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! Dedicated to Sharing Information About Water Management and the Florida LAKEWATCH Program Volume 52 (2011) Florida LAKEWATCH and EPAs New Nutrient Criteria The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published its numeric nutrient criteria for Floridas lakes and streams on its website at (Table 1): http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/r ulesregs/florida_index.cfm The cr iteria will be published in a forthcoming issue of the Federal Register soon. The following summary is taken from EPAs website: On November 14, 2010, EPA Administrator Lisa P. Jackson signed Final Water Quality Standards for the State of Floridas Lake s and Flowing Waters. The final standards set numeric limits, or criteria, on the Florida LAKEWATCH Over 50% of the lakes that Florida LA KEWATCH has sufficient data to evaluate the nutrient criteria, would be in violation of EPAs Water Quality Standards for the State of Flo ridas Lakes. Dan Willis

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# amount of nutrient pollution allowed in Floridas lakes, rivers, streams and springs. This final action see ks to improve water quality, protect public health, aquatic life and the long term recreational uses of Floridas waters which are a critical part of the States economy. The rule will take effect 15 months after it is published in the Federal Register exc ept for the site specific alternative criteria (SSAC) provision, which is effective 60 days from publication. EPA is extending the effective date for 15 months to allow cities, towns, businesses and other stakeholders as well as the State of Florida a full opportunity to review the standards and develop flexible strategies for implementation. Over 50% of the lakes that Florida LAKEWATCH has sufficient data to evaluate the nutrient criteria, would be in violation (Table 2). It is Florida LAKEWATCHS positi on that the nutrient criteria do es not adeq uately account for the nutrient variability cause d by the diverse geology of the state. This will cause m any lakes that are actually at a natural state determined by the lakes location and geology to be considere d impaired To that end Florida LAKEWATCH staff have analyzed all available data showing that Florida has a large diversity of lakes drive n by primarily geology and not anthropogenic impacts. These analyses have been put into a manuscript that was recently submitted for scientific review and publication in the North American Lake Management Societys Journal called Lake and reservoir Management. Below is the title and abstract for the Bachman et. al, (2011) submitted manuscript: Bachmann RW, Bigham DL, Ho yer MV, Canfield DE Jr. 2011. Factors determining the distributions of total phosphorus, total nitrogen and chlorophyll in Florida lakes. Lake Reserv Manage 00:00 00 Abstract Using data from 1387 lakes collected over three decades, we found a wide range in the concentrations of total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and chlorophyll in Florida lakes, and that edaphic factors as outlined by the USEPAs Florida Lake Regions were the dominant factor in determining the concentrations of plant nutrients in the states lakes. The hypothesis that all eutrophic lakes in Florida are the result of nutrient pollution since European settlement of Florida that has led to significant increases in TP and TN in Florida lakes without point source pollution was tested a nd rejected. (1) There was no correlation between the Landscape Development Intensity index (LDI) and the concentrations of TP, TN and chlorophyll in Florida lakes. (2) Several of the 30 benchmark lakes (lakes with minimal human impact and meeting designat ed uses) were eutrophic and there was no significant difference between the concentrations of TP and TN in these and all the remaining Florida lakes as a group. (3) Paleolimnological studies showed that several lakes were eutrophic to hypereutrophic prior to 1900, a time before significant population growth in the state. Only 6 out of 39 lakes studied with short sediment cores showed increases in diatom inferred total phosphorus and they were mostly the result of past point source pollution. We concluded that eutrophic lakes are a part of the natural Florida ecosystem and that numerical nutrient criteria need to take this into account. Table 1. EPAs proposed nutrient criteria for lakes.

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$ 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 25 26 27 28 29 30 25 26 27 28 29 30 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 25 26 27 28 29 30 25 26 27 28 29 30 75-10 65-02 75-02 65-01 65-06 65-04 75-03 75-01 65-03 75-01 65-05 75-01 75-08 75-04 75-05 75-09 75-06 75-0775-1175-1475-1275-1675-15 75-1375-1175-1175-2175-18 75-1975-1775-2075-26 75-27 75-22 75-3575-3275-25 75-3675-2475-3175-3475-30 75-28 75-23 75-34 75-31 75-34 75-2975-3376-03 76-01 75-37 76-02 76-04 75-04 75-10 65-02 75-02 65-01 65-06 65-04 75-03 75-01 65-03 75-01 65-05 75-01 75-08 75-04 75-05 75-09 75-06 75-0775-1175-1475-1275-1675-15 75-1375-1175-1175-2175-18 75-1975-1775-2075-26 75-27 75-22 75-3575-3275-25 75-3675-2475-3175-3475-30 75-28 75-23 75-34 75-31 75-3475-3375-2975-3376-03 76-01 75-37 76-02 76-04 75-04 < 5 5 9 10 14 15 19 20 29 30 49 50 79 > 80 insufficient data Total Phosphorus ( g/l)Regional median valueTotal Alkalinity (mg/l)Regional median value < 1.0 1.0 1.9 2.0 3.9 4.0 9.9 10.0 19.9 20.0 40.0 > 40.0 insufficient data AlabamaGeorgiaAlabamaGeorgia < 5.0 5.0 5.4 5.5 5.9 6.0 6.4 6.5 6.9 7.0 7.5 > 7.5 insufficient data pHRegional median value< 400 400 599 600 799 800 999 1000 1300 > 1300 insufficient data Total Nitrogen ( g/l)Regional median value< 4 4 7 8 11 12 15 16 30 > 30 insufficient data Chlorophyll a ( g/l)Regional median value< 1.0 1.0 1.4 1.5 1.9 2.0 2.4 2.5 3.0 > 3.0 insufficient dataSecchi (m)Regional median value< 10 10 19 20 29 30 49 50 99 100 200 > 200 insufficient data Color (pcu)Regional median value 75-10 65-02 75-02 65-01 65-06 65-04 75-03 75-04 75-01 65-03 75-01 65-05 75-01 75-08 75-04 75-05 75-11 75-09 75-06 75-07 75-1175-1475-12751675-15 75-1675-1375-1175-2175-18 75-11 75-19 75-17 75-20 75-26 75-27 75-22 75-3575-3275-25 75-3675-2475-3175-34 75-30 75-28 75-23 75-34 75-31 75-34 75-33 75-10 75-29 75-33 76-03 76-01 75-37 76-02 76-04 76-03 75-10 65-02 75-02 65-01 65-06 65-04 75-03 75-04 75-01 65-03 75-01 65-05 75-01 75-08 75-04 75-05 75-11 75-09 75-06 75-07 75-1175-1475-12751675-15 75-1675-1375-1175-2175-18 75-11 75-19 75-17 75-20 75-26 75-27 75-22 75-3575-3275-25 75-3675-2475-3175-34 75-30 75-28 75-23 75-34 75-31 75-34 75-33 75-10 75-29 75-33 76-03 76-01 75-37 76-02 76-04 76-03 75-10 65-02 75-02 65-01 65-06 65-04 75-03 75-04 75-01 65-03 75-01 65-05 75-01 75-08 75-04 75-05 75-11 75-09 75-06 75-07 75-1175-1475-12751675-15 75-1675-1375-1175-2175-18 75-11 75-19 75-17 75-20 75-26 75-27 75-22 75-3575-3275-25 75-3675-2475-3175-34 75-30 75-28 75-23 75-34 75-31 75-34 75-33 75-10 75-29 75-33 76-03 76-01 75-37 76-02 76-04 76-03 75-10 65-02 75-02 65-01 65-06 65-04 75-03 75-04 75-01 65-03 75-01 65-05 75-01 75-08 75-04 75-05 75-11 75-09 75-06 75-07 75-1175-1475-12751675-15 75-1675-1375-1175-2175-18 75-11 75-19 75-17 75-20 75-26 75-27 75-22 75-3575-3275-25 75-3675-2475-3175-34 75-30 75-28 75-23 75-34 75-31 75-34 75-33 75-10 75-29 75-33 76-03 76-01 75-37 76-02 76-04 76-03 75-10 65-02 75-02 65-01 65-06 65-04 75-03 75-04 75-01 65-03 75-01 65-05 75-01 75-08 75-04 75-05 75-11 75-09 75-06 75-07 75-1175-1475-1275-1675-15 75-1675-1375-1175-2175-18 75-11 75-19 75-17 75-20 75-26 75-27 75-22 75-3575-3275-25 75-3675-3175-34 75-30 75-28 75-23 75-34 75-31 75-34 75-10 75-29 75-33 76-03 76-01 75-37 76-02 76-04 76-03 Total phosphorus is a measure of one of the primary nutrients that regulates algal and macrophyte growth in lakes. Phosphates can enter the aquatic system through atmospheric deposition, groundwater percolation, and terrestrial runoff. Phosphate loadings can be increased with inputs from sewage treatment plants, industrial sources, agricultural and residential runoff, or from phosphate mining an d fertilizer processing activities. High phosphorus concentrations can accelerate the process of eutrophication. The highest regional phosphorus values are found in southwest Florida where phosphates are often naturally high (e.g., 75-30, 75-36), and the lowest regional values are found in some of the upland sandy ridges (65-03, 65-05, 75-04, and 75-33). Total alkalinity measures the components i n water, such as carbonates, bicarbonates, and hydroxyl bases that tend to elevate pH and buffer against increases in acidity. Although much of Florida is underlain by limestone, many lakes in the state are situated in overlying sands and are soft-water, acidic lakes with low alkalinity. Low alkalinity is found in many clear lakes of some of the sandy upland ridge regions (e.g., 65-03, 65-05, 75 -04, and 75-09), as well as in some darkwater lakes in lowland regions (75-01, 75-02, 75-10). Higher alkalinity is generally found in central and southern Florida or in lakes with groundwater contacts. High alkalinity occurs in lake regions where limestone is near the surface (e.g., 75-06, 75-12), where lakes are limed for fish production (65-01), or in urbanized regions with a combination of gr oundwater influence and human disturbance (75-21, 75-28). Total nitrogen is the combined measure of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and organic nitrogen found in a lake. Nitrogen is an important nutrient to many aquatic organisms, serving with phosphorus as the nutrient base for primary productivity. Nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratios are generally low for Florida lakes. Nitrogen levels of lakes are incre ased by inputs from sewage treatment plants, citrus and agricultural runoff, or other urban and residential sources. This can lead to algal blooms and subsequent reductions in dissolved oxygen. C h l o r o p h y l l a i s t h e p r e d o m i n a n t f o r m o f p h o t o s y n t h e t i c g r e e n p i g m e n t f o u n d i n p l a n t s A s a n i n d i c a t o r o f phytoplankton biomass, it is used to approximate algae levels in a lake. It is correlated with tot al phosphorus and secchi depth, and helps indicate the trophic condition of lakes. While many of Florida's shallow lakes have low chlorophyll a levels, a large part of the nutrient pool may be used by the larger aquatic plants called macropyhytes. Color or true color of a lake is a measure of the dissolved and colloidal substances in water that reduce light transmission. It is measured in compari son to a scaled series of platinum-cobalt unit (pcu) color standards. The decreased light penetration in high color or humic-stained darkwater lakes can reduce primary productivity and the extent of the littoral zone. The sandy upland ridges generally contain the lakes of lowest color, while most of the dark water lakes are found in lowland flatwoods regions or swampy areas that have peat and or ganic soils. Secchi depth is a simple measure of water clarity or transparency. It is determined by the average of the depths at which a black and white disk disappears and reappears when viewed from the water's surface. The secchi depth is dependent upon the turbidity, color, and total suspended solids in the water, among other factors. The low-color lakes of the upland ridges (65-03, 75-04, 75 -09, 75-15, 75-20, and 75-33) generally have the greatest secchi depths. The pH of a lake is a measure of its hydrogen ion concentration or whether it is acidic or basic (alkaline). Many of Florida's lakes are acidic and have been acidic throughout their history, with the biological communities adapting to these conditions. Regions of high pH are mostly found in central and southern Florida, or i n the north where limestone is near the surface (75-06) or the lakes are limed (65-01). 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 465-01100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 1765-02100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 2865-03100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 37 65-04100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 7 65-05100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 2865-06100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 3275-01100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 475-02100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 1175-03100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 72 75-04100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 5 75-05100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 975-06100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 275-07100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 4675-08100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 6175-09100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 85 75-10100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 51 75-11100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 1775-12100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 1875-13100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 1775-14100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 1875-15100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 66 75-16100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 8 75-17% of lakes100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 375-18100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 3975-19100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 1575-20100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 8975-21100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 875-22100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 32 75-23100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 39 75-24% of lakes100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 375-25100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 175-26100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 1875-27100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 675-28100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 4475-31100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 20 75-32100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 42 75-33% of lakes100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 2775-34100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 1375-35100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 4475-36100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 175-37100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 1875-30100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total phosphorus ( g/l)n = 276-03100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 465-01100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 1765-02100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 2865-03100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 25 65-04100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 6 65-05100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 2165-06100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 2675-01100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 475-02100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 975-03100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 50 75-04100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 5 75-05100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 675-06100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 175-07100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 4475-08100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 5775-09100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 39 75-10100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 29 75-11100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 1675-12100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 1875-13100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 1375-14100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 1475-15100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 47 75-16100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 6 75-17% of lakes100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 375-18100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 3375-19100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 975-20100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 4075-21100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 675-22100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 19 75-23100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 20 75-24% of lakes100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 275-25100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 1775-27100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 275-28100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 1775-30100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 15 75-32100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 35 75-33% of lakes100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 2875-34100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 1375-35100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 1775-36100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 175-37100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 2575-31100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10Total alkalinity (mg/l)n = 276-03 % of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80 <5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80 <5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80 <5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-49 50-79 >80% of lakes<1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40 <1.0 1.0-1.9 2.0-3.9 4.0-9.9 10.0-19.9 20-40 >40% of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakes % of lakesLAKE REGION CHARACTERISTICSThe maps below illustrate some of the regional differences in the characteristics of Florida lakes. An understanding of regional differences in the current status of lakes, as well as of potential or attainable conditions, is important for effective lake management. The maps are derived from mean lake data from 1133 lakes, sampled between 1979 and 1996. Most of the data (82%) are from lakes sampled between 1990 and 1996. The data are from the University of Florida (54%), th e Lakewatch program (34%), the U.S. EPA's Eastern Lake Survey (8%), and from the U.S. Forest Service (4%). Lake data from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the Florida water management districts, and other sources were also assessed for the delineation of the lake region boundaries, but are not included in these chemistry maps or histograms due to differences in detection limits sampling methods, duplication of lakes, or other quality control and comparison efforts. The maps are color-coded by the median value for each lake region. A median, or middle value, is used as a measure of the central tendency of a region's data because it is less skewed by extreme values than is the mean or average value. In regions where there were insufficient data (generally less than th ree lakes sampled), the regions were not color-coded unless there was confidence that the one or two lakes represented the region's total population of lakes or ponds. In some regions, the extrapolation of the median value to the entire region can give a misleading view of the spatial distribution of the actual lake values. However, the maps do help portray some of the statewide patterns and reg ional tendencies. The histograms on the phosphorus and alkalinity maps illustrate the frequency distribution, or range of variation, of the lake values in each region. 75-10 65-02 75-02 65-01 65-06 65-04 75-03 75-01 65-03 75-01 65-05 75-01 75-08 75-04 75-05 75-09 75-06 75-0775-1175-1475-127 5-1675-15 75-1375-1175-1175-2175-18 75-1975-1775-2075-26 75-27 75-22 75-357 5-3 275-25 75-3675-247 5-317 5-3 475-30 75-28 75-23 75-34 75-31 75-34 75-29 75-33 76-03 76-01 75-37 76-02 76-04 75-04 Tallahassee Ft. Lauderdale Gainesville Jacksonville Miami Orlando Pensacola Tampa St. Petersburg87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 25 26 27 28 29 30 65-01 Western Highlands 65-02 Dougherty/Marianna Plains 65-03 New Hope Ridge/Greenhead Slope 65-04 Tifton/Tallahassee Uplands 65-05 Norfleet/Spring Hill Ridge 65-06 Northern Peninsula Karst Plains 75-01 Gulf Coast Lowlands 75-02 Okefenokee Plains 75-03 Upper Santa Fe Flatwoods 75-04 Trail Ridge 75-05 Northern Brooksville Ridge 75-06 Big Bend Karst 75-07 Marion Hills 75-08 Central Valley 75-09 Ocala Scrub 75-10 E astern Flatlands 75-11 Crescent City/DeLand Ridges 75-12 Tsala Apopka 75-13 Southern Brooksville Ridge 75-14 Lake Weir/Leesburg Upland 75-15 Mount Dora Ridge 75-16 Apopka Upland 75-17 Weeki Wachee Hills 75-18 Webster Dry Plain 75-19 Clermont Uplands 75-20 Doctor Phillips Ridge 75-21 Orlando Ridge 75-22 Tampa Plain 75-23 Keystone Lakes 75-24 Land-o-Lakes 75-25 Hillsborough Valley 75-26 Green Swamp 75-27 Osceola Slo pe 75-28 Pinellas Peninsula 75-29 Wimauma Lakes 75-30 Lakeland/Bone Valley Upland 75-31 Winter Haven/Lake Henry Ridges 75-32 Northern Lake Wales Ridge 75-33 Southern Lake Wales Ridge 75-34 Lake Wales Ridge Transition 75-35 Kissimmee/Okeechobee Lowland 75-36 Southwestern Flatlands 75-37 Immokalee Rise 76-01 Everglades 76-02 Big Cypress 76-03 Miami Ridge/Atlantic Coastal Strip 76-04 Southern Coast and Islands 10 20 30 40 50 MILES 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 KILOMETERS 0 Map scale 1:1,600,000 Albers equal area projectionLake Regions of FloridaF l o r i d a s l a k e s p r o v i d e i m p o r t a n t h a b i t a t s f o r p l a n t s b i r d s f i s h a n d o t h e r a n i m a l s a n d comprise a valuable resource for human activities and enjoyment. More than 7,700 lakes are found in Florida, and they occur in a variety of ecological settings. The physical, chemical, and biological diversity of these lakes complica tes lake assessment and management. In many states, it has been shown that water resources can be managed more effectively if they are v i e w e d w i t h i n a r e g i o n a l f r a m e w o r k t h a t r e f l e c t s d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r q u a l i t y q u a n t i t y hydrology, and their sensitivity or resilience to ecological disturbances. To develop costeffective lake management strategies that protect or restore water quality in Flori da lakes, regional differences in the capabilities and potentials of lakes must be considered. Hydrologic u n i t o r b a s i n f r a m e w o r k s a r e o f t e n u s e d f o r w a t e r q u a l i t y a s s e s s m e n t s a n d e c o s y s t e m management activities, but these units or basins do not correspond to the spatial patterns of characteristics that influence the physical, chemical, or biological nature of Florida lakes. General patterns of ge ology and physiography have been used previously to explain regional differences in Florida lake water chemistry (Canfield and Hoyer 1988; Pollman and Canfield 1991), and ecosystem characteristics of Florida lakes have been summarized (Brenner et al. 1990). Building on this work, as well as on a Florida ecoregion framework (Griffith et al. 1994), we have defined these forty-seven lake regions as part of the Florida Department of E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n s ( F L D E P ) L a k e B i o a s s e s s m e n t / R e g i o n a l i z a t i o n I n i t i a t i v e T h e s p a t i a l f r a m e w o r k w a s d e v e l o p e d b y m a p p i n g a n d a n a l y z i n g w a t e r q u a l i t y d a t a s e t s i n conjunction with information on soils, physiography, geology, hydrology, vegetation, climate, and land use/land cover, as well as relying on the expert judgment of local limnologists and resourc e managers. This framework delineates regions within which there is homogeneity in the types and quality of lakes and their association with landscape characteristics, or where there is a particular mosaic of lake types and quality. More detailed descriptions of methods, materials, and lake region characteristics can be found in Griffith et al. (1997). The identifier for each lake region consis ts of two numbers: the first number (65, 75, or 76) relates to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) ecoregion number (Omernik 1987; US EPA 1997), and the second number refers to the Florida lake regions within an ecoregion. The Florida lake regions and associated maps and graphs of lake chemistry are intended to provide a framework for assessing lake characteristics, calibr ating predictive models, guiding lake management, and framing expectations by lake users and lakeshore residents. The rolling hills of the Western Highlands lake region are covered by mixed hardwood and pine forest, with some cropland and pasture. It is a region of streams, but very few natural lakes. The region contains some oxbow lakes and other lowland lakes of the river floodplains. A few ponds and small reservoirs for cattle or recreation have been created by damming up small drainages. Similar to the streams of the region that feed these small reservoirs, they would generally be acidic, softwater, low to moderate nutrient lakes, if lake management inputs were low. However, most lakes in this region, including Karick, Hurricane, and Bear lakes, have been artificially limed and f ertilized in an attempt to increase fish production. Phosphorus values have increased for some of these lakes from the 10-20 g/l range in the 1970s to more than 70 g/l in the 1990s. The Dougherty/Marianna Plains lake region is an eroded limestone area that is generally more flat than the regions to the east and west, with agriculture as a dominant land use. Elevations are generally 100 to 20 0 feet, but include Florida's high point of 345 feet in northwest Walton County. The Floridan aquifer is at or near the surface in much of the region. The solution activity on the limestone bedrock has formed numerous sinks, caverns, springs, and other karst features. Many of the shallow depressions or sinks, often called bays, dome swamps, or gum ponds, contain ponds or small lakes surrounded by cypress trees and other hydrophytic vegetation. The limestone is exposed in some areas, but in other areas, sands and clayey sands reach thicknesses of over 200 feet. The chemical characteristics of lakes in this region can be variable depending upon a lake's contact with bedrock or its isolation from the bedrock by deposits of clays and sands. Most of the lakes can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r a c i d i c t o s l i g h t l y a c i d i c s o f t w a t e r l a k e s ; g e n e r a l l y o l i g o m e s o t r o p h i c o r mesotrophic. Merrits Mill Pond is spring-fed and different, with high pH, hard water, and high nitrogen. Lake DeFuniak is surrounded by urbanization, but remains clear and unproductive with low color and low nutrients. The New Hope Ridge/Greenhead Slope is an upland sand ridge region, 100-300 feet in elevatio n, with a relatively high density of solution lakes for the Florida Panhandle. Similar to other well-drained upland sand ridge areas in Florida, the region is a high recharge area for the Floridan aquifer. It contains clear, acidic, softwater lakes of extremely low mineral content. The lakes are very low in nitrogen and phosphorus, low in chlorophyll a, and are among the most oligotrophic lakes in the United States. Along with lakes in the Trail Ridge region (75-04), these may be some of the most acid-sensitive lakes in Florida. Lakes connected to stream drainages, such as Black Double Lake and Lighter Log Lake in Washington County are more colored. The characteristics of the Tifton/Tallahassee Uplands region change distinctly from west to east. The region contains a heterogeneous mo saic of mixed forest, pasture, and agricultural land. The dissected Tifton Upland in the western part of the region has few if any natural lakes, but many small ponds and reservoirs created on stream channels. The southwest part of the region consists of thick sand delta deposits and contains one small lake, Lake Mystic (Liberty County), and a large reservoir. Lake Talquin, impounded in 1929, i s the second-oldest large reservoir in Florida. To the east of the Ochlockonee River, in Leon County, karst features are more evident with many solution basins, swampy depressions and some large swamp lakes. Some lakes, such as Iamonia and Jackson, drain periodically when their karst drainage system becomes unplugged. Lakes in this region tend to be slightly acidic to neutral, colored, softwate r lakes with moderate nutrient values. Some lakes have high pH and conductivity values because groundwater is pumped in to counteract draining. The Norfleet/Spring Hill Ridge lake region contains small, upland, clear, low-nutrient, acidic lakes that differ from the darker, swampy, moderate nutrient lakes of the Tifton/Tallahassee Uplands (65-04) and Gulf Coast Lowlands (75-01) regions. It is so mewhat of an anomalous area of xeric sand hills that extend into the Gulf Coast Lowlands, with elevations generally 60-120 feet. Acid-tolerant aquatic plants are found here, as most of the lakes have pH levels less than 5.5. Some lakes and ponds show some color associated with rain events, especially Moore Lake and Loften Ponds. The Northern Peninsula Karst Plains region is generally a well-drain ed flat to rolling karst upland containing a diverse group of small lakes. The natural vegetation consisted of longleaf pine/turkey oak, or hardwood forests on the richer soils, but agriculture is now extensive in much of the region. With some areas underlain by the geologically diverse Miocene Hawthorn Group or by undifferentiated Quaternary sediments, nutrient levels are variable, but many lak es have high phosphorus. The region's nutrient values are some of the highest in northern Florida. Many of the lakes are located in an area between Live Oak and Lake City. Groundwater connections as well as human activities elevate the conductivity and phosphorus in some lakes around Lake City. The mosaic of lake types in this region has a wide-ranging distribution of chemical and physical cha racteristics, but in general the lakes tend to be slightly acidic, with low to moderate alkalinity, high nutrients, and some color. The Everglades lake region begins south of Lake Okeechobee to include the Everglades Agricultural Area, the water conservation areas, and the sawgrass and sloughs of the national park. The flat plain of saw-grass marshes, tree-islands, and marsh prairies, with cropland in the north, ranges in elevation from sea level to twenty feet. Peat, muck, and some clay are the main surficial materials ov er the limestone. Wide sloughs, marshes, and some small ponds contain most of the surface waters in this "River of Grass" region. Canals drain much of the water in some areas. The Big Cypress is a flat region, 5 to 30 feet in elevation and slightly higher than the Everglades, covered by pine flatwoods, open scrub cypress, prairie type grasslands, and extensive marsh and wetlands. Poorly drained soils overlie limestone, calcareous sandstones, marls, swamp deposit mucks, and algal muds. Lakes are generally absent from the region. The Miami Ridge/Atlantic Coastal Strip is a heavily urbanized region, sea level to 25 feet in elevation, with coastal ridges on the east and flatter terrain to the west that grades into the Everglades. The western side originally had wet and dry prairie marshe s on marl and rockland and sawgrass marshes, but much of it is now covered by cropland, pasture, and suburbs. To the south, the Miami Ridge extends from near Hollywood south to Homestead and west into Long Pine Key of Everglades National Park. It is a gently rolling rock ridge of oolitic limestone that once supported more extensive southern slash pine forests and islands of tropical hardwood ham mocks. The northern part of the region is a plain of pine flatwoods and wet prairie, and coastal sand ridges with scrub vegetation and sand pine. There are very few natural lakes in the region, but three types of ponded surface waters occur: 1) Pits dug deep into underlying "rock" containing water that is clear, high pH and alkaline, with moderate nutrients; 2) Shallow, surficial dug drains th at are darker water; and 3) flow-through lakes (e.g., Lake Osborne) that are colored and nutrient rich. The Southern Coast and Islands region includes the Ten Thousand Islands and Cape Sable, the islands of Florida Bay, and the Florida Keys. It is an area of mangrove swamps and coastal marshes, coral reefs, various coastal strand type vegetation on beach ridge deposits and limestone rock islands Although freshwater habitats are limited or non-existent in this region, any freshwater that does occur for periods of time may have great ecological significance. Coastal rockland lakes are small in size and number, occurring primarily in the Florida Keys. These waters are alkaline, with high mineral content and highly variable salinity levels. The rockland lakes provide important habitat f or several kinds of fish, mammals, and birds of the Keys. Reductions in the fresh groundwater lens that floats on the denser saline groundwater can severely affect these lakes. Several types of lakes occur in the Gulf Coast Lowlands lake region, including coastal dune lakes, flatwood lakes, "edge lakes", river floodplain or oxbow lakes (Dead Lake), and reservoirs (Deer Point Lake). Most of the lakes tend to be darkwater, acidic, softwater lakes with low to moderate nutrients. Coastal dune lakes have higher sulfate, sodium, and chloride levels than inland lakes, and c an freshen or turn salty depending on rainfall, saltwater input, or salt spray. Flatwood lakes receive the majority of their water from direct rainfall and runoff from surrounding poorly drained soils. Sag ponds or "edge lakes" are found at the foot of relict marine terrace scarps or where soluble limestone that is near the surface abuts an upland of thick insoluble sands. An example is Chunky Pond near the western edge of the Northern Brooksville Ridge (75-05). The Okefenokee Plains lake region consists of flat plains and terraces with pine flatwoods and swamp forests over peat, muck, clayey sand, and phosphatic deposits. The few lakes in the region are primarily in the southern part, and include Ocean Pond, Palestine Lake, Swift Creek Pond, and Lake Fisher. These are highly acidic, d arkly colored, softwater lakes. The region's median pH value of 4.7 is the lowest of all the Florida lake regions. Although Ocean Pond is one of Florida's most acidic lakes, it supports a sustained sport fishery for largemouth bass, black crappie, bluegill, and other centrarchids. Phosphorus values for the lakes are generally in the 10-20 g/l range, but Swift Creek Pond has higher phosphorus valu es and there may be other phosphatic areas. T h e U p p e r S a n t a F e F l a t w o o d s r e g i o n w i t h e l e v a t i o n s g e n e r a l l y 1 2 0 1 8 0 f e e t i s a n a r e a o f p i n e flatwoods with some swamp forests. Lakes in this region include Alto, Butler, Crosby, Hampton, Hickory Pond, Little Santa Fe, Punchbowl, Rowell, Sampson, and Santa Fe. The lakes occur on thin Plio-Pleistocene sediments that overlie the deeply weathered sand and kaolinitic clay of the Miocene Hawthorn Group. The lakes of the region are slightly acid, colored, with low to moderate nutrients. The pH and alkalinity levels are slightly higher than the Okefenokee Plains (75-02) to the north, and phosphorus levels of the lakes are relatively low, averaging in the 10-15 g/l range. Lakes Rowell and Sampson have different water chemistry values due to was tewater treatment plant discharges from the city of Starke via Alligator Creek. From a narrow ridge in the north, the Trail Ridge lake region broadens to the south, becoming a karstic landscape with numerous solution depressions and lakes. The region is dominated by well-drained, n u t r i e n t p o o r u p l a n d s o i l s s u c h a s t h e C a n d l e r A p o p k a A s t a t u l a a n d T a v a r e s s e r i e s w i t h l o n g l e a f p i n e xerophytic oak vegetation. Lakes in the Trail Ridge region are mostly small, acid, clear, oligotrophic lakes. To the south, conductance and macrophytes in the lakes tend to increase. Atmospheric deposition might be contributing to some acidification of lakes in this region. Kingsley Lake is one of the largest lakes in the region and one of the deeper lakes in Florida. It differs from other Trail Ridge la kes, with higher pH, alkalinity, and a different cation/anion mix that reflects groundwater inputs. The Northern Brooksville Ridge region has an irregular land surface, with elevations varying over short distances from about 70-170 feet. It is an area of internal drainage and xeric sand hills, with natural vegetation of longleaf pine and turkey oak. Soils are of the Candler-Apopka-Astatula ass ociation. The thick sand sequence is underlain by clayey phosphatic sediments of the Alachua Formation. It is these underlying relatively insoluble Miocene-age clastics that provide the ridge's resistance to solution and lowering of elevation compared to surrounding limestone plains areas. Several ponds are located west of Archer and another group of lakes is located in the southern end in the Rainbow Lakes Estates area. These lakes are generally acidic, with moderately low nutrients and color. In the Big Bend Karst region, Miocene to Eocene-age limestone is at or near the surface from eastern Wakulla County south to Pasco County. The inland parts of the region are typified by pine flatwoods and swamp forest on poorly drained Spodosol soils. The Big Bend coast is characterized by co astal salt marshes and mangrove, rather than the barrier islands or beaches of the Gulf Coast Lowlands (75-01). Reflecting the limestone influence, pH, alkalinity, and conductivity values in lakes are very high for this part of Florida; nutrients are m o d e r a t e l y l o w a n d l a k e c o l o r i s v a r i a b l e b u t g e n e r a l l y l o w L a k e R o u s s e a u i s a l a r g e r e s e r v o i r o n t h e Withlacoochee River at the Levy/Citrus county line, and often has an abundance of hydrilla plant growth. The Marion Hills lake region, generally 75-180 feet in elevation, is an area of horse farms, pasture for cattle, cropland, and mixed evergreen and deciduous hardwood forests. Miocene-age Hawthorn Group sediments of clayey sands compose much of the hill systems, with the Eocene-age Ocala Limestone near the surface in much of the interven ing karst terrain. The region has few if any lakes, but contains about a dozen small ponds and some wet prairie areas. Pond chemistry is likely to be alkaline in locations influenced by the nearsurface limestone, and less so for sites in the hilly Hawthorn sands. Central Valley lakes tend to be large, shallow, and eutrophic, although lake size and type are variable. The lakes tend to have abun dant macrophytes or are green with algae. Total phosphorus values are mostly in the 20-80 g/l range, alkalinity values range widely, and pH values are generally greater than 6.5. The northern lakes in sandy deposits, such as Lake Eaton, Lochloosa Lake, Newnans Lake, Orange Lake, and Lake Wauberg, are characterized as softwater eutrophic lakes, and tend to have lower pH and darker water than the southern lakes. The southern lakes, such as Apopka, Carlton, Beauclair, Dora, Harris, Eustis, Yale and Griffin, often receive mineralized groundwater as well as surface inflows through nutrient-rich soils, and are eutrophic to hypereutrophic hardwater lakes. Canals have altered the natural flow patterns for many of these southern lakes in the Oklawaha chain, and agricultural activities on the m uck soils, along with municipal and industrial wastes, have added chemicals and nutrients to the connected surface water system. The Ocala Scrub is a region of ancient dunes with excessively drained, deep sandy soils (Candler and Astatula series) and sand pine scrub forests. The western two-thirds of the region is underlain by deeply weathered Miocene-age Hawthorn Group deposits, and contains mo re clayey sand with areas of longleaf pine and turkey oak. Elevations range from 75-180 feet. The eastern portion is lower in elevation and contains medium to fine sand and silt developed on Pleistocene-age sand dunes. The Ocala Scrub contains acid, mostly clearwater, low-nutrient lakes. The clear lakes are generally on the higher sandy ridges, moderate color lakes are in lower transitional are as, and some prairie lakes can have darker water. Due to landform variety and latitudinal extent, the Eastern Flatlands forms a diverse lake region. It is ribbed by low sand ridges, intervening valleys, and swampy lowlands that parallel the coast. The St. Johns River and its associated large lakes are the dominant physical features of the area. There are a mix of different lake types in the r egion. The St. Johns River lakes tend to be alkaline, hardwater, eutrophic, colored lakes. To the south, the upper St. Johns marsh lakes are also alkaline, mesotrophic to eutrophic, darkwater lakes, but the chemical concentrations are somewhat lower than in the north. Flatwoods lakes in the region are acid to slightly acid, colored, softwater lakes of moderate mineral content, with variable tro phic states. Coastal ridge lakes and dredged "build" ponds are found along the more populated seaboard area. The Crescent City/DeLand Ridges lake region includes several sandy upland ridges such as Palatka Hill, Crescent City Ridge, Deland Ridge, and the Geneva-Chuluota-Oviedo Hills area. Thick sandy soils of the Candler and Astatula series are typical, with natural vegetation of longleaf pine /xerophytic oak forests and some sand pine scrub forests. Many lakes in the region are clear, acid, oligotrophic lakes of low mineral content that obtain the majority of water from direct rainfall and surface/subsurface inflows through well-drained sandy soils. More mesotrophic lakes of moderate mineral content that receive inputs of groundwater also occur. Some lakes at the edge of the ridges r eceive water inputs from poorly-drained soils, and are included with the darker, small lakes of the Eastern Flatlands (75-10). T s a l a A p o p k a i s a n e r o s i o n a l v a l l e y w i t h t h i n s u r f i c i a l s a n d s o v e r E o c e n e a g e O c a l a l i m e s t o n e Limestone is at the surface on the east side of the Withlacoochee River within the region. Tsala Apopka Lake to the west of the Withlacoochee River is an area of interconnecte d swamps, marshes, ponds and lakes. There are generally three open-water pool areas: the Floral City Pool, the Inverness Pool, and the Hernando Pool. The "lake" gets shallower and turns to marsh as one moves east. Tsala Apopka water bodies are alkaline, hard-water, and eutrophic. The average lake pH is often greater than 7.5. Color decreases and conductivity increases as one moves from the Flo ral City Pool in the south to Hernando Pool in the north. The Southern Brooksville Ridge has a very irregular surface, similar to the Northern Brooksville Ridge (75-05), but reaches higher elevations, with several hills between 200 and 300 feet. These thick sand hills are often covered by hammock, turkey oak, and longleaf pine vegetation communities, and drainage is generally internal to the Flo ridan aquifer. Orange to reddish-orange clayey sands occur the length of the ridge and cap many of the hills in the limestone area near Brooksville. The lakes tend to have higher pH, alkalinity, conductivity, and nitrogen than lakes in the Northern Brooksville Ridge. Although a few lakes are acidic, most are neutral to alkaline, slightly colored, mesotrophic or meso-eutrophic lakes. Some lake phosphorus values appear low due to dense aquatic macrophyte growth. The Lake Weir/Leesburg Upland region, with elevations generally 75-125 feet, stretches from Lake Weir in the north to the city of Leesburg in the south. Soils are mostly the sandy, well-drained Candler, Apopka, a n d A s t a t u l a s e r i e s a n d t h e u n d e r l y i n g m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t s o f d e e p l y w e a t h e r e d c l a y e y s a n d o f t h e M i o c e n e Hawthorn Gro up. The natural vegetation was primarily longleaf pine and xerophytic oaks. Lake Weir is the largest lake in the region and there are numerous small lakes among citrus groves. These are generally clear, acidic to neutral, low nutrient lakes. The Mount Dora Ridge lake region is composed of high sand hills, 75-180 feet in elevation, with welldrained acid soils of the Astatula and Apopka series. There are many small, circumneutral, clear lakes of low color, having low nutrients, low chlorophyll a, and moderate alkalinity. Nutrient and color values tend to be slightly less than the adjacent Apopka Upland (75-16), and pH, alkalinity, and conductivity are higher than the Lake Weir/Leesburg Upland (75-14). Steeply sloping sand hills and old orange groves surround the lakes. The Apopka Up land region consists of residual sand hills modified by karst processes, with many small lakes and scattered sinkholes. Candler, Apopka, and Tavares are typical well-drained upland soils, and elevations range from 70-150 feet. The physical and chemical characteristics of the lakes are varied, and lake water levels can fluctuate during drought periods. There are a few acidic, clear, softwater lak es of low mineral content, but most are neutral to alkaline clear lakes with low to moderate nutrients. Some of the higher nutrient lakes may lack macrophytes. Darker water lakes that are circumneutral to alkaline also occur. The Weeki Wachee Hills are an area of Pleistocene sand dunes, 20-80 feet in elevation, with numerous s o l u t i o n b a s i n s T h e r e g i o n i n c l u d e s m o s t l y u p l a n d t y p e w e l l d r a i n e d s a n d y s o i l s s u c h a s C a n d l e r Astatula, and Tavares series, and natural vegetation of longleaf pine/turkey oak and sand pine scrub. The lakes have circumneutral pH, with moderately low alkalinity and nutrients, and low chlorophyll a values. Nutrient values are slightly lower than the adjacent Southern Brooksville Ridge (75-13). Although some have slight color, these are mostly clearwater lakes. The low-relief Webster Dry Plain, with elevations generally 75-125 feet, has only a thin veneer of sand or clayey sand over the Ocala Limestone and contains few lakes. The drainage is primarily internal, and only during wet years and high water tables do shallow, temporary lakes exist in the solution depressions. The small shallow lakes can vary widely in their characteristics; some having high pH, alkalinity, and conductivity with variable nutrients, color, and clarity, while other prairie lakes are more acidic and dark. The Clermont Uplands is a region of prairies, swamps, solution lakes, and low to high sand hills covered by citrus groves. Elevations range from 100 feet in the lower swamp and prairie areas to 300 feet on the highest hills of the Sugar Loaf Mountains. The natural ve getation consists of pine flatwoods, watertolerant grasses, and hardwood swamp forests in the lowlands, and longleaf pine/xerophytic oaks on the welldrained uplands. Lakes of this region tend to be slightly acidic, softwater lakes that are oligotrophic to slightly mesotrophic. Some lakes have low color and high Secchi values, while other lakes that receive drainage from the Green Swamp (75-26) such as Lake Louisa, are very dark. Doctor Phillips Ridge is a small ridge of thick sands with elevations of 100-170 feet, and contains over 3 0 s o l u t i o n d e p r e s s i o n l a k e s T h e s a n d y s o i l s o f t h e T a v a r e s Z o l f o M i l l h o p p e r a s s o c i a t i o n a r e predominant. The lakes in this region are generally clear, circumneutral, and low in nutrients. As a group, these are some of the clearest lakes in central Flo rida. The clearest lakes tend to be deeper than the others in the region, and the slightly darker lakes, such as Lake Sheen, are lower in elevation or have wetter, lowland-type soils near the lake. Lake Floy is darker with unusually high nutrients, but is heavily impacted by road and stormwater drainage. The Orlando Ridge is an urbanized karst area of low relief, with elevations from 75-120 fee t. Longleaf pine and xerophytic oaks were the dominant trees of the natural vegetation, with soils primarily of the Tavares, Smyrna, and Pomello series. Miocene-age coarse quartz sands and pebbles imbedded in kaolinitic clay f o r m t h e r i d g e P h o s p h a t i c s a n d a n d c l a y e y s a n d a r e a t a s h a l l o w d e p t h L a k e s i n t h i s r e g i o n c a n b e characterized as clear, alkaline, hardwater lakes of moderate mineral c ontent. They are mesotrophic to eutrophic, w i t h p h o s p h o r u s l e v e l s g e n e r a l l y b e t w e e n 2 0 5 0 g / l b u t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n e f f e c t s o f urbanization and natural phosphorus levels here. Lakes are more phosphatic than the Crescent City/DeLand Ridges (75-11), and only slightly more than the Apopka Upland (75-16). The low-relief Tampa Plain lake region is drained mostly by the Pithlac hascotee, Anclote, and Lake Tarpon basins, with elevations ranging from 5 to 90 feet. Pine flatwood vegetation was dominant in this area. Medium to fine sand and silt cover the Miocene Tampa Member limestone and the Quaternary Ft. Thompson Formation clastics and shell deposits. The region has slightly acidic, darkwater, mesotrophic lakes, in contrast to the clearer lakes of the bordering Keysto ne Lakes (75-23) and Land-o-Lakes (75-24) regions. The Keystone Lakes region is a small, well-drained, sandy upland area within the Tampa Plain, with elevations generally 30 to 60 feet and numerous lakes. These are slightly acidic, low nutrient, mostly clearwater lakes. The region has lower pH, alkalinity, and nitrogen values than in the nearby Land-o-Lakes region (75-24), and there is also l ess citrus and residential development. Land-o-Lakes is a sandy upland with poorly drained soils interspersed. The region has a high density of lakes with elevations ranging from 30 to 80 feet and separates the Tampa Plain and Hillsborough Valley. Natural vegetation was dominated by longleaf pine and turkey oaks, now mostly removed for citrus groves and residential development. The lakes are n eutral to slightly alkaline, low to moderate nutrient, clearwater lakes. The Hillsborough Valley lake region is a plain of low-relief containing relatively sluggish surface d r a i n a g e o f t h e H i l l s b o r o u g h R i v e r w a t e r s h e d N a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n i s v a r i e d i n c l u d i n g l o n g l e a f pine/turkey oak, pine flatwoods, and hardwood swamp forests. There are karst features, but almost no lakes in this region. Data for three lakes indicate that generally alkaline, moderate to high nutrient, darkwater lakes are found in this region. The eutrophic Lake Thonotosassa is the largest, and receives high nutrient loadings from urban and industrial sources, causing algae blooms and fish kills. The Green Swamp is a distinctive area of flatland and swampland at a relatively high elevation, 75-150 feet, and contains t he headwaters of the Withlacoochee, Oklawaha, and Hillsborough rivers. The Green Swamp lake region overlies the Eocene-age Ocala Limestone in the west, and Miocene-age Hawthorn Group sediments to the east. The vegetation includes cypress in the swampy areas, pine flatwoods, and some pine and oak in the better-drained upland areas. The water table is at or near the surface in much of the region, with large areas of standing water after heavy rainfall. Surface waters are generally colored and acidic, but there are few, if any, natural lakes. The Osceola Slope is composed of Pleistocene lagoonal deposits with a top layer of medium to fine sands and silts. Elevations are generally 60-90 feet, with Smyrna, Myakka, and Tavares soils on the better-drained low ridges and knolls, and Basinger and Samsula soils in the wet and swampy areas adjacent to parts of some lakes. Vegetation is primarily pine flatwoods, but some low, dry ridges have turkey oak and sand scrub. Osceola Slope lakes are acidic, relatively low nutrient, colored lakes. The lakes have lower color, pH, alkalinity, conductivity, and nutrient values than lakes in the Kissimmee/Okeechobee Lowland (75-35). The northern p art of the Pinellas Peninsula is underlain by deeply weathered sand hills of the Mioceneage Hawthorn Group, with Pleistocene-age sand, shell, and clay deposits in the south. Besides the coastal strand, the natural vegetation consisted of longleaf pine/xerophytic oak in the northwest, and pine flatwoods in the southeast. The dominant characteristic of the region now is the Clearwater/St. Petersb urg urbanization. Several small, high nutrient lakes are found in this region, and the nutrient levels may be a result of phosphoritic pebbles in the Hawthorn Group sediments, as well as due to anthropogenic impacts. Alkalinity, pH, and conductivity values are also very high. The Wimauma Lakes region is a very small area that includes only two lakes, Lake Wimauma and Carlton Lake. These are clear, acidic, low nutrient, small water bodies. The soils in this area are a c o m p l e x m o s a i c o f a l k a l i n e a n d a c i d s a n d s T h e e x i s t e n c e o f o t h e r r e l a t i v e l y a n o m a l o u s c l e a r a c i d i c oligotrophic lakes within the Southwestern Flatlands (75-36) region is not known, although there are probably very few others similar to Wimauma and Carlton. The Lakeland/Bone Valley Upland region includes the sand hil ls of the Lakeland Ridge, and the more poorly drained flatwoods areas of parts of the Bone Valley Uplands and Bartow Embayment. All of these areas are covered by phosphatic sand or clayey sand from the Miocene-Pliocene Bone Valley Member of the Peace River Formation. The region generally encompasses the area of most intensive phosphate mining, but phosphate deposits and mining activities are als o found south of this region. As one would expect, the dominant characteristic of all lakes in this region is high phosphorus, nitrogen, and chlorophyll a values. The lakes are alkaline, with some receiving limestone-influenced groundwater. T h e W i n t e r H a v e n / L a k e H e n r y R i d g e s a n u p l a n d k a r s t a r e a 1 3 0 1 7 0 f e e t i n e l e v a t i o n h a s a n abundance of small to medium sized lakes. Candler-Tavares-Apopka is the soil association of the welldrained upland areas, with longleaf pine and xerophytic oak natural vegetation. Pliocene quartz pebbly sand and the phosphatic Bone Valley Member (Peace River Formation) comprise the underlying geology. The lakes can be characterized as alkaline, moderately hardwater lakes of relatively high mineral content, and are eutrophic. The Northern Lake Wales Ridge l ake region extends from the Clermont Uplands in Lake County to the Livingston Creek drainage in Highlands County. The narrow ridge, 100-300 feet in elevation, forms the topographic crest of central Florida. The well-drained sandy soils are dominated by the Candler-Tavares-Apopka association, covered by citrus groves, pasture, and urban and residential development. The lakes are mostly alkaline, low to moderate nutrient, clearwater lakes. Nitrogen values tend to be high. These lakes are richer in nutrients than lakes in the Southern Lake Wales Ridge (75-33). The Southern Lake Wales Ridge region contains part of the southern ridge and the Intraridge Valley where there are mostly clearwater lakes. Elevations range from 70-150 feet, and soils are generally in the sandy, well-drained As tatula-Paola-Tavares association. The landcover is primarily citrus groves, with rapidly expanding urban and residential areas. Lakes in the region range from acidic to alkaline, but almost all are clear with low color and low nutrients. The Lake Wales Ridge Transition includes the ridge margin or transition lakes that are darker colored with higher nutrients than the lakes found on the Souther n Lake Wales Ridge (75-33). Elevations are 70130 feet, and there are more extensive areas of poorly-drained soils, such as the Satellite and Basinger series. Peaty muck Samsula soils border many of the lakes. The lake region also includes the narrow Bombing Range Ridge on the east, and a small area of upland soils near Lake Buffum on the west. Most of the lakes are acidic, although about one-t hird of them tend to be alkaline. They have low to moderate nutrients, and are slightly to moderately colored. The Kissimmee/Okeechobee Lowland region includes most of the Kissimmee Valley, a lowland with prairie type grasslands, flatwoods, and some swamp forest. The wet prairies are seasonally flooded, and dry prairies on seldom-flooded flatland have mostly been converted to pasture. Pleistoce ne lagoonal deposits of coastal sand and shelly silty sand characterize the geology. Lakes are alkaline, eutrophic, and colored. The shallow, subtropical Lake Okeechobee is one of the largest lakes in the United States. Encircled by a floodcontrol dike, the lake serves as a water supply for urban and agricultural areas, as well as supporting habitat for migratory waterfowl and a valuable fishe ry. The Southwestern Flatlands lake region includes barrier islands, Gulf coastal flatlands, and gently sloping coastal plain terraces at higher elevations. The elevations range from sea level to 150 feet. Much of the pine flatwoods and wet and dry grassland prairies have been converted to extensive areas of pasture, rangeland, and young citrus groves. Coastal areas are rapidly urbanizing. La kes in this region range from slightly acidic to alkaline, but almost all are eutrophic and have dark colored water. Some lakes at the higher elevations near the upland ridges have more moderate levels of nutrients and color, similar to the Lake Wales Ridge Transition region (75-34). The Immokalee Rise is an area of slightly elevated land, 25-35 feet, that includes the Immokalee Rise, Corkscrew Swamp, and Devils Garden areas. Pine flatwoods and wet prairies are dominant natural vegetation types. Poorly-drained sandy soils overlie Miocene-age sands and clays or Pleistocene-age calcareous sand and shell deposits. Lake Trafford is the largest lake in the region. It is an alkaline, hardwater lake of high mineral content and high nutrients. There are few other lakes in the region, and th ese tend to be small, swampy, and seasonal. 65-01 65-02 65-03 65-04 65-05 65-06 75-01 75-02 75-03 75-04 75-05 75-06 75-07 75-08 75-09 75-10 75-11 75-12 75-13 75-14 75-15 75-16 75-17 75-18 75-19 75-20 75-21 75-22 75-23 75-24 75-25 75-26 75-27 75-28 75-29 75-30 75-31 75-32 75-33 75-34 75-35 75-36 75-37 76-01 76-02 76-03 76-04 Small ponds and reservoirs on red sandy soils are typical in region 65-01. Many clearwater lakes are found in region 65-03, and a few clearwater lakes, such as Lake Cassidy, occur in 65-02. Clearcut logging around Lake Five-0 in region 65-03. L a k e c o n d i t i o n s v a r y i n t h i s s u b u r b a n i z e d residential area north of Tallahassee, region 65-04. Some coastal dune lakes in 75-01 contain freshwater fish, with sa ltwater fish in the more saline bottom layers. Sportfishing for largemouth bass, bluegill, and black crappie is an important recreational activity on Florida lakes. (Lake Crosby, 75-03) White quartz sand surrounds crystal-clear Sheelar Lake and other acidic lakes in the Trail Ridge region, 75-04. Aquatic plants and algal mats are found on many of the eutrophic lakes of the Central Valley, 75-08. (L ochloosa Lake) Marshes near Lake Apopka and Lake Griffin in region 75-08, as well as near Lake Okeechobee in region 76-01, were channelized and drained for use as cropland on the dark, muck soils. Sellers Lake is one of many acidic, clear lakes in the Ocala National Forest, 75-09. Although still threatened by habitat loss and toxic contamination, alligator populations have increased in Florida lakes and wetlands since the 1970's. Tannic, acidic water from the Green Swamp (75-26) colors the water of Lake Louisa in the adjacent Clermont Upland region (75-19). Urban and suburban modifications to lakes are common in the Orlando Ridge region (75-21). Although citrus groves can increase nitrogen inputs to lakes, their effect on lake eutrophication may be less than from suburban development because man y lakes in the citrus belt are phosphorus-limited. Phosphate mining on the Bone Valley Member of the Peace River Formation is widespread in region 75-30, and surface waters are nutrient-rich. Residential area inputs and stormwater runoff contribute nutrients to this algae-dominated lake in an area of low-nutrient clearwater lakes (75-33). A few small ponds occur on the freshwater marl prairie of the Everglades. In south Florida, birds, fish, and other wildlife, as well as humans, depend on freshwater flows from the Kissimmee/Okeechobee Lowland to the north. PRINCIPAL AUTHORS: Glenn Griffith (US EPA), Daniel Canfield, Jr. (University of Florida), Christine Horsburgh (University of Florida), James Omernik (US EPA), Sandra Azevedo (OAO Corp.) COLLABORATORS AND CONTRIBUTORS: Mark Hoyer, Eric Schulz, Roger Bachmann, and Sandy Fisher (University of Florida); James Hulbert, Michael Scheinkman, Ellen McCarron, and Russ Frydenborg (FL DEP); Craig Dye (South west Florida Water Management District); Alan Woods (Dynamac Corp.); Curtis Watkins (Florida Lake Management Society); citizen volunteers of Florida LAKEWATCHA l a b a m aG e o r g i a Selected References Bachmann, R.W., B.L. Jones, D.D. Fox, M. Hoyer, L.A. Bull, and D.E. Canfield, Jr. 1996. Relations between trophic state indicators and fish in Florida (USA) lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53(4):842-855. Beaver, J.R. and T.L. Crisman. 1991. Importance of latitude and organic color on phytoplankton primary productivity in Florida lakes. Canadian Journal o f Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48(7):1145-1150. Beaver, J.R., T.L. Crisman, and J.S. Bays. 1981. Thermal regimes of Florida lakes. Hydrobiologia 83: 267-273. Brenner, M., M.W. Binford, and E.S. Deevey. 1990. Lakes. In: Ecosystems of Florida. R.L. Myers and J.J. Ewel (eds.). University of Central Florida Press, Orlando, FL. pp. 364-391. Brooks, H.K. 1981a. Geologic map of Florida. Scale 1:500,000. Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Brooks, H.K. 1981b. Physiographic divisions. Scale 1:500,000. Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Brooks, H.K. 1982. Guide to the physiographic divisions of Florida. Cooperative Extension Service, Instit ute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Bush, P.W. 1974. Hydrology of the Oklawaha lakes area of Florida. Map Series No. 69. Florida Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology. Tallahassee, FL. C a l d w e l l R E a n d R W J o h n s o n 1 9 8 2 G e n e r a l s o i l m a p F l o r i d a S c a l e 1 : 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 U S D e p a r t m e n t o f Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in cooperation w ith University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences and Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department. Gainesville, FL. Canfield, D.E., Jr. 1981. Chemical and trophic state characteristics of Florida lakes in relation to regional geology. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. 444p. Canfield, D.E., Jr. 1983a. Prediction of chlorophyll-a concentration in Florida lakes: the importance of phosphorus and nitrogen. Water Resources Bulletin 19: 255-262. Canfield, D.E., Jr. 1983b. Sensitivity of Florida lakes to acid precipitation. Water Resources Research 19(3):833-839. Canfield, D.E., Jr., and M.V. Hoyer. 1988a. Regional geology and the chemical and trophic state characteristics of Florida lakes. Lake and Reservoir Management 4(1):21-31. Canfield, D.E., Jr., K.A. La ngeland, M.J. Maceina, W.T. Haller, and J.V. Shireman. 1983. Trophic state classification of lakes with aquatic macrophytes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 40(11):1713-1718. C a n f i e l d D E J r S B L i n d a a n d L M H o d g s o n 1 9 8 4 R e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n c o l o r a n d s o m e l i m n o l o g i c a l characteristics of Florida lakes. Water Resources Bulletin 20(3):323-329. C a n f i e l d D E J r M J M a c e i n a L M H o d g s o n a n d K A L a n g e l a n d 1 9 8 3 L i m n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s o f s o m e northwestern Florida lakes. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 2(1):67-79. Cooke, C.W. 1945. Geology of Florida. Florida Geological Survey Bulletin No. 29. Tallahassee, FL. pp.1-339. Copeland, C.W., Jr., K.F. Rheams, T.L. Neathery, W.A. Gilliland, W. Schmidt, W.C. Clark, Jr., and D.E. Pope. 1988. Quaternary geologic map of the Mob ile 4 o x 6 o quadrangle, United States. U.S. Geological Survey. Miscellaneous Investigations Series, Map I-1420 (NH-16). Scale 1:1,000,000. Davis, J.H. Jr., 1943. The natural features of southern Florida, especially the vegetation and the Everglades. Florida Geological Survey Bulletin No. 25. Tallahassee, FL. D a v i s J H J r 1 9 6 7 G e n e r a l m a p o f t h e n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n o f F l o r i d a C i r c u l a r S 1 7 8 I n s t i t u t e o f F o o d a n d Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Deuerling, R.J., Jr., and P.L. MacGill. 1981. Environmental Geology Series, Tarpon Springs Sheet. Map Series No. 99. Florida Bureau of Geology, Tallahassee, FL. F e r n a l d E A ( e d ) 1 9 8 1 A t l a s o f F l o r i d a I n s t i t u t e o f S c i e n c e a n d P u b l i c A f f a i r s F l o r i d a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y Tallahassee, FL. 276p. Fernald, E.A. and D.J. Patton (eds.). 1984. Water resources atlas of Florida. Florida State University. Tallahassee, FL. 291p. F l o r i d a A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n s a n d U S D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e S o i l C o n s e r v a t i o n S e r v i c e 1 9 6 2 General soil map of Florida. Scale 1:1,000,000. Griffith, G.E., J.M. Omernik, C.M. Rohm, and S.M. Pierson. 1994. Florida regionalization project. EPA/60 0/Q-95-002. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR. 83p. Griffith, G.E., D.E. Canfield, Jr., C.A. Horsburgh, J.M. Omernik, and S.H. Azevedo. 1997. Lake regions of Florida. Report to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR. Hendry, C.D. Jr., and P.L. Brezonik. 1984. Chemical composition of softwater Florida lakes and their s ensitivity to acid precipitation. Water Resources Bulletin 20(1):75-86. Hoyer, M.V. and D.E. Canfield, Jr. 1990. Limnological factors influencing bird abundance and species richness on Florida lakes. Lake and Reservoir Management 6(2):133-141. Hoyer, M.V., D.E. Canfield, Jr., C.A. Horsburgh, and K. Brown. 1996. Florida freshwater plants: A handbook of common aquatic plants in Florida lakes. Univers ity of Florida. 280p. Huber, W.C., P.L. Brezonik, J.P. Heaney, R.E. Dickinson., S.D. Preston, D.S. Dwornik, and M.A. DeMaio. 1983. A classification of Florida lakes. Two volumes. Final Report to the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation. ENV-05-82-1. Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. James, R.T. 1991. Microbiology and chemistry of aci d lakes in Florida: I. Effects of drought and post-drought conditions. Hydrobiologia 213:205-225. Kanciruk, P., J.M. Eilers, R.A. McCord, D.H. Landers, D.F. Brakke and R.A. Linthurst. 1986. Characteristics of lakes in the eastern United States. Volume III: Data compendium of site characteristics and chemical variables. EPA/600/486/007c. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. 439p. K napp, M.S. 1978a. Environmental Geology Series, Gainesville Sheet. Map Series No. 79. Florida Bureau of Geology, Tallahassee, FL. Knapp, M.S. 1978b. Environmental Geology Series, Valdosta Sheet. Map Series No. 88. Florida Bureau of Geology, Tallahassee, FL. Lane, E., M.S. Knapp, and T. Scott. 1980. Environmental Geology Series, Fort Pierce Sheet. Map Series No. 80. Florida Bureau of Geology, Tallaha ssee, FL. O m e r n i k J M 1 9 8 7 E c o r e g i o n s o f t h e c o n t e r m i n o u s U n i t e d S t a t e s A n n a l s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n Geographers 77(1):118-125. Omernik, J.M. 1995. Ecoregions: A spatial framework for environmental management. In: Biological Assessment and Criteria: Tools for Water Resource Planning and Decision Making. W.S. Davis and T. Simon (eds.). Lewis Publishers. Boca Raton, FL. pp.49-62. Pirkle, E.C. and H.K. Brooks. 1959. Origin and hydrology of Orange Lake, Santa Fe Lake, and Levys Prairie Lakes of north-central peninsular Florida. Journal of Geology 63(3):302-317. Pollman, C.D. and D.E. Canfield, Jr. 1991. Florida. In: Acidic Deposition and Aquatic Ecosystems, Regional Case Studies. D.F. Charles and S. Christie (eds). Springer-Verlag, New York. pp.367-416. Puri, H.S. and R.O. Vernon. 19 64. Summary of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the classic exposures. Florida Geological Survey Special Publication No. 5. Tallahassee, FL. 312p. Schmidt, W. 1978. Environmental geology series, Pensacola sheet. Florida Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology. Map Series No.78. Tallahassee, FL. Scott, T.M. 1978. Environmental geology series, Orlando sheet. Florida Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology. Map Series No. 85. Tallahassee, FL. Scott, T.M. 1979. Environmental geology series, Daytona Beach sheet. Florida Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology. Map Series No. 93. Tallahassee, FL. Scott, T.M and P.L. MacGill. 1981. The Hawthorn formation of central Florida. Part I. Geology of the Hawthorn formation in central Florida. Report of Investigation No. 91. Florida Bureau of Geology, Tallahassee, FL. Scott, T.M., M.S. Knapp, M.S. Friddell, and D.L. Weide. 1986. Quaternary geologic map of the Jacksonville 4 o x 6 o quadrangle, United States. U.S. Geological Survey. Miscellaneous Investigations Series, Map I-1420 (NH-17). Scale 1:1,000,000. Scott, T.M., M.S. Knapp, and D.L. Weide. 1986. Quaternary geologic map of the Florida Keys 4 o x 6 o quadrang le, United States. U.S. Geological Survey. Miscellaneous Investigations Series, Map I-1420 (NG-17). Scale 1:1,000,000. S h a f e r M D R E D i c k i n s o n J P H e a n e y a n d W C H u b e r 1 9 8 6 G a z e t e e r o f F l o r i d a l a k e s F l o r i d a W a t e r Resources Research Center, Publication No. 96. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Shannon, E.E. and P.L. Brezonik. 1972. Limnological characteristics of north and centra l Florida lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 17:97-110. Sinclair, W.C. and J.W. Stewart. 1985. Sinkhole type, development, and distribution in Florida. Bureau of Geology Map Series No. 110. U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Department of Environmental Regulation, Bureau of Water Resources Management, Florida Department of Natural Resources. Tallahassee, FL. Stauffer, R.E. 1991. Effects o f citrus agriculture on ridge lakes in central Florida. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 59:125-144. Stauffer, R.E. and D.E. Canfield, Jr. 1992. Hydrology and alkalinity regulation of soft Florida waters: an integrated assessment. Water Resources Research 28(6):1631-1648. Sweets, P.R. 1992. Diatom paleolimnological evidence for lake acidification in the Trail Ridge region of Florida. Water, Air, an d Soil Pollution 65:43-57. U S D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s C o n s e r v a t i o n S e r v i c e ( f o r m e r l y S o i l C o n s e r v a t i o n S e r v i c e ) Various current and historical county soil surveys of Florida. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997. Level III ecoregions of the continental United States. Map M-1, various scales (revision of Omernik, 1987). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Hea lth and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon. Vernon, R.O. and H.S. Puri. 1964. Geologic map of Florida. Scale approx. 1:2,000,000. Division of Geology Map Series No. 18. U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Florida Board of Conservation, Tallahassee, FL. White, W.A. 1958. Some geomorphic features of central peninsular Florida. Florida Geological Survey Bulletin No. 41 Tallahassee, FL. W h i t e W A 1 9 7 0 T h e g e o m o r p h o l o g y o f t h e F l o r i d a p e n i n s u l a F l o r i d a D e p a r t m e n t o f N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s Geological Bulletin No. 51. Tallahassee, FL. Wolfe, S.H., J.A. Reidenauer, and D.B. Means. 1988. An ecological characterization of the Florida panhandle. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Report 88(12); Minerals Management Service OCS Study MMS 88-0063. 277p. County Impaired Lakes County Impaired Lakes Alachu a 22 Leon 38 Bradford 4 Marion 14 Brevard 6 Miami Dade 3 Broward 7 Monroe 1 Charlotte 1 Okaloosa 5 Citrus 7 Orange 73 Clay 10 Osceola 9 Collier 1 Palm Beach 5 Columbia 1 Pasco 10 DeSoto 1 Pinellas 25 Duval 2 Polk 63 Flagler 3 Putnam 30 Gadsden 3 Santa Rosa 1 Glades 1 Sarasota 5 Hamilton 3 Seminole 42 Hernando 4 St Lucie 5 Highlands 38 Suwannee 3 Hillsborough 59 Taylor 1 Indian River 4 Volusia 12 Lake 30 Wakulla 1 Lee 12 Walton 3 Additionally, LAKEWATCH staff have created two Web Casts that are posted on the Florida LAKEWATCH web site that discuss nutrient criteria in the state of Florida. Please take the time to look at these informative web casts: 1) Establishing Numeric Nutrient Criteria in Florida lakes (http://lakewatch.ifas.ufl.edu/Vide os/Dan_video.html). 2) Problems With the Proposed Numer ic Nutrient Criteria in Florida lakes (http://lakewatch.ifas.ufl.edu/Vide os/Roger_video.html). Table 2. Number of la kes that will violate the new EPA Nutrient criteria using only the Florida LAKEWATCH data that was available. The Lake Regions of Florida poster published by EPA in 1997 depicting a breakdown of the regions w ith regional descriptions on the front of the poster and maps illustrating regional water chemistry differences on the back. For greater detail download this poster at the website http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/ecoregions/fl_eco.htm

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% Baywatch RMA Baywatch Program Water Quality Monitoring in the St. Andrew Bay Watershed, Bay County, FL Established in 1990, the St. Andrew Bay Resource Management Association (RMA) Baywatch Program is a volunteer sampling program that moni tors long term trends in water quality and aquatic resources in the St. Andrew Bay watershed. Teams of volunteers col lect water samples monthly at 86 sample stations throughout the St. Andrew Bay estuarine system, Lake Powell, and other lakes in the waters hed. Seagrass coverage and composition in West Bay and near Shell Island is also monitored. BAYWATCH ACTIVITIES Monthly Water Sampling and Data Collection Water samples are collected monthly at 86 sample stations throughout the St. Andrew Bay watersh ed. There are nine study areas including Lake Powell, Powell Creek East, West Bay, North Bay, East Bay, Grand Lagoon, St. Andrew Bay, Lake Marin, and Johnson Bayou. Sample sites are divided into two categories: 1) Baywatch and LAKEWATCH Water Quality Stati ons (N=67) and 2) Seagrass Water Quality Stations (N=19) Baywatch/Lakewatch Water Quality Stations (in coordination with University of Florida LAKEWATCH) Baywatch monitors 40 stations each month in partnership with the University of Florida's LAKEWATCH program. Data collected at each station includes temperature, pH dissolved oxygen salinity secchi depth weather conditions, and sea state. Samples are collected at each station and evaluated for turbidity nutrients and chlorophyll Seagrass Water Quality Stations (in coordination with Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP ), Northwest District Office, Pensacola) Monitoring of water quality at seagrass habitat is performed monthly in cooperation with the DEP, Northwest District Office. DEP staff collect water samples from 19 seagrass stations in West Bay and St. Andrew Bay Data collected includes temperature, pH, DO, salinity, conductivity, secchi depth, weather conditions, and sea state. Nutrients and bacteria are monitored quarterly. Samples are returned to DEP's central lab in Tallahassee for evaluation of turbidity, color, BOD 5 day total, residue non filtered, and chlorophyll a. Results are available in STORET under organization code 21FLPNS. Sampling Crooked Creek.

PAGE 5

& PROJECT PARTNERS Activities of the RMA Baywatch Program are accomplished in cooperation with the following Partners: Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD) University of Florida, LAKEWATCH Friends of St. Andrew Bay/Bay Env ironmental Study Team (BEST) Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) Florida State University (FSU) Gulf Coast Community College (GCCC) National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Panama City Marine Institute (PCMI) US Fish and Wildlife Service ( USFWS) BAYWATCH STAFF Patrice Couch, Baywatch Director Laura Paris, Baywatch Assistant Director Jim Barkuloo, Baywatch Coordinator Linda Fitzhugh, Seagrass Coordinator Murt Lyon, Data Manager RMA LAB STAFF Alan Collins Linda Campbell Bob Farsky Cou rtney Campbell Larry Couch SAMPLING CAPTAINS Jim Barkuloo, West Bay and Seagrass Chris Campbell, West Bay Bob Vickery, North Bay Jill Blue Reich, East Bay Bob Farsky, St. Andrew Bay Howard Lovett, Johnson Bayou Randy Couch, Grand Lagoon Malcolm Fowler, Lake Marin Chris & Emily Forman, Lake Powell Chris & Emily Forman, Powell Creek East Patrice Couch, Creeks & Backup Captain (all areas) The Baywatch data analysis of the years 1990 2006 is available on the Baywatch website. For more information about this analysis or the Baywatch Program, contact: Patrice Couch PO Box 15028 Panama City, FL 32406 Office: 850.763.4303 E mail: Patrice.Couch@sabrma.org Web: www.sabrma.org Sampling Powell Creek East St. Andrew Bay Resource Management Association Baywatch water quality monitoring stations designated for University of Florida (UF Red Squares), general Baywatch (BW Blue Circles), and SeaGrass (SG Yellow Triangles) site monitoring. Baywatch

PAGE 6

' We have noted a slight increase in discrepancies between chlorophyll sample dates and water sample dates collected during the same month. To help us better serve you and honor your efforts in regular sampling we ask you to please be consistent with your date recording. Please label water sample bottles and chlorophyll filters with the same date you record on your data sheet. This indicates to the lab and our database manager that all measurements and samples were collected during the same expedition out on your lake. In the rare event you collect water samples and chlorophyll samples on different dates please record this on your data sheet with a short note as to why. When lake managers and scientists evaluate data for trends and changes they look to see if the data is paired up or collected at the same time and place. It makes a real difference in what they can infer from the data without act ually going out at the time of collection. Keep those samples flowing! Please be sure to deliver any 2010 frozen water and chlorophyll samples to your collection center as soon as possible. This will enable us to prepare the annual data reports on sched ule. A Reminder to water samplers: Dessicant bottles can be used for storing several months worth of filtered chlorophyll samples. Please be sure to consolidate your samples into one dessicant bottle when possible. Fresh or salt? When you pick up y our supplies from your local collection center please be sure to grab the correct bottles and data sheets. Fresh water samplers should be using the smaller bottles and white data sheets and salt water samplers should be using the larger bottles and blue da ta sheets. If you are unsure which is right for you, call us at 1 800 525 3928 and we will be happy to clarify things. Saltwater Freshwater The lab staff thanks all our volunteers for their dedication to the very imp ortant work of monitoring Floridas lakes and waterbodies. This information is important to you, to your fellow citizens, and to the long term goals of protecting these jewels in the sand for future generations. LAB NOTES From Florida LAKEWATCH Chemist Claude Brown

PAGE 7

( Regional Meeti ngs Schedule for 2011 The 2011 Regional Meeting schedule is now set. Mark the date on your calendars now and keep an eye out for your invite in the mail about a month in advance. Date Meeting Date Meeting January 26 Leon County Area August 17 Putnam County Area March 17 Charlotte County August 27 Walton County Area March 24 Polk County September 8 Volusia County April 16 Lake County October 3 Hillsborough County Area April 20 Osceola County October 18 Alachua County Area May 21 Bay County Area No vember 6 Highlands County June 23 Orange County December 6 Citrus County Area July 12 Seminole County December 10 Miami Dade County Area At the meetings, LAKEWATCH will provide a delicious meal, data packets for the primary volunteers, a hands on exhi bit of aquatic plants and invertebrates, plenty of handouts on a variety of lakes topic and issues and the ability for you to discuss your water body concerns, ask questions about management issues and talk with other LAKEWATCH family. We hope to see all of our volunteers and friends of LAKEWATCH there! Volunteer Bulletin Board Hillsborough County Collection Center Changes! The collection centers at Keystone and Nye Park have changed. This change is necessary to ensure that everyone has convenient access to a drop off loc ation now that the parks are operating at reduced hours and staff. If you currently use the Keystone Park location, youll now go to the Austin Davis Library at 17808 Wayne Road Odessa, FL 33556 4720 Its right beside Keystone Park. You can walk fro m one building to the other in a few steps. This drop off is located on the west side of the building by the service door. Its inside a marked plastic storage shed. The shed is locked with a special combination lock (combination 7922). If you curre ntly use the Nye Park location, youll now use the Lutz Library at 101 Lutz Lake Fern Road, West Lutz, FL 33548 7220. This collection center is located outside the library. This drop off is located on the east side of the building north of the main entran ce. Its inside a marked plastic storage shed. The shed is locked with a special combination lock (combination 7922). Both libraries have the following hours, however, the freezers and supplies will be accessible 24 hours a day using the special combi nation lock. Hours of Operation: Sunday Closed Thursday 10am 6pm Monday 12pm 8pm Friday 10am 6pm Tuesday 10am 8pm Saturday 10am 6pm Wednesday 10am 6pm All other collection centers will remain unchanged. Thank you for y our dedicated participation in the program. The data you collect not only helps you better understand and manage your pond, lake, or stream, but also helps us protect our water resources. Keep up the good work, and let me know if you have any questions.

PAGE 8

) Lake Dora is a 4,475 acre recreational lake that currently is the subject of major environmental restoratio n programs. Nearly all of the lake is available to fishing with black crappie currently being the dominant fishery. The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission has shown that the largemouth bass fishery is one of the poorest in the Harris Chain o f Lakes, thus the Harris Chain of Lakes Restoration Council recommended that Lake Dora be stocked in the winter of 2009 10, as had been done in the two prior years. The Florida LAKEWATCH program transferred in the winter of 2009 20 10 5,031 (8,708 pounds) Florida largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides floridanus ) greater than eight inches in total length from private, non fished waters into Lake Dora, a public fishing lake. This was the fifth year of a research/demonstration project to determine if large nu mbers (4000+ fish) of larger sized Florida largemouth bass could be located in private waters on a sustained basis, transported successfully to the Harris Chain of Lakes, and assist through stocking in restoring the economic vitality of the lakes largemou th bass fisheries. The total number of largemouth bass greater than eight inches stocked into the Harris Chain of Lakes (Lake Griffin and Lake Dora) since December of 2004 is 24,781 or 32,302 pounds of fish. Unlike years past where the primary source of f ish collection was the private waters located on the property of Orlando International Airport (MCO) this years fish collection was done primarily in the Hillsborough county water body Medard Reservoir. The fish were removed from this normally public syst em to prevent resource lose, from a necessary draining of the reservoir to repair its containment levy. All transported fish were visually inspected to minimize the possibility of transporting diseased fish. To limit Lake Dor a: A Continuation of the Largem outh Bass Stock Enhancement on the Harris Chain of Lakes By: Jesse Stephens, LAKEWATCH Biologist LAKEWATCH stress to the fish they were moved onl y when water temperatures were below 75 F. Bass greater than 8 inches total length (TL) were given a pelvic fin clip. In addition to being fin clipped, orange colored Hallprint type PDA plastic tipped dart tags (fish identification tags) with the telephone number of Florida LAKEWATCH were inserted into fish greater than 12 inches TL. During the stocking period 2,704 of the largemouth bass selected for transport were between 8 and 14 inches TL. Given the young age and restrictions on harvest of largemouth b ass in this size range, surviving fish should continue to contribute to the fishery for multiple years. The total number of largemouth bass between 8 and 14 inches TL stocked into the Harris Chain of Lakes over the past five stocking periods was 16,987 fis h. A major objective of this research/demonstration project in 2010 was to continue to stimulate angler interest in largemouth bass fishing at Lake Dora. To facilitate this, 2,327 fish greater than 14 inches TL (the legal length limit) were transported and stocked into Lake Dora with 839 fish being greater than 17 inches TL. The total number of fish stocked greater than 14 inches TL and greater than 17 inches TL over into the Harris Chain of lakes was 7,794 fish and 2,711 fish respectively. These fish gener ated considerable excitement among viewers of the release events and generated positive news stories in the printed press and television Also, many anglers commented on the improved fishing experience on both Griffin and Dora. How the transferring of the thousands of largemouth bass into LAKEWATCH and Orlando International Airport personnel dip fish at one of the ponds at the airport.

PAGE 9

* ye ar stockings program in Lake Dora could very well be the driving force behind the increased largemouth bass abundance estimates. These successes of the effort of stocking have been at least temporarily viewed to be worthwhile. How long the effect of stocki ng will last needs to be determined, but the immediate effects are very apparent in both the fish population and angler stimulus on the Harris Chain of Lakes. When undertaking a large scale stocking program of large fish, the ultimate question that arises is the cost/benefit of such an effort to the community. The public wants to know if the project is just benefiting a few bass fisherman or enhancing the economic activity in the community. This research/demonstration project was not designed to directly measure economic impacts at Lake Dora, but information was collected that can provide limited insights for the Lake County Water Authority (LWCA), the funding agency. There is also more information now available from Lake Dora affects the size of the resident bass population is an important question because the number of bass in the water body must be increased substantially to impact angler perceptions. During LAKEWATCHs July lake w ide sampling, 126 largemouth bass greater than 8 inches TL, weighing 196 lbs were captured. A total of 26 fish marked in the 2009 10 stocking were taken. Marked largemouth bass were captured at nearly all 20 lake wide sampling transects. This limited elect rofishing sampling demonstrated largemouth bass released into Lake Dora in winter 2009 10 had survived, were distributed throughout the lake and most importantly comprised a significant percentage (24%) of Lake Doras largemouth bass population. In a 1996 study of 60 Florida lakes, l argemouth bass (fish greater than 10 inches TL) abundance in eutrophic and hypereutrophic lakes average d approximately eight fish pe r acre In this years research/demonstration project, 4,833 largemouth bass greater than 10 in ches TL were stocked into Lake Dora. The July electrofishing sampling captured 126 bass greater than 10 inches TL and recaptured 26 marked fish greater than 10 inches TL. Based on these numbers, a simple mark recapture estimate suggests Lake Dora now has a bass population (fish greater than 10 inches TL) of about 5.3 fish per acre (13 fish/ha), which is up from the 2008 survey estimate of 4.5 fish per acre (11 fish/ha). Given that this years stocking effort contributed 24% of the stock, and the multiple efforts at both Lake Griffin and Lake Dora that indicate a positive return to the community for every dollar invested! To determine potential economic value of the largemouth bass transfer program to the local community, a simple approach is to assess the monetary value of the transferred fis h. The State of Florida assigns a replacement value for different size largemouth bass (Florida Administrative Code 62 11.001). For the bass released into Lake Dora in winter 2009 10, the replacement value in 2009 dollars would be $113,544. Adding in the 2 009 2010 values to the previous values established for both Lake Dora and Lake Griffin, a total replacement value for the Harris Chain of Lakes since 2004 is $441,634 At Lake Dora, orange colored fish identification tags with the toll free telephone numb er of Florida LAKEWATCH were inserted into backs of 4,220 largemouth bass released into Lake Dora. Between December 15 and July 29 of 2010, anglers placed 87 phone calls to report catches of tagged fish on Lake Dora with 167 total calls placed reporting ca tches throughout the Harris Chain of Lakes. According to the 2001 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife Associated Recreation (U.S. Department of Interior et al. 2001), Florida anglers spend $43/day/fishing event ($55 in 2009 dollars). If we as sume each call represents only one angler and one fishing event, total angler expenditure at Lake Dora from January to June was only $4,785 in 2010 ($9,185 for the entire Chain of Lakes). This estimate, however, is undoubtedly low because nearly all the ca llers, as was the case at Lake Griffin, indicated there were at least two individuals on the fishing boat so the expenditure estimates for Dora would be then be $9,570 ($18,370 for the entire Chain of Lakes). No monetary rewards were given to angler repor ting their catches and Two largemouth bass destined for the Harris Chain of Lakes in Lake County. LA KEWATCH

PAGE 10

!+" there was no effort to advertise the stocking program at Lake Dora. In a 2003 study, a scientist named Henry found that when no monetary rewards were used to encourage angler reporting of catch, only 10% of the caught fish (worst cas e scenario) were Interviews with anglers reporting a caught fish all indicated that they caught many more tagged fish and did not report them giving support to the 10% reporting value that is derived from Henrys work at Floridas Rodman Reservoir. Using the worst case reporting value of 10% maximizes economic estimates, but if this figure is used an estimate of 870 anglers fishing Lake Dora for the reporting time period could be assumed if each call represented one angler (1,670 for the entire Chain of La kes). If the call represented two anglers then 1,740 anglers could have fished Lake Dora from December to July 2010 (3,340 for the entire Chain of Lakes). If these anglers only fished for one day, estimated angler expenditures in the Lake Dora area would t hen range from $47,850 to $95,700 in early 2010 ($91,850 to $183,700 for the entire Chain of Lakes). Anglers reporting caught fish indicated that they fished at least 16 days in early 2010 so expenditures since the beginning of the study at Lake Dora could range from $765, 600 (one angler per boat) to $1,531,200 (1,469,600 to 2,939,200 for the entire Chain of Lakes). Estimating economic dollars associated with fishing over a short period of time like at Lake Dora is difficult given the assumptions that nee d to be made. It is, however, clear that freshwater fishing is a major, albeit diffuse, industry in Florida (U.S. Department of Interior report in 2001). Fishing at two of the Harris Chain of Lakes (Lake Griffin and Lake Harris) was valued in the millions of dollars during t he 1980s This research/demonstration stocking program began in 2004 at Lake Griffin. Between January 1, 2006 and November 5, 2007, 377 anglers have reported catching stocked bass. A phone survey of 51 of these individuals indicated that average yearly expenditures by the anglers were an estimated $1,671. If the calls represented only one angler fishing and a reporting rate of 10% is used, nearly $3.0 million per year ($6.1 million/yr for 2 anglers) was generated by fishing at Lake Griffi n. If stocking fish were not done at Lake Griffin, many anglers would still fish. From the phone survey, 41% of the anglers stated that they are fishing more since the stocking program was initiated. If only 41% of the monies generated by fishing at Lake Griffin can be attributed to the stocking program, the annual dollar figures range from $1.3 million (one angler) to $2.5 million (two anglers). Total expenditures for the stocking and evaluation programs at Lake Griffin since 2004 were $492,775. The retur n on investment (RTI) for the community up to 2010, therefore, ranges from $3.30 returned for every one dollar expended to $6.34 for every dollar. However these figures are probably conservative based on the economic losses (90%) that occurred in the late 1990s and RTI could range from $6.8/1 to $16/1 if the stocking program got the anglers to return to Lake Griffin. It is also important to note none of these calculations include the dollars generated through the many bass tournaments being held at the Harr is Chain of Lakes. The Lake Dora r esearch/ demonstration project showed that, as at Lake Griffin, large numbers of larger sized Florida largemouth bass could be located in private waters, successfully captured in a reasonable time window determined by wa ter temperature, and transported successfully to the desired stocking location. Nearly 25,000 largemouth bass greater than 8 inches TL were transferred into either Lake Griffin (13,932 fish) or Lake Dora (10,849 fish) since December 2004. Even after stocki ng these large amounts of fish into the Harris Chain of Lakes, many quality sized bass were still captured in 2009 10 from the water located at the Orlando International Airport and there is no reason to believe the airport cannot continue to provide 4000+ fish per year for continued stocking into the Harris Chain of Lakes or different sites in need of population enhancement. Fish from these types of sources could either replace or compliment fish grown at Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commissions hatcheries. The advantages of using these fish over hatchery grown fish are that they are of larger size (greater survivability against predation), acclimated to living in Florida waters, and quality sized fish can contribute immediately to the fishery as they have continued to do in the Harris Chain of Lakes. Electrofishing at the Orlando International airport with planes in the background.

PAGE 11

!!" It is with the deepest regret that we inform you of Kevin McCann's passing in January. Kevins early years started out with th e City of Orlando's Water Conservation Program in 1982 83. This program was started because the wastewater treatment plant was at capacity and expansion was several years away. If the city couldn't reduce the volume of wastewater, then growth would have to cease. Kevin's role in the program was to install low flow showerheads, aerators for faucets and toilet tank dams to any citizens home that wanted them. After the 2 year program was concluded, Kevin and his colleagues could boast that they installed thes e devices at nearly 80% of all residences within the city and helped the city get through a critical growth period. The city received local and national news on this program! Kevin graduated from University of Central Florida (UCF) with B.S. in Limnology in 1985 Kevin began his full time career with the City of Orlandos Wastewater Department that same year. His role was inspecting and sampling industrial facilities and performing field sampling of monitoring wells. In 1989, Kevin transferred to the newl y created Stormwater Utility Bureau. He was the City of Orlandos first and only Lake Enhancement Coordinator. During this time, Kevin was actively involved in monitoring the effectiveness of several stormwater best management practices already installe d within the city, including the Greenwood Urban Wetland, Rowena Bar Screen and Alum System, Lake Highland CDS Unit the first one installed in the city, Stormceptors, in conjunction with University of Central Florida, Vertical Volume Recovery System, and the Packed Bed Filter. Kevin doing one of his favorite things showing the result of a day spent fishing. Outstanding LAKEWATCH Supporter In 1997, Kevin and his colleagues published the "Lake Adair Diagnostic Study." This study was performed in response to fish kills and waterfowl deaths, caused by severe algae blooms and degrading water quality in Lake Adair. Hydr ologic and nutrient budgets were developed. The study determined that 73% of phosphorus entering the lake came from roosting cormorants. In 2005, Kevin was promoted to assistant division manager for the Public Works/Streets and Stormwater Division resp onsible for all stormwater functions (construction, maintenance and NPDES programs) within the division. He was a longtime member and leader of the Florida Lake Management Society (FLMS), serving on the Board of Directors from 1996 1999 and as President of FLMS in 2000. He was also pivotal in establishing the Central Chapter of FLMS. Kevin was awarded the Richard Coleman Aquatic Resources Award in 2009 for his career work to restore, protect and advance our understanding of Florida's aquatic resources. K evin and City Stormwater Utility Bureau have and continue to give support to the Florida LAKEWATCH program. Kevin was instrumental in donating funds, creating space in their facilities for a water collection center, and allowing employees to train voluntee rs for the program. Without Kevins help the program would not be as successful in the Orlando area. Kevins hobbies included: all outdoor activities, particularly hunting and fishing (both, fresh and saltwater). Kevin also enjoyed kayaking and using his ATV, with his sidekick, Tank (his fearless and crazy Jack Russell terrier).

PAGE 12

!#" This newsletter is generated by the Florida LAKEWATCH program, within UF/IF AS. Support for the LAKEWATCH program is provided by the Florida Legislature, grants and donations. For more information about LAKEWATCH, to inquire about volunteer training sessions, or to submit materials for inclusion in this publication, write to: Fl orida LAKEWATCH Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences School of Forest Resources and Conservation 7922 NW 71st Street Gainesville, FL 32653 or call 1 800 LAKEWATCH (800 525 3928) (352) 392 4817 E mail: fl lakewatch@ufl.edu http://lakewatch.ifas.ufl.edu/ All unsolicited articles, photographs, artwork or other written material must include contributors name, address and phone number. Opinions expressed are solely those of the individual contributor and do not neces sarily reflect the opinion or policy of the Florida LAKEWATCH program. Florida LAKEWATCH Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences School of Fores try Resource Conservation 7922 NW 71st Street Gainesville, FL 32653 Florida LAKEWATCH Kevin retired last summer after 25 years with the City of Orlando Street s and Stormwater Division. Many people were fortunate enough to be able to work with him on various projects and issues throughout Central Florida. Kevin was a well respected professional that many turned to for advice. He will be truly missed as a colleag ue and friend. This article was compiled from the Florida Lake Management Societys newsletter Volume 23, Issue 1 and information provided by Lisa Lotti of the City of Orlando. Out on an Orlando lake. Kevin, with a big one


Florida Lakewatch newsletter
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PDF VIEWER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055470/00043
 Material Information
Title: Florida Lakewatch newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida LAKEWATCH
Publisher: Dept. of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) at the University of Florida (UF)
Place of Publication: Gainesville, FL
Publication Date: 2011
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Lakes -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Description based on v. 9 (spring 1997); title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: v. 33 (2006).
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 65383070
lccn - 2006229159
Classification: lcc - GB1625.F6 F56
System ID: UF00055470:00043

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Florida


LAKEWATCH A


Over 50% of the lakes that Florida LAKEWATCH has sufficient data to evaluate the nutrient criteria, would be in violation of EPA's'Water Quality
Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes."

Florida LAKEWATCH and EPA's New Nutrient Criteria


The U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) has
published its numeric nutrient
criteria for Florida's lakes and
streams on its website at
(Table 1):
http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/r
ulesregs/florida index.cfm


The criteria will be published in a
forthcoming issue of the Federal
Register soon. The following
summary is taken from EPA's
website:
On November 14, 2010, EPA
Administrator Lisa P. Jackson
signed Final "Water Quality


Standards for the State of
Florida's Lakes and Flowing
Waters." The final standards set
numeric limits, or criteria, on the
TUF g UNIVERSITY of
UFFLORIDA
IFAS









Criteria for Lakes*

Lake Color
and Alkalinity Chi-a (mg/L) TN (mg/L) TP (mg/L)
Colored Lakes 1.27 0.05
>40 PCU 0.020 [1.27-2.231 [0.05-0.161
Clear Lakes,
High Alkalinity
< 40 PCU and
Alkalinity > 20 1.05 0.03
m/L CaCO, 0.020 [1.05-1.911 [0.03-0.09]
Clear Lakes,
Low Alkalinity
S40 PCU and
Alkalinity s 20 0.51 0.01
migL CaCO, 0.006 [0.51-0.931 [0.01-0.031
SA concentrations are annual geometric means not to be surpassed more than once in a three-
year period. Bracketed numbers reflect the range in which Florida can adjust the TN and TP
cntena when data shows the lake is meeting the relevant Chi a crteron.

Table 1. EPA's proposed nutrient criteria for lakes.


amount of nutrient pollution
allowed in Florida's lakes, rivers,
streams and springs. This final
action seeks to improve water
quality, protect public health,
aquatic life and the long term
recreational uses of Florida's
waters which are a critical part of
the State's economy. The rule will
take effect 15 months after it is
published in the Federal Register
except for the site-specific
alternative criteria (SSAC)


provision, which is effective 60
days from publication. EPA is
extending the effective date for 15
months to allow cities, towns,
businesses and other stakeholders
as well as the State of Florida a
full opportunity to review the
standards and develop flexible
strategies for implementation.

Over 50% of the lakes that
Florida LAKEWATCH has
sufficient data to evaluate the


nutrient criteria, would be in
violation (Table 2).

It is Florida LAKEWATCH'S
position that the nutrient
criteria does not adequately
account for the nutrient
variability caused by the
diverse geology of the state.
This will cause many lakes that
are actually at a natural state
determined by the lake's
location and geology to be
considered impaired. To that
end Florida LAKEWATCH
staff have analyzed all
available data showing that
Florida has a large diversity of
lakes driven by primarily
geology and not anthropogenic
impacts. These analyses have
been put into a manuscript that
was recently submitted for
scientific review and
publication in the North
American Lake Management
Society's Journal called "Lake
and reservoir Management."
Below is the title and abstract
for the Bachman et. al, (2011)
submitted manuscript:


Bachmann RW, Bigham DL, Hoyer MV, Canfield DE Jr. 2011. Factors determining the distributions
of total phosphorus, total nitrogen and chlorophyll in Florida lakes. Lake Reserv Manage 00:00-00

Abstract

Using data from 1387 lakes collected over three decades, we found a wide range in the concentrations of total
phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and chlorophyll in Florida lakes, and that edaphic factors as outlined by the
USEPA 's Florida Lake Regions were the dominant factor in determining the concentrations ofplant nutrients in the
state's lakes. The hypothesis that all eutrophic lakes in Florida are the result ofnutrient pollution since European
settlement of Florida that has led to significant increases in TP and TN in Florida lakes without point source pollution
was tested and rejected. (1) There was no correlation between the Landscape Development Intensity index (LDI) and
the concentrations of TP, TN and chlorophyll in Florida lakes. (2) Several of the 30-benchmark lakes (lakes with
minimal human impact and meeting designated uses) were eutrophic and there was no significant difference between
the concentrations of TP and TN in these and all the remaining Florida lakes as a group. (3) Paleolimnological studies
showed that several lakes were eutrophic to hypereutrophic prior to 1900, a time before ;,,iiin,2 iat population growth
in the state. Only 6 out of 39 lakes studied with short sediment cores showed increases in diatom-inferred total
phosphorus and they were mostly the result ofpast point source pollution. We concluded that eutrophic lakes are a
part of the natural Florida ecosystem and that numerical nutrient criteria need to take this into account.








Additionally, LAKEWATCH
staff have created two Web Casts
that are posted on the Florida
LAKEWATCH web site that
discuss nutrient criteria in the
state of Florida. Please take the
time to look at these informative


web casts:

1) Establishing Numeric Nutrient
Criteria in Florida lakes
(http://lakewatch.ifas.ufl.edu/Vide
os/Danvideo.html).


2) Problems With the Proposed
Numeric Nutrient Criteria in
Florida lakes
(http://lakewatch.ifas.ufl.edu/Vide
os/Roger video.html).


Impaired Lakes
22
4
6
7
1
7
10
1
1
1
2
3
3
1
3
4
38
59
4
30
12


County
Leon
Marion
Miami-Dade
Monroe
Okaloosa
Orange
Osceola
Palm Beach
Pasco
Pinellas
Polk
Putnam
Santa Rosa
Sarasota
Seminole
St Lucie
Suwannee
Taylor
Volusia
Wakulla
Walton


Impaired Lakes
38
14
3
1
5
73
9
5
10
25
63
30
1
5
42
5
3
1
12
1
3


Table 2. Number of lakes that will violate the new EPA Nutrient criteria using only the Florida LAKEWATCH data that was available.


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a


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iI~


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fl

- [ U

pa

81


LAK REGION CHARACTERISTICS



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*-L. .. .
... i.-
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..* .. L ... -
I"-; t : ] L___ ... .. . .... '


The Lake Regions of Florida poster published by EPA in 1997 depicting a breakdown of the regions with regional descriptions on the
front of the poster and maps illustrating regional water chemistry differences on the back. For greater detail download this poster at
the website http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/ecoregions/fl_eco.htm.


County
Alachua
Bradford
Brevard
Broward
Charlotte
Citrus
Clay
Collier
Columbia
DeSoto
Duval
Flagler
Gadsden
Glades
Hamilton
Hernando
Highlands
Hillsborough
Indian River
Lake
Lee


a*t .S :i















Established in 1990, the St.
Andrew Bay Resource
Management Association
(RMA) Baywatch Program is a
volunteer sampling program
that monitors long-term trends
in water quality and aquatic
resources in the St. Andrew
Bay watershed. Teams of
volunteers collect water
samples monthly at 86 sample
stations throughout the St.
Andrew Bay estuarine system,
Lake Powell, and other lakes in
the watershed. Seagrass
coverage and composition in
West Bay and near Shell Island
is also monitored.

BAYWATCH ACTIVITIES

Monthly Water Sampling and
Data Collection

Water samples are collected
monthly at 86 sample stations
throughout the St. Andrew Bay
watershed. There are nine study
areas including Lake Powell,
Powell Creek East, West Bay,
North Bay, East Bay, Grand
Lagoon, St. Andrew Bay, Lake
Marin, and Johnson Bayou.
Sample sites are divided into
two categories: 1) Baywatch
and LAKEWATCH Water
Quality Stations (N=67) and 2)
Seagrass Water Quality
Stations (N=19).


Baywatch/Lakewatch Water
Quality Stations (in coordination
with University of Florida
LAKE WA TCH)

Baywatch monitors 40 stations
each month in partnership with
the University of Florida's
LAKEWATCH program. Data
collected at each station includes
temperature, pH, dissolved
oxygen, salinity, secchi depth,
weather conditions, and sea state.
Samples are collected at each
station and evaluated for
turbidity, nutrients, and
chlorophyll.

Seagrass Water Quality Stations
(in coordination with Florida
Department of Environmental
Protection (DEP), Northwest
District Office, Pensacola)


Monitoring of water quality at
seagrass habitat is performed
monthly in cooperation with the
DEP, Northwest District Office.
DEP staff collect water samples
from 19 seagrass stations in West
Bay and St. Andrew Bay. Data
collected includes temperature,
pH, DO, salinity, conductivity,
secchi depth, weather conditions,
and sea state. Nutrients and
bacteria are monitored
quarterly. Samples are returned
to DEP's central lab in
Tallahassee for evaluation of
turbidity, color, BOD 5-day total,
residue non-filtered, and
chlorophyll a. Results are
available in STORET under
organization code 21FLPNS.


Sampling Crooked Creek.


RMA Baywatch Program

Water Quality Monitoring in the St. Andrew Bay

Watershed, Bay County, FL








PROJECT PARTNERS


Activities of the RMA Baywatch
Program are accomplished in
cooperation with the following
Partners:


* Northwest Florida Water Management
District (NWFWMD)
University of Florida, LAKEWATCH
Friends of St. Andrew Bay/Bay
Environmental Study Team (BEST)
Florida Department of Environmental
Protection (DEP)
Florida State University (FSU)
Gulf Coast Community College (GCCC)
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)
Panama City Marine Institute (PCMI)
US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)


BAYWATCH STAFF Sampling Powell Creek East
DIDMA T AD F A9 A7


Patrice Couch, Baywatch Director
Laura Paris, Baywatch Assistant Director
Jim Barkuloo, Baywatch Coordinator
Linda Fitzhugh, Seagrass Coordinator
Murt Lyon, Data Manager


jIvJi. LdI J O i.r r


* Alan Collins
* Linda Campbell
* Bob Farsky
* Courtney Campbell
* Larry Couch


SAMPLING CAPTAINS


* Jim Barkuloo, West Bay and Seagrass
* Chris Campbell, West Bay
* Bob Vickery, North Bay
* Jill Blue-Reich, East Bay
* Bob Farsky, St. Andrew Bay
* Howard Lovett, Johnson Bayou
* Randy Couch, Grand Lagoon
* Malcolm Fowler, Lake Marin
* Chris & Emily Forman, Lake Powell
* Chris & Emily Forman, Powell Creek East
* Patrice Couch, Creeks & Backup Captain (all
areas)


St. Andrew Bay Resource Management Association Baywatch water quality monitoring stations
designated for University of Florida (UF Red Squares), general Baywatch (BW Blue Circles),
and SeaGrass (SG- Yellow Triangles) site monitoring.


The Baywatch data analysis of the years 1990-2006 is available on the

Baywatch website. For more information about this analysis or the Baywatch

Program, contact: Patrice Couch

PO Box 15028

Panama City, FL 32406

Office: 850.763.4303 E-mail: Patrice.Couch(Asabrma.org

Web: www.sabrma.org


-










LAB NOTES

From Florida LAKEWATCH Chemist

Claude Brown


if-


We have noted a slight
increase in discrepancies
between chlorophyll sample
dates and water sample dates
collected during the same
month. To help us better serve
you and honor your efforts in
regular sampling we ask you to
please be consistent with your
date recording.

Please label water sample
bottles and chlorophyll filters
with the same date you record
on your data sheet. This
indicates to the lab and our
database manager that all
measurements and samples
were collected during the same
expedition out on your lake. In


the rare event you collect water
samples and chlorophyll
samples on different dates
please record this on your data
sheet with a short note as to
why.

When lake managers and
scientist's evaluate data for
trends and changes they look
to see if the data is paired-up
or collected at the same time
and place. It makes a real
difference in what they can
infer from the data without
actually going out at the time
of collection.


Keep those samples flowing!

Please be sure to deliver any
2010 frozen water and
chlorophyll samples to your
collection center as soon as
possible. This will enable us to
prepare the annual data reports
on schedule.



A Reminder to water
samplers:

Dessicant bottles can be used
for storing several month's
worth of filtered chlorophyll
samples. Please be sure to
consolidate your samples into
one dessicant bottle when


possible.


Fresh or salt?

When you pick up your
supplies from your local
collection center please be sure
to grab the correct bottles and
data sheets. Fresh water
samplers should be using the
smaller bottles and white data
sheets and salt water samplers
should be using the larger
bottles and blue data sheets. If
you are unsure which is right
for you, call us at 1-800-525-
3928 and we will be happy to
clarify things.


The lab staff thanks all our
volunteers for their dedication
to the very important work of
monitoring Florida's lakes and
waterbodies. This information
is important to you, to your
fellow citizens, and to the
long-term goals of protecting
these jewels in the sand for
future generations.


r1CiiwaLCI


1- f
Q












Regional Meetings Schedule for 2011



The 2011 Regional Meeting schedule is now set. Mark the date on your calendars now and keep an eye out
for your invite in the mail about a month in advance.



Date Meeting Date Meeting
January 26 Leon County Area August 17 Putnam County Area
March 17 Charlotte County August 27 Walton County Area
March 24 Polk County September 8 Volusia County
April 16 Lake County October 3 Hillsborough County Area
April 20 Osceola County October 18 Alachua County Area
May 21 Bay County Area November 6 Highlands County
June 23 Orange County December 6 Citrus County Area
July 12 Seminole County December 10 Miami-Dade County Area



At the meetings, LAKEWATCH will provide a delicious meal, data packets for the primary volunteers, a
hands-on exhibit of aquatic plants and invertebrates, plenty of handouts on a variety of lakes topic and
issues and the ability for you to discuss your water body concerns, ask questions about management issues
and talk with other LAKEWATCH "family." We hope to see all of our volunteers and friends of
LAKEWATCH there!


Hillsborough C(ounty Collection (enter C'hanges!

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it in. iin i Ke lone Park I. .,.ii. n 11 II i. p. Io tihe .lAuslin-D.r i% Lihbrr. .ai 178118 .i ne Roadi Ode%%i.. FL
33556-47 21
11 i 1, !' K K .. !i i II' "l, .11u 1 .i \i , l i... ! ,i h1. lii li -- i ,' ** l Ih *,II !i ,ii 11. 1 .1' I l l0 I I! h pI I ![ i .I L'd **1i Ih1 C I
ijde .! I c: ili' I' l I! i.Ic L't d -i1 il in .id Ij .I.iLcdj i .' ii., .! 'r.i. c i I VIc !iN ILd I' L1.d '1 j '...cil **il'.i !'i lji i.!

it f .,i ..iin n'l!I 1.c lLin N.e Park 11 ..I.. [ii ... II in.". u'e lie Lult Lihrair. di l i Lut/-Lake Fern Road. \\ 'l Lut/. FL
33548-"2211.
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, ,* 'il ll' i' ll, 1*i I' *> .
Hour> ofl' O|) rrlion:


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; cuJincu. i.


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12!,.


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.Al olher collection center ill remain unc'i.ancld.


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N. ,* p.1 i d !i !.I , !' !l I i l ,,!! .. h* l' ." I,!, ,l> > l ,.! ', ,. li !i ,u t! i KIII u I' l l, ,l ,. "l 'I! .i,,1, [I !li' i' i ,
,.~'.| i.l !, ,!!'








Lake Dora: A Continuation of the Largemouth Bass

Stock Enhancement on the Harris Chain of Lakes
By: Jesse Stephens, LAKEWATCH Biologist


Lake Dora is a 4,475 acre
recreational lake that currently is the
subject of major environmental
restoration programs. Nearly all of
the lake is available to fishing with
black crappie currently being the
dominant fishery. The Florida Fish
and Wildlife Conservation
Commission has shown that the
largemouth bass fishery is one of the
poorest in the Harris Chain of Lakes,
thus the Harris Chain of Lakes
Restoration Council recommended
that Lake Dora be stocked in the
winter of 2009-10, as had been done
in the two prior years. The Florida
LAKEWATCH program transferred
in the winter of 2009-2010, 5,031
(8,708 pounds) Florida largemouth
bass (Micropterus salmoides
floridanus) greater than eight inches
in total length from private, non-
fished waters into Lake Dora, a
public fishing lake. This was the fifth
year of a research/demonstration
project to determine if large numbers
(4000+ fish) of larger-sized Florida
largemouth bass could be located in
private waters on a sustained basis,
transported successfully to the Harris
Chain of Lakes, and assist through
stocking in restoring the economic
vitality of the lakes' largemouth bass
fisheries. The total number of
largemouth bass greater than eight
inches stocked into the Harris Chain
of Lakes (Lake Griffin and Lake
Dora) since December of 2004 is
24,781 or 32,302 pounds of fish.

Unlike years past where the primary
source of fish collection was the
private waters located on the
property of Orlando International
Airport (MCO) this year's fish
collection was done primarily in the
Hillsborough county water body
Medard Reservoir. The fish were
removed from this normally public
system to prevent resource lose, from
a necessary draining of the reservoir
to repair it's containment levy. All
transported fish were visually
inspected to minimize the possibility
of transporting diseased fish. To limit
8


.---
^ -- ,.


LAKEWATCH and Orlando International Airport personnel dip fish at one of the ponds at the
airport.


stress to the fish they were moved
only when water temperatures were
below 75 F. Bass greater than 8
inches total length (TL) were given a
pelvic fin-clip. In addition to being
fin clipped, orange colored Hallprint
type PDA plastic tipped dart tags
(fish identification tags) with the
telephone number of Florida
LAKEWATCH were inserted into
fish greater than 12 inches TL.

During the stocking period 2,704 of
the largemouth bass selected for
transport were between 8 and 14
inches TL. Given the young age and
restrictions on harvest of largemouth
bass in this size range, surviving fish
should continue to contribute to the
fishery for multiple years. The total
number of largemouth bass between
8 and 14 inches TL stocked into the
Harris Chain of Lakes over the past
five stocking periods was 16,987
fish.


A major objective of this
research/demonstration project in
2010 was to continue to stimulate
angler interest in largemouth bass
fishing at Lake Dora. To facilitate
this, 2,327 fish greater than 14 inches
TL (the legal length limit) were
transported and stocked into Lake
Dora with 839 fish being greater than
17 inches TL. The total number of
fish stocked greater than 14 inches
TL and greater than 17 inches TL
over into the Harris Chain of lakes
was 7,794 fish and 2,711 fish
respectively. These fish generated
considerable excitement among
viewers of the release events and
generated positive news stories in the
printed press and television. Also,
many anglers commented on the
improved fishing experience on both
Griffin and Dora.

How the transferring of the
thousands of largemouth bass into





























Two largemouth bass destined for the Harris Chain of Lakes in Lake County.


Lake Dora affects the size of the
resident bass population is an
important question because the
number of bass in the water body
must be increased substantially to
impact angler perceptions. During
LAKEWATCH's July lake-wide
sampling, 126 largemouth bass
greater than 8 inches TL, weighing
196 lbs were captured. A total of 26
fish marked in the 2009-10 stocking
were taken. Marked largemouth bass
were captured at nearly all 20 lake-
wide sampling transects. This limited
electrofishing sampling demonstrated
largemouth bass released into Lake
Dora in winter 2009-10 had survived,
were distributed throughout the lake
and most importantly comprised a
significant percentage (24%) of Lake
Dora's largemouth bass population.

In a 1996 study of 60 Florida lakes,
largemouth bass (fish greater than 10
inches TL) abundance in eutrophic
and hypereutrophic lakes averaged
approximately eight fish per acre. In
this year's research/demonstration
project, 4,833 largemouth bass
greater than 10 inches TL were
stocked into Lake Dora. The July
electrofishing sampling captured 126
bass greater than 10 inches TL and
recaptured 26 marked fish greater
than 10 inches TL. Based on these
numbers, a simple mark-recapture
estimate suggests Lake Dora now has


a bass population (fish greater than
10 inches TL) of about 5.3 fish per
acre (13 fish/ha), which is up from
the 2008 survey estimate of 4.5 fish
per acre (11 fish/ha). Given that this
year's stocking effort contributed
24% of the stock, and the multiple
year stockings program in Lake Dora
could very well be the driving force
behind the increased largemouth bass
abundance estimates. These
successes of the effort of stocking
have been at least temporarily
viewed to be worthwhile. How long
the effect of stocking will last needs
to be determined, but the immediate
effects are very apparent in both the
fish population and angler stimulus
on the Harris Chain of Lakes.

When undertaking a large-scale
stocking program of large fish, the
ultimate question that arises is the
cost/benefit of such an effort to the
community. The public wants to
know if the project is just benefiting
a "few" bass fisherman or enhancing
the economic activity in the
community. This
research/demonstration project was
not designed to directly measure
economic impacts at Lake Dora, but
information was collected that can
provide limited insights for the Lake
County Water Authority (LWCA),
the funding agency. There is also
more information now available from


efforts at both Lake Griffin and Lake
Dora that indicate a positive return to
the community for every dollar
invested!

To determine potential economic
value of the largemouth bass transfer
program to the local community, a
simple approach is to assess the
monetary value of the transferred
fish. The State of Florida assigns a
replacement value for different size
largemouth bass (Florida
Administrative Code 62-11.001). For
the bass released into Lake Dora in
winter 2009-10, the replacement
value in 2009 dollars would be
$113,544. Adding in the 2009-2010
values to the previous values
established for both Lake Dora and
Lake Griffin, a total replacement
value for the Harris Chain of Lakes
since 2004 is $441,634.

At Lake Dora, orange colored fish
identification tags with the toll free
telephone number of Florida
LAKEWATCH were inserted into
backs of 4,220 largemouth bass
released into Lake Dora. Between
December 15 and July 29 of 2010,
anglers placed 87 phone calls to
report catches of tagged fish on Lake
Dora with 167 total calls placed
reporting catches throughout the
Harris Chain of Lakes. According to
the 2001 National Survey of Fishing,
Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated
Recreation (U.S. Department of
Interior et al. 2001), Florida anglers
spend $43/day/fishing event ($55 in
2009 dollars). If we assume each call
represents only one angler and one
fishing event, total angler
expenditure at Lake Dora from
January to June was only $4,785 in
2010 ($9,185 for the entire Chain of
Lakes). This estimate, however, is
undoubtedly low because nearly all
the callers, as was the case at Lake
Griffin, indicated there were at least
two individuals on the fishing boat so
the expenditure estimates for Dora
would be then be $9,570 ($18,370 for
the entire Chain of Lakes).

No monetary rewards were given to
angler reporting their catches and








there was no effort to advertise the
stocking program at Lake Dora. In a
2003 study, a scientist named Henry
found that when no monetary
rewards were used to encourage
angler reporting of catch, only 10%
of the caught fish (worst case
scenario) were. Interviews with
anglers reporting a caught fish all
indicated that they caught many more
tagged fish and did not report them
giving support to the 10% reporting
value that is derived from Henry's
work at Florida's Rodman Reservoir.
Using the worst case reporting value
of 10% maximizes economic
estimates, but if this figure is used an
estimate of 870 anglers fishing Lake
Dora for the reporting time period
could be assumed if each call
represented one angler (1,670 for the
entire Chain of Lakes). If the call
represented two anglers then 1,740
anglers could have fished Lake Dora
from December to July 2010 (3,340
for the entire Chain of Lakes). If
these anglers only fished for one day,
estimated angler expenditures in the
Lake Dora area would then range
from $47,850 to $95,700 in early
2010 ($91,850 to $183,700 for the
entire Chain of Lakes). Anglers
reporting caught fish indicated that
they fished at least 16 days in early
2010 so expenditures since the
beginning of the study at Lake Dora
could range from $765, 600 (one
angler per boat) to $1,531,200
(1,469,600 to 2,939,200 for the entire
Chain of Lakes).

Estimating economic dollars
associated with fishing over a short
period of time like at Lake Dora is
difficult given the assumptions that
need to be made. It is, however, clear
that freshwater fishing is a major,
albeit diffuse, industry in Florida
(U.S. Department of Interior report in
2001). Fishing at two of the Harris
Chain of Lakes (Lake Griffin and
Lake Harris) was valued in the
millions of dollars during the 1980s.
This research/demonstration-stocking
program began in 2004 at Lake
Griffin. Between January 1, 2006 and
November 5, 2007, 377 anglers have
reported catching stocked bass. A
phone survey of 51 of these


individuals indicated that average
yearly expenditures by the anglers
were an estimated $1,671. If the calls
represented only one angler fishing
and a reporting rate of 10% is used,
nearly $3.0 million per year ($6.1
million/yr for 2 anglers) was
generated by fishing at Lake Griffin.

If stocking fish were not done at
Lake Griffin, many anglers would
still fish. From the phone survey,
41% of the anglers stated that they
are fishing more since the stocking
program was initiated. If only 41% of
the monies generated by fishing at
Lake Griffin can be attributed to the
stocking program, the annual-dollar
figures range from $1.3 million (one
angler) to $2.5 million (two anglers).
Total expenditures for the stocking
and evaluation programs at Lake
Griffin since 2004 were $492,775.
The return on investment (RTI) for
the community up to 2010, therefore,
ranges from $3.30 returned for every
one dollar expended to $6.34 for
every dollar. However these figures
are probably conservative based on
the economic losses (90%) that
occurred in the late 1990s and RTI
could range from $6.8/1 to $16/1 if
the stocking program got the anglers
to return to Lake Griffin. It is also
important to note none of these
calculations include the dollars
generated through the many bass
tournaments being held at the Harris
Chain of Lakes.


The Lake Dora research/
demonstration project showed that,
as at Lake Griffin, large numbers of
larger-sized Florida largemouth bass
could be located in private waters,
successfully captured in a reasonable
time window determined by water
temperature, and transported
successfully to the desired stocking
location. Nearly 25,000 largemouth
bass greater than 8 inches TL were
transferred into either Lake Griffin
(13,932 fish) or Lake Dora (10,849
fish) since December 2004. Even
after stocking these large amounts of
fish into the Harris Chain of Lakes,
many quality-sized bass were still
captured in 2009-10 from the water
located at the Orlando International
Airport and there is no reason to
believe the airport cannot continue to
provide 4000+ fish per year for
continued stocking into the Harris
Chain of Lakes or different sites in
need of population enhancement.
Fish from these types of sources
could either replace or compliment
fish grown at Florida Fish and
Wildlife Conservation Commission's
hatcheries. The advantages of using
these fish over hatchery-grown fish
are that they are of larger size
(greater survivability against
predation), acclimated to living in
Florida waters, and quality-sized fish
can contribute immediately to the
fishery as they have continued to do
in the Harris Chain of Lakes.


Electrofishing at the Orlando International airport with planes in the background.


10










Outstanding LAKEWATCH Supporter


It is with the deepest regret that we
inform you of Kevin McCann's
passing in January.

Kevin's early years started out with
the City of Orlando's Water
Conservation Program in 1982-83.
This program was started because the
wastewater treatment plant was at
capacity and expansion was several
years away. If the city couldn't
reduce the volume of wastewater, then
growth would have to cease. Kevin's
role in the program was to install low
flow showerheads, aerators for faucets
and toilet tank dams to any citizen's
home that wanted them. After the 2-
year program was concluded, Kevin
and his colleagues could boast that
they installed these devices at nearly
80% of all residences within the city
and helped the city get through a
critical growth period. The city
received local and national news on
this program!

Kevin graduated from University of
Central Florida (UCF) with B.S. in
Limnology in 1985. Kevin began his
full-time career with the City of
Orlando's Wastewater Department
that same year. His role was inspecting
and sampling industrial facilities and
performing field sampling of
monitoring wells. In 1989, Kevin
transferred to the newly created
Stormwater Utility Bureau. He was the
City of Orlando's first and only Lake
Enhancement Coordinator.

During this time, Kevin was actively
involved in monitoring the
effectiveness of several stormwater
best management practices already
installed within the city, including the
Greenwood Urban Wetland, Rowena
Bar Screen and Alum System, Lake
Highland CDS Unit the first one
installed in the city, Stormceptors, in
conjunction with University of Central
Florida, Vertical Volume Recovery
System, and the Packed Bed Filter.


In 1997, Kevin and his colleagues
published the "Lake Adair
Diagnostic Study." This study was
performed in response to fish kills
and waterfowl deaths, caused by
severe algae blooms and degrading
water quality in Lake Adair.
Hydrologic and nutrient budgets
were developed. The study
determined that 73% of phosphorus


also pivotal in establishing the
Central Chapter of FLMS. Kevin
was awarded the Richard Coleman
Aquatic Resources Award in 2009
for his career work to restore,
protect and advance our
understanding of Florida's aquatic
resources.

Kevin and City Stormwater Utility
Bureau have and continue to give


Kevin doing one of his favorite things showing the result of a day spent fishing.


entering the lake came from roosting
cormorants.

In 2005, Kevin was promoted to
assistant division manager for the
Public Works/Streets and Stormwater
Division responsible for all stormwater
functions (construction, maintenance
and NPDES programs) within the
division.

He was a longtime member and leader
of the Florida Lake Management
Society (FLMS), serving on the Board
of Directors from 1996-1999 and as
President of FLMS in 2000. He was


support to the Florida LAKEWATCH
program. Kevin was instrumental in
donating funds, creating space in their
facilities for a water collection center,
and allowing employees to train
volunteers for the program. Without
Kevin's help the program would not
be as successful in the Orlando area.

Kevin's hobbies included: all outdoor
activities, particularly hunting and
fishing (both, fresh and saltwater).
Kevin also enjoyed kayaking and
using his ATV, with his sidekick,
Tank (his fearless and crazy Jack
Russell terrier).







UF UNIVERSITY of

UF FLORIDA

IFAS
Florida LAKEWATCH
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
School of Forestry Resource Conservation
7922 NW 71st Street
Gainesville, FL 32653


Kevin retired last summer after 25
years with the City of Orlando
Streets and Stormwater Division.
Many people were fortunate enough
to be able to work with him on
various projects and issues
throughout Central Florida. Kevin
was a well-respected professional
that many turned to for advice. He
will be truly missed as a colleague
and friend.


Out on an Orlando lake.


Kevin, with a "big one"



This article was compiled
from the Florida Lake
Management Society's
newsletter Volume 23,
Issue 1 and information
provided by Lisa Lotti of
the City of Orlando.


ETorida

LAKEWATCH
This newsletter is generated by the Florida
LAKEWATCH program, within UF/IFAS Support
for the LAKEWATCH program is provided by the
Florida Legislature, grants and donations For more
information about LAKEWATCH, to inquire about
volunteer training sessions, or to submit materials for
inclusion in this publication, write to
Flonda LAKEWATCH
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
School of Forest Resources and Conservation
7922NW71stSeet
Gainesvlle FL 32653
orcall
1-800LAKEWATCH(800-525-3928)
(352)392-4817
E-mail fl-lakewatch@ufl edu
http //lakewatch ifas ufl edu/

All unsolicited articles, photographs, artwork or other
written material must include contributor's name,
address and phone number Opinions expressed are
solely those of the individual contributor and do not
necessarily reflect the opinion or policy of the Florida
LAKEWATCH program




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