EDWIN L. GREEN, Ph.D.
Professor of Greek in Central University, Richmond, Ky.
WILLIAMS & WILKINS COMPANY,
Eownm L. GREEN
HON. WILLIAM N. SHEATS,
To whom, for his generous encouragement, this book is gratefully
dedicated by the author, who himself is a son of Florida.
The Honorable Superintendent of Public Instruc-
tion of Florida has for some time endeavored to obtain
a history of the State for use in the public schools.
Hearing that the author had been devoting study to
Florida, he suggested that a book be written suited to
the needs of his schools; and this work is then due
first of all to his kind suggestion, but also to the gener-
ous encouragement given at all times, especially in the
securing of a publisher. The author has made an at-
tempt to express in part his appreciation of this kind-
ness by dedicating his humble book to the Honorable
Superintendent William N. Sheats.
This history is, as the title indicates, a school book,
designed to give to the children of the schools a
knowledge of the fascinating history of their native
State, and the author has endeavored to keep their
requirements in view, especially in employing a plain
and simple style. Each chapter is divided into sec-
tions furnished with headings explaining theircontents.
Questions have been placed at the bottom of the page
to meet a possible want, and the principal dates have
been set in the margin, in order that the scholar may
the more easily keep correct the course. of events.
Nearly a hundred illustrations, among them pictures
of nearly. all the governors, add much to the interest
and value of the book. Maps drawn from the best
sources illustrate discoveries, settlements, and cam-
paigns. The narrative, which extends from the earli-
est period to the present, is based on the highest au-
thorities, some of whom may be found in the list of
books inserted for the use of teachers. The History
of Florida by the Floridian author, Mr. G. R. Fair-
banks, requires special mention not only because of
its great excellence, but because this book owes much
to it, often following it in preference to other authori-
ties. Much information concerning West Florida
has been obtained in the Historical Sketches of Colonial
Florida, by Mr. R. L. Campbell, of Pensacola. Both
of these works are unfortunately out of print.
Dr. Wm. T. Thom, of Baltimore, Md., has most
kindly read and criticised the manuscript, and Prof. H.
B. Adams, of the Johns Hopkins University, gener-
ously examined it in part. Words of encouragement
have been received from Rev. C. P. Walker, of Madi-
son, Fla., and from Prof. B. C. Graham, of Tampa,
Fla. Hon. Wm. N. Sheats, Mr. L. R. Christhilf, of
Baltimore, Md., Mr. J. C. Green, of Pensacola, Fla.,
Judge Broome, of Orlando, Fla., Dr. R. Braden
Moore, of Vineland, N. J., and'other friends, have
kindly aided in securing photographs for illustrations.
Information concerning illustrations of historical
value, in particular, the pictures of those governors
not obtained for the present edition, and also all cor-
rections to the present work will be gladly received
E. L. GREEN.
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.
Florida discovered before 1513-Fountain of Youth-Juan
Ponce de Leon's discovery of Florida-His attempt to set-
tle the same-The name "Florida".
Panfilo de Narvaez-Hernando de Soto-Tristan de Luna.
Coming of the French to Florida-Charles Fort-Fort Caro-
line-Arrival of Menendez.
Founding of St. Augustine-Destruction of Fort Caroline-
Slaughter of Ribaut and his men.
Mutiny-Activity of Menendez-His visit to Spain-Notable
revenge of Dominic de Gourgues-Return of Menendez-
His death-Sir Francis Drake at St. Augustine.
Spanish Missions-Fort Marion-Pensacola.
Encroachments of the English-Spanish invasions of South
Carolina-Governor Moore invades Florida-War between
Pensacola and Mobile.
General Oglethorpe attacks St. Augustine-Invasion of Geor-
gia by Governor Monteano.
Condition of Florida in 1763-Transfer of Florida to Great
Britain-East arid West Florida.
Florida under British rule-Inducements to settlers-Dr.
Turnbull's colony at New Smyrna-Representative govern-
ment-Revolutionary War-Panton, Leslie and Co.-Alex-
British rule in Florida, continued-"Old Rory"-pon Ber-
nardo de Galvez captures Pensacola-Bahnam Islands
seized-Retransfer of Florida to Spain *
Second Spanish occupation-Boundary lines-General Wil-
liam Augustus Bowles-Two new Republics-United States
soldiers in Florida.
War of 1812-Tecumseh's visit to the Creeks and Seminoles
-Percy and Nicholls-Jackson at Pensacola.
Republic of Florida-Seminole War-Jackson invades the
Floridas-Arbuthnot and Ambrister-Second capture of
Pensacola-Provisional government-Restoration to Spain.
Purchase of the Floridas-Jackson appointed provisional
Florida as a Territory-Site of the Capital-Growth-Banks
-Trouble with Indians.
Seminole War-Dade's massacre-Battle of the Withlacoo-
chee-General Scott-General Jesup-Capture of Osceola.
Seminole War, continued-General Taylor-Major-General
Macomb-Bloodhounds-Capture of "Wild Cat"-The
"gallant" Worth-Return of "Wild Cat"-End of War.
Territorial governors-Admission of Florida into the Union
-Railroads-Florida in 1860.
Secession-Seizure of Forts and Arsenals-Fort Pickens-
Operations of i86x-Coast held by Northern forces.
Civil War, continued-St. Johns Bluff-Negro soldiers-Cap-
tain Dickinson-Olustee-John Milton-Surrender.
Florida after the Civil War-Reconstruction-Impeachments
of Governor Reed-Public schools-Finance-Return of
the Democrats to power-Election of 1876.
Opening of a new era-Development of the public schools-
Constitution of 1885-General .progress of the State.
SOME WORKS RELATING TO FLORIDA.
This list contains only such works as are to be ob-
tained, and is for the use of teachers who may wish to
know more about the history of Florida than can be
learned from a school book. It is very much re-
gretted that Mr. G. R. Fairbanks' History of Florida
is no longer in print. Mrs. E. C. Long, of Tallahas-
see, has prepared a history whose appearance it is
hoped will not be long delayed.
Brinton, D. G., The Floridian Peninsula. D. McKay, 23
South Ninth street, Philadelphia ................ .$.oo0
Chambers, H. E., West Florida. The Johns Hopkins Press,
Baltimore .........................................$ .25
Drake, S. A., Florida. Little; Brown & Co., Boston....$ .25
Fairbanks, G. R., History of St. Augustine. H. Drew & Bro.,
Jacksonville .........................................$ .75
Fiske, J., Discovery of America, 2 vols. Houghton, Mifflin &
Co., Boston ............. ...........................$4.o0
Gatschet, A. S., A Migration-Legend of the Creeks. D. McKay,
23 South Ninth street, Philadelphia .................$3.00
Long, E. C., Florida Breezes. Ashmead Bros., Jackson-
ville .......................... .......................$.oo
Moore, Willson M., The Seminoles of Florida. American Print-
ing House, xoir Cherry street, Philadelphia ..........$ .75
Parkman, F., Pioneers of France in the New World. Little,
Brown & Co., Boston .............................$1.12
Reid, M., Osceola, the Seminole, H. Drew & Bro., Jackson-
ville .................................... ........... .$50
Reynolds, C. B., Old St. Augustine. H. Drew & Bro., Jack-
sonville. ............... ..................... .....$1.50
Schatf, J. T., The Confederate States' Navy. Rogers & Sher-
wood, New York. ................................$3.50
Scott, W. A., The Repudiation of State Debts. Crowell & Co.,
46 E. I4th street, New York ........................$1.5
Shea, J. G., Ancient Florida, in second vol. of J. Winsor's Nar-
rative and Critical History of America [excellent]. Hough-
ton, Mifflin & Co., Boston ........................$5.50
The following papers may be consulted on the Semi-
noles and the earlier tribes:
Cushing, F. H., Exploration of Ancient Key Dweller' Re-
mains on the Gulf Coast of Florida. 1896. Am.Philosophi-
cal Society, xo4 South Fifth street, Philadelphia.
Maccauley, C., The Seminoles of Florida. Annual Report of
Bureau of Ethnology, 1883-84, Washington, D. C.
Moore, C. B., Certain River Mounds of Dual County, Florida,
etc. Vol. 8, Jour. of Acad. of Nat. Scien. of Phila. The
Levytype Company, Philadelphia.
JUAN PONCE Dz LzoN.
PRow Wmnso?'s Narr. and Crit. Hist.
HISTORY OF FLORIDA.
FLORIDA DISCOVERED BEFORE 1513-FOUNTAIN
OF YOUTH-JUAN PONCE DE LEON'S DISCOV-
ERY OF FLORIDA-HIS ATTEMPT TO SETTLE
THE SAME-THE NAME "FLORIDA".
FLORIDA DISCOVERED BEFORE JUAN PONCE DE
LEON. According to the common story Juan Ponce
de Leon was the discoverer of Florida. But an old
map, drawn ten years before Ponce de Leon sailed on
his memorable voyage, shows a peninsula exactly
where the one named Florida was discovered.
1497 John Cabot explored the eastern coast of
America in 1497; but it is very certain that he
did not sail as far south as Florida. He could'not
have carried back information concerning land of
which he had no knowledge. About this same time
Amerigo Vespucci was making a secret examination
of what every one in those days supposed to be the
southern coast of Asia, and he has left a letter telling
about his voyage. A comparison of the old map and
Q. Who discovered Florida according to the common
story? What does an old map show? Tell about John Ca-
bot. What other exploration was going on at this same
time? What did Amerigo Vespucci leave behind him?
What appears from a comparison of his letter and the old
of Amerigo Vespucci's letter makes it appear that
he who gave his name to America was the first to see
Florida. It is also possible that the old map-maker
obtained information from traders who had visited the
Floridian peninsula. One thing is certain: that all re-
membrance of any voyage before that of Juan Ponce
de Leon passed away completely from the mind of
man, though it is equally certain that he was not the
first to see Florida.
FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH. There was a story among
the Indians of the West Indies that on the island of
Bimini, one of the Lucayan (Bahama) islands, there
existed a fountain, whose magical water healed- the
sick, made the old young again, and bestowed immor-
tal youth on all who bathed therein. Indians from the
Bahamas, from Cuba, and even from Yucatan and
Honduras, were said to have gone in search of this
fountain. As they had never returned, it was fondly
believed that they were living in beautiful Bimini in
the enjoyment of eternal youth.
That the Indians should have believed in a magical
fountain is not strange. Beliefs of this kind have ex-
isted in various parts of the world, caused by real
springs; and so it may well be that some one of the
wonderful springs in Florida may have brought about
the story of Bimini and its mystical fountain. The old
Spanish historian, Gomara, explains the origin of the
tale in a way that might be expected from a knightly
Spaniard. According to him the story arose because
in that region dwelt women of such rare beauty that old
men, gazing upon them, felt themselves restored to the
vigor of youth.
As the Spaniards had heard of a Fountain of Youth
in Asia, and as they imagined at first that America was
part of Asia, they readily believed that the magical
waters were not' far away.
JUAN PONCE DE LEON. One cavalier listened
eagerly to the stories about Bimini. This was Juan
Ponce de Leon, who was born in the province
1460 of Leon, Spain, about the year 1460. Arms
1521 were his professions from his earliest youth.
He fought before the walls of Granada, and
when Columbus sailed on his second voyage, in 1493,
Ponce de Leon was one of his companions. There is
Q. In what other way might. the old map-maker have
heard of Florida? What thing is certain? What story was
there among the Indians of the West Indies? Who were
said to have gone in search of Bimini? Why were they
supposed to have found it? Why is the belief in the fountain
not strange? What may have given rise to the story?
a story that he engaged in a conspiracy against the
Great Discoverer. In Hayti Ponce de Leon won dis-
tinction in the wars against the natives; and hearing
of gold to be found in Boriquen (Porto Rico), secured a
commission to conquer, it, which he accomplished after
a severe struggle, only to find himself supplanted as
governor by one of the court favorites.
It was now while he was in retirement that he first
heard of the fabulous Fountain of Youth. Here was
just the thing. What could he not do with all his
wealth of experience coupled with eternal youth? So
dazzled was the mind of every one by the discoveries
made in the twenty years since the first voyage of Co-
lumbus, that when Ponce de Leon applied at the Span-
ish court for a patent to discover and settle Bimini,
the patent was secured, and no one deemed the dis-
covery impossible. He obtained his patent
1512 in February, 1512. He was to settle Bimini
Feb. within three years after the discovery, and if
no one had been there before him, he was to
be governor of Bimini for life, with the title of adelan-
tado, or governor. At oncehe began to fit out an ex-
pedition, but, trouble arising with the Indians in Porto
Rico, he was detained in that island till the following
PONCE DE LEON DISCOVERS FLORIDA. In March,
1513, Ponce de Leon set out with three caravels from
Q. Give Gomara's account of the origin of the story.
Why did the Spaniards readily believe in the fountain? Who
listened eagerly to the story? Tell of Ponce de Leon's life
till we find him in Hayti. Tell of him in Hayti and Boriquen.
How could the Fountain of Youth aid him? Why was the
patent to discover and settle Bimini granted him?
152r, the usual date given for the discovery of Florida, has been proven
St. Germain, in Porto Rico. As Bimini was supposed
to be one of the Bahama Islands, he at first
1513 cruised among these; but the search was not
Mar. successful, and so after refitting at Guana-
hani, he steered toward .the northwest,
having heard of land in that direction. On Easter
Sunday, March 27, a low, flat country was
Mar. sighted, along which Ponce coasted until he
27 reached latitude 300 8', not far from the site
of St. Augustine. Here he anchored and
Apr. 2 landed on the second of April. There was a
custom among the early discoverers of giving
a name to their discovery, taken from some peculiarity
attaching to the day on which the object was first
sighted. Accordingly, Ponce de Leon gave to this
new country the name of Florida, from Pascua Florida,
the Spanish name for Easter Sunday. Some writers
state that Florida was so named because of
.1513 its flowery appearance. Six days after he had
Apr. 8 landed, planting a cross, unfurling banner
to the breeze, swearing allegiance to his sov-
ereign, Ponce de Leon took possession of the country
in the name of the King of Spain.
FAILURE TO DISCOVER THE FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH.
Turning the prows of his vessels to the south, the dis-
coverer explored the southern coasts of Florida, find-
ing and naming the Martyrs and the Tortugas. Sail-
Q. How soon was Ponce to settle Bimini? What office
was he to receive? Why did he not set out at once for
Bimini? From what place did he start? Where did he first
explore? Why did he steer to the northwest? When did he
first sight land? Where did he go ashore? What custom did
the early discoverers .have? Why was the new country
ing around the extremity of the peninsula, Ponce ran
up the western shore to a bay in latitude 270 30',
which for a long period bore his name. Worn out
and disappointed in his search for the Fountain of
Youth, he finally sailed himself for Porto Rico, leaving
his lieutenant, Ortubia,
to continue the explora-
tion. Ponce de Leon
w. t had scarcely reached
", Porto Rico, when Ortu-
bia arrived and reported
that he had been suc-
cessful in his search for
Bimini, but that the is-
land contained no foun-
tain of magic waters.
PONCE DE LEON'S AT-
TEMPT TO SETTLE FLOR-
IDA. Ponce proceeded
S.to the court of Spain,
0Al.t where his voyage fur-
s. r4 nished the wits much
Sfmerriment, now that it
had proved a failure.
?3 However, he secured a
I second patent to settle
Florida within three
,, years from the time he
should set sail. As was
PONCE DE LEON'S FIRST VOYAGE. the case with the first
Q. Describe the ceremony of taking possession. Tell of
Ponce's explorations on the southern coasts. How far up
the western shore did he sail? Give an account of Ortubia.
How was Ponce's voyage now treated at court? What patent
did Ponce secure? How was he delayed?
voyage, so now he was delayed by a war with the In-
dians of the West Indies, for the Caribs had taken arms
against the Spaniards, and Ponce de Leon was called
on to command against them. Meeting with a signal
disaster at the outset, he turned over the command to
one of his captains, and retired to Porto Rico, where
he became a surly alcalde.
He had now settled down to quiet service of his
king, when his ambition and his avarice were stirred
by the exploits of Cortes in Mexico, which threatened
to eclipse the fame of the earlier discoverers.
1521 Accordingly, in F bruary, 1521, he wrote to
Charles V that was going shortly to the
"Island Florida" for the purpose of settling it, and to
see if it was really an island or was connected "with the
land where Diego Velasquez is (Mexico) or any other."
Ponce spent his entire fortune on the outfit of his expe-
dition. When he set sail, he carried with him in two
ships, colonists, clergymen for these, priests for the In-
dians, horses, cattle, sheep, and swine. It is not known
where the expedition landed, though very likely on the
western coast. As the colonists were attempting to
erect dwellings, the natives attacked them with great
fury; and Ponce de Leon was himself wounded in the
thigh by an arrow, while bravely fighting at the head
of his men. The colonists were driven to their ships,
and all idea of settling Florida was given up. Sick in
heart as well as in body, Ponce de Leon sailed for
Q. How did he succeed against the Caribs? What aroused
him from his retirement? What did he write to Charles V?
Tell of his- expedition. Where did he land? What attack
was made on the colonists? How was Ponce wounded?
Where did he die? Give the observation of the old chron-
Cuba, where in a few days death released him from his
pain. "Thus," says an old 'chronicler, "fate delights
to reverse the schemes of men. The discovery that
Juan Ponce flattered himself was to lead to a means of
perpetuating his life, had the ultimate effect of hasten-
ing his death."
VOYAGES ALONG THE GULF COAST. Before Ponce
de Leon made his second voyage, Diego Miruelo
sailed up the western coast of Florida in 1516
1516 on a trading expedition. He discovered a
bay which long bore his name, and which was
probably Pensacola Bay. A year later Fernandez de
Cordova landed on the western shore, but the
1517 hostility of the natives compelled him to de-
part. In 1519 Francis de Garay, governor
1519 of Jamaica, despatched an expedition under
the command of Pineda, who sailed along the
entire Gulf coast of Florida, passed the Mississippi
River, and coasted to Pinuco in Mexico. This voyage
showed that Florida was not an island, but a part of
the mainland. If Ponce de Leon had heard of Pine-
da's voyage before he sailed himself in 1521, he seems
to have doubted what was told him, as in his letter,
dated Feb. o1, 1521, he speaks of the "Island Florida".
SPANIARDS ON THE ATLANTIC COAST. In 1520
Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon, a rich officer of San Do-
mingo, sent out two ships which landed
1520 about where Charleston, S. C., now stands,
in the province of Chicora, for the purpose of
Q. Tell about the voyage of Diego Miruelo. Tell of Fer-
nandez de Cordova. Tell of Pineda's voyage. -What was
shown by this? Did Ponce de Leon believe Florida a part
of the mainland? Why did de Ayllon's ships land in Chi-
cora? What race was heard of?
catching Indians to be used as slaves. It is a pity that
his men did not meet with the race of giants of which
they were told. The story goes that these giants were
made so artificially by a process known only to certain
learned and wise doctors. The nurse of the infant, it
is said, was fed on very nutritious food. Besides this
the child's bones were softened by the application of
plasters of magic herbs, and, after some days, were
stretched, a process which was repeated from time to
time till the child was enabled to grow taller than his
fellows. There was also another tale told to de Ayl-
Ion's men about a race of people who had tails like
horses' tails, which they whisked about right merrily.
But none of these men were seen.
Six years later this same de Ayllon attempted to
plant a Spanish colony on the very spot where the
English afterwards built Jamestown. Winter
1526 came on before the colonists were prepared
to meetit; many perished from the cold, the
Indians became hostile, de Ayllon himself died of a
pestilential disease, and, finally, the colonists began
to quarrel among themselves. The settlement was in
consequence broken up.
In 1524 the Spanish government sent out Stephen
Gomez, who examined the eastern coast of America
from Labrador to Florida, showing that the
1524 coast-line of the latter extended indefinitely
to the northeast. But northern countries
were not considered of much value in those days. "To
the south, to the south," cries the historian, "for the
Q. Tell how giants were made in Chicora. Of what
other race did de Ayllon's men hear? Give an account of
his attempt to settle at Jamestown. What was shown by
Gomez's voyage in 1524? What does the historian cry?
great and exceeding riches of the Equinoctiall: they
that seek riches must not go into the cold and frozen
North." There was a belief at that time that gold
could be found only in hot countries.
FLORIDA NOT THE SAME AS Now. According to
Spanish writers the name Florida belonged to all
North America north of Mexico. When the French
began to lay claim to Canada and call it new France,
they were trespassing on territory claimed by Spain
as a part of Florida. But to her protests the king of
France gave no heed. Moreover, he declared that the
kings of Spain and of Portugal were undertaking to
monopolize the earth. If, he said, Adam had made
them his heirs, it was nothing but just for them to pro-
duce a copy of his will; and until they should do so,
he would feel at perfect liberty to take whatever he
could lay his hands on.
In 1607 the English colony of Virginia limited Flor-
ida to the country south of the 34th parallel
1607 of latitude, south of a line running through
Cape Fear. With characteristic English
readiness in appropriating territory the Carolina char-
ter of 1663 fixed the parallel of 300 45' as the
1663 southern boundary of that colony. Two
years later the line was carried south to 29,
1665 about fifty miles below St. Augustine, which
would have left to the Spaniards only the end
of the peninsula. But, in reality, the Savannah River
Q. Where only was it thought that gold could be found?
What did Spain claim under the name Florida? Tell about
the French king's reply to the protest of the king of Spain.
Give an account of the English encroachments.-
remained the southern limit of the English colonies till
the settlement of Georgia in 1732, when the
1732 Georgia colonists gradually fixed the boun-
dary between Georgia and Florida as it now
1721 In the meantime the French laid claim to
the Mississippi Valley under the name of
Louisiana. A peaceful arrangement, made before 1721.
fixed the Perdido River as the dividing line between
Florida and the French possession.
When the English came into possession of Florida
in 1763, they divided Florida into East and
1763 West Florida, adding to the latter about half
of Alabama and Mississippi. This division
was retained by Spain when she recovered Florida
twenty years later, though West Florida was gradu-
ally reduced to its present size.
1821 After Spain surrendered the two Floridas
to the United States in 1821, Congress united
them into one Territory.
Q.' What did the French claim as Louisiana? What be-
came of the dividing line between Florida and Louisiana?
Tell about the division into East and West Florida. What
change did the United States make?
FLORIDA IN 1549.
PANFILO DE NARVAEZ-HERNANDO DE SOTO-
TRISTAN DE LUNA.
CORTES' SUCCESS STIMULATES THE DESIRE FOR
CONQUEST: PANFILO DE NARVAEZ. The success of
Cortes in Mexico filled the minds of the Spaniards
with visions of rich empires waiting for daring adven-
turers to come and take possession. This ignis fatuus
led many brave men to the wilds of the northern coun-
try, from which the Spaniards had hitherto turned
away to seek for the gold of the South; for only in the
warm countries did they believe that precious metal
could be found. The first to fit out an expedition to
conquer himself a kingdom in the North was Panfilo
de Narvaez, who had been sent out in 1520 to
i52o pursue Cortes, but had failed; for one stormy
night Cortes suddenly fell on his sleeping
camp, took Narvaez himself prisoner, and won over
his entire army. In the melee Narvaez lost an eye.
After his release he tried to obtain redress at the Span-
ish court, but here again Cortes defeated him, this time
through Mexican gold. And so Narvaez was com-
pelled to seek some new land rich in gold and ready
for the Spanish' conqueror, as he too fondly dreamed.
Q. What effect did the success of Cortes have? Why had
the Spaniards not tried to explore the northern country?
Who was the first to undertake to explore in this region?
Tell of his experience with Cortes in 152o. What success
did he have at court?
Accordingly, Charles V gave him a patent to conquer
and colonize the country on the Gulf of Mexico from
EXPEDIIlON OF NARVAEZ.
the River of Palms to Florida, with
the title of adelantado, never once
thinking of the rights of the natives,
whom, in accordance with the custom
of those times, Narvaez was to sum- .. .
mon to become Christians and sub-
jects of the king of Spain, and, if they
refused, to enslave them.
NARVAEZ REACHES APALACHE. Narvaez started
on his voyage June 17, 1527, but the desertion of part
of his men at San Domingo and the loss of
1527 two vessels in a hurricane delayed him for
June 17 nearly a year, and it was not until April, 1528,
that he finally set out for Florida, carrying
1528 four hundred men and eighty horses. His
April pilot was Diego Mirielo, probably the same
Miruelo who had visited Florida in 1516. A
storm drove Narvaez's vessels into a bay somewhere
north of Tampa, perhaps Clearwater Bay. Here the
Spaniards landed and took possession of the country,
thinking all the while that they were not far from Mex-
Q. What country was Narvaez to conquer and colonize?
How were the natives to be treated? Give an account of
Narvaez's expedition, the time of its starting, and its size.
Who was Diego Miruelo?
ico, a mistake that in the end cost'the lives of all but
four out of the entire three hundred who marched into
the interior in quest of a fancied empire. About one
hundred men were left on board the vessels with in-
structions to sail along the coast and wait at a certain
bay known to the pilot. This the remainder
April 19 of the expedition was expected to reach after
exploring the inland country. On the 19th
of April Narvaez struck out in a northeasterly direc-
tion, but on meeting Indians wearing ornaments of
gold he changed his course a few points to the north,
since to all his questions about the place from which
the precious metal was obtained the natives had an-
swered by pointing to the north and repeating "Aba-
lachie, Abalachie". To the Spaniards' excited fancy
"Abalachie" was another Mexico, and so all efforts
were made to reach that country. Provisions were
scarce; the maize in the Indian fields was not yet ripe;
many of the trees which thickly covered the sandy soil
were fallen, and the guides selected a road as much
obstructed as possible; several rivers had to be
crossed; but "Abalachie" was to be the end of toil and
hardship. Narvaez plodded on till, on the
June 25 25th of June, "Abalachie" was reached, and
his eyes looked not on a magnificent capital
of a wealthy kingdom, but on an Indian hamlet of forty
wretched cabins. This native village seen to have
been on Miccosukee Lake, not far from the northern
border of Florida: But the Indian guides had misled
the Spaniards, for gold was really obtained in "Aba-
lachie", which was the name of a district that extended
Q. Tell about the landing of the expedition. What mis-
take was made? How was the expedition divided? Give
the direction of the line of march inland.
to North Georgia,'where the remains of ancient gold
mines are still to be seen.
AUTO. The Spaniards remained at "Abalachie"
about a month, constantly harassed by the natives,
almost on the verge of starvation, until hunger com-
pelled them to seek for Aute, distant a nine days' jour-
ney, which was represented as abounding in corn,
squashes, and gourds, with a plentiful supply of fish
in the sea nearby.
From "Abalachie" to
Aut6, the whole way
was beset by Indian
Warriors of immense
size, whose arrows
1528 trate a small-
sized tree, as
it appeared to the
WhenAute was reach-
ed, it was found a
smoking heap of ashes
deserted by its inhabi-
tants. One day more
brought them to the
shores of a bay (Apa-
"''" P lachicolat), which re-
INDIAN WARRIOR. Di Bry, 159t. ceived from Narvaez
Q. How did the natives answer Narvaez's questions about
the country where gold was obtained? What did he think of
"Abalachie"? Give an account of the difficulties of the jour-
ney. What' was the town of "Abalachie"? Where was it
situated? Where was gold really to be found? Tell of the
stay at "Abalachie". Give an account of Autn. How was
the journey to Aute beset?
the name of Bahia de Cavallos (Bay of Horses); but
even here the Indians did not allow them to catch fish
and oysters in peace; and, to add to their sufferings,
sickness broke out in August.
THE SPANIARDS BUILD BOATS IN ORDER TO Es-
CAPE. It is to be remembered that the ships were to
wait for Narvaez at a bay of which the pilot knew. The
bay was not found as expected, and: so the vessels re-
turned at once to the harbor at which the expedition
had landed, too late, however, to catch Narvaez; nor
was he ever seen, although they cruised along the
coast for nearly a year. The Spaniards at Bahia de
Cavallos were in despair; their ships were not in sight;
their food supply was limited; and sickness had re-
duced the majority to mere skeletons: nothing re-
mained but to build boats and to try to reach Mexico.
In six weeks five boats, each twenty-two cubits long,
were ready for the water, a truly marvellous achieve-
ment, considering that there was but a single carpen-
ter, though aided by every one able to work. Nails
and bolts were made at a rude forge out of guns,
swords, stirrups, and bridle-bits; ropes were woven
from the tails and manes of the horses and from pal-
metto fibre; sails were clothes sewn together; water
was carried in bottles made from the skins of the
horses, whose flesh furnished provisions.
VOYAGE, SHIPWRECK, SURVIVORS. On the 22d of
September these five frail boats, utterly unfit to go to
Q, In what condition was Auti found? What bay was
reached? How did the Spaniards fare here? Give an ac-
count of Narvaez's ships. What were the Spaniards at Ba-
hia de Cavallos compelled-to do? Tell of the boats. How
were nails and ropes obtained? What were sails made of?
How was water carried?
sea, set out along the northern shore of the Gulf of
Mexico, each loaded to the water's edge with
1528 forty-eight men. Narvaez led the way in
Sept. 22 the first boat, putting into the mouths of riv-
ers and creeks from time to time, running be-
tween Santa Rosa Island and the mainland, and finally
reaching the mouth of a large river (Mississippi?)
which ran violently into the sea, and where two of the
boats, one of them Narvaez's own, were swamped in
the current and all on board lost. The remaining three
boats were wrecked, one after the other, on the coast
of Louisiana or Texas. Their crews fell victims to the
cruelty of the Indians or to disease and starvation, till
only four were left alive to escape to their countrymen
in Mexico after yeats of wandering among the hunter
tribes of southwestern United States. One of these
survivors was the treasurer of the expedition, Cabeza
de Vaca, who has left us a narrative of the wanderings
of himself and his three companions.
HERNANDO DE SOTO. When Cabeza de Vaca re-
turned to Spain, he talked in such a mysterious way
about rich provinces
through which he had
passed, that men de-
sired more than ever to
explore the interior of
the continent. The
next man to try his
fortune in the northern
country after Naraez
was Hernando de Soto,
S. who was eager to rival
HERNANDO DO SOTO. rom wimsor. Cortes and Pizarro, and
whose imagination was in consequence stimulated by
the tales of de Vaca. Hernando de Soto came out to
the New World at an early age. When Pizarro re-
ceived reinforcements after his landing in Peru, their
leader was Hernando de Soto, who played an honor-
able and gallant part in the overthrow of the empire of
the Incas. On his return to Spain Soto carried as his
share of the booty the magnificent sum of one hun-
dred and eighty thousand ducats, part of which was
borrowed by the emperor, who the more easily for that
reason gave him a patent to conquer and settle the ter-
ritory formerly granted to Narvaez, and in addition to
this the province discovered by de Ayllon. His repu-
tation and his previous good fortune attracted large
numbers to his standard. Consequently
1538 when he sailed from Spain in 1538 he carried
with him six hundred as high-born and well--
trained men as ever went out to try their fortune in
the New World. Soto's wife accompanied him to
Cuba, where she spent the winter with him and re-
mained to await his return after his departure for
Florida in the spring of 1539.
On the 18th of May, 1539, the expedition, consisting
of five ships, two caravels, and two pinnaces, sailed
from Havana, and in six days made a bay on
1539 the western coast which de Soto named Es-
May 18 piritu Santo, because he had discovered it on
the 25th of May, the day of the Feast of Pen-
tecost. [This bay was usually known in early narra-
Q. Describe the voyage and shipwreck of the expedition.
What became of the crews of the boats lost on the coast of.
Louisiana or Texas? How many survived to reach Mexico?
What has Cabeza de Vaca left behind him? How did he talk
in Spain about the provinces he had seen? Who was the
second to try his fortune in the northern country?
tives by the name of Espiritu Santo, but is now called
Tampa from one of the ancient Indian vil-
May 25 lages in that region. The name Tampa first
appears on a map in Herrera's History pub-
lished in I6o0.] De Soto was not without some
knowledge of the coast of Florida before he
1539 lIft Cuba, for he had prudently despatched
Juan de Afiasco to seek a suitable harbor for
the ships, so as not to run the risk of losing them on
an unknown shore. Afiasco learned in the course of
his explorations that there was a Spaniard living
among the Indians somewhere on the western coast,
who had been'captured at the time of Narvaez's expe-
JUAN ORTIZ. When Panfilo de Narvaez landed in
Florida in 1528, he at once sent one of his vessels back
to Cuba to inform his wife of his safe arrival; and she
despatched this same vessel with supplies for her hus-
band, but it arrived too late to catch him before he
marched into the interior. On the shore the sailors
saw a letter sticking in a split reed, and, thinking it
had been left there by Narvaez, made signs to the na-
tives on the beach to bring it out to them; but these
refused to do so, urging by signs that the sailors
should themselves come after it. Two young fellows,
one of them named Juan Ortiz, a youth of eighteen,
rowed ashore. They had scarcely set foot on dry land
when the Indians rushed on them, made them prison-
ers, and carried them to their chief Hirrihigua. Hir-
Q. What had de Soto done in Peru? What share of the
booty fell to his lot? What territory did his patent assign
him? Why did men flock to his standard? How many went
with'him? Tell about his wife. Give an account of Soto's
expedition. Give an account of the name of Tampa Bay.
rihigua had been most cruelly treated by Narvaez, and
was burning to avenge his injuries. Ortiz's compan-
ion was tortured to death, and he was himself stretched
over a bed of hot coals on a stage made of green sticks
of wood. The heat from the coals had begun to roast
the flesh on his back, when the lovely young daughter
of the chief threw herself at her father's feet and be-
sought him with tears to spare the innocent youth.
Her tears prevailed; Ortiz was unbound, and carried
to the lodge of her father, where the young maiden
and her mother applied healing herbs to his wounds,
and tenderly nursed him until he was well again. But
to Hirrihigua the sight of the white man was hateful.
So he set Ortiz to watch over the Indian graveyard
to keep wild beasts from carrying off the dead bodies
from the wooden coffins in which they were laid and
covered with a board held down by a stone; and the
chief threatened that death should be the penalty if he
failed to keep the bodies safe. One night Ortiz fell
asleep and was suddenly aroused by the crash of a
falling board, but in the darkness he could see nothing,
so he lay still listening. Presently, he heard a sound
as of some animal gnawing a bone, and in the direc-
tion of-the sound he hurled a dart which caused the
noise to cease; but he did not during the night exam-
ine to find if he had killed any beast. The morning
light revealed a lion pierced through with the dart. Or-
tiz dragged the animal to the village, where his exploit
brought kind treatment for several days. But Hirri-
Q. What prudent thing did Soto do? Whom did Afiasco
hear of? Tell about the vessel Narvaez sent back to his wife.
Relate the story of.the letter. To whom were the young
Spaniards carried? How were they treated? How was Ortiz
higua could not be satisfied: Ortiz must die. The
daughter, however, knew of her father's determina-
tion and begged the youth to fly to a neighboring ca-
cique named Mucoso, to whom she was betrothed, and
who would protect him for her sake. Mucoso re-
ceived Ortiz as the maiden had said, and protected
him against all the demands of her father, although
Hirrihigua in consequence of that protection refused
to give his daughter to Mucoso as his bride.
DE SoTo FINDS ORTIZ. When Hernando de Soto
arrived in Florida in 1539, Juan Ortiz had now been
among the Indians for over ten years, and
1539 had a knowledge of their language which
would render him valuable as an interpreter.
For this reason, Soto was delighted to hear that Ortiz
was at no great distance from Espiritu Santo Bay; for
the two natives whom Afiasco had carried to Cuba to
become interpreters proved utterly useless. Having
learned froin some native women the direction in which
to go to find Ortiz, Soto despatched a lieutenant and a
company-of horsemen to fetch him. The horsemen had
not proceeded very far on their way before they met
Ortiz, who had hear of the white men and was en-
deavoring to reach tkeir camp. He came very near
never getting there, fok not only had he forgotten his
native tongue but he looked so much like an Indian
that one of the horsemen tried to run him through
with a spear, and would have done so if Ortiz had not
Q. How were Ortiz's wounds cured? What did Hirrihi-
gua next do with Ortiz? How were the corpses of the dead
Indians treated? Relate tie story of the wild beast which
Ortiz killed. What effect did his exploit have? How was
he rescued from the cruelty of the chief? How well did
Mucoso protect the young Spaniard?
cried out "Xibilla", for Sevilla, the name of his native
city and the only word of Spanish he remembered. He
remained with Soto during his long wandering and
died a few months before him in the country west of
the Mississippi River. As an interpreter he was not
all that was expected, as he knew only the language
of.the tribe among whom he had dwelt. Consequently,
it was necessary for Soto to take an Indian from each
tribe, so that he might converse with one from the last
tribe through which the expedition had passed, and
so on through a line of
Indians until Ortiz
was reached. Of
course, what was said
at one end of the line
was very different
from what arrived at the other end.
SOTO MARCHES THROUGH FLORIDA.
On the 15th of July, Soto, having sent
his largest ships back to Cuba, com-
menced a northward march
1539 among the swamps and lakes "*
July of Florida, fighting his way
15 step by step against the war-
like natives, who were very ROUTE OF DE SOTO.
different from the races he had met be-
fore in Central America and Peru. Besides the nature
Q. How long was Ortiz among the Indians? Why was
Soto delighted to hear he was not far away? Tell about the
horsemen sent to find him. Why did he come near being
killed? How long did he stay with Soto? Why was he not
a good interpreter? What was necessary? How did the
words at one end of the line compare with those at the
of the country and the fierceness of its inhabitants,
another obstacle in the way of the conquistador (con-
queror) was the lack of provisions, which had to be ob-
tained from the Indian fields. And these were very
scattered, furnishing, moreover, very little food, since
corn was not yet ripe; so that the Spaniards were com-
pelled to eat the young shoots of corn, palmetto roots,
and water cresses. At the end of the second day's
journey Soto reached the village of Mucoso, the
cacique who had so generously protected Juan
Ortiz. Twenty-five leagues more brought him to the
Withlacoochee River, and beyond this lay the province
of Ocali, where was found a plentiful supply of vege-
tables, nuts, dried grapes, and other fruits. Leaving
Ocali, the Spaniards entered the country ruled by Vi-
tachuco, the most powerful of all the Indian chiefs in
Florida. His subjects fought the invaders continu-
ally, and on one occasion engaged them in a grand
battle, in which, it is said, two hundred Indians who
had been forced into a lake, fought for a full day and
night without putting foot on bottom. Seven days
later the nine hundred prisoners taken in this battle
suddenly rose on their white captors and made a des-
perate struggle to escape, one of them coming very
near throttling Soto himself. A large river
1539 (Suwannee) was next crossed with much
difficulty, and the town of Anhayea, in the
Q. What did Soto do before commencing his march?
Mention difficulties in his way. How did the Indians of
Florida compare with those of Central America and Peru?
Give an account of the food of the Spaniards. Describe the
march as far as Ocali. Tell about Vitachuco and the battle
his subjects fought. What did the prisoners do seven days
neighborhood of Tallahassee, was reached during the
month of October. Here the expedition spent the
winter, parties in the meantime exploring the country
in every direction.
During the course of the winter Afiasco went with a
company of horsemen to Aute, where he saw in a
grove near the coast the bones of the horses which had
belonged to Narvaez's unfortunate men. He after-
wards rode to Espiritu Santo Bay in ten days, al-
though Soto had been three months marching from
there to Anhayea; and he brought back to the baynear
Aute the vessels which had been left at Espiritu Santo
Bay when the expedition marched into the interior.
These vessels were useful in exploring the coast west-
ward from Aut6; and the commandant Maldonado re-
pdrted on his return that he had found a beautiful har-
bor (Pensacola Bay), which he called Achusee.
In March of the next year Soto left his winter quar-
ters, and, having made an appointment with Mal-
donado to meet him in the fall at Achusee,
1540 marched towards the northeast, since he had
March heard of a rich realm in that direction,
abounding in gold and pearls. His line of
march carried him through Middle and North Geor-
gia, then, by a sudden turn to the southwest, to Mau-
bila, about one hundred and fifty miles north of Pensa-
cola, where he heard from the Indians of Maldonado's
arrival at Achusee. From Maubila he marched north-
Q. Where did Soto spend the winter?*What did Afiasco
find at AutO? Give an account of his mission to Espiritu
Bay. What bay did Maldonado find? What appointment
was he to keep with Soto? Did he keep it? Relate the ac-
count given of Soto's wanderings. Where was Soto buried?
westerly to the country beyond the Mississippi, whose
waters were the final resting place of the worn-out
conquistador. His band sailed down the Mississippi,
and, after much suffering, reached their friends in
Mexico, reduced to about one-fourth their original
SOTO'S CRUEL TREATMENT OF THE INDIANS.
Though as a rule the early Spanish explorers had no
regard for the life or welfare of the natives, yet the ex-
cessive cruelty shown by Hernando de Soto in Florida
would scarcely have been expected from one who had
behaved so gallantly and honorably in the campaign
in Peru. He made it a practice to seize the cacique
of the province through which he was passing and to
compel him to attend the expedition until the territory
of the next chief was reached, when he was let go.
But it was.a rare thing for Soto to let loose the ca-
cique's subjects who were forced to carry the baggage
of the Spaniards and to do other menial service, loaded
with heavy chains and iron collars. Large numbers
died from neglect and harsh treatment, for it was much
easier to get new carriers than to care for those who
were sick. Soto's line of march was one long line of
blood and devastation; and so it was that when Tristan
de Luna in after years reached the province of Coca
(Coosa County, Ala.) which had lain across Soto's
track, he found the fields uncultivated and the inhabi-
tants scattered from their homes.
Q. What became of Soto's followers? How did the early
Spanish explorers treat the Indians? Give an account of
Soto's method of treating them. Why were the sick not
cared for? How was Soto's line of march marked? What.
did Tristan de Luna find at Coga? Tell about the shipwreck
NEED OF A SETTLEMENT IN FLORIDA. In 1545 a
treasure-ship went ashore on the coast of Florida,
and the majority of the two hundred persons who
escaped to land were put to death by the In-
I545 dians, while the remainder became slaves of
the savages. Eight years later the Spanish plate-
fleet, carrying gold, silver, and other precious
1553 commodities, was wrecked on the northern
shore of the Gulf of Mexico. It is said that
out of the one thousand persons on board the
wrecked vessels only
three hundred reached
the land, and that of
these only one man suc-
ceeded in getting to
Mexico. These disas-
ters showed that it was
necessary to have posts
on the dangerous coast
of Florida to protect
life and property.
FLORIDA. In Central
America the Domini-
1549 had been very
christjanizing a district
known as the '!Land of
War", into which no --
SOLDIER OF SIXTEENTH CENTURY.
Q. Give an account of the shipwreck on the northern
shore of the Gulf in 1553. Tell about the "Land of War".
What did the Dominicans attempt to do in 1549?
Spaniard dared enter. So in 1549 four of these
fathers sailed from Havana to see if they
1549 could not effect a peaceful conquest of
Florida. Their vessel put into Espiritu Santo
Bay, where two of the missionaries went ashore, and,
finding the natives friendly, went with them to their
huts; but they were never seen again, for their sup-
posed friends murdered them, as was learned from
Juan Munoz, one of Soto's men who had been taken
captive by the Indians and made a slave, and who es-
caped to the missionaries by swimmingg out to their
vessel. The head of the expedition, Fray Luis Cau-
cer de Bastro, did not allow himself to be discouraged,
and insisted on going ashore. As he reached the
beach, those on board saw him first kneel and then
rising walk towards the throng of savages, one of
whom took off his cap, while a second tlled him to the
ground with his club. Thus the fir( missionary jour-
ney to Florida came to a sad end, as the remaining
father, deterred by the fate of Caucer, sailed away to
Cuba as fast as the wind could carry him.
DoN TRISTAN DE LUNA Y ARELLANO. Although
every effort to colonize Florida had so far failed, there
still remained the necessity of having military posts on
its coasts. Besides, the natives ought not to
1556 remain heathen, but become Christians. Ac-
cordingly, in 1556, the Council of the Indies
advised Philip II to entrust the conquest and settle-
ment of Florida to Don Luis de Velasco, the wise and
Q. What happened to two of them? Who was Juan
Munoz? Relate the story of Father Caucer's death? What
did the other do? Why was it necessary to colonizFlorida?
What advice did the Council of the Indies give Philip II?
prudent viceroy of Mexico, styled in history the Father
Sof the Indians, because of his unwavering
1558 protection of their rights. Two years later Ve-
lasco despatched vessels to search out a suit-
able harbor for his expedition, which was to form a
peaceable settlement and cultivate the friendship of the
Indians. The commandant of these vessels reported in
favor of Pensacola Bay, after an investigation of sev-
eral months. Con-
mand of the expedition
was given to ,
1559 Don Tristan de
Luna y Arel- 1
lano, who set sail from
Vera Cruz. ,.
June Mexico, in
June, 1559, car- Of
trying fifteen hundred
soldiers and settlers,
several priests and friars -
eager to convert the In-
dians, and provisions for i,
a year; and by the first
day of *July came to an-
chor in a bay a short TRISTAN DR LUNA, 1559-60.
distance east of Pensacola Bay, as one account has it,
or, according to another account, which is here fol-
lowed, in Pensacola Bay itself. Vessels were de-
spatched to announce the arrival, one to Mexico,
Q. Tell about the preparatory expedition. Describe Tris-
tan de Luna's outfit. Where did he land? What was first
done? Give an account of the gale. What did de. Luna
another to Spain. Exploring parties were sent out in
every direction to ascertain the character of the coun-
try. The stores had been partly brought ashore from
the ships when, on the zoth of September, a gale de-
stroyed nearly the whole fleet, and drove one caravel
with its cargo on land and up into a grove. In
consequence of the loss of his provisions Tris-
tan de Luna despatched a company of
horsemen to seek the province of Coca (Coosa
County, Ala.), where some of his men had
1559 been with Hernando de Soto. After a march
of forty days they came to Nanipacna, a town
on the banks of a river which they could not cross,
having travelled the whole way through a barren coun-
try. In the meantime the relief supplies received by
de Luna from Mexico had been exhausted, and he had
decided to remove to Nanipacna with all his colonists
except a few who were to remain as a guard at Pensa-
cola Bay, as it had been reported to him that in Nani-
pacna were supplies of corn, beans, and other vegeta-
bles. Accordingly, about one thousand men, women
and children marched into the interior and took pos-
session of the Indian village. In a short time they
consumed the supply of food provided by the Indians,
and were forced to eat acorns, which were boiled to re-
lieve them of their bitterness, and the tender leaves
and twigs of trees. When they were very near star-
vation, Tristan de Luna sent out the sergeant-major
to make a further search for Coca. The sergeant-
major and his party suffered greatly from hunger,
Q. What town was reached? What had de Luna de-
cided? Why? How many people went to Nanipacna? Tell
about the food of these colonists. What expedition was sent
seeming unable to capture the game in which the coun-
try abounded, until they reached a district where
chestnuts and hickory nuts grew, and after a march of
fifty days arrived at a town on the Olibahaki (Alabama
River). Here provisions were plentiful, but their wel-
come soon wore out, and the Indians adopted a neat
scheme to get rid of them. An Indian was dressed up
to represent an ambassador from Coca, whose ruler,
he informed the Spaniards, was anxious to entertain
them; and he led them on the way thither a
1560 distance of one day's journey, when in the
darkness of the night he suddenly disap-
peared. Although they thus lost their guide, the Span-
iards pushed forward, and did in the end reach Coca;
but much to their disappointment, they found the fields
badly cultivated and the inhabitants scattered, a con-
dition of affairs due, as said before, to Hernando de
Soto. The sergeant-major was welcomed by the In-
dians of Coca, and as a return for their kindness aided
themin a war against their neighbors. In order to make
a report to the general at Nanipacna, he despatched
twelve men, who rode rapidly to that village. But
These did not find him, for he had concluded that the
sergeant-major and his company had been destroyed
by the natives, and had moved his colony back to Pen-
sacola Bay, not, however, without leaving a letter bur-
ied in a vase at the foot of a tree, upon which was
carved "Dig below".
Q. Give an account of the sergeant-major's experience
on the road. Give an account of the scheme by which the
Indians got rid of the Spaniards. How was Coca found to
be cultivated? Why? Tell. of the sergeant-major's stay.
What had become of Tristan de Luna in the meantime? Tell
about the letter.
FAILURE OF TRISTAN DE LUNA'S COLONY. Having
discovered the letter the twelve men pushed on to Pen-
sacola Bay, where they found a deplorable state of
affairs. A large part of the settlers were in revolt,
headed by Juan de Ceron, master of the camp, and
were insisting on leaving the country as soon as possi-
ble. Two friars sailed to Havana, and thence to Mexico
to report to Velasco the plight of the colonists and to
beg for additional supplies. The news was so unpleas-
ant that the viceroy refused at first to believe them,
although he did despatch a vessel with provisions to
The arrival of the twelve messengers made matters
worse by their. report on the province of
1560 Coca. A secret message was sent by the
mutineers to the sergeant-major that the
colonists were about to leave; and so he and his com-
pany came to Pensacola Bay. Still the dis-
Nov. sension was not healed, though the priests
exerted their powers to the utmost. Finally,
just as Father Domingo had succeeded during Holy
Week in bringing Juan de Ceron and Tristan de Luna
together for a peaceable settlement of the difficulty,
Angel de Villafafie arrived on his way to Santa Elena,
and offered an opportunity to leave the country to all
who wished to do so. A council was held, and the
vote was almost unanimous for abandoning the colony.
Q. What state of affairs did the messengers find at Pen-
sacola? What was Juan de Ceron doing? Give an account
of the two friars. What effect did the arrival of the mes-
sengers have? What messenger was sent by the mutineers?
How did the priests conduct themselves? What success did
Father Domingo have? Give an account of Angel de Villa-
fafie. How did the vote of the council stand?
Tristan de Luna, seeing himself forsaken, set sail for
Cuba with five or six servants. After this all the colo-
nists, except fifty or sixty soldiers under Captain
Biedma, who were to remain six months longer, em-
barked on Villafafie's ships and came to Havana, where
part left him, the remainder accompanying him to
Santa Elena. Nothing was accomplished here, and
soon Villafaiie sailed to San Domingo. Florida was
On the 23rd of September, 1561, Philip II, king of
Spain, declared that no further attempts
I561 would be made to settle any part of Florida,
Sept. since there was nodanger of a French settle-
23 ment in that region; and in this opinion he
was supported by his most experienced
Q. What did de Luna do? To what place did the colon-
ists go with Villafafie? What declaration did Philip II make?
COMING OF THE FRENCH TO FLORIDA-
CHARLES FORT-FORT CAROLINE-ARRIVAL
FRENCH BEGIN TO COLONIZE FLORIDA. It is curi-
ous to note that within a few months after Philip II
had declared there was no danger of the French mak-
ing a settlement in Florida, a colony of Frenchmen was
established at what is now Port Royal in South Caro-
lina, then a part of Florida. At this period the Hugue-
nots and Catholics of France were engaged in civil war
with each other. The head of the former was the famous
Admiral Coligny, who conceived the magnificent idea
of founding a Protestant empire where the Huguenots
might take refuge, if they should be driven from their
n4 country. The first attempt on the shores of
Brazil proved a failure, the second on the coast of
Florida succeeded no better, as the story of Charles
Fort will show.
CHARLES FORT. In February, 1562, Jean Ribaut
sailed from France with two vessels and reached
the coast of Florida near the site of St. Augus-
tine. Not landing, he ran northward along the coast
Sto the mouth of a river (St. Johns), which he
Feb. named May, because he found it on the first
day of May.* Here he erected a stone pillar
*The native name of the St. Johns River was Walaka, the river of many
lakes. Rivilre de Mai (River of May) was the name given it by the French;
the Spaniards called it Rio Mateo (River Matthe), or Rio Picolato (River
Pfcolato), and at a later time Rio San Jnan (River .S. jork), which the Eng-
lish changed to St. Johns, and St. Whan (-Juan, hoo-ax).
engraved with the arms of France, as a sign that Flor-
ida was claimed as a possession of the French king.
From the St. Johns Ribaut sailed about ninety
leagues to the north, to the harbor of Port Royal,
S. C., where he persuaded a number of his men
to remain as the beginning of a settlement which
should grow into an empire. A small fort was built
and named Charles Fort, in honor of the king of
France, Charles IX. Leaving Captain Albert and
twenty-five soldiers at Charles Fort, Jean Ribaut de-
parted for France, expecting to return in a short time;
but on his arrival in that country he found the civil
war raging, which prevented him from returning to
Charles Fort, and its very existence was almost.for-
At Charles Fort everything went gaily, until provis-
ions began to grow scarce, and no sail appeared bring-
ing promised relief. Mutiny then broke out; Captain
Albert was murdered; and, despairing of aid fron
France, the survivors of the original twenty-five built
a boat in which they expected to cross the Atlantic,
the craziest craft, perhaps, that ever sailed that ocean.
It had been built by men ignorant of the art of carpen-
try, had been calked with moss, and was propelled
by sails made of shirts. Their provisions gave out in
mid-ocean, and one man had already been killed and
eaten, when the remainder were rescued by an English
vessel and carried to London.
Q. What curious coincidence is mentioned? What was
the condition of affairs in France at this time? Tell about
Admiral Coligny's scheme. What success had his first col-
ony met with? What expedition sailed from France in 1562?
Give an account of Jean Ribaut at the mouth of the St.
FORT CAROLINE. Quiet was restored in France in
1563, and during the next year Admiral Coligny
turned his attention again to the establish-
1564 ment of a Huguenot colony in Florida. The
commandant of this new expedition was
Ren6 de Laudonniere, a small, wiry Frenchman, a
FORT CAROLINE. De Bry, 1591.
Q. Give the different names of the St. Johns River (see
Note). Where did Ribaut expect to form a settlement? Give
the name of the fort built by him. How many men did he
leave at Charles Fort? Why did he not return? What was
the state of affairs at Charles Fort? Tell about the mutiny
and the boat, built by the Frenchmen. What can you say of
companion of Ribaut on his voyage in 1562, and a
brave and pious knight. Laudonniere sailed
Apr. 22 from Havre on the 22nd of April, 1564, with
three ships of sixty, one hundred, and one
hundred and twenty tons burden, respectively, which
carried a larger and better equipped company than had
gone to Charles Fort. But he made a grave mistake
in taking too many soldiers and gentlemen and too
few mechanics and farmers, in consequence of which
the naturally rich soil of Florida was left uncultivated
and the colony came near perishing from
June 22 starvation. A run of just two months
brought the ships to the mouth of the harbor
of St. Augustine, which the Frenchmen named the
River of Dolphins. Here Laudonniere went ashore
and was most hospitably received by the natives, who
wished him to spend the night with them;
June 23 but he deemed it more prudent to return to
his ship. On the next day, he proceeded to
the St. Johns River, or River May, where he saw the
pillar set up by Jean Ribaut. Some time was spent
in exploring various localities to select a site suitable
for the erection of a fort, and the position finally
chosen seems to have been at St. Johns Bluff, on the
southern side of the St. Johns River, a few miles from
its mouth; but the exact location will never be known,
as the fort was constructed out of sand and logs.
Among the colonists was a painter, who has left us a
Q. When.did Coligny turn his attention again to Florida?
Give some account of Laudonniere. Describe his ships and
colonists. What mistake did he make? Where did he first
land? How was he received by the Indians? What did he
see at the mouth of the St. Johns? Tell about the site of the
fort. How is it represented in an old picture?
picture of the fort, a triangular structure; but he repre-
Ssents it as being on an island in the midst of
a river. This fort, like Charles Fort, was
named in honor of Charles IX, being called Fort
ILL MANAGEMENT OF THE COLONY. All the early
colonists who came to America were more eager to
seek for gold and silver than to cultivate the soil; and
the Frenchmen at Fort Caroline were no exception to
the rule, especially as they had seen pieces of gold
among the natives. At first they were able to make
the very profitable exchange of a hatchet for two
pounds of gold; but their greed getting the better of
them, they began to take the metal from the Indians,
who in a short time refused to let it be known that they
had any gold. Much time was consumed in exploring
the country in the hope of finding wealth, and in con-
sequence no crop was planted, so that by the spring of
1565 starvation stared the Frenchmen in the face.
Although the St. Johns River "boiled and roared"
with all kinds of fish, the young gentlemen and the sol-
diers would not condescend to catch them for them-
selves. And it is said that the Indians would take fish
before the very eyes of the white man and then sell
them to him at a high price. Moreover, when the
fish-traps, which the natives had kindly made for the
Frenchmen, were taken away during a war, they were
too lazy to make others.
MUTINY. A conspiracy against Laudonniire was
started in September, 1564, but part of the conspira-
Q. What was the name of the new fort? What were the
early colonists eager for? What made the Frenchmen espe-
cially eager to hunt for gold?
tors were sent back to France. Subsequently he
fell sick, and during his sickness he was
Sept. bound and confined for fifteen days on board
one of the vessels, The mutineers then seized two
small boats built for the purpose of exploration, and
ran away to the West Indies on a freebooting expedi-
tion. One of the boats was compelled to re-
1564 turn, whereupon four of the leaders were
tried by court-martial and hung. The other
boat met with better success at first; but its crew was
captured by the Spaniards at Jamaica, and some of
them were hanged, others sent to Spain.
THE FRENCH AND THE INDIANS. The Spaniards
were in the early times very harsh in their treatment
of the Indians, although later they became gentler.
The Frenchmen, on the contrary, made friends with
the natives from the outset, and when they left Florida
"no fierce imprecation or profane expletive lingered in
the recollection of the red men as a synonym for a
French Protestant." Baskets of maize and grapes
were brought as presents to Fort Caroline; and an In-
dian queen, whose home seems to have been on the St.
Mary's River, sent back Laudonniere's boats loaded
with beans and acorns and cassava. The artist men-
tioned before drew a picture of this queen in a state
procession. In front appear two trumpeters marching
before her majesty, who sits on a covered platform
carried by six chiefs, while two walk by her side hold-
ing large feather fans; next after the queen come beau-
Q. Give an account of their dealings with the Indians.
In what condition were they by the spring of 1565? Why?
Tell about their catching of fish. Give an account of the con-
spiracy and mutiny.
tiful girls with baskets of fruits and flowers, and then
the warriors and guards. At first the colonists had
been neutral in the wars of the natives, taking the part
of neither side; but at last they were compelled to
serve some of the chiefs in order by this means to pro-
cure a supply of provisions. During the summerof 1565
hunger pressed them so hard that, as it had become
difficult to obtain food by purchase from the
1565 Indians, they marched forth from their fort
and took by force part of the crops in the
nearest fields. But in spite of this, the red man re-
gretted the departure of the Frenchmen.
ARRIVAL OF SIR JoiN HAWKINS AT FORT CARO-
LINE. It was confidently expected that supplies would
arrive from France by-April, 1565; but April
April came and passed and still no vessel appeared.
In their despair the colonists had resolved to
repair their vessels and to leave the country, when, at
the height of their distress, ships were seen
Aug. in the offing. They proved to be the ships of
Sir John Hawkins, Queen Elizabeth's
doughty sea-king, who was returning from a cruise
after Spanish treasure-ships, and was quite ready to
aid Spain's enemies at Fort Caroline. He had been
searching along the coast for fresh water, and had
been brought to the colony by one of the Frenchmen
who had run away and was now on board one of the
Q. Relate the fate of the two boats. Contrast the Span-
ish and the French treatment of the Indians. What presents
were brought to Fort Caroline? What picture has been left
behind by the artist? What was the French attitude towards
the wars of the natives? What were the French finally
forced to do?
English ships. Laudonniere says that he received of
the general, meaning Sir John Hawkins, as many
courtesies as it was possible to receive of any man liv-
ing. He sold the French commander twenty barrels
of meal, six pipes of beans, one hogshead of salt, and a
hundred of wax to make candles, taking a promissory
note as payment; and gave him various articles for his
private use. But more than this, he offered to carry
a portion of Laudonniere's men across the Atlantic
and set them on French soil. This offer, however,
was not accepted, for Laudonniere did not know if
the French and English might not be at war with each
other, and this be a ruse to take his men prisoners.
But he did buy a small brigantine, paying for it with
the artillery at the fort, which otherwise would have
been left behind, as he could not carry it on his ships.
EARLY OPINIONS OF FLORIDA. The Frenchman
had an eye for the beauties of the landscape, and his
poetic nature was kindled by the rivers and lakes and
forests teeming with animal life; but the English sailor
wondered how it was that in a rich country like that
around Fort Caroline any one could suffer from hun-
ger. Grapes grew wild; roots of various kinds were
to be found;.maize throve readily and required very
little cultivation, and meat could be easily obtained
from deer and "divers other beasts and fowl service-
able to the use of man." Besides, there was a wonder-
Q. How did the natives feel towards the French after
their departure? By what time were supplies expected? Re-
late the arrival of Sir John Hawkins. How did he treat the
French? What did he let them have? Give an account of
his offer and Laudonniere's refusal. Why did Laudonniere
pay for the brigantine with his artillery?
ful weed employed by the Floridians in their journeys,
"who with a cane, and earthen cup in the end with fire
and the dried herbs put together, doe suck throw a
cane the smoke thereof, which smoke satisfieth their
hunger, and therewith they live four or five days with-
out meate or drinke; and this all the Frenchmen used
for this purpose," although it made them sick, as to-
bacco still does beginners. However, it has lost the
wonderful property of keeping "us from hunger three
or four days at a time." Lions and tigers were sup-
posed to inhabit the forests, and whales were caught in
the ocean by natives, who would swim out to the sleep-
ing monster, climb on his head, and drive into one of
his blow-holes one of the two pieces of~wood the
swimmer had brought along. This would wake the
whale, which would dive under the water, carrying the
Indian holding fast to the piece of wood in the blow-
hole; but the whale would soon have to come to the
surface for fresh air, when the fisherman at once thrust
his second piece into the other blow-hole. By
1565 this means both nostrils of the fish were
closed, causing it to suffocate. After it had
ceased its death-struggles, the natives came out in
their boats and towed the carcass ashore. Wonderful
tales did the Frenchmen and Englishmen hear; but
the former viewed them with a poetic fancy, while the
latter thought of the trade his country could build up
in this distant country.
Q. How did the Frenchman view Florida? What did the
Englishman think? Give the things that could easily be ob-
tained for food. Tell the tale about tobacco. What savage
beasts were supposed to dwell in the forests?' Give the story
the Englishman heard about whales.
ARRIVAL OF RIBAUT AND MENENDEZ. Sir John
Hawkins had scarcely left Fort Caroline when Jean
Ribaut arrived, August 29, the very day Lau-
Aug. 29 donniere expected to sail for France. Admi-
ral Coligny had never forgotten his colony,
although hindered by the civil war from sending aid
FRENCH CARAVEL OF I6TH CENTURY.
earlier, and had now despatched Captain Ribaut with
five hundred men and several families of artisans in
seven vessels, four of which must have been of large
Q. What was the English view of Florida? When did
Ribaut arrive? Why had not aid been sent before?
size. as they were unable to) pass the bar at the mouth
of the St. Johns River. The voyage from Dieppe,
France. was a very long one. it being three months
from the time Ribaut sailed till lie reached the Florida
coast somewhere below St. .ugustine. I rre ihe
learned from a shipwrecked Spaniard living among
the Indians thlt l Idonniere's colony was situated
fifty leagues nortl varl. and. accordingly. coasting in
that direction, he arrived at Fort Caroline. as related.
The four larger vessels were unable to enter the St.
Jhnls River. and were left outside with only a few sail-
ors on board as a guard.
Iky some means tile Spanish court had found out
that a French colony had been planted on the coast of
FIlridla. in a country claimed by them through the
rights of discovery and given them by the
1565 Pope. .And ro make matters worse, the colo-
nists were litHguenots. who were detestable
abve all other peoples in the eyes of Catholic Spain.
.\t this juncture Philip II found a man after his own
heart. Pedro Menendez de .\viles. "an admirable sol-
dlier and matchless liar. brave as a mastiff and savage
as a wolf." lie had lost a son by shipwreck some-
where 1 on the coast of Florida and was anxious to seek
fr him. as lie believed him to be living and captive
among the Indians. To the king he represented the
gllory o f Christianizing the Indians and the need of
better knowledge of the shores. harbors. and currents.
Q. I).Dcrilie Ribaut's expedition. Where dlid lie reach
ihe cla.t oi Fl,,rida? What did he learn here? From whom?
I Iw were four vessels left? What didt the Spanish court find
itm? What ca;ul ed the Spaniards to be especially angry?
tIi\ the character of M.lenendez. Why was lie anxious to go
t-, I-lnr!i,? What reasons did li give the king lor going?
which had destroyed so many richly-laden ships of
Spain. Although Florida had proved the iruin of
every expedition that had come to her shores, yet more
Smen answered Me-
nendez's call for colo-
nists than thee ships
cuiil carry. The king
gave him the title of
(tidelfri tith and 1i ar-
quis. the office of gov-
ernolr and captaiin-
gteneral )of Florida. the
II se of lone cara'vel alnd
a personal grant of
I a I d twenty five
leagues square. Me-
nendlez had himself to
hear the expense of
translporting the colo-
nists. of lproviisiolning
them and also several
Ihunlldred soldiers, of PEDRO MENENItDEZ : ,AL.EL.
maintaining sixteen members of religious orders, and
(,f pro viding horses. cattle, sheep. and swine for the
two or three permanent settlements hie was t- o foluntd.
lie was also to carry five hundred slaves. but it is
do ubtful whether they W'ere actually taken. I'repara-
tioins were being hurried forward for a large expedi-
ti n, when Philip sualdenly sunimmnled M.lenendez it,
Q. Hol w many answered .Menendez's call? WVihat did the
king give him? What did hlie have to furnish? Tell albout tilte
slaves to be carried? IWhy was hlie suddlenly suniinted to
court. News had just reached him about the colony
at Fort Caroline, and of Ribaut's prepara-
1565 tions for enlarging it. Now began a race, as
it were, to see who should reach Florida first,
June 29 Ribaut or Menendez. The former had been
on his way some two months before Menen-
dez set sail from Cadiz, June 29, with fifteen hundred
persons, including mechanics and farmers, in nineteen
vessels all told, about two thirds of the force he had in-
tended to carry.
After leaving the Canary Islands, the fleet was scat-
tered in every direction by a storm, but several vessels
arrived at Porto Rico by the 9th of August.
Aug. 9 Here Menendez made a few repairs, and then
hastened on his journey without waiting for
the remainder of his force, for it was necessary to sur-
prise Fort Caroline before the reinforcements under
Ribaut should reach it and put it in a condi-
Aug. 25 tion to resist an attack. On the 25th of Au-
gust he made the coast of Florida about Cape
Aug. 28 Cafiaveral, where he learned the part of the
country occupied by the French. Coasting
northward, on the 28th he discovered a harbor, to
which he gave the name of St. Augustine, after the
saint who is honored on that day; and still running
north, on the 4th of September sighted the four vessels
of Ribaut lying at anchor before the mouth of the St.
Q. What race now began? When did Menendez sail?
Give his outfit. What happened on the voyage? Why did
he hasten from Porto Rico? Give an account of his arrival
at Florida. Why was St. Augustine so named?
The fight was to be one without quarter. Menendez
had set out in an ugly spirit; he was in his own eyes a
crusader; and of all conflicts, the deadliest are those
waged in the name of religion, as the Protestants of
France knew to their cost.
Q. Why was the fight between the Frenchmen and Span-
iards to be merciless?
FOUNDING OF ST. AUGUSTINE-I)STRL'CTION
OF FORT CAROLINE-SI..\UGIITR OF RIl'.\AUT
AND IIIS MEN.
SKI RMISi .\T THlE .MO'TIH OF rTH ST.JOH.NS. A
council of war was now hehl on board the Spanish
ships. and Menendez's officers were in favor
1565 of puttingl)ack to San D)omingo and waiting
Sept. 4 for reinforcements; but lie himself urged a
speedy attack, which was finally resolved on.
Immediate action was prevented by a thunderstorm.
and it was not until ten at night that Menendez was able
to run his own ship between the two larger French
vessels and demand who they were and why they were
on this coast. \When lie found out who they were,
lie told them that lie intended to board their ships in
the morning and hang the French Lutherans found
there. "IBecause." he says, "I could not avoid exe-
cuting on them the justice which his majesty com-
manded." The Frenchmen replied that lie might go
without waiting for the morning. As Menendez was
manoeuvring for a favorable position, Ribaut's vessels
slipped their cables and stood out to sea, hotly pursued
by the Spaniards, who fired five cannon at the French
flagship without doing it any injury. By their superior
sailing qualities the French soon escaped beyond
Q. Give the opinions of Menendez and his officers as to
attacking the French. What did Menendez do with his ves-
sel? Relate what he told the Frenchmen. Give their reply.
cainnon-shot. Secing that lie could not overtake them,
M enendl z returned with the intention of fortifying a
position at the mouth of the St. Johns. by means of
ich lie Could coummand the entrance to the l and
blockade Fort ( aroiaie. I tit as he licere
I ; 6. the coaist. the i-emIainimii. trench vcsehis w~ere
Seen cmill-om, adedeciiiiii" it 1(ircpn 1
Q. Giive .111 account oi the fight of IhilatnK 'hip';. WVhat
dent to retire, he bore away for the harbor of St. Au-
gustine, a French vessel hovering on his rear to report
his further movements.
FOUNDING OF ST. AUGUSTINE. On the 6th of Sep-
tember two hundred and fifty Spanish soldiers under
two captains were landed, and began at once
Sept. 6 to throw up intrenchments around the dwell-
ing of an Indian cacique who had given it as
a present to the strangers. Three hundred more sol-
diers and settlers, men, women and children, were
, disembarked on the 7th. The next day was a reli-
gious holiday, and Mass was said for the first time on
the spot where the shrine of Our Lady of the Milk
afterwards arose. Having landed the provisions and
munitions of war, Menendez prepared to go ashore
himself, and, amid the thunder of cannon and strains
of martial music, was rowed from the side of his ves-
sel to the beach, where on bended knee he kissed the
cross presented him by Mendoza Grajales, the first
priest of St. Augustine. After this he took possession
of the country for his king, and received an oath of
loyalty from his officers and men, surrounded by a
crowd of spectators, colonists and friendly Indians.
His own galleon, being too large to enter the harbor,
was despatched to San Domingo; two smaller vessels
hurried down to Havana after horses for a cavalry
company; at the harbor everything was working to
Q. How was he hindered? Where did he sail? Give an
account of the operations at St. Augustine, September 6 and
7. What was done on the 8th? Tell about Menendez's land-
ing. Give his further actions at this time. Why was his own
galleon sent to San Domingo? Why did two vessels go to
make the position as strong as possible against an at-
tack from the fort to the north. St. Augustine had
begun, the oldest city in the United States.
RIBAUT SETS OUT TO ATTACK MENENDEZ. On
two occasions while the colony was being landed at
St. Augustine, French vessels sailed up to the
1565 mouth of the harbor, without doing, however,
any injury at all. But on the Ioth the whole
Sept. 0o fleet bore down; for Ribaut had embarked
all his force, leaving only a few sick soldiers
and Laudonniere with the women and children at Fort
Caroline. He was eager to take the Spaniards by sur-
prise before their fortifications were completed. But
a grievous delay of two days ruined his plans and
brought destruction on his settlement. If he had
sailed on the 8th he would have escaped the hurricane,
which on the ioth caught his vessels and drove them
far down the coast, where each and every one went
MENENDEZ MARCHES AGAINST FORT CAROLINE.
The storm raged so long and fiercely that it was mor-
ally certain that the French ships had not been able to
regain Fort Caroline. So Menendez determined to
retaliate by marching overland and falling on the
enemy's fort while its garrison was weakened and not
expecting an attack during the tempest. His officers
Q. Why did the Spaniards hurry? What is the age of St.
Augustine? What did the French ships do while the Span-
iards were landing? How much of his entire force did Ribaut
carry with him? What proved his ruin? What became of
his vessels? Why did Menendez wish to make his attack
during the storm? How was it regarded at St. Augustine?
and the clergymen at St. Augustine pronounced the
undertaking rash, but Menendez was obsti-
Sept. 17 nate, and on the 17th began his march in the
midst of a pouring rain. Across marshes
and swollen creeks, through tall grass and tangled
underbrush, for three times twenty-four hours, he
fought his way, hatchet in hand, until on the morning
of the 20th his wolfish band swept down the slope be-
fore Fort Caroline. The march had been a difficult
one, and of the five hundred who had started
1565 with Menendez, many had fallen behind and
made their way back to-St. Augustine.
"NOT AS TO FRENCHMEN, BUT AS TO LUTHERANS."
Laudonniere had made some attempts to put the fort
in some state of defense; but he was himself very ill,
and he had only sixteen well men in the place, so that
little was done. Moreover, the night of the 19th was
very stormy, and the sentinels were under cover, as
no one expected an attack. At dawn of the next morn-
ing the maddened Spaniards rushed to the assault;
killed the first sentinel who met them; planted their
ladders against the walls; seized one of the gates
thrown open through mistake by some one within
wishing to know the cause of the alarm outside; and
Fort Caroline was taken. Man, woman, and child
were massacred without distinction of age or condi-
tion, until Menendez gave orders that the aged, the
feeble, the cripple, and those under fifteen years of age,
Q. Describe the march. How many soldiers did Menen-
dez have? In what state of defense was Fort Caroline?
What kind of a night was that of the 19th? Describe the cap-
ture. Give an account of the massacre. What does Menen-
dez say in his letter to the king?
should be spared. In his letter to the king he states
that one hundred and thirty-two persons were put to
death, and excuses himself for having spared the
others. There is a story that some of the prisoners
were taken outside the fort to a body of trees and
there hung, with this inscription over them: "Not as
to Frenchmen, but as to Lutherans." Much booty fell
into the hands of the Spaniards: three vessels with all
on board, the fort and its guns, supplies of flour and
bread, horses, sheep, and hogs.
ESCAPE OF LAUDONNIERE AND FIFTY OTHERS.
The French commander tried to rally his men, fighting
Bravely himself, until he saw that the fort was
taken and himself recognized, when he es-
caped through a breach in the walls of the fort to the
woods, where he fell in with several of his men. Two
vessels lay at the mouth of the St. Johns on the look-
out for an attack by sea, and he and a number of his
companions made their way to these through the mud
and the streams along the bank of the river. Among
those who escaped in this way was Ribaut's son.
Others hid themselves in the forests, living among the
Indians, until one by one they were picked up by pass-
ing vessels, and thus reached their native country.
SAN MATEO. As the day after the capture was
sacred to St. Matthew (San Matco), Menendez changed
the name of the fort from Caroline to San Mateo in
Q. Tell about the inscription over those who were hung.
What booty was obtained by the Spaniards? How did Lau-
donniere conduct himself? Give an account of Laudon-
niere's escape. Who was among those who escaped to the
ships? How did others escape? To what did Menendez
change the names of Fort Caroline and the River May?
honor of that apostle, whose name was also bestowed
on the St. Johns River in the place of May. Menen-
dez ordered a church to be built at once out of the
material collected by Laudonniire for building vessels.
Three hundred men were left as a garrison, and the
rest were to return to St. Augustine; but only thirty-
five were willing to undergo the hardships of the
march. At the Spanish colony there was great re-
joicing on Menendez's arrival, and a Te Deum was
sung in celebration of the victory. San Mateo took
fire a few days after its capture, and much of its con-
tents were destroyed; but in a short time Menendez
restored it stronger than
ever, and erected fortifica-
tions near the mouth of the
m ,' (rsm,' river for further security.
R I B A AUT'S SHIPWRECK;
FIRST MASSACRE OF THE
G r' p FRENCH. As related before,
A J ,t1ua, a storm drove Ri-
1't 1565 baut's ships far
down the coast,
w where they all went ashore
on the soft sand somewhere
between Mosquito and Ma-
Srt.r tanzas Inlets. Every one,
'*** officers and men, succeeded
in escaping to land from the
stranded vessels, with the ex-
OPERATION3 0 TRENCH
AND SPANISH. ception of a certain Captain
Q. What did he order built? What was done with his
men? How was the news received at St. Augustine? Give
a further account of San Mateo. What had become of Ri-
La Grange, who had opposed the expedition and had
consented to go only at the last moment. They now'
formed themselves into two bodies, and be-
Sept. 28 gan to work their way along the coast in the
direction of their fort. By the 28th of Sep-
tember the first company of over two hundred men ar-
rived at Matanzas Inlet, where they halted, since they
had no means of crossing. Soon on the other side
Menendez was seen with a small band of seventy sol-
diers, who were, however, so skilfully disposed as to
appear like a numerous army. Menendez had received
intelligence through friendly Indians of the Frenchmen
on the day of their arrival at Matanzas Inlet, and had
at once hurried off in time to have his men arranged
as related by the morning of the 29th. One of the ship-
wrecked men, a 'sailor, swam over to the Spaniards,
to carry back a boat in which four or five officers
crossed. They requested of Menendez that he should
give them a means of passing the inlet, in order that
they might reach their friends at Fort Caroline; but
on learning of the destruction of the fort, they asked
for vessels to convey them to France, as their coun-
tries were friendly and at peace with each other. Me-
nendez replied by asking if they were Catholics or
Lutherans. When told that they were Lutherans, he
declared that if they had been Catholics he would have
favored them, but, as they were Lutherans, he would
Q. Give the loss by the shipwreck. What did the French-
men now do? Where did the first company halt? How did
Menendez arrange his men? How did he learn that the
French were at Matanzas Inlet? Who came over to him?
Give the requests of the officers. How did Menendez reply?
What did he further say?
wage war on them with fire and sword. However, he
said they could surrender and yield to his
1565 mercy, "in order that he might do to them
what should be directed him by the grace of
God." Some of the Frenchmen were wealthy and of
noble birth. These offered as a ransom for their lives
the sum of fifty thousand ducats, but the Spaniard
was obdurate; and finally his terms were accepted, for
with starvation and death at the hands of savages
staring them in the face it was deemed preferable to
trust to his mercy.
lBoats were now sent over and the Frenchmen
brought across in companies of ten, each company
guarded by twenty Spaniards. As a band arrived it
was disarmed and marched behind a low hill, where
the hands of every man were tied behind his back,
until the whole two hundred and eight were thus se-
cured. Eight only were let loose, who claimed that
they were Catholics. By this time the day was well
spent, and as the sun went down two hundred French
Lutherans, who had allowed themselves to be bound,
expecting to be carried to St. Augustine as prisoners,
were murdered in cold blood. Not a man of them re-
mained to tell the tale.
RiIA.\UT REACHES M.ATANZAS INLET: SECOND MAS-
S.\ARE. MIenendez had scarcely reached St. Augustine
when he was informed that another and large company
Q. How did some of the Frenchmen endeavor to escape
death? Why were the Spaniards' terms accepted? Describe
the bringing over of the French. Why were eight released?
Tell what is said about the murder. What further informa-
tion was given Menendez? What did he find at Matanzas
Inlet? What was done? What was told the officer?
of men was at Matanzas Inlet. Hurrying back with
one hundred and fifty soldiers, he found Ribaut and
three hundred and fifty of his followers drawn up in
battle array on the opposite side of the inlet, and en-
deavoring to construct a raft on which they might
cross. Again as in the first instance, a sailor swam
over and carried back a canoe in which an officer was
brought across, who was informed of the fate of Fort
Caroline and shown the stark bodies of his
565 murdered comrades. After this Ribaut him-
self came over; was feasted most sumptuously; but
could obtain no better terms than surrender to the
mercy of the Spaniard, although he offered for himself
and part of his men a ransom of one hundred and fifty
thousand ducats, the rest preferring to treat for them-
selves. When these hard terms became known to the
soldiers across the inlet, two hundred of them declared
they would rather face death in a thousand ways than
trust to the mercy of a monster like Menendez. Dur-
ing the night they contrived to slip away into the
The next morning Ribaut and one hundred and
fifty of his men were ferried over in companies of ten,
their arms were taken away from them and their hands
tied behind their backs, as on the former occasion.
When this work was completed, all but five of the
whole one hundred and fifty were coolly murdered, as
if pigs were being slaughtered. One man's wounds
Q. How was Ribaut treated? What ransom did he offer?
Give an account of two hundred of the soldiers. Narrate the
story of the remaining one hundred and fifty. Tell about the
escape of one man. What is Ribaut said to have done?
What is the meaning of Matanzas?
were not fatal, and he crawled off to the woods during
the night, was kindly treated by the Indians, and in
the end reached France, where he wrote an account
of the massacre, which is now in existence. As Ri-
baut was bound he sang one of the psalms, and, this
ended, said in a calm voice: "We are of earth, and to
the earth we must return; twenty years more or less is
all but as a tale that is told."
Thus on these two occasions perished many brave
men, most cruelly murdered; and well does the inlet
bear the name Matanzas-Slaughterings.
THE FATE OF THE Two HUNDRED. The two hun-
dred who refused to surrender with Ribaut retreated
down the coast to a point near Cape Cafiaveral, where
they built a fort and began to construct ves-
1565 sels to escape to their own country. About
the twentieth day after the second massacre
information of their proceedings was brought to St.
Augustine, and after some delay Menendez set out
along the shore with one hundred and fifty men to
attack the French, one hundred more following in
three vessels. On his arrival at the French
Nov. 8 fort, about November 8, the inmates fled to
the woods, but on his assurance that their
lives would be spared, one hundred and fifty came in
and surrendered. On this occasion Menendez kept
his word. A part of these were incorporated into the
Spanish colony, and others eventually returned to
France; but of the fate of those who remained in the
forest nothing is known. Menendez destroyed the
fort and vessels and sailed to Havana, leaving one of
his captains to build Fort Santa Lucia de Cafiaveral
in a more favorable spot.
MENENDEZ RECEIVES PRAISE FROM PHILIP II AND
THE POPE. Menendez's master, Philip II, was much
pleased at the destruction of the Huguenot col-
ony and commended him for his zeal and piety.
It used to be said in the days of Philip that
if a really first-class job of murder turned up in
any country whatsoever, his hand was sure to be in it.
At Rome the Pope was so gratified that he wrote a
letter thanking Menendez, in which, after expressing
his joy, he gives some very good advice concerning the
treatment and conversion of the Indians.
Q. What became of the two hundred who refused to sur-
render? Give an account of Menendez's expedition against
them. What did they do on his arrival? How did Menendez
treat those who surrendered? What became of them and of
those who remained in the forest? What did Menendez then
do? How was Menendez's act received by Philip? by the
Pope? What used to be said of Philip?
MUTINY-ACTIVITY OF MENENDEZ-HIS VISIT
TO SPAIN-NOTABLE REVENGE OF DOMINIC
DE GOURGUES-RETURN OF MENENDEZ-HIS
DEATH-SIR FRANCIS DRAKE AT ST. AUGUS-
MUTINY. As stated before, Menendez sailed from
Cape Cafiaveral to Havana; and in these parts he
spent the winter of 1565-6, hunting for
1565-6 corsairs and seeking after his lost son. The
winter found the Spanish colonists unpre-
pared, which added to the disaffection which had al-
ready sprung up among them. At St. Augustine and
San Mateo the garrisons mutinied,and that of the latter
place, with the exception of twenty-one men, seized a
vessel that had arrived with provisions and set out for
the West Indies. The garrison of St. Augustine was
preparing to depart, when Menendez returned and en-
deavored to persuade the men to remain, but in this
he was unsuccessful. He was compelled to allow one
hundred under Captain Vincente to return to Porto
Rico in a small vessel, in which many of them died
from overcrowding before reaching their destination.
HOSTILITY OF THE INDIANS. A great source of
suffering during this same winter was the hostility of
Q. How did Menendez spend the winter? How did the
winter find the colonists? Tell about the garrison of San
Mateo. Give an account of the mutineers at St. Augustine.
What was a great source of suffering during the winter?
the Indians, who were incited by French fugitives to
attack the Spaniards at San Mateo and St.
1565-6 Augustine, so that in a short time it became
dangerous for any one to venture beyond the
walls of the forts. On one occasion the Indians sur-
rounded the fort at St. Augustine, sending in a shower
of arrows, some of which carried fire and soon had one
of the storehouses blazing; and do what they might,
the Spaniards were unable to put out the flames before
the entire building was consumed.
MENENDEZ HUNTS FOR CORSAIRS AND SEARCHES
FOR HIS SON. The Spanish adelantado found some of
his ships at Havana, with which he set sail to attack
the French and English corsairs cruising around San
Domingo; but hearing that the king had sent him re-
inforcements, he turned back. In the mean-
1566 time, while waiting for the reinforcements,
Feb. he sent to Campeachy for assistance which
was denied him in Cuba; and in February,
1566, he explored the Tortugas and the southern coast
of Florida, seeking for the son for whose sake he had
in the first place wished to come to Florida. His son
could not be fund; but friendly relations were estab-
lished with the cacique Carlos, and several Spanish
prisoners were rescued, one of whom Carlos was ac-
customed to sacrifice every year. This Indian chief
of South Florida had heard that Carlos was the name
of the most powerful ruler in the whole world, the Em-
Q. Who incited the Indians to hostility? How far was
this hostility carried? Give an account of the burning of the
storehouse. Tell about Menendez's hunt for corsairs. What
explorations did he make during February? What prisoners
were rescued? Why was the Indian chief named Carlos?
peror Charles V, and had adopted it as his own name.
In March Menendez returned to St. Augustine.
ST. AUGUSTINE. According to one narrative, this
was the time at which Menendez built the log fort
which was destroyed twenty years later by
1566 Sir Francis Drake. The position of St. Au-
gustine was an excellent one, owing to the
harbor, which allowed the smaller vessels bringing
provisions to enter, but kept out the larger warships of
an attacking enemy; and in addition to this the sur-
rounding region was healthy. Before the arrival of
the Spaniards there had been an Indian village on this
spot, called Seloy, and the newcomers made use of
some of the native dwellings. The fort, which was in
reality begun just after the destruction of Fort Caro-
line, was an octagonal structure made of logs, and was
situated near the site of the present fort. Other
buildings were erected, among these a hall of justice,
and very probably a church, as Menendez never forgot
that he was to advance the cause of religion in the New
ACTIVITY OF MENENDEZ. After the governor was
rid of the discontented members of his colony, he
sailed up the coast to San Mateo, and from there to
Guale, or Amelia Island, where the natives were con-
verted in a body, but only after Menendez had exr
plained to them how it was that the Spaniards could
kill other Christias. "The other white people," he
Q. What was built at this time at St. Augustine? Why
was the position of St. Augustine an excellent one? What
occupied the spot before the arrival of the Spaniards? Give
an account of the fort. What other buildings were erected?
Tell about the conversion of the Indians at Guale.
said, "were bad Christians, and believers in lies; they
had fled their own country, and came to mislead the
caciques and other Indians"; and for this reason they
"deserved the most cruel death". A fort was also
built at St. Helena (Port Royal, S. C.), but most of its
garrison soon deserted. During 1566 an ex-
1566 petition under Juan Pardo marched from St.
Helena to the gold region of North Georgia.
Menendez on his return sailed far up the San Mateo
River (St. Johns River). Later a vessel, by his orders,
explored this same stream in the endeavor to meet
him, if possible, on the southern coast of
1566-7 Florida, where he was building a small fort
in the kingdom of Carlos; but it did not pro-
ceed far owing to the hostile Indians who lined both
Much trouble was all along experienced from the
natives. They became, however, to some extent paci-
fied, with the exception of one Saturiba, a powerful
cacique and a match for the Spaniard in duplicity.
Finally, troops marched against him; but, as was the
case with the modern Seminole in that same country,
he was not found when wanted.
MENENDEZ VISITS SPAIN. In the spring of 1567 it
became necessary for the adelantado to make a visit to
Spain in the interest of his colony, since the
1567 evil reports of the deserters concerning his
management of affairs had reached the court.
Q. What fort was built? Where did Juan Pardo march?
Tell about the voyages on the San Mateo. -How were the
Indians disposed toward the Spaniards? Tell about Saturiba
and the attack on him. Why did Menendez have to return
to Spain? How was the voyage made?
'The voyage was made in a small vessel of twenty tons,
built at St. Augustine, and only seventeen days are
said to have been required for the run to the Azores.
He was received with much favor at court; but he
could obtain no aid suchas was necessary to put his
settlements in condition to resist the attack which he
expected from the French in retaliation for Matanzas
and Fort Caroline. Indeed, there was already a rumor
that an expedition for Florida was fitting out in some
DOMINIC DE GOURGUES. When news of the massa-
cre at Fort Caroline and Matanzas reached France,
a storm of indignation rose among the people, and a
memorial was sent up to the throne signed by the
widows and orphans of the unfortunate colonists. But
the Catholic court was indifferent to the sufferings of
its Huguenot subjects, and nothing was done. An
avenger was to arise in the person of a private indi-
vidual, one Dominic de Gourgues, a man of noble
birth, and, perhaps, himself a Catholic. Like most
men of gentle birth in those days, hemade arms his
profession, and rose to the rank of captain, at that
time a high honor; but he was unfortunate enough to
fall into the hands of the Spaniard who set him to
work in a galley. As fate willed it, this galley was
captured by the Turks, who again lost it to the French,
and in this way de Gourgues returned to his native
country, smarting under his injuries. When it became
Q. Give an account of his reception at court. What
rumor was there at this time? -Relate what was done in
France on the arrival of the news concerning the massacre
at Fort Caroline and Matanzas. Who was to avenge the
murder at Fort Caroline and Matanzas? Give an account of
Dominic de Gourgues' life.
evident that the court of France would do nothing to
exact vengeance for its subjects murdered in Florida,
he determined to take the task upon himself. Secrecy
was necessary, for the court would very likely report
his undertaking to the king of Spain; and so he gave
it out that he was preparing to go on a slave-hunt on
the western coast of Africa. Accordingly, three ves-
sels were fitted out, partly at his own expense, partly
at the expense of his friends, and on the e2nd
1567 of August, 1567, with one hundred men and
Aug. 22 eighty-four mariners, he set sail from Bor-
deaux, bound for the slave coast, where the
remainder of the year was spent, and a cargo of ne-
groes was captured.
ARRIVAL IN FLORIDA: INDIAN ALLIES. De Gour-
gues now turned westward, and after a speedy voyage
reached San Domingo, where he sold the negroes to
the Spaniards, repaired his vessels, and procured a
pilot for the Florida coast. Just after leaving San
Domingo, it is said, he for the first time made known
to his men his intention of punishing the Spaniards
for the insult offered his country by the murder of her
1568 subjects, and asked for their assistance in an
attack f~i Fort San Mateo. Not a min was
there whose heart did not burn at the story of his
countrymen's wrongs, and who did not declare his
eagerness to begin the work of revenge. In a short
time the mouth of the St. Johns was reached; but de
Q. Why did he determine to take vengeance on the Span-
lards? What did he give out as the object of his voyage?
Tell about his expedition to the coast of Africa. What did he
do at San Domingo? When did he first tell his men his
Gourgues did not land, though he might easily have
done so, being mistaken for a Spaniard by the Spanish
outposts. Instead, he ran up to the mouth of the St.
Mary's River. Here the Ipdians would not permit the
Frenchmen to land until if.was made known that they
were not Spaniards, whereupon they were received
with every demonstration of joy. In three days, the
chiefs Olocatora and Saturiba had their followers as-
sembled, ready for the surprise of the forts on the San
Mateo; and they brought with them a youth about
sixteen years of age, Peter de Bre by name, who had
escaped from Fort Caroline and who was now useful
as an interpreter.
SAN MATEO DESTROYED. Just at dawn de Gourgues
and his allies arrived near the fort on the north side of
the mouth of the river, but were held back by the tide
until mid-day; then they crossed and came close to the
place before the Spaniards saw them. At the cry
"The French! the French!" the garrison, thinking the
French came on ships, rushed to the gates to escape,
and the whole number was killed or captured. The fort
on the opposite.side was soon silenced, a few cannon
having been fired at de Gourgues' party; and again
every man was killed or captured. Reconnoitering
parties were now sent out towards San Ma-
1568 teo, who captured a Spanish soldier disguised
as an Indian, and from him they learned that
the troops in San Mateo were ignorant of the real
Q. How did Gourgues' men receive his plan? Where did
he land on the Florida coast? How did the Indians receive
him? What youth was brought to him? Tell about the at-
tack on the first Spanish fort at the mouth of the St. Johns
River. Give an account of the second fort. What parties
were sent out?
number of the invaders, supposing them to be about
two thousand strong. This decided the French to
attack at once. As they and their red allies drew
near the Spanish fort, about sixty men came out to re-
connoiter, whom de Gourgues cut to pieces, the In-
dians having got in their rear and thereby prevented
their return. Upon this the garrison rushed out,
panic-stricken, and endeavored to make their way to
St. Augustine; but only a few, including.the com-
mander, succeeded in escaping. Much booty was se-
cured in the fort; but before it could all be placed on
board the vessels, an Indian, who was cooking fish,
accidentally set fire to a powder-train leading to the
magazine, and the explosion that followed destroyed
"NOT AS TO SPANIARDS, BUT AS TO TRAITORS, ROB-
FERS, AND MURDERERS." The Spanish prisoners were
now led to the spot where in 1565 Menendez had
hanged part of the French taken in the capture of Fort
Caroline, and were read a severe lecture. On the very
trees where the Huguenots had'swung, de Gourgues
hung his Catholic captives, and nearby he set up a pine
board with these words burned into it with a red-hot
iron: "Not as to Spaniards, but as to Traitors, Robbers,
RETURN OF DOMINIC DE GOURGUES TO FRANCE.
In May, 1568, the avenger of the Huguenots of
Q. What was learned from the Spanish soldiers? How
was a party of sixty cut up? What defense was made by the
garrison? How was it that all the booty was not carried on
board the ships? What did de Gourgues do with his pris-
oners? Give the inscription set up nearby. How did the
Indians part with him?
Fort Caroline sailed for France amid the tears of his
M Indian friends, to whom he had to promise
ay to return within a twelvemonth. In France
he was received with great rejoicing. The king of
Spain demanded that he should be given up, and
Charles IX of France would have surrendered him
had he not concealed himself and remained
1568 hid for several years, till Charles gave him
assurance of protection, in the end making
him, it is said, admiral of the French fleet. He died
suddenly in 1582, regretted by many.
MENENDEZ AGAIN IN FLORIDA: His DEATH. At
the very time that Dominic de Gourgues was destroy-
ing San Mateo, Menendez was on his way across the
Atlantic with abundant supplies and reinforcements.
He had been made governor of Cuba, in addition to
the governorship of his own province of Florida.
Affairs in the latter'region were in a wretched condi-
tion, owing to the hostility of the Indians and to the
lack of food and clothing. Menendez rebuilt San
Mateo; reestablished his other posts on the coast; and
paid especial attention to the conversion of the natives.
He soon had missionaries teaching from the southern
point of Florida to the Chesapeake Bay, to which the
missionaries were guided by an Indian from that part
of the country who had been educated in Spain; but
he proved faithless, and the band of fathers was mas-
sacred, only one escaping (see page 96).
Q. How was he received in France? What office did
de Gourgues finally obtain? What was Menendez doing at
this time? How were affairs in Florida? Give an account
of Menendez's operations. Tell about the missionaries sent
to Chesapeake Bay.
As the importance of Florida declined, and as its
maintenance caused a constant drain on his resources,
the governor finally returned to Spain, leav-
1574 ing the government in the hands of his
nephew, Pedro Menendez Marquez. In
Spain he enjoyed the highest favor with the king, who,
in 1574, appointed him to the command of the famous
Invincible Armada which was to be fitted out against
England; but in this same year he was attacked by a
violent fever and died at Santander at the age of fifty-
SIR FRANcIS DRAKE BURNS ST. AUGUSTtIE. After
the departure of the energetic Menendez, the settle-
imciIts in Florida became little more than
1586 military posts; and as no gold ot-silver was
May discovered, it was difficult to obtain settlers
willing to engage merely in the tillage of the
soil. In 1586 the famous English rover, Sir Francis
Drake, was sailing along the coast on his way back to
England from a freebooting expedition to the West
Indies. On Anastasia Island he described a platform
raised on four masts, evidently a lookout station. Be-
fore sighting the lookout, neither Drake nor his men
knew of a Spanish settlement in this part of the world.
Late in the afternoon a cannon was landed on the
point of the island nearest the Spanish fort, and two
shots were fired, one passing through the-Spanish flag,
the other striking the ramparts; but nothing further
was done on account of the darkness. During the
night a French fifer, a survivor of the second Matan-
Q. Where did Menendez now go? How was he received
in Spain? What important command was given him? How
old was he at his death?
zas massacre, came out to the ships in a canoe, reported
that the Spaniards had deserted their fort, and offered
to act as a guide. Boats at once put off, and, after one
oirtwo shots from the few soldiers remaining, reached
the fort, which had been deserted so hurriedly that
about ten thousand dollars that were to pay the garri-
son fell into the hands of the English. The town also
surrendered, the inhabitants fleeing towards San Ma-
teo, and was burned in retaliation for the death of the
English sergeant-major. Sir Francis also intended
to destroy San Mateo and St. Helena, but was pre-
vented from landing at these places by the stormy
For the next hundred years the history of Florida
is almost entirely a record of the efforts of missionar-
ies to Christianize the natives.
Q. What now became of the colonies? Tell about Drake's
finding St. Augustine. What was done in the evening? Tell
about the fifer. Give an account of the taking of the fort.
Of the town. What else did Drake intend to do? Give the
character of the history of Florida for the next hundred years.
LINGUISTIC FAMILY: TRIBES. The Indians of
Florida belong to the great family of Mask6ki, or Mus-
cogee. This family
was made up of the .
various tribes dwell-
ing in the southeast-
-ern part of the United
States, with the ex-
ception of two tribes
inhabiting the dis-
*tricts Caloosa and Te-
questa, in the end of
-the peninsula. It is .r
very probable that
these two came from .
,the neighboring is-
lands; and, indeed,
there was a tradition ..
*that the people of Te- INDIAN TRIBES OF THE 16TH CENTURY.
questa were the same as those who held the Bahama
or Lucayan Islands. In the sixteenth century the
location of the tribes was about as follows: The pro-
vince of Tocobaga lay north of Caloosa between the
Hillsboro and Withlacoochee Rivers, and extended
eastwardly to the Ocklawaha. North of Tequesta, the
southeastern corner of Florida, were the villages under
the sway of the powerful Utina, whose residence was
near the northern end of Lake George. Still further
north, in the fertile district now known as Alachua and
Marion counties, ruled Vitachuco, who, it will be re-
membered, gave Hernando de Soto a severe struggle.
Saturiba, the ally of Dominic de Gourgues, held sway
over the territory around the mouth of the St. Johns
and northwardly along the coast nearly as far as the
Savannah. Between the Suwannee and the Chatta-
hoochee were the Apalaches. West Florida seems at
this time to have been sparsely settled, for there is
only one tribe mentioned there, the Pensacola or "hair-
people", who belonged to the Choctaw nation, which
according to tradition once had its abode in this re-
About one hundred years after the settlement of St.
Augustine, when the original inhabitants had been re-
duced by prolonged conflict among themselves and
with the whites, bands from various more northern
tribes began to descend into Florida. The earliest
band came from the Savannahs or Yemassees, who,
pressed out from their own territory by the English
settlers of Carolina, moved south and in the course of
time occupied the region known as Middle Florida,
where they became united with the remnants of the
Q. To what family did the Florida Indians belong? Where
did the tribes of Caloosa and Tequesta come from? Where
was Tocobaga? the realm of Utina? Where did Vitachuco
rule? Saturiba? Where were the Apalaches?
old tribes. From near the same locality as the Yemas-
sees came also the Uchees and the Apalachicolas
(Apalatchukla, not to be confounded with the Apalaches),
who, about 1716, settled under Cherokee Lechee on
the banks of the river afterwards called the Apalachi-
cola. These settlements were the most important
communities of the Lower Creeks, who also occupied
West Florida. Of the' Creeks and the Seminoles a
more extended account is necessary because of their
CREEK NATION. The Creek Indians were the last
of the great waves of migration which swept from the
west across the Mississippi in the centuries preceding
the arrival of Columbus, and at one time they held the
territory embraced in the States of Mississippi, Ala-
bama, Georgia, and parts of South Carolina and Flor-
ida. There is a legend that when Cortes conquered
"Mexico. the Creeks were the allies of the Tlascalans,
but were frightened by the tales of Spanish prowess
and fled northward. They continued in flight until
they met the Alibamus, whom they defeated and con-'
tinued to pursue across the Missouri, beyond the Mis-
sissippi, and southward, until finally a home and rest-
ing-place was found on the Coosa, Tallapoosa, and
Chattahoochee Rivers. The name Creek was given
them by early traders because of the numerous streams
found in their country. During the eighteenth cen-
Q. What tribe has left its name in West Florida? Why
were the original tribes reduced? Give an account of the
Yemassees. Give an account of the Uchees and Apalachi-
colas. With whom must not the Apalachicolas be con-
founded? Who occupied West Florida in later times? Where
did the Creek Indians come from? What territory did they
tury the French, Spanish, and English vied with each
other in courting the favor of the Creeks for
1740 the sake of their trade. In 1740 a band of
these Indians accompanied General Ogle-
thorpe in his expedition against St. Augustine, and
during the Revolutionary War the whole nation sided
INDIAN WARRIOR. De Bty, 1591.
with the British. But of this and of their further MIs-
tory more will be said hereafter.
SEMINOLES. When Governor Moore of South
Carolina endeavored to drive out the Spanish from St.
Augustine in the year 1702,a part of his forces
were Creek Indians, who kept possession
of the lands north of the St. Johns, and, uniting
with runaway negroes from the English and the Span-
ish colonies, formed the nucleus from which came the
Seminoles. The term semanole or isti simanole signi-
fies separatists or runaways, and the Seminoles were
always regarded as outcasts by the main body of the
Creeks. The present Seminoles of Florida call them-
selves "Peninsula-people". By 1732 they claimed the
country from the Flint River to St. Augus-
1750 tine, and began of their own accord to make
incursions into the peninsula, as that of 1750
18oo when Secoffee and his band settled the
Alachua region. Before the end of the last
century they vere in possession of the entire peninsula,
having absorbed 'the different, rem-
nants of the older tribes. Like the
Creeks, during the Revolution they
sided with the British; but they do not
appear.as a distinct body in American
history until the beginning of
1812 this century, when they were
under the leadership of King
1817 Payne, a son of Secoffee.
1835 Payne was slain in a battle
Switch the Americans in 1812.
/ In 1817 and again in 1835, they en-
gaged in hostilities with the United
). Relate the legend of the origin of the Creeks. What
is the origin of the name Creek? Why did the English,
trench, and Spanish court the favor of the Creeks? Tell
what is given about their history. What formed the nucleus
of the Seminole nation? What does Seminole mean? How
did the Creeks regard the Seminoles? What do the Semi-
noles call themselves? Mention something of their later
States, and the majority of them were finally removed
to the Indian Territory.
The modern Seminoles are made up of separatists
from the Lower Creek towns-but a large body of the
Upper Creeks joined them after the war with the
United States in 1814-of remnants of tribes partly
civilized by the Spaniards, of Yemassee Indians, and
INDIANS CURING MEATS FOR WINTER. D StBy, 1591.
CIVILIZATION OF THE ORIGINAL TRIBES. In ap-
pearance the Floridians were of a light brown color,
somewhat darker on the southern coasts; "of great
stature and fearful to look upon." Their terrible as-
pect was increased by the practice of tattooing their
bodies for the purpose of enhancing their beauty and
Q. How did the Seminoles treat the old tribes? When
do they first appear as a distinct body in American history?
Under what leader? What finally- became of them? Of
what are the modern Seminoles made up? Describe the
appearance of the Florida Indians.
of recording their exploits in war. Clothing was little
needed in their southern climate; and so their attire
consisted simply of deerskins dressed and dyed in var-
ious colors, besides which they wore light garments of
moss or of palmetto leaves. But one description gives
them little or no clothing. Their arms were bows and
arrows, and spears, which were sometimes tipped with
DWELLINGS. Old sketches made from memory by
he French artist who was at Fort Caroline, represent
the houses of these early peoples as round, with floors
level with the ground, except in the case of the chief,
whose house, in the centre of the village, was not
round and sometimes had its floor lower than the level
of the surface. In some districts the chief's house was
on a high artificial mound, which was often capable of
'holding as many as twenty houses. The dwellings
were grouped together in villages, and were sur-
rounded with a close wall of posts set firmly in the
ground and reaching above the surface about twice
k. the height of a man. Occasionally, an entire village
would be comprised within the walls of a single huge
building, the different families, living in the cabins
built around the inside of the walls.
LIVELIHOOD. Agriculture was very simple. The
ground was worked by means of sticks pointed at the
end or with clam shells fastened to them, and yet it is
said that a large yield was obtained in this way from
Q. Why did they tattoo? Describe their clothing. De-
scribe their arms. How does the French artist represent
their houses? How was the chief's house constructed? On
what was it often placed? How were the dwellings grouped?
Describe the occasional arrangement of a village. How was
the ground cultivated?
the seed of maize, beans, and other vegetables, planted
twice a year, in March and in June or July. If. as
was invariably the 4
case, this food did
not sulpl)ly the sirm-
ple wants of the Ila- t -t
ties for a year,
theyi took to( the for-
est and lived tile re-
mraindler f the time
,II Tr)ts and ganle.
The waters of the
C O) a s t ftrnishled IN IIIANS I I.INi. 1 Ifl. 'OIL. 1) R V, /S11.
thIemi \ith oY\'sters and fish. ,
Sv o 'r. The -favorite sport was
ball. To play this, a pole about fifty
feet high was set iup in the centre of
the iullic spqare. and on tile top was
iplac:e(d a mark which had to be struck
with the ball in order to win the game.
Musical instruments were a sort of
drum alnd a flute male of cane, with
l which very utfnnilodious sottnds were
.r prod luced oln festal occasions.
Rt '.Eit. Very unlike the tribes in
Proc. Amer. P Sc. the northern parts of the United
lo~,OR AD F. ,ozNcll States, where a chief held his office
SMil I.I.-KI -A IM EI.I.-
E.s. only so long as he was superior in
valor and wisdom, the Floridians were ruled by fami-
lies in which the power of king remained and de-
Q. How often was a crop planted? What. was done when
the food supply failed? Give an account of the favorite sport.
What musical instruments were used?
scended to the children of the first wife. Indeed, in
Caloosa the king was considered divine and able to
grant or withhold rain as he pleased. IBut among all
the tribes he had absolute power over his subjects,
who were devoted
to him and ready to
lay down their lives
.for him at any time.
It is said that even
-the food of the king
Siwas entirely diffeir-
ent from that of his
cusation has been
brought against the
natives of Caloosa
That they were sav-
age and given to
piracy; but it is
hard to blame them
when it is remem-
-- : bered that large
TRUMPETER. De rvy, Ljsg. numbers of them
were carried away by slave-catching Spaniards, who
at one time completely depopulated the Florida Keys.
763 The last remnant of the tribe were possessors
of Cayo Vaco and Key" West, where they\
were notorious for their cruelty to shipwrecked mari-
Q. How did the office of the chief differ among the Flor-
idians from that of the northern tribes? Give an account of
the king of Caloosa. Tell of the other kings of the tribes.
What accusation is brought against the Caloosas? What
can be said in their favor?
ners. In 1763 the whole body, to the number of
eighty families, moved to Cuba, and have not again
Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc.
TOY CANOE-KEY DWELLERS.
been heard of. The name of Caloosa lingers in Flor-
ida in Caloosahatchee.
WAR. No American Indians were fiercer than the
tribes which have at various times occupied the penin-
sula of Florida. This is attested by the experience
of those who have tried to conquer them, from the
days of Juan Ponce de Leon to the Seminole War,
when for seven years a few hundred Indians held at
bay the armies of the United States. Their methods
of fighting were like those of other Indians. Some
Proc. Axer. ^Ados. Soc.
WEAPON FITTED WITH SHARK'S TEETH-KEY DWELLERS.
tribes used poisoned arrows; some used sculptured
war clubs. A declaration of war rarely preceded an
attack; but some of the tribes in northern Florida
were accustomed to stick up arrows around the town
or camp of the enemy on the evening before the at-
tack. Fighting was always carried on by small bands,
and was for the purpose of obtaining scalps, slaves,
plunder, and hunting-grounds.
RELIGION. Idols were unknown among the Flor-
idians. The sun and the moon were the objects of
Q. Give an account of the last remnant of the tribe.
Where is the name Caloosa found? What was the character
of the Florida Indians in war? How did some tribes fight?
their veneration and were honored by festivals, the
principal festival being about the first of March at
corn-planting time. A deer was sacrificed to the sun
at the time of this festival, and its body or skin, stuffed
with grain or fruits, was suspended from the top of a
pole, around which a sacred chorus danced and sang.
In the northern portion of the
peninsula, the Toya feast was
celebrated about the time green
corn became eatable. Those who
wished to take part in the cele-
bration were led by the priests
into the public square, around
which they danced and yelled
three times, and then, suddenly
breaking off, rushed into the
forest, where they remained
three days fasting, when they
returned home to a famous
banquet already prepared for
them. In the meanwhile, the
women had been weeping and
wailing for them, tearing their Ae**DU lio
,roc.Amer. Pielos. Soc .
hair and cutting themselves WOLF FIGUREHEAD FOR RELI-
and their daughters with .OUSDWELLERS."'
stones; and as the blood flowed they caught the drops
and cast them into the air, crying "He toya!" At the
time of the full moon there was a great celebration. At
first the priest, with face to the rising moon, made hid-
Q. Tell how war was declared by some tribes. How was
fighting carried on, and for what purpose? What gods were
1 worshipped? How were they honored? Describe the prin-
cipal festival. Give an account of the behavior of the men
at the Toya. Of the women.
eous noises and acted like a madman for the space of
half an hour; after this all joined in, making noises like
various animals, and the ceremony was kept up till
midnight. Human sacrifices were occasionally offered
and around the St.
Johns River there
was a custom of
offering the first-
born son. Serpents
were held in vener-
ation, as is illustrat-
ed by the story.that
when one of Domi-
nic de Gourgues'
men killed a snake,
the natives cut off
the head and carried
it away with great
care and respect.
The same venera-
tion existed also
among the Semi-
Proc. Amer. Paios. Soc. noles.
KINGFISHER-BIRD-GOD OF WAR OF ANCIENT KEY
DWELLERS. An important man
in the community was the priest or medicine-man, who
was ready with his herbs and simples to cure the sick,
and with his magic to supply rain or foretell the result
of a battle. Often he promised the Indian brave that
he should not be struck by bullets, and that he should
conquer the enemy from a distance.
Q. Describe the ceremony at the time of a full moon.
Give an account of human sacrifices. Tell about the venera-
tion of serpents. Give an account of the medicine man.
Along the St. Johns River a priest or chief at his
death was interred in a grave which had been dug in
his dwelling and over which a low mound was raised;
this was surrounded with arrows sticking in the
ground, and was surmounted by the conch that had
served him as a cup during his life. His possessions
were gathered into his house and the whole burned.
The tribe fasted for three days and
nights, and his death was bewailed
by the women for six moons, thrice
each day. The Caloosas exposed
the bodies of their dead to the air,
seemingly to procure the bones,
which were buried in an ordinary
grave. It will be remembered that
Juan Ortiz was set to guard bodies
exposed in wooden coffins, in order
to keep the wild beasts from carry-
ing them off.
S CUSTOMS, RITES, ETC., OF
LATER TRIBES. As the original
tribes belonged almost entirely
to the Muscogee family, it is
natural that there should be a great
Re. of Bur. of Eot. likeness between their customs,
MODERN SEMINOLE. rites, etc., and those of the later
tribes, who also belonged to the same family. But the
Creeks and Seminoles had peculiarities which are in
themselves interesting and instructive.
Q. Describe the grave of priest or king. What was done
with his property? What ceremonies of mourning were em-
ployed? How did the Caloosas bury their dead? Who was
set to guard the corpses? Why should the customs of later
tribes be similar to those of the earlier?
APPEARANCE. The men of the Creek nation were
large, powerful fellows; but in striking contrast was
the smallness of the women, who were, however, very
handsome-as would also appear from the number of
marriages between white traders and Creek women.
Some Seminoles exhibited their mixed origin of In-
dian and negro; but some were very tall and fine look-
Rep. ofBur. of Ethol.
MODERN SEMINOLE HOUSE.
PUBLIC SQUARE OF THE CREEKS. In the center of
every Creek town of any size was reserved a piece of
ground of square shape, in which were the only public
buildings of the town, a great house, consisting of four
Q. Give the appearance of the Creek men as contrasted
with that of the women. What is said of the appearance of
the Seminoles? Describe the "square" of the Creek towns.
sheds opening on the "square", one on each side, and a
council house, on a circular mound in the northeast cor-
ner. The "square" was the centre of all public life,
and was the place where the annual busk was held.
Here was also the play-ground, in the northwestern
angle, with its pole in the middle, on the top of which
a mark was fastened, to be shot at with
rifles or arrows. Traders called the
play-ground chunky yard, from the prin-
cipal game played in it, the game of
chunkey, which consisted of rolling on
its edge a rounded stone, called the
chunk, and then throwing a pole after
it. The man whose pole lay nearest the
stone when it ceased rolling won the
RED TOWNS AND WHITE TOWNS.
Creek towns were divided into two
classes, red towns, and white towns, a
distinction which is said to have been a
S thing of the past by the end of the last
Rep. of Bxr.
of Etlho. ,century. The term Red refers to the
SEMINOLE WOMAN warlike disposition of these towns, de-
picting, it is supposed, the wrath of the warrior on the
war-path; and red paint was applied to one side of the
posts of the warrior's. house in the public square.
These towns were governed by warriors only. White
towns were peace towns governed by civil officers,
Q. For what was it used? What was in the middle of the
playground? What name did the traders give it? Why?
How were Creek towns divided? What does the term red
refer to? How were the red towns governed? Give an ac-
count of the white towns. Tell about the knowledge of writ-
ing among the Creeks.
and were said to have been places of refuge for per-
sons fleeing from punishment or from the vengeance
of their pursuers.
METHODS OF RECORDING EVENTS. In common
with most of the tribes of North America, the Creeks
possessed a knowledge of picture-writing, generally
on tanned skins, such as the one given General Ogle-
thorpe, which contained the legend concerning the mi-
gration of the Creeks. But this tribe had a method of
recording events peculiar to themselves, namely, the
use of strings of small beads in the shape of a narrow
ribbon. Beads of various colors were employed, and
their meaning depended on their size and position on
the string. One old tradition thus preserved told how
the Creek nation had once dwelled in cave-homes
along the Red River of Louisiana, and how they had
wandered thence to their homes in Alabama.
CONDITION OF WOMAN. Woman's life was drudg-
ery. She prepared her lord's food; made salt; culti-
vated the earth; tanned deer skins and made mocca-
sins of them; spun "buffaloe wool"; and manufac-
tured the various articles of household use, baskets,
brooms, pots, bowls, and other earthen and wooden
vessels. Among the several tribes of the Muscogee
family the children took the name of the mother, and
not of the father; and in case of his death were cared
for by her nearest relatives.
Q. What peculiar method of recording events did they
have? What old tradition is thus preserved? Give an ac-
count of woman's life. Whose name did the children take?
What kind of marriage was forbidden. How are those who
have more than one wife punished among the Seminoles?
How may the man be reinstated?
MARRIAGE. Intermarriage between members of
the same family was forbidden. Divorce was very
frequent; but a plurality of wives was not allowed.
This offence is punished among the modern Seminoles
by banishment of the man from the tribe, although he
is reinstated if he can jump unseen into the midst of
the ring at the green corn dance.
INITIATION OF BOYs. Creek boys were taught
from an early age to accustom themselves to hardship:
they had to swim in the coldest weather; had to un-
dergo a scratching from head to foot with broken glass
or gar-fish teeth, and, when covered with blood, wash
SRef. of Br. of EtIhot.
in cold water. As a punishment, they were scratched
in the same way without the wash in cold water. It is
no wonder that the men suffered from rheumatism and
other afflictions. Between the ages of fifteen and sev-
enteen a Creek youth underwent the ceremony of in-
itiation into manhood. First, he remained in a house
for four days, eating only bitter roots; after this he
came out wearing a new pair of moccasins. Then for
twelve moons he could not eat the meat of young deer,
of turkey-cocks, of fowls, nor peas, nor salt; nor could
Q. Give the method of accustoming boys to hardship.
Describe the initiation. What effect was it supposed to have
on the youth?