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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 Grant goal and purpose
 Organization
 Program structure and scope of...
 Personnel engaged in degree related...
 Publications
 Contributing personnel
 Collaborating institutions and...
 Financial summaries
 Abbreviations






Title: Administrative report, Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program, September, 1981-December, 1986. (Draft only)
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 Material Information
Title: Administrative report, Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program, September, 1981-December, 1986. (Draft only)
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program
Publisher: TropSoils
Publication Date: 1981
 Subjects
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055462
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Foreword
        Foreword
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
        Table of Contents 3
    Grant goal and purpose
        Page 1
    Organization
        Page 2
        Management entity
            Page 2
        Lead universities
            Page 2
        Board of directors
            Page 2
        Technical committee
            Page 3
        External evaluation panel
            Page 3
    Program structure and scope of work
        Page 4
        Program structure
            Page 4
            Humid tropics
                Page 4
            Semi-arid tropics
                Page 4
            Acid savannas
                Page 4
        Scope of work
            Page 5
            Humid tropics - Peru
                Page 5
            Humid tropics - Indonesia
                Page 6
            Semi-arid tropics
                Page 6
            Acid savannas
                Page 7
                Page 8
        Chronology of major events
            Page 9
            Development, initiative and extension of the SM-CRSP
                Page 9
            Humid tropics - Peru
                Page 9
            Humid tropics - Indonesia
                Page 10
            Semi-arid tropics - Niger and Mali
                Page 10
            Acid savannas
                Page 10
                Page 11
        Technical achievements
            Page 12
            TropSoils finding ways to conserve natural resources
                Page 12
            Subsoil compaction restricts root growth in oxisols
                Page 13
            Gypsum improves soil chemical properties
                Page 14
            Soil color suggest crop production potential
                Page 15
            Incubation procedures predict nitrogen availability
                Page 16
            Legumes may replace fertilizer nitrogen
                Page 17
            Soil variability a major factor in land use
                Page 18
            Ethnic differences affect design of farming systems
                Page 19
            Family welfare important consideration in resource allocation
                Page 20
            Organic materials offer promise in farming systems
                Page 21
            Mycorrhiza enhances growth of pasture legumes
                Page 22
            Models match crop requirements to soil characteristics
                Page 23
            Expert systems used to transfer soil management technology
                Page 24
            Low-input a first step to permanent cropping
                Page 25
            continuous cropping a feasible alternative
                Page 26
            Improved fallows regenerate agricultural lands
                Page 27
            Technology increases paddy rice production
                Page 28
            Legume based pasture improves productivity
                Page 29
            Degraded steeplands reclaimed
                Page 30
            Lands compacted by bulldozer clearing improved
                Page 31
            Alley cropping tested on acid infertile soils
                Page 32
            Soils classification system aids selection of management practices
                Page 33
            Network link projects in latin America
                Page 34
            Acidity and fertiltiy major constraints in transmigration area
                Page 35
            Workshop stimulates technology transfer
                Page 36
            Model accurately calculates water loss from cropped soils
                Page 37
            Rainfall and soil hydrology patterns quantified for west africa area
                Page 38
            Rainfall water management increases crop yield in semi-arid area
                Page 39
            Soil fertility and cultivars influence water use efficiency
                Page 40
            Neem windbreaks improve enviroment and plant growth in sahel
                Page 41
            Mulching improves degraded sahelian soils
                Page 42
    Personnel engaged in degree related programs supported by tropsoils and collaborators
        Page 43
        Cornell University
            Page 43
        University of Hawaii
            Page 44
        North Carolina State University
            Page 45
            Page 46
        Texas A & M university
            Page 47
    Publications
        Page 48
        Serial journals, technical bulletins, monographs and workshop proceedings
            Page 48
            Cornell University
                Page 48
            University of Hawaii
                Page 49
                Page 50
            North Carolina State University
                Page 51
                Page 52
                Page 53
                Page 54
                Page 55
            Texas A & M University
                Page 56
                Page 57
        Special reports , research briefs and abstracts
            Page 58
            University of Hawaii
                Page 58
                Page 59
            North Carolina State University
                Page 60
                Page 61
                Page 62
            Texas A & M University
                Page 63
                Page 64
        Graduate student thesis
            Page 65
            Cornell University
                Page 65
            University of Hawaii
                Page 66
            North Carolina State University
                Page 67
            Texas A & M University
                Page 68
    Contributing personnel
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Program management
            Page 69
        Cornell University component
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
        University of Hawaii component
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
        North Carolina State University component
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
        Texas A & M University component
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
    Collaborating institutions and organizations with Cornell University
        Page 87
        University of Hawaii
            Page 88
        North Carolina State University
            Page 89
            Page 90
        Texas A & M University
            Page 91
            Page 92
    Financial summaries
        Page 93
        Expenditures by objects and universities
            Page 93
        Cost sharing reported
            Page 94
    Abbreviations
        Page 95
        Page 96
Full Text



DRAFT ONLY




Administrative Report

Soil Management Collaborative
Research Support Program
September 1981-December 1986


Funded in part by
Grant No. DAN-1311-G-SS-1083-00
From the Agency for International Development












TROPSOILS



















ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT


SOIL MANAGEMENT COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM


September, 1981 -- December, 1986





Funded in part by



Grant No. DAN-1311-G-SS-1083-00

from the

Agency for International Development














FOREWORD


The initial grant from the Agency for International Development
for funding the Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program
was for the period September, 1981 September, 1986. An amendment
extended the final date to December, 1986. This report is a summary
of the goal, organization, achievements, participating personnel and
expenditures relevant to the program for this time period.


C. B. McCants
Management Entity
October, 1987












Table of Contents


Grant Goal and Purpose ......................................... 1


Organization

Management Entity .................................... 2
Lead Universities ..................................... 2
Board of Directors ................................... 2
Technical Committee .................................... 3
External Evaluation Panel ............................. 3


Program Structure and Scope of Work

Program Structure .................................... 4

Humid Tropics .................................. 4
Semi-Arid Tropics .......................... ....... 4
Acid Savannas .................................... 4
Steeplands ...................................... 5

Scope of Work ......................................... 5

Humid Tropics Peru ............................. 5
Humid Tropics Indonesia ........................ 6
Semi-Arid Tropics ................................ 6
Acid Savannas .................................... 7

Chronology of Major Events

Development, Initiation and Extension of the
SM-CRSP .................................. 9
Humid Tropics Peru ............................ 9
Humid Tropics Indonesia ........................ 10
Semi-Arid Tropics Niger and Mali .............. 10
Acid Savannas ............... ................. 10

Technical Achievements

TropSoils Finding Ways to Conserve Natural
Resources ................................ ....... 12
Subsoil Compaction Restricts Root Growth in
Oxisols ............. ....... ....... ......... ..... .. 13
Gypsum Improves Soil Chemical Properties ......... 14
Soil Color Suggests Crop Production Potential .... 15
Incubation Procedures Predict Nitrogen Avail-
ability ............... .... ....... ..... .... ..... 16
Legumes May Replace Fertilizer Nitrogen .......... 17












Soil Variability a Major Factor in Land Use ...... 18
Ethnic Differences Affect Design of Farming
Systems ...................................... 19
Family Welfare Important Consideration in
Resource Allocation .............................. 20
Organic Materials Offer Promise in Farming
Systems .......................................... 21
Mycorrhiza Enhances Growth of Pasture Legumes .... 22
Models Match Crop Requirements to Soil Character-
istics .................. ....................... 23
Expert Systems Used to Transfer Soil Management
Technology ........................................... 24

Low-Input-A First Step to Permanent Cropping ..... 25
Continuous Cropping A Feasible Alternative ....... 26
Improved Fallows Regenerate Agricultural Lands ... 27
Technology Increases Paddy Rice Production ....... 28
Legume Based Pastures Improves Productivity ...... 29
Degraded Steeplands Reclaimed .................. 30
Lands Compacted by Bulldozer Clearing Improved ... 31
Alley Cropping Tested On Acid Infertile Soils .... 32
Soils Classification System Aids Selection of
Management Practices ............................. 33
Network Links Projects in Latin America .......... 34
Acidity and Fertility Major Constraints in Trans-
migration Area .................................. 35
Workshop Stimulates Technology Transfer .......... 36

Model Accurately Calculates Water Loss From Cropped
Soils ............................................ 37
Rainfall and Soil Hydrology Patterns Quantified for
West Africa Area .............................. 38
Rainfall Water Management Increases Crop Yields in
Semi-Arid Area .................................... 39
Soil Fertility and Cultivars Influence Water Use
Efficiency ..................................... 40
Neem Windbreaks Improve Environment and Plant Growth
in Sahel .......................................... 41
Mulching Improves Degraded Sahelian Soils ........ 42


Personnel Engaged in Degree Related Programs Supported
by TropSoils and Collaborators

Cornell University .............................. 43
University of Hawaii ............................. 44
North Carolina State University ............... 45
Texas A & M University ........................... 47












Publications


Serial Journals, Technical Bulletins, Monographs and
Workshop Proceedings

Cornell University .......................... 48
University of Hawaii ........................ 49
North Carolina State University ............. 51
Texas A & M University ...................... 56

Special Reports, Research Briefs and Abstracts

University of Hawaii ........................ 58
North Carolina State University ............. 60
Texas A & M University ................... 63

Graduate Student Thesis

Cornell University .......................... 65
University of Hawaii ......................... 66
North Carolina State University ............. 67
Texas A & M University ...................... 68


Contributing Personnel

Program Management .............................. 69
Cornell University Component ................... 72
University of Hawaii Component ................... 75
North Carolina State University Component ........ 78
Texas A & M University Component ................. 83


Collaborating Institutions and Organizations

With Cornell University .......................... 87
With University of Hawaii ........................ 88
With North Carolina State University ............. 89
With Texas A & M University ...................... 91


Financial Summaries

Expenditures by Objects and Universities ......... 93
Cost Sharing Reported ........................... 94


Abbreviations ..................................... 95














Grant Goal and Purposel


A. The goal of this grant is to develop and adopt improved soil
management technology which is agronomically, ecologically
and economically sound for developing countries of the
tropics.

B. The purpose of this grant is to have the Grantee organize and
mobilize the financial and human resources necessary for
mounting a major multi-institutional US/LDC collaborative
effort of research and training in soil management.

1From the Grant document, page 2.














Organization


Organization. The basic organization of the Soil Management
Collaborative Research Support Program (SM-CRSP) is set forth in
the grant document. The identification of the various components
and their responsibilities follow:

Management Entity. It is the recipient of the grant and has
overall responsibility for program performance and fiscal manage-
ment. Funds were disbursed to the participating universities in
accordance with guidelines in the grant. Adjustments were made
as considered desirable to enhance the total effort. Administra-
tive support was provided to the lead universities in developing
agreements with collaborating countries, in expediting requests,
procedures and in program evaluation. Guidelines on detailed
administrative actions were provided to the participating uni-
versities via a manual "Policies and Procedures for the Soil
Management CRSP" that was developed from published AID policies
and procedures.

Lead Universities. One university was assigned the lead
role for each primary research site and, as such, had the major
responsibility for conducting the program at that location. This
procedure involved developing programs of mutual interest with
the collaborating host country institution, appointment of
personnel and providing operational oversight. The lead univer-
sities and the country location for each primary research site
follow:

Cornell University Brazil

University of Hawaii Indonesia

North Carolina State University Peru

Texas A & M University Niger

Universities which, in addition to a primary site, also
conducted research in other countries follow:

North Carolina State University Indonesia and Brazil

Texas A & M University Mali

Board of Directors. The Board is composed of one represen-
tative from the administration of each lead institution and one
representative from each collaborating country with a primary














Organization


Organization. The basic organization of the Soil Management
Collaborative Research Support Program (SM-CRSP) is set forth in
the grant document. The identification of the various components
and their responsibilities follow:

Management Entity. It is the recipient of the grant and has
overall responsibility for program performance and fiscal manage-
ment. Funds were disbursed to the participating universities in
accordance with guidelines in the grant. Adjustments were made
as considered desirable to enhance the total effort. Administra-
tive support was provided to the lead universities in developing
agreements with collaborating countries, in expediting requests,
procedures and in program evaluation. Guidelines on detailed
administrative actions were provided to the participating uni-
versities via a manual "Policies and Procedures for the Soil
Management CRSP" that was developed from published AID policies
and procedures.

Lead Universities. One university was assigned the lead
role for each primary research site and, as such, had the major
responsibility for conducting the program at that location. This
procedure involved developing programs of mutual interest with
the collaborating host country institution, appointment of
personnel and providing operational oversight. The lead univer-
sities and the country location for each primary research site
follow:

Cornell University Brazil

University of Hawaii Indonesia

North Carolina State University Peru

Texas A & M University Niger

Universities which, in addition to a primary site, also
conducted research in other countries follow:

North Carolina State University Indonesia and Brazil

Texas A & M University Mali

Board of Directors. The Board is composed of one represen-
tative from the administration of each lead institution and one
representative from each collaborating country with a primary














Organization


Organization. The basic organization of the Soil Management
Collaborative Research Support Program (SM-CRSP) is set forth in
the grant document. The identification of the various components
and their responsibilities follow:

Management Entity. It is the recipient of the grant and has
overall responsibility for program performance and fiscal manage-
ment. Funds were disbursed to the participating universities in
accordance with guidelines in the grant. Adjustments were made
as considered desirable to enhance the total effort. Administra-
tive support was provided to the lead universities in developing
agreements with collaborating countries, in expediting requests,
procedures and in program evaluation. Guidelines on detailed
administrative actions were provided to the participating uni-
versities via a manual "Policies and Procedures for the Soil
Management CRSP" that was developed from published AID policies
and procedures.

Lead Universities. One university was assigned the lead
role for each primary research site and, as such, had the major
responsibility for conducting the program at that location. This
procedure involved developing programs of mutual interest with
the collaborating host country institution, appointment of
personnel and providing operational oversight. The lead univer-
sities and the country location for each primary research site
follow:

Cornell University Brazil

University of Hawaii Indonesia

North Carolina State University Peru

Texas A & M University Niger

Universities which, in addition to a primary site, also
conducted research in other countries follow:

North Carolina State University Indonesia and Brazil

Texas A & M University Mali

Board of Directors. The Board is composed of one represen-
tative from the administration of each lead institution and one
representative from each collaborating country with a primary














Organization


Organization. The basic organization of the Soil Management
Collaborative Research Support Program (SM-CRSP) is set forth in
the grant document. The identification of the various components
and their responsibilities follow:

Management Entity. It is the recipient of the grant and has
overall responsibility for program performance and fiscal manage-
ment. Funds were disbursed to the participating universities in
accordance with guidelines in the grant. Adjustments were made
as considered desirable to enhance the total effort. Administra-
tive support was provided to the lead universities in developing
agreements with collaborating countries, in expediting requests,
procedures and in program evaluation. Guidelines on detailed
administrative actions were provided to the participating uni-
versities via a manual "Policies and Procedures for the Soil
Management CRSP" that was developed from published AID policies
and procedures.

Lead Universities. One university was assigned the lead
role for each primary research site and, as such, had the major
responsibility for conducting the program at that location. This
procedure involved developing programs of mutual interest with
the collaborating host country institution, appointment of
personnel and providing operational oversight. The lead univer-
sities and the country location for each primary research site
follow:

Cornell University Brazil

University of Hawaii Indonesia

North Carolina State University Peru

Texas A & M University Niger

Universities which, in addition to a primary site, also
conducted research in other countries follow:

North Carolina State University Indonesia and Brazil

Texas A & M University Mali

Board of Directors. The Board is composed of one represen-
tative from the administration of each lead institution and one
representative from each collaborating country with a primary








research site -- for a total of eight persons. An executive
committee was formed consisting of the board members from the
lead universities. The Chairperson for the Board is elected by
the full Board from members of the executive committee. The
Board reviewed and took action on recommendations from the Man-
agement Entity on policy issues affecting the overall program and
fund allocations to the lead universities. Differences between
the Board and the Management Entity on critical issues were
resolved before actions were taken.

Technical Committee. This committee is composed of the four
program coordinators (referred to as "principle investigators" in
the grant document). They keep each other informed on respective
program developments, discuss topics of mutual interest and
promote activities of common consent.

External Evaluation Panel (EEP). It is composed of three
members all of whom were on the Advisory Committee in planning
the SM-CRSP. Reviews of individual programs and the overall CRSP
were made by the EEP in response to Management Entity requests.
The decision on when a review was undertaken was based on the
stage of development of the program, concerns on progress or
funding status and considerations on changes in research objec-
tives. The reports of the EEP were submitted to the Management
Entity for distribution. The recommendations were utilized in
making decisions on revisions in programs and operations.








research site -- for a total of eight persons. An executive
committee was formed consisting of the board members from the
lead universities. The Chairperson for the Board is elected by
the full Board from members of the executive committee. The
Board reviewed and took action on recommendations from the Man-
agement Entity on policy issues affecting the overall program and
fund allocations to the lead universities. Differences between
the Board and the Management Entity on critical issues were
resolved before actions were taken.

Technical Committee. This committee is composed of the four
program coordinators (referred to as "principle investigators" in
the grant document). They keep each other informed on respective
program developments, discuss topics of mutual interest and
promote activities of common consent.

External Evaluation Panel (EEP). It is composed of three
members all of whom were on the Advisory Committee in planning
the SM-CRSP. Reviews of individual programs and the overall CRSP
were made by the EEP in response to Management Entity requests.
The decision on when a review was undertaken was based on the
stage of development of the program, concerns on progress or
funding status and considerations on changes in research objec-
tives. The reports of the EEP were submitted to the Management
Entity for distribution. The recommendations were utilized in
making decisions on revisions in programs and operations.











Program Structure and Scope-of-Work


Program Structure

The Planning Entity recommended and BIFAD and AID approved
the plan that the Soil Management CRSP would be organized around
four agroecological zones: humid tropics, semi-arid tropics,
acid savannas and steeplands. Each zone is representative of
large areas within the developing countries and has one or more
primary research sites and a designated U.S. university or uni-
versities to provide the leadership. Secondary or extrapolation
sites within the zones were established as technical information
became available. In addition to serving a lead role within one
zone, a university may also provide support in another zone. The
geographic areas covered by the zones are shown in Figure 1 and
pertinent details are summarized below.

Humid Tropics. This zone is defined as the portion of the
tropics with no more than three months dry season. In Soil
Taxonomy terminology, the dominant soils are in the udic moisture
regime and in the isohyperthermic or isothermic temperature
regime. The native vegetation is tropical rain forests. Two
primary research sites were established. (1) Yurimaguas, Peru
with North Carolina State University (NCSU) as the lead institu-
tion in collaboration with INIPA and (2) Sitiung, West Sumatra,
Indonesia with University of Hawaii as the lead and NCSU as the
support university. The host country collaborator is AARD
through its Center for Soils Research. In addition, NCSU has a
secondary research site at Manaus, Brazil in collaboration with
UEPAE.

Semi-Arid Tropics. It is defined as the portion of the
tropics characterized by a protracted dry season of six to nine
months duration. In Soil Taxonomy termination the dominant soils
are the drier end of the ustic soil moisture regime and are in
the isohypothermic temperature regime. The primary research site
is in Niger, with the base of operations at Niamey. Texas A & M
University provides the leadership role in collaboration with
INRAN. A secondary research site is operative in Mali, in con-
junction with IER.

Acid Savannas. This zone is defined as that portion of the
tropics with a strong dry season of four to six months duration,
savanna vegetation and predominantly acid soils of the order
oxisol and ultisol. They are in the ustic moisture regime and
the isohypothermic or isothermic temperature regimes. The primary
research site is at Brasilia, Brazil. The lead institution is
Cornell University and the collaborator is EMBRAPA through its
CPAC research center. A support role was provided by North
Carolina State University.











Program Structure and Scope-of-Work


Program Structure

The Planning Entity recommended and BIFAD and AID approved
the plan that the Soil Management CRSP would be organized around
four agroecological zones: humid tropics, semi-arid tropics,
acid savannas and steeplands. Each zone is representative of
large areas within the developing countries and has one or more
primary research sites and a designated U.S. university or uni-
versities to provide the leadership. Secondary or extrapolation
sites within the zones were established as technical information
became available. In addition to serving a lead role within one
zone, a university may also provide support in another zone. The
geographic areas covered by the zones are shown in Figure 1 and
pertinent details are summarized below.

Humid Tropics. This zone is defined as the portion of the
tropics with no more than three months dry season. In Soil
Taxonomy terminology, the dominant soils are in the udic moisture
regime and in the isohyperthermic or isothermic temperature
regime. The native vegetation is tropical rain forests. Two
primary research sites were established. (1) Yurimaguas, Peru
with North Carolina State University (NCSU) as the lead institu-
tion in collaboration with INIPA and (2) Sitiung, West Sumatra,
Indonesia with University of Hawaii as the lead and NCSU as the
support university. The host country collaborator is AARD
through its Center for Soils Research. In addition, NCSU has a
secondary research site at Manaus, Brazil in collaboration with
UEPAE.

Semi-Arid Tropics. It is defined as the portion of the
tropics characterized by a protracted dry season of six to nine
months duration. In Soil Taxonomy termination the dominant soils
are the drier end of the ustic soil moisture regime and are in
the isohypothermic temperature regime. The primary research site
is in Niger, with the base of operations at Niamey. Texas A & M
University provides the leadership role in collaboration with
INRAN. A secondary research site is operative in Mali, in con-
junction with IER.

Acid Savannas. This zone is defined as that portion of the
tropics with a strong dry season of four to six months duration,
savanna vegetation and predominantly acid soils of the order
oxisol and ultisol. They are in the ustic moisture regime and
the isohypothermic or isothermic temperature regimes. The primary
research site is at Brasilia, Brazil. The lead institution is
Cornell University and the collaborator is EMBRAPA through its
CPAC research center. A support role was provided by North
Carolina State University.











Program Structure and Scope-of-Work


Program Structure

The Planning Entity recommended and BIFAD and AID approved
the plan that the Soil Management CRSP would be organized around
four agroecological zones: humid tropics, semi-arid tropics,
acid savannas and steeplands. Each zone is representative of
large areas within the developing countries and has one or more
primary research sites and a designated U.S. university or uni-
versities to provide the leadership. Secondary or extrapolation
sites within the zones were established as technical information
became available. In addition to serving a lead role within one
zone, a university may also provide support in another zone. The
geographic areas covered by the zones are shown in Figure 1 and
pertinent details are summarized below.

Humid Tropics. This zone is defined as the portion of the
tropics with no more than three months dry season. In Soil
Taxonomy terminology, the dominant soils are in the udic moisture
regime and in the isohyperthermic or isothermic temperature
regime. The native vegetation is tropical rain forests. Two
primary research sites were established. (1) Yurimaguas, Peru
with North Carolina State University (NCSU) as the lead institu-
tion in collaboration with INIPA and (2) Sitiung, West Sumatra,
Indonesia with University of Hawaii as the lead and NCSU as the
support university. The host country collaborator is AARD
through its Center for Soils Research. In addition, NCSU has a
secondary research site at Manaus, Brazil in collaboration with
UEPAE.

Semi-Arid Tropics. It is defined as the portion of the
tropics characterized by a protracted dry season of six to nine
months duration. In Soil Taxonomy termination the dominant soils
are the drier end of the ustic soil moisture regime and are in
the isohypothermic temperature regime. The primary research site
is in Niger, with the base of operations at Niamey. Texas A & M
University provides the leadership role in collaboration with
INRAN. A secondary research site is operative in Mali, in con-
junction with IER.

Acid Savannas. This zone is defined as that portion of the
tropics with a strong dry season of four to six months duration,
savanna vegetation and predominantly acid soils of the order
oxisol and ultisol. They are in the ustic moisture regime and
the isohypothermic or isothermic temperature regimes. The primary
research site is at Brasilia, Brazil. The lead institution is
Cornell University and the collaborator is EMBRAPA through its
CPAC research center. A support role was provided by North
Carolina State University.











Program Structure and Scope-of-Work


Program Structure

The Planning Entity recommended and BIFAD and AID approved
the plan that the Soil Management CRSP would be organized around
four agroecological zones: humid tropics, semi-arid tropics,
acid savannas and steeplands. Each zone is representative of
large areas within the developing countries and has one or more
primary research sites and a designated U.S. university or uni-
versities to provide the leadership. Secondary or extrapolation
sites within the zones were established as technical information
became available. In addition to serving a lead role within one
zone, a university may also provide support in another zone. The
geographic areas covered by the zones are shown in Figure 1 and
pertinent details are summarized below.

Humid Tropics. This zone is defined as the portion of the
tropics with no more than three months dry season. In Soil
Taxonomy terminology, the dominant soils are in the udic moisture
regime and in the isohyperthermic or isothermic temperature
regime. The native vegetation is tropical rain forests. Two
primary research sites were established. (1) Yurimaguas, Peru
with North Carolina State University (NCSU) as the lead institu-
tion in collaboration with INIPA and (2) Sitiung, West Sumatra,
Indonesia with University of Hawaii as the lead and NCSU as the
support university. The host country collaborator is AARD
through its Center for Soils Research. In addition, NCSU has a
secondary research site at Manaus, Brazil in collaboration with
UEPAE.

Semi-Arid Tropics. It is defined as the portion of the
tropics characterized by a protracted dry season of six to nine
months duration. In Soil Taxonomy termination the dominant soils
are the drier end of the ustic soil moisture regime and are in
the isohypothermic temperature regime. The primary research site
is in Niger, with the base of operations at Niamey. Texas A & M
University provides the leadership role in collaboration with
INRAN. A secondary research site is operative in Mali, in con-
junction with IER.

Acid Savannas. This zone is defined as that portion of the
tropics with a strong dry season of four to six months duration,
savanna vegetation and predominantly acid soils of the order
oxisol and ultisol. They are in the ustic moisture regime and
the isohypothermic or isothermic temperature regimes. The primary
research site is at Brasilia, Brazil. The lead institution is
Cornell University and the collaborator is EMBRAPA through its
CPAC research center. A support role was provided by North
Carolina State University.











Program Structure and Scope-of-Work


Program Structure

The Planning Entity recommended and BIFAD and AID approved
the plan that the Soil Management CRSP would be organized around
four agroecological zones: humid tropics, semi-arid tropics,
acid savannas and steeplands. Each zone is representative of
large areas within the developing countries and has one or more
primary research sites and a designated U.S. university or uni-
versities to provide the leadership. Secondary or extrapolation
sites within the zones were established as technical information
became available. In addition to serving a lead role within one
zone, a university may also provide support in another zone. The
geographic areas covered by the zones are shown in Figure 1 and
pertinent details are summarized below.

Humid Tropics. This zone is defined as the portion of the
tropics with no more than three months dry season. In Soil
Taxonomy terminology, the dominant soils are in the udic moisture
regime and in the isohyperthermic or isothermic temperature
regime. The native vegetation is tropical rain forests. Two
primary research sites were established. (1) Yurimaguas, Peru
with North Carolina State University (NCSU) as the lead institu-
tion in collaboration with INIPA and (2) Sitiung, West Sumatra,
Indonesia with University of Hawaii as the lead and NCSU as the
support university. The host country collaborator is AARD
through its Center for Soils Research. In addition, NCSU has a
secondary research site at Manaus, Brazil in collaboration with
UEPAE.

Semi-Arid Tropics. It is defined as the portion of the
tropics characterized by a protracted dry season of six to nine
months duration. In Soil Taxonomy termination the dominant soils
are the drier end of the ustic soil moisture regime and are in
the isohypothermic temperature regime. The primary research site
is in Niger, with the base of operations at Niamey. Texas A & M
University provides the leadership role in collaboration with
INRAN. A secondary research site is operative in Mali, in con-
junction with IER.

Acid Savannas. This zone is defined as that portion of the
tropics with a strong dry season of four to six months duration,
savanna vegetation and predominantly acid soils of the order
oxisol and ultisol. They are in the ustic moisture regime and
the isohypothermic or isothermic temperature regimes. The primary
research site is at Brasilia, Brazil. The lead institution is
Cornell University and the collaborator is EMBRAPA through its
CPAC research center. A support role was provided by North
Carolina State University.









Steeplands. It is defined as the zone with steep, densely
populated regions where soil erosion is a major concern. Soil
properties, moisture and temperature regimes vary. Funding for
research in this zone was not included in the initial grant or
subsequent amendments. Nevertheless, soil management practices
relevant to this agroecological condition have been researched in
the other activities and pertinent information obtained.

Scope of Work

The scope-of-work employed is essentially the same as set
forth in the grant document.

Humid Tropics Peru. The initial plan specified that the
work would be conducted by North Carolina State University,
Cornell University and the host institution. Formal approval was
received from AID to shift the Cornell University effort from Peru
to the acid savannas of Brazil. The focus of the program in Peru
was not altered by this action and is summarized as follows:

a. Develop lower input annual crop production systems,
while maintaining ongoing systems.

b. Screen cultivars of currently grown or potential useful
crop plants for tolerance to aluminum, low phosphorus levels
and efficiency of plant nutrient use.

c. Develop productive and presistent grass/legume pasture
systems in cooperation with Centro International de
Agriculture Tropical.

d. Utilize biological fixation to the maximum possible
extent, with emphasis on legume/Rhizobium combinations.

e. Develop alternative land clearing methods, monitor
changes in soil physical properties and devise means to
correct soil compaction problems.

f. Determine the potential of managed fallows.

g. Incorporate shrubs, trees and other perenniel crops into
a limited number of annual crop systems.

h. Validate systems of continuous farming technology with
farmers in the area, selecting farms which represent the
broadest possible range of typical soils.

i. Characterize soils of all experimental sites, on the
experiment station and on cooperating farms, according to
U.S. Soil Taxonomy and the Fertility/Capability Classifi-
cation System.









Steeplands. It is defined as the zone with steep, densely
populated regions where soil erosion is a major concern. Soil
properties, moisture and temperature regimes vary. Funding for
research in this zone was not included in the initial grant or
subsequent amendments. Nevertheless, soil management practices
relevant to this agroecological condition have been researched in
the other activities and pertinent information obtained.

Scope of Work

The scope-of-work employed is essentially the same as set
forth in the grant document.

Humid Tropics Peru. The initial plan specified that the
work would be conducted by North Carolina State University,
Cornell University and the host institution. Formal approval was
received from AID to shift the Cornell University effort from Peru
to the acid savannas of Brazil. The focus of the program in Peru
was not altered by this action and is summarized as follows:

a. Develop lower input annual crop production systems,
while maintaining ongoing systems.

b. Screen cultivars of currently grown or potential useful
crop plants for tolerance to aluminum, low phosphorus levels
and efficiency of plant nutrient use.

c. Develop productive and presistent grass/legume pasture
systems in cooperation with Centro International de
Agriculture Tropical.

d. Utilize biological fixation to the maximum possible
extent, with emphasis on legume/Rhizobium combinations.

e. Develop alternative land clearing methods, monitor
changes in soil physical properties and devise means to
correct soil compaction problems.

f. Determine the potential of managed fallows.

g. Incorporate shrubs, trees and other perenniel crops into
a limited number of annual crop systems.

h. Validate systems of continuous farming technology with
farmers in the area, selecting farms which represent the
broadest possible range of typical soils.

i. Characterize soils of all experimental sites, on the
experiment station and on cooperating farms, according to
U.S. Soil Taxonomy and the Fertility/Capability Classifi-
cation System.










j. Determine the application, utilization, depletion and
accumulation of plant nutrients to anticipate problems,
minimize input cost and to obtain a true measure of the
value as well as the cost of supplying fertilizer, lime,
and manure or compost.

k. Disseminate information about the results of the
research to research and extension organizations throughout
the humid tropics.

Humid Tropics Indonesia. The University of Hawaii, the
lead institution, and North Carolina State University, the support
institution, in collaboration with the Soil Research Institute,
Bogor Agricultural University and the Central Research Institute
for Agriculture were to undertake field work in Sumatra, Indonesia
that is directed to the following objectives:

a. Characterize the soil of the experimental sites.

b. Test the most promising methods of land clearing and
select one or more appropriate for existing conditions.

c. Monitor the effects of clearing methods on soil physical
properties and identify or devise means for correcting
undesirable effects.

d. Determine the amounts of fertilizer and lime needed
periodically to produce satisfactory crops and to sustain
yields at levels profitable for the farmers. This research
should include monitoring nutrient status of farmers'
fields, input costs and returns from sales plus value of
household food consumption.

e. Evaluate the potential of grass/legume pasture mixtures
in the farming system.

f. Apply and assess the efficacy of soil conservation
measures to typical areas.

g. Find management systems which minimize energy needs to
the extent possible given local limitations on land, man-
power and markets.

h. Assess the likes, dislikes, needs and resources of
farmers of the area to guide research in lines likely to be
beneficial.

i. Disseminate the results of the research to other area
in the humid tropics.

Semi-Arid Tropics. The grant specified that the field
program would be undertaken in Niger and Upper Volta. The primary










j. Determine the application, utilization, depletion and
accumulation of plant nutrients to anticipate problems,
minimize input cost and to obtain a true measure of the
value as well as the cost of supplying fertilizer, lime,
and manure or compost.

k. Disseminate information about the results of the
research to research and extension organizations throughout
the humid tropics.

Humid Tropics Indonesia. The University of Hawaii, the
lead institution, and North Carolina State University, the support
institution, in collaboration with the Soil Research Institute,
Bogor Agricultural University and the Central Research Institute
for Agriculture were to undertake field work in Sumatra, Indonesia
that is directed to the following objectives:

a. Characterize the soil of the experimental sites.

b. Test the most promising methods of land clearing and
select one or more appropriate for existing conditions.

c. Monitor the effects of clearing methods on soil physical
properties and identify or devise means for correcting
undesirable effects.

d. Determine the amounts of fertilizer and lime needed
periodically to produce satisfactory crops and to sustain
yields at levels profitable for the farmers. This research
should include monitoring nutrient status of farmers'
fields, input costs and returns from sales plus value of
household food consumption.

e. Evaluate the potential of grass/legume pasture mixtures
in the farming system.

f. Apply and assess the efficacy of soil conservation
measures to typical areas.

g. Find management systems which minimize energy needs to
the extent possible given local limitations on land, man-
power and markets.

h. Assess the likes, dislikes, needs and resources of
farmers of the area to guide research in lines likely to be
beneficial.

i. Disseminate the results of the research to other area
in the humid tropics.

Semi-Arid Tropics. The grant specified that the field
program would be undertaken in Niger and Upper Volta. The primary








site was established in Niger and discussions were held with host
country and USAID personnel in Upper Volta to determine the feasi-
bility of a secondary site in that country. Due to extensive
commitments to existing projects by potential collaborators in
Upper Volta, and thus little available time to participate in a
SM-CRSP, the government and mission personnel suggested that we
maintain communications with them and share relevant information
but not to establish a site in the country. Contacts were then
made with governmental and USAID officials in Mali and a mutually
agreeable program developed for a secondary research site in that
country. The scope-of-work employed in Niger and Mali are in
agreement with the one given in the grant document:

a. Characterize the soil at experimental and cooperative
sites according to U.S. Soil Taxonomy and the Fertilizer/
Capability Classification system.

b. Devise and test methods to prevent or diminish soil
crusting.

c. Test and select the most practical means of soil erosion
control, measuring losses to water and wind to the extent
possible.

d. Develop low input soil management systems to maximize
the use of soil moisture.

e. Evaluate crops and Rhizobia for tolerance to high
temperatures, drought, low phosphorus and acidity/soluble
aluminum or manganese.

f. Determine how to monitor and adjust plant nutrient
balances to sustain yields on a profitable basis.

g. Investigate alternatives to the system of shifting
cultivation commonly practiced in the semi-arid tropics.

h. Conduct cooperative trials with farmers to obtain an
assessment of current and modified technology under normal
management capability.

i. Disseminate results of research to other areas in the
semi-arid tropics.

Acid Savannas. On October 28-29, 1981, the Technical Com-
mittee recommended and the Board of Directors approved a recom-
mendation that "...the primary emphasis of the Cornell component
of the Soil Management CRSP be shifted from the humid tropics, as
specified in the grant document, to the acid savannas, with oper-
ational headquarters at the CPAC center, Brasilia, Brazil... ."
This recommendation was transmitted to the AID Program Manager on
November 2 with a request that the grant be amended to encompass
this recommendation. Amendment No. 3, dated July 12, 1982 and
signed by the AID Grant Officer, effected this change. The








amendment recognizes Cornell University as the lead institution
for the program in the acid savannas, with a support role by North
Carolina State University, and the following scope-of-work:

a. Characterize the soil of the experimental sites.

b. Seek ways to reduce the cost of lime and fertilizer on
the acid infertile soils of the acid savannas.

c. Develop practices to maintain an adequate balance of
Ca, K, and Mg in soils of the region.

d. Estimate the economic returns from lime and fertilizer
use under present circumstances and a range of possible
cost/price/yield response scenarios.

e. Explore ways to increase the rooting depth of field
crops and pastures.

f. Identify crops which may tolerate adverse soil
conditions or extract essential plant nutrients more
efficiently, reducing the amount of fertilizer and lime
needed to produce a satisfactory crop.














Chronology of Major Events


Planning, Initiation and Extension of the SM-CRSP


May, 1979





October, 1980


September, 1981



January, 1982


March, 1985



May, 1985

September, 1986


Grant awarded to North Carolina State
University, the planning entity, to
develop a detailed proposal for an
international soil management research
program.

Final proposal submitted by the planning
entity to AID and JRC.

AID approved establishing and funding
the SM-CRSP and issued a grant to NCSU,
the Management Entity.

Management Entity issued subgrants to
participating universities.

Management Entity submitted formal
request to AID for three-year extension
of the program.

JCARD approved request for extension.

AID issued new grant to support a three-
year extension of the program.


Humid Tropics Peru


October, 1981


January, 1982


North Carolina State University advised
that AID had funded the SM-CRSP.

Subgrant issued by the Management Entity
to NCSU.


Since NCSU had an on-going soil management research program
in the humid tropics of Peru and Brazil, no formal negotia-
tions with the host countries were necessary. The programs
in place were continued in part or expanded and new ones
initiated in accordance with the plan of work.














Chronology of Major Events


Planning, Initiation and Extension of the SM-CRSP


May, 1979





October, 1980


September, 1981



January, 1982


March, 1985



May, 1985

September, 1986


Grant awarded to North Carolina State
University, the planning entity, to
develop a detailed proposal for an
international soil management research
program.

Final proposal submitted by the planning
entity to AID and JRC.

AID approved establishing and funding
the SM-CRSP and issued a grant to NCSU,
the Management Entity.

Management Entity issued subgrants to
participating universities.

Management Entity submitted formal
request to AID for three-year extension
of the program.

JCARD approved request for extension.

AID issued new grant to support a three-
year extension of the program.


Humid Tropics Peru


October, 1981


January, 1982


North Carolina State University advised
that AID had funded the SM-CRSP.

Subgrant issued by the Management Entity
to NCSU.


Since NCSU had an on-going soil management research program
in the humid tropics of Peru and Brazil, no formal negotia-
tions with the host countries were necessary. The programs
in place were continued in part or expanded and new ones
initiated in accordance with the plan of work.














Chronology of Major Events


Planning, Initiation and Extension of the SM-CRSP


May, 1979





October, 1980


September, 1981



January, 1982


March, 1985



May, 1985

September, 1986


Grant awarded to North Carolina State
University, the planning entity, to
develop a detailed proposal for an
international soil management research
program.

Final proposal submitted by the planning
entity to AID and JRC.

AID approved establishing and funding
the SM-CRSP and issued a grant to NCSU,
the Management Entity.

Management Entity issued subgrants to
participating universities.

Management Entity submitted formal
request to AID for three-year extension
of the program.

JCARD approved request for extension.

AID issued new grant to support a three-
year extension of the program.


Humid Tropics Peru


October, 1981


January, 1982


North Carolina State University advised
that AID had funded the SM-CRSP.

Subgrant issued by the Management Entity
to NCSU.


Since NCSU had an on-going soil management research program
in the humid tropics of Peru and Brazil, no formal negotia-
tions with the host countries were necessary. The programs
in place were continued in part or expanded and new ones
initiated in accordance with the plan of work.









Humid Tropics Indonesia

October, 1981 The University of Hawaii advised that
AID had funded the SM-CRSP.

January, 1982 Subgrant issued by the Management Entity
to UH.

March, 1982 UH and Management Entity submitted
proposed Memorandum Of Understanding to
AARD.

June, 1983 Memorandum Of Understanding approved by
Indonesia.

June, 1983 Senior scientists from UH and NCSU
posted ih-country and on-site work
initiated.


Semi-Arid Tropics Niger and Mali

October, 1981 Texas A & M University advised that AID
had funded the SM-CRSP.

January, 1982 Subgrant issued by Management Entity to
TAMU.

March, 1982 TAMU and Management Entity submitted
proposed Memorandum Of Understanding to
INRAN.

June, 1983 Memorandum Of Understanding approved by
Niger.

July, 1983 Senior scientist posted in country and
on-site research initiated.

June, 1983 TAMU, Management Entity/SM-CRSP and
Management Entity/INTSORMIL submitted
Memorandum Of Understanding to IER.

March, 1984 Memorandum Of Understanding approved by
Mali.

July, 1984 Program in Mali initiated.


Acid Savannas

October, 1981 Cornell University advised that AID had
funded SM-CRSP.









Humid Tropics Indonesia

October, 1981 The University of Hawaii advised that
AID had funded the SM-CRSP.

January, 1982 Subgrant issued by the Management Entity
to UH.

March, 1982 UH and Management Entity submitted
proposed Memorandum Of Understanding to
AARD.

June, 1983 Memorandum Of Understanding approved by
Indonesia.

June, 1983 Senior scientists from UH and NCSU
posted ih-country and on-site work
initiated.


Semi-Arid Tropics Niger and Mali

October, 1981 Texas A & M University advised that AID
had funded the SM-CRSP.

January, 1982 Subgrant issued by Management Entity to
TAMU.

March, 1982 TAMU and Management Entity submitted
proposed Memorandum Of Understanding to
INRAN.

June, 1983 Memorandum Of Understanding approved by
Niger.

July, 1983 Senior scientist posted in country and
on-site research initiated.

June, 1983 TAMU, Management Entity/SM-CRSP and
Management Entity/INTSORMIL submitted
Memorandum Of Understanding to IER.

March, 1984 Memorandum Of Understanding approved by
Mali.

July, 1984 Program in Mali initiated.


Acid Savannas

October, 1981 Cornell University advised that AID had
funded SM-CRSP.









Humid Tropics Indonesia

October, 1981 The University of Hawaii advised that
AID had funded the SM-CRSP.

January, 1982 Subgrant issued by the Management Entity
to UH.

March, 1982 UH and Management Entity submitted
proposed Memorandum Of Understanding to
AARD.

June, 1983 Memorandum Of Understanding approved by
Indonesia.

June, 1983 Senior scientists from UH and NCSU
posted ih-country and on-site work
initiated.


Semi-Arid Tropics Niger and Mali

October, 1981 Texas A & M University advised that AID
had funded the SM-CRSP.

January, 1982 Subgrant issued by Management Entity to
TAMU.

March, 1982 TAMU and Management Entity submitted
proposed Memorandum Of Understanding to
INRAN.

June, 1983 Memorandum Of Understanding approved by
Niger.

July, 1983 Senior scientist posted in country and
on-site research initiated.

June, 1983 TAMU, Management Entity/SM-CRSP and
Management Entity/INTSORMIL submitted
Memorandum Of Understanding to IER.

March, 1984 Memorandum Of Understanding approved by
Mali.

July, 1984 Program in Mali initiated.


Acid Savannas

October, 1981 Cornell University advised that AID had
funded SM-CRSP.








November, 1981


January, 1982


July, 1982

July, 1982


July, 1983


July, 1983


Management Entity requested AID amend
grant to include acid savannas component
with CU as lead university.

Subgrant issued by Management Entity to
Cornell University.

AID approved request to amend grant.

Proposed Memorandum Of Understanding
submitted to EMBRAPA.

Memorandum Of Understanding approved by
Brazil.

Senior scientist posted in Brazil and
on-site work initiated.













TropSoils Finding Ways To Conserve Natural Resources


The first step toward conserving tropical forests and
savannas is a stable agriculture and effective soil management.
Each acre of well-managed, permanent cropland can save about five
acres of tropical rainforest per year. The same principle
applies to savannas, and the dry lands of Africa's Sahel.

TropSoils researchers are finding ways to grow more food,
while conserving fragile ecosystems. For example, scientists at
Yurimaguas, Peru have developed a low-cost, "low-input" cropping
system that will help slash-and-burn farmers increase and sustain
their crop yields, reducing the need for new clearing. And, work
in the Guesselbodi Forest of Niger has shown that mulching
barren, crusted soils with the branches left from wood-cutting
increases soil moisture and porosity, and promotes the natural
reseeding of key forest species. This technique could help
preserve forests and slow desertification in Africa's Sahel.













TropSoils Finding Ways To Conserve Natural Resources


The first step toward conserving tropical forests and
savannas is a stable agriculture and effective soil management.
Each acre of well-managed, permanent cropland can save about five
acres of tropical rainforest per year. The same principle
applies to savannas, and the dry lands of Africa's Sahel.

TropSoils researchers are finding ways to grow more food,
while conserving fragile ecosystems. For example, scientists at
Yurimaguas, Peru have developed a low-cost, "low-input" cropping
system that will help slash-and-burn farmers increase and sustain
their crop yields, reducing the need for new clearing. And, work
in the Guesselbodi Forest of Niger has shown that mulching
barren, crusted soils with the branches left from wood-cutting
increases soil moisture and porosity, and promotes the natural
reseeding of key forest species. This technique could help
preserve forests and slow desertification in Africa's Sahel.












Subsoil Compaction Restricts Root Growth In Oxisols


Oxisols, a category of soils that occupy large regions of
South America and Africa, are particularly appealing for
development because of their excellent physical condition and
ease of cultivation. The primary chemical constraints to crop
production are high acidity and low phosphorous. Methods to
correct these problems are now well documented.

Under long term monocrop production, unexplained decreases
in crop yields have been reported. This occurrence is often
accompanied by observations of limited root development, even
under conditions of adequate nutrients and water. Results from
intensive investigations suggest that root restriction is caused
by compaction of the subsoil due to long-term mechanized tillage.
This effect can seriously reduce crop yields and fertilizer use
efficiency. The condition is not alleviated through natural
regenerative processes because there are no shrink-swell or
freeze-thaw cycles in these soils. However, studies indicate
the compaction can be corrected with proper management and the
effects of various tillage techniques are being investigated
under a range of conditions.
























Cornell University












Gypsum Improves Soil Chemical Properties


The application of gypsum has been suggested as a means to
overcome deleterious effects of subsoil acidity. The greater
downward movement of gypsum, relative to lime, makes it a better
source of calcium to promote root growth in lower sections of the
soil.

Studies on soils representative of those occurring in the
acid savannas of the tropics show that calcium and sulfate
retention are dependent on the equilibrium concentration of these
ions in solution. While calcium retention was almost linearly
dependent on its concentration, sulfate tended to approach a
maximum adsorption which was not reached within the experimental
range studied.

Calcium was adsorbed as an exchangeable cation without
affecting the pH of the soil nor the total surface positive
charge. Sulfate was adsorbed by a ligand exchange mechanism that
caused displacement of hydroxyls from the surface, raising the pH
of the soil solution. At the same time, sulfate caused an
increase in the total negative charge.

Data from this study provides support for the specific
adsorption mechanism by which sulfate is adsorbed in these soils.
This mechanism affects the balance of charge in the soil and can
be used as a way to reduce cation leaching. Application of
gypsum increased the retention of both calcium and sulfate, as
well as the total catron exchange capacity. This can have some
practical use because of the importance of these nutrients.

















Cornell University











Soil Color Suggests Crop Production Potential


It has been observed that water tables in soils on the high
plateaus of the Cerrado region of Brazil are typically higher in
the red-yellow than in the dark-red soils. Because water-table
level affects plant growth, drought tolerance and tillage
practices, an ability to predict drainage characteristics from
soil color patterns could be important in the selection and
management of agricultural fields.

Studies were conducted in the acid savannas of Brazil, 1) to
determine the genetic relationship between soil color patterns
and natural drainage characteristics in Oxisols with restricted
drainage; and 2) to develop morphological criteria for further
development of the taxonomic or land capability classification of
these soils with respect to natural drainage characteristics.

Results of the investigations suggest that the crop-
production potential of these soils may change with seasonal
shifts in water table, which can be predicted by soil color. For
example, precipitation data show a two- to three-week dry period
in February, which is typical of the regional climate. Crops
vulnerable to water stress at this stage of the growing season
might benefit from moisture available in a red-yellow soil whose
water table was within two meters of the surface. Further data
analysis is expected to produce recommendations for diagnostic
criteria to be used in classifying these soils.



















Cornell University












Incubation Procedures Predict Nitrogen Availability


Legume green manures are an alternative to fertilizer
nitrogen for the production of succeeding non-legume crops.
However, finding suitable legumes for different soils, crops, and
climate requires extensive and costly field research. Laboratory
procedures involving incubation of soil samples have been
investigated as an alternative approach to determining the
nitrogen which would become available from various legumes.

Results show that incubation procedures have merit as a
quick method to evaluate gross differences in nitrogen provided
by different green manure legumes incorporated into the soil.
Soil samples prepared for incubation immediately after being
taken from the field gave the best correlations between nitrogen
mineralized and nitrogen uptake or yield of corn. Extended
storage of soil samples before incubation substantially reduced
the correlation between nitrogen mineralized and nitrogen uptake.

Data from soils treated in different ways suggest that as
long as some degree of soil aggregation exists, soil disturbance
had little effect on nitrogen mineralization. Vigorous
disturbance, however, caused a significant increase in nitrogen
mineralization.

Laboratory incubation appears to be effective in separating
differences in leguminous green manure crop management of the
same soil and is, likewise, useful as a tool to evaluate the
mineralization potential of different legumes. Unfortunately,
the procedure is not yet developed to the stage where it can be
used as a general soil test for available nitrogen.
















Cornell University












Legumes May Replace Fertilizer Nitrogen


It is recognized that leguminous green manures may supply
all or most of the nitrogen needed by succeeding non-legume
crops. Utilizing this principle, studies were undertaken to
develop legume and crop management systems most efficient at
supplying nitrogen from this source.

A number of legumes were evaluated in field experiments for
their capacity to fix nitrogen. The results are that the amount
ranged from 60 to 170 kg of nitrogen per hectare. Nitrogen
mineralized from mucuna, one of those studied, was sufficient to
produce nearly 7 tons of corn grain per hectare. Net mineral-
ization of nitrogen from geen manure legumes was characterized by
a very rapid stage that lasted for about 40 days followed by a
much slower phase which extended between 40 and 100 days.
Recovery of mineralized nitrogen by the plants was not greatly
different from that of fertilizer nitrogen. Legume nitrogen may
be lost from the rooting zone as rapidly as fertilizer nitrogen.

The quantities of nitrogen supplied to the corn crop varied
among green manure legumes; fertilizer nitrogen replacement value
for the succeeding corn crop range from 87 to 192 kg per hectare.

Developing cropping systems to best utilize the wide-range
of green manure legumes remains to be accomplished. Factors such
as nitrogen requirement for the crop, pest suppression, soil
physical properties, and erosion control will need to be consid-
ered in selecting the most appropriate green manure legume and
management system.
















Cornell University












Soil Variability a Major Factor in Land Use


Soil variability over relatively short distances is common
throughout the tropics. This condition is especially true on
newly cleared land at the primary research site in the trans-
migration area of West Sumatra. It poses problems for the land-
use planners, transmigrant farmers and researchers. Studies have
been conducted to characterize the variability, to understand
it's causes and to explore remedial measures.

The results show that there is enormous variability in soil
properties and that crop growth and production are affected.
There are many scales of this variability -- from that occurring
over a few meters to that occurring over several kilometers.
Some progress has been made in understanding and managing this
condition. The geostatistical tools developed to deal with the
problem have had wide applicability throughout the tropics and
provide a useful new approach to measure and quantify variability.
It can be expected that new applications of this technology will
be developed in the future which will use these concepts and
approaches as a base. This is already apparent in research in
geographical information systems and in expert systems.
























University of Hawaii












Ethnic Differences Affect Design of Farming Systems


Social scientists studying farmers in a transmigration zone
in Indonesia have used cognitive "maps" to discover differences
in how the indigenous population (Minang) and the transmigrants
from another island (Javanese) view 21 important concepts, such
as soil, rice, water, vegetables and fertilizer.

The relative distance between such concepts can suggest how
settlers vary in their approach to work. For instance, one group
viewed a close association of men to vegetables, while another
viewed vegetables as a women's crop.

The Javanese perceive a significantly closer relationship
between soil and water than do the Minang. This suggests that
collaborative experiments on soil and water might best be under-
taken with the transmigrants than the indigents.

The proximity of rice and rubber to the Minang, relative to
other crops suggests that these two crops would be good for
agricultural experimentation among that group. In contrast, the
distance of rubber from the Javanese, relative to other crops,
suggests that it might not be a good crop to use in collaborative
work with them.

With respect to fertilizers, the transmigrants' had
significantly different views than the indigents. The necessity
for the transmigrants to gain a livelihood from very small land-
holdings on overcrowded Java, made fertilizer use important.
Also, transmigrants have had more exposure to agricultural
extension efforts on fertilizer usage than the indigents.

The researchers point out that such patterns in the
cognitive maps are closely correlated with patterns in farming.
And, by using the results of such studies, scientists and
extension workers can more effectively match farming systems and
new agricultural technology to the people who use it.










University of Hawaii












Family Welfare Important Consideration in Resource Allocation


The fact that the household is an integral part of the farm
system complicates the process of using advanced crop production
technology by limited resource farmers, because it adds another
dimension to the allocation of resources family welfare. Since
the farm is involved with life sustaining activities rather than
merely profitable activities, the limited resource farmer will be
less willing to take on risks because he is not able to absorb
losses and the costs of failure are very high (perhaps nonsur-
vival).

Studies were undertaken with transmigrants in West Sumatra,
Indonesia:

1) To identify amount and sources of available resources
and application of these resources to agricultural production and
2) to identify factors influencing farmer acceptability of new
technology.

The majority of those surveyed indicated that they prefer to
be farmers. Most of them acknowledged that by increasing fertil-
izer and pesticide use, their yields would increase. However,
they are not using more fertilizers and pesticides. In the hier-
archy of spending, fertilizer ranked third after food and seed.
It seems that these farmers acknowledge that benefits may occur
from higher fertilizer use, but they also perceive other needs
and goals to be of more importance. Therefore, technology that
recommends increasing yields by only increasing fertilizer use
will not likely be readily adopted by these farmers.

Technologies more likely to be adopted would be those aimed
at increasing productivity while not increasing costs signifi-
cantly (such as increasing the efficiency of fertilizers) or
technologies that, though costs are increased, shows such sub-
stantial increases in benefits that resources will be pulled away
from other activities. Thus the adoption of technology for the
limited resource farmer must be done with his constraints and
needs in mind.








University of Hawaii












Organic Materials Offer Promise In Farming Systems


The marked response of some crops to green manure suggested
that proper management of organic materials might reduce the need
for lime and fertilizers under certain conditions. A series of
experiments has been undertaken 1) to quantify the influence of
green manures on crop yields, 2) to evaluate tree and herbaceous
legumes for use on transmigrant farms and 3) to incorporate
information from transmigrants in the selection and design of
green manuring systems.

The leguminous tree species, Albizia Falcataria and
Calliandra Calothyrsus, show potential for use in alley cropping
under the soil and climatic conditions studied in Indonesia,
(i.e. acidic soils, low in bases and a warm, humid climate).
Upland rice did not respond significantly to these green leaf
manure additions, but cowpea crop yields were increased by
addition of Albizia prunings.

These results indicate that alley cropping provides only a
marginal benefit to farmers during the first year. However, as
the tree pruning and cropping sequence continues, it is likely
that the frequent additions of green leaf manure will cause
increased soil fertility and crop yields. Also, the hedges of
trees can provide other benefits, including animal forage,
fuelwood, and erosion control.

Of the technologies tested, alley cropping with Albizia
seems to hold the most promise for reducing lime requirements and
now needs to be tested by farmers to determine how well it fits
their systems. If, as suggested by these studies, organic
materials may be substituted for lime, this will have major
implications for resource poor farmers on acid tropical soils.














University of Hawaii












Mycorrhizae Enhances Growth of Pasture Legumes


In most acid soils, factors such as crop cultivar, soil
phosphorus and manganese toxicity can influence the plant's
ability to develop roots and grow. For legume crops, the
response to lime and fertilizer applications is further
complicated by VA mycorrhizal fungi since its effect on plant
growth varies with soil conditions, as well as with the strain of
mycorrhizae.

A study was conducted to examine the effects of liming,
phosphorus fertilization and VA mycorrhizae on growth of two
species of a tropical pasture legume (Desmodium) in a soil with a
toxic level of aluminum.

VA mycorrhizal inoculation improved growth responses of both
Desmodium species thus clearly demonstrating that they are highly
mycorrhizal dependent. The beneficial influences of mycorrhizal
associations are particularly important for these Desmodium
species are typically grown on phosphorus-fixing soils. The
results further show, however, that plant tolerance to toxic
elements in acidic soils may not be improved by colonization with
mycorrhizae. Thus the mycorrhizae appear to aid in alleviating
nutrient deficiencies but not eliminating element toxicities.

The results further illustrate the fact that establishment
of plants in the acid tropical soils is difficult unless the
associations of mycorrhizal plants, fertilization and liming are
critically matched to the specific acid soil infertility complex.


















University of Hawaii












Models Match Crop Requirements to Soil Characteristics


Crop models are an important ingredient in systems-based
research. Properly formulated, they can predict a crop's
performance across broad geographic and climatic regions. Such
predictions can help accelerate the progress of agricultural
research and development.

Studies were undertaken 1) to identify the minimum soil,
crop, and weather data needed to predict the performance of rice,
maize, soybean, and peanut cultivars in the humid tropics; 2) to
test, validate, and modify existing simulation models for these
crops, using the minimum data set; and 3) to use the simulation
models as screening devices for varietal testing. To date, crop
models have been tested for maize and rice.

A model has been calibrated and validated for simulating and
predicting the date of emergence, panicle initiation, and
physiological maturity after planting. It can do so for any
location where maximum and minimum air temperature and solar
radiation data are available. The model is sensitive to day
length and this information can be obtained from latitude and day
of the year.

These results are particularly useful for rice grown from
warm lowlands to high uplands within a geographic region. Under
these conditions the development rate of rice varies considerably
over short distances. This research enables users to predict
important phenological events of rice cultivars at any location
and date of planting without resorting to trial and error field
experiments.

Results from a simulated and actual maize crops in West
Sumatra show that subsoil acidity rather than low rainfall is the
major constraint to corn production during the dry season.












University of Hawaii












Expert Systems Used to Transfer Soil Management Technology


There is a compelling need to apply existing information on
management of tropical soils and to conduct follow-up research
only where it is essential. Expert systems offer promise as a
means of capturing, in a microcomputer, not only the factual
knowledge of experts but also a portion of their problem-solving
skill. By using expert systems, people with limited training can
access factual information and knowledge gained from decades of
experience.

Soil management deals with a highly complex, soil-plant-
climate-human system. Usually a large amount of information is
necessary to understand and predict a particular phenomenon.
Some soil science information is clearly quantitative and can be
represented mathematically. Other information is best
represented as rules of thumb, or as patterns from analogous
situations.

Soil-management information also tends to be regional.
Within regions there are typical problems and frequently various
solutions, developed either by farmers, extension agents or
research personnel. These solutions may apply well in one
region, but not in another. This characteristic of soil-
management information complicates the broad application of
principles and the economizing of research effort. Nonetheless
there are regional analogues of soil, climate, crop, and human
factors throughout the tropics, and representing these factors
efficiently, in the appropriate context, can measurably assist in
the application of soil-management technology.

Studies have been conducted 1) to design and construct
expert systems in soil- and crop-management technology that
implement the learning and deductive capability possible with
logic-based languages; 2) to evaluate the performance of an
interdisciplinary expert system on soil-management problems of
the humid tropics; and 3) to evaluate the representation of
farmer-information within the expert-system framework.

Several prototype liming expert systems have been developed
and will be distributed to approximately 100 users throughout the
humid tropics. In most cases the software is used to provide
examples of expert system applications. Some scientists are
expected to use the software to develop recommendations for large
regions and then plot the results on maps.


University of Hawaii













'Low-Input' A First Step to Permanent Cropping


TropSoils scientists have developed a low-input cropping
system that could help farmers progress from shifting cultivation
to permanent agriculture on acid soils in the humid tropics.

Shifting cultivation has been blamed for much of the
deforestation in the humid tropics. Scientist estimate that each
acre of permanent, well-managed cropland could save five acres of
tropical rainforest per year.

The low-input cropping system includes a kudzu fallow, a
rotation of acid-tolerant rice and cowpea cultivars, crop-residue
return, chemical control of weeds and pests, and the use of small
amounts of fertilizers and lime.

While low-input cropping is considered transitory, an
experimental low-input system at Yurimaguas, Peru has remained
productive much longer than expected. Seven continuous crops in
three years have yielded a total of 13.8 tons per hectare of rice
and cowpea grain. Purchased chemical inputs account for only 8%
of total production costs.























North Carolina State University













Continuous Cultivation a Feasible Alternative


It is commonly believed that continuous cultivation of food
crops is not possible in acid soils of the humid tropics. This
thinking has led to erroneous conclusions about the sustain-
ability of the world's soil resources.

A total of 36 crops of corn, rice, soybeans or peanuts have
been harvested during 14 years in a long-term experiment in the
humid tropics at Yurimaguas, Peru. Yields are high and reason-
ably stable. Soil properties have improved with continuous
cultivation, particularly due to the amelioration of subsoil
acidity by downward movement of calcium and magnesium. Judicious
use of lime, fertilizers, tillage and crop rotation makes this
system stable.

Due to its high productivity, continuous cultivation makes
commerical farming feasible and conserves natural forests,
because it decreases the pressures to deforest more land to
produce a greater amount of food.

The system is only applicable to areas that have an adequate
market, road and credit infrastructure capable of handling lime
fertilizers and high crop values.





















North Carolina State University













Improved Fallows Regenerate Agricultural Lands


Much of the land available to shifting cultivators remains
idle each year, due to the long fallow periods required for
secondary forests to restore the productivity of abandoned
agricultural fields. Studies were conducted to determine whether
productivity in such fields might be regenerated more rapidly
with the use of selected, high-biomass, nitrogen-fixing fallow
species, and to measure the effects of these species on soil
physical and chemical properties, weed suppression, and crop
yield.

Additional time is required to obtain firm confirmation of
all the facts, but the following conclusions can be drawn:

1. Physical properties improve with time under all fallows.

2. Available nutrient levels in the topsoil decrease with
time in all treatments, except continuous cultivation,
probably due to immobilization in the biomass.

3. After 16 months of growth, total biomass accumulation is
highest in the bush or tree fallows and lowest in the
spreading types.

4. An almost complete ground cover was established within
four to eight months.

5. Weed control in all planted fallows is better than the
natural purma. Control is quickest and most effective with
the spreading, fallow types.















North Carolina State University













Technology Increases Paddy Rice Production


Technology for sustained irrigated rice production in fertile
alluvial soils of the Amazon has been validated and is now being
transferred to producers through the extension programs. Several
general principles of Amazon flooded-rice production have been
established, including the following:

1) Land can be cleared by slash and burn or by bulldozing,
since the detrimental effects of soil compaction that usually occur
with bulldozers do not seriously affect paddy rice; 2) supplemental
irrigation every two weeks increases yields by about 50% above
crops dependent on rainfall; 3) transplanting provides higher
yields than broadcasting for the first two crops due to insuffi-
cient leveling; 4) fertilization requirements are minimal; 5) two
crops a year with recommended short-statured varieties can produce
annual yields of 12 to 15 ton/ha.

Considering that one hectare of acid soils must be cleared
every year to produce one ton of upland rice, every hectare under
irrigated rice production might save from 12 to 15 hectars of
tropical forests annually from deforestation.























North Carolina State University













Legume-Based Pastures Improves Productivity


Cattle grazing for beef and milk production is one of the
major land use activities of cleared rainforest areas in Latin
America. When they are well managed, legume-based pastures
protect the soil, require relatively few cash inputs, make good
use of soils unsuitable for food crops, and produce milk and meat
with grazing animals, which recycle most of the nutrients they
consume. Poorly managed pastures are an economic and ecological
liability.

The evidence shows that use of pasture species badly adapted
to tropical soils and environments leads to poor animal nutrition
and therefore low productivity. Several million hectares of
rainforest have been cleared for pastures, only to be abandoned
as the pastures became degraded by overgrazing, soil compaction,
and erosion.

Long-term grazing studies show that high animal production
can be sustained with three widely differing pastures in acid
upland soils, with low inputs: a mixture of two stoloniferous
grass and legume species (Brachiaria humidicola/ Desmodium
ovalifolium), or a mixture of two erect grass and legume species
(Andropogon gayanus/Stylosanthes guianensis), or one pure legume
pasture of Centrosema pubescens. After 4 to 6 years of
continuous grazing, soil physical properties remain good and
chemical properties have improved, because more than 80% of the
nutrients applied as fertilizer is recycled to the soil. Studies
suggest that the nitrogen contribution of legumes to the
associated grass under grazing in highly acid soil is equal to
150 kg of urea nitrogen.















North Carolina State University













Degraded Steeplands Reclaimed


There are several million hectares of degraded, unproductive
pastures in the Amazon, often on steep slopes. Simple and
inexpensive techniques for reclaiming these areas would not only
improve their productivity but also enhance the environment by
reducing erosion. A promising technique has been studied that
encompasses tillage practices, species selection and persistence
under grazing.

The results suggest that minimum soil disturbance is needed
to establish grasses such as those used in the experiment. The
stoloniferous species rapidly cover new areas and compete
strongly with species already present. However, legumes require
at least minimum tillage. In general, Centrosema performed
better than D. ovalifolium, due to faster growth and a more
aggressive tendency.

After 6 months of grazing, the percentage of grasses
increased, whereas that of legumes decreased. This is probably
the result of their capacity to compete and displace existing
vegetation.

This research demonstrates that methods exist to establish
improved grasses and legumes in degraded pastures. Simple
establishment methods can be successful in compacted steeplands
but some minimum tillage is needed to establish the legumes.



















North Carolina State University













Lands Compacted by Bulldozer Clearing Improved


Much farm land in the humid tropics has been mechancially
cleared of forest in ways that remove topsoil, compact the
subsoil, and promote erosion. Frequently, such fields are soon
abandoned because crops fail. Investigations were conducted in
the Sitiung transmigration settlements of West Sumatra, Indonesia
to develop methods for reclaiming degraded soils for continuous
cultivation.

The practices investigated included lime, fertilizer and
tillage. From the practical standpoint, the soil in this area
cannot be reclaimed without chemical fertilizer and lime
applications. No tillage practice will be effective unless
accompanied by chemical inputs. As the rate of chemical input
increased, so did yields, although rice did not respond to high
fertility as strongly as did soybean.

Green manure contributed substantially to increasing yields
of all crops. Mulching was effective primarily during periods of
moderate drought. Deep tillage and strip forking were not bene-
ficial for rice, but were somewhat beneficial for soybean. In
contrast, rototilling was good for rice but only slightly benefi-
cial for soybean.





















North Carolina State University













Alley-Cropping Questioned for Acid Infertile Soils


In areas with increasing demographic pressure, traditional
forms of shifting cultivation must be supplanted by production
systems that yield more food on the available land. One
technique, shown to be promising in high base status soils of
Wast Africa, is the combination of rows of leguminous trees with
annual crops grown between them. Prunings from the trees form a
mulch that may aid in weed control and provide nitrogen and other
nutrients, cycled from deep in the soil, to the crops. The use
of such organic additions may prolong the productivity of the
acid, infertile soils found in much of the humid tropics.

A study was conducted to assess the suitability of various
leguminous trees or shrubs in an alley-cropping system, to study
changes in soil chemical properties and how they are affected by
the amount of prunings added, and to measure the effects of
pruning additions on crop yields and yield stability.

Of the six original leguminous trees or shrubs assayed, four
have been eliminated due to poor survival or to unsuitability due
to various reasons. Two of them appear to have good survival and
coppicing ability and biomass production is high.

Soil chemical properties declined with time and were similar
in all alley-crop treatments with the unfertilized check. Soil
chemical properties improved in the fertilized check.

An analysis of the overall data and considerations of basic
principles of soil and plant science raise a fundamental question
about the potential of alley-cropping in acid soils: can adapt-
ed trees recycle bases effectively if the subsoil is extremely
low in these bases? There must be something to recycle if re-
cycling by well-adapted trees is going to be a major feature of
this system. No such problem exists in the high base status
soils where alley-cropping has been successful.










North Carolina State University













Soil Classification System Aids Selection of Management Practices


Knowledge of soil properties that are important in
determining effective soil management practices is essential for
the extrapolation of information from one site to another. A
Fertility Capability Classification (FCC) system has been
developed which, in concept and in practice, is making a
significant advance toward acheiving this objective.

The FCC system focuses on the upper portion of the soil
where plant root activity is greatest and management practices
are most influential. Attention is given to those physical and
chemical factors within this zone which have a primary influence
on responsiveness to management and consequently on plant growth.

The system is receiving world wide attention and extensive
application. To date, 34 countries and eight international
organizations are using FCC in research or in development of
interpretative maps. The FAO has applied FCC to its soil
classification for Africa, which provides an inventory of soils
characterized by their productive potential. IBSRAM through its
various networks is developing a crop-specific classification
system based on soil characteristics defined in the FCC.






















North Carolina State University














Network Links Projects in Latin America


TropSoils has provided leadership for a collaborative
research network whose goal is to improve the management of
tropical soils. The network, called RISTROP (Red de
Investigation de Suelos Tropicales), includes scientists from
Latin American countries.

The network grew out of a workshop conducted in 1986 by
TropSoils in Yurimaguas, Peru. Among the assistance to be
provided is research site selection and characterization, support
services for analyses and interpretation of resulting data, and
information exchange between national institutions. Support for
local operations will be provided by the host country institu-
tions.

The network has received positive responses from 8 of 11
countries, for a total of 27 initiated or planned experiments,
encompassing various management options.

Support for the network has centered on technical visits by
TropSoils personnel to participating institutions during imple-
mentation of field experiments. In addition to assisting in
adjusting methodologies and field plans to local conditions,
these visits have provided an opportunity to obtain on-site
familiarity with the research programs of the national institu-
tions.

Experiences to date provide the following analysis. The
specific needs for technical backstopping by national institu-
tions and the capacity of TropSoils to provide this expertise
exceed funds available and the conceptual development of the
research network. The type of required technical support varies
among institutions from assistance in establishing functional
soil testing laboratories to the identification of research
priorities through interpretation of exisitng soils information.

Ongoing national research programs are often unrelated and
nonsupportive of the USAID agricultural development programs.
Quite often network participants and their superiors are
unfamiliar with the USAID mission programs. Synchronization of
national and USAID mission programs would enhance efforts to
transfer soil management technology to the network participants.


North Carolina State University












Acidity and Fertility Major Soil Constraints in Transmigration
Area


A field research program was conducted to provide technology
for overcoming severe soil fertility constraints in a trans-
migration area of West Sumatra where large-scale bulldozer clear-
ing of a primary tropical rainforests had adversely affected soil
productivity. While the soils have favorable granular structure
they are quite acid, have toxic levels of aluminum and low levels
of essential nutrients. A strategy based on previous humid
tropical experience was devised to make sustained production of
basic food crops in this area technically possible.

The overall results lead to the conclusion that 1)
reclamation of soils damaged by mechanical land clearing is
feasible, 2) lime and fertilizers are the key to reclaim
unproductive land and maintain soil productivity, 3) fertilizer
and lime recommendations can be made according to soil tests for
specific crop rotations and 4) the use of organic inputs,
particularly leaving crop residues in the field and growing a
green manure crop in situ can help decrease lime, fertilizer and
weed control requirements.























N.C. State University
University of Hawaii












Workshop Stimulates Technology Transfer


Tropical soils research has progressed to the stage that
promising alternatives can be grouped into soil management
options that take into account differences in physical and socio-
economic conditions within the ecosystem. Many of the key
components for these technologies are ready to be transferred to
national research institutions for adoption to local conditions.

TropSoils conducted a 21-day workshop on tropical soils
management at its primary research site in Yurimaguas, Peru to
acquaint operational level Latin American scientists with the
most recent concepts in tropical soil management, to identify
common interests and to establish a soil research network.
Criteria for selection of participants were based on the national
research institutes' interest and capabilities in pursuing soil
management research in tropical ecosystems and identification of
candidates with at least a B.S. degree in agronomy or equivalent
training. The 31 participants represented 23 potential research
sites within 15 national institutions in 10 different countries.

The workshop has had the following effects: (1) improved
knowledge and understanding of the current state of the art in
soil management by researchers in the 10 countries represented;
(2) a greater awareness of the on-going research by TropSoils and
the potential for further improvements in soil management
technology; (3) development of plans for collaborative research
with TropSoils by the participating countries and (4) formation
of a network among participants in Latin America to provide
continued interaction in addressing common problems and sharing
information and experiences.
















North Carolina State University












Model Accurately Calculates Water Loss From Cropped Soils


In semiarid climates, such as those in West Africa, even
during the growing season a large portion of the soil surface,
mostly between rows, is not covered by the plant canopy. Thus,
both the soil surface and the crop canopy are involved in water
loss from the soil.

A study was undertaken to mechanistically simulate water
loss for a row crop with an incomplete canopy cover from standard
weather data and soil and crop properties. A proposed model was
tested by comparing measured and predicted values of soil
evaporation and crop evapotranspiration.

The results show that the proposed model is adequate for
calculating soil evaporation and crop transpiration separately,
for a row crop with an incomplete canopy cover. This model
should be a useful tool in analyzing alternative irrigation and
crop management systems in water-limited areas, and in the design
and analysis of field experiments on water use efficiency.


























Texas A & M University













Rainfall and Soil Hydrology Patterns Quantified For West Africa
Area


The amount and distribution of rainfall profoundly
influences crop and livestock production in the semi-arid tropics
of West Africa. The variability in space and time and the ir-
regularity of the rainfall in the zone of settled rainfed crop
production result in a high risk of crop failure. Sahelian
farmers have developed empirical perceptions of the reliability
of the rains and semi-quantitative notions of the probability of
a certain amount occurring at a given time during the growing
season. More quantitative insight into the rainfall reliability,
probability of rainfall amounts, and risks of crop failure would
increase the confidence in extrapolating results from low density
point rainfall records over larger areas.

An investigation was undertaken: (a) To quantify temporal
variation and distribution, overall trends and periodicities,
patterns of wet and dry spells of rainfall, and length of the
growing season; (2) To measure the physical and hydrological
properties of major cropped soils in Niger, quantifying moisture
loss patterns and rain-use efficiency; and (3) To estimate evapo-
transpiration of economically important crops from climatic data.

Results provide a quantitative insight into the reliability
of the rains during the growing season for many locations in
Niger. They can also be used by plant breeders to infer quanti-
tative definitions of the length of the growing season to various
degrees of reliability, either directly or in conjunction with
data on crop evapotranspiration requirements.
















Texas A & M University













Rainfall Water Management Increases Crop Yields in Semi Arid Area


In semi arid regions cereals are often sown before start of
the rains. If rainfall is less than required for germination,
crop stands are spotty, replanting is necessary and yields may be
adversely affected. Rainfall-harvesting techniques are being
examined as a means of alleviating the problem.

A study was undertaken: to determine whether contour strip
rainfall harvesting (CSRH) has a potential for cereal production
in three main agroclimatic regions of sandy soils in Niger and to
evaluate the influence of fertilization and plant density on the
harvesting systems.

Results show significant positive effects due to water
management. The CSRH technique induced a deeper rooting system
and dramatically increased dry matter production. Increases in
grain yields ranged from 56% to 120%. Nitrogen and phosphorus
fertilization were necessary to obtain maximum benefits from the
rainfall. Higher plant density increased the yield of sorghum,
but had no effect on millet.

CSRH has a potential for increasing grain yield in regions
with limited rainfall and sandy soils. This technique exhibits
advantages by reducing evaporation loss and weed growth, and
increasing water conservation. Additional studies must be
undertaken to determine the most appropriate (economically,
socially, and technically) way to adapt this technique to the
local needs.
















Texas A & M University













Soil Fertility and Cultivars Influence Water Use Efficiency


In semi arid regions, water is the factor considered to be
most limiting for plant growth and thus it receives the main
focus of attention. However, it is now recognized that nutrient
deficiencies, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus, greatly
inhibit crop production in Sahelian Africa and there is evidence
that some cultivars are more efficient than others. But, infor-
mation is lacking on fertility x water interactions and particu-
larly with the role that nutrient use efficient cultivars might
play in water use efficiency.

Results show a response to nitrogen and phosphorus and a
strong interaction between level of available water, cultivar and
soil fertility in the use of available water. This, and other
evidence and experiences, strongly suggest that soil management
practices to increase the amount of the water resource available
to crops will be economical only when nitrogen and phosphorus
deficiencies are corrected, along with the use of responsive
genotypes.

























Texas A & M University













Neem Tree Windbreaks Improve Environment and Plant Growth In
Sahel


In 1975 CARE initiated a systematic planting of neem trees
in the Maggie Valley of Niger. This windbreak project has gained
considerable attention as one of the most promising agroforestry
projects in Sahelian Africa. Potential benefits include improve-
ments in water conservation and crop growth, increased comfort
and protection for the villagers and their animals by shielding
them from high winds and dust, and as a source of wood. Data
related to these effects, however, are not available. TropSoils,
in collaboration with CARE, has conducted studies, utilizing
these plantings, to determine how climate and cereal growth are
modified between neem tree windbreak rows and to investigate the
influence of wood harvesting methods on wind protection between
the windbreak rows.

Reduction in average windspeed at crop height in the center
of the field compared to that outside the windbreaks was between
29% and 41%. Protection by the windbreak significantly increased
dry matter production except near the rows, where it was reduced.
Fertilizers increased grain yields regardless of distance from
the windward row.

Partial pollarding proved to be the best harvest method for
wood with the lowest loss of efficiency. While this method may
not yield as much total wood as other methods, it can be done
while maintaining reduction in windspeeds greater than 30%
between the rows.

Results from this study show the usefulness of the trees in
modifying the physical environment and crop growth. Such infor-
mation is indispensable in effective planning the layout of
future plantings and their subsequent management.












Texas A & M University













Mulching Improves Degraded Sahelian Soils


Forests are essential to the lives of Sahelian farmers and
herders. The pressures of increasing population, and the demand
for forage and fuel, have led to the serious degradation of
Sahelian forests. Several studies, conducted in collaboration
with FLUP, have been conducted to find practical means to
stabilize and rejuvenate degraded forest and agricultural lands.
Among these were investigations on simple tillage and mulching
treatments for their ability to regenerate vegetation in the
Guesselbodi Forest near Niamey, Niger.

The results show that tillage was not as effective in the
reestablishment of vegetation on barren forest soils as was
mulching with tree branches. This has important consequences for
the implementation of soil-conservation practices in the Sahel
because branches, a waste product of commercial firewood
harvesting, are readily available in areas being harvested and
are easily placed on the surface of barren forest soils.


























Texas A & M University











Personnel Engaged In Degree Related Programs Supported by
TropSoils and Collaborators. Cornell University
September, 1981 through December, 1986





Country of Degree Source of
Name Citizenship Program Support


Bowen, Walter

Buttler, Imo

Carsky, Robert

Carvalho, Luiz

Costa, Francisco

Luchiari, Ariovaldo

Macedo, Jamil

Macedo, Jamil

Marcano-Martinez, E.

McVoy, Christopher

Motavalli, Peter

Osmond, Deanna

Quintana, Jorge


U.S.A.

W. Germany

U.S.A.

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Dom. Rep.

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

Nicaragua


Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

M.S.

Ph.D.

M.S.

Ph.D.

M.S.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.


CRSP

CRSP

CRSP

EMBRAPA

CRSP

EMBRAPA

EMBRAPA

EMBRAPA

IICA

CRSP

CRSP

Self

CRSP











Personnel Engaged In Degree Related Programs Supported by
TropSoils and Collaborators. Cornell University
September, 1981 through December, 1986





Country of Degree Source of
Name Citizenship Program Support


Bowen, Walter

Buttler, Imo

Carsky, Robert

Carvalho, Luiz

Costa, Francisco

Luchiari, Ariovaldo

Macedo, Jamil

Macedo, Jamil

Marcano-Martinez, E.

McVoy, Christopher

Motavalli, Peter

Osmond, Deanna

Quintana, Jorge


U.S.A.

W. Germany

U.S.A.

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Dom. Rep.

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

Nicaragua


Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

M.S.

Ph.D.

M.S.

Ph.D.

M.S.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.


CRSP

CRSP

CRSP

EMBRAPA

CRSP

EMBRAPA

EMBRAPA

EMBRAPA

IICA

CRSP

CRSP

Self

CRSP











Personnel Engaged In Degree Related Programs Supported
by TropSoils and Collaborators. University of Hawaii
September, 1981 through December, 1986


Country of Degree Source of
Name Citizenship Program Support


Aluisius, Djohan

Dierolf, Tom

Evensen, Carl

Hansen, James

Huang, Ruey-Shyang

Kilham, Phoebe

Legowo, Eko

Lin, Li-Ling

Shultz, Jan

Singh, Upendra

Soekardi, M.

Trangmar, Bruce


Indonesia

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

Rep. of China

U.S.A.

Indonesia

Taiwan

U.S.A.

Fiji

Indonesia

New Zealand


Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

M.S.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.


MUCIA

CRSP

CRSP

CRSP

USDA

CRSP

USDA

REG. RES.

CRSP

E W C

SAID

G NZ










Personnel Engaged In Degree Related Programs Supported
by TropSoils and Collaborators. North Carolina State University
September, 1981 through December, 1986




Country of Degree Source of
Name Citizenship Program Support


Alegre, Julio

Alvarado, Alfredo

Ara, Miguel

Ayarza, Miguel

Casanova, Eduardo

Castilla, Carlos

Davelouis, Jose

Dubois, Olivier

Edwards, David

Elsenbeer, Helmut

Fernandez, Erick

Fontes, Marisa

Gichuru, Mwenja

Gill, Dan

Hoag, Robert

Hormia, Kristiina

Katz, Lisa

Lins, Ibere


Peru

Costa Rica

Peru

Peru

Venezuela

Colombia

Peru

Belgium

U.K.

Germany

Kenya

Brazil

Kenya

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

Finland

U.S.A.

Brazil


Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Post Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

M.S.

B.S.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

M.Sc.

M.S.

Ph.D.


CRSP

UCR

CRSP

RF

GOV

CRSP

SAID

CRSP

RU

CRSP

CRSP

CEPLAC

CRSP

CRSP

CRSP

UF

CRSP

EMBRAPA










Personnel Engaged In Degree Related Programs Supported
by TropSoils and Collaborators. North Carolina State University
September, 1981 through December, 1986




Country of Degree Source of
Name Citizenship Program Support


Makarim, Karim

Melgar, Ricardo

Morien, Emilio

Mt. Pleasant, Jane

Newman, Laurie

Ngachi, Victor

Palm, Cheryl

Piha, Melvyn

Poutannen, Marti

Schnaar, Robert

Scholes, Mary

Scholes, Robert

Smith, Christopher

Subagyo, H.

Szott, Lawrence

Ten Ouden, Gerard

Torrance, Kenneth

Ubiera, Amilcar

Uribe, Eduardo


Indonesia

Argentina

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

Cameroon

U.S.A.

Zimbabwe

Finland

Netherlands

S. Africa

S. Africa

U.S.A.

Indonesia

U.S.A.

Netherlands

Canada

Dom. Rep.

Colombia


Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Post Ph.D.

Ph.D.

M.S.

M.S.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

M.Sc.

M.Sc.

Post Ph.D.

Post Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.

B.S.

Post. Ph.D.

Ph.D.

Ph.D.


IADS

IDB

Jinker Fd

CRSP

CRSP

SAID

CRSP

CRSP

UF

UW

CSIR

CSIR

CRSP

IADS

CRSP

UF

IDRC

FERQUIDO

CRSP











Personnel Engaged In Degree Related Programs Supported
by TropSoils and Collaborators. Texas A & M University
September, 1981 through December, 1986




Country of Degree Source of
Name Citizenship Program Support


Bui, Elisabeth

Davis, Jessica

Doumbia, Mamadou

Gandah, Mohamadou

Gardiner, James

Landeck, Jonathan

Long, Steve

Louis, Piere

Marcelin, Fritz

Ouattara, Mamadou

Payne, William

Pfordresher, Anne

Wendt, John

Yerima, Bernard

Zaongo, Christophe


U.S.A.

U.S.A.

Mali

Niger

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

Haiti

Haiti

Niger

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

Cameroon

Burkina Faso


Ph.D.

Ph.D.

M.S.

M.S.

M.S.

M.S.

M.S.

M.S.

M.S.

Ph.D.

M.S.

M.S.

M.S.

Ph.D.

M.S.


CRSP

CRSP

CRSP

NCRP

CRSP

CRSP

CRSP

SAID

SAID

NCRP

CRSP

PSG

CRSP

CRSP

CRSP












Publications in Serial Journals, Technical Bulletins, Monographs
and Workshop Proceedings. Cornell University.


Bouldin, D.R., K.D. Ritchey and E. Laboto. 1985. Management of
Soil Acidity. In: P.A. Sanchez, E.R. Stoner and E. Pushparajah
(eds.): Management of Acid Tropical Soils for Sustainable
Agriculture. IBSRAM Proc. 2:187-203. Bangkok, Thailand.

Buttler, I. and S.J.Riha. 1987. General Purpose Simulation
Model of Water Flow in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum. App.
Agr. Res. (In press).

Janssen, B.H., D.J. Lathwell and J. Wolf. 1987. Modeling Long-
Term Crop Response to Fertilizer Phosphorus. II. Comparison
with Field Results. Agron. J. 79:452-458.

Lathwell, D.J. and D.R. Bouldin. 1981. Soil Organic Matter and
Soil Nitrogen Behavior in Cropped Soils. Trop. Agri. 58:341-348.

Lathwell, D.J. and T.L. Grove. 1986. Soil-Plant Relationships in
the Tropics. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 17:1-16.

Macedo, J. and R.B. Bryant. 1987. Morphology and Mineralogy and
Genesis of a Hydrosequence of Oxisols in Brazil. Soil Sci. Soc.
Am. J. 51:690-698.

Montavalli, P.P. and J.M. Duxbury. 1987. The Effects of
Additions of Alfalfa and Oxalate on Sulfur Mineralization and
Sulfate Adsorption in Latasols of the Cerrado. Rev. Bras. Cienc.
Solo (In press).

Wolf, J., C.T. deWit, B.H. Janssen and D.J. Lathwell. 1987.
Modeling Long-Term Crop Response to Fertilizer Phosphorus. I.
The Model Agron. J. 79:445-451.












Publications in Serial Journals, Technical Bulletins, Monographs
and Workshop Proceedings. Cornell University.


Bouldin, D.R., K.D. Ritchey and E. Laboto. 1985. Management of
Soil Acidity. In: P.A. Sanchez, E.R. Stoner and E. Pushparajah
(eds.): Management of Acid Tropical Soils for Sustainable
Agriculture. IBSRAM Proc. 2:187-203. Bangkok, Thailand.

Buttler, I. and S.J.Riha. 1987. General Purpose Simulation
Model of Water Flow in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum. App.
Agr. Res. (In press).

Janssen, B.H., D.J. Lathwell and J. Wolf. 1987. Modeling Long-
Term Crop Response to Fertilizer Phosphorus. II. Comparison
with Field Results. Agron. J. 79:452-458.

Lathwell, D.J. and D.R. Bouldin. 1981. Soil Organic Matter and
Soil Nitrogen Behavior in Cropped Soils. Trop. Agri. 58:341-348.

Lathwell, D.J. and T.L. Grove. 1986. Soil-Plant Relationships in
the Tropics. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 17:1-16.

Macedo, J. and R.B. Bryant. 1987. Morphology and Mineralogy and
Genesis of a Hydrosequence of Oxisols in Brazil. Soil Sci. Soc.
Am. J. 51:690-698.

Montavalli, P.P. and J.M. Duxbury. 1987. The Effects of
Additions of Alfalfa and Oxalate on Sulfur Mineralization and
Sulfate Adsorption in Latasols of the Cerrado. Rev. Bras. Cienc.
Solo (In press).

Wolf, J., C.T. deWit, B.H. Janssen and D.J. Lathwell. 1987.
Modeling Long-Term Crop Response to Fertilizer Phosphorus. I.
The Model Agron. J. 79:445-451.












Publications in Serial Journals, Technical Bulletins, Monographs
and Workshop Proceedings. Cornell University.


Bouldin, D.R., K.D. Ritchey and E. Laboto. 1985. Management of
Soil Acidity. In: P.A. Sanchez, E.R. Stoner and E. Pushparajah
(eds.): Management of Acid Tropical Soils for Sustainable
Agriculture. IBSRAM Proc. 2:187-203. Bangkok, Thailand.

Buttler, I. and S.J.Riha. 1987. General Purpose Simulation
Model of Water Flow in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum. App.
Agr. Res. (In press).

Janssen, B.H., D.J. Lathwell and J. Wolf. 1987. Modeling Long-
Term Crop Response to Fertilizer Phosphorus. II. Comparison
with Field Results. Agron. J. 79:452-458.

Lathwell, D.J. and D.R. Bouldin. 1981. Soil Organic Matter and
Soil Nitrogen Behavior in Cropped Soils. Trop. Agri. 58:341-348.

Lathwell, D.J. and T.L. Grove. 1986. Soil-Plant Relationships in
the Tropics. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 17:1-16.

Macedo, J. and R.B. Bryant. 1987. Morphology and Mineralogy and
Genesis of a Hydrosequence of Oxisols in Brazil. Soil Sci. Soc.
Am. J. 51:690-698.

Montavalli, P.P. and J.M. Duxbury. 1987. The Effects of
Additions of Alfalfa and Oxalate on Sulfur Mineralization and
Sulfate Adsorption in Latasols of the Cerrado. Rev. Bras. Cienc.
Solo (In press).

Wolf, J., C.T. deWit, B.H. Janssen and D.J. Lathwell. 1987.
Modeling Long-Term Crop Response to Fertilizer Phosphorus. I.
The Model Agron. J. 79:445-451.












Publications in Serial Journals, Technical Bulletins, Monographs
and Workshop Proceedings. University of Hawaii.


El-Swaify, S.A. 1987. Contrasting the Conservation and
Management Requirements of Alfisols, Oxisols, and Ultisols for
Improved Rainfed Farming in Semi-arid Areas. In: I. Pla-Sentis
(ed). Proceedings Fourth International Conference on Soil
Conservation, Venezuela Soc. Soil Sci., Maracay, Venezuela.

El-Swaify, S.A. 1987. Soil-Based Concerns for Soil and Water
Conservation Research and Development in the Tropics. In: S.
Jantawat (ed.), Proceedings International Workshop on Soil
Erosion and Its Countermeasures, Kasetsart University, Bangkok,
Thailand.

Harper, D.E. and S.A. El-Swaify. 1987. Sustainable Agricultural
Development in North Thailand: Soil Conservation as a Component
of Success in Assistance Projects. In: Proceedings Workshop on
Soil and Water Conservation on Steep Lands. Soil Conservation
Soc. Amer. (In press).

Huang, R.S., W.K. Smith and R.S. Yost. 1986. Influence of
Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on Growth, Water Relations, and
Leaf Orientation in Leucaena Leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. New
Phytologist 99:229-243.

Trangmar, B.B., R.S. Yost and G. Uehara. 1986. Spatial
Dependence and Interpolation of Soil Properties in West Sumatra,
Indonesia. I. Anisotropic Variation. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.
50:1391-1395.

Trangmar, B.B., R.S. Yost and G. Uehara. Application of
Geostatistics to Spatial Studies of Soil Properties. Advances in
Agronomy. 38:45-94. Academic Press, Inc.

Trangmar, B.B., R.S. Yost and G. Uehara. 1986. Spatial
Dependence and Interpolation of Soil Properties in West Sumatra,
Indonesia. II. Coregionalization and Cokriging. Soil Sci. Soc.
Am. J. 50:1396-1400.

Trangmar, B.B. R.S. Yost, M. Sudjadi, M. Soekardi and G. Uehara.
1984. Variation of Selected TropSoil Properties in Sitiung, West
Sumatra, Indonesia. CTHAR Research Series, No. 026. Honolulu:
University of Hawaii.

Trangmar, B.B., R.S. Yost, M.K. Wade, G. Uehara and M. Sudjadi.
1987. Spatial Variation in Soil Properties and Rice Yield on
Recently Cleared Land. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 50:668-674.








Uehara, G., B.B. Trangmar and R.S. Yost. 1985. Spatial
Variability of Soil Properties. In: D.R. Nielsen and J. Bouma
(Eds.). Soil Spatial Variability. Proceedings of a Workshop of
the ISSA and SSSA.

Yost, R.S., B.B. Trangmar and J.P. Ndiaye. 1986. Geostatistical
Computation Software for Microcomputers. I. Semivariograms.
Research Extension Bulletin Series 074. Hawaii Institute of
Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii.

Yost, R.S., B.B. Trangmar, J.P. Ndiaye and N. Yoshida. 1987.
Geostatistical Computation Software for Microcomputers. III.
Block Kriging. (In press).

Yost, R.S., B.B. Trangmar, J.P. Ndiaye and N. Yoshida. 1987.
Geostatistical Computation Software for Microcomputers. IV.
Cokriging. (In press).

Yost, R.S., S. Itoga, Z.C. Li and P. Kilham. 1986. Soil Acidity
Management With Expert Systems. IBSRAM Asian Regional Seminar on
Soil Acidity, Land Clearing and Vertisols.













Publications in Serial Journals, Technical Bulletins, Monographs
and Workshop Proceedings. North Carolina State University.


Alegre, J., D.K. Cassel, D. Bandy, and P.A. Sanchez. 1986.
Effect of Land Clearing on Soil Properties of an Ultisol and
Subsequent Crop Production in Yurimaguas, Peru. In: R. Lal,
P.A. Sanchez and R.W. Cummings, Jr. (eds). Land Clearing and
Development in the Tropics, pp. 167-177. A.A. Balkema Press,
Boston.

Alegre, J.C. and D.K. Cassel. 1986. Effect of Land-Clearing
Methods and Postclearing Management on Aggregate Stability and
Organic Carbon Content of a Soil in the Humid Tropics. Soil
Sci., 142:289-295.

Alegre, J.C., D.K. Cassel, and D.E. Bandy. 1986. Effects of
Land Clearing and Subsequent Management on Soil Physical
Properties. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J., 50:1379-1383.

Alegre, J.C., D.K. Cassel, and D.E. Bandy. 1986. Reclamation of
an Ultisol Damaged by Mechanical Land Clearing. Soil Sci. Soc.
Am. J., 50:1026-1031.

Alvarado, A. and S.W. Buol. 1985. Field Estimation of Phosphate
Retention by Andepts. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 49:911-914.

Bandy, D.E. and P.A. Sanchez. 1986. Post-Clearing Soil
Management Alternatives for Sustained Production in the Amazon.
In: R. Lal, P.A. Sanchez and R.W. Cummings, Jr. (eds): Land
Clearing and Development in the Tropics, pp. 347-362. A. A.
Balkema Press, Boston.

Benites, J.R. 1983. Manejo De Fosforo En Suelos Acidos E
Infertiles De La Amazonia Peruana. In: Conferencia
Latinoamericana de Roca Fosforica, pp. 471-500. IBTA, La Paz,
Bolivia.

Benites, J.R. 1987. Transfer of Acid Tropical Soils Management
Technology. In: P.A. Sanchez, E.R. Stoner and E. Pushparajah
(eds): Management of Acid Tropical Soils for Sustainable
Agriculture. IBSRAM Proc., 2:245-260. Bangkok, Thailand.

Benites, J.R., D.E. Bandy, J.J. Nicholaides, M.I. Piha and P.A.
Sanchez. 1983. Successful Soil Management Technologies and
Their Transfer to Small Farms in the Peruvian Amazon. In:
Communications of Weed Sci. Tech. in Developing Countries, pp.
337-366. St. Louis, MO.








Buol, S.W. and H.P. Denton. 1984. The Role of Soil Classifi-
cation in Technology Transfer. In: R.B. Grossman (ed.) Soil
Taxonomy Achievements and Challenges. SSSA Spec. Publ., 14:29-
43. Madison, WI.

Buol, S.W. and P.A. Sanchez. 1986. Red Soils in the Americas:
Morphology, Classification and Management. In: Proceedings of
the International Symposium on Red Soils. Institute of Soil
Science, Academia Sinica, Science Press, pp. 14-43. Beijing,
China.

Cochrane, T.T. and P.A. Sanchez. 1982. Land Resources, Soils
and Their Management in the Amazon Region: A State of Knowledge
Report. In: S.B. Hecht (ed.): Amazonia: Agriculture and Land
Use Research, pp. 137-209. CIAT, Cali, Colombia.

Cochrane, T.T. and P.A. Sanchez. 1982. Recursos De Tierras,
Suelos Y Su Manejo En La Region Amazonica: Informe Acerca Del
Estado De Conocimientos. In: S.B. Hecht (ed.): Amazonia:
Agriculture e Investigacion de Tierras, pp. 141-218. CIAT, Cali,
Colombia.

Cox, F.R. and I.D.G. Lins. 1984. A Phosphorus Soil Test Inter-
pretation for Corn Growth on Acid Soils Varying in Crystalline
Clay Content. Commun. in Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 15:1481-1491.

Gill, D.W. and J. Sri Adiningsih. 1986. Response of Upland Rice
and Soybeans to Potassium Fertilization, Residue Management and
Green Manuring in Sitiung, West Sumatra. Pembr. Pen. Tanah Dan
Pupuk, 6:26-31.

Hiebsch, C.K. and R.E. McCollum. 1987. Area-X-Time Equivalency
Ratio: A Method for Evaluating the Productivity of Intercrops.
Agron. J., 79:15-22.

Kamprath, E.J. 1984. Crop Response to Lime on Soils in the
Tropics. In: Soil Acidity and Liming. Agronomy Monograph No.
12 (2nd ed.):349-367.

Lal, R., P.A. Sanchez and R.W. Cummings, Jr. (eds.) 1986. Land
Clearing and Development in the Tropics. A. A. Balkema Press,
pp. 450. Boston.

Lins, I.D.G., F.R. Cox and J.J. Nicholaides, III. 1985.
Optimizing Phosphorus Fertilization Rates for Soybeans Grown on
Oxisols and Associated Entisols. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 49:1457-
1460.

Lopes, A.S., T.J. Smyth and N. Curi. 1987. The Need for a Soil
Fertility Reference Base and Nutrient Dynamics Studies. In:
P.A. Sanchez, E.R. Stoner and E. Pushparajah (eds): Management
of Acid Tropical Soils for Sustainable Agriculture. IBSRAM
Proc., 2:147-166. Bangkok, Thailand.








Nicholaides, J.J. 1983. Liming Materials, Origin, Composition,
Use and Effects. In: CRC Handbook of Nutritional Supplements:
II. Agricultural Use, pp. 337-366. Boca Raton, FL.

Nicholaides, J.J. 1984. From Migratory to Continuous
Agriculture in The Amazon Basin. In: Improved Production
Systems as an Alternative to Shifting Cultivation, pp. 141-168.
FAO Soils Bull., Rome.

Nicholaides, J.J., D.E. Bandy, P.A. Sanchez, J.R. Benites, J.H.
Villachica, A.J. Coutu and C.S. Valverde. 1985. Agricultural
Alternatives for the Amazon Basin, BioScience 35:279-285.

Nicholaides III, J.J. 1982. Fertilizer Management for
Continuous Crop Production of Ultisols of the Amazon Jungle Basin
of Peru. Proc. Ninth Int'l. Plant Nutr. Colloq., 2:425-430.
Oxford, U.K.

Nicholaides III, J.J., D.E. Bandy, P.A. Sanchez, J.H. Villachica,
A.J. Coutu and C. S. Valverde. 1986. De La Agricultura
Migratoria A La Explotacion Agricola Continua En La Cuenca Del
Amazona. En: Sistemas Mejoradas de Produccion Como Alternativa
a la Agricultura Migratoria. FAO, Rome.

Reategui, K., M. Ara and R. Schaus. 1985. Evaluacion Bajo
Pastoreo De Associaciones De Gramineas Y Leguminosas Forrajeras
En Yurimaguas, Peru. Pasturas Tropicales Boletin, 7(3):11-14.
CIAT, Cali, Colombia.

Ritchey, K.D., F.R. Cox, E.Z. Galrao and R.S. Yost. 1986.
Disponibilidade De Zinco Para As Culturas Do Milho. Pesq.
Agropec. Bras. 21:215-225.

Sanchez, P.A. 1981. Soils of the Humid Tropics. Studies in
Third World Societies 41:347-410.

Sanchez, P.A. 1982. A Legume-Based, Pasture Production Strategy
for Acid Infertile Soils of Tropical America. In: Soil Erosion
and Conservation in the Tropics. ASA Special Publication 43, pp.
97-120. Madison, WI.

Sanchez, P.A. 1982. Nitrogen in Shifting Cultivation Systems of
Latin America. Plant and Soil 67:91-103.

Sanchez, P.A. 1984. Productivity of Soils in Rainfed Farming
Systems: Examples of Longterm Experiments. In: Potential
Productivity of Field Crops Under Different Environments, pp.
441-465. IRRI, Los Banos, Philippines.

Sanchez, P.A. 1987. Edaphic Parameters for Characterizing
IBSRAM's Acid Tropical Soils Network Sites. In: M. Latham
(ed.): Land Development Management of Acid Soils. IBSRAM
Proc. 4:113-123. Bangkok, Thailand.









Sanchez, P.A. 1987. Management of Acid Soils in the Humid
Tropics of Latin America. In: P.A. Sanchez, E.R. Stoner and E.
Pushparajah (eds.): Management of Acid Tropical Soils for
Sustainable Agriculture. IBSRAM Proc. 2:63-107. Bangkok,
Thailand.

Sanchez, P.A., D.E. Bandy, J.H. Villachica and J.J. Nicholaides.
1982. Amazon Basin Soils: Management for Continuous Crop
Production. Science 216:821-827.

Sanchez, P.A. and J. Benites. 1986. Opciones Tecnologicas Para
El Manejo Racional De Suelos En La Selva Peruana. In: lo
Simposio do Tropico Umido, 1:399-435. EMBRAPA, Belem, Para,
Brazil.

Sanchez, P.A. and S.W. Buol. 1985. Agronomic Taxonomy for
Wetland Soils. In: Wetland Soils: Characterization,
Classification and Utilization, pp. 207-227. IRRI, Los Banos,
Philippines.

Sanchez, P.A., W. Couto and S.W. Buol. 1982. The Fertility
Capability Soil Classification System: Interpretation,
Applicability and Modification. Geoderma 27:283-309.

Sanchez, P.A., M.P. Gichuru and L.B. Katz. 1982. Organic Matter
in Major Soils of the Tropical and Temperate Regions. Trans.
12th Int. Congr. Soil Science (New Delhi) 1:99-114.

Sanchez, P.A. and R.H. Miller. 1986. Organic Matter and Soil
Fertility Management in Acid Soils of the Tropics. Trans. 13th
Int. Congr. Soil Sci. (Hamburg) (in press).

Sanchez, P.A., J.J. Nicholaides and W. Couto. 1983. Physical
and Chemical Constraints to Food Production in the Tropics. In:
Chemistry and World Food Supplies (Chemrawn II), pp. 89-105.
IRRI, Los Banos, Philippines.

Sanchez, P.A., C.A. Palm, C.B. Davey, L.T. Szott and C.E.
Russell. 1985. Tree Crops as Soil Improvers in the Humid
Tropics? In: M.G.R. Cannell and J.E. Jackson (eds.):
Attributes of Trees and Crop Plants, pp. 327-358. Institute of
Terrestrial Ecology, Huntingdon, U.K.

Sanchez, P.A. and J.G. Salinas. 1981. Low-Input Technology for
Managing Oxisols and Ultisols in Tropical America. Adv. Agron.
34:279-406.

Sanchez, P.A. and T.J. Smyth. 1987. Acid Tropical Soils
Network: A Progress Report. In: Land Development and
Management of Acid Soils in Africa. IBSRAM Proc. 4:(in press).

Sanchez, P.A., J.H. Villachica and D.E. Bandy. 1983. Soil
Fertility Dynamics After Clearing a Tropical Rainforest in Peru.
Soil Sci. Am. J. 47:1171-1178.








Sharpley, A.N. and S.W. Buol. 1987. Relationship Between
Minimum Exchangeable Potassium and Soil Taxonomy. Commun. in
Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 18:601-614.

Smyth, T.J. and J.B. Bastos. 1984. Altreracoes Na Fertilidade
Em Un Latossolo Amerelo Alico Pela Quema Da Vegetacao. R. Bras.
Ci. Solo 8:127-132.

Smyth, T.J. and J.B. Bastos. 1985. Adubacao Fosfatada Para
Milho E Caupi Em Latossolo Amarelo Alico Do Tropico Umido. Pesq.
Agropec. Bras. 20:1259-1264.

Smyth, T.J. and P.A. Sanchez. 1982. Phosphate Rock Dissolution
and Availability in Cerrado Soils as Affected by Phosphorus
Sorption Capacity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 46:339-345.

Smyth, T.J. and P.A. Sanchez. 1982. Phosphate Rock and Super-
phosphate Combinations for Soybeans in a Cerrado Oxisol. Agron.
J. 74:730-735.

Sudjadi, M., S. Adiningsih and D.W. Gill. 1985. Potassium
Availability in Soils of Indonesia. Potassium in the
Agricultural Systems of the Humid Tropics. 19th Colloquium of
the International Potash Institute, Bangkok, Thailand, pp. 157-
168. IPI, Berne, Switzerland.

Swift, M.J. and P.A. Sanchez. 1984. Biological Management of
Tropical Soil Fertility for Sustained Productivity. Nature and
Resources 20:1-9.

Szott, L.T. and C.A. Palm. 1986. Soil and Vegetation Dynamics
in Shifting Cultivation Fallows. In: lo Simposio do Tropico
Umido, 1:360-379. EMBRAPA, Belem, Para, Brazil.

Trangmar, B.B., R.S. Yost, M.K. Wade, G. Uehara and M. Sudjadi.
1987. Spatial Variation of Soil Properties' and Rice Yield on
Recently Cleared Land. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 51:668-674.

Valverde, C.S. and D.E. Bandy. 1982. Produccion De Cultivos
Alimenticios Anuales En La Amazonia. In: S.B. Hecht (ed.):
Amazonia: Agricultura e Investigacion en Tierras, pp. 253-293.
CIAT, Cali, Colombia.

Wade, M.K. and P.A. Sanchez. 1983. Mulching and Green Manure
Applications for Continuous Crop Production in the Amazon Basin.
Agron. J. 75:39-45.

Wade, M.K. and P.A. Sanchez. 1984. Productive Potential of an
Annual Intercropping Scheme in the Amazon. Field Crops Res.
9:253-263.

Yost, R.S., G.C. Naderman, E.J. Kamprath and E. Lobato. 1982.
Availability of Rock Phosphate as Measured by an Acid-Tolerant
Pasture Grass and Extractable Phosphorus. Agron. J. 74:462-468.












Publications in Serial Journals, Technical Bulletins, Monographs
and Workshop Proceedings. Texas A & M University


Bui, E. and L.P. Wilding. 1987. Pedogenesis and Mineralogy of a
Halaquept Soil in Niger, West Africa. Geoderma. (in press).

Bui, E., J.B. Dixon, H. Shadfan and L.P. Wilding. 1987. Iron
Phases in the Dallol Bosso of Niger, West Africa. Catena. (in
press).

Hicks, S.K., R.J. Lascano, C.W. Wendt and A.B. Onken. 1986. Use
of Hydraulic Press for Estimation of Leaf Water Potential in
Grain Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor L.). Agron. J. 78:749-751.

Isbell, V.R. and C.W. Wendt. 1984. Annual Windbreak Effects on
Cotton Yield and Development. New Mexico Journal of Science.
24:12.


Lascano, R.J. and C.H.M van Bavel. 1986. Simulation and
Measurement of Evaporation From a Bare Soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am.
J. 50:1127-1132.

Lascano, R.J., C.H.M. van Bavel, J.L. Hatfield and D.R. Upchurch.
1987. Energy and Water Balance of a Sparse Crop: Simulated and
Measured Soil and Crop Evaporation. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. (in
press).

Lascano, R.J., J.L. Hatfield and C.H.M. van Bavel. 1986. Field
Calibration of Neutron Meters Using a Two-Probe, Gamma-Density
Gauge. Soil Sci. 141:442-447.

Long, S., N. Persaud, M. Gandah and M. Ouattara. 1986. Influence
of a Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Windbreak Plantation on Millet
Yields and Microclimate in Niger, West Africa. Proceedings of
the International Symposium on Windbreak Tech. Lincoln,
Nebraska. p. 183.

Onken, A.B. and C.W. Wendt. 1986. Soil Fertility Management and
Water Relationships. Proceedings of the Soil, Water and Crop
Management Workshop Sudano-Sahelian Zone. Niamey, Niger. (in
press).

Persaud, N., M. Ouattara and I. Alfari. 1986. Analysis of
Rainfall Records and Its Implication for Improving Rain-Use
Efficiency for Cereal Production in Niger. Proceedings OUA/STRC/
SAFGRAD International Drought Symposium. Nairobi, Kenya. (in
press).








Persaud, N., S. Long, M. Gandah and M. Ouattara. 1986.
Influence of Wood Harvesting Method on Wind Protection Between
Rows of a Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Plantation in Niger, West
Africa. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Windbreak
Tech. Lincoln, Nebraska. p. 211.

van Bavel, C.H.M., R.J. Lascano and J.M. Baker. 1985.
Calibrating Two-Probe, Gamma-Gauge Densitometers. Soil Sci.
140:393-395.

West, L.T., L.P. Wilding and F.G. Calhoun. 1987. Argillic
Horizons In Sandy Soils of the Sahel, West Africa. In: N.
Federoff, L.M. Bresson and M.A. Courty (eds.). Micromorphology
Des Sols. Proceedings of the VIIth International Working Meeting
on Soil Micromorphology. Paris, France. pp. 221-225.

West, L.T., L.P. Wilding, J.K. Landeck and F.G. Calhoun. 1984.
Soil Survey of the ICRISAT Sahelian Center, Niger, West Africa.
Dept. of Soil and Crop Sci. Texas A & M University, College
Station. 66 pp.

Wilding, L.P. and C.T. Hallmark. 1984. Development of
Structural and Microfabric Properties in Shrinking and Swelling
Clays. In: J. Bouma and P.A.C. Raats (eds.). Proceedings of
the ISSS Symposium on Water and Solute Movement in Heavy Clay
Soils. ILRI Publ. #37, Wageningen, The Netherlands. pp. 1-22.

Wilding, L.P. and L.R. Hossner. 1987. Causes and Effects of
Acidity in Sahelian Soils. Proceedings of Workshop on Soil Water
and Crop Management Systems for Rainfed Agriculture in the
Sudano-Sahelian Zone. Niamey, Niger. (in press).

Yerima, B.P.K., L. R. Hossner, L.P. Wilding and F.G. Calhoun.
1987. Forms of Phosphorous Sorption in Northern Cameroon
Vertisols and Associated Alfisols. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. (in
press).

Yerima, B.P.K., L.P. Wilding and L.R. Hossner. 1987. Total and
Ammonium Bicarbonate DTPA Extractable Micronutrients of
Selected Vertisols and Associated Alfisols of Northern Cameroon.
Geoderma (in press).

Yerima, B.P.K., L.P. Wilding, F.G. Calhoun and C.T. Hallmark.
1987. Vertisols in Northern Cameroon: Morphological, Physical,
Chemical and Mineralogical Properties. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J.
(in press).

Yerima, B.P.K., L.P. Wilding, F.G. Calhoun and C.T. Hallmark.
1987. Volcanic Ash-Influenced Vertisols and Associated Mollisols
of El Salvador: Physical, Chemical and Morphological Properties.
Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 51:699-708.











Publications of Special Reports, Research Briefs and Abstracts.
University of Hawaii.


Colfer, C.J.P., B. Newton and H. Agus. 1986. On People's
Perceptions of Soil--Sitiung, West Sumatra. In: Proceedings
Center for Soil Research Annual Technical Meetings, Bogor,
Indonesia.

Evensen, S. 1986. Characterization of Home Gardens in Aur Jaya
(Sitiung VC). TropSoils Indonesia Field Research Brief #32.

Evensen, C. and R. Yost. 1986. Alley Cropping. TropSoils
Indonesia Field Research Brief #33, 7 p.

Evensen, S. 1987. Soil and Crop Management Practices in Aur
Jaya. TropSoils Indonesia Field Research Brief #35.

Evensen, C. and R. Yost. 1986. Source and Management of Green
Manure. TropSoils Indonesia Field Research Brief #36, 8 p.

Evensen, C.L.I., R.S. Yost and Y. Kanehiro. 1987. Calcaium and
Molybdenum Response of Forage Legumes. TropSoils Indonesia Field
Research Brief #38.

Sigman, V., C. Colfer, K. Wilson, R. Yost, M. Rauch and M. Wade.
Farm-based Research in the TropSoils Project, Sitiung, Indonesia.
To be published by Case Studies Project on Intra-Household
Dynamics and Farming Systems Research and Extension.

Singh, U., G. Uehara and C.A. Jones. 1985. Simulating Corn (Zea
mays L.) Performance in the Tropics. Abstracts: Amer. Soc.
Agron., Madison, Wisconsin.

Uehara, G. and R.S. Yost. 1986. Spatial and Temporal
Agroecosystem Variability. Abstracts: Amer. Soc. Agron.,
Madison, Wisconsin. p. 163.

Yost, R.S., G. Uehara, M. Wade, M. Sudjadi, I.P.G. Widjaja-Adhi,
and Z.C. Li. 1985. An Expert System for Making Lime Recommen-
dations in Soils of the Humid Tropics: A User's Manual for
ACID3b. University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical
Agriculture and Human Resources.

Yost, R.S., G. Uehara, M. Wade, M. Sudjadi, I.P.G. Widjaja-Adhi,
and Z.C. Li. 1987. Expert Systems in Agriculture: Determining
Lime Recommendations for Soils of the Humid Tropics. College of
Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, Research Bulletin. (In
press).











Publications of Special Reports, Research Briefs and Abstracts.
University of Hawaii.


Colfer, C.J.P., B. Newton and H. Agus. 1986. On People's
Perceptions of Soil--Sitiung, West Sumatra. In: Proceedings
Center for Soil Research Annual Technical Meetings, Bogor,
Indonesia.

Evensen, S. 1986. Characterization of Home Gardens in Aur Jaya
(Sitiung VC). TropSoils Indonesia Field Research Brief #32.

Evensen, C. and R. Yost. 1986. Alley Cropping. TropSoils
Indonesia Field Research Brief #33, 7 p.

Evensen, S. 1987. Soil and Crop Management Practices in Aur
Jaya. TropSoils Indonesia Field Research Brief #35.

Evensen, C. and R. Yost. 1986. Source and Management of Green
Manure. TropSoils Indonesia Field Research Brief #36, 8 p.

Evensen, C.L.I., R.S. Yost and Y. Kanehiro. 1987. Calcaium and
Molybdenum Response of Forage Legumes. TropSoils Indonesia Field
Research Brief #38.

Sigman, V., C. Colfer, K. Wilson, R. Yost, M. Rauch and M. Wade.
Farm-based Research in the TropSoils Project, Sitiung, Indonesia.
To be published by Case Studies Project on Intra-Household
Dynamics and Farming Systems Research and Extension.

Singh, U., G. Uehara and C.A. Jones. 1985. Simulating Corn (Zea
mays L.) Performance in the Tropics. Abstracts: Amer. Soc.
Agron., Madison, Wisconsin.

Uehara, G. and R.S. Yost. 1986. Spatial and Temporal
Agroecosystem Variability. Abstracts: Amer. Soc. Agron.,
Madison, Wisconsin. p. 163.

Yost, R.S., G. Uehara, M. Wade, M. Sudjadi, I.P.G. Widjaja-Adhi,
and Z.C. Li. 1985. An Expert System for Making Lime Recommen-
dations in Soils of the Humid Tropics: A User's Manual for
ACID3b. University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical
Agriculture and Human Resources.

Yost, R.S., G. Uehara, M. Wade, M. Sudjadi, I.P.G. Widjaja-Adhi,
and Z.C. Li. 1987. Expert Systems in Agriculture: Determining
Lime Recommendations for Soils of the Humid Tropics. College of
Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, Research Bulletin. (In
press).









Yost, R.S., S. Itoga, Z.C. Li, J. Hansen, P. Kilham, G. Uehara,
M. Wade and M. Sudjadi. 1985. An Expert System for Making Lime
Recommendations in Soils of the Humid Tropics: A User's Manual
for ACID4. University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical
Agriculture and Human Resources. (In press).












Publications of Special Reports, Research Briefs and Abstracts.
North Carolina State University


Al-jabri and M.K. Wade. 1985. Lime Reaction Rate and
Effectiveness. Field Research Brief No. 10, Center for Soils
Research, Bogor, Indonesia.

Ayarza, M.A. and P.A. Sanchez. 1985. Effect of Sulfur in
Solution On Dry Matter and Tannin Content of Desmodium
Ovalifolium. NCSU Phytotron 1984 Report pp. 38-42.

Ayarza, M.A. y R. Dextre. 1985. Manejo de Pastos. CIPA XVI
Estacion Experimental de Yurimaguas. Serie de Separatas No. 12.
INIPA, Yurimaguas, Peru, pp. 23.

Ayarza, M.A. y R. Dextre. 1986. Manejo de Pastos. Estacion
Experimental de Yurimaguas Serie No. 12. Yurimaguas, Peru, pp.
26.

Bastos, J.B. and T.J. Smyth. 1985. Adubacao Com Micronutrientes
Para Milho e Caupi em Latossolo Amarelo Argiloso do Amazonas.
Pesquisa em Andamento No. 62. Manaus, EMBRAPA-UEPAE, pp. 4.

Benites, J.R. 1986. Manuel de Manejo de Suelos Para el Cultivo
de Cacao. Estacion Experimental de Yurimaguas, Peru.

Benites, J.R. y 0. Rios. 1986. Catorce Anos de Actividades del
Centro de Capacitacion y Adiestramiento de la Estacion
Experimental de Yurimaguas. Yurimaguas, Peru.

Den Ouden, G.G. 1985. Mycorrhiza. Report of B.S.C. National
College for Agriculture, Tropical Section, Deventer, Netherlands,
and Soil Science Department, N.C. State University, pp. 120.

Fahmuddin Agus, M.K. Wade and Jusuf Prawirasumantri. 1985.
Effects of Post-clearing Methods on Soil Properties and Crop
Production. Field Research Brief No. 18. Center for Soils
Research, Bogor, Indonesia.

Gill, D.W., A. Kasno and S. Adiningsih. 1985. Response of
Upland Rice and Soil K Levels to K Fertilization and Green Manure
Applications at Sitiung V. Field Research Brief No. 8, Center
for Soils Research, Bogor, Indonesia.

Lin, Char-fin. 1985. Fertility Capability Classification (FCC)
as a Guided to P, K-Fertilizaton of Lowland Rice. FFTC Book
Series No. 29, Soil Taxonomy Review and Use in the Asian and
Pacific Region. Taipei, Taiwan.









McCollum, R.E. 1986. Dinamica de Nutrientes en el Suelo en
Sistemas de Cultivo Multiples Con Relacion al Uso Eficiente de
Fertilizantes. Estacion Experimental de Yurimaguas Serie No. 13.
Yurimaguas, Peru, pp. 41.

Moran, E.F. 1984. The State of Knowledge on Colonization.
Simposio do Tropico Umido. Belem, Para, Brazil, pp.24.

Nair, P.K.R. and E. Fernandes. 1986. La Agrosilvicultura Como
Alternative a la Agricultura Migratoria. In: Sistemas Mejorados
de Produccion Como Alternativa a la Agricultura Migratoria.
Servicio de Recursos, Manejo y Conservacion de Suelos Direccion
de Fomento de Tierras y Aguas, FAO, Rome, pp. 183-197.

Newman, L.R. 1986. Levantamiento de Suelos de al Estacion
Experimental de Puerto Maldonado. Estacion Experimental de
Yurimaguas Serie No. 16. Yurimaguas, Peru.

Perez, J.M. 1984. Determinacion de Fenotipos de Gulielma
Gasipaes Bailey (Pijuayo) en la Zona de Yurimaguas, Loreto.
Tesis Ing. Forestal, Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana,
Iquitos, Peru, pp. 84.

Poutanen, M. 1985. Agroforestry in Tropical Land Use With
Special Reference to the Peruvian Amazon. University of
Helsinki, Institute of Development Studies. Report 9/1985. B.,
Helsinki, Finland, pp. 111.

Sanchez, P.A. 1985. Fertilizers Make Continuous Cropping
Possible in the Amazon. Better Crops International 1:12-15.

Sanchez, P.A. and J.J. Nicholaides, III. 1981. Plant Nutrition
Study. Paper prepared for Technical Advisory Committee,
Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research,
Miscellaneous Paper AGD/TAC:IAR/81/4. CGIAR, World Bank,
Washington, pp. 98.

Smyth, T.J. 1985. Avaliacao de Fontes de Adubacao Organica Nas
Produtividades de Milho e Caupi, em Latossolo Amarelo Argiloso.
Relatorio de Projeto de Pesquisa. Manaus, EMBRAPA-UEPAE, pp. 13.

Smyth, T.J. 1985. Definicao e Correcao Cronologica de
Deficiencias Nutricionais Para Culturas Anuais em Latossolo
Amarelo Muito Argiloso. Relatorio de Projeto de Pesquisa.
Manaus, EMBRAPA-UEPAE, pp. 18.

Smyth, T.J. 1985. Metodos de Applicacao de Fosforo e Naiaveis
Criticos de P Disponiveis Para Milho e Caupi em Latossolo Amarelo
Muito Argiloso. Relatorio de Projeto de Pesquisa. Manaus,
EMBRAPA-UEPAE, pp. 12.

Smyth, T.J. 1985. Resposta do Guaranazeiro a Aplicacao de
Nitrogenio, Fosforo, Potassio e Magnesio em Latossolo Amarelo








Muito Argiloso. Relatorio de Projeto de Pesquisa, Manaus,
EMBRAPA-UEPAE, pp. 9.

Smyth, T.J. 1986. Report on the Latin American Workshop on
Tropical Soils Management: Yurimaguas, Peru, August 31-September
21, 1986. North Carolina State University, Raleigh, pp. 45.
(In English and Spanish)

Smyth, T.J. and J.B. Bastos. 1984. Adubacao Potassica Para
Milho e Caupi em Latossolo Amerelo Alico do Estado do Amazonas.
In: EMBRAPA-CPATU Documentos, 31, pp. 191-2. Nov. 12-17, 1984,
Belem, Brazil.

Wade, M.K. and Al-jabri. 1985. P Fertilization and Maintenance.
Field Research Brief No. 1, Center for Soils Research, Bogor,
Indonesia.

Wade, M.K. and Al-jabri. 1985. P Fertilization and Maintenance.
Field Research Brief No. 9, Center for Soils Research, Bogor,
Indonesia.

Wade, M.K. and Heryadi. 1985. Effect of Green Manuring on Food
Crop Response to Lime and P Fertilization. Field Research Brief
No. 2, Center for Soils Research, Bogor, Indonesia.

Wade, M.K., E.J. Kamprath and D. Santoso. 1985. Residual and
Maintenance Rate for Lime. Field Research Brief No. 15, Center
for Soils Research, Bogor, Indonesia.

Wade, M.K. and D. Santoso. 1985. Phosphorous Rates and Methods
of Application. Field Research Brief No. 3, Center for Soils
Research, Bogor, Indonesia.

Wade, M.K. and D. Santoso. 1985. Phosphorous Rates and Methods
of Application. Field Research Brief No. 14, Center for Soils
Research, Bogor, Indonesia.












Publications of Special Reports, Research Briefs and Abstracts.
Texas A & M University


Baumhardt, R.L. 1987. Instruction Manual for Rotating Disk Type
Rainfall Simulator. Texas Agri. Exp. Sta. Misc. Pub. (in press).

Baumhardt, R.L., C.W. Wendt, and J.W. Keeling. 1986. Effects of
Cultural Practices on Infiltration and Soil Density and Water
Content. Abstracts. Amer. Soc. Agro. Madison, Wisconsin.
p. 114.

Daniels, R.D. and L.P. Wilding. 1983. Report of Soil/
Geomorphical Relationships in Area Surrounding ICRISAT Sahelian
Center. Dept. Soil and Crop Sci. Texas A & M University.
College Station, TX. 37 pp.

Kouyate, Zoumana. 1986. Trimestrial Progress Report. Institute
D'Economie Rurale. Bamako, Mali.

Lascano, R.J., C.H.M. van Bavel, J.L. Hatfield and D.R. Upchurch.
1986. Simulation and Measurement of Water Use by Cotton in a
Semiarid Climate. Abstract. Amer. Soc. Agron. Madison,
Wisconsin. pg. 159.

Onken, A.B., D.M. Nesmith, J.L. Mabry and C.W. Wendt. 1986.
Influence of Genotype and Fertility Level on Water Use Efficiency
by Grain Sorghum. Abstracts. Amer. Soc. Agron. Madison,
Wisconsin. pg. 210.

Ouattara, M. and N. Persaud. 1985. Contraintes Liees au Sol et
a l'eau et Adaptations a ces Contraintes par les Paysans Locaux
Lors de la Production Cerealiere en Culture Pluviale.
Proceedings INTSORMIL Workshop on Collaborative Research in West
Africa. Niamey, Niger. (in press).

Persaud, N., I. Alfari, M. Ouattara and M. Gandah. 1986.
Probabilites de Recevoir les Hauteurs Specifiees Decadaires de
Pluie des Stations Selectionnees au Niger, Afrique de l'Ouest.
TropSoils Technical Report, Institut National de Recherche
Agronomique du Niger. Niamey, Niger. pp. 62.

Persaud, N., R.G. Chase and C.W. Wendt. 1985. Low-Input Methods
for Soil-Water-Management in the Sahel. Abstracts. Amer. Soc.
Agron. Madison, Wisconsin. pg. 37.

Persaud, N., M. Quattara, M. Gandah and J. Gonda. 1986.
Influence of Tiller Removal on Growth and Production of Millet.
TropSoils Technical Report. Institute National de Recherche
Agronomique du Niger. Niamey, Niger. pp. 8.









Wendt, C.W., J.L. Mabry and A.B. Onken. 1986. Effect of Water
and Nitrogen Levels on Water Use Efficiency of Two Sorghum
Cultivars. Abstracts. Amer. Soc. Agron. Madison, Wisconsin.
p. 235.

Zaongo, C. and N. Persaud. 1986. Rapport de Campagne Sur
"l'etude de la Collecte des eaux de Pluie pour la Production
Cerealiere au Niger." Institut National de Recherche Agronomique
au Niger. Niamey, Niger. pp. 20.

Zaongo, C., N. Persaud and L. Hossner. 1986. Rainfall
Harvesting for Cereal Production in Niger. Abstracts. Amer.
Soc. Agron. Madison, Wisconsin. p. 255.












Graduate Student Theses. Cornell University.


Bowen, Walter T. 1987. Estimating the Nitrogen Contribution of
Legumes to Succeeding Maise on an Oxisol in Brazil. Ph.D.
Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 178 pp.

Macedo, Jamil. 1986. Morphology, Mineralogy and Genesis of a
Hydrosequence of Oxisols in Brazil. M.S. Thesis, Cornell
University, Ithaca, N.Y. 73 pp.

Marcano-Martinez, Eugenio. 1987. CaS04 Adsorption and Surface
Charge Properties of Oxisols. M.S. Thesis, Cornell University,
Ithaca, N.Y. 95 pp.

Quintana, Jorge 0. Evaluation of Two Procedures for Screening
Legume Green Manures as Nitrogen Sources to Succeeding Corn.
Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 181 pp.












Graduate Student Theses. Cornell University.


Bowen, Walter T. 1987. Estimating the Nitrogen Contribution of
Legumes to Succeeding Maise on an Oxisol in Brazil. Ph.D.
Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 178 pp.

Macedo, Jamil. 1986. Morphology, Mineralogy and Genesis of a
Hydrosequence of Oxisols in Brazil. M.S. Thesis, Cornell
University, Ithaca, N.Y. 73 pp.

Marcano-Martinez, Eugenio. 1987. CaS04 Adsorption and Surface
Charge Properties of Oxisols. M.S. Thesis, Cornell University,
Ithaca, N.Y. 95 pp.

Quintana, Jorge 0. Evaluation of Two Procedures for Screening
Legume Green Manures as Nitrogen Sources to Succeeding Corn.
Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 181 pp.












Graduate Student Theses. University of Hawaii.


Huang, Ruey-Shang. 1987. Influence of Vesicular-Arbuscular
Mycorrhiza on Leucaena Leucocephala Growth, Water Relations and
Nutrient Aquisition. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Hawaii, 155 pp.

Legowo, Eko. 1987. Estimation of Water Extractability and
Hydraulic Conductivity in Tropical Mollisols, Ultisols and
Andisols. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Hawaii, 185 pp.

Lin, Li-ling. 1987. Calibration and Validation of a Rice Crop
Simulation Model. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Hawaii, 184 pp.

Soekardi, M. 1985. Soil Interpretation for Non-agricultural and
Agricultural Uses of Soils. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Hawaii,
187 pp.

Trangmar, Bruce B. 1984. Spatial Variability of Soil properties
in Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Ph.D. Thesis. University
of Hawaii, 329 pp.












Graduate Student Theses. North Carolina State University


Alegre, J.C. 1985. Effect of Land Clearing and Land Preparation
Methods on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties and Crop
Performance of an Ultisol in the Amazon Basin. Ph.D. Thesis,
N.C. State University, Raleigh, N.C., 153 pp.

Alvarado, A. 1982. Phosphate Retention in Andepts from
Guatemala and Costa Rica as Related to Other Soil Properties.
Ph.D. Thesis, N.C. State University, Raleigh, N.C., 82 pp.

Gichuru, M.P. 1986. The Management of Phosphorus, Calcium and
Magnesium in Low-input Cropping Systems in the Humid Tropics.
Ph.D. Thesis, N.C. State University, Raleigh, N.C. 183 pp.

Hoag, R.E. 1987. Characterization of Soils on Floodplains of
Tributaries Flowing Into the Amazon River in Peru. Ph.D. Thesis,
N.C. State University, Raleigh, N.C. 165 pp.

Katz, L.B. 1983. Effect of Al on Peanut Growth in Solution,
Potted Soil, and Field, and An Estimation of Combining Ability
for Al Tolerance. M.S. Thesis, N.C. State University, Raleigh,
N.C. 102 pp.

Lins, I.D.G. 1987. Improvement of Soil Test Interpretations for
Phosphorus and Zinc. Ph.D. Thesis, N.C. State University,
Raleigh, N.C. 317 pp.

Makarim, A.K. 1985. Effects of Land Reclamation Management
Practices on Crop Production and Physical and Chemical Properties
on a Tropical Soil. Ph.D. Thesis, N.C. State University,
Raleigh, N.C. 163 pp.

Mt. Pleasant, J. 1987. Weed Control Measures for Short Cycle
Food Crops Under Humid-Tropical Environments in Developing
Countries. Ph.D. Thesis, N.C. State University, Raleigh, N.C.
116 pp.

Newman, L.J. 1985. Ultisol Dominated Landscapes in the Amazon
Basin of Southeastern Peru. M.S. Thesis, N.C. State University,
Raleigh, N.C. 107 pp.

Ubiera, The Occurrence and Properties of Hydroxy-Interlayered
Silicate Clays in Some Soils of the Dominican Republic. Ph.D.
Thesis, N.C. State University, Raleigh, N.C. 375 pp.












Graduate Student Theses. Texas A & M University


Bui, E. 1986. Relations Between Pedology, Geomorphology, and
Stratigraphy in the Dallol Bosso of Niger, West Africa. Ph.D.
Thesis. Texas A & M University. College Station, TX 226 pp.

Landeck, J.K. 1984. The Moisture Retention Characteristics of
Four Soils From Niger. M.S. Thesis. Texas A & M University.
College Station, TX. 164 pp.

Louis, P.A. 1985. Properties of Soils in a Toposequence on Cap
Rouge Plateau, Haiti. M.S. Thesis. Texas A & M University.
College Station, TX. 91 pp.

Marcelin, F.P. 1985. Predicting Soil Erosion From Cap Rouge
Plateau, Haiti. M.S. Thesis. Texas A & M University. College
Station, TX. 89 pp.

Payne, William. 1987. Water Balance of Three Sandy Soils of
Niger, West Africa. M.S. Thesis. Texas A & M University.
College Station, TX.

Waweru, Francis Mbote. 1984. Influence of Annual Windbreaks On
The Water Relations, Growth and Yield of Cotton and Peanuts.
M.S. Thesis. Texas A & M University. College Station, TX.

Wendt, J.W. 1986. Pearl Millet (Pennisetum Typhoides) Response
to Soil Variability in Sandy Ustalfs Near Niamey, Niger, West
Africa. M.S. Thesis. Texas A & M University. College Station,
TX. 87 pp.

Yerima, B.P.K. 1986. Soil Genesis, Phosphorous, and
Micronutrients of Selected Vertisols and Associated Alfisols of
Northern Cameroon. Ph.D. Thesis. Texas A & M University.
College Station, TX. 323 pp.












Participants in the Overall Management of TropSoils


Management Office


McCants, Charles B., Director

Stevens, Kimberly, Administrative Assistant

Austin, Jennifer, Administrative Assistant

Caudle, Neil, Editor


Board of Directors

Apple, Lawrence, NCSU

Bloodworth, Morris, TAMU

Demb, Ada, UH

Metz, Joe, CU

Muljadi, D., CSR

Ouattara, Mamadou, INRAN

Valverdi, Carlos, INIPA

Wagner, Elmar, EMBRAPA

Palma, Victor, INIPA

Miller, Robert, NCSU

Oyer, Ed, CU

Runge, Ed, TAMU

Sudjadi, Mohammed, CSR

Goedert, Wenceslau, EMBRAPA

Quijandra, Benjamin, INIPA

Smith, Ray, UH

Soumana, Indressa, INRAN


1981-1986

1981-1985

1985-1986

1985-1986




1981-1983

1981-1983

1981-1985

1981-1983

1981-1983

1981-1986

1981-1982

1981-1984

1983-1985

1984-1986

1984-1986

1984-1986

1984-1986

1985-1986

1985-1986

1986-1986

1986-1986










Technical Committee (Each Person Also a Program Coordinator)

Lathwell, Douglas, CU 1981-1986

Calhoun, Frank, TAMU 1981-1985

Nicholaides, John, NCSU 1981-1985

Sanchez, Pedro, NCSU 1981-1986

Uehara, Goro, UH 1981-1986

Hossner, Lloyd, TAMU 1986-1986


External Evaluation Panel

Coulter, John, World Bank

Hildebrand, Peter, UF

Thorne, Marlowe, UI


Agency for International Development

Malcolm, John, S&T/RNR


Taylor, Sam, USAID/Brasilia

Lusk, Howard, USAID/Brasilia

Helman, Howard, USAID/Brasilia


Tappan, Walter, USAID/Jakarta

Hurdus, Alan, USAID/Jakarta

Cobb, Richard, USAID/Jakarta

Hale, Joanne, USAID/Jakarta

Tajeb, Mocharam, USAID/Jakarta


1981-1986

1981-1986

1981-1986




1981-1986


1981-1983

1983-1986

1986-1986


1981-1984

1981-1985

1984-1986

1985-1986

1986-1986


1981-1982

1983-1986

1984-1986


O'Donnell, John, USAID/Lima

Bathrick, David, USAID/Lima

Miller, Timothy, USAID/Lima









Flood, David, USAID/Lima

Juado, Adalfo, USAID/Lima


Thomas, Wilbur, USAID/Niamey

Virgel, Rudy, USAID/Niamey

Jepson, Lance, USAID/Niamey

Grayball, Lynn, USAID/Niamey

Gibson, Ernest, USAID/Niamey


On-Site Senior Scientists

Stoner, Eric, CU, Brazil

Smyth, Jot, NCSU, Brazil


Thompson, John, UH, Indonesia

Colfer, Carol, UH, Indonesia

Wade, Mike, NCSU, Indonesia

Santoso, Joko, CSR, Indonesia

Sukmana, Solik, CSR, Indonesia

Guyton, Ronald, UH, Indonesia

Ara, Lalit, UH, Indonesia


Bandy, Dale, NCSU, Peru

Benites, Jose, NCSU, Peru

Allegre, Juleo, NCSU, Peru

McCollum, Robert, NCSU, Peru


Chase, Robert, TAMU, Niger

Persaud, Naraine, TAMU, Niger


1986-1986

1985-1986


1981-1983

1983-1984

1984-1986

1984-1986

1986-1986


1983-1986

1981-1985


1983-1985

1983-1986

1983-1986

1983-1984

1984-1986

1986-1986

1986-1986


1981-1982

1982-1986

1985-1986

1982-1985


1983-1985

1984-1986












Participants in the Overall Management of TropSoils


Management Office


McCants, Charles B., Director

Stevens, Kimberly, Administrative Assistant

Austin, Jennifer, Administrative Assistant

Caudle, Neil, Editor


Board of Directors

Apple, Lawrence, NCSU

Bloodworth, Morris, TAMU

Demb, Ada, UH

Metz, Joe, CU

Muljadi, D., CSR

Ouattara, Mamadou, INRAN

Valverdi, Carlos, INIPA

Wagner, Elmar, EMBRAPA

Palma, Victor, INIPA

Miller, Robert, NCSU

Oyer, Ed, CU

Runge, Ed, TAMU

Sudjadi, Mohammed, CSR

Goedert, Wenceslau, EMBRAPA

Quijandra, Benjamin, INIPA

Smith, Ray, UH

Soumana, Indressa, INRAN


1981-1986

1981-1985

1985-1986

1985-1986




1981-1983

1981-1983

1981-1985

1981-1983

1981-1983

1981-1986

1981-1982

1981-1984

1983-1985

1984-1986

1984-1986

1984-1986

1984-1986

1985-1986

1985-1986

1986-1986

1986-1986












Personnel Engaged in
TropSoils


Name


Boaventura, Afonso

Bouldin, David

Bowen, Walter

Bryant, Ray

Burle, Marilia

Buttler, Imo

Cardoso, Irene

Carsky, Robert

Carvalho, Luiz

Costa, Francisco

Cox, Fred

Duxbury, John

Freitas, Elias

Goedert, Wenceslau

Grove, Thurman

Gustafson, Daniel J

Helman, Howard

Klausner, Stuart

Kornelius, Euclides

Lathwell, Douglas

Lins, Ibere

Lobato, Edson


the Cornell University Component of


Position


Junior Scientist

Senior Scientist

Senior Scientist

Senior Scientist

Junior Scientist

Junior Scientist

Junior Scientist

Junior Scientist

Junior Scientist

Junior Scientist

Senior Scientist

Senior Scientist

Senior Scientist

Administrator

Senior Scientist

Senior Scientist

Agri. Devlp. Off.

Senior Scientist

Senior Scientist

Program Coord.

Junior Scientist

Senior Scientist

72


Specialty


Fertility

Fertility

Fertility

Pedology

Fertility

Fertility/Model

Management

Fertility

Plant Physio

Fertility

Fertility

Organic Matter

Soil Physics

Administration

Management

Coordination

Administration

Soil Management

Pastures

Coord/Res.

Fertility

Soil Fertility


Affil.


EMBRAPA

CU

CU

CU

CU

CU

EMBRAPA

CU

EMBRAPA

CU

NCSU

CU

EMBRAPA

EMBRAPA

CU

IICA

SAID

CU

CPAC

CU

NCSU

EMBRAPA










Lucey, Robert

Luchiari, Ariovaldo

Lusk, Howard

Macedo, Jamil

Marcano-Martinez, E.

McBride, Murray

McVoy, Christopher

Mendes, Cristina

Metz, Joe

Miranda, Leo

Motavalli, Peter

Nicholaides, John

Osmond, Deanna

Oyer, Edwin

Pereira, Joao

Peres, Jose

Pontes, Raimundo

Quintana, Jorge

Ranzani, Guido

Reid, Shaw

Reis, Eduardo


Resck, Dimas

Richie, Dale

Riha, Susan

Rodrigues, Gustavo

Snyder, Victor


Administrator

Junior Scientist

Agri. Devlp. Off.

Junior Scientist

Junior Scientist

Senior Scientist

Junior Scientist

Junior Scientist

Administrator

Senior Scientist

Junior Scientist

Senior Scientist

Junior Scientist

Administrator

Senior Scientist

Senior Scientist

Administrator

Junior Scientist

Administrator

Senior Scientist

Senior Scientist


Senior Scientist

Senior Scientist

Senior Scientist

Senior Scientist

Senior Scientist


Administration

Agrometerology

Administration

Pedology

Soil Chemistry

Chemistry

Physics

Plant Ecology

Administration

Soil Fertility

Fertility

Fertility

Management

Administration

Soil Fertility

Soil Microbio

Administration

Fertility

Administration

Management

Irrigation


Soil Management

Management

Physics

Plant Physio

Management


CU

EMBRAPA

SAID

EMBRAPA

CU

CU

CU

CNPQ

CU

EMBRAPA

CU

NCSU

CU

CU

EMBRAPA

EMBRAPA

EMBRAPA

CU

EMBRAPA

CU

CPAC/
EMBRAPA

EMBRAPA

CU

CU

EMBRAPA

CU




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