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IA ALTERR H KAIEIGJI WI'1.TIXN OS TI11E WII)OW.
DEAN & SON, 6o0A, FLEET STREET, E.C.
SIR WALTER RALEIGH,
THE AMBITIOUS COURTIER.
"Raleigh! the scourge of Spain! whose breast with all
The sage, the patriot, and the hero, burn'd;
Nor sunk his vigour when a coward reign
The warrior fetter'd, and at last resigned,
To glut the vengeance of a vanqnish'd foe.
Then active still, and unrestrain'd his mind,
Explored the vast extent of ages past,
And with his prison hours enriched the world;
Yet found no times in all his long research,
So glorious or so base as those he proved
In which he conquer'd, and in which he bled."
THE parish of East Budleigh, in North Devon, is
situate near to the mouth of the river Otter, and
fourteen miles east of the ancient city of Exeter.
It has but one object of interest, but that one is
sufficient to redeem it from the partial oblivion into
which it is commonly cast by the compilers of
gazetteers. It contains the farm of which Walter
Raleigh, Esq. the father of the celebrated knight of
the same name, had the remainder of an eightY
SIR WALTERi RALEIGH.
year's lease. The house has undergone many altera-
tions during the last three centuries, and it now pre..
sents but very few particularly striking characteristics
of its high antiquity. A table, clumsily carved on
its sides and legs, is the only piece of furniture in it
which appears to date from the Elizabethan period.
Tradition, however, that garrulous and oft-times
intelligent old gossip, points out the very room in
which, in the year 1552, Sit Walter Raleigh was
born. In vain you ask for historical evidence of her
accuracy: she has none to give, so you must take her
word for it, or content yourself with the well authen-
ticated fact that our hero was born in that very
house, if not in that very room.
The parish register of East Budleigh is one of the
oldest in England; it is in excellent preservation, but,
unfortunately for the antiquarian, its earliest entry
pertains to 1555, three years subsequent to the birth
of Raleigh. We are not aware that a more definite
date than the year 1552 can be given for his birth.
But as for three hundred years no great inconvenience
has been felt from the circumstance, it will not
seriously affect us, or lovers of biography in future
We observed that East Budleigh has but one object
of historical interest. This is not quite correct; it
has two, at the least. The second is the oaken pew
which belonged to the Raleigh family; it is in the
parish church of All Saints, and still belongs to
Hayes Farm, now the property of Lord. Wille.
THE RALEIGH FAMILY,
The exterior of the pew is ornamented by ancient
carved work, among which are the arms of Sir
Walter's grandfather, Wymond Raleigh, quartering
those of his wife, Jane, daughter of Sir Thomas
Grenville, knight. The date, "1534," appears on
an adjoining panel.
Sir Waiter's mother was his father's third wife;
her name was Catherine, and she was the daughter of
Sir Philip Champernoun, of Modbury.
The Raleigh family was an ancient one, and the
name has been, and still is, variously pronounced, and
still more variously written. The oldest form of its
orthography is, perhaps, Rale; the most modern, and
the one now usually adopted, is Raleigh; the inter-
mediate forms being Ralega, Ralegh, and Rauleigh.
Sir Walter spelt it Ralegh, and Rauleigh appears to
represent the most general pronunciation of the
name at the present period.
When Raleigh was about sixteen years of age, he
entered the university of Oxford. He remained there
but three years, and during that time he was a com-
moner both at Oriel and Christ Church.
Whilst he was at Oxford, it happened that one
of his fellow-students, who was a great coward, but
a very good archer, received an insult. He told
Raleigh the particulars, and asked how he should
resent it. Raleigh's answer was, "Challenge him to
a match of shooting."
About the year 1570, his maternal uncle, Henry
Champernoun, received royal permission to raise a
SIR WALTER RALEIGH.
troop of a hundred gentlemen volunteers, to aid the
Huguenots in France. Young Raleigh gladly availed
himself of the opportunity to engage in military
enterprise; and, as Hooker says, he spent in France
"a good part of his youth in wars and military ser-
vices." HIe remained in France about five years.
He was, therefore, there on the memorable night of
St. Bartholomew's. He and Sir Philip Sidney are
supposed to have escaped through the influence of
Sir Francis Walsingham, who was then the English
ambassador at Paris, and in whose house they took
According to some of his biographers, he became,
on his return to England, in 1575, a student in the
Middle Temple. It is certain that he soon re-
linquished his studies, if indeed he ever studied for
the law. In 1577, Queen Elizabeth entered into an
alliance with the States of Holland, and agreed to
assist them with money and men. The English
auxiliary was under the command of Sir John Norreys,
and Raleigh served under him in the Netherlands for
about a year.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert was Raleigh's half-brother,
and thirteen years his senior. Hie obtained, in 1578,
a patent from the queen to take possession of all in-
appropriated land on the northern coast of America,
and all land that he might discover on his explora-
tions. It was with great difficulty that he could
prevail on others to take part in the adventure.
Raleigh was amongst the number who joined him.
HIS GALLANTRY TO THE QUEEN.
The expedition was a fruitless one: having sailed
as far as Newfoundland, it returned to England in
1578. In the following year, Raleigh distinguished
himself more by bravery than humanity in assisting
in quelling the rebellion which had broken out in the
province 6f Munster, then under the governorship
of the Earl of Ormond.
In 1582, Raleigh returned to England. Hii
noble appearance, agreeable manners, and rare intel-
lectual attainments, no less than his distinguished
services, ensured him a favorable reception at court.
It was not long before an opportunity offered for
him to prove at once his gallantry and his attachment
to the person of his sovereign. The queen was
taking a walk for the benefit of the air-so the story
goes-and she came to a very muddy part, and hesi-
tated about proceeding. Raleigh, who had on a new
and very rich plush cloak, immediately took it off and
spread it over the mud, as a footcloth for the royal
pedestrian. It is said that the queen trod as-gently
as possible over it, and soon rewarded the sacrifice of
the cloak by the present of a rich suit.
Raleigh received two appointments from the queen
in 1583; the first was to attend Simier, the agent of
the Duke of Anjou; the second was to attend the
duke himself to Antwerp, of which he was governor.
This was a distinguished honor, as at that time it was
supposed that Elizabeth would accept the duke as her
On laleigh's return from Antwerp, in the same
SIR WALTER RALEIGH.
year, he found Sir Humphrey Gilbert preparing for a
similar expedition to that which he conducted five
years previously, and he readily consented' to join it.
There were five ships. After they had been out at
sea a few days, a virulent fever broke out on board-
the largest vessel, and Raleigh brought it again into
Plymouth harbour, whilst Gilbert proceeded with the
other ships to Newfoundland, where, on the 5th of
August, he took formal possession of St. John's, and
founded the first British colony. He never returned
to his native land. His largest vessel having been
lost in a storm, he was proceeding homeward in a
small loop, in which he had braved many dangers;
when, on the night of the 9th of September, she
foundered in a tempestuous sea, and the brave Sir
Humphrey perished, with all his crew.
This misfortune did not damp the ardour of Raleigh
for voyages of discovery. At his own expense he
fitted out two vessels, which he despatched under the
command of Captains Barlowe and Amidas. They
sailed on the 27th of April; after having captured
Virginia and Carolina, they returned to England; and
on the return of Raleigh from his first personal visit
to Virginia, the queen conferred on him the honor
of knighthood. Virginia was so named in com-
pliment to the virgin queen. The natives called it
It was also in the year 1584, that Raleigh was
elected to represent his native county in Parliament;
and shortly afterwards he was made lord w\aIden of
HIS DESIRE TO PURCHASE HAYES FARM.
the stannaries, and also captain of the queen's guard.
He obtained a grant of five thousand acres of land in
the counties of Cork and Waterford.
It is pleasant to find that the rapid and great
accession of wealth and honors did not make him
forgetful of the scenes of his childhood. Who can
read the following letter without sympathizing with
the writer, and regretting that it did not obtain the
"MR. DUKE,-I wrote to Mr. Prideaux, to move
you for the purchase of Hayes, a farm sometime in
my father's possession. I will most willingly give
whatever in your conscience.you deem it worth: and
if at any time you shall have occasion to use me, you
shall find me a thankful friend to you and yours. I
am resolved, if I cannot entreat- you to build at
Colleton, but for the natural disposition I have to
that place, being borne in that house, I had rather
scale myself there than any where els. I take my
leave, readie to countervaile all your courtesies to
the utter of my power.
"Court, ye xxvi of July, 1584."
In the portion which we have Italicised, we
retain the original orthography. Early in the present
century, the original letter was to be seen at Otterton
House. We are not sure whether it is still in
In 1586, Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, fitted out
a few ships, and Sir Walter Raleigh accompanied him
SIRl WAIVA'ER IALEIGH.
in an expedition in which they considerably damaged
the Portuguese trade in the South Seas.
Early in the following year, the colonization of
Virginia engaged Raleigh's attention. Under his
directions, on the 26th of April, John White, with a
hundred and fifty persons, in three vessels, left Ports-
mouth for Virginia. The first Christian chih' born
in the new colony was a girl. She was the daughter of
Ananias and Eleanor Dare, and the grand-daughter,
by the maternal side, of the governor. She was born
on the 18th of August, and named Virginia.
Raleigh, in 1590, conducted, personally, a success-
ful cruise against the Spaniards in the West Indies.
His fleet consisted of two of the queen's men-of-war
and thirteen other vessels, which he equipped cliefly
at his own expense.
On the 27th of January, 1591, the queen granted
R.aleigh a ninety-nine years' lease of ~I I.ii-,
Dorsetshire, at a rental of 200 16s. Id. Nine day-s
previously the manor pertained to the see of Salisbury,
and the transfer was considered to be so sacrilegious
that those who were envious of Raleigh's increasing
greatness, did not scruple to stigmatize him as an
atheist. Sherborne castle, the present manorial resi-
dence of the Earl of Digby, was erected by Raleigh.
The possession of Sherborne by any layman would
have been considered impious by the high-churchmen,
but it was most mortifying to their party to see it in
the possession of one who was most zealous in op-
posing the persecuting and arbitrary measures against
AN EXPEDITION TO GUIANA.
the Romanists on the one hand, and Nonconformists
of various sects on the other.
Shortly after he obtained the grant of Sherborne,
he incurred the royal displeasure by the manner in
which he paid his addresses to Elizabeth Throckmorton,
one of the ladies of the bed-chamber. On the 81st
of July, 1592, Sir Walter and his "ladye-love"
were imprisoned in the Tower, the queen having dis-
covered that they had committed matrimony, an
offence which the maiden queen invariably punished
when she could, and especially if the high contracting
parties were courtiers. The happy couple were soon
liberated, but it was some years ere Raleigh regained
the favor of the queen. His first great and successful
effort to effect so desirable an object, was the fitting-
up, at his own expense, a fleet of five ships, with
which he undertook an expedition to Guiana. He
destroyed San Joseph, the capital of Trinidad. This
was in 1595, the year in which the expedition of
Drake and Hawkins against the Spanish West Indies
failed, although their fleet consisted of twenty-six
ships, with troops under command of Sir Thomas
Raleigh's exaggerated account of the wealth, and
resources, and wonders of Guiana, did not induce the
cautious queen to further his views of conquering it,
and adding it to her dominions; but she rewarded his
bravery by appointing him to the command of the
fourth squadron of the celebrated Cadiz fleet, in
1596. This fleet finally left Plymouth on the 3rd of
SIR WALTER. RALEIGH.
J ne. Had it not been for the consummate skill of
ialeigh, our fleet and army, instead of gaining a
brilliant victory and capturing Cadiz, might have
sustained a signal defeat.
So many conflicting accounts have been written
about the capture of Cadiz, that it is impossible to
arrive at a satisfactory conclusion as to whom the
chief merit is due; but all agree that Raleigh led the
fleet into action, and contributed greatly to the suc-
cess of the expedition. In one engagement, he
received a wound in the leg, in consequence of which
he was confined to his ship This seems to have
annoyed him chiefly because it prevented him from
" feathering his nest" to the extent he desired by the
plunder of Cadiz. His complaint that he had
"nought but poverty and pain" from the capture of
the city, was certainly groundless. From his own
admission to the Commissioners appointed by the
queen to search the ships on their return to Plymuth,
his share of the plunder was worth 1769. Two
others, Sir Francis Vere and Sir Conyers Clifford, had
shares mom valuable, each being worth upwards of
3000. The commanders of the other squadrons,
namely, the Earl of Essex, the Lord Admiral, and
Lord Thomas Howard, thought more of glory than of
pillage. So far from enriching themselves, they
seem to have incurred considerable pecuniary loss by
the Cadiz expedition.
From a letter of the Earl of Essex to Anthony
Bacon. it appears that Lord Thomas Howard had, in
SURRENDER OF CADIZ.
the castle of Cadiz, "a house which was reputed of
equal value with any, and was sued for by Sir Walter
Raleigh most earnestly;" and from another letter
written by the wife of Lord Thomas, that until "the
queen claimed all," it was arranged that her husband
"should have for his part five thousand pounds, and
Sir Walter Raleigh three." There is, however, no
evidence to shew that the queen seized the prizes
found in the possession of the pillagers by the Ply-
On the Sunday after the surrender of Cadiz, divine
service was performed by the victors in its principal
church; the sermon was preached by the chaplain of
the Earl of Essex, "Master Hopkins, a man of good
learning, and sweet utterance." When the service
was concluded, the Lord Admiral, who was chief of
the forces by sea, and the Earl of Essex, who had the
pre-eminent command of the land forces, created
knights. No fewer than sixty-three individuals were
knighted. This liberality on the part of the generals
was displeasing to the queen, and occasioned much
Sjelousy and ridicule in England. Amongst the
squibs published at the time, the following had be-
A gentleman of Wales,
With knight ot Cales, (Calais)
And a lord of the north countries,
A yeoman of Kent,
Upon a rack't rent,
Will buy them out all three.
SIR WALTER RALEIGH.
One of the sixty-three who were knighted was
Arthur Throckmorton, the brother-in-law of Raleigh.
Another was Anthony Ashley, a friend of Throck-
Ashley was the first to give an account of the
expedition to Elizabeth's council: from his version it
appeared that all the merit of success was due to
Raleigh and the sea service. The secretary, Sir
Robert Cecil, was no friend to the Earl of Essex,
and be and the Council drew up, from Ashley's state-
ments, an account of the capture of Cadiz. This was
published, and, shortly afterwards, the Essex party
prepared for publication "A true relation of the
action of Cadiz, under the Earl of Essex and the
Lord Admiral; sent to a gentleman at court, from
one that served there in a good place." But their
design was thwarted by Ashley. He had been made
acquainted with their intention, and he informed the
Council, who immediately issued a prohibition to all
printers from publishing any account except by special
But for one untoward circumstance, Raleigh might
at this time have regained the favor of the queen.
After the capture of Cadiz, Essex proposed that the
fleet should put to sea, and endeavour to intercept the
Spanish homeward-bound West Indian fleet. This
was strenuously and successfully opposed by Raleigh,
whose judgment guided others. The English fleet
had not returned a month, when the news reached
England that only two days after the proposal of
AN EXPEDITION AGAINST SPAIN.
Essex and Lord Thomas Howard was negatived, the
Spanish West Indian fleet entered the Tagus with
twenty millions of ducats. The loss of such a prize
irritated the queen greatly, and she vented her wrath
on those on whom she was but a few days before dis-
posed to lavish honors. Bacon, in one of his letters
on the subject, wrote, "'Necesse est,' said our
Saviour, 'ut scandal evenient sed vw illis per
quos.'* Sir Walter Raleigh has enough of these
ve's laid upon him for having dissuaded my Lord
Admiral from joining with my Lord of Essex, and
persuaded an untimely, unlucky, and most dishonor-
This was in September, 1596. In the following
February, Sir Walter Raleigh was successful in effect-
ing a reconciliation between the Earl of Essex and
Sir Robert Cecil. This paved the way for his own
reinstatement in the royal favor. In June, Raleigh
was admitted into the royal presence. He was also
restored to the command of the yeoman guard, which,
since his marriage, he had not been permitted to
exercise. Active preparations were being made for
another expedition against Spain. The command
was given to the Earl of Essex. Lord Thomas
Howard was appointed vice-admiral, Sir Walter
Raleigh, rear-admiral. The armament, which was
victualled for four months, consisted of one hundred
and twenty ships, with ten pieces of artillery, and six
"It needs be that offences will come, but woe (vce) to
him through whom they come."
SIR WALTER IIALEIIT.
thousand men. It put to sea on the 10th of July,
but it was so shattered by a storm that it was obliged
to put back. Sir Walter, in a letter to Cecil, dated
July 18th, says "In my ship it hath shaken all her
beams, knees, and stancheons asunder, inasmuch that
on Saturday night, we made account to have yielded
our souls up to God,-our ship so open every-where,
all her bulwarks rent, her very cook-room of brick
shaken down into powder." The fleet was not ready
to put to sea again until the middle of August. The
expedition was a most unfortunate one. There is no
dtubt that the little glory which resulted from it was
achieved by Raleigh, but under circumstances which,
if the accounts of some be correct, i. 1.. little credit
on Raleigh's generosity of disposition. Whether he
designedly stole a march on the Earl of Essex, or
whether, as he and his friends state, he waited for two
days for Essex before he would attack Fayal, cannot
be ascertained ; Fay;l was captured by Raleigh ; and
so mortified were Essex and other (ofI i -, that they
had not taken part in the attack, that Raleigh was
called upon to answer for his conduct before a council
of officers. lie was told that it was directly and
expressly forbidden, upon pain of death, to land forces
without order from the general. To this le replied,
that as he was one of the principal commanders, the
orders did not apply to him. Essex was advised to
have Raleigh tried by a court martial, "That" said
Essex, would I do, were he my friend." It is cer-
tain that some of the followers of the Earl of Essex
APPOINTED GOVERNOR OF JERSEY.
did all they could to prejudice him against Ralcigh,
consequently the worst construction was put upon
every movement of the rear-admiral.
That Raleigh had bitter enemies among his col-
leagues, is certain, but it is no less certain that he had
powerful friends at Court. Cecil was in himself a
host. One of the principal charges against the Earl
of Essex by the queen, on his return to England, was
his oppression of Sir Walter Raleigh. As it was
mainly through Raleigh's influence that on the 18th
of December, 1597, Essex was created, by patent,
Earl Marshal of England, we may presume that they
had contrived to adjust their differences speedily.
Raleigh, Essex, and Cecil, were on friendly terms
with each other in January, 1598, and this occasioned
surprise. In the summer of that year, the Earl of
Essex quitted the Court, after having received a box
on the ears from the queen, in consequence of his
rude behaviour towards her. It has been generally
supposed that Robert Dudley, the celebrated Earl of
Leicester, introduced the Earl of Essex to Court as a
counterpoise to the influence of Raleigh, of whom he
was particularly jealous. The absence of Essex from
Court did not hinder, if it did not promote, the ad-
vancement of Raleigh. In the year 1600 he was
appointed governor of Jersey.
Immediately after the first examination of Essex by
the Council, on his sudden return from Ireland, in
September, 1599, Raleigh openly sided with the Cecil
party, but he was not in England at the time of the
trial at York House in June. A private letter of this
period, dated June 9th, informs us Raleigh is gone
into the country, with bag and baggage, as wife and
children; and Her Majesty called him worse than cat
Raleigh was one of the witnesses against the Earl
of Essex at his last trial, February 19th, 1601.
When he was called and sworn, Essex exclaimed
What booteth it to swear this fox ?" The most
ardent admirers of Raleigh find it difficult to make
his conduct in the matter of the Earl of Essex, appear
worthy of him, or like that of a noble-minded man.
Neither he nor his royal mistress regained popularity
after the death of Essex. He retired as much as he
could into private life, and spent his time in literary
pursuits, and in cultivating the acquaintanceship of
literary men. Amongst his personal friends were
Shakspcre, Ben Johnson, Beaumont, and Fletcher.
Queen Elizabeth died on the 24th of March, 1603,
and James VI. of Scotland hastened to take possession
of the vacant throne. HIe was a great friend of the
late Earl of Essex, and he shared in the popular
prejudice against Raleigh. Shortly after his accession,
Sir Walter was deprived of his office of captain of
the yeoman guard, and of the wardenship of the
stannaries. Not content with these tokens of ill-favor
James contrived to drive him from Court entirely.
In the summer, a report was spread about that
Raleigh was at the head of a conspiracy to dethrone
JLmes, and make the lady Arabella Stuart queen.
Raleigh and his colleagues were imprisoned in tbL
Tower in July. The plague was then raging so fear-
fully in London, that it was deserted by the Court
and by the judges. It was ultimately resolved that
the conspirators should be tried at Winchester, tc
which city they were removed in November. Sir
William Waad writes thus, on the 13th of November,
to Cecil, "I thank God, we brought all our prisoners
safely hither yesternight, in good time; and yet I
protest it was hob or nob whether Sir Walter Raleigh
should have been brought alive through such mul-
t tudes of unruly people as did exclaim against him.
We took the best order we could in setting watches
through all the streets, both in London and for the
suburbs. If one hair-brained fellow among so great
multitudes had set upon him (as they were very near
to do it), no entreaty or means could have prevailed,
the fury of the people was so great."
The trial commenced on the 17th of November.
The chief witness against ITleigh was the dastardly
Lord Cobham, who afterwards retracted the most
material parts of his evidence.
Raleigh was charged with having conspired to
dethrone the king, to introduce the Roman Catholic
religion into England, to procure foreign invasion,
and other similar offences. The only point which
could be proved against him was that when Cobham
told him that if he would use his influence to further
the peace between England and Spain, he should be
paid for his services by the Court of Spain, le replied
SIR WALTER RALEIGH.
"When I see the money, I will tell you more."
Raleigh admitted that he had listened to the proposals
of Cobham, but he denied that he had ever favoured
the Spanish faction. He complained that Cobham,
the only witness against him, did not give his evidence
personally, and was not produced. "Let Lord Cob-
ham be sent for," said he call my accuser before my
face, and I have done Charge him on his soul, and
on his allegiance to the king; and if he affirm it, let
me be taken to be guilty."
The Attorney-general, the celebrated Sir Edward
Coke, conducted the case against Raleigh with such
asperity as called forth reprobation from all parties.
Raleigh said "Your words cannot condemn me; my
innocency is my defence. Prove one of those things
wherewith you have charged me, and I will confess
the whole indictment, and that I am the horriblest
traitor that ever lived, and worthy to be crucified with
a thousand cruel torments." To this Coke replied
"Nay, I will prove all!-thou art a monster! thou
hast an English face, but a Spanish heart. Now you
must have money. Aremberg was no sooner in Eng-
land, (I charge thee, Raleigh), but thou incitest
Cobham to go unto him, and to deal with him for
money to bestow on discontented persons to raise rebel-
lion in the kingdom."-"Let me answer for myself,"
said the prisoner, "Thou shalt not!" fiercely replied
the Attorney-general. Cecil, who was one of the
commissioners, here interposed, and begged Coke to
allow Raleigh to speak. This so offended Mr. At-
torney," that he sate down in a chafe, and would
speak no more, until the commissioners urged and
entreated him, when, after much ado, he went on.
He applied the most scurrilous epithets to the
illustrious prisoner, who, after listening to his vitu-
peration for some time, observed to him, "You
speak indiscreetly, barbarously, and uncivilly." Coke
replied "I want words to express the viperous
reasonss" Raleigh's answer was very sarcastic, "I
think you want words indeed, for you have spoken
one thing half a dozen times." This was evidently
true, for the Attorney-general, instead of denying it
or offering any remark to justify his tautology, took
refuge in personal abuse, to which he was much
inclined. Thou art an odious fellow," he exclaimed,
"tly name is hateful to all England for thy pride."
Raleigli's smart repartee provoked Coke to expressions
still more offensive and unbecoming.
Concerning the moral guilt of Raleigh with regard
to the plot for which he was tried, opinions widely
differ. But if he were morally guilty, his guilt was
never legally proved, consequently his condemnation
was illegal. Early in the reign of Edward III.
statutes were enacted providing that in establishing
cases of high treason, the testimony of two credible
witnesses, who should be brought face to face with
the prisoner, was necessary. This was pleaded by
Raleigh. Coke, in general terms, said that the law
was altered: when, or by whom, or how, he did not
say; lie merely declared that the crown could not
SIR WAL'TI'IE RALEriH.
stand a year upon the king his master's head, if a
traitor could not be condemned upon circumstances.
lie thus, either from obsequiousness to the king, or
vindictiveness towards Raleigh, established a prece-
dent which afterwards was quoted by unscrupulous
ju Iges and advocates, who aimed more at proving
state prisoners guilty than at eliciting truth and doing
justice. Ilis conduct at Raleigh's trial is the
greatest blot on the memory of Coke, who must ever
be regarded as one of the most eminent lawyers. We
in ly think lightly of his coarse invective, when we
remember that, in those days, refinement of expression
was not sought after in controversy. But it is
impossible to acquit so distinguished a lawyer from a
wilful and malicious perversion of justice in the case
of Sir Walter Raleigh.
W\ len a verdict of "guilt y" was returned by the
jury, Raleigh remarked "They must do as they are
directed." lie was sentenced to death, and his pro-
perty was confiscated. The day for his execution was
not fixed, and he was, in the meantime, remanded to
the Tower, where for twelve years he remained a pri-
soner. His wife and son were allowed to reside with
him. His second son, Carew, was born in the Tower
in 1601. Raleigh found solace in music, poetry,
painting, chemistry, and literature. His History of
the World was all written in the Tower. The mate-
rials were supplied by friends, of whom he still had
many. Amongst his admirers and visitors, was the
heir apparent, Henry, Prince of Wales, who is said to
.I ..GS .. .. ,
SIR \WAI,1'TR RALIEGIGH S'iDYING CII[SI'R'Y IN "HI TOWER.
SETS SAIL t'Ut GUIANA.
have observed, that none but his father would keep
such a bird in such a cage. The Prince died on the
6th of November, 1612. In 1614, Raleigh's His-
tory of the World was published, and in the following
year he regained his liberty, through the interest of
Villiers, the king's favorite, whose good graces he
gained by a present of fifteen hundred pounds.
Raleigh was no sooner free again than he proposed
an expedition to Guiana "that mighty, rich, and
beautiful empire," containing the great and golden
city, which the Spaniards call El Dorado." James
would neither engage his services, nor assist him in
the undertaking; it is even said that he informed the
Spanish ambassador of Raleigh's designs.
So sanguine was Raleigh that hle embarked the
whole of his own and his wife's fortune in fitting out
a fleet to South America. At this time, Sir Ralph
Winwood was secretary of state, and he used his
influence to procure for Raleigh the rank of admiral
of the fleet, and a royal commission authorizing him
to found an English settlement in Guiana. But the
expedition met with determined opposition from the
Spaniards, who had received information long before
of Raleigh's designs.
Since Raleigh's visit to Guiana, the Spaniards had
established a settlement there; and James gave him
and his captain strict injunctions not to molest them,
or to interfere with any of the Spanish settlements.
It was a most inauspicious time for Raleigh, or for
any other Englishman, to undertake an expedition to
SIR WALTER RALEIlH.
any part of the New World. The Spaniards were
jealous of other nations, and especially jealous of the
English, by whom they had suffered many defeats;
and James was anxious to propitiate the Spanish
court, in order that his son Charles, the Prince of
Wales, might marry the Infanta.
With a fl et of fourteen ships, Raleigh left
Plymouth on the 13th of August, 1617, and reached
his destination in November. lie sent Keymis, his
captain, with five of the largest ships, up the Oronoco,
and gave him instructions with reference to the
locality of the valuable mine. The captain proceeded
up the river according to Raleigh's direction. The
Spaniards had been on the look-out for an English
fleet; and accordingly they, in the night, attacked
the five ships as they passed Fort St. Thomas. The
English acted on the defensive and defeated the
enemy; but not content with this, they attacked the
fort and captured it; they then plundered the town.
The governor of St. Thomas's was a relative of the
Spanish ambassador in London; he was killed in the
conflict, as was also Raleigh's son.
The search for the mine proved-as no doubt
Raleigh expected it would prove-fruitless. Keymis
and his men, who had encountered much opposition
from the Spaniards, and innumerable difficulties in-
cidental to such an enterprise, rejoined Sir Walter,
after an absence from him of about two months. A
violent quarrel ensued between Raleigh and Keymis.
Of course it is impossible to say who was must
RETURN I1U l'E LANU.
blameworthy, or what was the main cause of the
quarrel. Recriminations reached such a pitch that
Ihe captain, in.the heat of passion, committed suicide.
The men were mutinous; and altogether Raleigh was
so discouraged that he resolved to return to England.
lie reached Plymouth in March, 1618. Some
weeks previous to this, Gondamar, the Spanish
Ambassador, contrived, by representing that Raleigh
had "broken the sacred peace betwixt the two king-
doms," to have a proclamation issued against him.
In the proclamation, the king declared his utter
dislike and detestation of the violence and excesses
committed upon the territories of his dear brother of
Spain, and invited all who could give information on
the subject to communicate it personally to the Privy
As soon as Raleigh reached Plymouth, his friends
told him of the proclamation, warned him of his
danger, and urged him to escape; but so confident
was lie of the justice of his cause, that lie brought his
ship, the Destiny, to her moorings, sent his sails
ashore, and set off for London. Before lie had pro-
ceeded more than twenty miles, lie was arrested by
Sir Lewis Stukley, and obliged to return to Plymouth.
Stukley seems to have connived at, if lie did not plan,
the escape of Raleigh to France; but, after deliberating,
Raleigh resolved not to attempt it, and he was there-
fore conducted to London. On his arrival he was so
t i,-, iI d1 at the charges which his enemies had raKed
up against him, that lie readily listened to proposals
SIR WALTER RALEIGH.
for his escape from the country. In this scheme he
was encouraged by Stukley, whose aim was evidently
to entrap him.
On the 10th of August, 1618, Raleigh was ar-
rested at Greenwich, and imprisoned in the Tower.
Since his return to England, he had been a prisoner
but in his own house. There can be but little doubt
that the scheme of his escape from England, was one
designed by his enemies to ruin him.
He was not brought to trial on the charges made
against him On the 28th of October, he was
brought into the Court of the King's Bench, and told
that for the last fifteen years he had, in the eye of the
law, been a dead man; and might at any moment
have been led to the scaffold; and that as new offences
had stirred up his Majesty's justice to enforce what
the law had formerly cast upon him, justice must take
its course. The only favor that could be shewn him
was, that he should on the following morning be
beheaded, instead of hanged. He pleaded that his
last commission from the king, implied pardon for the
offences of which he had been pronounced guilty;
but the plea was over-ruled.
At night, he gave to one of his attendants the iol.
lowing lines, for his own epitaph:-
Even such is time, that takes on trmtA
Our youth, our joys, our all we have
And pays us but with age and dust;
Who in the dark nnd silent grave.
When we nave wander'd a3l our ways,
Shuts up the story of our days!
But from this earth, this grave, this dust,
The Lord shall raise me up, I trust."
According to some, the piece called "The Fare-
well," was written by Raleigh, in his last hours; but
this is evidently erroneous, as it has been clearly
proved that the poem was in print ten years before
He was executed in the Old Palace Yard, West-
minster. His demeanour on the scaffold was calm
and dignified. In his speech he protested that he
had not promoted the death of the Earl of Essex,
but that he had wept for him. After he had bidden
farewell to his friends around him, he asked the
executioner to shew him the axe with which he was
to be decollated. As the man did not immediately
comply, Raleigh said "I pr'ythee let me see it; dost
thou think that I am afraid of it ?" When it was
shewn him, he passed his finger over the edge of it,
and remarked to the sheriff, "This is a sharp medi-
cine, but it is a cure for all diseases," He was
asked which way he wished his head to lie on the
block, his answer was, "If the heart be right, it
matters not which way the head is laid."
When the executioner was about to blindfold him,
he refused to let him do so, and assured him that it
was unnecessary. Think you," said he, "I fear
the shadow of the axe when I fear not the axe
SIR WALTER RALEIGHI.
His head was by two strokes severed from his body,
and it was afterward obtained by his widow; she be-
queathed it to his son Carew, who, in 1659, became
governor of Jersey. He died in 1666, and his
father's head was buried in his grave. Sir Walter's
body was buried in St. Margaret's church, West-
It is no easy matter to form a just estimate of the
character of Raleigh. Elizabeth's court was notorious
for intrigue; James's still more so for profligacy. It
is from writers who were contemporary with Raleigh,
that his subsequent biographers derive the information
by which their judgments are formed. His ability is
acknowledged by all. Authors," says one writer,
"are perplexed under what topic to place him;
whether statesman, seaman, soldier, chemist, or
chronologer, for in all these he did excel; and it still
remains a dispute whether the age he lived in was
more obliged to his pen or his sword; the one being
busy in conquering the new, the other in so bravely
describing the old world."
Raleigh was ever ready to assist men of genius and
earning. When he was in the zenith of his great-
ness, he visited the poet Spenser, at whose residence he
remained several days. It was on this occasion that
the poet read the manuscript of his "Fairy Queen"
to Raleigh, who was so pleased with it, that although
only the first three books were complete, he wished i
to be immediately published. To this Spenser agreed,
nid lie therefore accompanied Raleigh from Ireland to
INTRODUCTION OF TOBACCO.
England. On Spenser's arrival in London, Raleigh
introduced him to the queen, who shortly afterwards
granted him a pension of fifty pounds.
Raleigh was also the patron of Richard Hakluyt,
who, in 1605, was made prebendary of Westminster.
It is said that Raleigh personally assisted him in
the compilation of the celebrated "Collection of
English Voyages," which he published in three folio
He availed himself of the services of Thomas
Heriot, the mathematician, who accompanied him to
America, and wrote an account of the discovery of
Virginia. He invited Heriot to become an inmate
of his house, and he paid him a salary for his instruc-
tion in the mathematics. It has been maintained
that Descartes derived his "pretended discoveries
in Algebra" from Heriot's Artis Analytical
Sir Walter Raleigh is, by some, said to have been
the first to introduce tobacco into this country; but
others say that it was introduced in 1586, by Ralph
Lane, the commander of Raleigh's Virginian colony.
Three others have each the credit of introducing into
SThe Indian weed, unknown to ancient times,
Nature's choice gift, whose acrimonious fume
Extracts superfluous juices, and refines
The blood distempered from its noxious salts."
The three to whom we allude, are Sir John
SIR WALTER RILEIGH.
Hawkins, who, in 1565, brought home a small sample,
which was regarded merely as a drug; Sir Francis
Drake, in whose ship Lane came to England with his
tobacco; and Captain Greenville.
There is a popular story to the effect that, one day,
as Sir Walter was indulging in "a smoke," his
servant had occasion to go to him. He was shocked
at seeing his master almost enveloped in smoke,
through which fire was perceptible. Ile ran for a
bucket of water, and discharged its contents over Sir
Walter. The story would not end well if we omitted
to state that Sir Walter laughed heartily at his
servant's unceremonious and efectual manner of
putting a pipe out; and explained to him that he
knew of an easier and equally effective method.
There is another popular story which we must not
omit. Raleigh was one day telling the queen all he
had heard and seen of the properties and virtues of
tobacco; and to awaken her interest, he told her that
he could ascertain the exact weight of the smoke
which issued from his p;pe. The idea of weighing
smoke appeared so absurd to the queen, that she laid
a wager that lie could not prove his assertion tree.
He accepted the wager, weighed some tobacco, put it
into his pipe, puffed away till he required another
"charge," then weighed the ashes left in the pipe.
Of course the queen was obliged to admit that the
difference between the weight of the ashes and that of
the tobacco had "gone off in smoke." She paid her
bet, and observed, Many labourers in the fire
turn gold into smoke, you have turned smoke into
Sir Walter Raleigh was the first who introduced
potatoes into Ireland. IIe brought them from
America, and planted them on his own estate at
Youghall, in 1586. They were not introduced into
Britain till many years after yards.
Tradition gives to Sir Walter Raleigh the honor of
planting the first orange trees that ever grew in this
country. Quaint old Fuller mentions the tradition.
The place where Raleigh planted the trees was Bed-
dington, near Croydon. Beddington belonged to
Sir Francis Carew, a relative of Raleigh's. In
Fuller's time, the trees were a hundred years old.
Raleigh contributed greatly to improve the English
language, not only by patronizing learned men, but
also by his own literary efforts. lis name cannot
be omitted in any list of our earlier poets, although
his poetry is, c;!mparitively speaking, forgotten. As
an historian, he was superior to any Englishman who
had preceded him. As a soldier, lie was not excelled
by the bravest of his contemporaries. IIe was trained
"not part, but wholly gentleman, wholly soldier."
As a seaman, his intrepidity and enterprise have never
been exceeded by the most intrepid and enterprising
of his countrymen. As a courtier, he was ambitious,
and his ambition led to his downfall. From a popular
anecdote concerning him, it seems that when he
commenced his career as a courtier, he had his mis-
givilgs as to the ultimate result. He wroce on a
SIR WALTER RALEIGH.
window, so as to attract' the queen's attention Fain
would I climb, but that I fear to fall." The queet
wrote beneath it "If thy heart fail thee, climb not at
all." He climbed, and he fell. His fate, whilst it
reflects lasting shame on the pusillanimous monarch
who sacrificed him to gratify Spanish malice and his
own private enmity, teaches a useful lesson. Had
Raleigh not lowered himself by showing his jealousy
of the Earl of Essex, by treating him as a rival, and
by endeavouring to lessen him in the estimation of the
queen, it is probable that James, who was, with all his
faults, an admirer of learning, would have been glad
to patronize him.
Amongst the absurd charges which the enemies of
Raleigh brought against him, was that of being inclined
to Atheism. Relative to this Sewell says:-
An Atheist sailor is a monstrous thing,
More wonderful than all old ocean breeds.
But I will witness for my Raleigh's faith;
Yes, I have seen him, when the tempest raged,
When, from the precipice of mountain-waves,
All hearts have trembled at the gulf below,
He, with a steady, supplicating look,
Displayed his trust in that tremendous Power
Who curbs the billows, and cuts short the wings
Of the rude whirl wind in its midway course,
And bids the madness of the waves to cease."
Raleigh must have been more honest or less discreet
than Cecil, for Cecil, whose enmity towards the unfor-
tunate Earl of Essex had been notorious, contrived to
be one of the first Englishmen on whom James
bestowed his favor. It is not improbable that those
courtiers who had been envious of, and in opposition
to, the Earl of Essex, made Raleigh their scape-goat,
by leading James to believe that Essex perished
through the machinations of Sir Walter. There is
no evidence to shew that Raleigh made any effort to
procure the pardon of his noble rival when he was in
disgrace, or to save his life when he was under sen-
tence of death. On the other hand, we regret to find
that it would be easier to shew that he did what he
could to procure the execution of the sentence, which,
according to the rigour of the time, had justly been
passed upon the earl. But "to err is human." Raleigh
had his failings, and those failings were, no doubt,
magnified by those who, in his lifetime, were his rivals
for equal favor, and by those who, after his death,
were anxious to vindicate the justice of James and his
Of Raleigh it may be said that his virtues were his
own, his vices those of the age in which he lived.
Amongst the large number of great men who were
contemporary with him, it were easy to name many
who had all Raleigh's failings, and many from which
he was free, but it would be difficult to name many
whose accomplishments were so varied, and whose
ability was so great.
Raleigh's principal work, "the History of the
World," was never completed by him. It is said
that the concluding sentences were written by him
after Ire was sentenced to death. They are certainly
SIR WALTER RALEAUJ11.
very appropriate to such an occasion :-" It is there.
fore death alone that c:an suddenly make a man know
himself; he tells the proud and insolent that they are
but abjects, and humbles them at the instant, makes
them cry, complain, and repent; yea, even to hate
their forecast happiness. He takes the account of
the rich, and proves him a' -.-.. r, which hath interest
in nothing but in the gravel that fills his mouth. lle
holds a glass before the eyes of the most beautiful,
and makes them see their deformity and rottenness,
and they acknowledge it. 0, eloquent, just, and
mighty Death whom none could advise, thou hast
persuaded; what none hath dared, thou hast done;
and whom all the world hath flattered, thou alone
hast cast out of the world and despised ; thou hast
drawn together all the far-stretched greatness, all the
pride, cruelty, and ambition of man, and covered il
all over with these two narrow words-llic ieact.
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Colored Plates. Cloth, gilt edges, 2s. 6d.
MARION LEE, and other Tales. By Miss STRICKLAND,
Miss SARGEANT, &c. Six Illustrations in Oil Colours. Cloth,
gilt edges, 2s. 6d.
DAVID DENISON'S SCHOOLDAYS; or, Deeds Speak
Louder than Words. By Mrs. CUNINGsAM. Fully Illustrated.
Extra cloth gilt, gilt edges, 2s. 6d.
"A splendid Tale for a Lad."-Illustrated Times.
PARLOUR PLAYS FOR PARLOUR ACTORS. By CLE-
MENT SCOTT and others. Cloth gilt, 2s. 6d.
KINDNESS AND FIDELITY. A Tale. Adapted from
the French of M. J. Porchat, by the Rev. TUNSTALL HAVERFIELD.
With Illustrations by Wimper and J. Jackson. Cloth gilt, 2s. 6d.
"A Tale like the one before us cannot fail a most hearty reception. The
compiler has spared neither time or labour, and the events narrated are most
interesting to the young, and even to children of larger growth."-British
THE PLEASANT PICTURE BOOK for the Young and
Good. With Forty-Two full-page Illustrations in Chromo
Colours. Small 4to., cloth gilt, 2s. 6d.
A nice pretty present for a young child In age from five to eight years.
DEAN & SON, PUBLISHERS, 160A, FLEET STREET, E.C.
WELL SELECTED PRESENTATION BOOKV.
The following list may be relied upon as containing books of thoroughly interesting
character, atndat the sume time thoroughlyfree m e vice; books, in fact, that
ca be read in the Family Circle. Each book is very Landsomely bound in jua
giit ciuol, itik w/ockC design O
REMARKABLE MEN; their Lives and Adventures. New
Edition. By M. S. COCKAYNE.. Fully Illustiated. Chlth, full gilt slue
and edges, 3s. 6d.
MEN OF DEEDS AND DARING. The Story and Lesson
of their Lives. By E. N. MARKS. Fully Illustratd. Clothl, lull gilt side
and edges, 3s. 6d.
SAYINGS, ACHIEVEMENTS, and INTERVIEWS of
GREAT MEN. Ey the Author of Heroines of Our Own I ine." Fully
Illustrated. Cloth, lull gilt side and edges, as. 6d.
"These stories of the lives of Illusti ious Men, will be found to be prepared with
so much care and made so very ii'......1._. ',at these ihree bools are sure to
become great favourites in exery I ....I, I young people love to r ad; suel
books as these instruct, elevate, and create a noble s.ilit and a deoile to excel
in the sphere of life marked out for us."--Ojord Times.
LIFE and FINDING of Dr. LlVIIGSTONE; cortainirg
Original Lettersby H. M.STANLEY, Portraits and Numerous Illutratious.
Cloth, gilt side and edges, 38. 6d.
BOOK of WONDERS, EVENTS, and' DISCOVERIES.
By JonN TIBns, Author of "Things not Generally Known," Ac. Fully
Illustrated. Cloth, full gilt side and edges, 3s. 6d.
ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY BIBLE PICTURES and
STORIES. By Mrs. UPCHER COUSFNS, Anti or of Pleasai t Sundays,"
Editor of Happy Sundays," &c. Fully Illustiated. C.oth, full gilt ride
and edges, as. 6d.
NOTABLE WOMEN. By ELLEN C. CLAYTON. Illustrated.
Cloth, full gilt side and edges, 3s. 6d.
WOMEN of the REFCRMATION; their Lives, Traits. and
Trials. By ELLEN C. CLAYTON. Filly lllHuSated. (loth, f.ll gilt s.e
and edges, 3s. 6d.
CELEBRATED WOMEN. A eBok for Young Lades. Py
ELLEN C. CLAYTON. Bound, cloth, fill gilt side and edbes, 3s. Ld.
MINISTERING WOMEN. Edited Ly Dr. CUMM~JG.
Cloth, ;ull gilt side and edges, 3s. 6d.
MISS MILLY MOSS; or, Sunlight and Shade. By ELLEN
C. CLAYTON. Cloth, gilt side and edges, 3s. 6d.
FRIENDS IN FUR. Amusing and True Tales, ty Dr.
STAB.Es. W.th Eight Illustrations. Cloth, gilt edges, 3s. 6d.
GOD HELPS THOSE WHO HELP IHIMSELVES; cr,
Cola Monti. By the Author of "Life for a Life," "John Hal:fax,
Gentleman," &c. Cloth gilt, gilt edges, 2s. 6d.
ALONE; o", Two Thousand Pounds Reward. A Tale of
London Life. By Mrs. E. A. MELVILLE. Frontispiece. Cloth gilt, lilt
edges. 2s, 6d.
DEAN & SON, PUBLISHERS, 10OA, FLELT S1RELT, E.C.
IO vjtq's foir Ij l 111frtn tillle f s.
And Hofne Periormnince.
Published at One Shilling each, bound, fancy illustrated cover.
1-BEAUTY AND THE BEAST. Twelve appropriate illustrations by
Alfred Crowquill. Is.
2-WHITTINGTON AND HIS CAT. Twelve appropriate illustrations
by Alfred Crowquill. Is.
3-CINDERELLA, AND THE LITTLE GLASS SLIPPER. Twelve
illustrations by Alfred Crowquill. Is.
4-PUSS IN BOOTS; OR, 1HE MILLER'S FAVOURITE SON. Nine
illustrations by Harrison Weir. Is.
5--OTHER GOOSE AND THE GOLDEN EGGS. Ten illustrations
by Harrison Weir. Is.
6-CHILDREN IN THE WOOD. Eleven illustrations by Barret. Is.
7-THE MILLER'S MAID. A play for juvenile actors by Miss
CORNER. Thirteen illustrations by Tod4. Is.
Or, in two handsomely bound volumes, 3s 6d. each.
In this series of Little Plays for little People, Miss CORNFRe has re-written
the old Iavourite tales of childhood, that they may afford lively recreation in
place of Char.-c-- Ti--;- at the same time hints as regards the management
of Costumes, .. '.-, .. The Dialogue is simple and spirited; the Scenery is
divert-ifid, and the Moral excellent.
Extract from Preface.-" Children want to be amused, and I believe
that a very important part of education consists in promoting innocent
and agreeable occupation for leisure hours in order to prevent any
disposition to indolence in mind or body."
8-SLEEPING BEAUTY for Home Performance. By Miss CoaRER.
Cloth boards, 6d.
9-THE PRINCE AND THE WITCH. A Rhyming Fairy Tale for
Home Performance. By MYRA CRAEG.
10-LITTLE BLUEBELL AND THE WILL 0' THE WISP. A Play
in three Acts, for little children. By AIMEE.
8vo. Crown, Sixpence each. Expressly written for reading at Public En-
tertainments, Penny Readings, and for Home Enjoyment.
I-MEN'S WRONGS-WOMEN'S RIGHTS. By JULIA CIIANDLER. 6d.
2-RUMMY FARES. By ROBERT OVERTON. d.
8-- NIGHT WITH A BABY. By JULIA CHANDLER. 6d.
4-BOB SCRATCHERTY'S RELIGION. By ROBERT OVERTON. 6d.
5-JACK'S YARN; OR, THE THREE PARSONS. ROBERT OVERTON.
6-BILL MUGGINS. By ROBERT OVERTON. 6d.
7-ME AND BILL. By ROBERT OVERTON. 6d.
The above six little sketches are sure to produce much merriment, whether read
by the Fireside with the Family Circle, or in Public.
PARLOUR PLAYS FOR HOME PERFORMANCE.
Ten different in volume. All good entertainment for young and old,
Edited by CLEMENT SCOTT, Esq. Price 2s. 6d.
DEAN & SON, PUBLISHERS, 160A, FLEET STREET, E.G.
CORNER'S (MISS) HISTORIES.
Adapted for Youlh, 4f ,1 Schools 6" Families.
FIFTEEN IN SERIES.
Miss CORNER, in the composition of ihese Histories, has made it a main
object to narrate the principal fLcts of Li toiy in such clear and simille maie l r
as to bring them at once within the comlpreheltr.iuon of tie lnAing glnelration
without o(e trying that interest which i= suited to ireaers of a more advai ced
age -r '.-rpt f'i has been taken throughout the whole wolks to a'oid as mnclh
as: r. i tedious a detail of wars and politics, which serve to Lonfure a6nd
faigue without interesting the youthful mind. There i, much inl history tv
delight as well as to instruct; and, as these volumes are writ ten for the amtuse-
nielit and instruction of those who desire to know something about the oild
tiey live in, the political history of each state is cunlbinell with an wcotl.t of
its progress in the art of civilization, its natural production, the social habits
of the people at dililrent periods, and liat is most useful and entertaining with
regard to their customs, alnnners, laws and govep niment.
Miss CORNc.K ventures to assume het readers that they will find the history
of a country and its people quite as anmusiug as any fictitious tale, and far
'lot10 iitlrtil g, Lecause it is true.
CORNER'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND AND WALES, with marginal
references and notes, from the Earliest Period to the Present Time. New
Edition enlarged in size to (town e\o., revised and great'-y extended by the
Editor of "the English Journal of l'ducraion." bttontly bound rn cloth,
lettered. With steel engravings from designs by emitihent arisias. As also
A ten-page I'ictorial t(ENEALOGYOf the iMonarchs of England from the
Co- --t --'th r-"r'r i illustrations of Remaikable Evelts
SI .., I r I it. Costumes, Ships, antd F'urniture of the variousAges
Chronological Table and Index from n.c. 55.
ablee of English overeigns their relatiooiship and progeny, and Lineal
Descent of Queen Victoria frol FE-'ert. fie-t Kit11 of England.
Strongly btund, cloth gilt, i .'. .. i .i 3s. 6d.
Over one hundred thousand copies of this workc have been sold. The Press
generally have spoken I of it, recomrimending it strongig for school arnd iirne
as.e; and the testimony r experienced teachers proves that it is a uwore w'ic
tmrits the praie bestowed upon it.
CORNER'S HISTORY OF ROME, with marginal reference notes,
from the Earliest Period to the Close of the Empire. Adapted to Youth,
Schools, and Families. New and enlarged Edition, by the Editor of he
English Journal of Education." \'ith MAr of the Empire, CHRauoNotI.Uo(AL
TABL. and INDEx. Questions subjoined to each Chapter. Constant Re-
ference to Authorities. Cloth lettered, 3s. 6d.
CO.sNER'S HISTORY OF FRANCE, from the Earliest Period to the
Present Time. New Edition, enlarged and improved. CHRONOLOGItAL
TAsBL, lNIex and MAP, with scale of British miles and French leagues.
Two steel 4( *.., :, ..- rnely executed by Davenport, from drawing by
Franklin. I I uI I n,-... i, with Questions, 2s. 6d.
For eight centuries the h/s'ory of England hus been icidentally connected with
that of France; and the history is in no small degree the history of modern ctvili-
zation. A sale of over twenty-six thousand copies his been realized.
CORNER'S HISTORY OF GERMANY AND THE GERMAN EMPIRE,
from the Earliest Period to the Present Time. A New Fdition, revised and
enlarged, wi h CHRONOLOGICAL TABLFn, IvoIX, and QUEaSTIONS for Ixami-
Sation. to- which reference is made by figures in the Text. A MAr, and
fin,.lv-executed steel engravings by Daveuport, from paintings by Sir John
Gilbert. Cloth lettered, 3s. 6d.
DEAN & SON, PUBLISHERS, 1COA, FLEET STREET, E.C.
CORNER'S HISTORY OF GREECE, from the Earliest Period to the
Roman Conquest, with a Sketch of its Modern History to the Present lime.
New Edition, with Questions to each Chapter. MAP by Becker. CHRONO-
LoGocAL TABLE and IDEX. Cloth lettered, 3s.
"This work has been ably written. An immense amount of information, the
best authorities have been consulted, find the results of their learned labours have
been judiciously employed by Miss Corner."-SPECTATOR.
CORNER'S HISTORY OF IRELAND, f on the Earliest Period to t6e
Present Time. New Edition, enlarged and improved, ClHRONOI.OGICAL
TABLF, modern MAP, and engravings on steel from pa nings by Sir John
Gilbert. Cloth lettered, 2s. 6d.
CORNER'S HIbTORY OF ITALY, from the Earliest Period to the
Present Time. New Edition. Steel-plate engravings from des;gus by Sir
John Gilbert, anl MAP. Cloth gilt, 2s. 6d.
CORNER'S HISTORY OF SCOTLAND, from the Earliest Period to
the Present lime. With CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE, INEX, and modern IAP.
Three full-page engravings on steel from paintings by Sir John Gilbert.
Questions for Examination. Cloth lettered, 2s. 6d.
CORNER'S AND Dr. KITTO'S SCRIPTURAL HISTORY SIMPLIFIED.
In Questions and Answers, for the use of Schools and Families. By M:ss
CoRNER. Revised by Joun KITTr, D.D., F.R.S. A New Edition, w.th
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE, IvnDX, and two MAPS, one of which illustrates
the early part of Scripture History. Cloth boards, 3s. 6d.
CORNER'S EVERY CHILD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND, from the
Earliest Period to the Present Time. New Edition, uncoloured MAP. Still
The same book bound in cloth, and coloured MAP, Portraits of the
Monarchs, and Events to be Remembered, Is. 6d.
CORNER'S AND FARR'S EVERY CHILD'S HISTORY OF FRANCE,
from the Earliest Period to the Present Time. Examination Questions
are subjoined to ea'h chapter. With MAP. Stiff covers, Is.
The same book, with Portraits of upwards of Seventy of the Sovereigns of
France, and Events to be Remembered. Cloth, Is. 6d.
CORNER'S AND FARR'S EVERY CHILD'S HISTORY OF GREECT.
With MAP of Greece, Questions for Examination to each chapter. Stiff
The same hook, cloth bound, Is. 6d.
CORNER'S AND FARR'S EVERY CHILD'S HISTORY OF RONE.
from the Earl est Period to the Decline of the Roman Empire. Vith MAP.
Stiff covers, Is.
The same book, cloth bound, Is. 6d.
This book has been described by the Press as the best stepping-slone to the best
Schob History of Rome." From the le tiimone of troehe s and parents, the
puloiteers believe that this description conveys a well-deserved compliment to Miss
Corner and Dr. Farr.
CORNER'S AND KTTTO'S EVERY CHILD'S SCRIPTURE HISTORY.
Two MAPS: viz., Wanderings of the Children of Israel from Egypt to the
Promised Land, and Palestine in the Time of Our Saviour. Stiff covers, Is.
Ihe same book, cloth bound, Is. 6d.
CORNER, RODWELL, AND FARR'S CHILD'S FIRST STEP TO
THE HISTORY OF ENGLAND. By Rowe.L. New Edition, revised
a;d corrected. Illustated with Portraits of the Sovereigns, and a MAr of
England. Chronological Table and Principal Events to be Remembered in
each Reign. Cloth gilt, 2s. 6d.
DEAN & SON, PUBLISHERS, 160A, FLEET STREET, E.C.
Confectioners to Her Majesty Berkeley Square.
FIFTH EDITION, ENLARGED, WITH ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS;
STRONGLY BOUND, PRICE SIX SHILLINGS.
GUNTER'S MODERN CONFECTIONER.
A Practical Illustrated Guide to the Latest and most Improved
Methods of Making the various kinds of Sweets for Table, Compotes, Fruit
Pastes, Candies, Cakes, Scones, Vienna Bread, Biscuits, Ices-both Cream and
Water, Jellies, Syrups, Liqueurs, ;c.
With Designs for Preparing and Laying Out Desserts,
Dinner a la Russe, &c.
The 452 receipts in this Book for Pastry, Cakes, and Sweetmeats are
original, and have been used with uniform success by Mr, WILLIAM JEANES,
Chief Confectionerat Messrs. GUNTER'S, Confectioners to Her Majesty, Berkeley
Square. They are drawn up in a style so plain as to he intelligible to servants
and persons of moderate capacity.
AMONG THE CONTENTS ARE:-
SUGAR CLARIFYING, the different CRYSTALLIZE- How to,- and to
kinds.-The Nine Essential Points Crystallize Fruits, &c.
or Degrees, "The Mystery of CARAMEL: 18 Receipts for Mixed
Confectionery and Confectionery Fruits, &c.. in Caramel.
Colours explained." ROCK SUGAR Tablets, Fruit Tablets,
;SRUPS,-- General Directions for, and various Receipts for same.
and 16 very useful Receipts. COMFITS: Receipts for making
PRESERVED FRUITS,-General various kinds.
Remarks on, and Receipts, in- CHOCOLATE,-Receipts for Pista-
cluding whole Fruits. chios, Chocolate with Nonpariels,
BOTTLED FRUITS and Fruits for &c., &c.
Ices, Tarts, Receipts, &c. LOZENGES, Directions and Re-
COMPOTES,-General Remarks on, ceipts, including Brilliants and
and Receipts for. Transparents.
FRUITS IN BRANDY.- General ICEINGS AND PIPINGS for Tops
Remarks on, and Rereipts. of Cakes and Biscuits,-Almond
JAMS AND MARMALADE,-Re- I ;.... r Wedding Cakes.
ceipts for. C; LI I F- i E,-General Directions
JELLIES, General Remarks ,nd for Making,-Modelin Fl ,wers,
Instructions on &c -Biscuit laste,--ConfeAtioI.ers'
FRUIT AND OTHER PASTES,- Paste, &c.
General Rt maikson, and Receipts, MOULDS, DISTILLATION, AND
-Pate de Juju es,-Pate de Gui- DESSERT.- B< nmba an (af6,-
mauve. Knots, Lrochettes, Lunettes, &c.,
COOLING DRINKS & WATERS. in Paste, &c., &c.
HOW TO MAKE CREAM AND APPENDIX TO THLID EDITION. -50
PERFUMED ICES,- Iees for Additional Receipts. including
Home Use, -Ices in Fruit Moulds, Macedoine of various Fluits,-
-lce-houses,-Custard Ices, &c. Flitters,-Omne'et es,-EnltrCme s,
WATER ICES, Ice Puddings, Charlotte Russe,-Whipped Jel.ies,
Nesselrode -Chartreuse Cake, Fancy and
BISCUITS A.Tit D .. i: E ,- -On the Perfumed Ices,-Liqueur Cups, &c.
Oven and Biscuits generally, wihc APPENDIX TO FOURTH EDITsiN.--'.9
70 good Receipts for all Classes of Addtional Receipts,-Fancy Bis-
Biscuits. cults, Cakes, Napoleons, -
CANDY AND LIQUEURS, Re- Scon s,-Unfermentcd and Vienna
ceipts for. Bread,-&c.
DEAN & SON, PUBLISHERS, 160A, FLEET STREET, E.C.
FOOTMAN AND BUTLER;
THEIR DUTIES AND HOW TO PERFORM THEM,
FROM PAGE TO BUTLER. BY WILLIAMS.
Third Edition, Revised by the ex-Butler to the Earl of Romney.
Chapter I.-Summary of Daties, from Town to Country,-Abroad,-Know-
Boy to Butler. ledgeofTowns,-Deliverig Messages
Chapter II.-House Boy or Page,-Be- and Cards,-Opening Doors,- Re-
haviour,-Instructions. ceiving Letters and Parcels.- Be-
Chapter IlI.-Footman's Duties from haviour to Fellow Servants,-Health,
time of Rising to going to Bed,-- how to Preserve.
Serving Dinners,-How to arrange PERSONS OF RANK, How Styld and
the Table in various ways flr Break- Addressed.
fast, Luncheon, and Children's Din- Chapter VI.-The Butler; his Duties,
ner,-Elaborate Luncheon,-Dinner and how to perform them.
Duties,-Different styles of Dinner,- Chapter VII.-The Service of Wine
Dessert,-Arrangenment of Side Table generally,-The Cellar,-Wines and
and Sideboards,- Different points Beers, include,. ii 1 .... ,..
I .r... Piates,-ills of Fare,- Bottling, Binni... ...
I .".-..., rays of placing Joints and Chapter VIII.-- ... .. r
Fruits,-Epergne,-Removal of Din- Drinks, including Punch, how to
ner,-Diagram of Dinner Tble for make and concoct.
various Numbers, Dinner a la CL(apterlX.-Cooling Drinks,-Recipes
Russe,-Dessert dtto,-Coffee,-Tea, for Champ gne, Claret, Loving, and
Handing of Tea, Tea in tfe other Cups.
Drawing Room,-Serving of Supper, ChapterX.-Liqueurs,-Syrups,-Wine
Drawing Room Lights,-Receiving Posse's, various Receipts.
of Company,-Giv.ng out Names,- Chapter XI.-Salads, various, how to
Rules to le observed when Company Mix, English, Italian, French,
leave,--&c., &c., &c. Spanish, Russian, and Ge'ran.-
ChaplerlV.-Var-ousDutiss continued, Chapter XII.-Wages,- Keepling Ac-
including Giass. counts,- Dress,-Visiting,-- ttend-
ChapterV.-Footman, General,-Duties ance after Ladies,-Usetul Prepara-
and Behaviour, Travelling from tions,-Receipts, &c., &c., &c.
Price Two Shillings and Sixpence;-or, with the Addenda of
"Serviettes, or Dinner Napkins," Three Shillings and Sixpence,
PRICE ONE SHILLING AND SIXPENCE, CLOTH GILT.
AND HOW TO FOLD, THE :
Br GEORGIANA C. CLARK.
CONTAINING ABOVE ONE HUNDRED ILLUSTRATIONS.
THE HOUSEMAID AND PARLOURMIIAID:
WHAT THEY HAVE TO DO, AND HOW TO DO IT.
By an Experienced Housekeeper. Price One Shilling.
DEAN & SON, PUBLISHERS, 160A, FLEET STREET, E.C.
FAMILY USEFUL BOOKS.
COOKERY MADE EASY; or, Cookery for the Middle
Classes. By a Lady. Witi fonr pages of Coloured illustrations
giving the manner and style of serving up with taste and effect.
Fancy covers, ls-, or, cloth gilt, s. 6d.
This book pos esresone peculiar feature,-it is entirely the re'alt of experience,
and drawn i.p wholly from practice and attentive observe iont, and not a mere
compilation. Fy it cooks are not only diiee ed what to do, hut have plain and
complete directions houw to cook everything properly aind in the bets manner. The
object of the writer being to enable persons of limited income, to furnish a
genteel table properly, at a moderate expense.
CONFECTIONERY, PASTRY, PRESERVING SWEETS,
&e. By GEORGE READ. Splendid practical wolfing Receipts
for the use of Families, Pastrycooks, and Confectioners. Is. 6d.
Containing Rtceipts frr making all kinds of Pastry, Ta ts, lies, Jellies, eIes,
Creams, and Confee ionery. Directions for making Bride Cake and every other
kind of cake. Sugar Boiling, Ac.
ARRANGEMENT OF FORTY DINNERS; or, Household
Hints tV Ycung Ecnuewives. By MArTHA CAREFUL. A most
useful book to place young housekeepers at, once within the magic
riTjn of wedded happiness, or those who have the cares of
-domestic management; through the agency of which the mother
can trace the creation of many a happy home. Cloth, Is.
This is indeed the "Book of Books" on the sulyect.-It is arranged in
accoidance with the recommendation or The Times, as to the manner in which
Dinners for large o small paxtie. ought to be served up.
ECONOMIC COOKERY: ineful hints and plain direrticns as to
economy and lcrmfort in maiseting aend dressing toid ; imilnd ng
]NVALIDS' and CHILDR I'S COOKERY, xi.h unmtrous illus-
trations, by GEORGIUAA C. CLARK. Cd.
DEAN'S HOUSEKEEPER'S FAMILY DOMESTIC AC-
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Adapted for any year. Is stiff cover in colours.
DEAN'S FAMILY DOUBLE-CHECK WASHING BOOK.
Compete perforated Double-check Alphabetical List of Families'
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DEAN'S LADY'S PERFORATED DOUBLE-CHECK
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DEAN'S GENTLEMEN'S PERFORATED DOUBLE-
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A great saving of lime and trouble is effected by merely having to write the
number against each article.
DEAN & SON, PUBLISHERS, 160A, FLEET STREET, E.C.
DEAN'S PRACTICAL GUIDE BOOKS.
New Edition, 5s.; or, with Sixty Photographs, Is. Gd. extra.
Eighteen new Illustrations on Wood of Prize Dogs.
DOGS: their Points, Whims, Instincts, and Peculiarities.
Edited by H. WEBB, assisted with Chapters by J. CUMsINGcx-MACDONA, and
other distinguished Piize V, inneis and JnuAges.
Mr. lWBBr has, from a nunil er ofgood : I, I .i i.. .i .
volume to any one who is fond of these ., : .. j.. ... i...
is legion, the book before us will be espe ia, ly welcome. In addition to t.e
description. &c., given of each different breed, in the majorityof instances
the exact height and measurement is mentioned,
so that the book becomes a capital guide to the
-ib ...1... ,., i.. also number of interesting
o...,.. n1.,., .1 .,. lotes (f dogs, instances of
courage, sagacity, amusing tricks, &c., &c.
LADIES' TOGS, as Companions; which,
besides being a Guide to tiieir Health and Manage-
ment, contains ;ny stories, bolh humorous
and pathetic, of Dogs, painted from life, by
Dr. GORDno SrABl-Es. Handsomely bound, price
5.., with coloured frontispece and three full-
page photographs of I rize Dogs.
CATS: their Points and Classification. Witl chapters on
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&-c. By Dr. GORDON STABLES. iftLae Coloured I,. I .. tats.
Cloth gilt, 2s.6 d.
BECHSTEIN'S HANDBOOK OF CAGE BIRDS. Full ard
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THE CANARY: its Varieties, Management, and Bleeding.
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THE BRITISH AVIARY; or, SONG BIRDS: being a
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them n Health and how to Preseive them when dead.
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of Canaries. By THOMAS ANiRKWirs. Finlltis},iceC is
Colours. beered, ls.; or, bound in cloth, wih Twenti Pap s
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POULTRY AND PIGEONS. By More rF and CRoog. With
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POULTRY; How Best to Breed fcr Profit, Pleasure,
Exhibition, and Prize. With a description of the several
Breeds, and the points of excellence as laid down by Prize
Winners and Experie rced Judges. Edited by R. FULTON,
assisted by J. ROBINSON, J. CLARK, J. WEBB, W. J. IIARVFY,
A. CROOK, E. PEARSON, 1Miss HAILES, and other Prze Takers
and Exhibitors. Chapters on Diseases and methods of Cure. -
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