Group Title: Florida Lakewatch newsletter
Title: Florida Lakewatch Newsletter
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 Material Information
Title: Florida Lakewatch Newsletter
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Lakewatch
Publication Date: 2009
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055470
Volume ID: VID00036
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: 65383070 - OCLC


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DeIdct tg o Shari Ifr mat Ion Abou W ater M a na geme an t Ida S I S. 'I: I '-' P r am VIolu

We're Going Digital!



newsletter is going almost
exclusively digital in order to
reduce expenses. During these
tough economic times
LAKEWATCH is facing a 40%
reduction in our budget and we
are looking for ways to reduce
our expenses. One of these
ways is to reduce printing costs
of our newsletter. This will also
reduce the use of paper.
After this newsletter all
future newsletters will only
be available by downloading
from our website unless you

Florida LAKEWATCH Aquatic Bird Survey

..- UF FLkORiiiA

specifically request a paper
copy or we do not have an
e-mail address for you on
file. In the future you will get
an e-mail notice telling you
when the latest newsletter is
available. This e-mail will
provide a link for you to go to
and download the latest version
of the newsletter. You will need
Acrobat Reader 5 or later to
view the newsletter.
You will also need to add the
listed e-mail addresses to your
e-mail address book to avoid
the notice going straight to your

Mary Stonceipher is Retiring!


spam folder. The e-mail notices
will potentially be sent from
these e-mail addresses.

We hope that this is not an
inconvenience and thank you
for your understanding as we
attempt to weather this
economic storm.

What is the Integrated Water Quality Assessment for

Florida: 305(b) Report and 303(d) Report???

Many volunteers may have
heard agencies and professionals
refer to the 305(b) and 303(d)
reports. These reports are
discussed at both federal and state
levels and are used to determine
water quality changes and trends
over time. This article provides a
brief description of these reports.

When professionals refer to
the 305(b) and 303(d) reports they
are actually referring to the
Integrated Water Quality
Assessment for Florida 305(b) and
303(d) Reports. These reports
provide an overview of Florida's
surface water and ground water
quality trends to date. The Florida
Department of Environmental
Protection (FDEP), submits these
reports to the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) every
two years as mandated by the
requirements of Sections 305(b)
and 303(d) of the Federal Clean
Water Act of 1974. The Integrated
Report "allows states to document
whether water quality standards are
being attained, the availability of
data and information for each water
body segment, identifies trends in
water quality conditions, and
provides information to managers
in setting priorities for future
actions to protect and restore the
health of Florida's aquatic

Under Section 305(b) of the Clean
Water Act, each state must submit
reports every other year to the EPA
depicting water quality trends for
surface water and ground water,
major impacts to these waters, and
determinations if water bodies are

attaining their designated uses (e.g.
drinking water, recreation, and
shellfish harvesting). Water bodies
that do not meet their designated
uses are deemed impaired under
Section 303(d) of the Clean Water
Act. States must then submit a list
of impaired waters (the 303(d) list)
to the EPA.

In Florida, FDEP must
establish total maximum daily loads
(TMDL's) for all impaired waters.
A TMDL is the maximum amount
of a given pollutant that a water
body can assimilate and still
maintain its designated use. Once a
TMDL is established for a
waterbody, a Basin Management

Action Plan (BMAP) is used to
restore impaired waters by
reducing pollutant loading to
meet the allowable loading
established by the TMDL.
FDEP develops these broad-
based plans with the help of
local stakeholders and the plans
are adopted by Secretarial Order
in order to be enforceable.
FDEP further incorporates
TMDL's into their watershed
management approach by
focusing on each water basin, as
opposed to individual cases.
Florida's legislature divides the
state's 52 basins into 29 groups
distributed among five water
management districts.


S I'' 11

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The regions of the five water management districts in the State of Florida.

FDEP evaluates Florida
surface waters in five year cycles
(20% of the state is assessed each
year for five years). In addition to
this evaluation, FDEP uses data
from other Florida sources to make
assessments of the water quality
trends and meet the requirements of
Sections 305(d) and 303(b) of the
Clean Water Act. One of these
other major data sources is Florida
LAKEWATCH data!!!!
The 2008 Integrated Water
Quality Assessment Report
includes results from the

http' www.epa.govlwater
Watershed Assessment, Tracking & Environmental ResultS

Water Quality Assessment and
Total Maximum Daily Loads Information

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The USEPA website for accessing water quality asse
and TMDL's

Approved TMDLS by EPA Fiscal Year (October 1 through September 30)
since October 1, 1995
iscal Year Numtber of TMLs Apprved Percnt Aproved
1996 E 1.55
1998 l 1.89
2001 1l4 2.41
002 1.20
003 4.99
004 9.47
00zs 9.12
2006 18 ____ I.07 g
007? 21.34s6
008 23.7
009 6 .20

See volume 42 (2008) ( for more
information on TMDLs and BMAPs.

completion of a
five year cycle
and suggest that
28% of rivers and
streams, 25% of
lake acres, and
59% of the square
miles of estuaries
poorer water
quality mostly
associated with
intense agriculture
and industrial
uses. As of 2008,
FDEP has
evaluated 100% of
meant the state and will

approximately 2,565 TMDLs for
1,688 Florida waters. Of those
waters, FDEP has developed,
proposed, or adopted 322 TMDLs
for 166 water bodies. Because,
TMDLs are developed for
individual pollutants, a water body
may have multiple TMDL's.
FDEP has completed or adopted by
Secretarial Order BMAPs for the
Upper Ocklawaha River Basin,
Orange Creek, and Long Branch.
See the Florida LAKEWATCH
newsletter volume 42 (2008)
SLETT.HTM) for more
information on TMDLs and

The 2008 Integrated Water Quality Assessment for Florida: 305(b) Report and

03(3d) Report is available for download at:

httl)://,www.dei) Integrated Report.pdf.

These reports are vaailable for each state. In addition to surface waterss ground
\\aters and wetlands s are also examined.



Harmful algal blooms impact
freshwater systems as well as
coastal marine and estuarine waters
and their effect can vary widely
depending on the type, intensity,
and extent of the bloom.
Determining the specific trigger for
a bloom in coastal waters can be
troublesome due to the complexity
of these systems and the numerous
interwoven factors involved such as
salinity, temperature, nutrient
levels and ratios, nutrient input
sources, and day-length
(photoperiod). Bloom effects can
range from brief decreases in
Secchi depth for benthic plants and
algae during mild blooms to
catastrophic kills of marine life
during long, intense blooms or
toxin-producing blooms. Florida
Bay has received the worst of these
and portions of the Bay were
devastated as a result. The damage
caused by these blooms has had
cascading effects throughout the

Florida Bay is a broad estuary

Figure 1: Satellite image of Florida B

Figure 2: Sessile (attached) organisms
characteristic of hard-bottom habitat in western
Florida Bay. (A) vase sponge, (B) loggerhead
sponge, (C) coral head, (D) sea whips.

that receives freshwater from the
Everglades and opens to the
shallow marine habitats of the
Florida Keys and Gulf of
Mexico (Figure 1). The benthic
habitats of western Florida Bay
are a mixture of seagrass beds,
open sand/mud
areas, and hard-
bottom habitat.
The latter is
composed of a
thin layer of
covering a flat
carbonate rock
Y Abundant and
z conspicuous
ay organisms in

include sponges, sea whips, and
small coral heads (Figure 2).

Hard-bottom is particularly
sensitive to the persistent algal
blooms which occasionally
blanket the Florida Keys and
Florida Bay, most recently in
2007. The causative agents for
these blooms have been
identified as several non-toxin
producing species of the
cyanobacteria in the genus
Synechococcus. These are small
chain-forming photosynthetic
bacteria that thrive during
abnormally low or high salinity
periods when other
phytoplankton do not. In the
wake of bloom events, there is
ample evidence for the
devastating impact on the hard-

Algal Blooms in Florida Bay Test the Mettle of Spiny

by Don Behringer, University of Florida and Mark Butler, IV, Old Dominion University

bottom sponge communities.
Following a series of
cyanobacteria blooms in the
Florida Keys from 1991 to 1995,
researchers described a cascade
of disturbances through which
the loss of large, structure-
forming sponges had
consequences for juvenile
lobsters, which use them as a
primary refuge. The 2007 bloom
destroyed recovering and
previously unimpacted hard-
bottom sponge communities,
killing close to 100%
of the sponges in the f
core area of the bloom.

This area is a nursery
habitat for many
economically valuable
or endangered
organisms including
Caribbean spiny
lobsters, stone crabs,
groupers (e.g., red,
black, Nassau, and
goliath), and snappers.
Lobsters in particular,
rely heavily on the Figu
shelter provided by cora
large sponges (often regic
approaching 1 meter
wide!) and their
abundance is often
influenced by sponge
abundance. Therefore, when
these sponges are killed,
lobsters are forced to aggregate
in the few shelters that remain
(Figure 3).

Spiny lobsters are social
creatures, using their sensitive
olfactory (smell) abilities to find
each other and aggregate.
However, they are also
equipped with the olfactory

ability to detect and avoid other
lobsters infected with a lethal
disease. The infectious virus,
termed PaV1, is the first virus
described for any lobster
species and has remarkable
affects on their ecology. This
disease affects primarily the
juvenile lobsters that use
Florida Bay as a nursery
habitat. The disease avoidance
behavior that healthy lobsters
use results in isolation of
infected individuals and
reduced infection risk. This

re 3: Spiny lobsters aggregated under
I head in a severely bloom-impact
n of hard-bottom. Nearly 100% of ti
ges were killed at this site.

isolation was theorized to limit
spread of infection among dense
populations of lobsters,
however, this theory was
difficult to test in nature. That
is, until the extensive bloom
occurred in 2007.

The loss of sponges in large
areas of Florida Bay hard-
bottom dramatically increased
the aggregation of lobsters in
the remaining shelters. This

increased aggregation was a
"natural test" of the
effectiveness of avoidance
behavior in reducing infection
potential for this contact-
transmitted disease. However,
PaV1 infection prevalence did
not increase on the bloom
impacted sites relative to
unimpacted sites following
several months of increased
aggregation, and was actually
lower on impacted sites. The
decrease in disease prevalence
may have resulted from
increased predation on
infected lobsters
denied adequate
shelter. Field
comparing predation
on healthy versus
diseased lobsters
collected from the
surrounding habitat
also showed that
S diseased individuals
S. were more susceptible
to predation than their
Sa healthy counterparts.

Harmful algal blooms
are a continuous threat
to aquatic
communities and
research is focused on
determining the factors affecting
bloom formation, maintenance,
termination, and impacts. The
work presented here highlights
the need to consider the indirect
effects of blooms on the whole
aquatic ecosystem. However, it
also demonstrates the
adaptability and resilience that
organisms such as the spiny
lobster can display in the face of
environmental adversity.

Is My Lake Spring Fed?

Ginnie Springs located in Gilchrist County, Florida.

"My lake is spring-fed!" We as
regional coordinators hear it all
the time from our Florida
LAKEWATCH volunteers.
When asked why they believe
their lakes are spring fed, we
usually get responses like,
"Because, I can feel colder
water down near my feet when
I go swimming" or "My
Grandpa told me so!" It is
possible that some lakes are
spring fed. For example, Lake
Apopka is fed by Gourdneck
Springs. But, there may be
other reasons for cooler water
near the lake bottom and
Grandpa may have been told
that the lake was spring-fed by
someone who had no evidence
to back up their claim.

A lot depends on your
definition of a spring. For most
people, a spring is a localized
hole in the ground from which
lots of water flows. Major
springs can pump out
thousands or even millions of
gallons of water on a daily
basis including the famous
Silver Springs (near Ocala),
Blue Springs, and Itchetucknee
Springs to name a few. Most
volunteers would agree that
these springs meet the criteria.

On some occasions lakes do
actually receive water from
springs. But, when volunteers
who claim their lake is spring-
fed are asked where the
outflow from their lake is

located, they usually do not
have an answer. After thinking
about it for a little while, they
admit that if a spring were
feeding their lake, then the
water would need to have a
place to flow out. Otherwise,
the lake would continue to fill
up and flood their property.
That's when they begin
scratching their heads.

If their lakes are not spring fed,
then why do they feel cold
water near the bottom? If you
swim in a lake during the
summer, you may notice that
the deeper water near your feet

Continued on page 7.

feels cooler than the water near
the surface. This is because the
upper surface water layer has
been warmed by the sun and as
a result, has become less dense
or "lighter" than the cooler,
denser layer below near your
feet. This warmer above/cooler
below water layering effect is
known as thermal stratification.
A temperature difference of as
little as one degree Fahrenheit
can result in stratification.
Since this is a natural
phenomenon that can occur in
all water bodies (even
swimming pools) it is not
necessarily evidence that the
lake is spring-fed.

Sometimes a volunteer will
report seeing little "springs"
about 1 to 2 inches in diameter
bubbling up in the shallow
sediments near the lake
shoreline. In Florida, most
lakes receive their water from
direct rainfall, inflow from
streams, and groundwater
infiltration. Groundwater is
water that has been deposited
on the land by rainfall that then
filters through the soil until it
hits an impervious layer of
rock, mineralized soil, or clay.
This impenetrable layer stops
the downward movement of the
water and causes it to move
laterally or sideways.

When this underground water
moves towards a low spot (like
a lake), the water can
sometimes be seen percolating
through the bottom sediments
of the lake and adding water to
the lake. Sometimes you can
even see this infiltration


.. ..... ....
.......................... ......
- Anglers on Woodbine Springs in Sana Ra C y.
Anglers on Woodbine Springs in Santa Rosa County.

occurring in the shallow, sandy
sediments and it looks like tiny
little "poofs" of sand puffing
up from the bottom. Some
people may even refer to these
observations as being "little
springs" because they are under
pressure and cause the sands to
lift as the water flows in.

As a final thought to ponder, in
Florida most natural springs
usually have a year-round
temperature of about 72
degrees Fahrenheit. So in the
summer, a lake that is spring-

fed will have cooler water near
the bottom and warmer water
near the surface, as volunteers
have reported. However, in the
winter the same lake could
have warmer water on the
bottom near the spring and
cooler water on top if air
temperatures get cold enough.
In fact, this observation would
be stronger evidence that a lake
is spring-fed than would the
observation made in the

i.- rl-

Volunteer Bu lt Boar

Notice to all Florida
LAKEWATCH active samplers

Keep those samples flowing!
Please be sure to deliver all frozen
water and chlorophyll samples to your
collection center as soon as possible.
This will allow us to collect and process
them in a timely manner.
Thanks for vou helD!

Collection Center Closings

The following collection centers
have been closed and are no
longer available for sample drop-
off and new supply pickup.


Elder Care Services Marianna Office
4297 Liddon St
Marinna, FL 32446


Deering Estate
16701 SW 72nd Ave
Miami, FL 33157

If you use one of these collection
centers please call us at 1-800-
525-3928 for an alternative
collection center location.

A Gateway to Florida's Lakes

A.s reported in Vol 3' of the LAKE\\ ATCH ne\\sletter.
Florida L AKE\\ ATCH. the Florida Center f'or Commull nit\
Design and Research at the Un l\ersit\ of South Florida and
the Florida Lake Managemdent Societ\ ha\e teamed up to
pro\ ide eas\ access to data for all L AKE\\ ATCH lakes This
sen ice is implemented as the "Floiida Atlas of Lakes fotiund
at the water r A. tla \\ ebsite ( \\ \\\ \ \ateratlas or1 )

This state\\ ide atlas lha the ke\ \\ water chemistlr- data that is
venerated b\ the Florida LAKE\\ ATCH program The
Florida tlas of Lakes manage and deli\ er data throuiih a
iiap interface L.\KE\\ ATC'H sites are matched to iiap
themes based on the 1 24.-"' scale National H' drology
Database (NHD) Additional map themes are then added to
the base map to create the map that is Lused as a ke\ element
of the database

The Florida .Atlas of Lakes allo\\s the citizens of Florida to
better understand and appreciate e the important \\ork that is
done on their behalf b\ Florida LAKE\\ ATCH\ \ volunteers
Users are able to \ le\\ data for an\ of the \\aterbodies in the
Florida L.KE\\ ATCH program

To visit the Florida Atlas of Lakes go to the iebsite
listed belov:

littp://, %v .%\ aiteriatlns.ulsf.e(dui/.tlasOfLaikes/Floridln/

The Florida Atlas of Lakes


From Florida LAKEWATCH Chemist


Claude Brown, Chemist
Greetings all LAKEWATCHERS!

Everyone in the lab would like to
express their heart-felt thanks for
your continued sampling efforts
and years of dedicated hard work.

As you work hard to collect and
process your samples, the folks in
the lab want to be sure you get the
best and most accurate results
possible. Occasionally, we run
into a few problems we would like
your help to correct in order to get
your results back to you as
expeditiously as possible. These
gentle reminders should
be reviewed and shared with
those folks helping you sample
your lake.

Cracked water bottles resulting
from bottles being over-filled
before freezing.

When collecting water bottles
please fill completely and then
pour out some water until you get
down to the shoulder of the
collection bottle, as this will allow
for expansion of the water upon

Chlorophyll filters exposed.

When folding your algae sample
filters, please be sure to fold them
exactly in half, with the algae on
the inside. (Pretend you're making
an "algae taco.") If any part of the
algae sample is uncovered and
exposed while putting the filter
into its wrapper, some of it can
rub off the sample filter and stick
to the outside wrapper. That
portion of the algae is lost and the
sample is less than accurate.

Unlabeled filters or missing

Labeled filters help us keep track
of chlorophyll and corresponding
water samples as they pass
through the lab. A quick double-
check to be sure the lake

name/county, date, and amount
filtered are recorded is important
to get results back to you, our
volunteer. In particular the amount
filtered is essential to the actual
calculations used to determine
chlorophyll concentrations.

Filters not stored in silica gel

Filters must be stored in the
bottles of silica gel dessicant
provided to prevent degradation of
your sample due to mold growth.

Missing information on data

We ask that you complete the
lake/county, date, and write both
Secchi depth and water depth
measurements on the sheet in the
space provided. Visibility and
depth information is entered in the
long-term database along with
your chlorophyll results. Missing
information on the data sheet can
lead to a delay in information
relayed back to you.

You work hard to collect
these samples and we all want
them to be the very best they
can be. Thanks for your help
and keep up the good work!

In the past if you had an
aquatic plant problem and/or
needed an aquatic plant
removal permit you would
contact the Florida Department
of Environmental Protection's
Bureau of Invasive Plant
Management. However, that
has changed. The Florida
Department of Environmental
Protection's Bureau of Invasive
Plant Management is now the
Invasive Plant Management
Section within the Florida Fish
and Wildlife Conservation
Commission's (FWC) Division
of Habitat and Species.
The Invasive Plant
Management Section is
responsible for coordinating
and funding two statewide
programs controlling invasive
aquatic and upland plants on
public conservation lands and
waterways. These invasive
plant management programs
are the largest of their kind in
the United States. This section
also insures that beneficial
native aquatic plants in ponds,
lakes, and rivers are protected
through its permitting programs
and funds invasive plant
management research to ensure
that the most cost-effective and
environmentally safe control
methods are used.
Aquatic vegetation plays an
important role in maintaining
and protecting water quality,
providing shoreline

stabilization and ensuring
balanced fish and wildlife
populations. Therefore, Florida
law requires all persons or
public agencies intending to
control, eradicate, remove, or
otherwise alter any aquatic
weeds or plants in waters of the
state to obtain a permit from
the FWC unless an exemption
for the activity has been
provide in statute or rule.
The FWC Invasive Plant
Management Section regional
and field offices throughout the
state provide the following
- Provide extension/education
services concerning aquatic
plant management
- Annually survey the aquatic
plant communities in
approximately 450 public
water bodies
- Direct, review and monitor
the control of non-native
aquatic plants by contractors of
- Assist and coordinate with
federal, state and local
governments on issues related
to aquatic plant management
- Regulate aquatic plant
management activities through
two permitting programs
- Perform compliance/
enforcement activities related
to aquatic plant management

Regions and Field Offices
Northwest Florida Office
3900 Commonwealth Blvd., MS705
Tallahassee, FL 32399
Matt Phillips
Counties: Bay, Calhoun, Escambia,
Franklin, Gadsden, Gulf, Holmes,
Jackson, Leon, Liberty, Okaloosa,
Santa Rosa, Wakulla, Walton,
Washington, and Jefferson.

Suwannee River Office
341 SE Charmont Lane
Lake City, FL 32025
Joe Hinkle
Counties: Alachua, Baker, Bradford,
Clay, Columbia, Dixie, Duval,
Gilchrist, Hamilton, Lafayette,
Madison, Nassau, Putnam, Suwannee,
Taylor, and Union.

Southwest Florida Office
6355 South Florida Avenue
Floral City, FL 34436
Robbie Lovestrand
Terry Sullivan
Counties: Citrus, Hernando, Levy,
Marion, and Sumter.

North Central Office
601 W. Woodward Avenue
Eustis, FL 32726
Nathalie Visscher
Counties: Lake

Continued on page 12

Invasive Plant Management: Florida Fish and

Wildlife Conservation Commission's New Role


Outstanding LAKEWATCH Volunteer

LAKEWATCH would like to
recognize Arthur Morlan Dutton
for his service to the
LAKEWATCH program. Arthur
was trained to sample Lake
Georgia in 1989 by Sandy Fisher
(retired LAKEWATCH Director).
Lake Georgia is located in Winter
Park (Orange County) between
Hwy 417 and North Dean Road
just North of University
Boulevard (280 36' 23" and 810
14' 47"). Arthur
either sampled or
helped sample the
lake for a total of
228 months. We
regret to say that
Art passed away on
November 5, 2008.
His service and
commitment to the
program will be
greatly missed.

He was born on July
28, 1923 to Arthur
and Letta Morlan
Dutton. He attended
Iowa State where he
received a Bachelor
of Science degree in
Engineering and a
PH.D. in
Mathematics and
Statistics. Arthur
was in the Navy
during World War
II and while serving An areiel view
he attended
Japanese language school. After
the Navy he went to work at the
University of Rochester in

Rochester, New York. Then, he
moved to Orlando, Florida in
1968. He was chairman of Math
Sciences at University of Central
Florida (UCF), formally known as
Florida Technological University.
He was in the statistics
Department of UCF until his

Art is survived by his wife Joanne
McHenry Dutton, their son, David

Sof Lake Georgia in Orange County.

(Cindy) and daughter, their
daughter Margaret "Maggie
(Michael) Ziesmer, grandson

Benjamin and granddaughter
Christina and three great-

The pleasure of having Arthur as
a volunteer was all ours. We do
not come across volunteers like
Arthur very often. The dedication
to the program for Lake Georgia
goes beyond anything we could
have hoped for from a volunteer
when the program was created.

We wish the best to his family and
our dearest gratitude for his



Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
School of Forestry Resource Conservation
7922 NW 71st Street
Gainesville, FL 32653

Invasive Plant Management: Florida Fish and Wildlife Consevaion Commission's New
Role (Continued from page 10)

St. John's River Office
5882 South Semoran Blvd.
Orlando, FL 32822
Ed Harris (
Counties: Brevard, Flagler, Orange,
Osceola, Seminole, St. Johns, and

South Central Florida Office
2001 Homeland-Garfield Road
Bartow, FL 33830
Erica VanHorn
Kelle Sullivan
Danielle Schobl
Counties: Highlands and Polk

South Gulf Office
8302 Laurel Fair Circle, Suite 140
Tampa, FL 33610
David Demmi
John Rodgers
Counties: Charlotte, Desoto, Hardee,
Hillsborough, Lee, Manatee, Pasco,
Pinellas, and Sarasota.

South Florida Office
9737 Gumbo Limbo Lane
Jensen Beach, FL 34957
Jackie Smith
Counties: Broward, Collier, Glades,
Hendry, Indian River, Martin, Miami-
Dade, Monroe, Okeechobee, Palm
Beach, and St. Lucie.

Information for the article was taken from the Florida Fish and
Wildlife Conservation Commission's website at

Elorida N&

This newsletter is generated by the Florida
LAKEWATCH program, within UF/IFAS Support
for the LAKEWATCH program is provided by the
Florida Legislature, grants and donations For more
information about LAKEWATCH, to inquire about
volunteer training sessions, or to submit materials for
inclusion in this publication, write to
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
School of Forest Resources and Conservation
GanmelleFL 32653
E-mail fl-lakewatch@ufl edu
http //lakewatch ifas ufl edu/

All unsolicited articles, photographs, artwork or other
written material must include contributor's name,
address and phone number Opinions expressed are
solely those of the individual contributor and do not
necessarily reflect the opinion or policy of the Florida


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