End of Two Years. At the
end of two years the brave men were still on the
march, and still searching for gold, silver and
precious jewels. But their number had grown
smaller and smaller, and because of the hardships




HISTORY OF FLORIDA


that had to be endured, death was often a happy
ending to their sufferings.
On they went through the present state of
Arkansas, then turning south, they again came to
the banks of the Mississippi River. Here De Soto
took the same fever that had killed so many of his
men and he died in a few days.
The Burial of De Soto. As the Spaniards were
afraid the Indians might learn that their leader had
died, they decided to conceal his place of burial.
So, cutting down an immense tree, they split it
lengthwise and hollowed out a six foot space within
the trunk; the body was placed within and the two
parts of the tree put together.
The heavy log was then weighted and sunk in
nineteen fathoms of water, in the middle of the
mighty river that he had discovered.
His Comrades Find Friends in Mexico. The rest
of the once noble company now found their way as
quickly as possible to the Gulf of Mexico. Traveling
west, they came by and by to the Spanish settle-
ments on the gulf coast.
Dofia Isabella's Search for Her Husband. In the
meantime, Dofia Isabella had not been idle, for each
year since her husband had landed at Tampa Bay
she had fitted out three ships with supplies and had
sent them in search of the explorers.
But each winter the ships had returned with no
news of the Governor of Cuba and Florida, although




DISCOVERY OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER


they reported that they had followed the coast from
east to west faithfully and diligently.
News of De Soto from Vera Cruz. In 1543, four
years after De Soto had departed from Cuba, relief
ships were again calling at every port on the Gulf
of Mexico.
In Vera Cruz they were told that nearly three
hundred Spaniards had found their way to a Span-
ish settlement, but that the courageous commander
had been buried in the great river that he had dis-
covered and explored.
Death of Dofia IsaIella. The captain returned at
once to Cuba with the sad news, and Dofia Isabella
did not live long after she heard of the death of her
husband.
The three years of work, worry and sorrow,
added to the loss of her entire fortune, were more
than her brave spirit could stand.

EXPLANATORY NOTES
A fathom is equal to six feet.
Dofia (don-ya).
Questions to think about and answer:
1. What route did De Soto now take and what did he find?
2. What was the condition of the Spaniards at this time?
3. Tell of the battle of Mauvilla.
4. What was done when they reached the Mississippi River?
5. What city now occupies this site?
6. Did things improve at the end of two years?





HISTORY OF FLORIDA
7. What happened to De Soto? How was he buried? Why?
8. What did his comrades do?
9. What had Dofia Isabella been doing?
10. What news now came from Vera Cruz?
11. What do you admire about De Soto?
12. Was his adventure worth while?
13. Is the life of an explorer an easy one?
Something to do:
1. Draw the map of the United States and trace the route
made by De Soto.
2. Write the story of De Soto's burial and tell why it was
necessary.












CHAPTER IX


TRISTAN DE LUNA ATTEMPTS A SPANISH
SETTLEMENT

The Report from De Soto's Men. The survivors of
De Soto had little good to say of Florida. They re-
ported that the land was full of swamps, bogs and
poisonous fruits.
So for seventeen years, little was done by Spain
toward occupying this territory.
Philip's Interest in Florida Revives. But on De-
cember 27, 1557, Philip II of Spain ordered Luis
de Velasco (Viceroy of New Spain) to appoint a
governor for Florida.
Philip was expecting an expedition of French
and Scots from Newfoundland, which was thought,
in those days, to be near Florida. He wanted to
plant a Spanish colony to prevent the landing of
these people.
He asked that the new governor be a religious
man and anxious to serve Spain and her king.
Luis de Velasco Appoints Tristan de Luna. Don
Tristan de Luna and Arrellano was considered a
gay soldier, an able public servant, and a noble as
61






well as one of the early conquerors. He was a
trusted friend of Velasco, the Mexican ruler, and
the appointment was given to him.


DEI \ELAS(O, \VIC(JRY OF NEW
s'4vlN


Descended from an Old Castilian Family. Luna
was of good blood, a descendant of an old Castilian
family and heir to a large Spanish estate and for-
tune.
He had come to New Spain (Mexico) in 1530,


111sk)RY M: FIAM11DA




TI'II.-TAN 1)1E; L'UNA ATTEMPTS A S I;'TTI.1-:MIENT 63
and had married the rich widow of Juan Velasquez.
She had died, leaving her husband in charge of the
fortune of their two little children.
Luna's Former Service. Luna had served Spain as
Captain of Horse in Coronado's expedition in
Mexico, and had brought his men and horses in
safety through desert wastes and severe snow-
storms. In southern Mexico he had put down In-
dian raids and had proved himself a brave and
trusty officer.
By upright living and worthy service in New
Spain, Luna was well thought of by everyone. lie
was considered a good Christian and loyal friend
of the Spanish king.
His Preparation to Visit Florida. After his promo-
tion as Governor of Florida, he made great prepa-
rations for an expedition to that country. In order
to secure needed funds he used the property that
he held in trust for his children.
In March, 1559, he enlisted 500 soldiers, 1000
camp followers and 240 horses for the new colony
of La Florida. He made a plan of government but
unfortunately his powers were not clearly stated
and as a result trouble arose.
Preparations Completed. After spending 300,000
pesos for armor, horses, supplies and other needed
things, everything was ready in April, 1559. The
plan was first to occupy a Gulf port as a base, then
march inland and eastward to the port of Santa
Elena on the Atlantic coast.





HISTORY OF FLORIDA


His Purpose and Plan. His purpose was to found
permanent colonies and to compel those Indians
whom he might meet to become Christians. His
territory was to lie in the lands east of the Missis-
sippi River and particularly in the province of Coca
(Coosa), spoken of by the survivors of De Soto.





L I^V ::
*' /




........... ... ..



(Currte,y Florida State Historical Society, by Dr. J. A. Robertson, Secretary
PLAN OF PENSACOLA (Eighteenth Century)

The town on the Gulf was to contain 140 house
lots with 40 lots reserved for a monastery, a church
and office of the king's government. Fortresses
were to be built both at the Gulf port and at Santa
Elena to provide safe harbors of supply for the
treasure ships of Spain.
The Known Ports. Mobile Bay was known to the
Spaniards as Bahia Filipina; Tampa Bay as Bahia





TRISTAN DE LUNA ATTEMPTS A SETTLEMENT 65
Miruelo and Pensacola Bay as Bahia Ochuse.
Luna considered Ochuse the safest of the three and
to that port the thirteen vessels sailed away full of
hope for the future.
The Arrival. Arriving at Ochuse, a high point of
land was chosen for the settlement of one hundred
who were to remain and guard the fort.
Two ships were sent back to Velasco to report
their safe arrival and to bring supplies for the new
settlement. Two scouting parties were sent out to
locate more food. One was sent up the Perdido
River and the other went overland. In about two
weeks they returned in a starved condition, having
found no villages or food of any kind.
A Great Storm. Meanwhile a terrible storm had
arisen, the gale blowing for twenty-four hours with
great force. The cables of the ships snapped, some
of them sank, others were carried far up on the
land. Some were completely destroyed and only
three of the thirteen remained. The ship on which
most of the food had been stored was lost, and the
food on shore was drenched and spoiled by the rain.
Luna saw that his vast company would have to
live on whatever could be found in the country until
he could get food from Mexico or Spain.
Velasco Helpless. Velasco too had troubles, for it
was almost impossible for him to get further sup-
plies. There were none at Vera Cruz and it took
weeks to get them down from the high plateaus.
Furthermore, there was no overland route to





HISTORY OF FLORIDA


Florida. Both Spain and Havana were asked to
help in the feeding of these fifteen hundred persons
but they were too far away and could do nothing.
If the fleet and the year's provisions had not been
destroyed, success might have come to the adven-
turers; but the West Indian hurricanes had to be
faced and the fierce Indian tribes had to be subdued.

EXPLANATORY NOTES
You have just read of De Soto's survivors, who discouraged
further exploring adventures by the terrible tales of their suffer-
ings. All the efforts of the Spaniards to subdue the Florida
Indians and conquer their country had failed; even Spanish
priests had landed on the shore only to be attacked and killed
by the warlike tribes. For years no further effort was made to
explore the land or found a colony.
However, King Philip of Spain saw the great necessity for
safe harbors and Spanish ports along the dangerous and stormy
Florida coast. Many Spanish treasure ships on their journeys
from Mexico to Spain had been lost or wrecked because of hav-
ing no safe harbor at which to seek shelter from storms.
These ships also needed Spanish ports at which they could
get supplies of food and water for the long voyage to Spain.
It was to meet this great need that King Philip of Spain turned
to the Viceroy of Mexico asking his help in making another
effort to secure Florida for Spain.
The peso is the Spanish dollar.
Questions to think about and answer:
1. What did De Soto's men have to say about Florida?
2. Why was King Philip again interested in that land?
3. Whom did Velasco appoint as governor of La Florida?
4. What kind of a man was he? How had he formerly served
Spain?





TRISTAN DE LUNA ATTEMPTS A SETTLEMENT 67

5. Tell of his preparations to settle Florida.
6. Where did De Luna get the money for his supplies?
7. What was his purpose and plan?
8. Name the three known ports and tell what they are now
called.
9. Where did they land first and what was done at once?
10. What harm did the storm do? Why was Velasco helpless?
11. What dangers did these early settlers have to face?
12. Did De Luna need so many people?
13. How are Floridians now warned when a tropical storm is
coming?
14. Of what good is the warning to ships and citizens?
Something to do:
1. Pretend you are Tristan de Luna. Write a letter to
Velasco telling of your misfortunes and ask for help.












CHAPTER X

THE HARDSHIPS OF DE LUNA'S EXPEDITION













fristan de Luna, 15 -60
From Green's HISTORY Op FLORIDA
THE TRISTAN DE LUNA
SETTLEMENT
S.-Settlement
N.-Nanipacana
O.-Olibahali
C.-Coosa

Search for Food. De Luna at once sent out about
two hundred men to search for Indian towns where
food could be found.
When they came to Nanipacana, an Indian town




HARDSHIPS OF DE LUNA'S EXPEDITION


on the Alabama River, the Indians fled, leaving sup-
plies of corn and beans. Word of their find was at
once sent to De Luna.
Because of the illness of many of his company,
De Luna thought Bahia Filipina (Mobile Bay)
might be more healthful; but after talking over
matters, it was decided to move to Nanipacana.
Some went by land, others by water, nearly fifteen
hundred hungry, starving men and women.
At Nanipacana. At the Indian village they found
eighty huts but no supply of food sufficient for such
a number of people. In a short time they were re-
duced to eating acorns, leaf-buds and roots.
Many died of eating poisonous roots and herbs,
others of sickness and hunger.
Supplies came from Velasco, but only enough to
last a short time. The Indians were unable to feed
them all and De Luna determined to try again to
find the land of "Coosa" where De Soto had found
food.
Another Search for Food. Under Major Sans, as
leader, twio hundred men with their priests marched
through the wilderness to the northeast. No food
could be found and the men had to eat the leather
trappings on their horses and the shoes on their
feet.
At an Indian village called Olibahali, the natives
gave Major Sans supplies but becoming alarmed at
the way their food disappeared they had some of
their men pretend to come from the chief of





HISTORY OF FLORIDA


"Coosa" with an invitation to visit their country.
The Spaniards were deceived and soon set forth
to the land of "Coosa" with the Indians as guides,
but the guides vanished when they had led their
uninvited guests far away from Olibahali.
They Reach "Coosa." Without guides, the
Spaniards marched on and on, always hoping to
locate the land of "Coosa," where they would find
fountains of water, plenty of food as well as gold
and silver mines. No one seemed to realize that if
De Soto had found the wealth of the Aztecs he would
never have gone away.
At last, after three months, they reached
"Coosa," a village of thirty houses and a few huts.
The people were friendly and gave them four
bushels of corn daily, but no gold was found any-
where. In return, the Spaniards helped them defeat
some Indian enemies and chase them across the Big
Water (Mississippi River).
Word Is Sent to Luna of Their Discovery. Major
Sans sent about sixteen men back to Luna asking
him to come himself and decide whether or not
"Coosa" was a good place for a settlement.
In the meantime Velasco had tried to send five
thousand head of cattle and horses overland from
Mexico to the new province in La Florida, but the
difficulties of breaking roads and crossing rivers
were more than could be overcome.
The Men Wish to Return Home. The company
now sent daily petitions to Luna begging to be re-




HARDSHIPS OF DE LUNA'S EXPEDITION


turned to New Spain on the first ship that sailed.
No fitting place had been found for a settlement and
the Indians did not want to become Christians. For
the sake of their starving wives and children the
Spaniards begged for relief.
Luna told them they were traitors both to their
king and their God and asked them to remain fifty
days longer. By this time no green thing could be
found for seven or eight miles around the camp,
and rebellion was in the air. Even the Mexican
Indians demanded a ship to take them home.
Word from "Coosa." On hearing from "Coosa,"
Luna asked if any of the company were willing to
go there with him, but everyone felt too weak to
travel.
Luna Yields. On June twenty-second Luna or-
dered all to prepare to move to Bahia Filipina (Mo-
bile Bay) in two days. There they could at least
find fish and oysters. A placard was nailed to a
tree giving directions to the party still at "Coosa,"
to dig below and find a message.
A Message from Philip. Eight days after they
reached the Bay, a ship and supplies arrived from
New Spain.
This ship also brought a message from King
Philip written December 18, 1559, giving orders
to abandon the Gulf port and make a settlement at
once in Santa Elena, as the French were preparing
to take possession.
As there were only a few men in the entire com-




HISTORY OF FLORIDA


pany who were well and strong, this command
could not be obeyed.
Things Become Desperate. The men now arose and
rebelled against the king's orders. Luna became
very ill and was unable to control his company so
he sent the ship back to Vera Cruz loaded with as
many men, women and children as it could carry.
Velasco Relieves Luna. On hearing of the terrible
plight of the expedition, Velasco sent Angel de
Villafafie, January, 1561, to relieve Luna and gave
him permission to go to Spain.
Villafafie was to be governor of Florida. His
orders were to leave a small force at Ochuse and sail
around the peninsula of Florida. When he reached
Santa Elena he was to make a settlement and hold
it against the coming of the French.
Villafafie Also Meets Disaster. Villafafie tried to
obey orders, but his ships were driven south by
storms and he never reached Santa Elena.
King Philip then gave up the task of founding a
colony in La Florida until the time of Men6ndez de
Avil6s.
Luna Tries to Recover His Fortune. Luna left for
Spain April 9, 1561. On his arrival in Madrid he
tried to recover some of his fortune from the gov-
ernment of Spain. In this he was not successful.
However, he inherited a vast fortune after the
death of his brother Pedro and his descendants be-
came an important Spanish family.





HARDSHIPS OF DE LUNA'S EXPEDITION


EXPLANATORY NOTES
Santa Elena fort was situated not far from the site of Charles-
fort near Port Royal now in South Carolina. It was in the terri-
tory of the Indian Chief Edisto.
The Point of Santa Elena is now known as Hilton Head, S. C.
Questions to think about and answer:
1. After his supplies were destroyed what did De Luna do?
2. What did his men find when they moved to Nanipacana?
3. How did the Indians of Olibahali get rid of the Spaniards?
4. What did De Luna expect to find at Coosa? What was
found?
5. Why did the men want to return home?
6. What message did Velasco's ship bring to De Luna?
7. Whom did Velasco send to relieve De Luna?
8. What happened to his ships while going to Santa Elena?
9. Why did King Philip now lose interest in settling Florida?
10. Why did De Luna have such a hard time? What mistakes
were made?
11. Were the Spaniards as successful as the English in their
colonies?
Something to do:
1. Here are two groups of sentences. They do not make sense
as written, but each number in the first group matches
a number in the second. No. 1 matches No. 7. Write
out this sentence. Match all these sentences and write
them for your teacher.
A MATCHING GAME
1. Tristan de Luna 1. was found at Coosa.
2. Nanipacana was 2. Coosa.
3. De Soto found 3. an Indian village.
4. Velasco was the 4. with De Luna.
5. King Philip was 5. Viceroy of New Spain.
6. 1500 people were 6. the Spanish king.
7. No silver or gold 7. was made governor of
Florida.
















UNIT THREE

FRENCH AND SPANISH SETTLEMENTS IN FLORIDA

CHAPTER XI. THE FRENCH HUGUENOTS COME TO FLORIDA.
CHAPTER XII. STORIES OF MENENDEZ AND RIBAUT AND THE
FOUNDING OF ST. AUGUSTINE.
CHAPTER XIII. THE REVENGE OF THE FRENCH BY DOMINIQUE
DE GOURGUES.







FOREWORD


King Philip of Spain now became discouraged
and ceased his efforts to make a settlement in
Florida for a time.
Meanwhile, religious wars in France led Admiral
Coligny in 1562 to send a Huguenot colony to
America so as to provide a place of refuge for his
persecuted countrymen.
Jean Ribaut was made commander of the com-
pany. He landed at Mayport at the mouth of the
St. John's River but chose Port Royal, South Caro-
lina, as the best place for the settlement.
In 1564, another French colony was established
at Fort Caroline on the St. John's River.
Spain claimed Florida by right of discovery and
having heard that the French were intruding on
this claim, Menendez was sent with a Spanish fleet
to drive away the French and build a settlement in
Florida for Spain. Menendez succeeded in getting
rid of the French by methods that seemed to him to
be justified. He also founded St. Augustine, the
first city in America.
The French were horrified by the cruel acts of
Menendez and under the leadership of De Gourgues
the deeds were revenged in a like manner.











CHAPTER XI

THE FRENCH HUGUENOTS COME TO FLORIDA

France in 1562. In the year 1562, France was suf-
fering from religious wars. Both Catholics and


I'rom De Bry Engravings, 1609
Ifomo De Bry Engravings, 1609


Protestants were trying to gain control of the
country.
Admiral Coligny was the leader of the Hugue-
nots, and he thought that it might be a good plan
77





HISTORY OF FLORIDA


to have a French settlement in America in case they
lost the war and had to leave France. In the New
World they could worship God as they pleased.


REPLICA OF ORIGINAL RIBAUT
COLUMN
Erected by Florida Chapters of
D. A. R., 1924


Jean Ribaut Is Chosen Commander. With the con-
sent of Charles IX, King of France, Coligny gath-
ered together a large company of Huguenots, who
wished to go to America. He placed Jean Ribaut
in command and Ren6 de Laudonniere as lieutenant.
Three vessels were fitted up and with about one





FRENCH HUGUENOTS COME TO FLORIDA


hundred fifty men on board, they set sail for the
great adventure.
They Reach the St. John's River. The party en-
tered the mouth of St. John's River on the first day
of May, and Ribaut named it the River of May.'
Landing on the north shore, the Huguenots gave
thanks to God for his protecting care while friendly
Indians watched and waited. In the afternoon they
crossed to the south side near the present town of
Mayport and exchanged gifts with the natives
whose chief was Saturiba.
On May second, Ribaut returned to the south
shore and setting up a stone marker took possession
of the country for France.
Ribaut Sails Farther North. After a few days the
commander continued his journey, sailing north
until he reached a good harbor, well protected.
This place is still known as Port Royal, the name
given to it by Ribaut so long ago. It is near the
present town of Beaufort in South Carolina.
The travelers again landed and here too they
found the Indians friendly. Everything seemed so
attractive that Ribaut decided it was a good place
to make a settlement.
Another Marker Placed. Another marker was set
in the ground, and this territory also claimed for
the king of France.
I The present town of Mayport at the mouth of the St. .TJ(in's River
'Ii)tless received this name because it was the port at the liouth of
lie River of May.




HISTORY OF FLORIDA


A small fort was built on an island near Port
Royal, which was named Charlesfort, and here a
settlement was made. It was given this name in
honor of the boy king of France, Charles IX.
Ribaut Returns to France for Supplies. On the fol-
lowing June, Ribaut and LaudonniBr4 sailed for
France, leaving the little colony with enough food,
arms and ammunition for several months, Ribaut
hoped to return very soon to the little band, bring-
ing friends as well as supplies for the coming
winter.
However, finding France in the midst of a civil
war, Ribaut was forced to flee to England for
safety, and having no money, he could do nothing
more for his colony.
The Colony at Charlesfort. In the meantime the
members of the colony hunted for gold and silver.
Instead of preparing in some way a food supply for
the winter months by planting a crop, they seemed
to be content to wait for the return of Ribaut.
Then, as their stock of food became low, they
began to quarrel among themselves. It is said that
they killed their captain and built a rude hip on
which they tried to return to France. While on the
ocean, an English ship rescued them and took the
adventurers to England. This ended the colony at
Charlesfort.
Coligny Tries Again. In 1563 the Catholics and
Protestants stopped fighting and signed a treaty of
peace. Coligny remembered his plan of making a




FRENCH HUGUENOTS COME TO FLORIDA


settlement in the New World and thought he would
try again.
As Ribaut was now a prisoner in England, Ren6
de Laudonniere was sent in charge of the second
band of colonists.







/i"l.~,'* fi "'.. "
All







-9;-T
From De Bry Engraving, 1609
THE BUILDING OF FORT CAROLINE

LaudonniBre Sails for Florida. Sailing from Havre
in April, 1564, Laudonniere reached the coast of
Florida near the present city of St. Augustine in the
month of June. He did not stop but sailed north
until he came to the River of May, where he saw
the marker of Ribaut.
Going on up the river, he came to a high bluff




HISTORY OF FLORIDA


which seemed to him to be well suited for a new
colony.
LaudonniBre Lands. Full of hope for the future,
Laudonniere brought his men and stores on shore
and at once began to build a fort where the colony
might have protection in case of an attack. This
fort he named Fort Caroline, also in honor of
Charles IX of France.
He soon found that, like Ribaut, he had too many
soldiers and fortune hunters in his company and
not enough workmen and farmers.
In the Midst of Plenty They Starve. Most of the
men did not know how to work even if they had
been willing to do so. At the foot of the bluff was
the River of May well stocked with fish of all kinds,
while the forest was over-run with game; yet' they
would have starved to death if they had been left
to themselves.
At first the Indians gave them food, but that
supply grew less and less.
Sir John Hawkins Arrives. Just as starvation and
death seemed to be the fate of the little colony, an
English vessel appeared on the river. A fleet, under
the command of Sir John Hawkins, had been out on
the seas capturing Spanish treasure ships, and he
had entered the river looking for a supply of fresh
water.
On learning the terrible state of the French
colonists, Hawkins gave them barrels of provisions,
taking in return a promise to pay at home future





FRENCH HUGUENOTS COME TO FLORIDA


time. He also offered to take them back to France,
but Laudonniere refused to leave.
However, he bought a small vessel from Hawkins
in exchange for some guns from Fort Caroline.
Ribaut Out of Prison. Having been freed from
prison Jean Ribaut had returned to France, so
Coligny at once gave him the command of a fleet
of vessels and sent him with stores of all kinds for
the little colony at Fort Caroline.
The fleet of seven ships left France on May 10,
1565, having on board many Huguenots who wished
to join the new French colonists.
King Philip of Spain. King Philip of Spain claimed
Florida as his by right of discovery, and he did not
want the French on his territory. He had heard of
the two pillars set up by Ribaut and he sent word
to the governor of Cuba to find and destroy them.
Charlesfort Marker Taken Away. However, the
commander to whom this duty was given, could not
find the marker at Mayport, but sailing on to Port
Royal Sound, he found there the pillar of white
stone. He destroyed this fort and took the marker
to Havana where it remained until sent to Spain.
Plans for a Spanish Colony. King Philip was not
content with plans for destroying Ribaut's markers,
for he fitted out at once a fleet of vessels, placing
Pedro Men6ndez in command. The commander was
not told to go on an expedition of discovery, but his
orders were to build a town and to cultivate the
land. Another mission was to compel the Indians





HISTORY OF FLORIDA


to become Christians and join the Catholic Church.
France and Spain at Peace. As France and Spain
were then at peace, Men6ndez was not officially told
to find and destroy the fleet under Ribaut, which
had left France in May. His orders were to sail up
the coast as far north as possible and if he found










F C. T -


Courtesy Mr. Davis
FORT CAROLINE
(First Huguenot Settlement)
View Interpreted by T. Frederick Davis (Historian)

any settlers on the land, not subjects of Spain, to
drive them away as best he could.
Ribaut's ships did not arrive at the River of May
until the end of August because they were delayed
by storms. On his arrival he found that four of
his ships were too large to cross the bar, so they re-
mained at sea while Ribaut took the three smaller





FRENCH HUGUENOTS COME TO FLORIDA


vessels up to Fort Caroline. By this time Sir John
Hawkins had sailed away and the colonists were
filled with joy and delight to see the long expected
supplies from France.

EXPLANATORY NOTES
King Philip of Spain was mistaken in thinking that other
nations had lost interest in the New World, for in a few months
the French had a brave company crossing the ocean seeking to
found a colony that might be a refuge for the Protestant Chris-
tians of France, the Huguenots.
Two religious parties were at war in that country, the Roman
Catholics and the Huguenots. The Roman Catholics believed
that Christ had made their church the head of the Christian
religion and the Huguenots did not agree with them. Cruel wars,
bitter fights and persecutions followed each other and the Hugue-
nots feared they would be driven from France.
Questions to think about and answer:
1. What was happening in France in 1562?
2. What plan had Admiral Coligny and why did he make it?
3. Who led the first expedition and where did it land?
4. Tell where lie went. What was left at both places?
5. What happened after Ribaut left Charlesfort?
6. Who led the next French expedition and why?
7. Tell of Laudonniere's voyage and settlement.
8. Why did his men not work? What was the result?
9. What did John Hawkins want in the River of Mayv?
10. Tell of Jean Ribaut's second expedition.
11. Why was Philip II interested in Florida?
12. What did he do now?
13. Who was made captain of the Spanish fleet?
14. What were his orders?
15. Why was he not told to destroy the French fleet?
2





HISTORY OF FLORIDA

Something to do:
1. Write the story of Laudonnibre and his settlement.
2. Make a list of all the people in this story. Choose the
one most interesting to you. Tell the class why you
made this choice.




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