Title: Florida Lakewatch newsletter
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055470/00038
 Material Information
Title: Florida Lakewatch newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida LAKEWATCH
Publisher: Dept. of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) at the University of Florida (UF)
Place of Publication: Gainesville, FL
Publication Date: 2009
Copyright Date: 2009
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
Subject: Lakes -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
General Note: Description based on v. 9 (spring 1997); title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: v. 33 (2006).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055470
Volume ID: VID00038
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 65383070
lccn - 2006229159


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All Floridians
recognize that severe
problems exist with
the economy and that
our elected officials
had to and will have
to make hard
decisions regarding
the allocation of tax
revenues. Floridians,
as a guiding principal,
want their taxes to be
used wisely and __
frugally. Taxpayers -
also typically urge ."
funding of programs F
that can do more for
less and leverage
available dollars to A LAKEWAT(
Broward Cot
obtain the biggest
bang for the buck.

Florida LAKEWATCH has
always tried to adhere to these
guiding principals because
LAKEWATCH began as a grass-
root organization. Florida
LAKEWATCH was established
in 1986 when citizens from Lake
Broward and Lake Santa Fe came
to my office at the University
Florida seeking help with various
water quality issues at their lakes.

CH volunteer measuring water clarity on Lake Delevoe

Help was not available from state
agencies because the agencies had
limited resources to sample lakes.
I became interested because I was
working on the chemical and
trophic state characteristics of
Florida lakes and I needed
credible data on as many lakes as
possible. Working with trained
volunteers became the "match
made in heaven" to further my
applied research objectives while
helping the citizens obtain the

information needed
for the long-term
sustainability of their

Public interest and
involvement in the
program grew to such
a degree that the
Florida Legislature in
1991 officially
established Florida
statute (Chapter
1004.49 F.S.). The
recognized that


monitoring more
waters for less money than other
state and local agencies as well as
contributing to the education of
undergraduate and graduate
students who worked with the
citizens. Consequently, the
Legislature provided an annual
appropriation from the Water
Quality Assurance Trust Fund, a


fund where polluter fines are
deposited, to operate the program.

LAKEWATCH has been engaged
with "Citizen Scientists" in lake
and water quality monitoring for
over 20 years. Our volunteers
have demonstrated that a
cooperative effort between UF's
research community and lake
users provides reliable water
quality data on a large number of
Florida lakes for a fraction of the
cost that professional monitoring
requires. At the 2009
International Symposium of the
North American Lake
Management Society (NALMS),
water quality experts from all
over the world frequently
acknowledged that Florida
LAkEWATCH is one of
America's premier Citizen
Scientists programs.

By Florida statute, the primary
LAKEWATCH goal is to train,
supervise, and coordinate
volunteers to collect water quality
data from Florida's lakes. Today,
Florida LAKEWATCH has
almost 2000 volunteers and
currently samples over 600 lakes,

\* "* _

S -- -

All LAKEWATCH lakes ever sampled.

130 near shore coastal sites, 125
river sites and 5 springs. Since
LAKEWATCH'S inception,
water chemistry data have been
collected on over 1000 aquatic
systems located in or offshore of
50 Florida counties and the
volunteer collected data now
comprises over 40% of the
nutrient data for Florida that is in
the USEPA national STORET
database. The information is also
made available in an easily
understandable format to
everyone upon request and is used
not only throughout Florida, but
also worldwide.

Every volunteer water quality-
monitoring program currently in
existence has, at one time or
another, been challenged by
professionals regarding the
quality of the collected data.
Scientific study after scientific
study has shown the data are
extremely reliable and USEPA
acknowledged that fact in 1990.
The data collected by
LAKEWATCH volunteers has
proven to be so reliable that UF
researchers have published over

All LAKEWATCH coastal sites ever sampled.

30 peer reviewed scientific
publications and three books to
expand the limnological
knowledge base for Florida.
Florida LAKEWATCH has also
cooperated with scientists from
around the world in Spain,
Denmark, Canada and others by
sharing data for comparative
ecological studies. Taxpayer
dollars expended in support of
LAKEWATCH have been
leveraged to help establish and
maintain a strong state, national,
and international research
component of the LAKEWATCH

Funding to LAKEWATCH has
been and is leveraged to support
education and work force
development. Full-time
LAKEWATCH staff conduct
educational programs for the
Citizen Scientists and their
neighbors and they work directly
with undergraduate and graduate
students. LAKEWATCH supports
graduate research and the students
use the Citizen Scientists' data for
theses and dissertations. Many of
these students, after graduation,
enter the employ of state and local
agencies, providing a well-train
ed Florida work-force for the
aquatic sciences.

So what about the future?

The United States National
Science Foundation (NSF) issued
a report this year from its
Advisory Committee for
Environmental Research and
Education recommending that the
scientific community engage the

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public, the "Citizen Scientist", in
the many different aspects of their
work to help find and implement
solutions leading to long-term
environmental sustainability. The
Committee recognized the
scientific community faces
limitations in its human and
equipment resources (i.e., the lack
of money) and recommended that
the public become involved in
data collection and interpretation.
The NSF Committee noted that
"Citizen Scientists" represent one
component of involving the
public in science, and in the right
situation can provide an
incredible opportunity to

A LAKEWATCH volunteer collects a water sample on a lake in Santa Rosa County.

A LAKEWATCH volunteer filtering their
chlorophyll sample.

complement by extension in space
and time a more rigorous but
limited research program. The
Advisory Committee for
Environmental Research and
Education also stated that
"Citizen Scientists" provide a
means to help bridge the gap
between basic and applied

Well, it is about time this
Nation's Intellectual Elite got the

So, every government agency
should now be ready to engage
"Citizen Scientists" to get the
people to join what the NSF
Advisory Committee for
Environmental Research and
Education called the great
endeavor of understanding our
planet. Besides volunteer
monitoring programs are less
expensive than professional
monitoring programs and permit
the sampling of a greater number
of aquatic systems.

So, every government agency should now be ready to

engage "Citizen Scientists" to get the people to join what

the NSF Advisory Committee for Environmental Research

and Education called the great endeavor of understanding

our planet.

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Well, don't hold your breath!

Many professionals do not
support volunteer monitoring
and often state that such
programs are nothing more
than "feel good" programs.
When pressed as to their
problem with volunteer
monitoring, the professionals
typically focus on the quality
assurance/quality control
aspects of environmental
monitoring. Even the NSF
Advisory Committee for
Environmental Research and
Education, that is advocating
for engaging "Citizen
Scientists," states: "There are
serious issues of quality
assurance and control to
consider when data is collected
by many different people with
various backgrounds of training
and motivation." Again these
concerns have been refuted
over and over. So is this a real
concern or are professionals
just fearful of losing "their"
monitoring programs and being
relegated to fixing the
problemss. What a scary

Bottom-line, well-trained
volunteers and laboratory staff
following basic research
QA/QC protocols with good
clean techniques can provide
environmental water quality
data that are extremely reliable
at far less costs. More
importantly, it should now be
clear to all professionals that
the participation of "Citizen
Scientists" can help find and
implement solutions leading to

long-term environmental

But enough about all the
technical details! What makes
Florida LAKEWATCH so
strong is the thousands of
volunteers donating their time
and talents. The volunteers are
the most dedicated and reliable
samplers that a water quality-
monitoring program could ever
hope to recruit. LAKEWATCH
volunteers have collected
monthly water samples for total
phosphorus, total nitrogen, and
chlorophyll, as well as
measured water clarity by use
of a Secchi disc, for at least 15
years for 173 Florida lakes.
Some lakes have more than 20
years of continuous
measurement, making the
database ideal for assessing
long-term trends in water

Of course, the question that
arises is why the volunteers are
so committed. The answer may
relate to the most common lake
name in the world. No, it is not
Clear Lake; it is MYLAKE!

Volunteers working on MY
LAKE become great "Citizen
Scientists" because they have a
vested interest and a thirst to
learn. Volunteers observe the

environment. They formulate
hypotheses to explain their
observations and they seek
information from the
professional community to
determine if they are correct.
With their thirst to learn, they
read published papers, they
attend regional and national lake
meetings, they work with
political leaders to insure the
long-term sustainability of
aquatic ecosystems.

story is the model that our
elected officials can use for
integrating the "Citizen
Scientist" into Florida's water
quality programs. The Citizen
Scientists can then help with
detecting water quality trends in
Florida's waters as well as
identifying problems that the
professionals can eliminate or
manage. Working together a
well-formulated management
plan for individual waters can be
developed, but our elected
officials need to be told the
story. Today's Citizen Scientists
need to reach out to Florida's
elected officials and urge them
to support volunteer monitoring
so the water quality of "MY
LAKE" will continue to be
monitored cost-efficiently and
funds can be freed-up to support
other wise expenditures of tax

By Dan Canfield the

Founder and Director

of the Florida


Turtles are ancient shelled reptiles
that have existed for 220 million
years. Florida has more species of
turtles than other states. Of the 26
types of turtle species found in
Florida, the vast majority (18) are
freshwater turtle species. Besides
freshwater turtles, Florida is home
to the gopher tortoise, box turtles,
and five sea turtle species.
Although all turtles are air-
breathing reptiles, aquatic turtles
can hold their breath for long
periods of time. All freshwater
turtles lay eggs on land in holes
they have dug. When the eggs
hatch, the baby turtles
(hatchlings) return to water.
While most freshwater turtles
have hard boney shells, three
species known as softshell turtles
have fleshy shells adapted for
swimming. Turtle shells provide
protection from predators.
Snapping turtles, such as the
Florida snapping turtle and the
alligator snapping turtle, can bite
with great force and reach large
Florida has approved stronger
conservation measures for
freshwater turtles.
Concerned with increasing
popularity of turtles and the
potential for over-harvest, the
Florida Wildlife Conservation
Commission passed an interim
rule in September 2008 to protect
turtle species. A team of staff has
developed a long-term turtle
conservation strategy that will
propose long term protection
measures. New protections were
approved by the Commission at

A Barbour's map turtle (Graptemys barbour).

the June 2009 Commission

"This is a legacy vote," said Brian
Yablonski, FWC commissioner,
as he made the motion to approve
the rule. "This decision may be
one of Florida's greatest
conservation stories."

Twenty-four members of the
public addressed the Commission
as they prepared to vote on the
rule. More than half of the
speakers supported the rule.

"This is the right thing to do,"
said Rodney Barreto, chairman of
the FWC. "Florida has become
the leader with this vote."

Tim Breault, director of the
FWC's Division of Habitat and


Species Conservation, presented
the new rule to the Commission.

"Florida has such a rich diversity
of turtles," Breault said. "It is
fitting we have the most
comprehensive set of protections
and conservation measures for
freshwater turtles in the United

"I'm proud of this Commission,"
Margaret Gunzburger, a Florida
resident, told the Commission.
"And I'm proud to be a Floridian

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A Suwannee cooter (Pseudemys

Freshwater Turtles
By The Florida Wildlife Conservation Commission

The rule prohibits taking or
possessing turtles from the wild
that are listed on Florida's
imperiled species list. These
turtles are listed as imperiled:

Alligator snapping turtles
(Macrochelys temminckii)
Barbour's map turtles
(Graptemys barbouri)
Suwannee cooters (Pseudemys

Also prohibited is taking species
that look similar to the imperiled
species,which include
common snapping turtles
and cooters.

Cooters (Pseudemys sp.)
Escambia Map Turtle -.
(Graptemys ernsti) -
Snapping turtles
(Chelydra serpentina) "

For all other freshwater
turtles, take is limited to
one turtle per person per
day (midnight to ,
midnight) from the wild
for noncommercial use.
The transport of more An alli
than one turtle per day is
prohibited, unless the
transporter has a license for sale
or exhibition of wildlife,
aquaculture certification from the
Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services, or
documentation that their turtles
were legally obtained (proof of

"To the commercial fishermen
who came today, I want to say
your voice has been heard," said
Commissioner Dwight
Stephenson. "But we're charged

with protecting these species, and
this new rule is necessary at this

Freshwater turtles can only be
taken by hand, dip net, minnow
seine or baited hook. Most
freshwater turtles may be taken
year-round. Taking turtles with
bucket traps, snares, or shooting
with firearms is prohibited.
Softshell turtles may not be taken
from the wild from May 1 to July
31. In addition, collecting of
freshwater turtle eggs is


"I believe this industry should be
moved to aquaculture. That's the
logical place for it to be," Barreto

Selling turtles taken from the wild
is prohibited. Possession limits
for the following turtle species
and their eggs are as follows:

Loggerhead musk turtles two
Box turtles two
Escambia map turtles two
Diamondback terrapins two

In addition, no one may
buy, sell, or possess for
sale alligator snapping
turtles, box turtles,
Barbour's map turtles,
river cooters, loggerhead
musk turtles, Escambia
River map turtles,
diamondback terrapins or
parts thereof


gator snapping turtle at the edge of the lake.


Some turtle farms depend on
collection of wild freshwater
turtles. With the new rule,
certified turtle aquaculture
facilities, under a tightly
controlled permitting system, will
be allowed to collect turtles to
establish reproduction in captivity
so that farms can become self-
sustaining to lessen their
dependence on collection of
turtles from the wild.

If you had an alligator
snapping turtle, Barbour's
map turtles, or Suwannee
cooters before July 20,
2009, you must apply for
a Class III Personal Pet
License to keep your

turtles. The license will
not be issued for more than one
alligator snapping turtle or more
than two Barbour's map turtles.

Buying, selling, taking, or
possessing gopher tortoises, or
parts thereof, is prohibited except
by permit from the FWC executive

Additional regulations apply for
sea turtles.

For additional information, see the Wildlife regulation 68A-25.002(9) of the Florida Administrative Code at https://www.flrules.org/Default.asp.

Horseshoe Crab Facts
By Florida Wildlife Conservation Commission


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Horseshoe crabs on an east coast beach.

Four species of horseshoe crabs
exist today. Only one species,
Limuluspolyphemus, is found
in North America along the
Atlantic and Gulf coasts from
Maine to Mexico. The other
three species are found in
Southeast Asia. Horseshoe
crabs are not true crabs at all;
they are more closely related to
arachnids (a group that includes
spiders and scorpions) than to
crustaceans (a group that
includes true crabs, lobsters,
and shrimp). Horseshoe crabs
are often considered "living
fossils" because fossils of their
ancestors date back over 350
million years-long before the
age of the dinosaurs.
Furthermore, horseshoe crab
body forms have changed
very little over all of those

The strange anatomy of the
horseshoe crab is one of this
animal's most notable aspects.

Unfortunately, the long, thin,
spike-like tail of horseshoe
crabs has given this species an
unfavorable reputation. Many
people view horseshoe crabs as
dangerous animals because
they have sharp tails. In reality,
horseshoe crabs are harmless,
and their tails are used
primarily to flip themselves
upright if they are accidentally

Horseshoe crabs are well
known for their large nesting
aggregations on beaches,
particularly in Mid-Atlantic
States such as Delaware, New
Jersey, and Maryland. These
nesting aggregations are
commonly observed in Florida
as well. During the nesting
season, principally in spring
and summer, male horseshoe
crabs move parallel to the
shoreline on sandy flats and
intercept females as they pass
by. A successful male attaches

himself to a female by using his
specialized front claws, and
together they crawl to the
beach. Some males do not
attach to females, but still have
success in fertilizing the
female's eggs. The male
fertilizes the eggs as the female
lays them in a nest in the sand.
Males that do not find mates
will often swarm mating
couples and try to fertilize
some of the females' eggs.
Most of this nesting activity
takes place during high tides in
the three days before and after
a new or full moon.

Horseshoe crab larvae emerge
from their nests several weeks
after the eggs are laid. Juvenile
horseshoe crabs resemble
adults except that their tails are
proportionally smaller. The
young and adult horseshoe
crabs spend most of their time
on the sandy bottoms of
intertidal flats and feed on

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various invertebrates.

Why are horseshoe crabs
Horseshoe crabs are an
important part of the ecology of
coastal communities. During
the nesting season, especially
in the Mid-Atlantic States,
horseshoe crab eggs become
the major food source for
migrating birds. Over 50% of
the diet of many shorebird
species consists of horseshoe
crab eggs. Many bird species in
Florida have been observed
feeding on horseshoe crab
eggs. In addition, many fish
species rely on horseshoe crab
eggs for food.

Horseshoe crabs are currently
exploited in three industries:
the bait fishery, the marine live
fishery, and the biomedical
industry. Horseshoe crabs are
used extensively as bait in the
American eel and whelk
fisheries along many parts of
the Atlantic coast. The marine
life fishery collects live
horseshoe crabs for resale as
aquarium, research, or
educational specimens.
Horseshoe crabs are important
to the biomedical industry
because components of their
blood coagulate in the presence
of small amounts of bacterial
toxins, thereby providing a
method to test for bacterial
contamination in commercial
drugs and medical equipment.
Research on the compound
eyes of horseshoe crabs has led
to a better understanding of the
human visual system.

Horseshoe crabs enjoying the sunset.

Threats to horseshoe crabs
and research efforts

Horseshoe crab numbers are
declining throughout much of
the species range. Although
scientists are unsure of the
exact causes of this decline, it
is probably due to a variety of
factors, including the
degradation of habitat.

In 1998, The Atlantic States
Marine Fisheries Commission
developed a Horseshoe Crab
Fishery Management Plan that
requires all Atlantic
coastal states to identify
horseshoe crab nesting beaches.
Currently, with the help of the
public, biologists at the Fish
and Wildlife Research Institute
are trying to document nesting
sites of horseshoe crabs

throughout the state. If you are
interested in becoming more
involved with the horseshoe
crab survey, please visit the
Survey for Horseshoe Crab
Nesting Beaches in Florida for
more information.



The underside view of
a horseshoe crab

. ... .. ............

Volunteer Bu lt Boar

Notice to all Florida
Keep those samples flowing!
Please be sure to deliver all
frozen water and chlorophyll
samples to your collection center
as soon as possible. This will
allow us to collect and process
them in a timely manner.
Thanks for you help!

Collection Center News

St. John's River Water
Management District
4049 Reid Street
Palatka, FL 32177
If you are having trouble getting into
the water lab to drop off your samples
and pick up new supplies please go to
the reception desk for the District
building and ask for Carl Wince or John
Applewhite and they will be able to get
you into the lab.


Holiday 's

Crew would like to extend to
all of our LAKEWATCH
friends and family a very
Happy Holiday Season and a
prosperous New Year!

Thank You!

We at LAKEHWATCH would d like to
thank all our volunteers and friends \\ho
have supported us in 2009 in so many
\\-a-s including the collection of samples.
monetary' gifts and contact of legislators
to encourage fuindin support of our
program. We look for \ard to serve ing
N-OU ill 2010!


From Florida LAKEWATCH Chemist

Claude Brown


Claude Brown, Chemist

Are You Seeing Color Changes in
Your Lake?
Have you ever noticed how the
water in some lakes appears to be tea-
stained, while in other lakes it can be
quite green in color? Ever wonder
Much of it has to do with the
presence, or lack of, suspended and
dissolved organic and inorganic
matter in the lake. Most of this
material is the result of natural
biological, chemical, and physical
processes that occur in the lake
system and/or surrounding watershed.
It's commonly defined in two ways:
Apparent color refers to the
color of a water sample that has not
had particulates filtered out. For
instance, runoff from road
construction or the use of limerock

near the water's edge may cause lake
water's apparent color to be milky or
even rusty, if it's in an area where the
soil contains red clay. An abundance
of phytoplankton (freefloating algae)
can give water a greenish tinge and
during certain times of the year, large
amounts of pollen can even give lake
water a yellowish hue.
True color is a measurement of
the amount of dissolved substances
(i.e., humic acids or tannins) that are
released into the water from
surrounding wetlands or wooded
areas. For the purposes of this brief
article, we'll concentrate on true
color, as it is a measurement
commonly used by lake scientists.
To determine a lake's true color,
a water sample must first have all the
particulates filtered out (i.e., algae,
pollen, sediments, etc.). The water
sample is then compared to a
spectrum of standard colors. Each of
the standard colors has been assigned
a number on a scale of Platinum-
cobalt units (abbreviated as PCU or
Pt-Co units). Using the PCU scale,
Florida lakes have shown true color
values ranging from 0 to as high as
400. On a PCU scale, higher values
represent water that is darker in color.
For lakes that are located in
lowland marshy areas, rainfall, or the
absence of it, seems to have the most
noticeable impact on the true color of
lake water. As rainwater collects and
soaks into the surrounding vegetation,
it can cause the runoff to darken to
the color of freshly brewed tea.
Depending on the amount of
rainfall the amount of color can
increase and even appear to be almost
black -hence the term for Florida's
famous "darkwater" or "blackwater"

lakes. During periods of low
rainfall or drought, these same
lakes will tend to have very
clear water, with little to no
true color. (You may have
noticed this on your own lake.)
However, the minute rain
returns, the water begins to
So why is the 'true color' of a
lake so important?
A lake's true color can play a
significant role in influencing the
amount of phytoplankton (i.e., free-
floating algae) and/or macrophytes
(i.e., aquatic plants) in the system.
For example, after periods of heavy
rainfall, some darkwater lakes may
experience more than simply an
increase in true color: When water
levels increase, submerged aquatic
plants on the bottom may
experience a critical reduction in the
amount of sunlight that is able to
reach them. This can lead to a plant
die-off and subsequently result in
greener water, as phytoplankton
could become more dominant in the
lake. Of course, if the lake's true
color becomes dark enough, it can
also prevent algae from growing and
result in water that is darkly stained
but "clear."
True color measurements from
LAKEWATCH lakes have also
gone a long way to help us to learn
more about the influences that a
lake's surrounding geology and
plant life can have on a lake system.
With your help, LAKEWATCH
continues to collect and analyze
supplemental water samples for true
color so that we can learn more
about this intriguing phenomenon.


Outstanding LAKEWATCH Volunteer

We are sad to acknowledge the
passing of Dr. Bill Crass on
October 11, 2009. He was a very
dedicated Florida LAKEWATCH
Volunteer. When Bill was trained
to do the LAKEWATCH
sampling on Lake Wauberg in
Alachua County he was excited to
learn more about the lake
including its water chemistry and
diverse wildlife. He was interested
in the entire lake as an ecosystem
with special emphasis on the
nutrient/food web
interactions in Lake Wauberg
and how these nutrients
provided the basis of the food

Bill was born in Akron,
Ohio on November 18, 1934.
His family moved to
Maryland where he attended
high school and received both
BS and MS degrees. He
earned his PhD from
Vanderbilt University in
1965 and continued as an
instructor, post-doctoral, and
research fellow at the
University of Florida's
College of Medicine.
Dr. Crass advanced
through the academic ranks
as a scientist and professor at
the University of Nebraska's
College of Medicine. He also
made important contributions at
Texas Tech University's Health
Sciences Center/School of
Medicine where he was named
Professor Emeritus. His research
and publications focused on
cardiovascular function,
parathyroid hormone, aging, and

the role of calcium-regulating

In 1995, Bill retired and
moved to a new home on Lake
Wauberg near Micanopy, Florida
with Patricia, his wife for 49
years. But he could not just sit idle
and watch life go by. For 10 years
he continued to teach the
Cardiovascular Technology
Program at Santa Fe Community
College in Gainesville, Florida.

rW 1
We will miss Bill Crass and will always
remember his enthusiasm, commitment, and
smiling face.

Bill was also involved in
volunteer activities that included
sampling Lake Wauberg for the
Florida LAKEWATCH Program
and the St. John's River Water
Management District for 15 years.
He also volunteered at the Paynes
Prairie State Park Visitors Center
and was an active member of the
Micanopy Historical Society

where he served as president of
the Thrasher Warehouse
Preservation Board for many
Some of us remember when
Dr. Crass worked with a young
and upcoming graduate student
who was studying the feeding
preferences of newly hatched
black crappie. They were trying
to determine why the black
crappie populations in lakes
varied so much, with some year
classes producing enormous
numbers of fish while other year
classes were producing relatively
much fewer numbers of fish. Of
particular interest was their
examination of the availability of
adequate food resources for the
newly hatched baby black
crappie. Their work involved
many hours of examining the
stomach contents of very tiny
fish under a microscope, a
tedious and grueling task.
Bill was especially interested
in the aquatic birds that lived at
Lake Wauberg and he had
questions about the bird
population that used Lake
Wauberg. He was curious why
there were so many birds of
certain species and fewer
numbers of other species. To
answer these questions, he did
bird surveys along with his
monthly water sampling for
Florida LAKEWATCH and
found some interesting trends.
Over the years he compiled
numerous bird surveys that
documented many species and
thousands of birds. Many of the
most abundant birds were species


Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
School of Forestry Resource Conservation
7922 NW 71st Street
Gainesville, FL 32653

that depended on fish as the
main component of their diets.
Dr. Crass regularly attended
the annual LAKEWATCH
Meetings and always had
interesting questions and
observations about his lake. He
was also interested in the
effects of heavy boat traffic on
his lake and the possibility that
bottom sediments could be re-
suspended by the waves and
propeller agitation created by
the boats.
Bill was always interested
in having someone continue the
sampling in the future, when he
was no longer able to do it. He
wanted young people to share
his love of Lake Wauberg and
make a commitment to the

continued gathering of data in
the future. Maybe someone will
be willing to pick up where he
left off and continue to learn
more about the lake.

Dr. Bill Crass will always
be remembered by his many
friends and colleagues. He was
a cherished son, husband,
father, brother, cousin,
grandfather, respected scientist,
professor, mentor, and above all
a good friend. He enriched lives
of many people. We will miss
him and will always remember
his enthusiasm, commitment,
and smiling face. Thanks Bill
for all you have done for us!

Elorida N

This newsletter is generated by the Florida
LAKEWATCH program, within UF/IFAS Support
for the LAKEWATCH program is provided by the
Florida Legislature, grants and donations For more
information about LAKEWATCH, to inquire about
volunteer training sessions, or to submit materials for
inclusion in this publication, write to
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
School of Forest Resources and Conservation
GanmelleFL 32653
E-mail fl-lakewatch@ufl edu
htt //lakewatch ifas ufl edu/

All unsolicited articles, photographs, artwork or other
written material must include contributor's name,
address and phone number Opinions expressed are
solely those of the individual contributor and do not
necessarily reflect the opinion or policy of the Florida


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