Aquatic bird survey
 The cradle of the ocean: estua...
 Volunteer bulletin board
 Recycling is not just for aluminum...
 Outstanding LAKEWATCH voluntee...
 Back Cover


Florida Lakewatch newsletter
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055470/00034
 Material Information
Title: Florida Lakewatch newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida LAKEWATCH
Publisher: Dept. of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) at the University of Florida (UF)
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Creation Date: 2008
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Lakes -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
General Note: Description based on v. 9 (spring 1997); title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: v. 33 (2006).
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 65383070
lccn - 2006229159
System ID: UF00055470:00034


This item has the following downloads:

FLWVol43 ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Aquatic bird survey
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    The cradle of the ocean: estuaries
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Volunteer bulletin board
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Recycling is not just for aluminum and plastic
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Outstanding LAKEWATCH volunteer
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Back Cover
        Page 12
Full Text

Ilori da


Florida LAKEWATCH Aquatic Bird Survey

The Little Blue Heron is a common visitor to Florida waterbodies.

Because Florida's wetlands are continuing
to be altered or destroyed, the utilization of
aquatic habitat by bird communities needs
to be documented. Since Florida
LAKEWATCH volunteers expressed a
desire to survey the birds using Florida's
water bodies, we provided them a way to
do just that! Thanks to their monitoring
efforts, we have now have a large data
base that will help in determining which
bird species are associated with Florida
water bodies and in developing future
management strategies. These data,
combined with water chemistry and
aquatic plant data, also give Florida
LAKEWATCH staff and other
professionals a way to examine the
ecology of aquatic birds that utilize these

The objective of the Florida
LAKEWATCH Aquatic Bird Survey was
to establish a standardized, long-term
citizen-monitoring program to examine
seasonal and yearly trends in bird
populations using Florida's aquatic
habitats. These statewide bird surveys
provide volunteers with a means to
document bird populations using the areas
near water bodies and to monitor usage
trends over time. Through their efforts, a
considerable number of bird species have
been directly observed and quantified.
These data are now being used to examine
long-term trends in bird diversity and

For our purposes, "aquatic birds" were
defined as "all bird species that utilize any

type of aquatic or shoreline habitat." This
program was designed to monitor long-
term and seasonal trends in bird
abundance, so we asked the volunteers to
do at least one bird survey per month.
Before beginning the actual bird counts,
volunteers were encouraged to learn the
bird species that frequent their area by
using a field identification guide. We
advised volunteers to create a list of
common bird species for their area and
then practice estimating the numbers
Continued on page 2.

observed for the various species. When
possible, we talked with the volunteers to
evaluate their birding skills, establish the
specifics of the survey protocol for their
lake, and answer any questions they might

A protocol was developed so that bird
surveys would be done in similar manner
to allow for meaningful comparisons. We
asked that bird counts be conducted by
slowly boating once around the edge of the
lake while counting all birds observed
using aquatic habitats. Although we
preferred bird surveys to be done from a
boat, surveys that were performed by
walking the shoreline or from a fixed point
on the volunteer' s property were accepted.
Volunteers were instructed to record
whether their surveys were done by boat,
by walking around the water body's
shoreline, or by observing from a fixed
location such as a dock or yard.

Florida LAKEWATCH volunteers began
counting birds using aquatic habitats in

2000. Since that time they have
conducted bird counts on 115 aquatic
systems that include lakes, rivers, and
coastal bays.
Lakes dominated the aquatic systems
with a total of 107 lakes, 5 rivers, and
3 bays being surveyed between 2000
and 2008. Surveys were returned
from 23 counties located throughout
the state from the western panhandle
to south Florida. The counties with
the most survey observations were
Hillsborough, Orange, Lake, Polk,
and Highlands. This is not surprising
since these counties have lots of lakes
and many active volunteers.

More than 150 bird species were
identified during the bird surveys,
with some species being observed

many times on the 115 water bodies
that were surveyed (Table 1) and
other species being spotted on only a
few occasions (Table 2). Based on the
number of surveys each species was
reported on, the Great Blue Heron
was the most commonly observed
species followed by the Anhinga,
Great Egret, Osprey, and Little Blue
Heron. Other birds, while not usually
considered to be strictly aquatic
species yet were commonly observed,
included crows, vultures, hawks,
swallows, and doves (Table 1). Many
of the less commonly observed birds
listed in Table 2 are not generally
considered to be strictly aquatic
species, as would be expected. They
include various songbirds such as
vireos, finches, thrushes, wrens, and

The Great Blue Heron was the most commonly
sighted bird on Florida lakes from 2000 to 2008 in
the Florida LAKEWATCH aquatic bird survey.

Table 1. List of the 50 most commonly observed birds using aquatic habitats as
surveyed by Florida LAKEWATCH volunteers between 2000-2008. Observed
represents the number of surveys during which the species was observed and includes
all 115 water bodies. Bird species marked with an asterisk (*) are considered by Florida
LAKEWATCH to be strictly aquatic species.

Bird Species Observed Bird Species Observed
Great Blue Heron 1011 Pied-billed Grebe 227
Anhinga 983 Common Grackle 215
Great Egret 917 Wood Stork 182
Osprey 738 Blue Jay 180
Little Blue Heron 703 Terns 178
Crows 657 Muscovy Duck 173
Common Moorhen 627 Northern Cardinal 167
White Ibis 586 Limpkin 157
Boat-tailed Grackle 568 Northern Mockingbird 149
Double-crested Cormorant 560 Purple Martin 127
Red-winged Blackbird 549 Swallows 125
Belted Kingfisher 542 Purple Gallinule 110
Mallard 509 Mourning Dove 97
Turkey Vulture 464 Red-tailed Hawk 94
Gulls 424 Domestic Duck 91
Red-shouldered Hawk 421 Killdeer 89
Snowy Egret 396 Ducks 86
Wood Duck 394 Glossy Ibis 85
American Coot 371 Brown Pelican 85
Green-backed Heron 334 Domestic Goose 83
Black Vulture 321 Mottled Duck 73
Tricolored Heron 318 Black-crowned Night-Heron 71
Sandhill Crane 286 Doves 68
Bald Eagle 256 Rock Dove 67
Cattle Egret 251 Mixed Vultures 64

However, quite a few species that are
considered to be strictly aquatic
species are also found in Table 2 and
were not observed frequently. For
example, the Snowy Plover, Wilson's
Plover, Gadwall, Bufflehead, Snail
Kite, and Greater Yellowlegs are
considered to be strictly aquatic
species, yet were rarely reported. The
species listed in Tables 1 and 2 and
marked with an asterisk (*) are
species that Florida LAKEWATCH

considers to be strictly aquatic

We thank everyone who has
participated in the bird surveys and
hope they will continue to monitor the
bird populations on their aquatic
systems.We also encourage anyone
who is interested to begin doing bird
surveys on the aquatic system of their

for beginning an aquatic bird survey;
just contact your regional coordinator
or Eric Schulz at 1-800-525-3928. For
those individuals interested in starting
an aquatic bird survey, but unable to
identify aquatic birds, we recommend
acquiring a good field guide to birds
such as the Peterson Field Guide to
Eastern Birds or A Guide to Field
Identification Birds ofNorth America.
Learning to identify the most
common birds listed in Table 1 will
be very helpful and will make your
new hobby more interesting. Then
you can have fun while helping to
monitor the birds using your aquatic

Table 2. List of the 50 least frequently observed birds using aquatic habitats
as surveyed by Florida LAKEWATCH volunteers between 2000-2008.
Observed represents the number of surveys during which the species was
observed and includes all 115 water bodies. Bird species marked with an
asterisk (*) are considered by Florida LAKEWATCH to be strictly aquatic

Bird Species Observed Bird Species Observed
White-eyed Vireo 2 Prairie Warbler 1
Summer Tanager 2 Orioles 1
Snowy Plover 2 Northern Waterthrush 1
Sanderling 2 Northern Oriole 1
Purple Finch 2 Nightingales 1
Nighthawk 2 Mississippi Kite 1
Gadwall 2 Merlin 1
Eurasian collared-dove 2 Marsh Wren 1
Domestic Parrot 2 Lesser Yellowlegs 1
Brown-headed Nuthatch 2 Least Tern 1
Brown-headed Cowbird 2 Indigo Bunting 1
Wood Thrush 1 House Wren 1
Wilson's Plover 1 Hooded Warbler 1
Wilson's Phalarope 1 Greater Yellowlegs 1
Whistling Ducks 1 Florida Scrub Jay 1
Water Pipit 1 Eastern Wood-Pewee 1
Thrushes 1 Eastern Towhee 1
Song Sparrow 1 Domestic Guinea Hen 1
Snail Kite 1 Domestic Cockatiel 1
Short-billed Dowitcher 1 Bufflehead 1
Semipalmated Plover 1 Brewer's Blackbird 1
Sandwich Tern 1 Bobolink 1
Rusty Blackbird 1 Black Tern 1
Ruddy Turnstone 1 Barn Swallow 1
Rails 1 Bank Swallow 1

Florida LAKEWATCH has a protocol for beginning an aquatic bird survey;

just contact your regional coordinator or Eric Schulz at 1-800-525-3928 for

more information. For those individuals interested in starting an aquatic bird

survey, but unable to identify aquatic birds, we recommend acquiring a

good field guide to birds such as the Peterson Field Guide to Eastern Birds or

A Guide to Field Identification Birds of North America.

An adult male snail kite photographed in the
everglades has dinner in talon.

The Cradle of the Ocean: Estuaries


An estuary in Florida.

What are estuaries?

Estuaries are semi-enclosed areas,
such as bays and lagoons, where fresh
water meets and mixes with salty
ocean waters. Estuaries are dynamic
systems with constantly changing
tides and temperatures where salinity
(concentration of salt in the water)
varies temporally and spatially.

Survival of plants and animals in
estuaries requires special adaptations.
The ebb and flow of tides may leave
some plants and animals, such as
marsh grasses and oysters,
temporarily high and dry.
Temperatures in shallow estuarine
waters can range from freezing to
more than 100 F during the course of
a year and expose marine organisms
to intense sunlight and drying.

Estuarine organisms are naturally
adapted to withstand these ranges in
salinity, tides, sunlight, and
temperatures. They must, however,
have a balanced flow of fresh and salt
water. This balance can be upset if
too much fresh water enters the

estuary, which can happen when
causeways are constructed, impeding
the free flow of tides: or if too little
fresh water is available, as occurs
during drought and when a river is
diverted or dammed. Estuarine-
dependant marine life may die if the
balance of fresh and salt water is not

Why are estuaries special?

"The cradle of the ocean" is an
appropriate description of estuaries.
More than 95% of Florida's
recreationally and commercially
important fishes, crustaceans, and
shellfish spend periods of their lives
in estuaries, usually when they are
young. Many fish and crustaceans
migrate offshore to spawn or breed.
The eggs develop into larvae
(immature forms) that are transported
into estuaries by tides and currents.
The shallow waters, salt marshes,
seagrasses, and mangroves provide
excellent places to hide from larger
predators. Some species grow in
estuaries for a short time, but others
may remain there all their lives.

Estuaries are among the most
productive landscapes in nature.
Rivers and streams drain into
estuaries, bringing nutrients from
uplands. Plants use these nutrients
along with the sun's energy, carbon
dioxide, and water to manufacture
food. Among the important plant
forms that contribute to estuaries are
microscopic floating plants called
phytoplankton and larger macroalgae
that are attached to the bottom.
Rooted plants include marsh grasses,
mangroves, and seagrasses. When
these larger plants die, they are
colonized by microbes (bacteria,
fungi, and other organisms) that break
them down into detritus. During
decomposition, detritus becomes
smaller and smaller until the nutrients
and particles can become food for
billions of small animals. Larger
animals feed directly on these tiny
particles and on smaller animals that
fed on the detritus, and energy is
transferred through the food web to
progressively larger organisms. As
long as nutrient rich, pollutant free,
fresh water continues to mix with
marine waters in our estuaries, they
will remain productive fisheries.

Without estuaries, many important
fisheries would disappear. Snook,
trout, mullet, grouper, redfish,
sheepshead, spiny lobster, shrimp,
crabs, oysters and clams are examples
of the diverse marine animals
dependent upon healthy estuaries.
Estuaries also provide roosting and
nesting areas, or rookeries for many
birds, including several endangered
and protected species, such as brown

Florida's estuaries

Loss of estuarine habitat is a serious
problem along Florida's coasts.
Florida is undergoing tremendous
growth and 78% of Florida's
estimated 14 million residents live in
coastal areas. Coastal development is
damaging marine-fisheries habitats
that are important in maintaining
viable commercial and recreational
fisheries. Dredge-and-fill operations
for waterfront homes and seawall
construction destroy mangrove
shoreline and underwater seagrasses.
Although these activities may
temporarily enhance real estate
values, they ultimately decrease long-
term value as natural amenities
disappear, the water becomes foul,
and wildlife departs.

An aerial view of Sanibel Island on the south-west

Scientists at the Florida Fish and
Wildlife Conservation Commission's
Fish and Wildlife Research Institute
(FWRI) use information from
LANDSAT and other satellites to
map and monitor Florida's coast. By
looking at aerial photographs from
different years, scientist can locate
and measure the acreage of existing
estuarine habitat components such as
salt marshes, mangroves, and
seagrasses and can observe trends in
habitat change. Results of habitat
trend analyses have shown substantial
loss of fisheries habitats throughout
Florida. One study area on the
Atlantic coast included the Indian
River from Sebastian Inlet south to

The spiny lobster is one of many species that would disappear without estuaries.



coast of Florida.

the St. Lucie Inlet. In that area the
mangrove habitat available to
fisheries declined 86% over a 40-year
period, and 30% of the seagrass
acreage was lost. Over a 100-year
period, Tampa Bay, in southwest
Florida lost 81% of its seagrasses and
40% of it mangrove and salt marsh

How can you help protect

Use common sense when you are on a
boat, at the beach, at home, or
anywhere else. Properly dispose of all
trash and debris in garbage cans. (see
water goat article on page 11).
Always dispose of used automobile
oil at recycling centers. Follow the
labels on fertilizers and pesticides and
use the proper amount when treating
your yard. These simple steps can
help protect Florida's "cradle of the

The information used to
compile this article was
derived from a brochure
developed from the Florida
Fish and Wildlife
Conservation Commission's
Fish and Wildlife Research
You can visit them at:

http://research. MYFWC. com


L.\KE\\.\TC'H now owns an Aq.iiirius EH-220 aqualic plain harI ester lthat %olunleers inaa use
depending on a;ailabililt.

i *-K ] L ii i, 1 .i.i II' l .ii' i l l .1' ll. l,! I, 111 11.11 *11. i I 'i i c i. lc 1 1 i, d I ,,* >,* il ,I 'i ,! *l lk in
. ,|. i. l[ i C!r l !i I l I I, l 1 11, l!11 , I I l* .I l ..!h i! .Il.| l1 i.!p r l ii l .'!''l i .' illi .N 1 '.i I 'l !. i l! W I.ll l iN
r.I l o. 11 !-. '[0, ,! 'ndli d i i. ',l ,l,'!i r[ il 1., ,, hi >-* n r.ln l 1r 1 .!.. l0 i> l r' l ii,!, ,l,!! rn !!i -. u I i. l,, 1!l i. ." 'li.' i ., U h ll,

I$ !il 1 1 .' ,, I, I l, l 11 I i '! '. l, i l, i .l !k l I.,0' I ,i i II. I'I* I !k.I I IC I .i d l .' '-. %, 1 ,!! i li', r ic
!li I.-. c.tc I ii'* l | |.l ,!, M' ., i ll l i! !. t !,,i.-'l I.!c l v, id !!i c i ii -2 2,, lhl'" l 1 h .,. !! -!,,,I I \, dlii.u lll!!ir l ,i. ,ilth

11.1' c l' l I i, '. !. l h c '. ,'l l i [ 1'. 1 l i I L !0! I .i l .1 l- 11 '-", 1 .1 1 12,-. .1 1. ,di. l.
ir L lll 11 ** -*i'11'* ![ll 'li'l '|U ln l.l ll il .li 111 l- .I 'dlT il.I I.I'.II i r .i- '> ill 'L .i i lrIl .l '>l *'' ; [1 *i
l 'i ~l.i.l i i i.i. ll i' 'i l i|i |' >.il' I ln '. .'' !'!' [' 'i. 1 'i. li l 'i. 'i '' i' i. Il lii .i 'r 'l' ii l li il' -li.i~ ''! ili 'l ld li.

UF/IFAS Extension Office
Contact: John Brenneman
Phone: 863-519-8677
Address: 1702 Hwy 17/98 S
(PO Box 9005 Drawer HS03),
Bartow, Florida 33859

Lakeland Public Works Department
Contacts: Lakes Manager Doug Gleckler
Lake's Program Coordinator Cindy Hill
Phone: 863-834-8429
Address: 407 Fairway Ave.,
Lakeland, Florida 33801


Merger of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences and the School of Forest
Resources & Conservation
Florida LAKEWATCH Volunteers and Stakeholders:
The Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences has merged with the
School of Forest Resources and Conservation (SFRC) and will now be one
of three broad programmatic areas within the SFRC along with Geomatics
and Forest Resources and Conservation. The faculty and staff of the
Program for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (PFAS) will continue to
deliver the premier teaching, research and extension programs that have
earned them national acclaim.

The Florida LAKEWATCH program will also continue as it has in the
past. Volunteers who are familiar with working though the Department of
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences telephone systems and occasional
letterhead should not be alarmed at the new titles that will be used. Tim
White is the overall Director of the SFRC, while George Blakeslee and
Tom Frazer are the Associate Directors.



hav 9 he cal 9us atU 10-525-92 or e-mai us at
:uu :. ufl-ed
a a -g1~1l~l

Osceola County

Orange County

Orange County

Boggy Cove


Fells Cove


Big Sand
Big Sand Bay
Cay Dee
Charity North

Live Oak
West Middle
West North
West South

Conway North
Conway South

Estelle East
Ivanhoe East
Ivanhoe West
La Grange

Little Conway
Little Down
Little Pheasant
Little Wauseon Bay
Lorna Doone
Lucerne East
Lucerne West
Mary Jess
Metro West


San Susan

Timber River
Wauseon Bay
William Davis

Alachua County




Calf Pond
Dean Pond
Gwynn Oaks
Holly Forest


Johnson Pond

Orange County

Recycling is Not Just for Aluminum

and Plastic!

"Water, water, everywhere and not a
drop to drink..." A telling line from a
famous poem should give all
Floridians an appreciation for the
importance and responsibility of good
water stewardship. Florida's initial
impetus for reuse stems from efforts
in the early 1970's aimed at
eliminating environmental
degradation caused by sewage
effluent disposal. In 1989, the
Legislature established a state
objective to encourage and promote
conservation and the reuse of
reclaimed water. Where are we
The water consumers mantra should
be: "Conserve, Recycle, and Reuse."
Conservation of water is by far the
first and easiest way to reduce
groundwater withdrawals. It also
reduces the amount of discharges and
the associated energy and chemicals
needed to prepare the water for
reintroduction into the environment.
One of the simplest examples of
conserving water in the home is
capturing rainwater for use in
watering shrubbery and ornamental
plants. The rain barrel is once again
being recommended by today's
conservationists and is referred to as
water harvesting.

The term "recycle" as applied here is
defined as reusing the same water
multiple times. Recycling of
irrigation water through tail water
recovery, field border irrigation pits,
and rainfall harvesting are already
being implemented in agricultural and
nursery operations. Basically,
growing areas are designed with
water catchment systems to facilitate
the reapplication of runoff water to
the growing area. Industries,
commercial businesses, and
institutions also use closed loop
cooling systems and cooling towers
in their air conditioning systems,
effectively allowing the water to be
used again and again.

Reuse is the deliberate application of
reclaimed water (secondarily treated


L ; I;

L -, -'... .

One of the simplest examples of conserving water in the home is capturing
rainwater for use in watering shrubbery and ornamental plants.

sewage effluent) for a beneficial
purpose (e.g., irrigation, car washes,
and flushing toilets) but not for
potable uses. Reclaimed water lines
are being planned and installed in
new housing developments
throughout Florida. Wastewater is
collected, treated, and redistributed
through reclaimed water distribution
systems. One potential problem
associated with using secondarily
treated sewage effluent for irrigation
in residential areas is the concern that
these nutrient-rich waters may
actually increase the eutrophication
of nearby water bodies.

Some Counties have already taken
the initiative

A utility in Walton County installed a
reclaimed water redistribution system
for irrigating a new residential
development in an effort to reduce the
withdrawal of fresh water from the
local coastal aquifer wells. Wells
along the coastal areas are subject to
saltwater intrusion if excessive
withdrawals occur, so minimizing or
diverting water use from coastal
wells reduces this threat. Seminole
County is one of several counties
where residential reclaimed retrofit
programs are being planned that will
construct reclaimed water pipes to
residents in various communities.

In Manatee County there is a
federally funded grant program for
connecting agricultural users to the

'., .....1

Water Reuse

County's reclaimed water lines.
Currently, a minimal amount of
reclaimed water is used for
agricultural irrigation due to
restrictions in using reclaimed water
on edible crops due to potential
health issues. Additionally,
reclaimed water used in
containerized growing operations
can lead to salt build up in nursery
stock and can injure susceptible
plants. Other agricultural operations
would likely benefit from reclaimed
water use.

Since reuse has generally been
viewed as a means of disposing of
wastewater effluent without harming
the environment, regulatory
agencies have not been concerned
with how efficiently reclaimed
water is used. The water
management districts are beginning
to encourage efficient reuse that
offsets water demand or recharges
ground water supplies.
It has been estimated that reuse of
reclaimed water has reduced
wastewater discharges by 36%
statewide according to a report
based on the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection's 1999
Reuse Inventory.

Water Management Districts
provide general guidance

Florida's Five Water Management
Districts (WMD) influence water
user decisions about implementing
reuse by using financial incentives
and through their policies. Some
WMD will not approve permits to
use traditional water sources when
they believe that it is feasible to use
reclaimed water, whereas other
districts are more relaxed
concerning reuse as long as existing
discharges do not violate existing
resource protection standards. In
fact, WMD policies vary widely and
result in different outcomes because
state law does not clearly define the

% Rate of Reuse
of Reclaimed


The five Florida Water Management Districts policies vary widely on the reuse
of reclaim water resulting in different rates of reuse. No information was

available for the Suwannee River WMD.
circumstances under which it is
feasible to use reclaimed water.

The Northwest Florida WMD does
not permit the use of groundwater for
certain types of irrigation in its
coastal Water Resource Caution Area
due to the potential for saltwater
intrusion. As a result, this district has
achieved a 93% rate of reuse of
reclaimed water and avoided an
additional 17% in withdrawals from
overused water resources. The St.
Johns River WMD also takes a strong
regulatory stance when permitting to
promote reuse, but the applicant has
the final right to determine feasibility.
If the WMD determines that the
applicant has biased the feasibility
study, they will usually require
additional supporting evidence. As a
result of this policy, the district has
achieved a 49% reuse of reclaimed

In the South Florida WMD, where the
human population is concentrated,
reuse is rarely implemented. One
reason for this is that the WMD
continues to allow wastewater utilities
to use discharge methods that are
significantly less costly. Many
utilities depend on ocean outfall and
underground injection discharges that
are not discouraged in favor of reuse
unless they represent expanded
discharges. The WMD will continue
to follow this policy unless stricter
standards are established regarding

discharges so that costly reuse
programs are offset by the more
stringent regulations. As a result of
this policy, the district has achieved
only a 22% rate of reuse.

The Southwest Florida WMD has a
different reuse policy. The WMD
takes a strong regulatory position to
encourage reuse implementation and
the district uses a 50% funding match
as a financial incentive to help build
reclaimed water systems where
feasible. As a result of this cost
sharing policy, the district has
achieved a 51% rate of reuse.

All districts are looking at reclaimed
water as a significant alternative
water supply resource and there is a
general projection of increased reuse
throughout the state. As the
widespread use of reclaimed water is
relatively new, issues regarding
allocation and pricing are rare.
Another issue is conservation of
reclaimed water. Reclaimed water is a
commodity that may be sold by
wastewater utilities and is not directly
regulated under the water
management districts' consumptive
use permitting rules. Most sources of
water that are permitted require
efficient water use, but these
requirements do not currently apply
to reclaimed water. These and other
issues will probably be addressed in
the context of broader state-wide
water policy issues in the near future.

The scope of uses and standards of greyvater and wastewater
610, Florida Administrative Code and Title XXIX, Public Health

reuse are outlined in Chapter 62-
Chapter 381.0065 of the Florida

Statutes. These policies mainly address reclaimed or secondarily treated water, but are also the
only legal restriction close to greyvater that Florida possesses.

Water Management District

Outstanding LAKEWATCH Volunteer

Bob Forbes has been an active volunteer
for the Florida LAKEWATCH program
from October 1996 through his recent
retirement in May of this year. Bob said,
"At my age I'm beginning to realize that
the older I get the better I was, so I am
retiring from Florida LAKEWATCH
which I have enjoyed performing with
my dogs: Chanel and Hugo." Bob's
devoted four-legged assistants helped
with the sampling duties from a 1965
Correct Craft dubbed the Kennelcraft.
Originally, Bob requested to sample on
Lake Dora since that is where he resides.
However, another volunteer was already
sampling Lake Dora so Bob would have
been trained as a backup. Without
hesitation, Bob decided to travel to Lake
Carlton for sampling because he really
wanted to participate as a primary
sampler. Lake Carlton is located in both
Lake and Orange Counties, but mainly in
Orange County, on the Ocklawaha chain
of lakes and is located at latitude N28
45' 32" and longitude W810 39' 29".
Bob retired from Eli Lilly & Company in
Indianapolis as a pharmaceutical
chemist in 1983 and was a
charter member of the
Indianapolis Sailing Club for
about 30 years. Since he had a
wooden Century Aerostat, a
Larsen sailboat, an early wind
surfer, and an 18-foot lightweight
Grumman canoe, Bob needed a
place with plenty of water so he
could use all his watercraft. Bob
said, "My wife would have
preferred that we spend our
retirement years in Santa Fe,
New Mexico, but she knew the
recreational waters there could
not compare to those in Lake
County, Florida."
Bob was attracted to the Lake
County area because of the large
number of lakes. He started
exploring the lakes with his boat
and joined the Antique Classic
Boating Association. The
association encouraged him to
start leading water events in the
Harris and Clermont Chain of
Lakes. Bob has navigated the
Dead River, Lake Harris, Helena

Run, Bugg Springs, and Lake Denham.
Two major cruises were from Lake Dora
to Palatka and also a few on the St. Johns
River from Sanford to Jacksonville and
back. He has also traveled on much of the
Withlacoochee River, all of the Clermont
Chain's eleven lakes, and from Gourd
Neck Springs in the southern part of Lake
Apopka throughout the entire Ocklawaha
Chain. Very few boaters have navigated
all of the wonderful waters that Bob has
enjoyed exploring for the past 25 years.
Bob's recreational pursuits evolved into
an interest in water quality. Since he
wanted to learn more about water quality,
he joined Florida LAKEWATCH to help
collect data that could be useful for
managing Florida lakes. He has also been
involved with other organizations and
government entities including the St.
John's River Water Management District,
Lake County Conservation Council,
Friends of Lake Apopka, Trout Lake
Water Center, and the Alliance to Protect
Water Resources. Each spring, Bob has
participated in a volunteer program called

Bob Forbes with his LAKEWATCH notebook at the 2008 Lake
County Regional meeting.

the "Ibini Terra Clean-Up", which is
an effort by the community to help
clean our lakes and canal systems,
that the Lake County Water Authority
has sponsored for many years. Some
years Bob helped by using his boat
and other years by walking and
wading. Although it is only a one-day
affair, he believes that similar
community efforts do make a great
Bob has also monitored water levels
in Lake Dora to investigate the effects
of water fluctuations on the lake's
vegetation and aquatic organisms. To
keep tabs on these changes, he
constructed various types of lake
level gauges that were calibrated to
the St. Johns River Water
Management District (SJRWMD)
standard, which uses mean sea level
data as the baseline. Bob has checked
the gauges daily for many years. He
has records for Lake Dora since 1970
showing a historical high of 65 feet
above mean sea level (msl)
during January 1998 and a
historical low of 60.1 feet above
msl during July 2007. On
February 20, 2008, the lake
level was recorded at 61 feet
above msl. The SJRWMD
desires the lake level to range
between 62 feet to 63.5 feet
above msl.
Bob's interest, enthusiasm, and
attention to detail in monitoring
the lakes of Lake County are
exemplified by his 12-year
participation in the Florida
LAKEWATCH program. It has
been a pleasure working with
Bob because his dedication in
sampling Lake Carlton goes
above and beyond anything we
could have hoped for from a
, volunteer. We commend him
for offering his time and
5 energy. Since Bob has retired
r from sampling, Riley Warddrip
*' has been trained to carry on the
U. sampling of Lake Carlton using


9so it eac s iat

it~s a ateggatT
~~IIIIL'1C I SI~~/LrlS~'I

Ahoy Neighbor! After every rain
event tons of organic matter, debris,
trash, and chemicals pour out of our
stormwater pipes and into Florida's
lakes, ponds, rivers, and intercoastal
waterways. Like most of you, we
have had more than our share of
heartache, discouragement and
frustration in dealing with this
problem. With over a thousand people
moving into Florida every day, we
believe this problem is something that
cannot be overlooked any longer. In
fact, our inspiration was an
environmentally minded little seven
year-old named Mia who never failed
to appreciate the beauty around her.
So with a strong desire to make
something happen that truly affects
Florida's landscape, we set sail on a
new adventure.
As founders of the Green Armada
non-profit organization, we became
increasingly frustrated because so
much time was spent looking for
funding, attending meetings, and
addressing board members -
definitely not our cup of tea! So while
others were talking about doing
something to clean up our
environment, we decided to go out
and actually do it. After a decade of
collecting up to 400 to 700 pounds of
trash per day from Tampa Bay's
waters, one piece at a time, we
decided to stop the trash at its most
concentrated source the outflows of
stormwater pipes. As a result, the
concept of the WatergoatTM as a cost-
effective, efficient water clean up
strategy was born.
By combining the joint efforts of
corporations, citizens, and
municipalities we envisioned tackling
the floating debris problem and water
quality of Florida's waterways -
much like the folks at Florida
LAKEWATCH. With research,
engineering, and business plan in
hand we started knocking on doors
(mainly those of City Halls),
reminding our municipalities that the
stormwater systems in place today are

A watergoat deployed in a lake in Hillsborough County.

basically the same as those used by
the Romans over 2,000 years ago.
Realizing that our state and local
governments have limited budgets
and are often unable to allocate the
manpower or devices to deal with this
growing problem, we designed the
WatergoatTM. This piece of
equipment provides an affordable
solution for anyone who desires
cleaner shorelines and water systems
including concerned citizens, mayors,
and even CEOs.
So why do we call it the
WatergoatTM? Because it is tough,
tenacious, and it "eats" trash before it
has a chance to spread throughout the
water body. The WatergoatTM is
affordable with prices starting at
$400. Its attributes include the ability
to raise and lower with rising and
falling water levels and the capacity
to contain hundreds of pounds of
trash after a rain event without
blocking the water flowing through
the stormwater system. The
WatergoatTM also serves as an, or
important educational tool by
showing the community that a gum
wrapper or Styrofoam cup tossed into
the street a mile away could easily
end up floating in their lake, pond or
stream if it was not captured by the
WatergoatTM first.
The WatergoatTM can be customized
to any application from drainage
ditches to stormwater outflow pipes

measuring up to 48 inches in
diameter. The WatergoatTM is
constructed of a welded aluminum
frame that is reinforced with zinc
plating to prevent corrosion. It is
designed and engineered to withstand
strong water velocity from outflow
pipes. A rubberized nylon net basket
hangs from the structure and
effectively contains the stormwater
debris within the WatergoatTM itself.
This environmentally friendly device
is safe for wildlife and maintaining it
is a snap all you need is a dip net, a
garbage bag, and about five minutes a
week to clean it out. As suggested by
Dr. Dan Canfield, in the near future
we plan to add absorbent sponge
booms that soak up gasoline, motor
oil, and diesel fuel before it enters a
water body. This addition will enable
the WatergoatTM to trap both trash
and chemical substances, effectively
keeping them out of our water bodies.
How cool is that?!
The companion in this clean water
system is the WatergoatTM Island. We
engineered our WatergoatTM Island to
be the least expensive, yet most
effective, floating wetland on the
market. It is built on a 5 foot by 12
foot floating aluminum frame and is
equipped with a solar panel and
aerating pump to improve the
absorption of nitrogen by the root
systems of the native non-invasive
(Continued on page 12)



Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
School of Forestry Resource Conservation
7922 NW 71st Street
Gainesville, FL 32653

ETorid a

This newsletter is generated by the Florida
LAKEWATCH program, within UF/IFAS Support
for the LAKEWATCH program is provided by the
Florida Legislature, grants and donations For more
information about LAKEWATCH, to inquire about
volunteer training sessions, or to submit materials for
inclusion in this publication, write to
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
School of Forestry Resource Conservation
GanmevileFL 32653
E-mail fl-lakewatch@ufl edu
http //lakewatch ifas ufl edu/

All unsolicited articles, photographs, artwork or other
written material must include contributor's name,
address and phone number Opinions expressed are
solely those of the individual contributor and do not
necessarily reflect the opinion or policy of the Florida


It's tough, it's tenacious, it eats trash....it's a WatergoatTM (Continued from page 11)

plants growing in the frame. This
makes the perfect companion to
littoral plantings because if the water
level recedes from the sides of the
lake or pond, the WatergoatTM Island
continues to filter the remaining water
in the middle of the lake.

Just a hundred years ago, Florida was
a vast wilderness of beautiful
wetlands and forests. In just a few
decades, we have altered the
watershed with concrete, asphalt, and
impervious surfaces that contribute
more stormwater at a higher rate than
before. We have a right and
responsibility to do what we can to
mitigate the negative effects of
increased stormwater inputs. We
applaud all the volunteers and staff
members of Florida LAKEWATCH,
an organization that truly knows how
to get things done. In the future, we
will be installing components of the
WatergoatTM System throughout the
entire State of Florida hopefully

with the help of major corporations,
municipalities, and concerned citizens
like you. Currently the WatergoatTM
is working in St. Petersburg, Tampa,
Miami, and Destin and is coming
soon to a lake or pond near you.
We strongly believe that corporations
want a tangible return on their "green
investment". The WatergoatTM
System provides documented results.
Having operated in the non-profit
world, we know that funding sources
require documented results too. The
WatergoatTM System provides
documented results so that
organizations like Florida
LAKEWATCH can continue to work
with concerned citizens and clean
Florida's waterways. In keeping with
our philosophy, a portion of our
proceeds will be going back to the
Florida LAKEWATCH program.
Please contact Mark S. Maksimowicz
at earth 101 @newearthindustries.org
(727) 459-2301 or check out our
website at: www.watergoat.org