Title Page
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Front Matter
 Chronological table
 Florida War Record and Circula...

Title: Ponce de Leon land and Florida war record
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055546/00001
 Material Information
Title: Ponce de Leon land and Florida war record
Physical Description: 1 p.l., vi, 2, 180 p. : front. (port.) ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brown, George M., 1845-
Publisher: The Record printing company
Place of Publication: St. Augustine Fla
Publication Date: 1902
Edition: 4th ed.
Subject: Spaniards -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Seminole War, 2nd, 1835-1842   ( lcsh )
Saint Augustine (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
History -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: individual biography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055546
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000589184
oclc - 01186622
notis - ADB7959
lccn - 03001269

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Front Matter
        Page v
        Page vi
    Chronological table
        Page vii
        Page viii
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    VIII & IX
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    XXV & XXVI
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    Florida War Record and Circular
        Page 119
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Full Text







r I

Sergeant George M. Brown was born and passed his youth in
Jefferson county, New York, and, on April 27th, 1861, enlisted in
Co. G, 35th N. Y. V. I. On December 13th, 1862, having been
taken prisoner, was paroled, exchanged on the 28th of June, 1863,
and the next day he re-enlisted in Co. D, 20th N. Y. V. Cav., in
which he served until the cose of thedwar, being mustered out July
31st, 1865. On March 6th, 1866, he was enlisted in Co. F, 3d Bat-
talion 16th Inf., U. S. A.
During his enlistments from 1861-65 Sergeant Brown served
practically all the time with the Army of the Potomac, and took
part in nearly all of the principal battles of the Virginia cam-
paigns. He was in eight pitched battles and twelve minor engage-
ments, besides the lesser skirmishes.
In 1866 he was made corporal, and detailed in charge of the
cholera wards, during the epidemic in Nashville, Tenn. In June,
1866, he took part in suppressing the negro riots in Memphis, and
in the winter of 1866-67 he was sent to Corinth and Pittsburg Land-
ing, Miss., to assist in the establishment and construction of the
National Cemeteries, and the reinterment of the dead in these ceme-
While stationed at Columbus, Miss., he assisted in maintain-
ing order, during the first election in Mississippi, under the 14th
and 15th amendments, and was there during the most critical pe-
riod of the reconstruction days. He remained in Mississippi until
1871, and then was ordered to Louisville, Ky., on duty at Louisville,
Frankfort, Lexington and Lebanon, Ky., and at the Red River Iron
Works in Kentucky, looking after the Ku-Klux. At Newport, Ky.,
in 1874, then to Huntsville, Ala. From Huntsville to Aberdeen,
Miss., and from there back to Huntsville. Sent from there on a
rush order to New Orleans, to put down White Cap demonstra-
tions. In June, 1875, ordered to Fort Riley, Kansas, and took part
in campaign against the Northern Cheyennes, and was present at
the battle of Sand Creek, Kansas, on the 21st and 22d of September,
1878. Part of the time during 1878 and 1879 on duty in Oklaho-
ma and Indian Territory keeping out boomers. From 1880 to 1884
stationed at Fort Concho, Texas, raiding horse-thieves, and doing
patrol duty on military roads and telegraph lines between Forts
Concho and Davis. Appointed Ord. Sergeant May 5th, 1884, and
ordered to Fort Jefferson, Dry Tortugas. On June 23d, 1885, sent
to Fort Marion, by General Order No. 142, Ext. 10. A. G. O. On
duty at Fort Marion since continuously, and on September 3d,
1900, in charge also of St. Francis Barracks and National Ceme-
tery at St. Augustine, and the battery on Anastasia Island ani
Military Reservations.
Sergeant Brown is perhaps the only man now in the army who
is serving under order made by General P. H. Sheridan.




Frontispiece-Seageant Brown.

Biographical Sketch of Sergeant Brown....
Fac Simile of Archbishop Corrigan's Letter.
Fac Simile o" Signature of Peter Menendez
Chronological Table ......................


Birth and Early Life of Ponce de Leon..........
The Conquest of Porto Rico....................
Ponce de Leon Assumes Command of the Island.

The Tests Made

by the Indians to Find Whether the Spaniards Were Mortals..


The Indians Attack the Spaniards.

Death of Satomayor..........

Ponce de Leon Resigns Command of Porto Rico, and Returns to
Spain to Look after His Ward Left Him by Satomayor. He
Hears of the Fountain of Youth.............................


Ponce de Leon's Introduction to His



Don Inez de Sato-

He accepts the Guardianship....


Ponce de Leon's Search for the Fountain of Youth.

of Florida.

His Discovery

Landing on the 3d of April, 1512..


Ponce de Leon's Expedition Against the Carribees...............
Ponce de Leon's Last Voyage, Attempted Settlement of Florida.
His Death and Burial in Cuba ..............................


The Second Attempt to Settle Florida by Panfilo Narvaez.
ure and Loss of All the Party but Four..............

Its Fail-




The Third Attempt to Settle Florida by Hernando de Soto ReE alts
in the Loss of His Life by Disease, and 'All but Three Hun Ired
of His Command ......................


Huguenot Settlement Under Ribault and Laudonniere............



Founding of St. Augustine by Menendez in 1565.
French Settlement on the St. Johns .........

Attack on the


Massacre of
Pius V.

the French Colonists by Menendez. Letter of Pope
Refusal of Charles IX. to Take Notice of the Slaugh-

ter of His Subjects.
Orphans Unheeded.

Petition of Nine Hundred Widows and
Menendez Strengthens His Position.....


Laying Out the Town with Its Defences.

a Hall of Justice

Erection of a Church and

* I I I I . .



Expedition and Retaliation of De



Attack of Sir Francis Drake on St. Augustine, 8th May, 1586, Cap-
turing 2,000 Sterling ............. .................


Establishment of Mission;
Indians ............ ..


Massacre of the Missionaries by the

Capture of Apalachlan Indians; Their V
Augustine; Progress of the Colony
Captain Davis's Attack on the City;

Sea Wall


Tork on the Defences of St.

rhe Commencement of the

0 a . . 1 a . . . I I I I I I I 1 .



Governor Moore's Attack on St. Augustine, 1702.................



Colonel Palmer's Invasion of Florida......



Oglethorpe's Attack on St. Augustine and


of Fort Marion...

History of the Inquisition, Ancient and Modern; Its Effect on the
Settlement of Florida .... ........................... .....



Completion of the Castle ..................... .................

Gourges. .......................




The History of Fort Marion ........


Siege Operations


The Transfer of Florida to England.


Re-cession of Florida to Spain ............
Transfer of Florida to the United States ....

The Seminole



Incidents of the Seminole War in the Vicinity of St. Augustine.


Coacoochee's and Hadjo's Escape


Fort Marion Occupied by Florida Troops in 1861.....

Confinement of Indian Prisoners in Fort Marion................. 114

St. Augustine Hotels.

Conclusion .




Florida's War Record


PowOB a ION Lan.

Arohbishop'a House.
452 Madison Ave..
New York. Mareh 25.

Mr. George M.
escort me thro
you know what
"Ponce DeLeon
In the fir
Sanctuary. pag
now obsolete.
throughout Chr
to Churches co
tuary, and oou
cera of the Ci
Church. This
toms, based on
was an Eoolesi
ified afterwar
On page 22


A few
ugh F
I tho
st pi
e 64,
but i
uld o


it .St. P
signed it
le of ."S
ne, no ma
after his


U. 8

weeks ago you had


ort Marion, and to ask me to let
ught about your pamphlet entitled




u gi
us V



an outgr
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, not a D
riding to
ve the le


that w
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r how
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the offi-
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Law. It

Law, and was
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ted to be gi
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life has be


thoroughly examined
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10 te

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title of Saint


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in re

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on page 40.



similar slip.
t inaccuracies, which are
who is not familiar with
pamphlet is very inter-
my thanks for your courtesy

am. dear air. with best wishes,
Very respectfully yours.

^^4t -C7 o L -






Fac-simile of the signature of th
nendes de Aviles, a native of Orbilas
Florida, Knight Commander of Santa
and Captain General of the Oceanic
his Royal Highness collected at Sen
he died on the 17th of September of
of his age.

me illustrious Captain Pedro Me-
, Adelantado, of the Province of
Cruz, of the Order of Santiago,
seas, and of the Armada which
tender, in the year 1574, where
that year, in the fifty-fifth year

p a



1512-March 27, Florida discovered by Ponce de
1512-April 3, First Landing of Ponce de Leon
1521-Ponce de Leon again visits Florida.
1521-Death of Ponce de Leon in Cuba.
1528-Panfilo Narvaez lands in Florida.
1539-May, De Soto lands at Tampa Bay.
1542-May 21, Death of De Soto.
1555---Publication of De Vaca's account of Narva

1564-July, Huguenot settle]
1565-Sept. 6, St Augustine
1565-Sept. 19, Capture of
1565-Sept, Wreck of Ribau

at St. Augustine.

es's expedition.

nent of Florida under Ribault and


and Fort Marion begun

French forts on St John's River by

t's fleet between Mosquito and Ma-

tanzas Inlets.
1565-Massacre of the French by Menendez on Anastasia
1566-The Indians under Saturiva wage war on the Spani
1568-De Gourgues lands in Florida to revenge French n
1568-Capture of Spanish forts and massacre by De Gour
1574-Death of Menendez.
1582-Death of De Gourgues.
1583-Spanish attempt Christianization of the Indians.
1583-Convent of St. Francisco founded in St. Augustine.
1586-May 8, Sir Francis Drake attacks St. Augustine.
1592-Father Francis Pauja translates first book into
1599-March 14, Convent of St. Francisco at St. Augustine
1611-Indians pillage St. Augustine and kill priests.
1638-1640-Appalachian Indians captured and sent to
gustine to labor on public works.
1665-Attack on St. Augustine by Captain Davis.
1690-Commencement of the sea wall.
1702-Governor Moore of Carolina invades Florida and att




acks St

1704-Governor Moore of Carolina invades Florida and attacks St.
Augustine second time.
1725-Colonel Palmer invades Florida.
1740-General Oglethorpe attacks St. Augustine and besieges the



1740-Snowstorm in St. Augustine.
1755-Don Alonzo Fernandez de Herrera, Governor of Florida.
1756-Completion of the Fort.
1763-Florida ceded to England.
1767-Nicolas Turnbull brings Minorcans to Florida.
1769-Minorcan insurrection.
1776-Minorcans freed by courts from contract with TurnbulL
1776-Freezing weather in St. Augustine.
1777-Expedition of General Provost from St. Augustine against
1783-Devereux expedition from St. Augustine against New Prov-
1783-Florida re-ceded by Great Britain to Spain.
1793-Cathedral in St. Augustine begun.
1812--Monument to Spanish Constitution erected in St. Augustine.
1817-McGregor Rebellion.
1181-General Jackson invades Florida.
1821-July 12, Stars and Stripes raised over Fort Marion.
1823-Legislature (Territorial) meets in St. Augustine.
1830-First Presbyterian Church is built in St. Augustine.
1832-Treaty of Payne's Landing.
1833-Protestant Episcopal Church consecrated.
1835-Breaking out of Seminole War.
1835-1842-Present sea wall built by U. S. Government.
1835-Dade Massacre.
1835-1842-Seminole War.
1836-Escape of Coacoochee and Hadjo from Fort Marion.
1840-Methodist Chapel built in St. Augustine.
1861-Fort Marion seized by Florida troops.
1862-Fort Marion occupied by Commander Rodgers, U. S. N.
1888-"Big Freeze."







P ONCE DE LEON was born in the Province of Leon and
was a worthy member of the celebrated family whose his-
tory is connected with that province.
He was appointed page to Pedro Nunez de Guzman, Lord of
TaraL He received his military instruction at an age when most
children are under the care of the nurse. He early evinced such
an Aptitude for a military career that De Guzman placed him under
the instruction of some of the most brilliant officers of that period.
In his many campaigns against the Moors he learned a peculiar art

of war, which was of great benefit to him i
in his campaigns against the Indians in the
In this school he learned one of the
military tactics; that is to pick the men best
they are to perform; few men are capable
which is one of the most important duties
the field. The chief duty of a scout is to
report as possible of the position and nun

n after years, especially
Western hemisphere.
nost essential points in
Qualified for the duties
of making good scouts,
performed by troops in
give as near a correct
iber of the enemy, the

strength of their works, if they have any, and the Iumber of guns
available for attack, offensive or defensive. With correct informa-
tion on these points, the commander can place his force in the best
position to insure success. This information is of special impor-
tance when operating against numbers largely in excess of one's
In the field De Leon was the bravest of the brave, regarding
the safety and welfare of his men more than he did his own. With
a vigorous constitution that fatigue or hardship could but little
effect, together with good judgment in selecting his men for the
important duties he wished to have performed, made him an excel-
lent leader. It was not surprising that he was successful in his
many expeditions, and that he frequently received commendation


from the King and Queen for his gallant conduct in the presence
of the enemy, and for his sagacity in taking advantage of every
point exposed by them.
When Columbus fitted out his second expedition to the West-
ern Hemisphere, Ponce de Leon was one of the first to volunteer
his services. Columbus recognized at once the benefit it would
be to him to have such a brave and gallant officer associated with
him, and as a consequence his services were accepted. After arriv-
in in Cuba he was ssi ed next in command to Juan de Esuival.
An in his ri iant campaign against the province o guey
shortly after, which was the most sanguinary that had been waged
against the Indians in the Spanish colonies, heas promoted tohe
comd of the above named province under other of His-
parrla The qe lie as governor of this province di not suit
the adventurous spirit of Ponce de Leon, and he soon planned a
campaign against the island of Boriquen, whose green mountains
shone against the bright sky about fourteen leagues distant. He
learned from the Indians who visited his province frequently that
the rivers and mountains of the island contained large quantities
of gold. Upon learning this he sought permission of Governor
Ovando to explore the island, to find out if there was any truth in
the report he had received. This request was willingly granted by
Ovando. In 1508 he fitted out his expedition to Boriquen, consist-
ing of a caravel and a few small boats with a detachment of Span
iards and a few Indians for guides and interpreters. A few hours'
sail brought his command to the island. He landed near the main
Indian settlement commanded by their head chief, Agueybana.
The Indians received the strangers with great courtesy, viewing with
each other in paying respects to the Spaniards. Ponce de Leon
exchanged names with the Chief Agueybana, which was the Indian
pledge of perpetual amity, and also gave Christian names to the
chief's family, who always took great pride in the names thus given.
The chief took the Spaniards through ihe most fertile part of the
island, showing them their best fields of yuca, their groves laden
with choicest fruit, and their excellent streams of water. De Leon
cared but little for anything the natives could show him, except
gold, which was the main object of his search. The chief conducted
him to two rivers, the Manataubon and Zebuco, where the very peb.
bles were richly veined with gold. The largest grains were gath*
ered and given to the Spaniards for samples. There was no ques-
tion but that large quantities of this precious metal abounded in
these streams. De Leon left several of his men with the Indians
and returned to Hayti to report to Governor Ovando the result of
his expedition.



THE i is of Porto Rico were more fierce in their di ition
t f They had n school o war
from childhood, especially in repelling the frequent attacks
of tbs who were Cannibals, and inhabited the neighboring
islands. The set element o Boriquen would be more difficult thai
the settlement of Hispaniola. Ponce de Leon, therefore, made
another and preparatory visit to the island, to inform himself of
the topography of the country, its resources and the character of
its people. He found the troops he had left on the island in good
health and spirits, they having been well treated by Agueybana
and his people; there seemed to be no need of bloodied to gain the
island. from such hospitable people.
Ponce de Leon had strong hopes of being appointed Governor
by Ovando and of bringing the whole island peaceably into sub-

jection. He on that account remained some time on the island
prospecting for gold and looking out for the best point of settle-
ment. He then returned to San Domingo to get his appointment
as Governor, but during his absence the whole governing power had
Governor Ovando had been recalled to Spain. Diego Colum-
bus had been appointed in his place to the command of San Do-
mingo, Christoval de Satomayor had been ordered to build a fort-
ress and establish a settlement on the island of Porto Rico. Sato-
mayor was a brother to the Count of Camina and secretary to Philip
the I, the handsome King of Castile, the father of Charles V.
-- -- .~~ ~ eil J

Don Diego Columbus was very much displeased with the ap-
pointment of Satomayor as Governor, as it had been done without
his knowledge or consent, and contrary to the King's agreement
with Don Diego as his viceroy, who was to be consulted in all
appointments made in his jurisdiction. To settle the matter he
confirmed neither of them, but appointed Juan Ceron as Governor
of Porto Rico and Miguel Diego as his Lieutenant Governor.
Ponce de Leon and Satomayor took their disappointment as
best they could. They hoped to better their fortunes in the island,
and joined the settlers that accompanied the new Governor. New
changes took place in consequence of the jealousies and misunder-
standings between King Ferdinand and the admiral as to points
of privilege. The King still seemed disposed to maintain the right
of making appointments, without consulting Don Diego, and
exerted it in the present instance. When Ovando returned to


Spain he made such a favorable report of the conduct of Ponce de
Leon and the merits of his services to the crown, that-th- King
appointed m ae nd and charged Don Diego
Columbus not to displace him.


P ONCE DE LEON on assuming command of Boriquen had a
quarrel with Ceron and Diaz and sent them prisoners to
Spain. With Satomayor it was different.. He took a liking
to him from their first meeting and appointed him Lieutenant
Governor and Alcaldy Mayor, which office he accepted. Satomayor
had a large repartimiento of Indians assigned to him by a grant
from the King, but he soon resigned his rank, as it took too much
time from his personal affairs.
Ponce de Leon established his town on the north side of the
island about one league from the sea, where he supposed that the
best gold deposits were to be found. It was opposite the port called
Rico, which name was afterwards given to the island. The road
to the town was horrible for man or beast; it cost more to carry
their supplies this league than it had to bring them from Spain.
After having firmly established his government, he portioned
out the island into districts and towns and distributed the Indians
into repartimientos to secure their labor.
The Indians soon found the difference between Spaniards as
guests and Spaniards as masters. They were driven to desperation
by the heavy tasks imposed upon them; restraint and labor were
wors than death. The most hardy and daring proposed a general
massacre of their enslavers, but many were deterred by the belief
that the Saniards were spernatural beings and could not be
A shrewd chief named Brayoan tested their immortality.
Learning that a Spaniard named Salzedo would pass through his
country, he sent out a party to escort him, instructing them to
drown him when they came to the river. The Indians took him on
their shoulders to carry him across, and when in mid-stream they
threw him into the water and fell on. top of him, holding him
wander the water until he was dead. The chief examined the body
and pronounced it lifeless, but the Indians kept it for three days
until purification had commenced to take place. This convinced
the Indians that the Spaniards were mortal men, and that they
could kill them the same as an Indian.


THE chief who organized the attack on the Spaniards was Agney-
bana, brother to the head chief of the island, who had died a
short time previous to the outbreak of the savages. The pres-
ent chief had been allowed to Don Chrstoval de Satomayor in the
repartimiento and was treated with kindness by him, but the wild
Indian spirit would never accept slavery under any conditions.
A e bana called his followers together and organized his
for a combine efortgnn`" the S pirds, who were scattered
over the island. He proposed that at a certain time each chief should
kill all the whites in his province. In planning the attack, Aguey-
bana assigned one of his sub-chiefs to the duty of attacking the set-
tlement of Satomayor with a force of 3,000 warriors. The attack
was to be.made just before daylight with the instruction to fire
their houses and to slaughter all the settlers. He reserved the
right to kill Satomayor himself.
Don Christoval had one very warm friend among the savages.
Being a very handsome man he gained the love of an Indian princess,
the sister of Agueybana, and the handsomest maid on the island.
She had heard enough of the war council of the savages to learn
that Satomayor was to be killed at the first opportunity. The
life of her lover being more to her than all the rest of the world,
she hastened to him and disclosed the plot against his life and all
the rest of the Spaniards. Satomayor being a frank, open-hearted
man, doubted that the savages would dare attack them He con-
sidered the warning given by the princess was on account of her
great love for him, and did not take heed.
Soon after he received warning from a Spaniard that under-
stood the Indain language and their customs. He found that large
numbers of them had gathered together frequently, painted for bat-
tle. Suspecting that they intended to make an attack upon the
whites, he stripped and painted himself, and thus disguised as an
Indian he mingled freely among them. At night they assembled
around a large' fire, performing their war dances to the chant of an
Areyto or legendary ballad, which was to incite them to kill their
The Spaniard withdrew from the savages without detection and
proceeded to notify Don Christoval of the contemplated attack and
the special design on his own life. Again he.did not heed the
warning he had received, or give it the consideration that the
danger of the situation demanded, but concluded that he had better
report the matter to Ponce de Leon, who was at his stronghold at


Caparra. With his usual carelessness, he asked Agneybana for
men- to carry his baggage to Caparra. He left his home only
lightly armed, and accompanied by but three of his own people,
knowing that he had to cross through some difficult mountain
passes and dense forests, which would afford secure hiding places
for lurking Indians.
Atueybana dbeerved the departure of Satomayor with great
pleasure and degrmined to kill him before he could reach Ponce de
Leon at Capatr. Selecting a number of his most trusted braves,
he followed thb small detachment of Spaniards closely. A short dis-
tance fronrtheir starting point they encountered a Spaniard who
could speak-the Indian language. They attacked him and wounded
him severely. He begged Agueybana to spare his life, and the chief,
being anxious to secure Don Christoval, did not stop to dispatch
him, but hastened after the detachment of Spaniards, which he soon
overtook in a dense portion of the forest. Raising their terrible war
whoop, they rushed to the attack. Before Satomayor could defend
himself he fell to the earth with a blow from a war club, and
he was quickly dispatched by the Indians, who were assisted by the
guides furnished to Satomayor. They killed the remaining Span-
Agueybana having satiated his wrath on Satomayor, with his
party started out in quest of Juan Gonzalez, the Spaniard they had
wounded, but in the interval he had recovered strength enough to
enable him to conceal himself in a tree. The Indians hunted
through the surrounding forest for some time, and finding no trace
of him, they abandoned the search. Though suffering for food and
water, Gonzalez did not dare to attempt to escape from his conceal-
ment until night had set in. Under cover of darkness he made his
way to the abode of one of the Spaniards, where he received .kind
care and attention. After his wounds had been dressed and a sup-
ply of food and water had been furnished him, he set out at once
warn De Leon of the i thatLaatoma or and his followers
wer suppose to be in, not knowing that te treacherous foe had
killed the whole party. De Leon dispatched men at once to their
assistance, who soon came to the place where their comrades had
been slaughtered and partially buried in the earth.
During this time the saves had burned the village of Sato-
.mayar to the ground. They made the attack 1nthe darkness of
night, and the first intimation the Spaniards had of danger was the
blazing of the straw-thatched roofs and the loud war whoops of the
Indians as they sprang from their cover to the attack, slaughtering
the Spaniards wherever they could find them, until at last a brave
fellow named Salazar rallied his people together, and making a de-


termined onslaught on their foes, succeeded in driving off the In-
dians and conducted a large part of his people to their defenses at
Caparra. In a few short hours Ponce de Leon learned of the gen-
eral outbreak of all the Indians on the island and the massacre of
nearly one hundred of his people, and the destruction of all the
places established by the Spaniards, except their present fortress.
He found himself in a very bad predicament, with small chance
of extricating himself from it. His settlements were entirely
destroyed, and a large number of his men wounded and disabled,
his whole remaining force not exceeding one hundred men.
Agueybana had induced all the Indians on the island to join
in the attack, and even sent runners to the Caribs for assistance
to help exterminate the whites. Agueybana assembled nearly all
the warriors for the attack on the fortress at Caparra; the forest
literally swarmed with savages; the din of their war conchs, the roar
of their drums, together with sounds of their war cries, was enough
to appall a much larger and better protected body of men.
Ponce de Leon was a staunch and wary old soldier, and not
easily daunted. He remained grimly ensconced within his fortress
from whence he dispatched messengers in all haste to oHijan;ola,
imlorinx immeliate itnce. In e mean ime he tasked his
wits to divert the enemy and to keep them at bay. He divided his
little force into three bodies of about thirty men each, under the
command of Diego Salazar, Miguel de Toro and Luis de Anasco,
and sent them out alternately to make sudden sorties and assaults,
to form ambuscades and to practice the other stratagems of partisan
warfare which he had learned in early life in his campaigns against
the Moors of Grenada. One of his most efficient warriors was a dog
named Berezillo,-renowned for courage, strength and sagacity. It
is said that he could distinguish those of the Indians who were allies
4rom those whe were enemies of the Spaniards. To the former he
was docile, and to the latter fierce and implacable. He was the
terror of the natives who were unaccustomed to powerful and
ferocious animals, and did more service in this wild warfare than
could have been rendered by several soldiers. His prowess was
so highly appreciated that his master received for him the pay
and allowance, and share of booty assigned to a cross-bowman,
which was the highest stipend given any soldier of the line.
In a &hort 'enee de T:"n was raMinf-a_ by oapa Af m
Hispaiala whereupon he sallied forth boldly to take revenge upon
hse who had thus held him in durance. His foe Agueybana was
at that time encamped in his own territory, with more than five
thousand warriors, but in a negligent, unwatchful state, for he knew
nothing of the reinforcement of the Spaniards, and supposed Juan


Ponce securely hemmed in with his handful of men in Caparr.
The old soldier took him completely by surprise and routed him
with great slaughter. Indeed, it is said that the Indians were
struck with a kind of panic when they saw the Spaniards as numer-
ous as ever, notwithstanding the number they had masacred. Their
belief in their immortality revived; they fancied that those whom
they had slain had returned to life, and they despaired of victory
over beings who could thus arise with renovated vigor from the
Various petty actions and skirmishes afterwards took place, in
which the Indians were defeated. Agueybana, however, disdained
this petty warfare, and stirred up his countrymen to assemble their
forces, and by one grand assault to decide the fate of themselves
and their island. Juan Ponce received secret tidings of their intent
and of the place where they were assembling. He had at that time
barely eighty men at his disposal, but they were cased in steel
and proof against the weapons of the Indians. WiUout stopping to
reflect, the high-mettled soldier put himself at their head and led
them through the forest in quest of the foe.
It was nearly sunset when he came in sight of the Indian
camp. The multitude of warriors assembled made him pause and
almost repent of his temerity. He was as shrewd as he was hardy
and resolute; so, ordering some of his men in the advance to
skirmish with the enemy, he hastily threw up a slight fortification,
with the assistance of the rest. When it was finished he withdrew
his forces into it and ordered them to keep on the defensive. The
Indians made repeated attacks, but were repulsed with great loss.
Some of the Spaniards, impatient of their covert warfare, sallied
forth in open field, with pike and cross-bow, but were called back
within the fortification by their commander.
The cacique, Agueybana, was enraged at finding his host of
warriors baffled and kept at bay by a mere handful of Spaniards.
He beheld night closing in, and fearing that in the darkness the
enemy would escape, summoned his bravest warriors around him,
and led the way in a general assault. When he approached the
fortress he received a mortal wound from an arquebuse, and fell
dead upon the spot.
The Spaniards were not aware at first of the importance of
the chief they had slain. They soon surmised it, however, from the
confusion that ensued among the enemy, who bore off the body
with great lamentations, and made no further attack.
Ponce de Leon took advantage of the evident distress of the
foe to draw off his small force in the night, happy to get out of
the terrible jeopardy into which his rash confidence had placed


him. Some of his fiery-spirited officers would have kept the field,
in spite of the overwhelming force of the Indians. "No, no," said
the shrewd old veteran; "it is better to protract the war than to risk
all upon a single battle."
While Ponce de Leon was fighting hard to maintain his sway
over the island, his transient dignity was overturned by a power
beyond his control. in Ferdinand repented of the te hd
taken in superceding the Governor and ieutenant-Goveror ap-
pointed by Don Dleg Combe beame convinced, though
rather tariy, tat it was an imringement of the rights of the
admiral, and that policy, as well as justice, required him to retract
it. When Juan Ceron and Miguel Diaz returned, prisoners, to
Spain he received them graciously and conferred many favors on
them to atone for their unjust ejectment from office, and after some
time, sent them back, empowered to resume command of the island.
They were ordered, however, on no account to manifest rancor
against Juan Ponce de Leon, or to interfere with any property he
might hold, either in houses, land or Indians, but on the contrary,
to cultivate the most friendly relations with him. The King also
wrote to the hardy veteran, explaining to him that his restitution
of Ceron and Diaz had been determined upon in council as a mere
act of justice due them, but was not intended as a censure upon his
conduct, and that measures should be taken to indemnify him for
the 'loss of his command.
By the time the Governor and his Lieutenant reached the
island Juan Ponce had completed its subjugation. The loss of the
island's champion, the brave Agueybana, had, in fact, been a death-
blow to the natives, and showed how much, in savage warfare,
depended upon a certain chieftain. They never combined in war
afterwards, but dispersing among their forests and mountains, fell
gradually under the power of the Spaniards. Their sub ent
.fate was like that of their nei hborsf they emem
in the I he mies an in other rough work, so repugnant
to their nature that they san neath it. In a lle while almost
all the aborigines disappeared from the island.


BEFORE Ponce de Leon was superseded in the command of
Porto Rico, he was visited by Agueybana's sister, the Indian
princess, the most beautiful maiden on the island, to whom
Don Christoval had intrusted some important papers, to be deliv-


ered to Ponce de Leon in case anything should happen to him
during the outbreak. She was the only person he could place
implicit reliance upon. $he promised, in case anything should hap.
pen to Don Christoval, to deliver the papers to Ponce de Leon, or
lose her life in the attempt. It was at great danger to her life that
she succeeded in reaching Caparra and delivering the papers into
the hands of Ponce de Leon.
Don Christoval seemed to have a presentiment that the Indians
might destroy his little colony, and requested Ponce de Leon to
take care of the faithful maid who brought him the message, and
special care of his ward, Donna Inez de Satomayor. With the
former, Ponce de Leon had no trouble. He sent her to Hispaniola
with a trusted messenger, and placed her in care of one of his
friends an. made ample provision for her tuition and maintenance
for life. The other charge, however, was a very delicate matter.
What could he do for a young and titled lady? He saw at once
the difficulty he would encounter in the situation he was placed in.
How could a man like him, who had passed his life in camp and
field of battle, expect to guide and instruct a young lady like
Donna Inez Satomayor?
His being relieved as Governor of Porto Rico had no effect
upon the gallant and sturdy old warrior. There was a new world
to be divided among men like him, who had the sense and courage
to take it. He had amassed wealth enough to make him independ-
ent. The one point that did worry him was, how could he comply
with the request of Don Christoval de Satomayor? There was but
one way, and that was to go back to Spain and settle the matter

beyond any question. He e
the request of his slaughtb
immediately proceeded to i
vide for her and return to
exploration in the Western

embarked at
ered comrad
isit Donna

once for Spain to carry out
e, and on his arrival there
Inez, so that he could pro-
for the purpose of further


O N arriving at his destination, Ponce de Leon was conducted to
the residence of Donna Inez. Great was the surprise when
he was introduced to the beautiful ward of Don Christoval.
If any one had told him that a person so lovely existed on the face
of the earth he would have doubted it. The man who had so often
faced death in almost every form, now stood dumb for a moment.
What was this that came before his vision? Was he dreaming or


in a trance? Could it be possible that this was the ward his old
companion in arms had asked him to love, cherish and protect
as a father? With an extraordinary effort he collected his senses
and advanced to meet Donna Inez, and received the warm clasp
of her hand, which he raised to his lips with reverence. She saw
at once that he was greatly disturbed by something. What it was
she could not imagine. In a moment he collected his scattered
senses and remembered what had brought him back to Spain. He
placed his hand in his pocket and drew forth the package that he
had received from her foster father, through Agueybana's sister.
The moment her eyes caught sight of the superscription a glad
smile of pleasure broke over her features. She recognized the
writing of her foster father, whom she had heard from but once

since his departure.from Spain.

He had

Juan Ponce, and given her quite a history
Juan Ponce was the first to inform her of
father. She was struck dumb with grief
he had been slain by the treacherous savr
eyes so she was unable to read the large
had been sent to her by her guide, protect
Both of her parents having died when she
been left to the care and protection of he

spoken very highly of
of the veteran cavalier.
the death of her foster
when he told her that
ages; tears blinded her
package of papers that
r and more than father.
was an infant, she had
r kinsman.

When this' infant was brought to Don Christoval by a large
retinue of servants, together with the papers and instructions per-
taining to her estates, and his appointment as guardian, with the
request that he would be a kind and loving protector to their
orphan child, Don Christoval recognized at once the great respon-

sibility that had been
man. When this little
black eyes looking into
his heart went out to
dimmed. He there an
lasted he would love,
made arrangements at

placed upon him by the death of his kins-
infant was placed in his arms, with its large,
his without the least sign of terror or fear,
it in a great wave of love that time never
d then registered a vow that as long as life
guide and protect this sacred charge. He
once for the care of his little ward, retain-

ing for her a nurse and a large number of the people who had been
connected with her own household, and set about the arrangement
of her estates, so as to derive the greatest benefits for his foster
child at such time as she would need them. This little child grew
up to be one of the most beautiful maidens in Sunny Spain. Don
Christoval spared no expense to give her the best education that
it was possible to procure. He took her to his heart and cherished
her as the greatest blessing Divine Providence could have bestowed
upon him. He saw at once that he was a better man for having this
sweet-tempered companion.



The nine came, however, when he found he had other duties
incumbent upon him. His King and country required his services;
and it would be necessary to leave his foster daughter under the
care of some one else. The infant had meantime developed into a
sprightly, intelligent and healthy young lady. Her estates had been
so well managed that on arriving at her majority she would possess
one of the largest dowries in all Spain.
Don Chriqtoval was appointed Governor of Porto Rico, which
necessitated his leaving his home for a time at least. Before leaving
he transferred his own affairs, together with those of his foster
child, to his younger brother, Count of Camina, whom he knew
would give them best of care and attention. It was with reluctance
that he obeyed the command of his King to accept the Governorship
of a province in the Western Hemisphere, but his sense of duty was
too strong to allow him to disobey the orders of his sovereign. He
bade a tearful farewell to his beloved foster child, and reported at
once to the King. After receiving his instructions he started for
_his station. History will explain the result of his expedition. *
Donna Inez requested permission of Ponce de Leon to with-
draw for a time until she could control her feelings. She sent her
maid to request him to accept of her hospitality as long as he
should remain in that. part of Spain. 1 After having met his ward,
Juan Ponce was almost as completely overcome by his emotions
as the young lady had been when he informed her of the death of
her foster father. He had made no mention of the request made
of him by Don Christoval to become the guardian of his ward, nor
had his will been read; it was sealed in a separate package with a
request that it should be opened in the presence of his ward and

the Count of
tween them.
possession of
Leon retired
been in camp
aware that a

Camina, who were to share the property equally be-
It gave to Donna Inez the title of Countess and the
one of the largest properties in Spain. Ponce de
that night more agitated in mind than he had ever
or field. What a position to be placed in! He was
man like him, who had been in active service the

greater part of his life, was little fitted for such a delicate under-
taking~ The next morning he took a long walk through the forests
and,returned for breakfast, where he met Donna Inez> He re-
quested her to send for the Count of Camina as soon as convenient.
She understood at once that the Count was one of the legatees of
Don Christoval's will from the request written on the package
handed her by Ponce de Leon. She had been out for a walk when
she beheld Juan Ponce approaching with that brisk, firm stepthat
is habitual to an old campaigner. His walk had done him good.


Rie mind had become clear, especially on this matter pertaining to
the guardianship of Donna Inez.
As they approached each other he scanned her face closely.
Strong traces of the grief she had passed through during the
night was plainly shown by her careworn look. When she extended
her hand in greeting, it was clasped in his strong grasp, and with
courtly grace he raised it to his lips. It caused a thrill to shoot
through every nerve in his body; a thrill he never forgot. It was
only a short interval before the Count of Camina arrived. This was
the first intimation of his brother's death he had received. He was
greatly overcome by the sad intelligence. Juan Ponce then gave
him the letter requesting him to assume the guardianship of Donna
Inez, and stating that further information would be found in the
package of papers addressed to his brother and his ward jointly.
Juan Ponce requested that, as the papers were of grave importance
to them all, that they should invite a holy father's attendance and
others of their friends that could be found close by, and the pack-
age be opened the next morning in the presence of them alL Juan
Ponce retired; he wished to give the Count and Countess time to
confer together and to overcome the shock of the death of their
kinsman. Ponce de Leon wanted a chance to analyze his own feel-
ings; he did not understand what could disturb his mind to such a
degree; the fair hand of Donna Inez seemed to constantly appear
before his vision; what could it mean? To a man like Ponce de
Leon that had been used to hardships and dangers all his life, it
seemed very strange. After a long, brisk walk he returned to the
castle, where he found the Count and Donna Inez awaiting him.
They were anxious to hear a more complete statement concerning
the death of their only relative. After receiving refreshments, they
wended their way to the favorite arbor of Donna Inez. Seating
themselves in its cool shade, Ponce de Leon related the main inci-
dents of the life of Don Christoval from the time of his arrival in
Porto Rico until his death at the hands of the treacherous savages
There had always been the closest friendship between these two

brave men f
caused De
It was most
good night

rom their fir
.eon almost

st acquaintance. The relating of his death
as intense grief as it did his own kinsman.

sorrowful to all three. They bade each other a tearful
and retired, with the understanding that at 10 o'clock

the next morning the package sent by Don Christoval was to be
opened and read before the reverend fathers and the rest of their
friends in the vicinity.
Juan Ponce went to his'room, but could not sleep. The unrest
that attacked him upon meeting Donna Inez still disturbed him.
He could not understand his restlessness. He drank a goblet of



wine and stepped out on the veranda. Lingering there a few mo-
ments, his thoughts turned to the arbor where he had met the
Count and Donna Inez. He wandered through the grounds for a
time-instinctively he was drawn to the arbor. Parting the vines
he entered, and in the faint light of the moon saw something white
seated in one of the niches where he had last seen Donna Inez. He
moved forward to find out what it could be. To his great surprise
Donna Inez arose with alarm and stood before him; she recognized
by his voice who it was. She greeted him kindly, and mutual
explanations were exchanged as neither of them was inclined for
sleep after the exciting incidents of the day. Both wandered out
for fresh air, and both, evidently drawn by the same impulse, were
attracted to the arbor. When he clasped her extended hand the
knowledge of what had caused his disquietude and unrest for the
past few days dawned upon him. It was the great love that had
sprung up in his heart i^ wmnfor his wa
He or some time conversing with onna Inez, giving
her many of the incidents regarding Don Christoval's death and the
love that had existed between them. Soon they returned together
to the castle, when Juan Ponce retired. That night, the remem-
brance of the tradition he had heard from the Indians, especially
from the Caribs, came to his mind concerning the fountain of
youth; should he find this wonderful spring he could renew his
youth and return to Spain with a reasonable chance of winning the
love of his ward. To a man who had led a solitary life like Ponce
de Leon, the thought that he could have a beautiful wife and a
family to carry his name down to posterity was a lasting one. His
mind reverted to frequent narratives he had heard from the Indians
about the fountain of youth to the north of Cuba. If he could only
find that spring and renew his youth he could return to Spain and
win the love of his ward. Next morning he met the rest of the
household at the morning meal, after which they assembled in the
hall connected with the castle, to hear the reading of the lasnwll
and testmenLtl Christoval de ato or. After reciting
the disposition he wished to be made of his property, that was to
be divided between his ward and his brother, it .waL his special
request. ra pn. A T1a"n1ul > be 1 ardian. She arose and
came to Ponce de Leon at once, with her hand outstretched and
with tears glistening in her eyes, and begged him to accept the
charge her kind foster father had given him. He asked her to
accept a seat next to him and told her that before accepting the
great trust that had been bequeathed to him he wished to make a
statement of his condition for the special benefit of his ward as well
as for all concerned. He related his first meeting with Don Chris-


toval and the history of their lives until his death by the hand of
Agueybana; he stated minutely his career from boyhood up to that
time. He cast his fearless eyes around those assembled, then meet-

ing the glance of
sion of his mind;
after hearing the
think for one mor
young and titled
one in Spain to
Countess than to

the Countess when a strong emotion took posses-
he turned to the Count of Camina and said: "Sir,
history of my life can you or the Countess Inez
nent of asking me to become the guardian of this
lady?" The Count replied: "Sir, I know of no
whom I would rather entrust the welfare of the
your brave and generous care. With your per-

mission, we will leave it to the Countess to decide for herself."
The Countess arose and stepped to the side of Ponce de Leon and
said: "Kind sir, if you will accept the charge my loved foster
father has asked you to take, I shall be blessed indeed, knowing that
I have a guardian that I can love and respect in every way." Ponce
de Leon turned and clasped the Countess in a tender embrace, and,
imprinting a kiss upon her forehead, he replied: "I accept this
great trust, and may our Lord deal with me as I do with you." In
after years when he was beset with perils and hardships, this dec-
laration came back to his mind with strong force. He knew if the
Lord loved him with as great a love as he did his ward, his salvation

was assured beyond any question.

After settling the affairs of the

Countess to the best advantage, he asked the Count of Camina if
he 'would take care of his ward in case he should be compelled to
leave Spain again. The remembrance of the tradition he had heard
from the Indians in Porto Rico came to his mind continually with
a force he could not subdue. He well knew that he was liable to be
called on by his King to undertake some perilous voyage at any
moment. There was one expedition which he was very anxious to
make, and that was to the northwest of Hispaniola and Porto Rico.
As the business which they had been called upon to witness
had been transacted satisfactorily to all, the Countess requested
them to accompany her to the dining hall, where a repast was pre-
pared for them. Turning to Ponce de Leon, she said: "I am sure
my kind guardian will assist me in entertaining my people, for
which favor I shall feMl very grateful." He tMk her arm and con-
ducted her to te dining hall, followed by her guests, where they
were served with a bountiful repast. After the holy father had
offered prayer for their welfare, Ponce de Leon asked permission to
make a request of those assembled, which was granted: "Men of the
house of Satomayor and De Leon, the time may come when I will
be unable to be with my ward. Will you respond to her call at any
and all times, whenever asked, both for counsel, protection and
assistance Y?" They all arose and replied: "We will respond at any


time, whenever the Countess may call upon us." De Leon thanked
them in behalf of his ward. They seated themselves and proceeded
to partake of the repast that had been provided by the Countess.
After the banquet was over they gathered around the Countess and
asked permission to retire, as the duties for which they had been
called had been performed. She kindly dismissed them with sub-
stantial tokens of her regard for them. She went to the library,
where she found Ponce de Leon and the Count in earnest conversa-
tion. De Leon welcomed her and requested her to be seated, and
said: "MV dear ladv vnn hnvo nnmn hora .4 on nnnrnpnn mmnn


for me to explain the situation in which I am place
arrive 1 at your castle, and especially since the will of
has bfen read to you, with his request that I should
guar ian; within the last few hours, in fact, I have
unsuited I am for the position which I have accepted,
I ath totally unqualified. If you will look back to
my life, which I recited to you and the Count, you
unfitted I am to have the guidance and control of a
yank and station. Until I came here I never thought

id. Since my
your kinsman
I become your
realized how
and for which
the history of
will see how
lady of your
for a moment

that 1 could care for a home life. Understand, I have been most
/ of my life in the service of my King and country, where I have
/ had more hardship than pleasure; here the thoughts of a home
/ entered my mind for the first time. While stationed in Porto Rico
I frequently met some of the chiefs of the Caribs, who told me of
a wonderful spring of pure water that existed in a country to the
northward of theirs, whose marvelous virtue when drunk and
bathed in would restore health and youth to all who could use its
salutary water. Dearest Inez, if this spring exists I will find it, or
lose my life in the attempt."
"Dear sir, you have done enough for your country. For the
present remain here and do something for your people and mine.
t They need the care and guidance of a firm and intelligent man.
Give up this idea of searching for this fabulous fountain, the exist-
\ ence of which rests on the report of the wild savages of the Western
"My dear Countess, what can I say? My mind is in a chaos.
S\Permit me to retire until morning, by which time I hope to unravel
this great problem placed before me." Bidding each other good-
night, they retired to their respective rooms. Ponce de leon could
ot think calmly over his situation, so he started out for a walk in
he open air. After a half hours rapid walk, be returned to his
oom. The great bodily exertion had cleared his mind. He took a
ong pull at the brandy flask and turned his attention to the situa-
tion in which he was placed, and to determine what he should do.

--J ----- ----- ,- rv* J*u T ^ 1V*AA AJr ft L


was a difficult problem which faced hix
questions to solve. What was he to do about t
younger n with his
that he was madly in love. How could he. ii
marry him? Did she care for him? Could
under the conditions that existed at the time ?
honorable in him as her guardian, and an injus
Then the great, strong love of his heart came
should he do ? His thought returned to the trad

m. There were two
Syon~ flhy mh

surprise, he
Shonor ask
he seek her
No, it would
tice to the Co
before him.
ition of the Ii

He came to the conclusion that he would go to Hispaniola

her o
r hand
be dis-
and fit

out an expedition for the exploration of the northwest country;

the position he
of Porto Rico.
Rico, and went
with great att
strengthen his r
of that wonder
account from ti
of its rejuvenat

had canvassed very carefully while he was Governor
He examined the notes he had made while in Porto
over them with great care. He considered them
mention in all their bearings. It only served to
solutionn to fit out an expedition for the exploration
ful country of which he had received such a varied
ie Indians. Could he find this fountain and drink
ing waters, he could return to Spain and claim for

his bride one of the fairest and noblest in all the land. The reward
was too great to demand much deliberation from a man of Ponce de
Leon's intrepid character. The chance of finding this fountain was
too great to be relinquished. He acquainted the Count of Camina
with his design and requested him to look after the affairs of the
Countess during his absence, and also after his own, which were of
great importance. He hardly knew how much wealth he had accu-
mulated until he looked over his papers to arrange for the disposal
of his property in the event of his failing to return.
After setting aside the amount that he deemed would be re-
quired for the expedition and for the purchase of additional vessels,
equipment, and stores to maintain them in service for a long time,
he found a balance remaining which gave him infinite satisfaction.
He could leave a sum to his ward that more than equalled her own.
This thought gave him great pleasure. The thought that if he
failed in his venture and should never return, the Countess would
see by the date of his will that his last moments in Spain were de-
voted to her welfare.
It was near morning when Ponce de Leon finished his labor.
He was weary, and cast himself upon a conch and slept as men
can only sleep who are used to the camp and bivouac. At 8 o'clock
he awoke with a bright and clear conception of what he had done
during the preceding night and of what he was to do that morning.
He looked over his papers carefully and corrected whatever errors
he found in them. The strain on his mind and body had been a


heavy one; the page brought him a cup of' coffee and some bread;
his candle was still burning; he took a bottle of brandy and turned
a generous quantity ipto the cup and burned it down to the quan-
tity that he wished, turned it into the coffee and drank it, a tonic
he had found in his long experience in the field to have the best
effects to restore v'gor and vitality after a long vigil or exposure.
He then went down to breakfast.
He found the Countess seated at the board. She greeted him
with a warmth that pleased him very much, and seated him at her
right, the place of honor. The Count and the rest of the members
of the household assembled around the board and the meal was
soon dispatched. The Countes requested Ponce de Leon and the
Count of Camina to meet her in the hall at 11 o'clock, to which they

assentnc The Count went to
later and Juan Ponce started out for a
found to have a soothing influence upon
turbed. They arrived in the hall nea
Juan Ponce saluted the Co:.ntess with
When they were all assembled, Pon
ion he had arrived at during the nigh
circumstances that had connected him

Satomavor, and of the new
Since his arrival in Spain i
had seen since his boyhood.

t was the fi
He asked 1

his room a few moments
walk, which he had always
his nIind when greatly dis-
rly at the same time, and
great respect and devotion.
ce de Leon stated the decis-
t. He recited the peculiar
with the noble family of
that had enereC his heart.
rst glimpse of home life he
the Count to take charge of

the affairs of his kinswoman, as well as his own, during his absence.
In the event of his not returning, he was to be administrator for the
two estates.
"The papers pertaining to the Countess will be left open; she
can have access to them at any time. Also a part of my own papers.
The remainder, when completed, will be sealed until my return or
until my death. Dear sir, will you accept this great trust I request
of you ?'
The Count replied: "I will, and may the Lord guide me in
carrying out your wishes, both as to my kinswoman and to your-
Ponce de Leon turned to the Countess with a courtly bow.
"Noble lady, I trust you will never have cause to regret the kindness
you have bestowed upon a wanderer. If fate so wills, I shall return
to you in a position to ask a great favor of you, which I cannot ask
at the present time. I hope you will grant it, if your heart so
wills, as freely and earnestly as I ask it. Trust me, dear lady;
it will be the mainspring of my existence to return to Spain and
to you with a name that you will be proud of. If not, I will leave
my bones to bleach in a western wilderness."


"Dear sir, let me dissuade you from this undertaking. You
have had more than your share of the hardships of this life. Re-
main here with us. We will try to compensate you for what you
have been denied in your former life."
"No, dear lady" said Juan Pnne, "T rnno"oin The
prize is too great for me to forego the c i ve
communicated with the Kin abo rion
known country. He r est me to
instfiiitons an orrs. f i lf a few days.
I shall go with it. y fleet will refit at the port of St. German,
Por4o6 ico. My people that remain here will be at your command
for any service you may require of them. I will leave full instruc-
tions with the Count for your care and the care of my affairs. Any
advice you may desire will be willingly given you by him. Dear
Inez, believe me, I have not been unmindful of your interests and
welfare. I trust you will be thankful for it some day. With your
permission I will retire and arrange my affairs for my departure.
I will be at your service as soon as they are completed."
"Retire, noble sir, and examine this matter with care and dis-
cretion, and may the Lord guide you in your decision."
Ponce de Leon retired and went over his papers carefully, mak-
ing the necessary corrections and alterations. About 2 o'clock in
the morning a courier arrived at the castle with a dispatch from
the King, ordering him to report to him at once. He wrote a note
to the Countess, explaining the cause of his departure, and that he
would return as soon as the business for which he was called was
transacted. He started at once for Valladolid, where the King was
holding court at that time. Upon his arrival he reported to the
King. Together they went over the plans of his expedition care-
fully. He gave him the history of the reports he had received from
the different tribes of Indians in the West, and an especial account
of the report he had received from the Caribs. The King gave

him the necessary instructions,
would be borne by the crown.
struction in this matter. I hav
You will have to rely on your
great extent. Send me a full



have an
Ponce de
; also the
a limited
and sleep


and stated what part of the expense
"Sir, I can give you but little in-
e full confidence in your experience.
own judgment and discretion, to a
report of your progress whenever

May you be successful is the wish of

Leon received his final order and letters
date of the departure of the fleet. He fo
time to make his final preparations; he
. He went to a quiet hostelry, where
a long, refreshing slumber, he awoke. n

of instruc-
und he had
also needed
he obtained
iuch invig-


orated. After partaking of a hearty repast, he mounted his horse
and started back to Castle Satomayor.
He arrived on the second day. The Countess had evidently
been looking for him. She advanced to meet him before he dis-
mounted. She was very anxious to know the result of his mission.
He gave the Count and Countess a full description of the route he
proposed to take, the number of vessels and men that were to com-
pose the expedition, and the amount of assistance to be furnished
by the government.
"Dear Lady: Will you meet me in the arbor this evening? I
have some important information to impart to you that I wish no
one else to hear."
"I will with pleasure."
Ponce de Leon retired to his room and completed his papers,
giving full instructions to the Count for the care and disposal of his
property in case he should fail to realize his expectations in his
undertaking. He came to the conclusion that he ought to inform
the Countess just what aspirations had entered into his mind since
his arrival in Spain, and of the great love for her that had sprung
into his heart. His great expectation was in the discovery of the
fountain f south. e savages were a iar peop e in eir tra-
ditions, an it would not be transmitted throughout the whole
country without strong foundation. It would be the greatest effort
of his life to find it.
In the evening he met the Countess in the arbor, as appointed
by them.
"Dear Countess, to-morrow I shall leave you. I have settled
your business the best I could for your benefit and have left instruc-
tions for your welfare. Dear Inez, since I came here I hve cleared
that I love you with all my heart; with a love that cannotbe.gsti-
mated except by yourself; you are the mainspring which willl vern
my actions in this undertaking. If I am successful can I return to
Spain and win your love and claim your hand ?"
"My love you have had from our first meeting; my hand you
can have whenever you wish it, Give me the right to accompany
you. I trust you will never regret having the care and advice of a
true and loving wife to assist you in this expedition. I will give you
the assistance that a true woman's love can give. Think this mat-
ter over carefully before you make your decision."
Ponce de Leon clasped the Countess in his arms and pressed a
kiss upon her lips.
"Dearest Inez, you will never know what a terrible pang it
gives me to part with you. Sometime hence you may know. Re-


member it is with the intent of a great benefit to us. Will you trust
me fully in this undertaking?"
"Yes," said the Countess, "and may our Heavenly Father
prosper your undertaking. If you return you will find Inez,
Countess de Satomayor, with the same true love for you which now
possesses her heart. Make this our expedition, not yours alone. It
is for the benefit of our King and country and more especially for
ourselves. I must not detain you longer. You must have a plenty
to do to arrange your business for your departure. Meet me in the
garden where we can give our last adios with no other to witness
"Adios! my dearest Inez; may God in His infinite mercy bless
and protect you."
Ponce de Leon went to the Count's room and gave him his
papers and instructions as to what he wished him to do.
"Count, I leave to your care all that I have in this worln ex-
cept wefI t wi me. n the eventof my eat oare m sole
executgr. I have no orgoten the kin ness you ve shown me!
it-will not be unrewarded; the love and respect of Juan Ponce de
Leon will always be yours. Adios !"
Juan Ponce returned to his room and. retired. He had a
refreshing sleep, which was of great benefit to a man in his condi-
tion. He took an early and substantial repast. He repaired to the
garden, where he found the Countess waiting to receive him. She
again renewed her entreaties to him to abandon his expedition.
"For our welfare, for the love that you are assured of, stay here.
Our interests are one, do not leave me alone, my heart has gone out
to you; let me show you with how great a love. I will prove to you
that Inez, Countess de Satomayor is worthy of the cavalier she has
bestowed her love upon."
"Dear Inez, when I leave you, it will be for our benefit. It is
the great love I bear you that bids me go. What greater devotion
to you can I show than by carrying out this exploration contem-
plated in this expedition? If I return to you successful, it will be
with an honor that no other man has ever achieved. With the ex-
perience of age and with the vigor of youth, dearest Inez, is not this
a result that we should work for? Bid me God speed and pray for
our success.
"Go, and may the blessing bf our Lord attend and protect you
in danger, in sickness and health, and return you to me, to guide
and comfort me in years to come. Go, then, if you so will it, and the
prayers of Inez de Satomayor shall accompany you, both for your
success and for your safe return to me. Accept this kiss and with it


the true love of my heart. May the good Lord bring you back to
me. So you return I will be thankfuL God bless and protect you
is the wish of Inez. Adios !"


P ONCE DE LEON started for the port the fleet was to sail from.
On arriving he found a large number of his followers ready
and anxious to accompany him. He made the necessary
arrangements and set sail the next morning. They made a very
quick voyae Pad A y atination without delay.
He fitted out his fleet for the exploration of the country to the
northward of that colony. On the 3d of March, 1512, Ponce de
Leon sailed from Porto Rico with three ships. Keeping a north-
ward course, he fell in with the Bahama group of islands. He was
favored with good weather and fair wind. On the 14th of the
th hIkew9.;"_ = in.anaon nr Q.Salv;dor where Col mbus
first put his f(ot hreof the New World.
After making diligent sarc for the fountain described by the
Caribbees, he failed to finit, but was mn y disO .
After some aigt repaso is fleee put to sea. On the 27th of
March he came in sight of land, but could not reach the shore on
account of the heavy sea. The whole country was covered with
flowers, from which circumstance, as well as having discovered it
on Palm Sunday, he gave it the name of Pascu Floridathe Indian
name was Cautio.
Ponce de Leon landed and took possession of the country for
his king. He extended his exploration to a great distance, eXm-
ining every spzing antirtum a fa,,,talnf yofth which was
the great object of his search. Disheartened b the erils whi ad
beset him, e gave up the uestto Captn Pe deOtrnbia
and sailed back to Porto Ri.. f he a not found the fountain of
youth he had discovered a new country, which would always be an
honor to his name. He returned to Spain and rep ort the res.it
of his expedition to th.iKing, who received him with great favor,
daida with au
thority to recruit men in Spain or the colonies for a settlement in
Florida. It took him some time to perfect his plans.
MThe Caribb es made several attacks on the island, taking ny
priwnr whn Iillnjl nad devom ut So frequent were
these attacks that the Spanardsfeared they would have to abandon
the islands. Whenever once de Leon found time he visited his


rd. She used every persuasion in h pr dssuade b n
dejtAng arthr oYpi.rtin.Q "You have done your share of
work for our King and country, do something for me; remain here
with us; we need your care and protection. Will not the love that
I have given you dissuade you from attempting another expedition?
You have already expended a large amount of money for your
former expeditions. Stay here with me; I will try to compensate
ou for all you will lose in such a dangerous undertaking. Here on
y bended knees I beseech you not to leave me again."
Ponce de Leon replied: "Dear one, it is the great love that I
bear for you that compels me to accept the mmn hi ex i-
tio, wic has n specay requested of me by the King. There
Have been three ships fitted out, well armed and manned to chastise
and subdue th imo I know more about them than any one in
Spain. The King relies upon my knowledge and experience to sub-
due and stop their depredations. Can I refuse his request? When

I have complied with this ordei
service. I will not leave you
andbo the welfare of our people
time I will leave Spain.
"Dear Inez, this fountain
one of my highest aspirations
a youth in strength and vigor,
that no other man possesses.
should both seek for?
"The King has fitted out t
mand it. Can I refuse to accept
last one to request it; let me (
not. It is my duty to my King

r I will ask to be retired from artivp
gain- I will devote my time to you
e. This I plAdge you will bp the lIt

of youth I am confident exists, it is
to find it. Can I but return to you
with the knowledge and experience
Dear heart, is not this a prize we

his armada and assigned me to com.
t it? No, dear Inez, you will be the
obey this order, whether I return or
,and more especially to you, whom I

love and honor above all -else in this world. Bid me God-speed
with your prayer daily at sunrise. I can turn to the East at that
moment and know that there is one loving heart praying for our
welfare and for my safe return. The King is aware of my expe.
rience in Indian warfare, and has requested me to subdue the Car-
ribbees and also the Indians in Florida. Then I am to return to
Porto Rico and superintend the repartimientos or distribution of
the Indians, and the government of that island, assisted by a com-
mission appointed by Don Diego Columbus. Dear Inez, this is a
duty which I am thoroughly conversant with. I know the Indians
and their habits and mode of warfare. Who in Spain to-day is more
fitted to take command of this undertaking than myself? Our
King requests it; I will not refuse.
"Adios, dear one; may the blessing of our Lord be with you
forever. One more kiss, and now adios."


P ONCE D LEON sailed in Jana5 115, directing his course
for e Caribbees country, with the intention of subduig. all
the Indians of that tribe. -riving at one of theisands, he
cast anhor- and mae a deril of men to go on shore to get wood
and water, and women to wash clothing for the command, with a
detachment of troops for their protection. The officer in charge of
the party was evidently careless, and allowed his people to scatter.
The Indians were ambushed, waiting for a favorable opportunity
for an attack, when they were dispersed in a manner, so that it was
impossible to concentrate to repel them. They rushed forth from
their concealment and killed most of the men and captured the
women and carried mem to tme mountains.'
This was a very"heay blow to Ponce de Leon, and depressed
him very much. He returned to Porto Rico and relinquished any
further attempt to punish or subdue the Caribbees. His hesath
having b me vey much im ared by- overwork andexposure, he
gave the command o t e eet to CaptaiZuniga He remained
in Porto Rico some time.
Hearing of the T'rllfnt exploits of Cortez, he came to the con-
clusion that Florida was a field which would equal and eclipse any
of the previous discoveries heretofore made, even to the famed con-
quest of Mexico.

IN 1521 Ponce de Leon fitted out two ships and embarked on his
last voyage of discovery and exploration. He had found that
the land he had discovered was main land instead of an island,
as he had previously supposed. His voyage was tempestuous, but he
arrived safely. He landed with a strong detachment of troops and
explored the country for some distance. They were atta a
large party of Indians and riven -anr Pisi
Ponce de Leon formed n made determined pon
them, which broke their attack .
men a con
femoral artery. He was carried on board s hip rdeeAt
t6 return fo Cuiajhe arrow had bn broken in the bone and the
surgeon as unable to extract it. Soon after arrving inb


died and was buried with gret milit'y honors. He left a pack-
age o papers wit is senior captain directed to Countess de Sato-
mayor, and one directed to the Count Caminma, whom he had ap-
pointed his executor, both of his own and the Countess' estates.
In the ackage sent t the Countess he gve full instructions
as to hi ses in regardto his own ropert wcwas to be en
to the Countess entire, except a few legacies that were given to his
faithful survivors an a large one to the count. Thus ended the
career of one of Spain's most gallant and faithful cavaliers.
The following epitaph was inscribed upon his tomb:
"In this sepulchre rests the bones of a man who was a lion by
namw and still more by nature."
The Countess mourned the death of her ga11ant le far -
erleas. She never forgot the remark made y him at their part-
ing, that he would find the founain of youth or leave his bones to
bleach in a Western wilderness.
Some year aftr 1 th nntm met with one f
Spain's best and mr rated noblemen, who gained
to w mo sh s happily marri
The fountain of youth was the chief object of Ponce de Leon's
explorations in this country. It is too evident for comment. That
a tale so fabulous should gain credit among simple, uninstracted
Indians is not surprising; that it should make an impression upon
an enlightened people appears in'the present age altogether incredi-
ble. The fact, howevoJy,.i't b; an4 the most authentic Spanish

tryman. .*.0 *.0 *. *
(ajir'firms in his address to the i'.Tyhat among the
islans'*2r. the north.iide.of*.Hhtpqnla thefte'is' ppe about 325
leag distant inlwliitir.ba. 't running wt fet of such mar-
eq virtue that ie*w 'thereo emg drunk, peifta with some
diet, maketh, tho' old, young again; and here I must protest to your
Holiness not to think this be said lightly or rashly, for they have
so spread this rumor for a truth through all the court, that not only
all the people, but many of those whom wisdom and fortune have
divided from the common lot, think it to be true."
We must remember the Spaniards at that time were engaged
in a career of activity which gave a romantic turn to their imagina-
tion, and daily presented to them strong and marvelous objets.
A new world was opened to their view; they visited islands and con-
tinents of whose existence mankind in former years had no concep-
tion. In this delightful country nature seemed to assume another
form. Every tree, piait and animal was different from those of


the ancient hemisphere; they seemed to be transplanted into en-
chanted ground. After the wonders which they had seen, nothing
in the warmth and novelty of their admiration appeared to them
so extraordinary as to be beyond belief. If the rapid succession of
new and striking scenes could make such an impression, even upon
the sound understanding of Columbus, that he boasted of having
found the seat of paradise, will it appear strange that Ponce de
Leon should dream of discovering the fountain of youth?


ON the 12th day of April, 1528, Panfilo Narvaez sailed from St.
Jago de Cuba with four hundred men and forty horses. Land-
ing near Charlotte Harbor, he took possession of the country
in the name of the King of Spain, and promulgated in the Spanish
language to the inhabitants of the country in the name of the King
of Spain this proclamation:
"I, Panfilo de Narvaez, cause to be known to you how
God created the world and charged St. Peter to be the sov-
ereign of all men, in whatever country they might be born.
God gave him the whole world for his inheritance. One of
his successors made it a gift to the King and Queen of Spain; so
that the Indians are their sjbject.'.,**Y(.wil be compelled to ac-
cept Christianity. If a wu fue A.d el b tg gto what I have
proposed to you, I jfi. Ia-ch'against you; I' liH ak. war upon
you from all sida.f fi!f subject you to obedience to'tbb"dirch and
His Majesty; J, I obtain osepsion ot.yuan wives and~'i* dren;
I will reduce eJfrto slavery. .4 Otfy.i y aj neither Hiila. sty
nor myselfinot the gentlemen w'6'o'acdondhpffl e, will be th4 causee
of this, but yourselves only."
While resting at a village near Tamp, Narvaez was shown some
wooden burial cases containing the remains of chiefs, and orna-
mented with deer skins elaborately painted d adorned witf sprig
f goid. warning tha the gold came from fart er no at a
ple wicalled Apalachee, Narvaez immediately ordered his men to
ac thither. With more judgment or prophetic wisdom his
treasurerTL'baca de Vaca, endeavored in vain to dissuade him.
Having distributed a small quantity of biscuit and pork as rations,
he set out on the first of May with three hundred men and forty
horses. They marched through a desolate country, crossing one
large river, encountering only one settlement of Indians, until the


17th of June, when they fell in with a settlement where they were
well received and supplied with corn and venison. The Spaniards,
learning that this ribe were enemies of the palachians, exchanged
presents, and obtained guides to direct them to the Apalachian .set-
tlement. This they reached on the 25th, after a fatiguing march
through swamps and marshes, and at once attacked the inhabitants
without a word of warning, and put them all to the sword. The
town consisted of comfortable houses, well stocked with corn, skins
and garments made from bark cloth.
Not finding the wealth he had expected, and being subject to
the repeated attacks of thJ Indians, Narvaez, after a month's e--
atgApalachee, diide lis comiimand into three companies, and or-
dered them to scour the country. The companies returned after
an unrna finl sa ch for gold and fol The Spaniards continued
their march toward the north and west, carrying with them, in
chains, the Tndinn chiefs captu at Afpachee. TinS plan of
securing the chiefs of an Indian nation or tried and forcing them
to march with the troops as guides and hostages, seems to have
been adopted by each of the Spanish commanders, and always with
disastrous results. The sight of an Indian chief in chains aroused
a feeling of outraged friendship wherever they passed, and gave a
premonition of the servile fate that would be assigned to their race
whenever the Spaniards obtained dominion. These captives urged
on the Indians to harass and persistently follow up the marching
army, even influencing tribes that were inimical to themselves.
The ma~ h.of Narvaez through the western part of Florida
continued until fall, with an unvarying succession of attacks and
skirmishes at every halt, and often pitched battles it the towns that
lay in his path. Little progress was made on their journey, owing.
to the uncertainty of their course, the unproductive and difficult
nature of the country, and the unremitting attacks and obstacles
opposed by the wily Indians, who were ever on the watch to pick
off man or beast, and to prevent the collection of supplies.
Disheartened at the continued losses sustained by his army, and
despairing of ever reaching by land the Sp-'1 $nwt in Mex-
ico, Narvaez having reached the bank of a large river, determine o
follow it to its mouth and take to the sea. Slowl the moved down
the river, and arrived t its mouth in a sadly distressed conditon.
Despair lent them an energy that was fanne- oa burning zeal by
the hopes of being able to reach their friends and salvation on the
shore of the same water before their /iew. A smith in their party
declared that he could build for and h bellows made ot hides
iifhTte charcoal they could supply abundantly, he cou fr from


hi, _.=_ =:,rl __ : _Lt ,,- n o Ir n;ll-.g a boat.
Diligently they worked, incited by the memories of all their hard-
ships and perils, and the joyous hope of safe delivery. Such was
their energy nnA detrminninn that in nit wppka they instructed
frIm the material sit hand five boats, cap bln of holding fifty
minoeau. For cordage they twisted ropes from the manes and
tails of their horses, together with the fibre of plants. Their sails
were made from their clothing, and from the hides of their horses
they made sacks to hold water. With these frail and clumsily-
constructed crafts, open boats loaded almost to the water's edge,
without a navigator in the party, or provisions for a week, thil.
little army o e n n set out on the oen Narvaez com-
manding one boat; the others were under the command of his cap-
tains, one of whom, Cabaca de Vaca, has preserved to us the ac-
count of this fatal expediton
De Vaca gives a long account of their voyage, and the hard-
ships and mitfoit underwent until theywere all ship-
wrecked. Out of two hundred anforty who iarted on t-e return
only fifteen were eafe. aivaaez himself was blown offfronm-hore
while almost alone in his boat, and never again heard of. Only
four are Ena n.ceil have been saved, Cabaca de Vaca, the
treasurer of the .iti;nj Capta;n Alnni- Caflo Captain Andrew.
Oran_ --t re,.... van ic. _
Cabaca de Vaca and his companions for nearly six years pur-
sued their journey among the Indians. During all this long period
they never abandoned their hope and desire of reaching Mexico.
Finally, after many strange adventures, de Vaca arrived athe
spai aetdlemn ent Mexi, aand wi y v;l hme
Wi-R V ireatst consideration and rejoicing.
Having nbee over to pain, he presented to the crown a
narrative of the unfortunate expedition of Narvaez, representing
that theo untry contained great wealth that he alone was able to
secure, and beggfg that hRe made Governor. In this he was dis-
appointed, however, but placated by the government of LaPlatte, in
South America.
The narrative of De Vaca has been received by historians and
antiquarians as in the main veracious, though describing some
wonderful customs and peoples, it is the earliest account of Florida
which we possess, having been published in 1555, and is of inestima-
ble value.



MISLED by the fabulous stories told of the wealth of Florida,
and by the still more deceptive account of De Vaca, and
having before their eyes continually the immense treasures
actually secured in Peru and Mexico, the Spaniards were satisfied
that it only needed a force sufficiently large and ably commanded to
secure to the conquerors even greater treasures in their northern
possessions. They were, moreover, convinced that the Indian tribes
would not defend, with such persistent valor and great sacrifice, a
worthless country, when the incalculable wealth of the Aztec had
been so feebly defended.
At this favorable moment there appeared at court a man who
was acknowledged to be eminently qualified to inspire confidence
in any undertaking he might enter upon. No knight stood higher
in the esteem of his sovereign or en o ed eatery
the cava iers an ernand de Soto. Born of a g family in
the north par o pain, he had early entered the service of
D'Avalas, the Governor of the West Indies, by whom he was put in
command of a detachment sent to Peru to reinforce Pizarro. Here
he exhibited a remarkable capacity and soon rose to be second in
command. Having gained a valuable experience and a splendid
reputation in the conquest of Peru, he was induced by Pizarro to
seek pleasure or glory in another field, lest his own achievements
should be rivaled by those of his lieutenant. _I million and a half
dollars was the sum which he received on relinquishing the field.
1s, n, ly fe M e WO.'Dnew t~lt s'ma ll porton ol le
exorbitant ransom paid by the captured Incas.
Returning to Spain, his wealth and achievements im to have
excited genuine admiration, rather than envy, and he at once
came- the favorite of the court. His martial spirit cray
ltures, an he could not n con thco
life. He therefore petitioned the King to be allowed to fit out an
expeditionn to occupy and settle the Spanish northern possessions.
The country at that time designated as Florida extending from
the Chesapeake Bay to Mexico, and, as was thought, embraced the
richest portion of the world, full of all good things. De Soto's
request having been granted, he was at once commissioned Adelan-
tado and Marquis of Florida. A eet of seven ships and three cut-
ters was at once purchased, armed and uip ,
ani, as it was De Soto's intetn to colonize te
attention was given to provide a supply o such seeds as were desir-


able to introduce. It is possible that some of the seeds scattered by
the followers of De Soto may to-day be reproducing themselves in
The origin of the wild horses in America has also been assigned
to the Spanish introduction at that time. So great was the desire
to accompany De Soto and so c rtiin ae, *ho Tim recompense
0o1ah ajri honor to be achieved under- such~.alJader,7tat the
compemet thousand men was recruited with ease; of this
ntmbef moreian tree hundred ere enlemen o5 rank-knights
and hidalgoes of the best blood of Spain who lavished their
means in the purchase of arms and equipment, thinking that with
these they would procure wealth in plenty. With this brilliant
cop th twele Usts to minister to the spiritual welfare of
te Spaniards or Indians or bth.
Leaving Spain in the Spring, the fleet proceeded as far as Cuba,
where it was delayed awhile in completing arrangements. Here
De Soto married the lady Isabella a sister of the famn1 Bnvadila.
The enjoyment of the society of his new wife, however, could not
detain him from pursuit of honor. In May, 1539, he left Cuba,
and landed in Florida on Whit Sunday in the same month. The
bay in which they landed, now called Tampa Bay, was named by
them "Espiritu Santo," in honor of the day on which they arrived.
A detailed account of the march of De Soto would be too long for a
work like this. Soon after beginning the march northward the
advance guard of the Spaniard fell in with a body of Indians, who
advanced, apparently, to oppose them. The S anish caain,
thinking it was an crulte nrdred a charge, when really to their
sur eyeard the Spaih tonue in a ne o aica
not oi mi one of their own countrymen. The s.paker proved t
..h ize Tz before mention Having acquired a knowl-
edge o the Inians and their language, he was a great acquisition
to the command, although unable, from restricted confinement, to
give satisfactory reply to the first question asked him by his country-
man, "Where is there any gold to be found ?" By the advice of
Ortiz, or from motives of policy, De Soto pursued a pacific policy
at first, and met with friendly treatment and generous supplies of
provisions at the various Indian towns. The Indians at that time
seemed to have paid considerable attention to agriculture, and to
have lived in towns that were rudely fortified, and built with very
considerable dwelling houses and barns. Some of the houses of
the chiefs are described as more than an hundred feet long, contain-
ing many rooms and set upon artificial mounds. They were built
of palings sometimes plastered with clay and covered with thatch.


At nearly every town the Spaniards found provisions stored, con-
sis lg of walnuts drd est nd corn es
-1 g1of walnu g a beaus.
growing vegetables, among which are mentioned beets. Some of
thl-eT-io mi t"IWve been very large, as many as six thousand inhab-
itants dwelling in and around several mentioned. At one town
called Mabilla the baggage and valuables of the Spaniards were
carried within the palisades by the Indians forced to transport
them. Then an attack was made upon the town and twenty-five
hundred of the savages were slain. The chief and a company of
natives to transport the baggage were seized at every town, unless
packmen were voluntarily secured. After marching a sho
tance awa from their home th w pn w a ed their
domibut the meny w aan a h
Arriving a another town, these bonds n wer A
captives taken o in urn, exchanged further on. In this man-
ner da ie Soto march through what is Florida, thence in a north-
erly direction through Georgia into South Carolina, thence back to
the vicinity of Pensacola.
While in South Carolina De Soto fell in with an intelligent
race of Indians, whose sovereign was a woman. Here he secured a
lar ~eof pearls, nearly three hundred pounds. some of which
were said to h worth their weight ino These, however, were
all lost, together with the other valuables and baggage, in the burn-
ing of the town of Mabilla.
Trusting to the disingenuous tales of the Indians, and ever
led on by his overweening faith in the xtnc of vast stores of
gold, De Soto had marched on and ever further on until, consuming
a year's time he had made a complete circuit of the country, and
found himself empty-handed within six days' march of Pensacola,
then called Ochus. Here he had ordered his lieutenant, Maldo-
nado, to await his arrival with the ships he had sent back to Cuba
for a supply of provisions and mining tools.
De Soto at this time exhibited that masterly force of character
which had secured his former success and his great influence. Un-
willing to endure the disgrace that would attach to an unsuccessful
issue of the expedition-a disaster which, with the unfortunate
results of former expeditions, he feared would preclude any further
attempts to settle the Spanish domains in Florida-he resolved to
nPpnl frnnm is followers their location and the newness of the
fleet, lest being diahearned by their want of success and worse
than uncertain pros h future te would refuseto n-
tinue on, an4 tIlg poe session of the ip, set sail f
dies. He therefore forba e -rtizTo mentio to the troops the


arrival of Maldonado which had been learned from the Indians.
Recruiting his men and horses by a short rest, he marched on again
into the unknown wilderness, and turned his back upon home,
friends, and all that makes life worth living. Still searching for
gold, he marched from region to region, ever meeting and overcom-
ing difficulties and opposition, and yet unsuccessful. Hepro-
cw *M .d river, then, turning west, crossed
the Mi*ciamf -t"- .QTe r:71er.,i11t1at regin -he
Saniards wintered, and in the spring De Soto retraced his steps
to the Mississippi, having determined to reach the mouth of that
river, from whence he could send to Mexico and Cuba for further
supplies. The disappointment and mortification which his gallant
nature had so long opposed was eating like a cancer into his heart,
and, unsustained by a hope which in other circumstances would
have thrown off disease hiabod t ast veay to ati and
malaria, and he began to sink under a waginfever. Deep despond-
ency settled down upon him as he thought of home, his young wife
and all the comforts and prospects he had put so far from his
reach. Calling his followers about him, he thanked them for their
courage and devotion, and besought them to accept of his appoint-
ment of a successor to lead them afterhis death, which he assured
them was near at hand. His followers tried to afford him the reg-
ulation comfort usual at such times, depicting this life as so full
of misery that he was most happy who was soonest relieved of its
burdens. They finally received from him the appointment oUlus
Moscoza as their captain.
Shortly after, on the 21st day of May, 1542, died that chival-
rous knight, Don Hernand d Governor of-u ba and Ade-
lantade of Floiida, far from his native land, in the wil erness on
the bank of the great Father of Waters, whose vast and turbid flow
ever recalls his great name and deeds, and whose discovery has
proved his most enduring remembrance.
Desirous of impressing the Indians with the supernatural
origin of De Soto, his followers declared that his father, the Son
of God, had taken him to Himself, and lest their deception should
be manifest by the sight of his dead body, the corpse was placed in
a canoe, and in the night consigned to the waters of the mighty
Immediately after the death of De Soto the Spaniards ban
to b u ovisions n re ara on or their log
voye hey contud thus emp oyed until the annual ffoids had
subsided, when they descended to the Gulf. Though continuously
receiving attacks from the Indians, they at last reached the Spanish
1-m -, -


settlefp-1" 1^ in eM0* Here tey.w W receixMwith
joy ad every kindnessproffered them. Three hund stand ete
mn kneeled before the altar giving to o or their de-
liverance from those distresses and perils which had swept away
more than two-thirds of the gallant army that four ars
_an-ed lonl a- army that had overrun a co cont
thousands o rave inhabitants, subsisted for more than three years
on the country through which it passed, ever maintained the unity
of its command and devotion to its valorous leader while he lived
and executed his wishes after his death.


HE settlement of Florida originated in the religious troubles
experienced by the Huguenots under Charles the Ninth of
France. Admiral Coligny, as early as 1555, projected colonies
in America, and sent an expedition to Brazil, which proved unsuc-
cessful. Having procured permission from Charles the Ninth to
found a colony in Florida, a designation which embraced in a
rather indefinite manner t ie a country from the Chesaake
to the Tortugas, he sent an expeL rom range under
the command o ean composed of many oun men of
good families. The little Huguenot fleet touched first the ar r
of St. Augustine, in Florida. Making their way along the coast
they discovered Port Royal They were charmed with the beauty
of the scene, and chose is spot for their future home, and built
a small ot which the named Carolina, in honor o e .
Leaving a small garrison to de en t, Ri t wen ack to France
with the ships for reinforcements. Civil war was then raging in
France, and Coligny was almost powerless, but not discouraged.
During a lull in the tempest of civil commotion another expedition
was sent to America, under the command of Rene de Laudonniere,
and made its first landing athe-river of lolphins, being The pres-
ent harbor of St. Augustine. Laudonniere had accompanied Ribault
on his first voyage. They arrived in July, 1564, pitched their
tents on the banks of the St. Johns, and built Fort Carolina.
There was great dissoluteness among these immigrants; some of
them turned pirates and depredated extensively upon the Spanish
property in the West Indies. The reminded r- diontented,

immigrants and anpppia



W HEN the Sp sh monarch heard of the settlement of ch
Protestants within his claimed territory, and of the piracies
of sodne of the immigrants, he ado ted measures for their
eulsion and pnnhment. Don Peo MAi. a
brave military chief, was appointed by his King the hereditary
Governor of the Floridas, on the condition that he should eel the
rneh from the soil, conquer the natives and plant a c y there.
In 1562 the site where St. Augustine now stands was an extensive
village of the Selove Indians. Menendez arrived on the 6th of
September, with a strong, armed force, and landed his troops in the
harbor, giving it the name of St. Astine of
aving coi of the c f Florida on the anniverar of
saint of tA"t p-*, g A.t. 1565 Here e found three of
his sps already debarking their troops, guns and stores. Two of
his officers, Patano and Vincente, had taken possession of the
dwelling of Indian Chief Selvoe. It was a large barn-like structure,
strongly framed of entire trunks of trees, and thatched with pal-
metto leaves. Around it they were throwing up entrenchments
of fascines and sand; gangs of negroes with picks and shovels and
spades were toiling at the work.
Such was the foundation and birth of St. Agnt est
town in e United oStatr ana u rrod on of slave labor upon
tfiissoi- e next day, with great ceremony an pomp, enendez
proclaimed his King, Philip the Second, monarch of all North
America. W e s making haste to his ition
at St. Au an pepnrinn i Bomie tho on&&+ and,
by a sudden attack, capture the Spanish lat and oft ne the set-
tlement. This plan was ineffenflly onposed by Landonniere.
His opposition to the plan of action adopted may ve n e
cause of his failure to accompany the expedition. Re ein. .
artillery t fleet, and leaving in the x-rt
combatants, including women, children and invalids, to the number
of two-iiindred and forty, under the command of Lnudonniere,
Ribault set sail to attack the Spaniards on the 10th of Sep-
tember. r
They bore rapidly down until in sight of the Spanish vessels
anchored off the bar of St. Augustine. Before the enemy were
reached and the fleet collected for action, Ribault fund himself in
the midst of one of those gales which ocur with suddenness and
violengeszLtbeoft of Florida at different periods of every fall.
,-s~-.-.-- Flo -----d fe


The tempest rendered his ships unmanageable and finally wrecked
them all at different points on the coast south of Matanzas Inlet.
Menendez had watched the French ships as they approached St.
Augustine. serving the severity of the storm he was satisfied
tat the fleet could not bacm its teeth sh te
shipreck; t erefore er rer was impossible for several days
after the storm should cease. Menendez determined to seize the
favorable opportunity to attack the fort on the St. Johns. He
gathered a picked force, and, with eight days' provisions, began a
march across the country, under the guidance of two Indians, who
were unfriendly to the French. The march proved difficult on
account of the pouring rains and their ignorance of the country.
The swamps and baygalls, many of them waist deep with water,
proved so embarrassing that it took three day f I mreh
ing, amidst great discomfort, cover the distance of fifty miles
between the two postal Immediately after the departure of the
ships Laudonniere had set to work, with the force at his command,
to repair the breaches in the fort that had been made when they
had expected to return to France. He also began to discipline his
men so as to be a guard to the post. For several days the regular
watches were kept up by the captain who had been appointed, but
as the gale continued they began to feel confident that no attack
would be made while the weather was so inclement, and therefore
ceased to be vigilant On the night of September 19th the gale
had been very severe, and at daybreak, finding the captain of the
watch was in his quarters, the sentinels went under shelter. At
this very moment the soldiers of Menendez were in sight kneeling in
prayer. From prayer they rushed to the attack, gaining entrance
to the fort. Without much opposition the began an indiscrimi-
nate slaughter." Lauidnnie ty men, sprang rom e
Walls aii escaped into the woods, from whence e made his way
across-theim TnhsiWa IsIv issel in the river, which had been
left in charge of Captain Jacques Ribault, a son of the Admiral
From thence they proceeded to France, without making any effort
to find their companions of Ribault's fleet or to learn their fate.
An order from Menendez to spare the women, children and
cripples put a stop to the massacre, though it is said, "to escape
death they were forced to submit to slavery." The French account
says that all men who escaped itant death were hun to the limbs
of neighboring trees. This may be exaggerated, but it is certain the
Spaniard-s-uspendef the bodies of some of the Frenchmen and set
up this inscription, "No por Franceses, sino por Luteranos."
Menendez found in the fort six trunks filled with books, well bound


and gilt, from which the owners did not say mass, but preached
thMir Lthaf d6 MinA AeAy eAAninfI All Ao which hAk he di-
rected to be burned.
Fearing lest Ribault should have escaped destruction in the
storm, and returning should make an attack in his absence, Menen-
dP hnrd back to St Augustine. He took with him onfly ty
men, the remainder being left under the command of his son-in-
law, De Valdez, who was ordered to build a church on the site se-
lected by Menendez, and marked by the erection of crosses. After
the completion of the church De Valdez was to use every effort to
strengthen the captured fort.
Arriving at St. Augustine, Menendez was hailed as conqueror,
and having been escorted into the place by the priests and people
who had been left behind, a solemn mass was repeated and the Te
Deum chanted to celebrate the victory.
Several of Ribault's vessels were wrecked between Mosquito and
Matanzas Inlets. Strange as it may appear, in the destruction of
the whole fleet but one life was lost from drowning. It often hap-
pens on the sandy portion of the Florida coast that vessels will be
driven high upon the beach by the force of the swell and there left
by the receding tide in a sound condition.


A BOUT two hundred men had coill c th hr. r tan-
z nlet hiith ihult were gathered on
the barrier farther to the south. The Indis s after
reported to Menendez that a larg JSqdy of men were at theijaletour
leagues sou-h, 1hata were unable to cgoas. He marched with -orty
men for the inetan -vRed- at Matanzas the same evening. His
course was down the beach on Anastasia Island, as the account
speaks of his ordering his boats to keep abreast of him on the
Having come to the mouth of the inlet one of the Frenchmen
swam across and reported that the party there assembled belonged
to one of the vessels of Ribault's fleet. Menendez returned th an
in a boat and offered a pledge of safety the French captain and
four or five o is lieu nants, who might choose to cross over and
hold an interview. Tpon is pl ge the captain crossed over in the
boat with four of his companions. These begged of Menendez that
he would provide them with boats that they might cross that inle.


and the one at St. Augustine, and return to their fort twenty leagues
to the north. Upon this Menndez informed ihem of the amtu of
the fort and the destruction of the garrison. The captain there-
upon besought that they be furnished with a vessel to return to
France, observing that the French and Spanish kings were loving
brothers, and the two nations at peace. Menendez, in reply, asked
if thev were Catholics; to which it was answered that they were of
the new religion. Ten Menendez answered that if they had been
Catholics he would feel he was serving his King in doing them kind-
ness, but Protestants he considered as enemies, against whom he
should wage war unceasingly, both against them and against all that
should come into the territory of which he was Adelantado, having
come to these shores in the service of his King to plant the holy
faith, in order that savages might be brought to a knowledge of the
Holy Catholic religion.
Upon hearing this the captain and his men desired to return
and report the same to their companions, and were accordingly sent
back in the boat. Soon after, observing signals or signs from the
opposite shore, the boat was sent over to learn their pleasure.
The French then endeavored to make some terms for a sur-
render, with the privilege of ransom. There being many members
of noble and wealthy families among them, as much as fifty thou-
sand ducats were offered for a pledge of safety. Menendez would
make no pledge. simly sdin word that if they deirpd they could
surrender their arms and yield themelve tn hia mrv, in order
that he-might do unto them what should be dictated to him by the
grace of God. The French seemed to have had an instinctive feel-
ing that it would fare hard with them should they yield themselves
to the Spaniards, yet they were so wholly demoralized and disheart-
ened by the misfortunes that had befallen them, that. after much
delay and parley, they fnaly sent word to Menendez that they were
willing to yield themselve, to be dealt with as he willed. The
French were therefore transported across the sound in parties of ten
at a time. As each boat load was landed Menendez directed that the
prisoners be led behind the scrub, and their hands pinioned behind
their backs. This course he declared them to be necr he
had but a small number of men in his command and if fr it
would be an .easy -mattpr for -th hVPih Fn turn upon him an
revenge themselves fqrthe destruction of their fort an Laudon-
niere's commit. In this manner was secured the whole body of the
French Ethat d collected on the southern shore of Matanzas Inlet,
to the number of two hundred and eight men. Of this number
eight in response to an inquiry, declared themselves Catholics, and
were sent to St. Augustine in the boat. The remainder were ordered


to march with the Spanish soldiers on their path back to the set.
tlement. Menendez had sent on in advance an officer with a file of
soldiers, with orders to wait at a designated spot on the road, and as
the parties of Frenchmen came up to take them aside into the woods
and put them to death. In this Manner the whole party were killed,
and their bodies left on the sands to ee e zzra
Menendez had scarcely reached St. Augusine before he learned
that the was a larger body of the Fr_ mh ew. ahl, ,he spot
where he had found the who were constructing a raft on
wc to cross the ie Hurrying back with his troops, he sent
a message to the commander, whom he rightly conjectured was
fibault himself. He told him that he had destroyed the fort on
the St. Johns and a yof those wo were shid, promising
him a safe cone w cduct e w to ross over and satisfy himself as
to the truth of this report.
Ribault avaid him lOf this offer and was shown the ead
bodies of his men, who had been so cell meydred. e was
allowed to converts with one of the prisoners, who had been brought
in the company of the Spaniards. This man was one of the eight
who were Catholics, and was spared from the former company.
Ribault endeavored to negotiate for the ransom of himself and
his men, offering double the sum before named by the French cap-
tain; but Menendez refused to listen to any terms, xcept n-n
ditional su After ineec ly offering a ransom of two
hundre ousand ducats, the French Admiral returned to his party
and informed them of the demand of the Spaniards. In spite of
the terrible fate of their comrades, which should have served as a
warning of what awaited them, o hundred and ift o the com-
pany, including Ribultdecidd -to surrender to the Spanish cap-
_ani 7These were transported to the island and disposed o in the
same manner as the former prisoners, saving only a few musicians
and four soldiers, who claimed to be Catholics--in all, sixteen per-
sons. Two hundred of the French refused to trust themselves to
the Spaniarhs, pre'imi th nce oflpreserving their lives on
thrInfospitable beach until they could find a way to escape to a
more friendly country. These retreated back to their wrecked
ships and began to construct a fort and a hiiA vessl to return to
France, or at least TWoTfe thefBtaT horsess of m rida.
Menendez soon after determined to break up the camp, fearing
the presence of so large a body of enemies in his midst. Having
fitted out a fleet of three vessels to co-operate by water, Mendez
marched his soldiers a journey of eight days from St. Augustine.
Here he found the fugitives encamped and prepared to resist an at-
tack. Without elay the Spaniards were le to ae. Te rench,


being poorly equipped, fought a disadvantage and were forced to
retire beyond the reach o the cannon other fleet. Having captured
the foriication, Menendez sent word to the rench that if they
would surrender he would spare their lies. portion of the
French refu totrust te p ege of the Spanish captain and wih-
drw to the woods. These were never heard of more. Th ain-
der came to the Sanish came and surrendered.
After destroying the fort and setting ire to the wrecked vessels
and the ships the French had built, the Spaniards sailed back to St.
Augustine, bringing with them one hundred and fifty of the French-
men. To this remnant of the proud army of Ribault the pledges
given by Menendez were faithfully kept.
It is difficult to believe that the unfortunate condition of those
shipwrecked Frenchmen, far from their kindred or race, thrown
destitute upon desolate shores, and begging so earnestly for life, did
not move the heart of Menendez to feelings of pity. Doubtless a
regard for his own safety, united with a furious fanaticism too
effectually sealed the spring of charity in his heart./
Let us hope that the sands of Florida will never again be red-
dened by the hand of partisans. The result achieved by Menendez
occasioned great rejoicin at the Court of Spain. Ietters of con-
gratulation and commendation were sent to him b PhilII.
the Pontiff Pius V. Te open's better is an able, dispassionate
episle. Water lauding the virtue of Menendez, he declared to him
the key note to his inspiration and the motive of his labors should
be to prevent the Indian idolators from being scandalized by the
vices and bad habits of the Europeans:

To Our Beloved Son and Noble Lord, Pedro Menendez de Aviles,
Viceroy in the Province of Florida, in the Part of India:

BELOVED SON AND NOBLE SIR-Health, Grace and the blessing
of our Lord be with you. Amen.

and so
that we
you by
you kn

e rejoice greatly to hear that our dear and beloved son in
Philip, Catholic King, has named and appointed you
tado thereof, for we hear such an account of your person,
full and satisfactory a report of your virtue and nobility,
believe without hesitation that.you will not only faithfully,
tly and carefully perform the orders and instructions given
so Catholic a King, but trust also that you, by your dis,
and habit, will do all to effect the increase of our holy
c faith, and gain more souls to God. I am well aware, as
ow, that it is necessary to govern these Indians with ood


sense and discretion, that those who are weak in faith from being
newly convert l be atrengthened and idolaters be convert and
receive the faith of Christ; that the former may praise God, know-
iigteF benefit of His divine mercy, and the latter still infidels,
may be brought to a knowledge of the truth; but nothing is more
important in the conversion of these Indians and idolators than to
endeavor by all means to prevent scandal being given by the vices
and immoralities of such as go to these western parts. This is the
key of this holy work, in which is included the whole essence of
your charge.
You see, noble sir, without my alluding to it, how great an
opportunity is offered you in fathering and aiding this cause, from
which result, first, serving the Almighty; second, increasing the
name of your King, who will be esteemed by man, loved and re-
warded by God.
Giving you, then, our paternal and apostolic blessing, we beg
and charge you to give full faith and credit to our brother, the
Archbishop of Rossano, who, in our name, will explain our desire
more at length.
Given at Rome, with the fisherman's ring, on the 18th day of
August, in the year of our redemption, 1569, the third of our pon-
(Signed) Pius FIFTH, Pope.

As the exaggerated report of the cruelties practiced by Menen-
dez spread through Europe, an intense and bitter feeling was ex-
cited. Indignation inflamed the breast of the French nation at the
destruction of their fellow-countrymen, although the King, Charles
Ninth, failed-in fact, refused-to take notice of the slaughter of
his faithful subjects. A petition of nine hundred widows and
orphans of those who had sailed on that fatal expedition with
Bibaet was unheeded by this sovereign. That the fate of the
Huguenots was merited as the common enemies of Spain, France
and the Catholic religion was the openly avowed sentiment of this
unnatural, unpatriotic King.
Feeling the insecurity of his position, from which there was no
place of retreat in'case of a successful attack from a .foreign foe,
Menendez applied himself with the utmost diligence to strengthen
the defenses of his new town, at the same time he instituted meas-
ures to insure a permanent settlement, and the establishment of
ivil rights and privileges.


THERE is but little doubt about the first landing of Menendez,
and the attendant ceremonies. It is certain that soon after
landing the foundation of the town was located on its present
site, and the town, with its fortifications, regularly laid out. The
city was originally planned to be three squares one way by four the
other. At this time a stockade, or fortification, was built upon the
site of the present fort About the same pnod a pashrch and
hall of justice were edited anTcivil ffice-a -i
During the winter succeeding the settlement of the Spaniards
at St. Augustine, there was a great scarcity of provisions in the
colony, so that the settlers were forced to forage upon the neighbor-
ing Indians and to depend upon such supplies of fish and game as
they might secure. The danger which attended any expedition for
hunting rendered this but a meager source of supply. Satouriva,
the chief of the Indians who inhabited the territory to the north,
between St. Auigusine and the St. Johns river, had been friendlyto
Laudonniere, and from the time of the destruction of the Frenc-
he continued unceasingly to wage war on the Spaniards. His meth-
ods of warfare exhibited the same bravery and cunning that has
since become characteristic of the Indians, never being found when
looked for, ever present when unexpected. By the constant harass-
ing attacks, encouraged by this chief, the Spaniards lost many valu-
able lives, among them Juan Menendez, nephew of the Governor.
To obtain supplies to relieve the distress of his colony, Menen-
dez undertook a voyage to Cuba. The Governor of the island was,
through jealousy, unwilling to render him any assistance, and he
would have fared badly had he not found there four of his vessels,
which had been left in Spain with orders to follow him, but, meet-
ing with many delays, had only lately arrived in Cuba.
With these vessels he returned to his colony, to find that during
his absence a portion of the troops had mutinied and imprisoned the
master of te camp, who ad been left in command, seized upon
what provisions there remained, and taking possession of a small
vessel arriving with stores, had set sail for Cuba.
Menendez, with consummate tact, succeeded in arousing the
flagging interest of his colony in the extension of the true religion,
and managed, by his courage and presence, to remove the cause of
dissension. Desiring to be rid of a portion of his colony, who had
proven quarrelsome, lazy and inimical to his interest, he sent a body
of them, numbering one hundred, back to Cuba in one of the vessels
going for supplies. The return of this vessel was anxiously looked


for, as the colony had begun again to sufer from a scarcity of pro-
visions and from sickness. Without waiting for affairs to become
desperate, Menendez sailed for Cuba to obtain the needed supplies.
Upon his arrival he found the Governor of Mexico there, but so
disparaging had been the reports of those who had deserted his
standard that he was advised to give up his unprofitable enterprise,
and the succor he requested was refused. His courage but rose as
his circumstances became more adverse, and he determined not to
relinquish his undertaking, nor to return empty handed to his fam-
ishing colony. He pwned his jewels and the badge of his order
for a sum of fivelundred diucts,-ith whteur1ir purchased The
necessary provisions and hastened back to Florida. Upon his return
he was rejoiced to find that the distress of his colony had already
been relieved. Admiral Juan de Avila had arrived from Spain
with fifteen vessels and a thousand men and a large quantity of
supplies, and, what was most gratifying to Menendez, a letter of
commendation from his sovereign.
Availing himself of the force now at his command, Menendez
set out on an expedition to establish forts and missionary stations
at different points along the coast, as had been his intention since
his first landing in Florida. Several of these posts were, at this
time, established by him in the territory then embraced in Florida,
the most northerly station being on the Chesapeake Bay, which was
the northern boundary of the possessions claimed by Spain. Priests
or friars were left at each of these missionary posts for introducing
Christianity among the Indians. Menendez became convinced that
if all these establishments were to be maintained, and the most im-
portant work of teaching the natives continued, he must have larger
missions and greater forces at his command. Hoping to obtain this
aid from his sovereign, he set out for Spain in the Spring of 1567.
Upon his arrival he was welcomed by the King with many flattering
attentions and assurances of aid in the furtherance of his plan for
propagating the Catholic faith.


JWHILE Menendez was occupied in Spain in forwarding the inter.
ests of his colony, in France plans were being formed and
a secret enterprise undertaken for an attack on the Spanish
posts in Florida.
Most inflammatory and exaggerated accounts of the massacre
at Fort Carolina had been published throughout France. One


account says of the Spaniards that, after taking the fort and find-
ing no more men, they assailed the poor women, and after having
by force and violence abused the greater part, they destroyed them,
and cut the throats of the .little children indiscriminately. They
took as many of them, alive as they could, and having kept them
three days without giving them anything to eat, and having made
them undergo all the tortures and all the mocking that could be
devised, they hung them to some trees near the fort. They even
flayed the King's lieutenant, and sent the skin to the King of Spain,
and having torn out his eyes, blackened with their blows, they
fastened them on the points of their daggers and tried which could
throw them the greatest distance.
The French King had refused to listen to the appeals of the
relatives of the Huguenots who had been exterminated in Florida,
but, distressed by the destruction of their countrymen, and the
harrowing accounts of the massacre, many of the nation had long
felt it a mortification that an outrage so gross should have received
neither redress nor rebuke.
Among those whose zealous regard for the national honor was
touched by the conduct of the French King, and in whose breast
burned fiercely the fires of revenge, was the Chevalier Dominic de
Gourgues. Appearing, as he does, in history, as the avenger of
the sad destruction of his countrymen, in an expedition undertaken
without solicitation, at his own expense and at the risk of forfeit-
ing his own life by the command of his King, even if he should be
successful, it is but natural that his character should have been
extolled and his virtues exalted by all writers who have admired his
chivalrous courage.
De Gourgues was born of noble parentage at Mount Marsan,
in Guienne, and was said to have been a Catholic, though it is de-
nied by the Spanish historians. His life had been spent in arms
in the service of his King in Scotland, Piedmont and Italy. His
career was that of an adventurer, ever ready to risk his life to
acquire honor and reputation, and having little desire to amass
riches. While serving in Italy against the Spaniards he was taken
prisoner and consigned to labor as a galley slave. This ignomin-
ious treatment of a soldier of his birth and rank left in his mind

an unappeasable hatred of the Spaniards. I
was cut short by the capture of the Spanish
served by a Turkish pirate, from whom, in tu
Rumeguas, the French commander at Malta
ing his imprisonment and escape seemed to
to the opportunities for plunder upon the
release he entered upon a marauding expedi

His period of servitude
galley upon which he
rn, he was liberated by
.His experience dur-
have opened his eyes
seas. Soon after his
tion to the South seas,


in which he secured considerable plunder. He had but recently
returned home and retired to enjoy in quiet the property acquired
in his ventures, when the news of the destruction of Ribault's colony
reached France. Eager to retaliate by a severe punishment this
outrage upon his counrm en, De Gourgues sold his property and
with the sum realized, and what he could borrow on the credit ofan
alleged commnieftalfenture, purchased add equipped a fleet of three
vessels, one of which was nothing more than a launch. Deeming
it impolitic to make known the object of his voyage, he obtained
license to trade and procure slaves on the coast of Africa. He
enlisted for a cruise of twelve months a force of one hundred and
eighty men, many of whom were gentlemen adventurers. He was
careful to secure one, at least, of the men who escaped with Lau-
donniere from Fort Carolina. M. de Montluc, the King's lieuten-
ant in Guienne, a friend of De Gourgues, rendered him valuable
assistance in securing his equipment. On the second of August,
1567, he left Bordeaux, but was delayed by a storm eight days at
the mouth of the river Garonne. Afterwards, having put to sea,
he was driven by stress of weather far out of his course, and en-
countered so severe a gale as to nearly wreck the fleet at Cape Fin-
isterre. One vessel, in which was his lieutenant, was blown so far
out of its course that for fifteen days it was supposed to be lost,
which caused -him great trouble, as his people earnestly besought
him to return. The missing vessel, however, met him off the coast
of Africa. Land was then kept in sight until they reached Cape
Verde; thence taking the direct route to the Indies, he sailed before
the wind upon the high seas, and having crossed over. the first land
which he made was the island of Dominique. From thence he
proceeded, stopping at the island of St. Domingo to weather a gale,
and at the island of Cuba for water, which he had to take by force,
for he says, "The Spaniards are enraged as soon as they see a
Frenchman in the Indies; for, although a hundred Spains could not
furnish men enough to hold the hundredth part of a land so vast
and capacious, nevertheless it is the mind of the Spaniards that
this new world was never created except for them, and that it
belongs to no man living to step on it or breathe in it save them-
selves alone."
De ourguep had not revealed the real object of his expedition
until after leaving the island of Cuba, when he assembled all his
men and declared to them his purpose of going to Florida to avenge
on the Spaniards the injury which had been done to the King and
to all France. He set before them the treachery and cruelty of
those who had massacred Frenchmen, and the shame that it was to
have left it so long unpunished-an action so wicked and so humils


iating-and the honor and satisfaction that would redound to them
in removing from the escutcheon of France this foul blot. The
spirit of the address was suited to the French temper, and they
professed themselves ready to fight for the honor of France.wherever
the captain should lead. Proceeding on the voyage, the fleet passed
the bar of the St. Johns river in sight of the forts which Menendez
had constructed at the molth of the river. The Spaniards mistook
them for their own vessels, fired twoguZnL a salute, which was
returned-ly the French, desiring to continue the dception. The
fleet sailed north and entered the St. Mary's river, where they met
a large body of Indians prepared to dispute any attempt to land.
Seeing this, De Gourgues made friendly demonstrations, and sent
out the man who had been with Laudonniere. The Indians readily
recognized the Frenchman, and were delighted td6find the strangers
o _*'. .~~-- -- -- -- -- --'- -''--- 'r
were of that nationalit~y- ad enemies of the Spaniards. The chief
proved to be Satouriva, the firm friend of Laudonniere. After
learning the purpose of the expedition, Satouriva promised to join
the command at the end of ten days with his wholeTorce ofwar-
riors, declaring iima lf eager to avenge the many injuries he 'had
himself received, as well as the wrongs inflicted on the French.
Among Satouriva's tribe was a white child, a refugee from
Laudonniere's massacre at Fort Carolina, who had been protected
and reared as a son by the old chief, though the Spaniards had
made strenuous efforts to secure possession of him or compass his
death. The child's name was Peter de Bre, whom Satouriva had
so faithfully defended, and he now brought him to the French ships,
together with his warriors, as he had agreed. Being joined by the
Indians, De Gourgues set out across the country, under the guid-
ance of the chief, Helicopali, to attack the two forts at the mouth of
the river. The Indians had "promised to bring the command to
the fort on the north side of the river by daybreak, but, owing to
the difficulty in following the intricate paths and fording deep
creeks, they were nine hours marching four leagues, and the sun
was rising as they reached the vicinity of the Spanish fort. This
fort was built on Balton Island, near what is now Pilot Town; the
other fort was nearly opposite, in the vicinity of the present village
of Mayport. Both were armed with cannon taken from the French
at the capture of Fort Carolina.
The Spaniards, not fearing a land attack on the fort on
Balton Island, had neglected to clear away the woods in the vicinity,
so the French were concealed until they were close upon the fort.
As they rushed from their&cover the Splanisi sentinE'ifire3rfwice,
whezi te was pierced by the pike of Alacatora, an Indian chiet and
nephew of Satouriva. The Spanish garrison were at breakfast and


before they could be summoned the fort was filled with the French
and Indians. So complete was the surprise that there was but little
resistance. As many as possible were taken alive, by command of
Captain .Gourgues, in order to do them as they had done the
As soon as the Spaniards whose lives were spared in the attack
could be secured, De Gourgues embarked as large a portion of his
soldiers as the boats at his disposal would carry, and hurried to
cross the river to attack the fort at Mayport. The Indians, now
wild with excitement, threw themselves in the water and kept along-
side the boats, swimming with their bows and arrows held above
their heads. The Spaniards in the fort had by this time bgun
to realize the ajiun.and directed the fire of their guns upon the
boats and Indians. Their excitement and alarm was so great that
they did not perceive a difference between the French and Indians,
and, seeing so great a multitude approaching, they broke in terroL
and fled from the fort before the French reached the walls. The
garrison of the two forts was near one hundred and forty men, all
but fifteen of whom were either killed in the attack or slain by the
Indians as they attempted to reach the mainland.
The capture of these two forts occurred on the eve of the first
Sunday after Easter, 1568. Crossing to the fort first taken, De
Gourgues rested on Sunday and Monday. Scaling ladders and
other preparations for an attack on the main fort were in the mean-
time being prepared. While here a Spanish spy, disguised as an
Indian, was recognized by Alacatora and brought to De Gourgues.
From him it was learned that the French force was estimated at
quite two thousand men, and that the garrison of Mateo, formerly
Fort Carolina, was two hundred and sixty men.
Hearing this report, De Gourgues was more anxious than ever
to make an immediate attack. He directed the Indians to advance,
some on each side of the river, and take up positions in the vicinity
of the fort. Early on the morning of the next day he moved his
forces up the river and gained a mountain covered with forest, at
the foot of which was built the fort. He had not intended to attack
the fort until the day after his arrival, but while posing his men
and the Indian forces, it happened that the Spaniards made a sally
with sixty arquebusers to reconnoiter his forces.
This body he succeeded in cutting off from the fort and totally
destroying. Seeing the fate of so large a part of their garrison, the
remainder of the Spaniardsleft the fort in hopes that they might
make their way to St. Augustine. Entering the woods, the: "were
everywhere met by the Indians. None escaped, and but few taken


alive. Entering the fort, the French found a number of fine can-
non, besides a great quantity of small arms, such as arquebuses,
corslets, shields and spikes.
The Frenchmen were now upon the scene of the massacre of
their countrymen, and, as the taunting irony of the tablet erected by
Menendez was before their eyes, the spirit of vengeance was aroused.
Ordering all the Spaniards who had been taken alive to be led to the
place where they had hung the Frenchmen, De Gourgues rebuked
them in scathing terms. He declared they could never undergo the
punishment they deserved, lV i'fwas 'necessary to make an example
of them, that others might learn to keep the peace which they had
so wickedly violated.
This said, they were tied to the same trees on which they had
hung the Frenchmen, and in the place of the inscription which
Pedro Menendez had put over them, containing these words in the
Spanish language, I do this not as to Frenchmen, but Lutherans,"
so De Gourgues in like manner, erected an inscription that he had
done this to them not as to Spaniards, nor as to outcasts, but as to
traitors, thieves and murderers.
One of the Spaniards is said to have confessed that he had hung
up five Frenchmen with his own hand, and acknowledged that God
had brought him to the punishment he deserved. The next day,
while frying fish, an Indian set fire to a train of owde laid by the
Spaniards which hacThiot bwn discovered, and the whole interior
of the fort was destroyed. Being aware that his forces were too
weak to hold the country, and having accomplished all that he
crossed the ocean to perform, DetGourgues. ompleted the destruc-
tion of the fort and, bidding adieu to the Indians, sailed for France.
The fleet arrived at La Rochelle on the 6th of June, after a voyage
of thirty-four days. The loss of life in the enterprise had been but
"a few gentlemen of good birth," a few soldiers in the attack, and
eight men on the launch which was lost at sea..
Being received with all honor, courtesy and kind treatment by
the citizens of La Rochelle, where he remained a few days, De
Gourgues then sailed for Bordeaux. The Spaniards being advised
of his arrival, and what he had done in Florida, sent a large ship
and eighteen launches to surprise and capture him. Thi fTrmila-
ble fleet arrived in the roadstead of La Rochelle the very day of his
departure. The head of De Gourgues was demanded and price set
upon it by the King of Spain. Though his acts were repudiated by
the French King, he was protected and concealed by Marigny,
president of the council, and by the receiver, Vacquieux. After a


time he was the recipient of marked honors at the French court,
and died in 1582, to the great grief of such as knew him.
Thus ends the sad drama of the slaughter of twelve hundred
men or more. That botLenendez and De Gour es deserved great
censure, no one can deny. We must remember, however, that if
Menendez had taken all the Frenchmen prisoners that he killed,
famine would have stared him in the face. He was appointed Ade-
lantado of Florida under the promise of driving out the French and
colonizing this territory. Could he have fed the French prisoners
if he had captured them? Would it not have caused the abandon-
ment of the colonization of this territory? His great care and
sacrifice for his colony in after years, and his great labor for the
establishment of the Christian religion among the Indians shows
conclusively that he was not altogether hard of heart.
Who can tell what would have been the result of French colo-
nization in this territory at this time, instead of the Spanish, to
whom it undoubtedly belonged by right of discovery?
That De Gourgues was influenced by revenge for the indigni-
ties placed upon him while a prisoner of war in the hands of the
Spaniards cannot be doubted. His great patriotism, the honor of
his country, together with the exaggerated report of the cruel
slaughter of his countrymen, led him to this terrible retribution
and slaughter of the Spaniards.
While these events were transpiring Menendez had completed
his equipment, and sailed with a fresh supply of men and means for
his colonies in Forida. His first information of the disaster which
had overtaken his post on the St. Johns was received after his
arrival at St. Augustine. So humiliating a disaster as the capture
of three of his forts, well fortified and garrisoned with four hundred
trained men, was the occasion of great mortification and vexation to
this gallant knight, especially since the victors were the avengers of
the former colonists, and the forces that accomplished the affair
were so greatly outnumbered by his soldiers, who were also well de-
fended by strong forts. To add to the discouragement, the condi-
tion of the colony at St. Augustine was found to be most distressing.
The garrison was nearly naked, the colonists half starved, and the
attacks of the Indians growing more frequent and reckless as the
weakness and despondency of the Spaniards became more apparent.
The intrepid and indomitable spirit of Menendez did not bend un-
der these obstacles and reverses, which would have crushed a nature
of ordinary mould. Hisextraordina an mrehensive e 'us
open of almost superhuman -difficules, for
fTi'maintenance of his colony and the extension of the Catholic
faith, the object to which his life was now devoted. Perceiving the


insecurity of the garrisons at a distance from each other, and the
principal post, he wisely concluded to preserve his force entire for
St. Augustine, and thus maintain the colony and a base of opera-
tions. The spread of the Catholic faith he determined to secure by
inducing the different tribes of Indians to receive and support one or
more missionaries or teachers. At the earnest solicitation of Menen-
dez large numbers of priests, friars and brothers of the various
religious orders of the Catholic Church had been sent to Florida by
the King of Spain. Mission houses r ',
from the Florida Bes on e south t hthe north
and the n "to which these teang
mostly Franciscnns ro ^^t By tle mildness of their manners,
the promise of future joys and rewards which their teachings de-
clared, and the interest excited by the introduction of the arts of
civilized life, they gained a powerful ascendancy over the native
tribes, that promised at one period the conversion of the whole
North American Indian race to the religion and customs of. their
Christian teachers. This would have amply compensated for all
the efforts, treasures and lives expended by the Europeans in the
conquest of the New World, in fact, it would have been a wonderful
revolution, that might well have been considered a miraculous dis-
pensation of providence.
It is due to the grand, comprehensive conception of Menendez
that there was initiated this plan of mission stations through the
Floridas, which so nearly accomplished this happy result. That the
ultimate success of the efforts to Christianize the Indians was not
attained was probably owing to the political changes that occurred
in Europe in the eighteenth century. In both France and Spain
the Jesuits fell into disgrace, and the most rigorous means of sup-
pression and banishment were adopted against them. The Jesuit
mission in Florida shared the fate of their order in the Old World,
and thus the encouraging prospect of Christianizing the Indigns
was swept away forever.
Under Menendez and his immediate successors, whom he
named and who followed his counsels, were founded those mission-
ary establishments whose ruins have been at a later period a subject
of curious investigation through Middle Florida. Menendez, find-
ing that the interests of the colony were neglected at the Spanish
court, and that the maintenance of the colony was daily impoverish-
ing himself, resolved to return permanently to Spain, where he
hoped that his influence would be able to accomplish more benefit
to the undertaking in Florida than could be expected to accrue from
his presence in the territory. Leaving the province under the com-
mand of his nephew, Don Pedro Menendez, he sailed for Spain in


1572. Upon his arrival all the honors of the court were lavished
upon him, and his counsels were eagerly sought in the various
affairs of state. He was not destined to enjoy his honors long, nor
to reap new laurels in the European wars of the Spanish crown.
In the midst of his glory, his career d ended by his
death from ir i 1 His rank and memory are perpetuated
in te church of St. Nicholas at Orbilas by a monument, on which
is inscribed the following epitaph:
"Here lies buried the illustrious Captain Pedro #enendez de
Aviles, a native of this city, Adelntado o thtPro vic&A Florida,
Ksight Commander of Santa Cruz, of the r 0f d
Ca alin enerag-of the Oceani seas, fl.Uf the. Armada which his
Royal Higines collected af antander, tthe year 1574, where he
died on the 17th of Septemner of that year, in the fifty-fifth year
of his age."
Following out the instructions of Menendez, De las Alas, the
new Governor of Florida, assembled a council from the different
missions in the province for the purpose of considering methods of
extending the Catholic faith. In pursuance of the advice of this
council, embassies were sent to all the tribes of Indians for several
hundred miles around St. Augustine.
Spanish garrisons and many Spanish monks to teach the
Indians had already been received into the towns east of the Apa-
lachicola river. In 1583 the Chickasaws, Toccoposcas, Apacas, Ta-
maicas, Apiscas and Alabamas received the missionaries. Atlis
period the Catholic faih waarecognzed as the sis-
sipp'a ua.
The Franciscans and Dominicans had been the first to repre-
sent the monks in the New World. Afterward came the Fathers of
Mercy, the Augustinians and the Jesuits. Although Florida was
included in the diocese of the Bishop of Cuba, it was decided to
establish a convent of the Order of St. Francis at St. Augustine.
I nthe nami-e originally given to tis conv-ent was tTie4Concepion
of Our Lady," though it is generally referred to as St. Helena.
This name, St. Helena, was applied to all the establishments
throughout the province, of which the great Franciscan house at St.
Augustine was to be the center.



NINE ears had elapsed from the death of Menende te cl
S a t. y rogressed-into the settlementAof
a small town, but the importance which the presence of Me-
nendeszhad given ft was much lessened. In 1586, Sir Francis
Drake, with a fleet, returning from South America, discovered the
Spanish lookou upon Anastasia Island, and sent boats ashore to
ascertain something with reference to it. Marching up the shore,
they discovered across the bay a fort and a town built of wood.
Proceeding toward the fort, which bore the name of San Juan
de Pinos, some guns were fired upon them from it; they retired
toward their vessel. The same evening a fifer made his appearance
and informed them that he was a Frenchman, detained a prisoner
there, and that the Spaniards had abandoned their fort; he offered
to conduct them over. Upon this information they crossed the river
and found the fort abandoned, as they had been informednd tk
possession of it without op 'iu'. was built of wood, and only
smiroundd ;by a nail, m1 pxfl, "ormed of the trunks of large trees
set upright in the earth. The platforms were made of the bodies
of large trees laid horizontally across each other, with earth rammed
in to fill the vacancies; ourteen brass cannon were found in the
fort. There was left behind the tr- =n ehpgf penfoin' f2O0O
sterling, designed for the payment of the troops in the garrison,
which consisted of one hundred and fifty men. On the following
day Drake's forces marched toward the town, but owing to heavy
rains, they were obliged to return and go in boats. On their ap-
proach the Spaniards fled into the country. A Spaniard concealed
in the bush fired at the sergeant-major and wounded him, and then
ran up and dispatched him. Inr.ug for this act tDra nt
their buildings and destroyed their gardens. The garrison
Eanitants rere o rT Sateo on the St. Johns river.


T HE garrison and country were under t he ftA f
Pedrn Mpnpndez. a ?hou nf th, Arl-lnthan, who, after the
English squadron sailed, having received assistance from Ha-
vana, began t rebuild the city. In 1592 twelve Franciscan mission-
aries arrived at St. Augustine with their superior, Fray Jean de
Silva, and placed themselves under the charge of Father Francis


Manon, warden of the convent of St. Helena. Ope of them, a
Mexican, Father Franci Pan'a. drew up in the language of the
Yemasee s "Abridgment of Christian Doctrine," the first work
coE langa---
The FrancimsPFat LOrpa, established a mission house for
the Indians at olomto, in the northwest portion of the city aoLt.
Augustine, where there was an Indian village. Father Bias de
odriguez, called Monea, had an Indian church at a village ofqfe
Indians called Topiqui, situated on the creek called Conodo la
Leche, north of the fort, and a church bearing the name of "Our
Lady of the Milk" was situated on the elevated ground a quarter of
a mile north of the fort, near the creek. A stone church existed.at
this locality as late as 1795, and the crucifix belonging to it was
preserved in the Catholic Church at St. Augustine.
These missions proceeded with considerable apparent.access,
large numbers of Indians being received and instructed both at this
and other missing,.
Among the converts at the mission of Tolomato was tliaeaoi f
the caciql&oLmth jislanLntGuala Wearying of the restraints on
his passions required by the Christian law, he fell into great ex-
cesses, and at last went off to a pagan band. Finding kindred
spirits there, he resolved to silence the priest who reproved him.
They returned by night to Father Capa's village of Tolomata. Tak-
ing up his post near the church, he waited for the dawn of day.
When Fat a opened the door of his little cabin to proceed
to the church, the conspirators tomahawked him, and cutting ff
hi&-waia set it on a pole. Having brought his comrades to imbrew
their hands in blood, the.young chief easily persuaded them tokill
all the religious Spaniards.
S Procee ing, then, o the town Topiqui, they burst into the house
of Father Bais Plyrigupez. The missionary endeavored to show
them the wickedness and folly of their conduct, which would entail
punishment here and hereafter,, but finding his words of no avail,
he asked the Indians to allowhim to say mnss They granted his
request, moved by a respect which they could not understand. The
good priest, with his expectant murderers for his congregation,
offered the holy sacrifice for the last time, and then knelt _dyn
hefLrejis altar to receive the deathblow, which enabled 1mi to
make his thanksgiving to heaven. s Body was piously interred by
an old Christian Indian after the murderers had departed.
Learning of the approach of a band bent on massacre, Father
Michael Hanon at Assopo, said mass and gave comnumon- to
BrotherAnthony.a adajaz, his companion. They vnelt in prayer till
the apostates came, who first dispatched the brother, the thto


blows of the war club do,
The weeping ristians interred the bodies at the foot of the tall
mission cross
On reaching Asao the insurgents found that Father Francis de
Velascola had gone to St. Augustine, but they lurked amid the veg-
etation on the shore till they saw his canoe approaching. When the
Franciscan landed they accosted him as friends, they fearing his
great strength, seized him suddenly and slew him. Father Francis
Davila, at Ospo, endeavored to escape at night, but the moon
revealed him and he fell into their hands ierced b two arrow.
An-old Indian prTeene their cruel work, and the missionary,
stripped and suffering, was sent ashore to a pagan village.
From thence the ferocious young chief of n,,olO 1, 1 h; fiellow-
ers against several missions in other parts of the country wth, e
attacked and destroyed tofhpr with the attendant clear g. Thus
upon the soil of the Ancient City was shed the blood of Christian
martyrs, who were laboring with zeal well worthy emulation, to
carry the truths of religion to the native tribes of Florida. Over
two hundred and eighty years have passed away since these sad
scenes were enacted; but we cannot even now repress a tear of sym-
pathy and a feeling of admiration for thdse self-denying mission-
aries of the cross, who sealed their faith with their blood and fell
victims to their energy and devotion. The spectacle of the dying
priest, struck down at the altar, attired in his sacred vestments, and
imploring pardon upon his murderers, cannot fail to call up in the
heart of the most insensible something more than a passing emo-
The zeal of the Franciscans was only increased by this disaster,
and each succeeding year brought an addition to their number.
y pr missions in the interior of the couno rapidly
hat in less than two years ey had estabish hthe rinci
pal towns o te fn no less han twenty mission houses.
On the 14th ot ,rMch 15U, tl nvent of St. r at
St. Aulustine, was destroyed bv fire, and till the building could be
restored the faers occupit e ermitage of Nuesta de la Soledad,
which had previously been used as a hospital. It was several years
before it was rebuilt
In iTlltheprelate, Francisco se, custodio from the
convent of St. Francisco of the Havana, together with the St.
Helena Fr. Miguel de Annon and Fr Pedn .Yocasa fell mar
by the hands of the Indians. who are said to have pillagethe town
after having drv-n-I theinhabitants to seek protection under the
guns of the fort or stockade.



IN 1638 the Apalaclan Indians were nltured by thp Spniards.
They were subdued by the force sent against them. In 1640
large numbers of them were brought to St. Augustine to work
on the fort and other public works. At this period the Engish aet-
ements along the coast to e northward had begun to be formed,
much to the uneasiness and displeasure of the Spanis crowj, which
for a long time claimed, by virtue of exploration and occupation, as
well as by the ancient papal grant of Alexander, all of the eastern
coast of the country.
Their missionaries had penetrated Virginia before the settle-
ment of Jamestown. They built a fort in South Carolina and kept
up a garrison for several years; but the Spanish government had
become too feeble to compete with either the English or French on
the seas. With the loss of their celebrated armada perished forever
their pretensions as a naval power. They were forced to look to the
safety of their settlement in Florida. The easy capture of thelort
at St. Augustine by the passing squadron of Drake evincedjthe
necessity of work of a much more formidable character.


-N 1665 Ca tain Davis one of the En lish buccaneers, and a fleet
Sof eight essels came on e coast rom Jamaica, to trept
the Spanish pilte flpot on its return from N to
Europe; but being disappointed in this scheme, he proceeded along
the coast of Florida and came off St. Augustine, where he landed
and marched directly upon the town w ch he sace and lun-
dered _whout meeting opposition fromni Saniards a ough
they had a garrison of two hundred men in the fort, which at that
time was an octagon, fortified and defended by round towers.
The fortifications were probably very incomplete, and with a
vastly inferior force it is not surprising that they did not undertake
what could only have been an ineffectual resistance. It does not
appear that the fort was taken; the inhabitants probably retired
within the fort with their valuables.
In 1687 Captain Don Juan de Ayala went to Spain in his own
vessel to procure additional forces and.munitions for the garrison
at St. Augustine. He received the men and munitions desired,
and as a reward for his diligence and patriotism he also received


the privilege of carrying merchandise duty free; 'being also allowed
to take twelve Spanish negroes for the cultivation of the fields of
Florida, of whom it is said there was a great want in that province.
By a mischance he was only able to carry one negro there with the
troops and other cargo. He was received with universal joy.
Don Diego de Quiroa v Vosado. the Onvrnnr of Florida in

1690, findi
upon the sl
ening to sw
so much mc

ng that the sea was making dangerous
lores of the town, and reaching even the
allow them up and render useless the fort
money and labor to put in the state of comp

houses, threat-
which had cost
letion in which

it en was, ca a puic meeting o e chief men an citizens of
the place and proposed to them that, in order to escape the danger
which menaced them and to restrain the force of the sea, they
should construct a sea wall which would run from the castle and
protect the city from al the dang- 9 t aer The inhabitants
not only approved o is proposal, bt began the work with so much
zeal that the soldiers gave more than seventeen hundred dollars of
their wages, although they were very much behind, not having been
paid in six years, with which the Governor began to make the neces-
sary preparations, and sent forward a dispatch to the home gov-

ernment upon th
The Council
year of the work
Spain to furnish

e subject.
of War of the Indies approved in the following
of the sea wall, and directed the viceroy f w
ten thousand dollars fo and directed that a

plan a
one th
sand d
pose o
of the

md estimate of the work should be forwarded. Puiroga was
?ded in the governorship of Florida by Don Lauseano de
s, who went forward with the work of the sea wall. He
ed for this purpose the means furnished by the soldiers and
ousand dollars more, which they offered besides the two thou-
lollars, and likewise six thousand dollars which had come from
Spain remitted by the viceroy, Count de Galleo, for the pur-
,f building a t.wer for a lookout to observe the surrounding
n settlements. The tower erected on -he northeast bastion
fort is evidently the one built for the'lookout, sea and land-
also...... ...



HOSTILITIES had broken out between England and Spain in
1702. The English settlements in Carolina only numbered
about seven thousand inhabitants when Governor Moore, who
was an ambitious anl energetic man, but with serious defects of


character, l an w&vdig fF fmm Carolina against St. Au-
gustine. The pretense was t riiinjuries, and, by taking
thle native, to prevent an attack upon themselves. The reaLzpo-
tixe.was said by Governor Moore's opponents at home to have been
the cquisitio W i t re mutation and private gain.
The plan of the expedition embraced a com bied.tack by
land and sea. For this purpose six hundred provincial militia
were emmdied with an equal number of Indian allies. A portion
of the military were to go inland by boats and by land under the
command of Colonel Daniels, who is spoken of as a good officer,
while the main body proceeded with the Governor by sea in several
merchant schooners and ships impressed for the service. The
Spaniards, who had received intimation of the contemplated attack,
placed.thimselve in the best posture of defense i their nwr, and
laid up provisions in the castle to withstand a long siege. The
forces under Colonel Daniels arrived in advance of the naval fleet
of the expedition, and immediately moved upon the town. The
inhabitants, upon his approach, retired within the spacious walls
of the Castle. Colonel Daniels entered and took possession of the
town, the larger part of which, it must be recollected, was a short
distance from'the castle.
The description- given by Oldmixon is as follows:
"Colonel Robert Daniels, a brave man, commanded a party
whod were to go up the river in periaguas, to come upon St. Au-
gustine on the land side, while the Governor sailed thither to attack
it by sea. They both set out in August, 1702. ColonelDanijels,
on his way, took St. John's. a mall Spanish settlement; also St.
Marys, another little village belonging to the Spa miter
which ie proceeaeJ to St. Augustine. He came before the town,
entered and too possession, Governor Moore not having arrived
with the fleet.
"The inhabitants having notice of the approach of the English
had packed up their best effects and retired with them into the
castle, which was surrounded by a deep and broad moat. They
hadjaid u p.provisiont_.theri four months, and resolved to de-
fend themselves to the last extremity. However, Colonel Daniels
found a considerable booty in the town. The next day the Gov-
ernor came ashore, his troops following him; they entrenched and
posted their guards in the church and blocked up the castle. The
english held possession of the town a whole month, but, finding
they could o nothinjgfor want of mortars and bombs, they sent a
sloop fo Jamtioatn pnrnoP r hpm aThrfhiCimmander of the sloop,
inel f gni thithpr.Ca e Ceto Carolina, out of fear of treachery.
1- y

Finding others who offered to go in his stead, he proceeded on the
voyage, after he had lain some time in Charlestown.
"The garrison all this while lay before the castle of Augustine
in the expectation of the return of the sloop, which, hearing nothing
of, the Governor sent Colonn1 Danieln whn wan the 4fe, .e +he
action, to Jamaica on th m ran This gentleman, being
hearfyin he design, scr ed asppy f hnhu rntnrd
wards St Augu;ti but, in the meantime, two ships nppmenr in
the offin, and being taken t o -- n-- fwar the
Governor thought fit to raise the i ,g nn ah.a'n hi. ips, with
a great quantity of stores, ammunition and provisions to the
enemy; upon whi.h! the two men-of-war entered the port of St.
Augustine and took the Governors ships. Rnno any t bnmt
them himself (certain it ia the- were lostijABFe EFnglih)anthat
he returned to Charlestown overlnd., three hundred miles from
Augustine. The two men-of-war that were thoughtjLla&p4m~ed
to be two small frigate-one of eighteen and the other of sixteen
"When ColonlDaniels came back to St. Augustine he was
chased, but got away, and Governor Moore retreated with no great
honor homewards. His periaguas lay at St. John's, where the Gov-
ernor retired, and from there to Charlestown, only losing two men
on th whole expedition
"Arratomakaw, King of the Yemsan- who commanded the
Indians, retreated to epenaguas with the rest and there slept
upon their oars with a great deal of bravery and unconcern. The
Governor's sailors, taking a false alarm and thinking the Spaniards
were coming, did not like the slow pace of the Indian King in his
flight; to quicken him, bade him to make more haste, but he replied,
'No, if your Governor leaves you, I will not stir until I have seen
all my men before me. "
Th Sprnih acO s aY he burned th town; this statement
is confirmed by the report made on the 18th of July, 1740, by a
committee of the House of Commons of the province of South Car-
olir, in which it is said, referring to these transactions, that
Moore wak nm1g in retrot hn the
3 seems that the plunder carried off by n' wp
co~~ le a n escarged at the time that he sent off a
sloop-loa i Jamaica. In an old colonial document of South
Carolina it is represented "that the late unfortuned, ill-contrivud
and worse managed expedition against St. Augustine was prin-
cipally set on foot by the late Governor and his adherents, and that
if any person in the said late Assembly undertook to speak against


it and to show how unfit and unable we were at that .time for
such an attempt, he was presently looked upon by them as aq enemy
and traitor to his country, and reviled and affronted in the said
Assembly; although the true design of the said expedition'was no
other than catching and making slaves of the Indians for-private
advantage and impoverishing the country. The expedi-
tion was evidently to enrich themselves particularly, because what-
soever booty, such as rich silks, a great quantity of church plate,
with money and other costly church ornaments and utensils, taken
by our soldiers at St. Augustine, are now detained in the possession
of the said late Governor and his officers, contrary to an act of the
Assembly made for an equal division of the same amongst the
The Spanish accounts of this expedition of Moore's are very
meager; they designated him as the Governor of St. George, by
which name they called the harbor of Charleston, and they also
speak of the plunder of the town and the burning of the greater
part of the houses Don Joseph Curriga was then the Governor
of the city, and had received just previous to the English attack,
reinforcements from Hav a, and had repaired and stremi ened
thei fAyfiptins t a nnanieraeTlioh onnE.
Th retreat of the En lish was celebrated with eat reoicing
by the Sp ar w ho d been for three mon ths shut up within
the limiied space of the walls of the castle, and they glaly e-
paired their ruined homes, and made goodhe ravages of the Eng-
lish invasion. An English account says that the two vessels which
appeared off the bar and caused Moore's precipitate retreat con-
tained but two hundred men, and had he awaited Colonel Daniels'
return with the siege guns and ammunition the castle would have
fallen into their hands.
In the same year the King Sjpain, alarmed at the danger
which menaced his possessions in Florida, gave greater attention
to the streagh ng of thae efences of -St. Augustine, and for-
warded considerable reinforcements to the garrison as well au d-
ditional suplie f munitions for the trps.
The works were dired to be stiingthened, which Governor
Curriga thought not as strong as had been represented, and that
the sea wall in the course of erection was insufficient rt pur-
Poe or which it Was t ned. St yearsiad elapsed since the
Apalach 7 ha n conquered and compelled to labor
upon the fortifications of St. Augustine. Their chiefs nowaked
that they might be relievd.from further compulsoy laor. After
the usual number of references and reports and- formations
through the Spanish circumlocution offices this was graciously


granted in a conditional form, ntil their services should hf -ain
During the year 1712 a great scarcity of provisions, caused by
the failure of the usual supply vessels, reduced the inhabitants of
St. Augustine to the verge of starvation, and for two or three
months they were obliged to live upon horses, cats, dogs and other
disgusting animals. It seems strain that, after a_ lemet of
nearly one hundred and fif es tegl id in Flord h ,
still be en ent uon te imprtationof rovion ons for hir su
port, that anything e the distress in cad should prevail,
with the abundant resources they had from the fish, oysters, turtle
and clams of the sea, and the arrow-root and cabbage-tree palm of
the land.
The English settlements were now extenibzg intn the intw r
portions of South Carlin The French had P t ffrt
at settement an colonization up the rivers dischari into the
Gulf f Mef". All +hrm n"ntnna wtrpo or de
with the Indians, and kept up an intriguing rivalship for this trade
for more fn an hundred years.
There seems to have been at this period a policy pursued by
the Spanish authorities in Florida of the most reprehensible char-
acter. The strongest efforts were made to attach all the Indian
tribes to the Spash terest They were encorag to carry on
a system of piinder and annoyance upon the English settlements
of Carolina. They siezed upon all the negroes they could obtain
and carried them to the Governor at St. Augustine, who invariably
refused to surrender them, alleging that he was acting under the
instructions of his government in so doing.
In 1704- Gozvo r u nra made 2 oWA7=-- @AM, AA CWr-
sion against the Indian towns in Middle Florida all of whom were
in the SpanisT inerst.i roke Up We -owns an& destroyed he
missions attached to them.

IN 1725, Co Z el Paer determined, since no satisfaction could be
obtained fqf the incursions of the Spaniards and Indians, and
the loss of their slaves, to make a descent upon them. With a
party of three hundred men he entered Florida with the intention of
visiting upon the province all the desolation of retributive warfare.
nhabitawnt to eth etetion withn the cstle. In his morse he
inhabitants eek-2.r.tfon within the castle. In his course he


swept every g before him, destroying every house, field and im-
provement within his reach, carrying off the live stock, and every-
thing else ofvale. The Spanish Indians who fell within his power
were slain in large numbers; many were taken prisoners. Outside
of the walls of St Augustine nothing was left undestroyed. The
Spanish authorities received a memorable lesson in the law of retried
, bution.


ENGLAND claimed and occupied the country up to the margin
bfthe St. Johns, and established a post at St. George Island.
This was deemed an invasion of their territory by the Span-
iards. The poet was attacked, unfairly, the English say, and some
of their men murdered. Oglethorpe, upon this, "acting under the
instructions of the home government," commenced hostilities by
ranging a joint attack of the forces of South Carolina and Geor-
gia, with a view to the entire conquest of Florida.
The instructions of the King of England to Ogethtborpaere
that he should male a naval and land attack upon St. Augustine.
"If iFt1hflutplW God to give you success, you are either to demolish
the fort or bastions, or put a garrison in it, in case you shall have
men enough for that purpose, which last, it is thought, will be the
best to prevent the Spaniards from endeavoring to retake and settle
the said place at any time hereafter."

Don Manuel Monteano was 1
command of the garrison. The ci
poor condition to withstand an
On the 11th of November, 1737,
Governor General of Cuba that
defense; it has no casements for
necessary elevation to the counter
to the curtaine, nor other exterior

then Governor of Florida, and in
ty and castle were previously in a
attack from a well prepared foe.
Governor Monteano writes to the
'the fort at this place is its only
the shelter of the men, nor the
scarp, nor covert ways nor ravelins
works that could give time for a

long defense. It is thus mared outside, and it it without soul
within, for there are no cannon that could be fired twenty-four
hours, and though there were, artillerymen are wanting to manage
the guns." Under the superintendence of an able offieer of engineers
the works were put in order; the ramparts were heightened and
cremated, a covered way was made by planting and embanking
four thousand stakes. Bomb-proof vaults were constructed and
entrenchments thrown up around the town, protected by ten salient
angles, many of which are still visible. The garrison of the town


was about seven hundred and forty soldier, according to Governor
Monteano's return of troops on the 25th of March, 1740; the total
p.gpiation of St. Augustine of all classes was tm b fuand one
hnnArd and forty-three.
Previous tohioattack upon the place General Oglethorpe ob-
tained the following information from prisoners w m he ook at
the outposts: "They agree that there are fifty pieces of cannon in
the castle at St. Augustine, several of which are brass from twelve
to forty-eight pounds caliber; it has four bastions. The walls are of
stone and casemated. The square is nearly fifty yards. The ditch
is forty feet wide and twelve feet deep, six of which is sometimes
filled with water. The counter soarp is faced with stone. They have
lately made a covered way. The town is fortified with an entrench-
ment, salient angles and redoubts, which inclose about half a mile
in length and a quarter of a mile in width. The inhabitants and
garrison, men, women and children, amount to above two thousand
five hundred. For the garrison the King pays eight companies sent
from Spain two years since, for the invasion of Georgia. The com-
panies numbered fifty-three men each, three companies of foot and
one of artillery of the old garrison, and one troop of horse, one hun-
dred men. Of these one hundred are at St. Marks, ten days' march
from St. Augustine upon the Gulf of Mexico. One hundred are
disposed in several small forts."
-OfT iItp s there were two, one on each side of the St.
Johns, opposite eac o er; on at icoTlaie other at Diego. The
purpose of thet frt-a PTclata was to gu thepassage of the never
and to-fpeeroph comhlunicatiaon wiE t. iar s-aind ensacola
when they were thnstanetd with invasion by Oglethorpe. Messen-
gers were dispatched to the Governor of Pensacola for aid, also to
Mexico by the same route. The fort at Diego was but a small work,
erected by Don Diego de Spinosa upon his ownn este. Teas
of it, with one-or two cannon, are still visible. Fort Moosa was an
outpost at the place now known as North river, about two miles
north of St. Augustine; a fortified line, a considerable portion of
which may now be traced, extending across from the stockades on
the St. Sebastian to Fort Mooa, with communication by a tide
creek extending through the marshes between the castle at St.
Augustine and Fort Mooes.
Oglethorpe first attacked the two forts at Picolata, one of
which was e o' It was a
place of some strength. Its remains still exist about one-fourth of
a mile north of the termination of the Bellamy road. It is an
earthwork and is still easily traced.
After a slight resistance both forts fell into Oglethorpe's


hands, much to the annoyance of Governor Monteano. Oglethorpe
speaks of "Fort Francis as being a work of much importance It
commanded the passes from St. Augustine to Mexico, also to the
country of the Creek Indians, also being near the ferry where the
troops which came from St. Augustine must pass He found in
it one mortar, two carriages, three small guns and ammunition; also
one hundred and fifty shells and fifty glass bottles full of gunpow-
der with fuses; a somewhat novel missile of war.
The English general's plan of operation was that the crews and
troops of the vessels should land and throw up batteries upon St.
Anastasia Island, thence bombarding the town, while he himself
designed to lead the attack on the land side. Havig ved in
position, he gave the signal to attack to the fleetfy sending up a
rQcket: bunt zpoa e camefom the vessels. He had the morti-
fication of being obliged to withdraw his troops. The troops were
not able to effect a landing from the vessels in consequence of a
number of armed Spanish galleys having been drawn up inside the
bar, so that no_ landing cod be made except under a severe fire,
while the galleys were protected from an attack by the ships in con-
sequence of the shoal water.
He then prepared to reduce the town by regular siege, with a
strict blockade by sea. He hoped by driving the inhabitants into the
castle to encumber the Governor with useless mouths; to reduce
him to the necessity of a surrender to avoid starvation. The town
was~laed under the range of his heavy artillery and mortars, and
soon become untenable, forcing the citizens geirally to seek th
shelter of 16e fort.
Colonel Virnderduysen was posted at Point Quartel and other
troops upon Anastasia Island and the North Beach. Three bat-
teries were erected, one on Anastasia Island, called the Poza Whch
consisted loffour eighteen pounders and one nine pounder; one on
the point of the woods of the island mounting two eighteen pound-
ers. The remains of the Poza battery are still to be seen almost
as distinctly marked as on the day of its erection. Four mortars
and forty cohorns were employed in the siege.
The siege began on the 12th of June. On the night of the 25th
a sortie was made from the castle against a portion of the troops
under command of Colonel Palmer, who was encamped at Fort
Moosa, including a company of Scotch Highlanders, numbering
eighty-five men, under their chief, Captain McIntosh, all equipped
in Highland dress. Thi attack was entirely successful; the Eng
lish n itsevwere loe, their coTonelTeing killed, with twenty
Highlander twenty-seven solders and a number of Indians
Tis affair at Fort Moosa has gene-lyesi considered as a


surprise, and its disastrous result the consequence of carelessness
and disobedience of the orders of Oglethorpe. Captain Mclntosh,
the leader of the Highlanders, was taken prisoner and finally trans-
ferred to Spain. From his prison, St. Sebastian, under date of
June 20th, 1741, he gives the following account-of the matter: "I
listed seventy men, all in Highland dress, and marched to the
siege, and was ordered to scout nigh St. Augustine and molest the
enemy while the general and the rest of his little army went to an
island where we could have no succor of them. I punctually obeyed
my orders until seven hundred Spaniards sallied out from the gar*
prison an hour before daylight. They did not sunrise us f
were all under arms, ready to receive tem, w hw i
keeping up a constant firg for a quarlrf ahour, When they
pe-in- wf&h nitiihr,, ,we were ob igedto take our swords until
the most of us were shot and cut to pieces. You are to observe we
had but eighty men, and the engagement was in view of the rest of
our army, but they could not come to our assistance by being on the
island under the enemy's guns. They had twenty prisoners, a few'
got off, the rest were killed; we were informed by some of them-
selves they hd three hundred kil n th besides several
wounded. We were stripped naked of clothes and brought to St.
Augustine, where we remained three months in close confinement."
This officer was Captain John McIntosh, and his son, Brigadier
General McIntosh, then a youth of fourteen, was present in the
engagement and escaped without injury. The family of McIntosh
has always been conspicuous in the history of Georgia.
The large number of persons collected within the walls of
the castle, under the protection of its battlements, soon gave rise to
serious apprehensions on the part of the besieged of being reduced
by starvatiopatothe. necessity of a speedy surrender. The batteries
of Oglethorpe were planf'ait` o-grLc-distance that he could
produce but little effect by shot or shell upon the castle, although
he rendered the city itself untenable. The heat of the season and
the-exposure to which the provincial militia were unaccustomed
soon produced considerable sickness and discouragement .in the in-
vading forces, and affected Oglethorpe himself.
The Spaish Governor sent most urgent messages to the Gov-
ernor of the island of CUba, w- ch were&itn it ft'ity runners
along the coast, and thence by small vessels across to Havana. In
one of these letters he says: "My grtest anxiety is for provisions,
and if they do not come there is no donut o our dying of 7 ger."
In another Iette1i iesays: "Tassure your lordship that it is Imjpossi-
ble to express the confusion of the place, for we have no protection
except the fort; all the rest is open field. The families have aban-


doned their houses and come to put themselves under the guns,
which is pitiable. If your lordship, for want of competent force,
cannot send relief, we must all perish."
With the exception of the Fort Moos affair, the hostilities
were confined to the exchange of shots between the castle and the
batteries. Considerable discrepancy exists between the Spanish and
English accounts as to the period when the garrison was relieved;
it was the communication of the fact of relief having been received
which formed the ostensible ground for abandoning the siege by
Oglethorpe. His strength was insufficient for an assault, and his
with supplies (lid not arrive une siege was ir c The real
fact, I am inclined to think, is, that the vessels with supplies ar-
rived at Matanzas Inlet, where they awaited orders from Governor
Monteano as to the mode of getting discharged; that the informa-
tion of the arrival, being known at St. Augustine, was communi-
cated to the English, and thus induced their raising the siege. In.
fact, tbhhope of starving out the garrison was all that was left to
Ogletho His strength was insufficient for an assault, and his
mians madequate to reduce the castle which was well manned and
well provided with means of defense.
It was, in truth, a hopeless task, under the circumstances, for
Oglethorpe to persevere, and it is no impeachment of his courage
or his generalship that he was unable to take a fortress of very
respectable strength.
The siege continued from the 12th of June to the 20th of July,
. period of thirty-eight Ays. T e bombardment was kept up
twenty days, but owing to the lightness of the guns and the long
range, little effect was produced on the strong walls of the castle.
Its spongy, infrangible walls received the balls from the batteries
like otton bales or a sand attery-alma&t without making any
imprein. This may be seen on examination, since the marks
remain to this day, in places where the walls have not been repaired.
The prosecution of the siege having become impracticable,
preparations were made for retiring. Oglethorpe as a pardonable
and characteristic protest against the assumption of his acting from
any coercion, with drums beating and banners displayed, crossed
over to the main land and marched in full view of the castle to his
encampment, three miles distant, situated at the point now known
as Pass Navarro.
Great credit and respect have been deservedly awarded to
Governor Monteano for the courage, skill and perseverance with
which he -ustained the siege.
It is well known that the English general had, in a few months,
an ample opportunity of showing to his opponent that his skill in


defending his own territory under the most disadvantageous cir-
cumstances was equal to that of the accomplished Monteano himself.
The defense of Frederica and signal defeat of the Spanish forces at
Fort Simons will ever challenge for Oglethorpe the highest credit
for the most sterling qualities of a good general and a great man.
Two years subsequently Qlethorpeagaia advanced into Flor-
ida. e appeared before the gates of St. Augustine and endeav-
ored to induce the garrison to march out tb meet him; but they kept
within their walls. Oglethorpe, in one of his dispatches, says in the
irritation caused by their prudence, that they were so "meek there
was no provoking them." As in this incursion he had no object in
view but a devastation of the country and harassing the enemy, he
shortly withdrew his forces.
A committee from the South Carolina House of Commons, in
a report upon the Oglethorpe expedition, thus speaks of St. Augus-
tine, evidently smarting under the disappointment of their recent
"July 1st, 1741, St. Augustine is in possession of the crown of
Spain, is well known to be situated but a little distance from hence,
in latitude thirty degrees, in Florida, the next territory to us. It is
maintained by his Catholic Majesty partly to preserve his claim to
Florida, and partly that it may be of service to the plate fleet when
coming through the Gulf by showing lights to them along the coast,
and by being ready to give assistance when any of them are cast
away.. The castle, by the largest account, doth not cover more than
one acre of ground, but it is allowed, on all hands, to be a place of
great strength, and hath usually a garrison of three or four hundred
men of the King's regular troops. The town is not very large,
and is indifferently fortified. The inhabitants, many of whom are
mulattoes, of a savage disposition, are all in the King's pay; also
being registered from their birth, and a severe penalty laid on
any masters of vessels that shall attempt to carry any of them off.
These are formed into a militia, and have generally been com-
puted to be about the same number as the regular troops. Tus
relying hluy orJ ir._ ce, their
thoughts never tlmed to trade or agriculture, but dependent on for-
dign supplies for the most common necessaries of life, they spent
their time in universal and perpetual idleness. From such a state
mischievous inclinations naturally spring up in such a people, and
having leisure and opportunity ever since they had a neighbor, the
fruits of whose industry excited their desire and envy, they have
not failed to carry those inclinations into action as often as they
could, without the least regard to peace or war subsisting between


the two crowns of Spain and Great Britain, or to stipulations
agreed upon between the two governments."
Among the principal grievances set forth in this report was the
carrying off and enticing and harboring their slaves, of which a
number of instances are enumerated. They attributed the negro
insurrection, which occurred in South Carolina in 1739, to the con-
nivance and agency of the Spanish authorities at St. Augustine,
and they proceeded in a climax of indignation to hurl their denun-
ciations at the supposed authors of their misfortunes in the follow-
ing terms: "With indignation we look at St. Augustine (like an-
other Sallee), that den of thieves and ruffians, receptacle of debt-
ors, servants and slaves, bane of industry and society, and revolved
in our minds all the injuries this province had received from them
ever since its first settlement. That they have, from first to last,
in times of profoundest peace, both publicly and privately, by
themselves, Indians and negroes, in every shape molested us, not
without some instances of uncommon cruelty."
It is very certain that there was on each side enough sup-
posed cause of provocation to induce far from an amiable state of
feeling between the neighboring colonies.


TO partially explain the cause of the action of Pedro Menendes,
during his governorship of Florida, I find it important to go
back to earlier history to find the motive for such action. To
understand the situation, it is necessary to give a part of the history
of the Inquisition-both ancient and modern. It is claimed by
some that the inquisition originated from God, and that Adam and
Eve were the first prisoners brought before that tribunal, and fur-
nished the model of the forms observed in the trials of the holy
office. The sentence of Adam was the mark of the inquisitional
reconciliation; his raiment, the skins of animals, the model of the
San-benito, his expulsion from paradise the precedent for the con-
fiscation of their property. This precedent is claimed to have been
carried down to Moses, Nebuchadnezter, King David, John the
Baptist and even our Saviour, in which they claim to have precepts
and authority for the holy office.
Acts of intolerance have been committed by all denominations
of the Christian faith since Christianity has been known, and al-
ways will be, without a doubt. The crusaders who swept- so fiercely
over the southern part of France in the thirteenth century, blasting


the country and exterminating the people, first laid the foundation
and erected the bloody altars of that tribunal It would be unjust
to say the Catholic Church or clergy were responsible for the actions
of the inquisition. It arose during the feudal age, when mankind
was undergoing a transition from the barbarous to the civilized
state; when a strong attempt was being made to establish a law that
would give reasonable protection to all mankind. With what suc-
cess we can only tell by looking back at the history of the world,
from that time to the present. It was at a period of the world's his-
tory when might ruled, instead of right; when the baser passions
governed instead of the nobler ones; at a time when the greed of
power, wealth, and rank held almost unlimited sway over the world.
There have been too many brave and noble men among the Spanish
clergy to give them the blame of the modern inquisition; many of
their own number fell under the ban of that fatal tribunal. When
we look back over the history of Spain, we find too many brave and
good men to believe for one moment that it was knowingly sanc-
tioned by them; that it was established for political purposes by
designing men, I think all will admit That it ever received the
sanction of the church, was through the action of a few, brilliant,
but misguided, men, whose Christian principles were badly warped,
and almost completely obliterated, by their greed of power, wealth
and rank.
When we look back over the bloody record of that fatal band,
we wonder how it was possible for a people to submit to such an
injustice. We can readily understand after reading the history of
the inquisition, and with the knowledge that Pedro Menendez was
a member of the inquisitional court, what was undoubtedly the
cause of his action against the French Huguenots. He had been
appointed Adelantado of Florida, with the full understanding that
he was to expel the Frencfrom te territory claimed by Spain,
which, at ffat time eendefrof m thei Gulf fihe CE isapeae, and
westward to Mexico. He evidently could not have furnished pro-
visions for the two colonies, had he accepted the surrender of the
French. It is evident that if was through the knowledge of the
difficulties that he was placed in that he caused the massacre of the
French after their shipwreck. He was strengthened in this course
by the order of the Inquisitor General, as he was a member of the
inquisitorial court, and received definite orders to banish or extermi-
nate therench colonists, as they were deemed hereticalat that
time. In looking back, we can see the difficulties that Menendez
lab d u r in h his colon, when threatened with arv-
ation. He went to Cuba before his supplies had become exhausted,
and, upon his arrival, he found the Governor of Mexico had ar-


rived before him; there had been such a dispara" reort de
by the men whA~iadeserted. his standard, e needed sup-
pli we refund him. It was.under these adverse circumstances
that the manhood of Menendez shone out bright andicWATefa1od.
He pawned the jewels and the badge of his order and raised' ias
enough for the necessary supplies for his colony, and at once hast-
ened back to his distressed people. I think there can be no ques-
tion about the action of Menendez, in the position he was placed
with the Huguenots.
After several modifications the detection of heretics was com-
mitted to the Dominican friars. In 1233, a code for the regulation
of their proceedings was formed and adopted in Germany and Italy,
and introduced into Aragon in 1242, when additional provisions
were established by the Council of Tarragona, together with those
of 1233, which were the primitive instructions for the tribunal in
The ancient inquisition bore the same peculiarities in its fea-
tures as the modern; the same secrecy in its proceedings; the insid-
ious modes of accusation and use of torture and penalties for the
offender. The manual drawn up by Eginerich, an Aragonese, in-
quisitor of the fourteenth century, for the instruction qf the
judges of the tribunal, prescribed all those forms of interrogations
by which the unwary, and perhaps the innocent, victims might be
circumvented. The rules of the ancient were no less repugnant to
justice than the modern, but were less extensive in their operations.
The persecution fell very severely on the Albigenses of Aragon and
Provence, who.were the principal victims of that time.
The inquisition was not fully established in Castile until the
reign of Isabella. It was certain that there was no lack of interest
by St. Ferdinand, who heaped the fagots on the burning pile with
his own hand, and John II., Isabella's father, who hunted the
Basques like so many wild beasts.
By the middle of the fifteenth century the Albigensian heresy
had been nearly exterminated by the inquisition, when a new people
came into prominence, that were frugal and industrious and had
acquired wealth and power by their industry. The inquisitors saw
at once what a chance there was to wring wealth out of these inof-
fensive people, and Spain can't but blame herself for her loss of
power by the expulsion of the Jews and Moriscos. That Ferdinanid
should have listened to the counsel of such men as Alfonso de Ojido,
Diego de Merelas and Nicholas Francisco is surprising. That there
was a deep-laid scheme by these men to confiscate most of the
property owned by them is evident. Ferdinand's intercession with
Isabella caused her to sanction the confiscation from her people.


Isabella's serious temperament naturally disposed her to re-
ligious nuences. notwithstanding the independence exhibit by
her in all secular affairs. In her own spiritual concerns she
evinRed hmiy ad deferred implicitly to what she deemed the
superior sagacity of her instructor. An instance of this is worth
recording. Fray Ferdinand de Talavera, archbishop of Grenada,
was appointed confessor to the Queen; he remained seated. Isabella
remarked that "it was usual for both parties to kneel." "No,"
replied the priest, "this is God's tribunal; I act here as his minister,
and I should keep my seat; your highness should kneel before me."
Isabella complied at once, and afterward said, "this is the confessor
I wanted."
It would have been well for Spain if this office had been held
by Talavera instead of being transferred to Thomas de Torque-
mada, a man who contained more pride, bigotry and intolerance in
his heart than any man in Spain. His teaching went far to pervert
the natural kindness of heart shown in most of Isabella's actions
in life.
It is due to Isabella's name to say that it was through the
influence of this man that she solicited from Sixtus IV. a bull for
the introduction of the tribunal It was through this intercession
that he issued a bull November 1st, 1478, authorizing the appoint-
ment of two or three inquisitors for the suppression of heresy
throughout Spain.
On the 2d of January, 1481, the court commenced operations
and published ai edict requiring all persons to aid in apprehending
all known or suspected of heresy. Every mode of accusation was
indicated, and the numbers increased so rapidly that it was difficult
to find prisons for them.
The inquisitors adopted the policy of the ancient tribunal,
and proceeded with a despatch that could have paid little regard to
legal form. Six convicts ere burned on the 6th of January, seven-
teen in Marche 19 1ar u arjed in the auto
deF Seive (See page 252, Prescott, VoL I., Inquisition, which
was prepared on a stone pile, erected in the suburbs of the city,
with four stakes attached T the corners to which the unhappy suf-
ferers were bound for the sacrifice, and celebrated as the place
where heretics were burned, and ought to burn, as long as any
could be found.
Many of the persons convicted were persons estimable for
learning and probity; and among these three priests are named,
together with individuals filling judicial and high municipal sta-
tions. The sword of justice is observed particularly to strike at the

wealthy, the least pardonable offenders in times of proscription,
which evidently was the cause of their persecution.
The plague which desolated Seville this year, sweeping off fif-
teen thousand inhabitants, as if in token of the wrath of Heaven
at these enormities, did not paralyze the arm of that fatal tribunal.
A similar persecution went forward in the province of Andalusia
in 1481, two thousand were actually burned and a large number in
effigy, and 17,000 reconciled.
In 1483, mra was appointed inquisitor general with
power to frame a new consti o quition. This was
the origin of the modern inquisition, which, for three centuries, has
extended its fatal sway over Spain and Portugal. When arrested
they were cut off from all external communication. Counsel was
allowed by the judges, but they were not allowed to confer together.
If the prison d t' hi fnilt, or attempted to conceal the
ut e was subjected to the torture. This was administered
in the deep vaults of the inquisition, where the cries of the victim
could be heard only by his tormentors. The most odious feature
was the confiscation where all the expenses of the court had to be
paid before the crown received one farthing.
The last scene in this dismal tragedy was the auto de fe. The
most important actors in this scene were the unfortunate convicts
who were now disgorged for the first time from the dungeons of the
tribunal. They were clad in coarse woolen garments, styled san
benitos, brought close around the neck and descending to the knee.
These were of a yellow color, embroidered with a scarlet cross, and
well garnished with figured of devils and flames of fire, which were
typical of the heretics, and which served to make them more odious
to the multitude. The greater part of the convicted, however, were
reconciled. If the culprit acknowledged his guilt, his crime then
bore the character of sin, and punishment was commuted to penance.
The culprit prays, fasts and mortifies his body; instead of going to
the place of execution, he recites penitential psalms, hears mass,
duly examines the state of his conscience, becomes contrite, confesses
his sins and finally is restored to his family and to society. Tho
who refused to recant we delivered over as impenitent _hmetics,
to the seculararm in order to expiate tese b the most
painful death, with the consciousness still more painful that they
were t6-1nve e hiind them names branded *ith infamy, and their
families irretrievably ruined. That a manlike Torquemada, who
had been the author bf such crimes, should have been allowed to
live to an old age and die quietly in his bed, seems impossible in
this age. It would strengthen the belief in the Divine Power if this

person had received a fair proportion of all the torture that he had
inflicted on mankind, before his death; perhaps his constant ap-
prehension of assassination was a small portion of his punishment.
It is fortunate for mankind that the civil jurisdiction of inquisition
was practically abolished in 1808. After looking over the history
of the mn that Pedro Menendez was associate rt,-po to is
appointment as Adelanaf U-totrl tal is h ot surprising that
he massacred the French colonists.

iGovernor of Florida in 1755, and complete-tXie exterior works
and finished the castle.
The fort and defenses of St. Augustine were 191 years j_ con-
struction, and cost the Spanish government over thirty million of
dollars. The castle has never been taken by a besiegig en y.
It is a noble fortcaion, reqrg one hundred cannon and one
thousand men to defend it. Since it came into the possession of the
United States it has been strengthened by the water battery, which
is a very formidable defense. The fort at St. Augustine was desig-
nated Fort Marion, in honor of thq memory of Brigadier-General
Francis Marion of the Revolution, pursuant to general order No.
1, Adjutant General's Office, January 7th, 1825.

HE 29th of June 1565 Pedro Menendez de Aviles il from
Spain in the San Playo, with nineteen vesses, carrying fifteen
hundreds persons, micludng mechmiis of all kinds, for the
purpose of establishing a polCgy ip lprida. Other vessels followed,
under the command of Stephen de las Alas, with quite a number of
colonists, several Franciscan fathers, and priests of other orders-
twen -six hundred and foy-six pole embarked for Florida.
Menenz expended a million ducats in fitting out his colony.
He reached Porto Rico with only one-third of his fleet, they
having been dispersed by a storm. There he learned that the
French admiral had sailed before him, and captured a Spanish
vessel in the West Indies, thus opening hostilities. Menendez held
a council of war and de;c to pmed and otab the enh, who


had planted a colony on the St John's. He reached the coast of
Florida.on the 28th of August-the feast of St. Augustine. The
Ts Deum was chanted with great solemnity. Menendez sailed up
the coast in search of the French. Coming upon Ribault's vessels
at the mouth of the St. John's he announced his determination to
put them allWto djQ. o quarter at that-time was shown to the
Spaniards on sea or land by the French or English cruisers. Those
who escaped from the wreck of the armada on the coast of Ireland
were all put to death without mercy by the English, unless they
were rich enough to ransom their lives. Only a few years before,
Jacques Sarie, a French commander, had burned Havana and hung
his prisoners among the smoking ruins. The terms announced by
Menendez to the French were precisely those given to the Spaniards
by the French and English.
After an ineffectual pursuit of the French vessels, Menendez
sailed down the coast to the harbor of St. Augustine, where he had
determined to plant his settlement. His resolution was to fortify
his position there and hold out until the res t Tht flheVairived.
Entering thI aribor on6iTe 6th of September, he sent three
companies of soldiers ashore, under two captains, who were to select
a site and begin a fort. A caciue ve the new comers large
cabin near the seashore; around it the Spanish officers traced the
lines for a fort, the soldiers with their hands and anything they
could fashion into an implement digging the ditches and throwing
up the ramparts. The next day, September 7th, Mehendez landed
amid the thunder of artillery and the blasts of trumpets, with the
banner of Castile and Aragon unfurled. The priest, Mendoza
Grajales, who had landed the previous day, took a cross and pro-
ceeded to meet him, followed by the soldiers chanting the Te Deum.
Menendez advanced to the cross, which he kissed on bended knee,
as did all who followed him. The solemn mass of Our Lady was
then offered at a spot the memory of which has been preserved on
Spanish maps. It f mbre de Dios, asthere
the name ofs Gdld. Arst invokedby haful sacrifice of thejew
law. There, in time, the piety of the fafhful erected the primitive
Tiermitage or shrine of Nuestra Senora de la Leche. Thus began
the permanent service of the Catholic Church in the oldest city in
the United States, maintained now, with but brief interruption,
for more than three hundred years. The name of the celebrant
is not stated. We know that, besides Grajales, there was present
Dr. Salis Meres, brother-in-law of Menendez.
The work of landing the supplies for the settlers, and arms and
munitions for the soldiers, went steadily on, directed by Menendes
himself. His vessels could not cross the bar to enter the harbor,


and were exposed to the attacks of the French. In fact, his boats
while lading sppyes- were nearly captured by the French, who
suddenly appeared. The Spaniards ascribe their escape to Our
La dy fC'fso[ation at Utrera, whom they invoked in their sore
strait. As soon as all needed by his settlement was disembarked,
Menendez sent off his vessels and prepared to act on the defensive.
His forces consisted of six hundred men at arms. The French were
superior in numbers and had their ships.
The first line of defense at St. Augustine was an octagon. The
entrenchments were built with fascines, filled with earth and faced
with og jes4 aTip. Earth and wood was the only
material found at that time in this country that could be used in
the construction of lines of defense. Menendez extended his lines
and made an entrenched camp connecting with the fort for the
protection of his colony. They landed eighty cannon from the
ships; the lightest of them weighed two thousand _five hundred
The Spaniards kept theirpele at work extending and
strengthening their lines. Menendez appreciated his situation and
the immense amount of labor it would take to put his fort in a
state of defense, and complete an entrenched camp large enough to
protect his colony in the event of an attack from the French.
The fort was named San Juan de Pinas. In 1586 Sir Francis
Drake landed on Anastasia Island. He senFThi troops across the
river and burned the city and captured two thousand pounds ster.
ling in the fort. This money had been sent from Spain for the
payment of the troops. The Spaniards retreated in haste when the
English crossed the river, making little resistance. The fort
had been stockaded inside of the embankments, with loopholes for
riflemen and platforms for cannon, built of large pine logs.
In 1640, the Spaniards having subduedandj captured the Apa-
lachian Indians, they were brought to St. Augustine and forced to
labor upon the fortifications. At this period the fort and defenses
of the town were built of earth and wood. The Governor, finding
that there was nee f stronger an-- more permanent defenses,
commenced the use of the coquina rock for the reconstruction of the
fort and for building houses. The fort was strengthened by two
large towers, mounting twenty-six guns. This gave tEem a much
wider range for their guns than they had reviouly. They con-
structed an exterior and interior wall, sixteen feet apart, filling
between with earth well rammed.
In 1665, Captain Davia came up the coast with a fleet of eight
vessets. He landed and sacked the town wibiout meeting opposi-
tion, the inhabitants retiring into the fort for protection. Davis


did not attack the fort, although at that time it was incomplete
After Captain Davis' attack on the city the Spanish Governoragain
changed the plan of the fort to a trapezium, with out wall' IPe
feet at the terreplein and twelve feet at the base, built of coqina,
with-an interior wal thfeet thick. The space between the two
Wals was flled with earth, covered with rock for the terreplein.
It was twenty -one feet high, with ram rts and an intrinall
about two feet abave the l erreplein, on which the guns were
mounted. Th ererations filled with enr. Th thes
were fo feet wi e, way, g acis, ravelins and place of
satn were comp1ete- -
SThe Spaniards worked diligently on the castle until the siege
of 1702 by Governor Moore. It was then in a fair state of comple-
tioh. It' withstood the siege without material damage.
itwe 1703 and 1740, the fort was casemated and placed in
a splendid condition for defense with ample water supply for all
the people it could hold. The town was defended by a series of lines
of stockades and redoubts. The north by three lines of defense-
one from Fort Moosa to the St. Sebastian, one from the chapel of
Nuestra Senora de la Leche, where the Catholic cemetery is now.
located, and one from the fort to the city gates, thence to the St
Sebastian river. This line had an embankment and moat forty feet
wide. There were five redoubts on the Fort Moosa line, and three
redoubts on the-other two north lines-one on the west side between
the inner and middle north lines, also a line running from the west
point of the fort in and along the St. Sebastian marsh, thence turn-
ing to the eastward, making the south line, with five redoubts on
the west and two on the' south line. There were five interior line-;
the south interior line running from the Matanzas west, connecting
with the west line, the New Smyrna road and ferry across the St.
Sebastian river. The next interior line ran from the Matanzas west-
ward, connecting with the St. Sebastian line on Little Bridge street,
with a cross line forming a V, with the point near the monastery,
and a redoubt facing the south on each of these east and west lines.
The third interior line connects this second east and west interior
line about two-thirds of the distance from Matanzas to the St.
Sebastian, with five angles. The next interior line connects the
first redoubt on the fort line with the Matanas, with two redoubts
and two angles.
There was a large battery on Anastaaia Island, covering the
main entrance to the harbor. In vain Oglethorpe directed the fire
of his irge number of guns against the solid walls of the castle
The shot at such a long distance did not penetrate more than thirty-
three inches. This soft shell rock did not fracture or splinter in the


least, but impacked the same almost as the shot did that wastrown
into the redoubt-.hep niards had about ffty cannon, many of
them brass, ranging from twelve to f -tiht.i pounders, and com-
manded by thWRun~iillful General Monteano. On the 20th
day of July, after thirtyi h days' siege General Oglethore found
it wasg ile to breach th he case sucentl
make t antac cae on e esege retiredd

Governor Monteano repaired the walls of the castle where they
had been injured by the besiegers. In 1755, Don Alonzo Fernandez
de Herreda was appointed Governor of Florida, and completed the
exterior works and finished the fort as it now is, with the exception
of the water battery, which was constructed by the United States;
also the hot-shot furnace, which was completed in 1842;. also the
reconstruction and extension of the sea wall.
The Apalachian Indians were compelled to work on the castle
for siy ers. To their eFor s-are probably due the evidence of
the immense labor in the construction of the ditches, ramparts and
glacis, and the approaches, the huge mass of stone contained in its
solid walls. It required the labor of hundreds of wrln f ny
years, procuring and cutting stho-ne in the quarries on the island,
transporting Iem to the river and acrtosshe bay and fashioning
and raising them to their places; besides the Indians compelled to
labor on the structure, some labor was constantly bestowed by the
garrison. For a considerable period convicts were brouht he fm
Mexico to work op nte fenesan o her pu lic works. During the
repairs and extensions effected fy o no previous to the siege
by Oglethorpe, he worked one hundred and forty Mexican convicts.
The southwestern bastion is said to have been completed by Monte*
ano. Te bastions bore the names of St. Peter, St. Paul St.
Charles an. Ausnet
e un red guns for its complete armament, with a
garrison of one thousand men. It is completed on the Vauban plan
of fortification. It is one of the best of this plan of defense. Its
strength for resisting shot and shell has been thoroughly tested in
earlier days. It has never been taken, although twice besieged and
several times attacked.
Its frowning battlements and sepulchral vaults will long stand
after we, and those of our day shall be numbered with that long
past of which it is a memorial. Of the legends connected with its
dark chambers and prison vaults, the chains, the instruments of
torture, the skeletons walled in its secret recesses, of Coacoochee's
escape, and many other tales there is much to say; but it is better
said within its grim walls, where the eye and the imagination can


go together in weaving a web of mystery and awe over its sad aso-
ciations to the solemn sound of the grating bolts and clanking
No fortress in all our broad land has as many quaint legends
as this thrice nam structure-San Juan de Pinas, San Marco and
o e en ce is over draw bridge to therivelin'and
across a bridge to the portcu lis. -~T the entrance is the coat
of arms of Spain, with an ihatription which is translated: "Don
Fernandez the Sixth being King of Spain, and the Field Marshal
Don Alonzo Fernandez de Herreda, Governor and Captain-General
of the city of St. Augustine, Florida, and its province, this fortress
was finished in the year 1756. The works were directed by the
captain engineer, Don Pedro de Brazas y Garay."
On crossing the portcullis you pass through the massive door
into the sallyport; on the riPht arutw.o gfrnmR oms an"ti --eon.
Thre frtgMVfrioom has a very large fireplace, the nexthavifig a
smaller one. This dungeon was evidently used for the confinement
of prisoners for minor offenses. It was in this cell that Coacoochee
and Talums Hadjo were confined. These Ijdians. tarndthem-
seves for several days, until they were'lvrymuch emaciated. They
comp ainedto ihe commanding officer that the confineme t in the
dark cell made them sick; they were transferred to the co rt room
with Osceola, where'itheytade their m through iron bits eight
inches apart, running horizontally across the ventilator. ?Next to
thtedoFore three niches cut in the wall by Osceola to enable him to
climb up and sit on the ledge of the window over the door looking
into the quadrangle. Tie casemate to the left of the sallyprTtras
the commandant's quarters, and had a small fireplace. The next
casemate was for the staff and other officers of the garrison. The
next was used for the same purpose, except when the bishop came to
Florida to visit his diocese it was used for his quarters; as he came
but seldom it was used for officers' quarters principally. The next
casemate was the court room; it has a raised platform for the offi-
cers composing the court. On the next door is the last one of the
original Spanish locks of very large dimensions, which was first
locked, then a large bolt with a hasp closed the first keyhole and
locked with a padlock; this door is strapped inside and out and
bolted through the straps about five inches apart, so arranged that
if the woodwork should be burned or cut away no one could get
through the bars. The woodwork has been renewed; the lock and
bars are original; the doors were thus constructed to all of the case-
mates. In the northwest corner is the casemate that leads into the
magazine; in this room is a niche very peculiarly shaped. For
what purpose it was constructed no one can tell. There is a tra-


edition that the first room was used for the council If the com-
mandant wished to find out what action any member of that body
took on any measures that he put before them, he could conceal
himself in this niche in the magazine and find out what action
each member of the council had taken. There is a small aperture
from the niche into the council room, but not discernible from that

is the niche for the pat
adjoining rooms were
records of the colony,
before they were execute
demned prisoner into
kneel at the altar he co'
near the spring of the

11111k,111111 hpel. I
ron saint, St. Augustine, and the altar.
used ordinarily for the dormitories an
and for condemned prisoners to hear
ed. At that time they could not bring a
a chapel; the moment he had a chan
uld claim the right of sanctuary. In th
arch is a part of the old timbers that cr

the room to support the platform for the choir; on the
old timbers where the confessional was fastened to

right al
the wa

n this
d the
Lce to
re the

round circular place for the priest and for the person to confess;
next is a portion of the two founts for holy water. Who can give
the history of this chapel? We know that some of the brightest,
best and most patriotic Spanish clergy have celebrated mass within
its walls. During the attacks and sieges of this fortress, when they
have been driven from their monastery, church and chapel, they
gathered within these walls to minister, assist and console their
flock. Can we estimate the value of the labor of this noble band
of brothers during the long sieges, when the weeping mothers,
wives, sisters and daughters were expecting every moment to have
some one of their loved ones brought to them dead or wounded?

They were not safe at the altar from the flyi
shell. Nor when celebrating mass or giving
the dead were they secure from danger.

ing shot and bursting
the last sad rites to

The next room of historical important i the ennancarrah.
There were six crosses fastened to the wall on the right hand side of
this room, and a large cross at the back with two large shrines, and
two smaller shrines to the right and left of the large cross. Ths
was used for the punishment of prisoners; they were chained under
these crosses~fdr punishment ;tie chains were attached to a bolt in
the wall, it was fastened under the arms with cross chains over the
shoulders, holding the prisoners in an upright position so they could
neither sit nor lie down. There are two parallel lines at the spring
of t&ie ach with i rige~ialf circles above and small circles below. At
the entrance to this dungeon is a large circle with small circles cen-
tering on it; this entrance has been cut out at some time and then
made narrower again; a small part of this wall has been broken


away. The door was composed of three tiers of iron bars on broad
iron plates; two tiers vertical and one tier horizontal intersecting
every two inches.
Thin inngpnn wa evidently _sedl for general prisoners. The
room is thirty feet long on the west side, iixM T feet on the east
side, seventeen on the south and twenty on the north, making a part
of a triangle. The entrance to the next room is through an aperture
six feet high and two feet four inches wide. This room is five feet
wide at the east end and seven at the west, and twenty feet long,
fifteen feet high to the center of the arch. The next room is
entered through an aperture thirty inches in height by three feet
wide; this room is twenty feet in length, thirteen in width and
seven feet high. These two rooms have been the wonder of thou-
sands of people since they were first discovered in 1835. Some
very curious legends have been related about them. Some histo-
rians elaim that one was the magazine, others say that it was the
place for the disposal of rubbish for the garrison.
The magazine was in the northwest bastion. This is shown on
a copy ofThrplathrTo-i the Spanish government to the War De-
partment. These two rooms were built to cover a secret entrance to
the cagtl, and were evidently built for that purpose after several
attempts had been made to build a gallery from this inner room to
some point outside the castle. It was found to be impracticable.
They had to sink a shaft nearly twenty feet to connect with a gal-
lery under the moat. They found they could not drive the piling
for the foundation of the gallery in the limited space they had to
work in or keep the water from penetrating into the shaft and gal-
lery. The work was abandoned. No one outside the officials and the
troops of the garrison knew that the attempt was made to build a
secret passageway from this inner room to the outside of the fort
After_abahndningthe work the entrance to the first secret room was
walled p. It was evidently closed with arsolid ron door on the
outside, and walled up solid on the inside. There was a small con-
cealed entrance from the terreplein into this room; it was by this
giving way while they were moving one of the heavy cannon across
this man-hole that these rooms were discovered in 1835, fourteen
y&rs after it had been transferred to the United States. In this
room were cross timbers and racks for the punishment of prisoners
in extreme cases. There were two solid iron doors closing the en-
trance to the next room that opened in and out and could be
opened only from the side where they were closed. It is in this
room, tradition says, that two skeletons were found in iron cages
bolted to the wall--the skeletons of a man and a woman. The evi-
lences remaining, are the two places in the wall where the cages were


fastened. If they were confined there, what was it for? Who were
they ? What crime had they committed, if any ?
It is probable that the crime committed was that of being in
the way of some person.of rank and power. If they had commit-
ted a crime against the laws of the land they could have been
brought to trial and disposed of without the trouble of immuring
them in these secret dungeons.
I am told by those who have been through all the noted dun-
geons in the Old World that there are none there to equal these two
rooms. Once confined within its gloomy walls death was certain
within a few hours, without the least possible chance of escape. It
was a strong rod to hold over people to threaten then with the
acquaintance of these rooms, knowing that if they were sentenced
by the court, or inquisition, to be confined within their gloomy
walls they would never more be heard of in this world. None but
the officials knew what became of them. What a terror to evildoers
to threaten them with the acquaintance of these terrible dungeons I
The next room of historical importance is the room to the right,
under the ash, whichiiwai-used for the hospital. There is a niche
in this room on the left hand side as you go in, where, tradition
says, there was found eighteen thousand dollars concealed. At the
end is a very peculiar niche, which is supposed to have been used
for the dead until they were sent to their last resting place. This
is the last room that has historical interest. In the moat facing
the Matanzas, to the right and left on the inner sides of the bas-
tions, are a large number of bullet holes, which were made in the
execution of prisoners. There is no fortress in our country that
has so quaint a history as San Juan de Pinas, San Marco and Fort
Marion. It should be remembered that within these walls served
some of the best and bravest of the Spanish nobility, and at its
altar some of its best missionaries have celebrated mass and preached
the word of our Redeemer.
No one that has not visited this old fortress can conceive what
it is. One should sit within one of its casemates and listen to the
screech of those peculiar birds that nest and hatch their young
within its walls-the monkey-faced owl, one of the quaintest birds
on this continent-and view the peculiar shadows cast on its gray
and aged walls, or from its lofty watch tower see the moon rising
out of the broad Atlantic, casting a flood of light like burnished
silver over the water. This is one of the few places on this conti-
nent that takes us back to the feudal ages. On this broad terreplein
is one of the finest promenades in the United States. Who can
say that this is not one of the most historical points in all our
broad land?


aort.Marion is built on the plan of a trapezium after the
pattern established by Marshal Vauban, of France. It has four
bastion frLg curtains, twenty-six casemates, one magazine, four
dungeons and two small rooms under them rampart leading to the
terreplein, parapet and rampart, corridor, banquet, superior slope,
scarp and counter scarp wall connects demilune and two half
demilunes, covered way extending from the counter scarp to the
glacis, except on the water front, which has a water battery, built
by the United States in 1842; one watch tower, three sentry towers,
two drawbridges and one portcullis. The watch tower is a higher
elevation than the fort or ano otth rroundingcount
efia ing the sentinel to see every vessel or person approaching,
in time to give warning. It overlooked the Indian villages of
Tolomato and Topiqui. The three sentry towers are at the extreme
outer angles of the bastion, and are crenelled for riflemen to fire
through, and to enable the sentinels to see any one approaching the
The terreplein is the lce where the guns are mounted. The
Spanish g a were mounted on ar- field carriages. The fort has
embrasures on three sides only. On the water front the parapet is
lower than on the other sides, so as to allow them to bring their
heaviest guns to bear on the water front, as they had most to fear
from an attack by water. The parapet is the wall above the ram-
part, and extends from the banquet to te scarp; thieiiperior slope
ilshe top of the parapet, with a fall of one foot in five; the cordon
is a coping of dressed stone projecting eight inches from the face
of the scarp; it is rounded, so as to leave no sharp corners that a
hook might catch hold on, and to increase the difficulty in scaling;
it gives the scarp a finished appearance; the scarp wall inclines in
from the ground to the rampart, with' a slope of one-fifth; the mag-
istral is where the face of the scarp meets the under surface of the
cordon. From this line all distances are measured; it is the most
important line about the work. The counter scarp is the faall
of the oatthe water runa into the moat at high tide and runs
ou-at low tide. During the Spanish occupaion fWn ee were auto-
maic gates that opened when the tide came in and closed when it
started out, thus retaining the water. The cunette is the center of
the moat, with the earth sloping to it in a regular grade to carry
the water away. The quadrangle, or interior court, is one hundred
feet square; the terreplein is thirty-eight feet wide; there are four
bastion, one at eachcorner, wicTh enablebs thFdefet eto cogcen-
trate the fire of a whole front on any pointwiffifraige, and also
to sweep its own moats. The line of the fronts is broken up into


a number of lines in a peculiar manner, and the result is what is
known as a bastion front.
The demilune is V-shaped, the salient of which is toward the
middle of the south curtain, and protects the entrance. It has a
moat surrounding it. The walls are several feet lower than the
main work. The two sides are called faces; the interior is called
the gorge of the demilune. There are two half demilunes, one on
the north and one on the west curtains.
PLACES OF ABns.-To make a sortie, with any chance of suc-
cess, troops must be assem-leT~nonsiderabl e numbers, and col-
lumnsof attdk must ie organized as cTose to the enemy as
possible --wifi'-t discovery. There are two places on each front
for such assemblies: (1) The salient place of arms; (2) the
right re-entering place of arms; (3) the left re-entering place of
The salient place of arms is the part of the covered way in
the angle immediately in front of the salient of the demilune.
The right re-entering place of arms is where the covered way
in front of the right face of the demilune meets the covered way
of the main work. There both covered ways are widened consider-
ably, and the quadrangle (four-sided space) thus obtained is the
right re-entering place of arms.
The left re-entering place of arms occupies a similar position
in front of the left face of the demilune.
A salient angle is an angle that projects outward; a re-entering
angle is an angle that projects inward.
The glacis is to protect the scarp wall as much as possible from
an enemy's fire. It is a mass of earth thrown up outside the cov-
ered way, and sloping with the same inclination as the superior
slope of the parapet of the main work. To the gunner looking
over the parapet of the main work this slope should look like a con-
tinuation of the superior slope. The glacis extends outward always
at the same inclination until it meets the natural surface of the
ground upon which the fort is built. The crest, or highest point of
the glacis, is on the side of the covered way, where it ends abruptly
in a wall of masonry, just like a parapet.
*The main gate, or entrance, is in the middle of the south cur-



THE BESIEINQ ARMY.-When it has been determined to
Reduce a fortified p ce by regular approaches an army is toled
off for the work. The army should ina
alry, field artillery siege artillery and engineer troops, and should
be sufliciently trongor 6the work it has to do, for nof only must
it be able to execute all the siege operations required, but at the same
time to repel any possible sorties from the garrison and to
stand off any outside army that might attempt to raise the siege.
circumstances. As a ruile. hoP-- npa ha 6,500
infantry per mile of investments are none too many in a siege of
firsi-cs irTmhpotance.-
T1iD ARTIliEYn.-The number of field guns required de-
pends upon the number and character of the infantry troops. '3Q
better the infantry the fewer field guns are needed. On an average,
five guns per tusai ni ntryought to be enough.
.i"Civgu L.-Cav r .di s pensable in siege operations. The
country behind the besieging army, in all directions, must be con-
stantly scouted and thoroughly picketed during the siege, and
should a relieving army show itself anywhere within threatening
distance, contact with it must be maintained by cavalry troops and
the commanding general kept fully informed of all its movements.
As it is not unlikely that a portion of the besieging army will be
called upon to join battle with the relieving army during the prog-
ress of the siege, the former should have at least the usual propor-
tion of cavalry-say from one-eighth to one-fifth the number of its
THE CORPS OF OBssavATION.-Is that portion of the besieging
army detached to watch the movements of a relieving force, and to
fight if necessary.
SIEGE ARTILLERY.-Siege ns in 8~ uien ]mb agnd ar-
tilleryme. should be on hand, or within easy reach,
before me gs are undertaken. There is no fixed rule as
to th-e number and caliber of gunf required, unless it be "more the
better." The greater the number of guns in action the easier it is
to maintain an overwhelming fire with the accuracy which requires
deliberation. There is economy in it. The Germans had 200 rifled
siege guns and 88 mortars at the siege of Strasburg, and they could
have used more to advantage.
THE INVESTMENT.-The investment should be ~eden and
complete. Th r arm


corps of observation, advances rapidly, ive the enemy inside the
work, purg U ay prisoners as ibi aJ a the
roads an `tsle'a g 'TL"M1The main body of the besieging
army ioows te corps of observation.
THE CAMP.--Having got as close to the work as it is safe to
No, the besieging arm is distributed in convenient posions on all
siAes of the work, where camps are established facing outward and
out of sight of the enemy. The camp faces outward-that is away
from the work-beCMu.e a enMntona a k mnat come from that
Tf L LINE OF CIBCuVALnATION.-As the eatest dangr to
the besegg arm is apt to come rT rt fo es
itself in that direction Ater the camps are established, facing
outward as already said, a line of pntrpnPhmpnft is tho wn nihnut
100 yards in front of the camp. Of course, due advantage is
taken of all thei"aiatu iTfeat'res of the ground. Commanding
points-key points, as they are called-will be crowned with re-
doubts, armed with field artillery, and joined to each other by an
ordinary trench for riflemen.
THE LINE OF COUNTERVALLTION.-In rear of cams--that
is, toward the work-anthpr lin of nitrpehment ij thrown un.
This wi about the same distance in rear as the line of circum-
vallation is in front of the camp, with such variation as the features
of the ground may demand. The two lines are exactly alike, so far
as their construction is concerned. The keypoints are crowned
with redoubts armed with artillery and connected by rifle trenches.
This new line of entrenchments is called the line of countervall4-
Of course, the line of countervallation, being intended to stop;
any sortie from the work which might succeed in getting so far,
will be constructed on ground best suited for that purpose. Still, it
is not wise to have it too far away from the outer line. Any des-
perate attempt to raise the siege will consist of attack from both
directions and it is an advantage to be able to rapidly reinforce one
line from the other. Care should be taken, however, that the line
should not be placed so that an enemy in front of one could take
the other in reverse.
THn SwvaE.-While the camps, roads and lines are being
constructed n skerntp survey of the work and its s6 ondins
is xde, and a plan there f pzqn -tiformatig;n er^
commanding general This plan should show the position of the
saaMtrMT andls many of the details of the work as can be accurately
ascertained, especially on the fronts selected for attacks. The plan


should show such interior features of the works as have been ascer-
tained to exist.
SIEGE MATERIAL.-When the camps, roads and lines have been
completed, the besieging army is set to work preparing and col-
lecting siege material. Gabions, fascines, faggots and sap rollers
are made; logs are cut, hewed andliau e d; siege guns and mortars,
ammunitio, intrenching tools and stores are broughlit-iup'work-
shops, storehouses and magazines are built; necessary roads are
made, asd everything done that can in any way help along the siege
when it is once begun.
Ga:ows.-A gabion is a rough cylindrical wickerwork basket,
open at both ends. It is two feet in diameter, and two feet nine
inches high. Gabions are needed in immense quantities during
the siege. They are made by the troops. If there be any woods
in the vicinity of the camps, soldiers may provide themselves witl
the necessary material; if not, material is brought to the camps in
wagons. The material consists of stakes or pickets three feet long
and about one inch in diameter, and wattling twigs not quite so
thick as the pickets, but as long as can be procured.
To MAKE A GABIN.-A directing circle, which the soldiers
make for themselves, and a hatchet, are all the tools required. The
directing circle consists of two concentric hoops, the minor one
two feet in diameter, and the outer one four inches larger. Three
blocks, two inches thick, are inserted between the hoops and lashed
securely in position by means of pack thread. In making the gabion
the directing circle is laid on the ground and seven or nine
pickets are driven at equal distance apart in the open ring space
of the directing circle. These pickets are the ribs of the gabion.
When pickets are all driven the directing circle is slipped up about
half way to the top of the pickets and the upper half of the gabion
is completed by wattling twiggs between the pickets until the rough
basket work reaches nearly to the top of the stakes. The gabion
is then turned upside down, the directing circle is removed, the
other half of the gabion is wattled in as before, and the gabion is
Fascings are bundles of twigs nine inches in dimant ana .l
feet long, firmly bound at intervasith wire, spun yarn or tough
withes. When withes are used for binding their pliability can be
increased by warming over a flame immediately before using them.
Fascines are also made by the troops. The tools required are a
fascine horse, a fascine chocker and a hatchet. The horse and the
chocker are made by the men.
A fascine horse is made by driving stakes obliquely in the


ground in pairs, the stakes crossing each other about two feet
above the ground, thus making something like an improvised
sawbuck ten feet long. The pairs of stakes should be two feet
A fascine chocker is simply two stakes or handspikes and a
piece of rope, with loops at the end sufficiently long to go around
the loose bundles of twigs, which, when chocked, bound and
trimmed, becomes a fascine.
To make the fascine, lay a sufficient number of twigs length-
wise in the fascine horse, chock and bind at intervals of two feet,
and then trim the ends.
Fa ts are b ndles of twigs nine inches in diameter and two
feet nine inches long. They are bun in e same way asascnes,
around a mtcen l fake, which projects six inches at each end.
One end of this stake is sharpened, the other serves as a handle.
A sa roller is simply an enormous gabion, four feet four
inchWiTn diameter and seven feet inches iongand stuffed with
short fy'ine- It ip used in running a full sap.
PLANNING APPROACHES.-W ie the work above described is
going on, the commanding general, assisted by the proper staff
officers, anTdte plan or work already described, selects the bastion
to be attacked and plans the approaches. He selects sites for the
artillery park, the magazines, the engineering depot and the bat-
teries. In short he lavs down the siege operations on paper.
THE ARTILLERY PARK.-The artillery park is the ground ar-
senal of the Ripge. It should blished at some lce were it
will be safely hidden an convenient. It isTencem with a close
board fence, at least eight feet high, is guiarie Ta-iiocupied by
artillery 'troops, and it contains artillr stoerogm, m#z.Mes,
wheelwrig ops, acksmith shops saddlers' shops, and carpen-
ter s~iois.' l~Te'in-agatie 8 ou carefully separated from the
reS o5fthe park, and every precaution. should be taken to prevent
fire, or to extinguish it promptly should it break out anywhere.
The artillery park is ket tas ssible. Noone is allowed
to uentr wilput prr authority. Its business offices are situated
some distance om te par'. orders s for supplies are delivered to
the guard at the gate, and stores or ammunition are delivered to
applicants at the same place. Only the artillery troops on duty at
the park are permitted to enter.
THE ENOINEERINO DEPOT.-The engineering depot is an en-
closure somewhat similar to the artillery park. It contains the
entrenchi .nlg nerig instruments, materltur e Zas
in occupied by engineer troops.
an is occup. Kied, f^ y -s*- --


THE FIBST PARALLEL.-When the artillery park and engin-
eering depot are finished and stocked with at least ten days'
supply the plan of the siege completed, the first parallel is es-
TRACING THE PARALLEIT.-The first parallel is traced by the
engineers in the trenches. A dark night is selected; a foggy day
would answer the purpose better. The engineer of the trenches,
with a plan of the approaches in his hand, and accompanied by the
necessary assistants, finds his way to the middle point of the par-
allel. This point has beep previously determined and marked thus
X on the plan. From that point he starts an assistant to run the
right half and another to run the left half of the parallel. He
sees that these assistants start, each with the correct bearing of his
branch. Guided by the compasses, these assistants march slowly
along the line of the parallel, followed by a man carrying a tape
reel. The ends of the tape have been made fast to the initial point,
and the tape on each reel is the exact length of the half-parallel.
The tape is ordinary white tape, about three-quarters of an inch in
width. As it runs off the reel it is permitted to lie on the ground,
and is distinctly visible, even in the darkness. When the tape is all
paid out the engineers know that they have reached the end of the
first parallel, and the ends are made fast.
THE FIRST GUARD OF THE TRENCHES.-While the first paral-
lel is being traced a guard of sufficient strength. to occupy the par-
allel from end to end is drawn up in line some distance behind the
line of the parallel. The men are instructed to advance directly to
their front in perfect silence to, and twenty yards beyond, the white
tape, and there to lie down and watch. They are t e guard of the
tren-e e of-th
TH- WORKING PARTY.-A working party of sufficient strength
to occupy the parallel at one yard intervals is assembled at the en-
gineer depot at a short time before dark, and provided with in-
trenching tools. They are deployed at dusk in rear of the ground
first occupied by the guard of the trenches, and instructed to fol-
low the guard in its advance until they come to the white tape,
and there to dig, throwing the dirt toward the enemy. By daylight
a good serviceable trench will be thrown up forming th'efWf par-
proaches can be driven forward it is necessary that the artillery fire
of certain faces of the work be subdued. For this purpose enfilad-
ing batteries are constructed. The faces to be subdued are those
of the attacked bastion and the inner faces of the adjacent demi-


lunes. The enfilading batteries of the first parallel are placed so
as to sweep these faces. On the plan Nos. 1 and 3 on the right of
the parallel enfilades the inner face of the left adjacent demilune,
Nos. 5 and 7 the right face of the attacked bastion On the left
parallel Nos. 2 and 4 enfilade the inner face of the right adjacent
demilune, and 6 and 8 the left face of the attacked bastion. Each
battery should contain four siege guns. The positions for these
batteries are selected during the day and the batteries carefully
staked out. At night they are thrown up by artillery troops, and
the platforms are laid and the guns placed in position. On the
morning of the second day then eight batteries of the first parallel,
containing thirty-two siege guns, should be ready for action. If
it be deemed advisable, more batteries may be constructed. There
is room for any number of them.
the besieged garrison, to break up its bombproof- sheleirand gen-
erally demolish the protections, and, if possible, blow up its mag-
azines, a number of mortar batteries are constructed in front of the
first parallel. The heaviest mortars are placed so as to fire along
the capitals of the attacked bastions, and adjacent demilunes. Thus
eight mortar batteries are placed on the line a b, -our on
c d, and four on e f, and, as each battery should contain four
mortars, there would be sixty-four mortars in front of the first
These mortar batteries are constructed by artillery troops dur-
ing the second night of the siege. They should be sunken batteries,
so as to mask the fire of the parallels, and they should all be ready
to open the second morning.
ROAD-MAXING.-During the first day the working party on
duty perfects and completes the first parallel, dig the necessary
drains and ditches, and makes a good macadamized road in the bot-
tom of the trench throughout the whole extent of the parallel.
Other working parties build roads, also macadamized, connecting
the approaches with the artillery park. All the roads should be
finished before night. The batteries on the right of the parallel
have exclusive use of the left road. The mortar batteries must use
the middle road.
THE FIRST BOMBARDMENT. the second momof the
siege iould be opened fro -tin,
each battery g fipret and the
fire sho isrrot t the face at-
tacked are practi silenced. It is not to be assumed that the
casualttTfriltr e on one si e during this bombardment. Guns and


carnages will be disabled in the siege batteries as well as in the
work. But the besiegers are better prepared to replace guns than
the garrison. A number of guns stand ready near the siege bat-
teries, under the shelter of the parallel, and whenever a gun is dis-
abled another is run forward to displace it, and the fire is delayed
but a few minutes. Disabled guns and material are immediately
sent back to the artillery park, strong detachments of park artil-
lerymen being always on hand near the batteries for this kind of
ROAD IEonLATION.-Tlhe road from the artillery park to the
batteries must always be et open for traf To this end every-
body connected with the siege must confine themselves strictly to
their allotted roads. Infantry troops, ambulances, and all sup-
plies other than artillery material and ammunition, should never
use the artillery roads, and the rule, "keep to the right," should be
strictly enforced on all roads.
THE APPBOACHES.-Three approaches ar riven forrd from
the first parallel on the third night of the siege; one along the
capital of the attacked bastion, and one along the capital of each
adjacent demilune. They are known as the right, left and center
attack, according to their position in line. These approaches are
not driven straight along the capital, as that would expose them to
a sweeping fire from the work. To avoid such an enfilade they
zigzag like a ship beting to windward, anT never present an d
to any portion o etheiesieged work. The rule is that the prolonga-
tion of every branch of the approaches must pass in front of every
salient of the besieged work.
WORKING PARTIEs.-The approaches are driven forward by
workingparties detailed by cQmpnfrom the infantry of the be-
sieging army, In such numbers as the engineer of the trenches may
rre. Batteries and artillery communications are made and re-
paired by artillery troops assigned to that work by the chief of ar-
tillery. The tour of duty for working parties should be eight hours.
The reliefs on duty during the night drive the approaches as far
forward as practicable, doing the work in the rough as it were.
Those on duty during the day deepen and widen the trench, attend
to its drainage and construct a good, practicable macadamized road
along it. The road and the drainage are very im_~ rtant features.
If they be -nt, t t to be6 impassable
quagmire. It must be remembered that the approaches are the
great Iighways of the siege, and that there is a constant stream of
heavy traffic passing along them to and from the front.
THE SIMPLE TRENCH.-As long as the danger from the


enemy's fire is inconsiderable-that is, at lon range-the ap-
pr ae e by means of the simple trencht
is, the men distribute themselves on the line marked out, and cover
themselves as quickly as possible by digging and throwing the earth
toward the enemy. The trench should be at least five fee deep
aLnine feet wide at the bo o. ons sod be used in its
construction. --
TRACING THE APPROACHES.-The engineer of the trenches
sees that sufficient work is laid out for every working party in ad-
vance. He has an assistant with each party, and it is his duty to
trace the approaches. This is done b stretching a white tape
along the line of the approach Te men o the working party, if
the advance be by m'ansi oir the simple trench, arrange themselves
along the tape and dig, throwing the earth over the tape in the di-
rection of the enemy. As a rule, the simple trench can be used up
to the second parallel
always have their arms stacked within reach, and are ready in some
measure to defend themselves in case of attack, still a strong guard
is always necessary to protect not only the workmen, but eir work
The orce thus employed is known as the guar of trenches; It
is detailed by battalions, the roster being kept at the headquarters
of the besieging army; and its tour of duty is twenty-four hours.
A sufficient number of battalions are detailed to completely occupy
the parallel, and, in addition, several field batteries and battalions
of cavalry are detailed to cover flanks. These take up a convenient
position, hidden from the enemy, outside of and some distance be-
hind the batteries, on the flank of the first paralleL While the
approaches are being driven forward from the first parade e
guArd h trs occu the parallel.
THE SECOND PARALEL.-The working parties in the ap-

preaches are safe from attack as ong as tey are nearer te guards
in the parallel than the enemy in his outworks but in course of
time they get so far to the front that they are liable to be umped
on by a sortie before the guard can come to thir nee. To
avoid this dangr the second parallel is constructed at a
l li^ i that is, less tan ohlf-way to the
enemy's nearest outwork. There is no regulation distance between
The second parallel is similar to the first, but shorter, so that
the :Fe the parallel are covered oy re rom t first parallel,
and the artillery fire from the enfilading batteries will pass outside
its extremities. If the work on the approaches has rrorressed fa-

La -


vorably the second parallels should be thrown upon the fifth ngt
of the The guard of the trenches move into it before day-
ITght on the fifth morning. Still work continues on it after its
occupation until it becomes a safe, serviceable and convenient ave-
nue of communication and lodgment of troops. To enable the
guard of the trenches to mdvanp pmnptly over the parallel against
ansortie that ma be sent out by the besieged prison, the side
of trenc toward t the in oterim- rarrapet
are cut into steps and riveted with finees.
of the-first parallel in finishing the work assignedo them, and also
to counterbatter the curtains and inner face of the collateraTlas-
tions batteries are constructed on the flanks of these cond parallel
esmilar to those on the flank of the first. These batteries should
be so plac anatto mask the fire of the batteries -f the first
peT. The batteries of --he'second parallel may be animi with
guns and mortars of smaller caliber than those of the first.
BREACHING THE DtMILU'N.-Before the introduction of rifled
cannon it was necessary to drive forward the approaches to the very
crest of the glacis and there establish batteries to breach the scarp.
But this is no longer necessary. Indeed, a breach can be ade at
one mile range with greater facility tan at sorter ranges and
the wonM mlighte uM rCiaf. f
the rst parallel has been establish 00;t O, yardsof the
works, the batteries o a parallel will be favorably sitatid for
bflching batteries. If, howeverthe rst parallel was established
at gruutrdi-sGnce, say 3,000 yards, then the breaching batteries
would be on the second parallel. The batteries on the first parallel
are within easy breaching distance.
When the guns on the faces of the attacked bastions and those
on the inner faces of the adjacent demilunes have all been silenced,
and the fire from other parts of the works is well under control,
the two demilunes are subjected to a steady shower of shell from
the mortars in the first and second parallels. This fire is intended
to drive the enemy out of the demilune and its covered way and
places of arms, and should be kept up night and day. Meantime
the batteries of the second parallel are assigned the duty of
keeping down the fire of the work and preventing repairs, and
the batteries of the first parallel prepare to breach the demi-
TH THID PARALLL.-Assuming that the second parallel
was established about 1,200 yards from the work, further ap-
proaches by means of simple trench will be too dangerous and re-

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