Administrative report, Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program, September, 1981-December, 1986. (Draft only)

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Administrative report, Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program, September, 1981-December, 1986. (Draft only)
Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program
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Farming ( LCSH )
Agriculture ( LCSH )
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Full Text
Administrative Report
Soil Management Collaborative
Research Support Program
September 1981-December 1986
Funded in part by
Grant No. DAN-1311-G-SS-1083-00
From the Agency for International Development

September, 1981 -- December, 1986
Funded in part by
Grant No. DAN-1311-G-SS-1083-00 from the
Agency for International Development

The initial grant from the Agency for International Development
for funding the Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program was for the period September, 1981 September, 1986. An amendment extended the final date to December, 1986. This report is a summary of the goal, organization, achievements, participating personnel and expenditures relevant to the program for this time period.
C. B. McCants
Management Entity
October, 1987

Table of Contents
Grant Goal and Purpose ..................................... 1
Management Entity ..................................... 2
Lead Universities ..................................... 2
Board of Directors .................................... 2
Technical Committee ...................................... 3
External Evaluation Panel ............................. 3
Program Structure and Scope of Work
Program Structure ..................................... 4
Humid Tropics .......................... .......... 4
Semi-Arid Tropics .................................. 4
Acid Savannas .................................... 4
Steeplands .......................................... 5
Scope of Work ......................................... 5
Humid Tropics Peru ............................. 5
Humid Tropics Indonesia ........................ 6
Semi-Arid Tropics ................................ 6
Acid Savannas ....................... ............. 7
Chronology of Major Events
Development, Initiation and Extension of the
SM-CRSP .............................. 9
Humid Tropics Peru ........................... 9
Humid Tropics Indonesia ........................ 10
Semi-Arid Tropics Niger and Mali ......... 10
Acid Savannas ................ .................... 10
Technical Achievements
TropSoils Finding Ways to Conserve Natural
Resources ........................................... 12
Subsoil Compaction Restricts Root Growth in
Oxisols ............................................. 13
Gypsum Improves Soil Chemical Properties ......... 14 Soil Color Suggests Crop Production Potential .... 15
Incubation Procedures Predict Nitrogen Availability .....c.... F... e ro.. g............. 16
Legumes May Replace Fertilizer Nitrogen ........1

Soil Variability a Major Factor in Land Use........18
Ethnic Differences Affect Design of Farming
systems.............................. ........ 19
Family Welfare Important Consideration in
Resource Allocation ................. 20
Organic Materials Offer Promise in Farming
Mycorrhiza Enhances Growth of Pasture Legumes .... 22
Models Match Crop Requirements to Soil Characteristics ........ ......................... .. 23
Expert Systems Used to Transfer Soil Management
Technology ............ .. .. ................... 24
Low-Input-A First Step to Permanent Cropping.......25 Continuous Cropping A Feasible Alternative .... .. 26 Improved Fallows Regenerate Agricultural Lands ... 27 Technology Increases Paddy Rice Production.........28 Legume Based Pastures Improves Productivity ...... 29 Degraded Steeplands Reclaimed................... 30
Lands Compacte 'd by Bulldozer Clearing Improved ... 31 Alley Cropping Tested On Acid Infertile Soils .... 32
Soils Classification System Aids Selection of
Management Practices.......................... .. . 33
Network Links Projects in Latin America.............34
Acidity and Fertility Major Constraints in Transmigration Area .. ........... ........ .. .. .. 35
Workshop Stimulates Technology Transfer.............36
Model Accurately Calculates Water Loss From Cropped
Soils..................................... .. 37
Rainfall and Soil Hydrology Patterns Quantified for
West Africa Area.................................. 38
Rainfall Water Management Increases Crop Yields in
Semi-Arid Area ........................... 39
Soil Fertility and Cultivars Influence Water Use
Efficiency............................ .. .. .. .. ... 40
Neem Windbreaks Improve Environment and Plant Growth in Sahel........................................... 41
Mulching Improves Degraded Sahelian Soils ........ 42
Personnel Engaged in Degree Related Programs Supported by TropSoils and Collaborators
Cornell University.................................. 43
University of Hawaii............................... 44
North Carolina State University.................... 45
Texas A & M University........................... .. 47

Serial Journals, Technical Bulletins, Monographs and
Workshop Proceedings
Cornell University .................. 00 ..... 48
University of Hawaii ........................ 49
'North Carolina State University ............. 51
Texas A & M University ...................... 56
Special Reports, Research Briefs and Abstracts
University of Hawaii ........................ 58
North Carolina State University ............. 60
Texas A & M University ...................... 63
Graduate Student Thesis
Cornell University ......................... 65
University of Hawaii ......................... 66
North Carolina State University ............. 67
Texas A & M University ...................... 68
Contributing Personnel
Program Management ............................... 69
Cornell University Component ..................... 72
University of Hawaii Component ................... 75
North Carolina State University Component ........ 78 Texas A & M University Component ................. 83
Collaborating Institutions and Organizations
With Cornell University .......................... 87
With University of Hawaii ........................ 88
With North Carolina State University ............. 89
With Texas A & M University ...................... 91
Financial Summaries
Expenditures by objects and Universities ......... 93 Cost Sharing Reported ............................ 94
Abbreviations ......................................... 95

Grant Goal and Purpose1
A. The goal of this grant is to develop and adopt improved soil
management technology which is agronomically, ecologically
and economically sound for developing countries of the
B. The purpose of this grant is to have the Grantee organize and
mobilize the financial and human resources necessary for mounting a major multi-institutional US/LDC collaborative
effort of research and training in soil management.
lFrom the Grant document, page 2.

Organization. The basic organization of the Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program (SM-CRSP) is set forth in the grant document. The identification of the various components and their responsibilities follow:
Management Entity. It is the recipient of the grant and has overall responsibility for program performance and fiscal management. Funds were disbursed to the participating universities in accordance with guidelines in the grant. Adjustments were made as considered desirable to enhance the total effort. Administrative support was provided to the lead universities in developing agreements with collaborating countries, in expediting requests, procedures and in program evaluation. Guidelines on detailed administrative actions were provided to the participating universities via a manual "Policies and Procedures for the Soil Management CRSP11 that was developed from published AID policies and procedures.
Lead Universities. One university was assigned the lead
role for each primary research site and, as such, had the major responsibility for conducting the program at that location. This procedure involved developing programs of mutual interest with the collaborating host country institution, appointment of personnel and providing operational oversight. The lead universities and the country location for each primary research site follow:
Cornell University Brazil
University of Hawaii Indonesia
North Carolina State University Peru
Texas A & M University Niger
Universities which, in addition to a primary site, also conducted research in other countries follow:
North Carolina State University Indonesia and Brazil
Texas A & M University Mali
Board of Directors. The Board is composed of one representative from the administration of each lead institution and one representative from each collaborating country with a primary

research site -- for a total of eight persons. An executive committee was formed consisting of the board members from the lead universities. The Chairperson for the Board is elected by the full Board from members of the executive committee. The Board reviewed and took action on recommendations from the Management Entity on policy issues affecting the overall program and fund allocations to the lead universities. Differences between the Board and the Management Entity on critical issues were resolved before actions were taken.
Technical Committee. This committee is composed of the four program coordinators (referred to as "principle investigators" in the grant document). They keep each other informed on respective program developments, discuss topics of mutual interest and promote activities of common consent.
External Evaluation Panel (EEP). It is composed of three members all of whom were on the Advisory Committee in planning the SM-CRSP. Reviews of individual programs and the overall CRSP were made by the EEP in response to Management Entity requests. The decision on when a review was undertaken was based on the stage of development of the program, concerns on progress or funding status and considerations on changes in research objectives. The reports of the EEP were submitted to the Management Entity for distribution. -The recommendations were utilized in making decisions on revisions in programs and operations.

Program Structure and Scope-of-Work
Program Structure
The Planning Entity recommended and BIFAD and AID approved the plan that the Soil Management CRSP would be organized around four agroecological zones: humid tropics, semi-arid tropics, acid savannas and steeplands. Each zone is representative of large areas within the developing countries and has one or more primary research sites and a designated U.S. university or universities to provide the leadership. Secondary or extrapolation sites within the zones were established as technical information became available. In addition to serving a lead role within one zone, a university may also provide support in another zone. The geographic areas covered by the zones are shown in Figure 1 and pertinent details are summarized below.
Humid Tropics. This zone is defined as the portion of the tropics with no more than three months dry season. In Soil Taxonomy terminology, the dominant soils are in the udic moisture regime and in the isohyperthermic or isothermic temperature regime. The native vegetation is tropical rain forests. Two primary research sites were established. (1) Yurimaguas, Peru with North Carolina State University (NCSU) as the lead institution in collaboration with INIPA and (2) Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia with University of Hawaii as the lead and NCSU as the support university. The host country collaborator is AARD through its Center for Soils Research. In addition, NCSU has a secondary research site at Manaus, Brazil in collaboration with UEPAE.
Semi-Arid Tropics. It is defined as the portion of the
tropics characterized by a protracted dry season of six to nine months duration. In Soil Taxonomy termination the dominant soils are the drier end of the ustic soil moisture regime and are in the isohypothermic temperature regime. The primary research site is in Niger, with the base of operations at Niamey. Texas A & M University provides the leadership role in collaboration with INRAN. A secondary research site is operative in Mali, in conjunction with IER.
Acid Savannas. This zone is defined as that portion of the tropics with a strong dry season of four to six months duration, savanna vegetation and predominantly acid soils of the order oxisol and ultisol. They are in the ustic moisture regime and the isohypothermic or isothermic temperature regimes. The primary research site is at Brasilia, Brazil. The lead institution is Cornell University and the collaborator is EMBRAPA through its CPAC research center. A support role was provided by North Carolina State University.

Steeplands. It is defined as the zone with steep, densely populated regions where soil erosion is a major concern. Soil properties, moisture and temperature regimes vary. Funding for research in this zone was not included in the initial grant or subsequent amendments. Nevertheless, soil management practices relevant to this agroecological condition have been researched in the other activities and pertinent information obtained.
Scope of Work
The scope-of-work employed is essentially the same as set forth in the grant document.
Humid Tropics Peru. The initial plan specified that the work would be conducted by North Carolina State University, Cornell University and the host institution. Formal approval was received from AID to shift the Cornell University effort from Peru to the acid savannas of Brazil. The focus of the program in Peru was not altered by this action and is summarized as follows:
a. Develop lower input annual crop production systems,
while maintaining ongoing systems.
b. Screen cultivars of currently grown or potential useful crop plants for tolerance to aluminum, low phosphorus levels
and efficiency of plant nutrient use.
c. Develop productive and presistent grass/legume pasture
systems in cooperation with Centro International de
Agricultura Tropical.
d. Utilize biological fixation to the maximum possible extent, with emphasis on legume/Rhizobium combinations.
e. Develop alternative land clearing methods, monitor
changes in soil physical properties and devise means to
correct soil compaction problems.
f. Determine the potential of managed fallows.
g. Incorporate shrubs, trees and other perenniel crops into
a limited number of annual crop systems.
h. Validate systems of continuous farming technology with
farmers in the area, selecting farms which represent the
broadest possible range of typical soils.
i. Characterize soils of all experimental sites, on the
experiment station and on cooperating farms, according to U.S. Soil Taxonomy and the Fertility/Capability Classification System.

j. Determine the application, utilization, depletion and
accumulation of plant nutrients to anticipate problems, minimize input cost and to obtain a true measure of the value as well as the cost of supplying fertilizer, lime,
and manure or compost.
k. Disseminate information about the results of the
research to research and extension organizations throughout
the humid tropics.
Humid Tropics Indonesia. The University of Hawaii, the
lead institution, and North Carolina State University, the support institution, in collaboration with the Soil Research Institute, Bogor Agricultural University and the Central Research Institute for Agriculture were to undertake field work in Sumatra, Indonesia that is directed to the following objectives:
a. Characterize the soil of the experimental sites.
b. Test the most promising methods of land clearing and
select one or more appropriate for existing conditions.
c. Monitor the effects of clearing methods on soil physical
properties and identify or devise means for correcting
undesirable effects.
d. Determine the amounts of fertilizer and lime needed
periodically to produce satisfactory crops and to sustain
yields at levels profitable for the farmers. This research
should include monitoring nutrient status of farmers'
fields, input costs and returns from sales plus value of
household food consumption.
e. Evaluate the potential of grass/legume pasture mixtures
in the farming system.
f. Apply and assess the efficacy of soil conservation
measures to typical areas.
g. Find management systems which minimize energy needs to
the extent possible given local limitations on land, manpower and markets.
h. Assess the likes, dislikes, needs and resources of
farmers of the area to guide research in lines likely to be
i. Disseminate the results of the research to other area
in the humid tropics.
Semi-Arid Tropics. The grant specified that the field
program would be undertaken in Niger and Upper Volta. The primary

site was established in Niger and discussions were held with host country and USAID personnel in Upper Volta to determine the feasibility of a secondary site in that country. Due to extensive commitments to existing projects by potentia collaborators in Upper Volta, and thus little available time to participate in a SM-CRSP, the government and mission personnel suggested that we maintain communications with them and share relevant information but not to establish a site in the country. Contacts were then made with governmental and USAID officials in Mali and a mutually agreeable program developed for a secondary research site in that country. The scope-of-work employed in Niger and Mali are in agreement with the one given in the grant document:
a. characterize the soil at experimental and cooperative sites according to U.S. Soil Taxonomy and the Fertilizer/
Capability Classification system.
b. Devise and test methods to prevent or diminish soil
c. Test and select the most practical means of soil erosion
control, measuring losses to water and wind to the extent
d. Develop low input soil management systems to maximize
the use of soil moisture.
e. Evaluate crops and Rhizobia for tolerance to high
temperatures, drought, low phosphorus and acidity/soluble
aluminum or manganese.
f. Determine how to monitor and adjust plant nutrient
balances to sustain yields on a profitable basis.
g. Investigate alternatives to the system of shifting
pultivation commonly practiced in the semi-arid tropics.
h. Conduct cooperative trials with farmers to obtain an
assessment of current and modified technology under normal
management capability.
i. Disseminate results of research to other areas in the
semi-arid tropics.
Acid Savannas. On October 28-29, 1981, the Technical Committee recommended and the Board of Directors approved a recommendation that ... the primary emphasis of the Cornell component of the Soil Management CRSP be shifted from the humid tropics, as specified in the grant document, to the acid savannas, with operational headquarters at the CPAC center, Brasilia, Brazil... .*" This recommendation was transmitted to the AID Program Manager on November 2 with a request that the grant be amended to encompass this recommendation. Amendment No. 3, dated July 12, 1982 and signed by the AID Grant Officer, effected this change. The

amendment recognizes Cornell University as the lead institution for the program in the acid savannas, with a support role by North Carolina State University, and the following scope-of-work:,
a. Characterize the soil of the experimental sites.
b. Seek ways to reduce the cost of lime and fertilizer on
the acid infertile soils of the acid savannas.
c. Develop practices to maintain an adequate balance of
Ca, K, and Mg in soils of the region.
d. Estimate the economic returns from lime and fertilizer
use under present circumstances and a range of possible
cost/price/yield response scenarios.
e. Explore ways to increase the rooting depth of field
crops and pastures.
f. Identify crops which may tolerate adverse soil
conditions or extract essential plant nutrients more
efficiently, reducing the amount of fertilizer and lime
needed to produce a satisfactory crop.

Chronology of Major Events
Planning, Initiation and Extension of the SM-CRSP
May, 1979 Grant awarded to North Carolina State
University, the planning entity, to develop a detailed proposal for an international soil management research program.
October, 1980 Final proposal submitted by the planning
entity to AID and JRC.
September, 1981 AID approved establishing and funding
the SM-CRSP and issued a grant to NCSU, the Management Entity.
January, 1982 Management Entity issued subgrants to
participating universities.
March, 1985 Management Entity submitted formal
request to AID for three-year extension of the program.
May, 1985 JCARD approved request for extension.
September, 1986 AID issued new grant to support a threeyear extension of the program.
Humid Tropics Peru
October, 1981 North Carolina State University advised
that AID had funded the SM-CRSP.
January, 1982 Subgrant issued by the Management Entity
to NCSU.
Since NCSU had an on-going soil management research program in the humid tropics of Peru and Brazil, no formal negotiations with the host countries were necessary. The programs
in place were continued in part or expanded and new ones
initiated in accordance with the plan of work.

Humid Tropics Indonesia
October, 1981 The University of Hawaii advised that
AID had funded the SM-CRSP. January, 1982 Subgrant issued by the Management Entity
to UH.
March, 1982 UH and Management Entity submitted
proposed Memorandum Of Understanding to AARD.
June, 1983 Memorandum Of Understanding approved by
June, 1983 Senior scientists from UH and NCSU
posted in-country and on-site work initiated.
Semi-Arid Tropics Niger and Mali
October, 1981 Texas A & M University advised that AID
had funded the SM-CRSP. January, 1982 Subgrant issued by Management Entity to
March, 1982 TAMU and Management Entity submitted
proposed Memorandum Of Understanding to INRAN.
June, 1983 Memorandum Of Understanding approved by
July, 1983 Senior scientist posted in country and
on-site research initiated. June, 1983 TAMU, Management Entity/SM-CRSP and
Management Entity/INTSORMIL submitted Memorandum Of Understanding to IER. March, 1984 Memorandum Of Understanding approved by
July, 1984 Program in Mali initiated.
Acid Savannas
October, 1981 Cornell University advised that AID had
funded SM-CRSP.

November, 1981 Management Entity requested AID amend
grant to include acid savannas component with CU as lead university. January, 1982 Subgrant issued by Management Entity to
Cornell University.
July, 1982 AID approved request to amend grant.
July, 1982 Proposed Memorandum of Understanding
submitted to EMBRAPA.
July, 1983 Memorandum Of Understanding approved by
July, 1983 senior scientist posted in Brazil and
on-site work initiated.

TropSoils Finding Ways To Conserve Natural Resources
The first step toward conserving tropical forests and
savannas is a stable agriculture and effective soil management. Each acre of well-managed, permanent cropland can save about five acres of tropical rainforest per year. The same principle applies to savannas, and the dry lands of Africa's Sahel.
TropSoils researchers are finding ways to grow more food,
while conserving fragile ecosystems. For example, scientists at Yurimaguas, Peru have developed a low-cost, "low-input" cropping system that will help slash-and-burn farmers increase and sustain their crop yields, reducing the need for new clearing. And, work in the Guesselbodi Forest of Niger has shown that mulching barren, crusted soils with the branches left from wood-cutting increases soil moisture and porosity, and promotes the natural reseeding of key forest species. This technique could help preserve forests and slow desertification in Africa's Sahel.

Subsoil Compaction Restricts Root Growth In Oxisols
Oxisols, a category of soils that occupy large regions of South America and Africa, are particularly appealing for development because of their excellent physical condition and ease of cultivation. The primary chemical constraints to crop production are high acidity and low phosphorous. Methods to correct these problems are now well documented.
Under long term monocrop production, unexplained decreases in crop yields have been reported. This occurrence is often accompanied by observations of limited root development, even under conditions of adequate nutrients and water. Results from intensive investigations suggest that root restriction is caused by compaction of the subsoil due to long-term mechanized tillage. This effect can seriously reduce crop yields and fertilizer use efficiency. The condition is not alleviated through natural regenerative processes because there are no shrink-swell or freeze-thaw cycles in these soils. However, studies indicate the compaction can be corrected with proper management and the effects of various tillage techniques are being investigated under a range of conditions.
Cornell University

Gypsum Improves Soil Chemical Properties
The application of gypsum has been suggested as a means to overcome deleterious effects of subsoil acidity. The greater downward movement of gypsum, relative to lime, makes it a better source of calcium to promote root growth in lower sections of the Soil.
Studies on soils representative of those occurring in the acid savannas of the tropics show that calcium and sulfate retention are dependent on the equilibrium concentration of these ions in solution. While calcium retention was almost linearly dependent on its concentration, sulfate tended to approach a maximum adsorption which was not reached within the experimental range studied.
Calcium was adsorbed as an exchangeable cation without affecting the pH of the soil nor the total surface positive charge. Sulfate was adsorbed by a ligand exchange mechanism that caused displacement of hydroxyls from the surface, raising the pH of the soil solution. At the same time, sulfate caused an increase in the total negative charge.
Data from this study provides support for the specific
adsorption mechanism by which sulfate is adsorbed in these soils. This mechanism affects the balance of charge in the soil and can be used as a way to reduce cation leaching. Application of gypsum increased the retention of both calcium and sulfate, as well as the total citron exchange capacity. This can have some practical use because of the importance of these nutrients.
Cornell University

Soil Color Suggests Crop Production Potential
It has been observed that water tables in soils on the high plateaus of the Cerrado region of Brazil are typically higher in the red-yellow than in the dark-red soils. Because water-table level affects plant growth, drought tolerance and tillage practices, an ability to predict drainage characteristics from soil color patterns could be important in the selection and management of agricultural fields.
Studies were conducted in the acid savannas of Brazil, 1) to determine the genetic relationship between soil color patterns and natural drainage characteristics in Oxisols with restricted drainage; and 2) to develop morphological criteria for further development of the taxonomic or land capability classification of these soils with respect to natural drainage characteristics.
Results of the investigations suggest that the cropproduction potential of these soils may change with seasonal shifts in water table, which can be predicted by soil color. For example, precipitation data show a two- to three-week dry period in February, which is typical of the regional climate. Crops vulnerable to water stress at this stage of the growing season might benefit from moisture available in a red-yellow soil whose water table was within two meters of the surface. Further data analysis is expected to produce recommendations for diagnostic criteria to be used in classifying these soils.
Cornell University

Incubation Procedures Predict Nitrogen Availability
Legume green manures are an alternative to fertilizer nitrogen for the production of succeeding non-legume crops. However, finding suitable legumes for different soils, crops, and climate requires extensive and costly field research. Laboratory procedures involving incubation of soil samples have been investigated as an alternative approach to determining the nitrogen which would become available from various legumes.
Results show that incubation procedures have merit as a
quick method to evaluate gross differences in nitrogen provided by different green manure legumes incorporated into the soil. Soil samples prepared for incubation immediately after being taken from the field gave the best correlations between nitrogen mineralized and nitrogen uptake or yield of corn. Extended storage of soil samples before incubation substantially reduced the correlation between nitrogen mineralized and nitrogen uptake.
Data from soils treated in different ways suggest that as
long as some degree of soil aggregation exists, soil disturbance had little effect on nitrogen mineralization. Vigorous disturbance, however, caused a significant increase in nitrogen mineralization.
Laboratory incubation appears to be effective in separating differences in leguminous green manure crop management of the same soil and is, likewise, useful as a tool to evaluate the mineralization potential of different legumes. Unfortunately, the procedure is not yet developed to the stage where it can be used as a general soil test for available nitrogen.
Cornell University

Legumes May Replace Fertilizer Nitrogen
It is recognized that leguminous green manures may supply all or most of the nitrogen needed by succeeding non-legume crops. Utilizing this principle, studies were undertaken to develop legume and crop management systems most efficient at supplying nitrogen from this source.
A number of legumes were evaluated in field experiments for their capacity to fix nitrogen. The results are that the amount ranged from 60 to 170 kg of nitrogen per hectare. Nitrogen mineralized from mucuna, one of those studied, was sufficient to produce nearly 7 tons of corn grain per hectare. Net mineralization of nitrogen from geen manure legumes was characterized by a very rapid stage that lasted for about 40 days followed by a much slower phase which extended between 40 and 100 days. Recovery of mineralized nitrogen by the plants was not greatly different from that of fertilizer nitrogen. Legume nitrogen may be lost from the rooting zone as rapidly as fertilizer nitrogen.
The quantities of nitrogen supplied to the corn crop varied among green manure legumes; fertilizer nitrogen replacement value for the succeeding corn crop range from 87 to 192 kg per hectare.
Developing cropping systems to best utilize the wide-range
of green manure legumes remains to be accomplished. Factors such as nitrogen requirement for the crop, pest suppression, soil physical properties, and erosion control will need to be considered in selecting the most appropriate green manure legume and management system.
Cornell University

Soil Variability a Major Factor in Land Use
Soil variability over relatively short distances is common throughout the tropics. This condition is especially true on newly cleared land at the primary research site in the transmigration area of West Sumatra. It poses problems for the landuse planners, transmigrant farmers and researchers. Studies have been conducted to characterize the variability, to understand it's causes and to explore remedial measures.
The results show that there is enormous variability in soil properties and that crop growth and production are affected. There are many scales of this variability - from that occurring over a few meters to that occurring over several kilometers. Some progress has been made in understanding and managing this condition. The geostatistical tools developed to deal with the problem have had wide applicability throughout the tropics and provide a useful new approach to measure and quantify variability. It can be expected that new applications of this technology will be developed in the future which will use these concepts and approaches as a base. This is already apparent in research in geographical information systems and in expert systems.
University of Hawaii

Ethnic Differences Affect Design of Farming Systems
Social scientists studying farmers in a transmigration zone in Indonesia have used cognitive "maps" to discover differences in how the indigenous population (Minang) and the transmigrants from another island (Javanese) view 21 important concepts, such as soil, rice, water, vegetables and fertilizer.
The relative distance between such concepts can suggest how settlers vary in their approach to work. For instance, one group viewed a close association of men to vegetables, while another viewed vegetables as a women's crop.
The Javanese perceive a significantly closer relationship between soil and water than do the Minang. This suggests that collaborative experiments on soil and water might best be undertaken with the transmigrants than the indigents.
The proximity of rice and rubber to the Minang, relative to other crops suggests that these two crops would be good for agricultural experimentation among that group. In contrast, the distance of rubber from the Javanese, relative to other crops, suggests that it might not be a good crop to use in collaborative work with them.
With respect to fertilizers, the transmigrants' had
significantly different views than the indigents. The necessity for the transmigrants to gain a livelihood from very small landholdings on overcrowded Java, made fertilizer use important. Also, transmigrants have had more exposure to agricultural extension efforts on fertilizer usage than the indigents.
The researchers point out that such patterns in the
cognitive maps are closely correlated with patterns in farming. And, by using the results of such studies, scientists and extension workers can more effectively match farming systems and new agricultural technology to the people who use it.
University of Hawaii

Family Welfare Important Consideration in Resource Allocation
The fact that the household is an integral part of the farm system complicates the process of using advanced crop production technology by limited resource farmers, because it adds another dimension to the allocation of resources family welfare. Since the farm is involved with life sustaining activities rather than merely profitable activities, the limited resource farmer will be less willing to take on risks because he is not able to absorb losses and the costs of failure are very high (perhaps nonsurvival).
Studies were undertaken with transmigrants in West Sumatra, Indonesia:
1) To identify amount and sources of available resources
and application of these resources to agricultural production and 2) to identify factors influencing farmer acceptability of new technology.
The majority of those surveyed indicated that they prefer to be farmers. Most of them acknowledged that by increasing fertilizer and pesticide use, their yields would increase. However? they are not using more fertilizers and pesticides. In the hierarchy of spending, fertilizer ranked third after food and seed. It seems that these farmers acknowledge that benefits may occur from higher fertilizer use, but they also perceive other needs and goals to be of more importance. Therefore, technology that recommends increasing yields by only increasing fertilizer use will not likely be readily adopted by these farmers.
Technologies more likely to be adopted would be those aimed at increasing productivity while not increasing costs significantly (such as increasing the efficiency of fertilizers) or technologies that, though costs are increased, shows such substantial increases in benefits that resources will be pulled away from other activities. Thus the adoption of technology for the limited resource farmer must be done with his constraints and needs in mind.
University of Hawaii

Organic Materials Offer Promise In Farming Systems
The marked response of some crops to green manure suggested that proper management of organic materials might reduce the need for lime and fertilizers under certain conditions. A series of experiments has been undertaken 1) to quantify the influence of green manures on crop yields, 2) to evaluate tree and herbaceous legumes for use on transmigrant farms and 3) to incorporate information from transmigrants in the selection and design of green manuring systems.
The leguminous tree species, Albizia Falcataria and
Calliandra Calothyrsus, show potential for use in alley cropping under the soil and climatic conditions studied in Indonesia, (i.e. acidic soils, low in bases and a warm, humid climate). Upland rice did not respond significantly to these green leaf manure additions, but cowpea crop yields were increased by addition of Albizia prunings.
These results indicate that alley cropping provides only a marginal benefit to farmers during the first year. However, as the tree pruning and cropping sequence continues, it is likely that the frequent additions of green leaf manure will cause increased soil fertility and crop yields. Also, the hedges of trees can provide other benefits, including animal forage, fuelwood, and erosion control.
Of the technologies tested, alley cropping with Albizia
seems to hold the most promise for reducing lime requirements and now needs to be tested by farmers to determine how well it fits their systems. If, as suggested by these studies, organic materials may be substituted for lime, this will have major implications for resource poor farmers on acid tropical soils.
University of Hawaii

Mycorrhizae Enhances Growth of Pasture Legumes
In most acid soils, factors such as crop cultivar, soil phosphorus and manganese toxicity can influence the plant's ability to develop roots and grow. For legume crops, the response to lime and fertilizer applications is further complicated by VA mycorrhizal fungi since its effect on plant growth varies with soil conditions, as well as with the strain of mycorrhizae.
A study was conducted to examine the effects of liming, phosphorus fertilization and VA mycorrhizae on growth of two species of a tropical pasture legume (Desmodium) in a soil with a toxic level of aluminum.
VA mycorrhizal inoculation improved growth responses of both Desmodium species thus clearly demonstrating that they are highly mycorrhizal dependent. The beneficial influences of mycorrhizal associations are particularly important for these Desmodium species are typically grown on phosphorus-fixing soils. The results further show, however, that plant tolerance to toxic elements in acidic soils may not be improved by colonization with mycorrhizae. Thus the mycorrhizae appear to aid in alleviating nutrient deficiencies but not eliminating element toxicities.
The results further illustrate the fact that establishment of plants in the acid tropical soils is difficult unless the associations of mycorrhizal plants, fertilization and liming are critically matched to the specific acid soil infertility complex.
University of Hawaii

Models Match Crop Requirements to Soil Characteristics
Crop models are an important ingredient in systems-based research. Properly formulated, they can predict a crop's performance across broad geographic and climatic regions. Such predictions can help accelerate the progress of agricultural research and development.
Studies were undertaken 1) to identify the minimum soil,
crop, and weather data needed to predict the performance of rice, maize, soybean, and peanut cultivars in the humid tropics; 2) to test, validate, and modify existing simulation models for these crops, using the minimum data set; and 3) to use the simulation models as screening devices for varietal testing. To date, crop models have been tested for maize and rice.
A model has been calibrated and validated for simulating and predicting the date of emergence, panicle initiation, and physiological maturity after planting. It can do so for any location where maximum and minimum air temperature and solar radiation data are available. The model is sensitive to day length and this information can be obtained from latitude and day of the year.
These results are particularly useful for rice grown from
warm lowlands to high uplands within a geographic region. Under these conditions the development rate of rice varies considerably over short distances. This research enables users to predict important phenological events of rice cultivars at any location and date of planting without resorting to trial and error field experiments.
Results from a simulated and actual maize crops in West
Sumatra show that subsoil acidity rather than low rainfall is the major constraint to corn production during the dry season.
University of Hawaii

Expert Systems Used to Transfer Soil Management Technology
There is a compelling need to apply existing information on management of tropical soils and to conduct follow-up research only where it is essential. Expert systems offer promise as a means of capturing, in a microcomputer, not only the factual knowledge of experts but also a portion of their problem-solving skill. By using expert systems, people with limited training can access factual information and knowledge gained from decades of experience.
Soil management deals with a highly complex, soil-plantclimate-human system. Usually a large amount of information is necessary to understand and predict a particular phenomenon. Some soil science information is clearly quantitative and can be represented mathematically. other information is best represented as rules of thumb, or as patterns from analogous situations.
soil-management information also tends to be regional.
Within regions there are typical problems and frequently various solutions, developed either by farmers, extension agents or research personnel. These solutions may apply well in one region, but not in another. This characteristic of soilmanagement information complicates the broad application of principles and the economizing of research effort. Nonetheless there are regional analogues of soil, climate, crop, and human factors throughout the tropics, and representing these factors efficiently, in the appropriate context, can measurably assist in the application of soil-management technology.
Studies have been conducted 1) to design and construct expert systems in soil- and crop-management technology that implement the learning and deductive capability possible with logic-based languages; 2) to evaluate the performance of an interdisciplinary expert system on soil-management problems of the humid tropics; and 3) to evaluate the representation of farmer-information within the expert-system framework.
Several prototype liming expert systems have been developed and will be distributed to approximately 100 users throughout the. humid tropics. In most cases the software is used to provide examples of expert system applications. Some scientists are expected to use the software to develop recommendations for large regions and then plot the results on maps.
University of Hawaii

'Low-Input' A First Step to Permanent Cropping
TropSoils scientists have developed a low-input cropping
system that could help farmers progress from shifting cultivation to permanent agriculture on acid soils in the humid tropics.
Shifting cultivation has been blamed for much of the
deforestation in the humid tropics. Scientist estimate that each acre of permanent, well-managed cropland could save five acres of tropical rainforest per year.
The low-input cropping system includes a kudzu fallow, a
rotation of acid-tolerant rice and cowpea cultivars, crop-residue return, chemical control of weeds and pests, and the use of small amounts of fertilizers and lime.
While low-input cropping is considered transitory, an
experimental low-input system at Yurimaguas, Peru has remained productive much longer than expected. seven continuous crops in three years have yielded a total of 13.8 tons per hectare of rice and cowpea grain. Purchased chemical inputs account for only 8% of total production costs.
North Carolina State University

Continuous Cultivation a Feasible Alternative
It is commonly believed that continuous cultivation of food crops is not possible in acid soils of the humid tropics. This thinking has led to erroneous conclusions about the sustainability of the world's soil resources.
A total of 36 crops of corn, rice, soybeans or peanuts have been harvested during 14 years in a long-term experiment in the humid tropics at Yurimaguas, Peru. Yields are high and reasonably stable. Soil properties have improved with continuous cultivation, particularly due to the amelioration of subsoil acidity by downward movement of calcium and magnesium. Judicious use of lime, fertilizers, tillage and crop rotation makes this system stable.
Due to its high productivity, continuous cultivation makes .commerical farming feasible and conserves natural forests, because it decreases the pressures to deforest more land to produce a greater amount of food.
The system is only applicable to areas that have an adequate market, road and credit infrastructure capable of handling lime fertilizers and high crop values.
North Carolina State University

Improved Fallows Regenerate Agricultural Lands
Much of the land available to shifting cultivators remains idle each year, due to the long fallow periods required for secondary forests to restore the productivity of abandoned agricultural fields. Studies were conducted to determine whether productivity in such fields might be regenerated more rapidly with the use of selected, high-biomass, nitrogen-fixing fallow species, and to measure the effects of these species on soil physical and chemical properties, weed supression, and crop yield.
Additional time is required to obtain firm confirmation of all the facts, but the following conclusions can be drawn:
1. Physical properties improve with time under all fallows.
2. Available nutrient levels in the topsoil decrease with
time in all treatments, except continuous cultivation,
probably due to immobilization in the biomass.
3. After 16 months of growth, total biomass accumulation is
highest in the bush or tree fallows and lowest in the
spreading types.
4. An almost complete ground cover was established within
four to eight months.
5. Weed control in all planted f allows is better than the
natural purina. Control is quickest and most effective with
the spreading, fallow types.
North Carolina State University

Technology Increases Paddy Rice Production
Technology for sustained irrigated rice production in fertile alluvial soils of the Amazon has been validated and is now being transferred to producers through the extension programs. Several general principles of Amazon flooded-rice production have been established, including the following:
1) Land can be cleared by slash and burn or by bulldozing,
since the detrimental effects of soil compaction that usually occur with bulldozers do not seriously affect paddy rice; 2) supplemental irrigation every two weeks increases yields by about 50% above crops dependent on rainfall; 3) transplanting provides higher yields than broadcasting for the first two crops due to insufficient leveling; 4) fertilization requirements are minimal; 5) two crops a year with recommended short-statured varieties can produce annual yields of 12 to 15 ton/ha.
Considering that one hectare of acid soils must be cleared
every year to produce one ton of upland rice, every hectare under irrigated rice production might save from 12 to 15 hectars of tropical forests annually from deforestation.
North Carolina State University

Legume-Based Pastures Improves Productivity
Cattle grazing for beef and milk production is one of the major land use activities of cleared rainforest areas in Latin America. When they are well managed, legume-based pastures protect the soil, require relatively few cash inputs, make good use of soils unsuitable for food crops, and produce milk and meat with grazing animals, which recycle most of the nutrients they consume. Poorly managed pastures are an economic and ecological liability.
The evidence shows that use of pasture species badly adapted to tropical soils and environments leads to poor animal nutrition and therefore low productivity. Several million hectares of rainforest have been cleared for pastures, only to be abandoned as the pastures became degraded by overgrazing, soil compaction, and erosion.
Long-term grazing studies show that high animal production can be sustained with three widely differing pastures in acid upland soils, with low inputs: a mixture of two stoloniferous grass and legume species (Brachiaria humidicola/ Desmodium ovalifolium), or a mixture of two erect grass and legume species (Andropogon gayanus/Stylosanthes guianensis), or one pure legume pasture of Centrosema pubescens. After 4 to 6 years of continuous grazing, soil physical properties remain good and chemical properties have improved, because more than 80% of the nutrients applied as fertilizer is recycled to the soil. Studies suggest that the nitrogen contribution of legumes to the associated grass under grazing in highly acid soil is equal to 150 kg of urea nitrogen.
North Carolina State University

Degraded Steeplands Reclaimed
There are several million hectares of degraded, unproductive pastures in the Amazon, often on steep slopes. Simple and inexpensive techniques for reclaiming these areas would not only improve their productivity but also enhance the environment by reducing erosion. A promising technique has been studied that encompasses tillage practices, species selection and persistence under grazing.
The results suggest that minimum soil disturbance is needed to establish grasses such as those used in the experiment. The stoloniferous species rapidly cover new areas and compete strongly with species already present. However, legumes require at least minimum tillage. In general, Centrosema performed better than D. ovalifolium, due to faster growth and a more aggressive tendency.
After 6 months of grazing, the percentage of grasses
increased, whereas that of legumes decreased. This is probably the result of their capacity to compete and displace existing vegetation.
This research demonstrates that methods exist to establish improved grasses and legumes in degraded pastures. Simple establishment methods can be successful in compacted steeplands but some minimum tillage is needed to establish the legumes.
North Carolina State University

Lands Compacted by Bulldozer Clearing Improved
Much farm land in the humid tropics has been mechancially cleared of forest in ways that remove topsoil, compact the subsoil, and promote erosion. Frequently, such fields are soon abandoned because crops fail. Investigations were conducted in the Sitiung transmigration settlements of West Sumatra, Indonesia to develop methods for reclaiming degraded soils for continuous cultivation.
The practices investigated included lime, fertilizer and tillage. From the practical standpoint, the soil in this area cannot be reclaimed without chemical fertilizer and lime applications. No tillage practice will be effective unless accompanied by chemical inputs. As the rate of chemical input increased, so did yields, although rice did not respond to high fertility as strongly as did soybean.
Green manure contributed substantially to increasing yields of all crops. Mulching was effective primarily during periods of moderate drought. Deep tillage and strip forking were not beneficial for rice, but were somewhat beneficial for soybean. In contrast, rototilling was good for rice but only slightly beneficial for soybean.
North Carolina State University

Alley-Cropping Questioned for Acid Infertile Soils
In areas with increasing demographic pressure, traditional forms of shifting cultivation must be supplanted by production systems that yield more food on the available land. one technique, shown to be promising in high base status soils of Wast Africa, is the combination of rows of leguminous trees with annual crops grown between them. Prunings from the trees form a mulch that may aid in weed control and provide nitrogen and other nutrients, cycled from deep in the soil, to the crops. The use of such organic additions may prolong the productivity of the acid, infertile soils found in much of the humid tropics.
A study was conducted to assess the suitability of various leguminous trees or shrubs in an alley-cropping system, to study changes in soil chemical properties and how they are affected by the amount of prunings added, and to measure the effects of pruning additions on crop yields and yield stability.
Of the six original legumninous trees or shrubs assayed, four have been eliminated due to poor survival or to unsuitability due to various reasons. Two of them appear to have good survival and coppicing ability and biomass production is high.
Soil chemical properties declined with time and were similar in all alley-crop treatments with the unfertilized check. Soil chemical properties improved in the fertilized check.
An analysis of the overall data and considerations of basic principles of soil and plant science raise a fundamental question about the potential of alley-cropping in acid soils: can adapted trees recycle bases effectively if the subsoil is extremely low in these bases? There must be something to recycle if recycling by well-adapted trees is going to be a major feature of this system. No such problem exists in the high base status soils where alley-cropping has been successful.
North Carolina State University

Soil Classification System Aids Selection of Management Practices
Knowledge of soil properties that are important in
determining effective soil management practices is essential for the extrapolation of information from one site to another. A Fertility Capability Classification (FCC) system has been developed which, in concept and in practice, is making a significant advance toward achieving this objective.
The FCC system focuses on the upper portion of the soil
where plant root activity is greatest and management practices are most influential. Attention is given to those physical and chemical factors within this zone which have a primary influence on responsiveness to management and consequently on plant growth.
The system is receiving world wide attention and extensive application. To date, 34 countries and eight international organizations are using FCC in research or in development of interpretative maps. The FAO has applied FCC to its soil classification for Africa, which provides an inventory of soils characterized by their productive potential. IBSRAM through its various networks is developing a crop-specific classification system based on soil characteristics defined in the FCC.
North Carolina State University

Network Links Projects in Latin America
TropSoils has provided leadership for a collaborative research network whose goal is to improve the management of tropical soils. The network, called RISTROP (Red de Investigacion de Suelos Tropicales), includes scientists from Latin American countries.
The network grew out of a workshop conducted in 1986 by TropSoils in Yurimaguas, Peru. Among the assistance to be provided is research site selection and characterization, support services for analyses and interpretation of resulting data, and information exchange between national institutions. Support for local operations will be provided by the host country institutions.
The network has received positive responses from 8 of 11 countries, for a total of 27 initiated or planned experiments, encompassing various management options.
Support for the network has centered on technical visits by TropSoils personnel to participating institutions during implementation of field experiments. In addition to assisting in adjusting methodologies and field plans to local conditions, these visits have provided an opportunity to obtain on-site familiarity with the research programs of the national institutions.
Experiences to date provide the following analysis. The specific needs for technical backstopping by national institutions and the capacity of TropSoils to provide this expertise exceed funds available and the conceptual development of the research network. The type of required technical support varies among institutions from assistance in establishing functional soil testing laboratories to the identification of research priorities through interpretation of exisitng soils information.
Ongoing national research programs are often unrelated and nonsupportive of the USAID agricultural development programs. Quite often network participants and their superiors are unfamiliar with the USAID mission programs. Synchronization of national and USAID mission programs would enhance efforts to transfer soil management technology to the network participants.
North Carolina State University

Acidity and Fertility Major Soil Constraints in Transmigration Area
A field research program was conducted to provide technology for overcoming severe soil fertility constraints in a transmigration area of West Sumatra where large-scale bulldozer clearing of a primary tropical rainforests had adversely affected soil productivity. While the soils have favorable granular structure they are quite acid, have toxic levels of aluminum and low levels of essential nutrients. A strategy based on previous humid tropical experience was devised to make sustained production of basic food crops in this area technically possible.
The overall results lead to the conclusion that 1)
reclamation of soils damaged by mechanical land clearing is feasible, 2) lime and fertilizers are the key to reclaim unproductive land and maintain soil productivity, 3) fertilizer and lime recommendations can be made according to soil tests for specific crop rotations and 4) the use of organic inputs, particularly leaving crop residues in the field and growing a green manure crop in situ can help decrease lime, fertilizer and weed control requirements.
N.C. State University
University of Hawaii

Workshop Stimulates Technology Transfer
Tropical soils research has progressed to the stage that promising alternatives can be grouped into soil management options that take into account differences in physical and socioeconomic conditions within the ecosystem. Many of the key components for these technologies are ready to be transferred to national research institutions for adoption to local conditions.
TropSoils conducted a 21-day workshop on tropical soils
management at its primary research site in Yurimaguas, Peru to acquaint operational level Latin American scientists with the most recent concepts in tropical soil management, to identify common interests and to establish a soil research network. Criteria for selection of participants were based on the national research institutes' interest and capabilities in pursuing soil management research in tropical ecosystems and identification of candidates with at least a B.S. degree in agronomy or equivalent training. The 31 participants represented 23 potential research sites within 15 national institutions in 10 different countries.
The workshop has had the following effects: (1) improved knowledge and understanding of the current state of the art in soil management by researchers in the 10 countries represented;
(2) a greater awareness of the on-going research by TropSoils and the potential for further improvements in soil management technology; (3) development of plans for collaborative research with TropSoils by the participating countries and (4) formation of a network among participants in Latin America to provide continued interaction in addressing common problems and sharing information and experiences.
North Carolina State University

Model Accurately Calculates Water Loss From Cropped Soils
In semiarid climates, such as those in West Africa, even during the growing season a large portion of the soil surface, mostly between rows, is not covered by the plant canopy. Thus, both the soil surface and the crop canopy are involved in water loss from the soil.
A study was undertaken to mechanistically simulate water
loss for a row crop with an incomplete canopy cover from standard weather data and soil and crop properties. A proposed model was tested by comparing measured and predicted values of soil evaporation and crop evapotranspiration.
The results show that the proposed model is adequate for
calculating soil evaporation and crop transpiration separately, for a row crop with an incomplete canopy cover. This model should be a useful tool in analyzing alternative irrigation and crop management systems in water-limited areas, and in the design and analysis of field experiments on water use efficiency.
Texas A & M University

Rainfall and Soil Hydrology Patterns Quantified For West Africa Area
The amount and distribution of rainfall profoundly
influences crop and livestock production in the semi-arid tropics of West Africa. The variability in space and time and the irregularity of the rainfall in the zone of settled rainfed crop production result in a high risk of crop failure. Sahelian farmers have developed empirical perceptions of the reliability of the rains and semi-quantitative notions of the probability of a certain amount occurring at a given time during the growing season. More quantitative insight into the rainfall reliability, probability of rainfall amounts, and risks of crop failure would increase the confidence in extrapolating results from low density point rainfall records over larger areas.
An investigation was undertaken: (a) To quantify temporal variation and distribution, overall trends and periodicities, patterns of wet and dry spells of rainfall, and length of the growing season; (2) To measure the physical and hydrological properties of major cropped soils in Niger, quantifying moisture loss patterns and rain-use efficiency; and (3) To estimate evapotranspiration of economically important crops from climatic data.
Results provide a quantitative insight into the reliability of the rains during the growing season for many locations in Niger. They can also be used by plant breeders to infer quantitative definitions of the length of the growing season to various degrees of reliability, either directly or in conjunction with data on crop evapotranspiration requirements.
Texas A & M University

Rainfall Water Management Increases Crop Yields in Semi Arid Area
In semi arid regions cereals are often sown before start of the rains. If rainfall is less than required for germination, crop stands are spotty, replanting is necessary and yields may be adversely affected. Rainfall-harvesting techniques are being examined as a means of alleviating the problem.
A study was undertaken: to determine whether contour strip rainfall harvesting (CSRH) has a potential for cereal production in three main agroclimatic regions of sandy soils in Niger and to evaluate the influence of fertilization and plant density on the harvesting systems.
Results show significant positive effects due to water
management. The CSRH technique induced a deeper rooting system and dramatically increased dry matter production. Increases in grain yields ranged from 56% to 120%. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization were necessary to obtain maximum benefits from the rainfall. Higher plant density increased the yield of sorghum, but had no effect on millet.
CSRH has a potential for increasing grain yield in regions with limited rainfall and sandy soils. This technique exhibits advantages by reducing evaporation loss and weed growth, and increasing water conservation. Additional studies must be undertaken to determine the most appropriate (economically, socially, and technically) way to adapt this technique to the local needs.
Texas A & M University

Soil Fertility and Cultivars Influence Water Use Efficiency
In semi arid regions, water is the factor considered to be most limiting for plant growth and thus it receives the main focus of attention. However, it is now recognized that nutrient deficiencies, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus, greatly inhibit crop production in Sahelian Africa and there is evidence that some cultivars are more efficient than others. But, information is lacking on fertility x water interactions and particularly with the role that nutrient use efficient cultivars might play in water use efficiency.
Results show a response to nitrogen and phosphorus and a
strong interaction between level of available water, cultivar and soil fertility in the use of available water. This, and other evidence and experiences, strongly suggest that soil management practices to increase the amount of the water resource available to crops will be economical only when nitrogen and phosphorus deficiencies are corrected, along with the use of responsive genotypes.
Texas A & M University

Neem Tree Windbreaks Improve Environment and Plant Growth In Sahel
In 1975 CARE initiated a systematic planting of neem trees
in the Maggie Valley of Niger. This windbreak project has gained considerable attention as one of the most promising agroforestry projects in Sahelian Africa. Potential benefits include improvements in water conservation and crop growth, increased comfort and protection for the villagers and their animals by shielding them from high winds and dust, and as a source of wood. Data related to these effects, however, are not available. TropSoils, in collaboration with CARE, has conducted studies, utilizing these plantings, to determine how climate and cereal growth are modified between neem tree windbreak rows and to investigate the influence of wood harvesting methods on wind protection between the windbreak rows.
Reduction in average windspeed at crop height in the center of the field compared to that outside the windbreaks was between 29% and 41%. Protection by the windbreak significantly increased dry matter production except near the rows, where it was reduced. Fertilizers increased grain yields regardless of distance from the windward row.
Partial pollarding proved to be the best harvest method for wood with the lowest loss of efficiency. While this method may not yield as much total wood as other methods, it can be done while maintaining reduction in windspeeds greater than 30% between the rows.
Results from this study show the usefulness of the trees in modifying the physical environment and crop growth. Such information is indispensable in effective planning the layout of future plantings and their subsequent management.
Texas A & M University

Mulching Improves Degraded Sahelian Soils
Forests are essential to the lives of Sahelian farmers and herders. The pressures of increasing population, and the demand for forage and fuel, have led to the serious degradation of Sahelian forests. Several studies, conducted in collaboration with FLUP, have been conducted to find practical means to stabilize and rejuvenate degraded forest and agricltural lands. Among these were investigations on simple tillage and mulching treatments for their ability to regenerate vegetation in the Guesselbodi Forest near Niamey, Niger.
The results show that tillage was not as effective in the reestablishment of vegetation on barren forest soils as was mulching with tree branches. This has important consequences for the implementation of soil-conservation practices in the Sahel because branches, a waste product of commercial firewood harvesting, are readily available in areas being harvested and are easily placed on the surface of barren forest soils.
Texas A & M University

Personnel Engaged In Degree Related Programs Supported by
TropSoils and Collaborators. Cornell University
September, 1981 through December, 1986
Country of Degree Source of
Name Citizenship Program Support
Bowen, Walter U.S.A. Ph.D. CRSP
Buttler, Imo W. Germany Ph.D. CRSP
Carsky, Robert U.S.A. Ph.D. CRSP
Carvalho, Luiz Brazil Ph.D. EMBRAPA
Costa, Francisco Brazil M.S. CRSP
Luchiari, Ariovaldo Brazil Ph.D. EMBRAPA
Macedo, Jamil Brazil M.S. EMBRAPA
Macedo, Jamil Brazil Ph.D. EMBRAPA
Marcano-Martinez, E. Dom. Rep. M.S. IICA
McVoy, Christopher U.S.A. Ph.D. CRSP
Motavalli, Peter U.S.A. Ph.D. CRSP
Osmond, Deanna U.S.A. Ph.D. Self
Quintana, Jorge Nicaragua Ph.D. CRSP

Personnel Engaged In Degree Related Programs Supported
by TropSoils and Collaborators. University of Hawaii
September, 1981 through December, 1986
Country of Degree Source of
Name Citizenship Program Support
Aluisius, Djohan Indonesia Ph.D. MUCIA
Dierolf, Tom U.S.A. Ph.D. CRSP
Evensen, Carl U.S.A. Ph.D. CRSP
Hansen, James U.S.A. M.S. CRSP
Huang, Ruey-Shyang Rep. of China Ph.D. USDA
Kilham, Phoebe U.S.A. Ph.D. CRSP
Legowo, Eko Indonesia Ph.D. USDA
Lin, Li-Ling Taiwan Ph.D. REG. RES.
Shultz, Jan U.S.A. Ph.D. CRSP
Singh, Upendra Fiji Ph.D. E W C
Soekardi, M. Indonesia Ph.D. USAID
Trangmar, Bruce New Zealand Ph.D. G N Z

Personnel Engaged In Degree Related Programs Supported
by TropSoils and Collaborators. North Carolina State University September, 1981 through December, 1986
Country of Degree Source of
Name Citizenship Program Support
Alegre, Julio Peru Ph.D. CRSP
Alvarado, Alfredo Costa Rica Ph.D. UCR
Ara, Miguel Peru Ph.D. CRSP
Ayarza, Miguel Peru Ph.D. RF
Casanova, Eduardo Venezuela Post Ph.D. GOV
Castilla, Carlos Colombia Ph.D. CRSP
Davelouis, Jose Peru Ph.D. USAID
Dubois, Olivier Belgium M.S. CRSP
Edwards, David U.K. B.S. RU
Elsenbeer, Helmut Germany Ph.D. CRSP
Fernandez, Erick Kenya Ph.D. CRSP
Fontes, Marisa Brazil Ph.D. CEPLAC
Gichuru, Mwenja Kenya Ph.D. CRSP
Gill, Dan U.S.A. Ph.D. CRSP
Hoag, Robert U.S.A. Ph.D. CRSP
Hormia, Kristiina Finland M.Sc. UF
Katz, Lisa U.S.A. M.S. CRSP
Lins, Ibere Brazil Ph.D. EMBRAPA

Personnel Engaged In Degree Related Programs Supported
by TropSoils and Collaborators. North Carolina State University
September, 1981 through December, 1986
Country of Degree Source of
Name Citizenship Program Support
Makarim, Karim Indonesia Ph.D. IADS
Melgar, Ricardo Argentina Ph.D. IDB
Morien, Emilio U.S.A. Post Ph.D. Jinker Fd
Mt. Pleasant, Jane U.S.A. Ph.D. CRSP
Newman, Laurie U.S.A. M.S. CRSP
Ngachi, Victor Cameroon M.S. USAID
Palm, Cheryl U.S.A. Ph.D. CRSP
Piha, Melvyn Zimbabwe Ph.D. CRSP
Poutannen, Marti Finland M.Sc. UF
Schnaar, Robert Netherlands M.Sc. UW
Scholes, Mary S. Africa Post Ph.D. CSIR
Scholes, Robert S. Africa Post Ph.D. CSIR
Smith, Christopher U.S.A. Ph.D. CRSP
Subagyo, H. Indonesia Ph.D. IADS
Szott, Lawrence U.S.A. Ph.D. CRSP
Ten Ouden, Gerard Netherlands B.S. UF
Torrance, Kenneth Canada Post. Ph.D. IDRC
Ubiera, Amilcar Dom. Rep. Ph.D. FERQUIDO
Uribe, Eduardo Colombia Ph.D. CRSP

Personnel Engaged In Degree Related Programs Supported
by TropSoils and Collaborators. Texas A & M University
September, 1981 through December, 1986
Country of Degree Source of
Name Citizenship Program Support
Bui, Elisabeth U.S.A. Ph.D. CRSP
Davis, Jessica U.S.A. Ph.D. CRSP
Doumbia, Mamadou Mali M.S. CRSP
Gandah, Mohamadou Niger M.S. NCRP
Gardiner, James U.S.A. M.S. CRSP
Landeck, Jonathan U.S.A. M.S. CRSP
Long, Steve U.S.A. M.S. CRSP
Louis, Piere Haiti M.S. USAID
Marcelin, Fritz Haiti M.S. USAID
Ouattara, Mamadou Niger Ph.D. NCRP
Payne, William U.S.A. M.S. CRSP
Pfordresher, Anne U.S.A. M.S. PSG
Wendt, John U.S.A. M.S. CRSP
Yerima, Bernard Cameroon Ph.D. CRSP
Zaongo, Christophe Burkina Faso M.S. CRSP

Publications in Serial Journals, Technical Bulletins, Monographs and Workshop Proceedings. Cornell University.
Bouldin, D.R., K.D. Ritchey and E. Laboto. 1985. Management of Soil Acidity. In: P.A. Sanchez, E.R. Stoner and E. Pushparajah (eds.): Management of Acid Tropical Soils for Sustainable Agriculture. IBSRAM Proc. 2:187-203. Bangkok, Thailand.
Buttler, I. and S.J.Riha. 1987. General Purpose Simulation Model of Water Flow in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum. App. Agr. Res. (In press).
Janssen, B.H., D.J. Lathwell and J. Wolf. 1987. Modeling LongTerm Crop Response to Fertilizer Phosphorus. II. Comparison with Field Results. Agron. J. 79:452-458.
Lathwell, D.J. and D.R. Bouldin. 1981. Soil Organic Matter and Soil Nitrogen Behavior in Cropped Soils. Trop. Agri. 58:341-348.
Lathwell, D.J. and T.L. Grove. 1986. Soil-Plant Relationships in the Tropics. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 17:1-16.
Macedo, J. and R.B. Bryant. 1987. Morphology and Mineralogy and Genesis of a Hydrosequence of Oxisols in Brazil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 51:690-698.
Montavalli, P.P. and J.M. Duxbury. 1987. The Effects of Additions of Alfalfa and Oxalate on Sulfur Mineralization and Sulfate Adsorption in Latasols of the Cerrado. Rev. Bras. Cienc. Solo (In press).
Wolf, J., C.T. deWit, B.H. Janssen and D.J. Lathwell. 1987. Modeling Long-Term Crop Response to Fertilizer Phosphorus. I. The Model Agron. J. 79:445-451.

Publications in Serial Journals, Technical Bulletins, Monographs and Workshop Proceedings. University of Hawaii.
El-Swaify, S.A. 1987. Contrasting the Conservation and Management Requirements of Alfisols, Oxisols, and Ultisols for Improved Rainfed Farming in Semi-arid Areas. In: I. Pla-Sentis
(ed). Proceedings Fourth International Conference on Soil Conservation, Venezuela Soc. Soil Sci., Maracay, Venezuela.
El-Swaify, S.A. 1987. Soil-Based Concerns for Soil and Water Conservation Research and Development in the Tropics. In: S. Jantawat (ed.), Proceedings International Workshop on Soil Erosion and Its Countermeasures, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Harper, D.E. and S.A. El-Swaify. 1987. Sustainable Agricultural Development in North Thailand: Soil Conservation as a Component of Success in Assistance Projects. In: Proceedings Workshop on Soil and Water Conservation on Steep Lands. Soil Conservation Soc. Amer. (In press).
Huang, R.S., W.K. Smith and R.S. Yost. 1986. Influence of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on Growth, Water Relations, and Leaf Orientation in Leucaena Leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. New Phytologist 99:229-243.
Trangmar, B.B., R.S. Yost and G. Uehara. 1986. Spatial Dependence and Interpolation of Soil Properties in West Sumatra, Indonesia. I. Anisotropic Variation. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 50:1391-1395.
Trangmar, B.B., R.S. Yost and G. Uehara. Application of Geostatistics to Spatial Studies of Soil Properties. Advances in Agronomy. 38:45-94. Academic Press, Inc.
Trangmar, B.B., R.S. Yost and G. Uehara. 1986. Spatial Dependence and Interpolation of Soil Properties in West Sumatra, Indonesia. II. Coregionalization and Cokriging. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 50:1396-1400.
Trangmar, B.B. R.S. Yost, M. Sudjadi, M. Soekardi and G. Uehara. 1984. Variation of Selected TropSoil Properties in Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia. CTHAR Research Series, No. 026. Honolulu: University of Hawaii.
Trangmar, B.B., R.S. Yost, M.K. Wade, G. Uehara and M. Sudjadi. 1987. Spatial Variation in Soil Properties and Rice Yield on Recently Cleared Land. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 50:668-674.

Uehara, G., B.B. Trangmar and R.S. Yost. 1985. Spatial Variability of Soil Properties. In: D.R. Nielsen and J. Bouma (Eds.). Soil Spatial Variability. Proceedings of a Workshop of the ISSA and SSSA.
Yost, R.S., B.B. Trangmar and J.P. Ndiaye. 1986. Geostatistical Computation Software for Microcomputers. I. Semivariograms. Research Extension Bulletin Series 074. Hawaii Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii.
Yost, R.S., B.B. Trangmar, J.P. Ndiaye and N. Yoshida. 1987. Geostatistical Computation Software for Microcomputers. III. Block Kriging. (In press).
Yost, R.S., B.B. Trangmar, J.P. Ndiaye and N. Yoshida. 1987. Geostatistical Computation Software for Microcomputers. IV. Cokriging. (In press).
Yost, R.S., S. Itoga, Z.C. Li and P. Kilham. 1986. Soil Acidity Management With Expert Systems. IBSRAM Asian Regional Seminar on Soil Acidity, Land Clearing and Vertisols.

Publications in Serial Journals, Technical Bulletins, Monographs and Workshop Proceedings. North Carolina State University.
Alegre, J., D.K. Cassel, D. Bandy, and P.A. Sanchez. 1986. Effect of Land Clearing on Soil Properties of an Ultisol and Subsequent Crop Production in Yurimaguas, Peru. In: R. Lal, P.A. Sanchez and R.W. Cummings, Jr. (eds). Land Clearing and Development in the Tropics, pp. 167-177. A.A. Balkema Press, Boston.
Alegre, J.C. and D.K. Cassel. 1986. Effect of Land-Clearing Methods and Postclearing Management on Aggregate Stability and Organic Carbon Content of a Soil in the Humid Tropics. Soil Sci., 142:289-295.
Alegre, J.C., D.K. Cassel, and D.E. Bandy. 1986. Effects of Land Clearing and Subsequent Management on Soil Physical Properties. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J., 50:1379-1383.
Alegre, J.C., D.K. Cassel, and D.E. Bandy. 1986. Reclamation of an Ultisol Damaged by Mechanical Land Clearing. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 50:1026-1031.
Alvarado, A. and S.W. Buol. 1985. Field Estimation of Phosphate Retention by Andepts. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 49:911-914.
Bandy, D.E. and P.A. Sanchez. 1986. Post-Clearing Soil Management Alternatives for Sustained Production in the Amazon. In: R. Lal, P.A. Sanchez and R.W. Cummings, Jr. (eds): Land Clearing and Development in the Tropics, pp. 347-362. A. A. Balkema Press, Boston.
Benites, J.R. 1983. Manejo De Fosforo En Suelos Acidos E Infertiles De La Amazonia Peruana. In: Conferencia Latinoamericana de Roca Fosforica, pp. 471-500. IBTA, La Paz, Bolivia.
Benites, J.R. 1987. Transfer of Acid Tropical Soils Management Technology. In: P.A. Sanchez, E.R. Stoner and E. Pushparajah (eds): Management of Acid Tropical Soils for Sustainable Agriculture. IBSRAM Proc., 2:245-260. Bangkok, Thailand.
Benites, J.R., D.E. Bandy, J.J. Nicholaides, M.I. Piha and P.A. Sanchez. 1983. Successful Soil Management Technologies and Their Transfer to Small Farms in the Peruvian Amazon. In: Communications of Weed Sci. Tech. in Developing Countries, pp. 337-366. St. Louis, MO.

Buol, S.W. and H.P. Denton. 1984. The Role of Soil Classification in Technology Transfer. In: R.B. Grossman (ed.) Soil Taxonomy Achievements and Challenges. SSSA Spec. Publ., 14:2943. Madison, WI.
Buol, S.W. and P.A. Sanchez. 1986. Red Soils in the Americas: Morphology, Classification and Management. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Red Soils. Institute of Soil Science, Academia Sinica, Science Press, pp. 14-43. Beijing, China.
Cochrane, T.T. and P.A. Sanchez. 1982. Land Resources, Soils and Their Management in the Amazon Region: A State of Knowledge Report. In: S.B. Hecht (ed.): Amazonia: Agriculture and Land Use Research, pp. 137-209. CIAT, Cali, Colombia.
Cochrane, T.T. and P.A. Sanchez. 1982. Recursos De Tierras, Suelos Y Su Manejo En La Region Amazonica: Informe Acerca Del Estado De Conocimientos. In: S.B. Hecht (ed.): Amazonia: Agricultura e Investigacion de Tierras, pp. 141-218. CIAT, Cali, Colombia.
Cox, F.R. and I.D.G. Lins. 1984. A Phosphorus Soil Test Interpretation for Corn Growth on Acid Soils Varying in Crystalline Clay Content. Commun. in Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 15:1481-1491.
Gill, D.W. and J. Sri Adiningsih. 1986. Response of Upland Rice and Soybeans to Potassium Fertilization, Residue Management and Green Manuring in Sitiung, West Sumatra. Pembr. Pen. Tanah Dan Pupuk, 6:26-31.
Hiebsch, C.K. and R.E. McCollum. 1987. Area-X-Time Equivalency Ratio: A Method for Evaluating the Productivity of Intercrops. Agron. J., 79:15-22.
Kamprath, E.J. 1984. Crop Response to Lime on Soils in the Tropics. In: Soil Acidity and Liming. Agronomy Monograph No. 12 (2nd ed.):349-367.
Lal, R., P.A. Sanchez and R.W. Cummings, Jr. (eds.) 1986. Land Clearing and Development in the Tropics. A. A. Balkema Press, pp. 450. Boston.
Lins, I.D.G., F.R. Cox and J.J. Nicholaides, III. 1985. Optimizing Phosphorus Fertilization Rates for Soybeans Grown on Oxisols and Associated Entisols. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 49:14571460.
Lopes, A.S., T.J. Smyth and N. Curi. 1987. The Need for a Soil Fertility Reference Base and Nutrient Dynamics Studies. In: P.A. Sanchez, E.R. Stoner and E. Pushparajah (eds): Management of Acid Tropical Soils for Sustainable Agriculture. IBSRAM Proc., 2:147-166. Bangkok, Thailand.

Nicholaides, J.J. 1983. Liming Materials, Origin, Composition, Use and Effects. In: CRC Handbook of Nutritional Supplements: II. Agricultural Use, pp. 337-366. Boca Raton, FL.
Nicholaides, J.J. 1984. From Migratory to Continuous Agriculture in The Amazon Basin. In: Improved Production Systems as an Alternative to Shifting Cultivation, pp. 141-168. FAO Soils Bull., Rome.
Nicholaides, J.J., D.E. Bandy, P.A. Sanchez, J.R. Benites, J.H. Villachica, A.J. Coutu and C.S. Valverde. 1985. Agricultural Alternatives for the Amazon Basin, BioScience 35:279-285.
Nicholaides III, J.J. 1982. Fertilizer Management for Continuous Crop Production of Ultisols of the Amazon Jungle Basin of Peru. Proc. Ninth Int'l. Plant Nutr. Colloq., 2:425-430. Oxford, U.K.
Nicholaides III, J.J., D.E. Bandy, P.A. Sanchez, J.H. Villachica, A.J. Coutu and C. S. Valverde. 1986. De La Agricultura Migratoria A La Explotacion Agricola Continua En La Cuenca Del Amazona. En: Sistemas Mejoradas de Produccion Como Alternativa a la Agricultura Migratoria. FAO, Rome.
Reategui, K., M. Ara and R. Schaus. 1985. Evaluacion Bajo Pastoreo De Associaciones De Gramineas Y Leguminosas Forrajeras En Yurimaguas, Peru. Pasturas Tropicales Boletin, 7(3):11-14. CIAT, Cali, Colombia.
Ritchey, K.D., F.R. Cox, E.Z. Galrao and R.S. Yost. 1986. Disponibilidade De Zinco Para As Culturas Do Milho. Pesq. Agropec. Bras. 21:215-225.
Sanchez, P.A. 1981. Soils of the Humid Tropics. Studies in Third World Societies 41:347-410.
Sanchez, P.A. 1982. A Legume-Based, Pasture Production Strategy for Acid Infertile Soils of Tropical America. In: Soil Erosion and Conservation in the Tropics. ASA Special Publication 43, pp. 97-120. Madison, WI.
Sanchez, P.A. 1982. Nitrogen in Shifting Cultivation Systems of Latin America. Plant and Soil 67:91-103.
Sanchez, P.A. 1984. Productivity of Soils in Rainfed Farming Systems: Examples of Longterm Experiments. In: Potential Productivity of Field Crops Under Different Environments, pp. 441-465. IRRI, Los Banos, Philippines.
Sanchez, P.A. 1987. Edaphic Parameters for Characterizing IBSRAM's Acid Tropical Soils Network Sites. In: M. Latham (ed.): Land Development Management of Acid Soils. IBSRAM Proc. 4:113-123. Bangkok, Thailand.

Sanchez, P.A. 1987. Management of Acid Soils in the Humid Tropics of Latin America. In: P.A. Sanchez, E.R. Stoner and E. Pushparajah (eds.): Management of Acid Tropical Soils for Sustainable Agriculture. IBSRAM Proc. 2:63-107. Bangkok, Thailand.
Sanchez, P.A., D.E. Bandy, J.H. Villachica and J.J. Nicholaides. 1982. Amazon Basin Soils: Management for Continuous Crop Production. Science 216:821-827.
Sanchez, P.A. and J. Benites. 1986. Opciones Tecnologicas Para El Manejo Racional De Suelos En La Selva Peruana. In: lo Simposio do Tropico Umido, 1:399-435. EMBRAPA, Belem, Para, Brazil.
Sanchez, P.A. and S.W. Buol. 1985. Agronomic Taxonomy for Wetland Soils. In: Wetland Soils: Characterization, Classification and Utilization, pp. 207-227. IRRI, Los Banos, Philippines.
Sanchez, P.A., W. Couto and S.W. Buol. 1982. The Fertility Capability Soil Classification System: Interpretation, Applicability and Modification. Geoderma 27:283-309.
Sanchez, P.A., M.P. Gichuru and L.B. Katz. 1982. Organic Matter in Major Soils of the Tropical and Temperate Regions. Trans. 12th Int. Congr. Soil Science (New Delhi) 1:99-114.
Sanchez, P.A. and R.H. Miller. 1986. Organic Matter and Soil Fertility Management in Acid Soils of the Tropics. Trans. 13th Int. Congr. Soil Sci. (Hamburg) (in press).
Sanchez, P.A., J.J. Nicholaides and W. Couto. 1983. Physical and Chemical Constraints to Food Production in the Tropics. In: Chemistry and World Food Supplies (Chemrawn II), pp. 89-105. IRRI, Los Banos, Philippines.
Sanchez, P.A., C.A. Palm, C.B. Davey, L.T. Szott and C.E. Russell. 1985. Tree Crops as Soil Improvers in the Humid Tropics? In: M.G.R. Cannell and J.E. Jackson (eds.): Attributes of Trees and Crop Plants, pp. 327-358. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Huntingdon, U.K.
Sanchez, P.A. and J.G. Salinas. 1981. Low-Input Technology for Managing Oxisols and Ultisols in Tropical America. Adv. Agron. 34:279-406.
Sanchez, P.A. and T.J. Smyth. 1987. Acid Tropical Soils Network: A Progress Report. In: Land Development and Management of Acid Soils in Africa. IBSRAM Proc. 4:(in press).
Sanchez, P.A., J.H. Villachica and D.E. Bandy. 1983. Soil Fertility Dynamics After Clearing a Tropical Rainforest in Peru. Soil Sci. Am. J. 47:1171-1178.

Sharpley, A.N. and S.W. Buol. 1987. Relationship Between Minimum Exchangeable Potassium and Soil Taxonomy. Commun. in Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 18:601-614.
Smyth, T.J. and J.B. Bastos. 1984. Altreracoes Na Fertilidade Em Un Latossolo Amerelo Alico Pela Quema Da Vegetacao. R. Bras. Ci. Solo 8:127-132.
Smyth, T.J. and J.B. Bastos. 1985. Adubacao Fosfatada Para Milho E Caupi Em Latossolo Amarelo Alico Do Tropico Umido. Pesq. Agropec. Bras. 20:1259-1264.
Smyth, T.J. and P.A. Sanchez. 1982. Phosphate Rock Dissolution and Availability in Cerrado Soils as Affected by Phosphorus Sorption Capacity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 46:339-345.
Smyth, T.J. and P.A. Sanchez. 1982. Phosphate Rock and Superphosphate Combinations for Soybeans in a Cerrado Oxisol. Agron. J. 74:730-735.
Sudjadi, M., S. Adiningsih and D.W. Gill. 1985. Potassium Availability in Soils of Indonesia. Potassium in the Agricultural Systems of the Humid Tropics. 19th Colloquium of the International Potash Institute, Bangkok, Thailand, pp. 157168. IPI, Berne, Switzerland.
Swift, M.J. and P.A. Sanchez. 1984. Biological Management of Tropical Soil Fertility for Sustained Productivity. Nature and Resources 20:1-9.
Szott, L.T. and C.A. Palm. 1986. Soil and Vegetation Dynamics in Shifting Cultivation Fallows. In: lo Simposio do Tropico Umido, 1:360-379. EMBRAPA, Belem, Para, Brazil.
Trangmar, B.B., R.S. Yost, M.K. Wade, G. Uehara and M. Sudjadi. 1987. Spatial Variation of Soil Properties' and Rice Yield on Recently Cleared Land. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 51:668-674.
Valverde, C.S. and D.E. Bandy. 1982. Produccion De Cultivos Alimenticios Anuales En La Amazonia. In: S.B. Hecht (ed.): Amazonia: Agricultura e Investigacion en Tierras, pp. 253-293. CIAT, Cali, Colombia.
Wade, M.K. and P.A. Sanchez. 1983. Mulching and Green Manure Applications for Continuous Crop Production in the Amazon Basin. Agron. J. 75:39-45.
Wade, M.K. and P.A. Sanchez. 1984. Productive Potential of an Annual Intercropping Scheme in the Amazon. Field Crops Res. 9:253-263.
Yost, R.S., G.C. Naderman, E.J. Kamprath and E. Lobato. 1982. Availability of Rock Phosphate as Measured by an Acid-Tolerant Pasture Grass and Extractable Phosphorus. Agron. J. 74:462-468.

Publications in Serial Journals, Technical Bulletins, Monographs and Workshop Proceedings. Texas A & M University
Bui, E. and L.P. Wilding. 1987. Pedogenesis and Mineralogy of a Halaquept Soil in Niger, West Africa. Geoderma. (in press).
Bui, E., J.B. Dixon, H. Shadfan and L.P. Wilding. 1987. Iron Phases in the Dallol Bosso of Niger, West Africa. Catena. (in press).
Hicks, S.K., R.J. Lascano, C.W. Wendt and A.B. Onken. 1986. Use of Hydraulic Press for Estimation of Leaf Water Potential in Grain Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor L.). Agron. J. 78:749-751.
Isbell, V.R. and C.W. Wendt. 1984. Annual Windbreak Effects on Cotton Yield and Development. New Mexico Journal of Science. 24:12.
Lascano, R.J. and C.H.M van Bavel. 1986. Simulation and Measurement of Evaporation From a Bare Soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 50:1127-1132.
Lascano, R.J., C.H.M. van Bavel, J.L. Hatfield and D.R. Upchurch. 1987. Energy and Water Balance of a Sparse Crop: Simulated and Measured Soil and Crop Evaporation. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. (in press).
Lascano, R.J., J.L. Hatfield and C.H.M. van Bavel. 1986. Field Calibration of Neutron Meters Using a Two-Probe, Gamma-Density Gauge. Soil Sci. 141:442-447.
Long, S., N. Persaud, M. Gandah and M. Ouattara. 1986. Influence of a Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Windbreak Plantation on Millet Yields and Microclimate in Niger, West Africa. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Windbreak Tech. Lincoln, Nebraska. p. 183.
Onken, A.B. and C.W. Wendt. 1986. Soil Fertility Management and Water Relationships. Proceedings of the Soil, Water and Crop Management Workshop Sudano-Sahelian Zone. Niamey, Niger. (in press).
Persaud, N., M. Ouattara and I. Alfari. 1986. Analysis of Rainfall Records and Its Implication for Improving Rain-Use Efficiency for Cereal Production in Niger. Proceedings OUA/STRC/ SAFGRAD International Drought Symposium. Nairobi, Kenya. (in press).

Persaud, N., S. Long, M. Gandah and M. Ouattara. 1986. Influence of Wood Harvesting Method on Wind Protection Between Rows of a Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Plantation in Niger, West Africa. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Windbreak Tech. Lincoln, Nebraska. p. 211.
van Bavel, C.H.M., R.J. Lascano and J.M. Baker. 1985. Calibrating Two-Probe, Gamma-Gauge Densitometers. Soil Sci. 140:393-395.
West, L.T., L.P. Wilding and F.G. Calhoun. 1987. Argillic Horizons In Sandy Soils of the Sahel, West Africa. In: N. Federoff, L.M. Bresson and M.A. Courty (eds.). Micromorphology Des Sols. Proceedings of the VIIth International Working Meeting on Soil Micromorphology. Paris, France. pp. 221-225.
West, L.T., L.P. Wilding, J.K. Landeck and F.G. Calhoun. 1984. Soil Survey of the ICRISAT Sahelian Center, Niger, West Africa. Dept. of Soil and Crop Sci. Texas A & M University, College Station. 66 pp.
Wilding, L.P. and C.T. Hallmark. 1984. Development of Structural and Microfabric Properties in Shrinking and Swelling Clays. In: J. Bouma and P.A.C. Raats (eds.). Proceedings of the ISSS Symposium on Water and Solute Movement in Heavy Clay Soils. ILRI Publ. #37, Wageningen, The Netherlands. pp. 1-22.
Wilding, L.P. and L.R. Hossner. 1987. Causes and Effects of Acidity in Sahelian Soils. Proceedings of Workshop on Soil Water and Crop Management Systems for Rainfed Agriculture in the Sudano-Sahelian Zone. Niamey, Niger. (in press).
Yerima, B.P.K., L. R. Hossner, L.P. Wilding and F.G. Calhoun. 1987. Forms of Phosphorous Sorption in Northern Cameroon Vertisols and Associated Alfisols. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. (in press).
Yerima, B.P.K., L.P. Wilding and L.R. Hossner. 1987. Total and Ammonium Bicarbonate DTPA Extractable Micronutrients of Selected Vertisols and Associated Alfisols of Northern Cameroon. Geoderma (in press).
Yerima, B.P.K., L.P. Wilding, F.G. Calhoun and C.T. Hallmark. 1987. Vertisols in Northern Cameroon: Morphological, Physical, Chemical and Mineralogical Properties. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. (in press).
Yerima, B.P.K., L.P. Wilding, F.G. Calhoun and C.T. Hallmark. 1987. Volcanic Ash-Influenced Vertisols and Associated Mollisols of El Salvador: Physical, Chemical and Morphological Properties. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 51:699-708.

Publications of Special Reports, Research Briefs and Abstracts. University of Hawaii.
Colfer, C.J.P., B. Newton and H. Agus. 1986. On People's Perceptions of Soil--Sitiung, West Sumatra. In: Proceedings Center for Soil Research Annual Technical Meetings, Bogor, Indonesia.
Evensen, S. 1986. Characterization of Home Gardens in Aur Jaya (Sitiung VC). TropSoils Indonesia Field Research Brief #32.
Evensen, C. and R. Yost. 1986. Alley Cropping. TropSoils Indonesia Field Research Brief #33, 7 p.
Evensen, S. 1987. Soil and Crop Management Practices in Aur Jaya. TropSoils Indonesia Field Research Brief #35.
Evensen, C. and R. Yost. 1986. Source and Management of Green Manure. TropSoils Indonesia Field Research Brief #36, 8 p.
Evensen, C.L.I., R.S. Yost and Y. Kanehiro. 1987. Calcaium and Molybdenum Response of Forage Legumes. TropSoils Indonesia Field Research Brief #38.
Sigman, V., C. Colfer, K. Wilson, R. Yost, M. Rauch and M. Wade. Farm-based Research in the TropSoils Project, Sitiung, Indonesia. To be published by Case Studies Project on Intra-Household Dynamics and Farming Systems Research and Extension.
Singh, U., G. Uehara and C.A. Jones. 1985. Simulating Corn (Zea mays L.) Performance in the Tropics. Abstracts: Amer. Soc. Agron., Madison, Wisconsin.
Uehara, G. and R.S. Yost. 1986. Spatial and Temporal Agroecosystem Variability. Abstracts: Amer. Soc. Agron., Madison, Wisconsin. p. 163.
Yost, R.S., G. Uehara, M. Wade, M. Sudjadi, I.P.G. Widjaja-Adhi, and Z.C. Li. 1985. An Expert System for Making Lime Recommendations in Soils of the Humid Tropics: A User's Manual for ACID3b. University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources.
Yost, R.S., G. Uehara, M. Wade, M. Sudjadi, I.P.G. Widjaja-Adhi, and Z.C. Li. 1987. Expert Systems in Agriculture: Determining Lime Recommendations for Soils of the Humid Tropics. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, Research Bulletin. (In press).

Yost, R.S., S. Itoga, Z.C. Li, J. Hansen, P. Kilham, G. Uehara, M. Wade and M. Sudjadi. 1985. An Expert System for Making Lime Recommendations in Soils of the Humid Tropics: A User's Manual for ACID4. University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. (In press).

Publications of Special Reports, Research Briefs and Abstracts. North Carolina State University
Al-jabri and M.K. Wade. 1985. Lime Reaction Rate and Effectiveness. Field Research Brief No. 10, Center for Soils Research, Bogor, Indonesia.
Ayarza, M.A. and P.A. Sanchez. 1985. Effect of Sulfur in Solution On Dry Matter and Tannin Content of Desmodium Ovalifolium. NCSU Phytotron 1984 Report pp. 38-42.
Ayarza, M.A. y R. Dextre. 1985. Manejo de Pastos. CIPA XVI Estacion Experimental de Yurimaguas. Serie de Separatas No. 12. INIPA, Yurimaguas, Peru, pp. 23.
Ayarza, M.A. y R. Dextre. 1986. Manejo de Pastos. Estacion Experimental de Yurimaguas Serie No. 12. Yurimaguas, Peru, pp. 26.
Bastos, J.B. and T.J. Smyth. 1985. Adubacao Com Micronutrientes Para Milho e Caupi em Latossolo Amarelo Argiloso do Amazonas. Pesquisa em Andamento No. 62. Manaus, EMBRAPA-UEPAE, pp. 4.
Benites, J.R. 1986. Manuel de Manejo de Suelos Para el Cultivo de Cacao. Estacion Experimental de Yurimaguas, Peru.
Benites, J.R. y 0. Rios. 1986. Catorce Anos de Actividades del Centro de Capacitacion y Adiestramiento de la Estacion Experimental de Yurimaguas. Yurimaguas, Peru.
Den Ouden, G.G. 1985. Mycorrhiza. Report of B.S.C. National College for Agriculture, Tropical Section, Deventer, Netherlands, and Soil Science Department, N.C. State University, pp. 120.
Fahmuddin Agus, M.K. Wade and Jusuf Prawirasumantri. 1985. Effects of Post-clearing Methods on Soil Properties and Crop Production. Field Research Brief No. 18. Center for Soils Research, Bogor, Indonesia.
Gill, D.W., A. Kasno and S. Adiningsih. 1985. Response of Upland Rice and Soil K Levels to K Fertilization and Green Manure Applications at Sitiung V. Field Research Brief No. 8, Center for Soils Research, Bogor, Indonesia.
Lin, Char-fin. 1985. Fertility Capability Classification (FCC) as a Guided to P, K-Fertilizaton of Lowland Rice. FFTC Book Series No. 29, Soil Taxonomy Review and Use in the Asian and Pacific Region. Taipei, Taiwan.

McCollum, R.E. 1986. Dinamica de Nutrientes en el Suelo en Sistemas de Cultivo Multiples Con Relacion al Uso Eficiente de Fertilizantes. Estacion Experimental de Yurimaguas Serie No. 13. Yurimaguas, Peru, pp. 41.
Moran, E.F. 1984. The State of Knowledge on Colonization. Simposio do Tropico Umido. Belem, Para, Brazil, pp.24.
Nair, P.K.R. and E. Fernandes. 1986. La Agrosilvicultura Como Alternativa a la Agricultura Migratoria. In: Sistemas Mejorados de Produccion Como Alternativa a la Agricultura Migratoria. Servicio de Recursos, Manejo y Conservacion de Suelos Direccion de Fomento de Tierras y Aguas, FAO, Rome, pp. 183-197.
Newman, L.R. 1986. Levantamiento de Suelos de al Estacion Experimental de Puerto Maldonado. Estacion Experimental de Yurimaguas Serie No. 16. Yurimaguas, Peru.
Perez, J.M. 1984. Determinacion de Fenotipos de Gulielma Gasipaes Bailey (Pijuayo) en la Zona de Yurimaguas, Loreto. Tesis Ing. Forestal, Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana, Iquitos, Peru, pp. 84.
Poutanen, M. 1985. Agroforestry in Tropical Land Use With Special Reference to the Peruvian Amazon. University of Helsinki, Institute of Development Studies. Report 9/1985. B., Helsinki, Finland, pp. 111.
Sanchez, P.A. 1985. Fertilizers Make Continuous Cropping Possible in the Amazon. Better Crops International 1:12-15.
Sanchez, P.A. and J.J. Nicholaides, III. 1981. Plant Nutrition Study. Paper prepared for Technical Advisory Committee, Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research, Miscellaneous Paper AGD/TAC:IAR/81/4. CGIAR, World Bank, Washington, pp. 98.
Smyth, T.J. 1985. Avaliacao de Fontes de Adubacao Organica Nas Produtividades de Milho e Caupi, em Latossolo Amarelo Argiloso. Relatorio de Projeto de Pesquisa. Manaus, EMBRAPA-UEPAE, pp. 13.
Smyth, T.J. 1985. Definicao e Correcao Cronologica de Deficiencias Nutricionais Para Culturas Anuais em Latossolo Amarelo Muito Argiloso. Relatorio de Projeto de Pesquisa. Manaus, EMBRAPA-UEPAE, pp. 18.
Smyth, T.J. 1985. Metodos de Applicacao de Fosforo e Naiaveis Criticos de P Disponiveis Para Milho e Caupi em Latossolo Amarelo Muito Argiloso. Relatorio de Projeto de Pesquisa. Manaus, EMBRAPA-UEPAE, pp. 12.
Smyth, T.J. 1985. Resposta do Guaranazeiro a Aplicacao de Nitrogenio, Fosforo, Potassio e Magnesio em Latossolo Amarelo

Muito Argiloso. Relatorio de Projeto de Pesquisa, Manaus, EMBRAPA-UEPAE, pp. 9.
Smyth, T.J. 1986. Report on the Latin American Workshop on Tropical Soils Management: Yurimaguas, Peru, August 31-September 21, 1986. North Carolina State University, Raleigh, pp. 45. (In English and Spanish)
Smyth, T.J. and J.B. Bastos. 1984. Adubacao Potassica Para Milho e Caupi em Latossolo Amerelo Alico do Estado do Amazonas. In: EMBRAPA-CPATU Documentos, 31, pp. 191-2. Nov. 12-17, 1984, Belem, Brazil.
Wade, M.K. and Al-jabri. 1985. P Fertilization and Maintenance. Field Research Brief No. 1, Center for Soils Research, Bogor, Indonesia.
Wade, M.K. and Al-jabri. 1985. P Fertilization and Maintenance. Field Research Brief No. 9, Center for Soils Research, Bogor, Indonesia.
Wade, M.K. and Heryadi. 1985. Effect of Green Manuring on Food Crop Response to Lime and P Fertilization. Field Research Brief No. 2, Center for Soils Research, Bogor, Indonesia.
Wade, M.K., E.J. Kamprath and D. Santoso. 1985. Residual and Maintenance Rate for Lime. Field Research Brief No. 15, Center for Soils Research, Bogor, Indonesia.
Wade, M.K. and D. Santoso. 1985. Phosphorous Rates and Methods of Application. Field Research Brief No. 3, Center for Soils Research, Bogor, Indonesia.
Wade, M.K. and D. Santoso. 1985. Phosphorous Rates and Methods of Application. Field Research Brief No. 14, Center for Soils Research, Bogor, Indonesia.

Publications of Special Reports, Research Briefs and Abstracts. Texas A & M University
Baumhardt, R.L. 1987. Instruction Manual for Rotating Disk Type Rainfall Simulator. Texas Agri. Exp. Sta. Misc. Pub. (in press).
Baumhardt, R.L., C.W. Wendt, and J.W. Keeling. 1986. Effects of Cultural Practices on Infiltration and Soil Density and Water Content. Abstracts. Amer. Soc. Agro. Madison, Wisconsin. p. 114.
Daniels, R.D. and L.P. Wilding. 1983. Report of Soil/ Geomorphical Relationships in Area Surrounding ICRISAT Sahelian Center. Dept. Soil and Crop Sci. Texas A & M University. College Station, TX. 37 pp.
Kouyate, Zoumana. 1986. Trimestrial Progress Report. Institut D'Economie Rurale. Bamako, Mali.
Lascano, R.J., C.H.M. van Bavel, J.L. Hatfield and D.R. Upchurch. 1986. Simulation and Measurement of Water Use by Cotton in a Semiarid Climate. Abstract. Amer. Soc. Agron. Madison, Wisconsin. pg. 159.
Onken, A.B., D.M. Nesmith, J.L. Mabry and C.W. Wendt. 1986. Influence of Genotype and Fertility Level on Water Use Efficiency by Grain Sorghum. Abstracts. Amer. Soc. Agron. Madison, Wisconsin. pg. 210.
Ouattara, M. and N. Persaud. 1985. Contraintes Liees au Sol et a l'eau et Adaptations a ces Contraintes par les Paysans Locaux Lors de la Production Cerealiere en Culture Pluviale. Proceedings INTSORMIL Workshop on Collaborative Research in West Africa. Niamey, Niger. (in press).
Persaud, N., I. Alfari, M. Ouattara and M. Gandah. 1986. Probabilites de Recevoir les Hauteurs Specifiees Decadaires de Pluie des Stations Selectionnees au Niger, Afrique de l'Ouest. TropSoils Technical Report, Institut National de Recherche Agronomique du Niger. Niamey, Niger. pp. 62.
Persaud, N., R.G. Chase and C.W. Wendt. 1985. Low-Input Methods for Soil-Water-Management in the Sahel. Abstracts. Amer. Soc. Agron. Madison, Wisconsin. pg. 37.
Persaud, N., M. Quattara, M. Gandah and J. Gonda. 1986. Influence of Tiller Removal on Growth and Production of Millet. TropSoils Technical Report. Institut National de Recherche Agronomique du Niger. Niamey, Niger. pp. 8.

Wendt, C.W., J.L. Mabry and A.B. Onken. 1986. Effect of Water and Nitrogen Levels on Water Use Efficiency of Two Sorghum Cultivars. Abstracts. Amer. Soc. Agron. Madison, Wisconsin. p. 235.
Zaongo, C. and N. Persaud. 1986. Rapport de Campagne Sur "l'etude de la Collecte des eaux de Pluie pour la Production Cerealiere au Niger." Institut National de Recherche Agronomique au Niger. Niamey, Niger. pp. 20.
Zaongo, C., N. Persaud and L. Hossner. 1986. Rainfall Harvesting for Cereal Production in Niger. Abstracts. Amer. Soc. Agron. Madison, Wisconsin. p. 255.

Graduate Student Theses. Cornell University.
Bowen, Walter T. 1987. Estimating the Nitrogen Contribution of Legumes to Succeeding Maise on an Oxisol in Brazil. Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 178 pp.
Macedo, Jamil. 1986. Morphology, Mineralogy and Genesis of a Hydrosequence of Oxisols in Brazil. M.S. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 73 pp.
Marcano-Martinez, Eugenio. 1987. CaS04 Adsorption and Surface Charge Properties of Oxisols. M.S. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 95 pp.
Quintana, Jorge 0. Evaluation of Two Procedures for Screening Legume Green Manures as Nitrogen Sources to Succeeding Corn. Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 181 pp.

Graduate Student Theses. University of Hawaii.
Huang, Ruey-Shang. 1987. Influence of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on Leucaena Leucocephala Growth, Water Relations and Nutrient Aquisition. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Hawaii, 155 pp.
Legowo, Eko. 1987. Estimation of Water Extractability and Hydraulic Conductivity in Tropical Mollisols, Ultisols and Andisols. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Hawaii, 185 pp.
Lin, Li-ling. 1987. Calibration and Validation of a Rice Crop Simulation Model. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Hawaii, 184 pp.
Soekardi, M. 1985. Soil Interpretation for Non-agricultural and Agricultural Uses of Soils. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Hawaii, 187 pp.
Trangmar, Bruce B. 1984. Spatial Variability of Soil properties in Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Hawaii, 329 pp.

Graduate Student Theses. North Carolina State University
Alegre, J.C. 1985. Effect of Land Clearing and Land Preparation Methods on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties and Crop Performance of an Ultisol in the Amazon Basin. Ph.D. Thesis, N.C. State University, Raleigh, N.C., 153 pp.
Alvarado, A. 1982. Phosphate Retention in Andepts from Guatemala and Costa Rica as Related to Other Soil Properties. Ph.D. Thesis, N.C. State University, Raleigh, N.C., 82 pp.
Gichuru, M.P. 1986. The Management of Phosphorus, Calcium and Magnesium in Low-input Cropping Systems in the Humid Tropics. Ph.D. Thesis, N.C. State University, Raleigh, N.C. 183 pp.
Hoag, R.E. 1987. Characterization of Soils on Floodplains of Tributaries Flowing Into the Amazon River in Peru. Ph.D. Thesis, N.C. State University, Raleigh, N.C. 165 pp.
Katz, L.B. 1983. Effect of Al on Peanut Growth in Solution, Potted Soil, and Field, and An Estimation of Combining Ability for Al Tolerance. M.S. Thesis, N.C. State University, Raleigh, N.C. 102 pp.
Lins, I.D.G. 1987. Improvement of Soil Test Interpretations for Phosphorus and Zinc. Ph.D. Thesis, N.C. State University, Raleigh, N.C. 317 pp.
Makarim, A.K. 1985. Effects of Land Reclamation Management Practices on Crop Production and Physical and Chemical Properties on a Tropical Soil. Ph.D. Thesis, N.C. State University, Raleigh, N.C. 163 pp.
Mt. Pleasant, J. 1987. Weed Control Measures for Short Cycle Food Crops Under Humid-Tropical Environments in Developing Countries. Ph.D. Thesis, N.C. State University, Raleigh, N.C. 116 pp.
Newman, L.J. 1985. Ultisol Dominated Landscapes in the Amazon Basin of Southeastern Peru. M.S. Thesis, N.C. State University, Raleigh, N.C. 107 pp.
Ubiera, The Occurrence and Properties of Hydroxy-Interlayered Silicate Clays in Some Soils of the Dominican Republic. Ph.D. Thesis, N.C. State University, Raleigh, N.C. 375 pp.

Graduate Student Theses. Texas A & M University
Bui, E. 1986. Relations Between Pedology, Geomorphology, and Stratigraphy in the Dallol Bosso of Niger, West Africa. Ph.D. Thesis. Texas A & M University. College Station, TX 226 pp.
Landeck, J.K. 1984. The Moisture Retention Characteristics of Four Soils From Niger. M.S. Thesis. Texas A & M University. College Station, TX. 164 pp.
Louis, P.A. 1985. Properties of Soils in a Toposequence on Cap Rouge Plateau, Haiti. M.S. Thesis. Texas A & M University. College Station, TX. 91 pp.
Marcelin, F.P. 1985. Predicting Soil Erosion From Cap Rouge Plateau, Haiti. M.S. Thesis. Texas A & M University. College Station, TX. 89 pp.
Payne, William. 1987. Water Balance of Three Sandy Soils of Niger, West Africa. M.S. Thesis. Texas A & M University. College Station, TX.
Waweru, Francis Mbote. 1984. Influence of Annual Windbreaks On The Water Relations, Growth and Yield of Cotton and Peanuts. M.S. Thesis. Texas A & M University. College Station, TX.
Wendt, J.W. 1986. Pearl Millet (Pennisetum Typhoides) Response to Soil Variability in Sandy Ustalfs Near Niamey, Niger, West Africa. M.S. Thesis. Texas A & M University. College Station, TX. 87 pp.
Yerima, B.P.K. 1986. Soil Genesis, Phosphorous, and Micronutrients of Selected Vertisols and Associated Alfisols of Northern Cameroon. Ph.D. Thesis. Texas A & M University. College Station, TX. 323 pp.

Participants in the Overall Management of TropSoils Management Office
McCants, Charles B., Director 1981-1986
Stevens, Kimberly, Administrative Assistant 1981-1985 Austin, Jennifer, Administrative Assistant 1985-1986 Caudle, Neil, Editor 1985-1986
Board of Directors
Apple, Lawrence, NCSU 1981-1983
Bloodworth, Morris, TAMU 1981-1983
Demb, Ada, UH 1981-1985
Metz, Joe, CU 1981-1983
Muljadi, D., CSR 1981-1983
Ouattara, Mamadou, INRAN 1981-1986
Valverdi, Carlos, INIPA 1981-1982
Wagner, Elmar, EMBRAPA 1981-1984
Palma, Victor, INIPA 1983-1985
Miller, Robert, NCSU 1984-1986
Oyer, Ed, CU 1984-1986
Runge, Ed, TAMU 1984-1986
Sudjadi, Mohammed, CSR 1984-1986
Goedert, Wenceslau, EMBRAPA 1985-1986
Quijandra, Benjamin, INIPA 1985-1986
Smith, Ray, UH 1986-1986
Soumana, Indressa, INRAN 1986-1986

Technical Committee (Each Person Also a Program Coordinator)
Lathwell, Douglas, CU 1981-1986
Calhoun, Frank, TAMU 1981-1985
Nicholaides, John, NCSU 1981-1985
Sanchez, Pedro, NCSU 1981-1986
Uehara, Goro, UH 1981-1986
Hossner, Lloyd, TAMU 1986-1986
External Evaluation Panel
Coulter, John, World Bank 1981-1986
Hildebrand, Peter, UF 1981-1986
Thorne, Marlowe, UI 1981-1986
Agency for International Development
Malcolm, John, S&T/RNR 1981-1986
Taylor, Sam, USAID/Brasilia 1981-1983
Lusk, Howard, USAID/Brasilia 1983-1986
Helman, Howard, USAID/Brasilia 1986-1986
Tappan, Walter, USAID/Jakarta 1981-1984
Hurdus, Alan, USAID/Jakarta 1981-1985
Cobb, Richard, USAID/Jakarta 1984-1986
Hale, Joanne, USAID/Jakarta 1985-1986
Tajeb, Mocharam, USAID/Jakarta 1986-1986
O'Donnell, John, USAID/Lima 1981-1982
Bathrick, David, USAID/Lima 1983-1986
Miller, Timothy, USAID/Lima 1984-1986

Flood, David, USAID/Lima 1986-1986
Juado, Adalfo, USAID/Lima 1985-1986
Thomas, Wilbur, USAID/Niamey 1981-1983
Virgel, Rudy, USAID/Niamey 1983-1984
Jepson, Lance, USAID/Niamey 1984-1986
Grayball, Lynn, USAID/Niamey 1984-1986
Gibson, Ernest, USAID/Niamey 1986-1986
On-Site Senior Scientists
Stoner, Eric, CU, Brazil 1983-1986
Smyth, Jot, NCSU, Brazil 1981-1985
Thompson, John, UH, Indonesia 1983-1985
Colfer, Carol, UH, Indonesia 1983-1986
Wade, Mike, NCSU, Indonesia 1983-1986
Santoso, Joko, CSR, Indonesia 1983-1984
Sukmana, Solik, CSR, Indonesia 1984-1986
Guyton, Ronald, UH, Indonesia 1986-1986
Ara, Lalit, UH, Indonesia 1986-1986
Bandy, Dale, NCSU, Peru 1981-1982
Benites, Jose, NCSU, Peru 1982-1986
Allegre, Juleo, NCSU, Peru 1985-1986
McCollum, Robert, NCSU, Peru 1982-1985
Chase, Robert, TAMU, Niger 1983-1985
Persaud, Naraine, TAMU, Niger 1984-1986

Personnel Engaged in the Cornell University Component of TropSoils
Name Position Specialty Affil.
Boaventura, Afonso Junior Scientist Fertility EMBRAPA
Bouldin, David Senior Scientist Fertility CU
Bowen, Walter Senior Scientist Fertility CU
Bryant, Ray Senior Scientist Pedology CU
Burle, Marilia Junior Scientist Fertility CU
Buttler, Imo Junior Scientist Fertility/Model CU
Cardoso, Irene Junior Scientist Management EMBRAPA
Carsky, Robert Junior Scientist Fertility CU
Carvalho, Luiz Junior Scientist Plant Physio EMBRAPA
Costa, Francisco Junior Scientist Fertility CU
Cox, Fred Senior Scientist Fertility NCSU
Duxbury, John Senior Scientist Organic Matter CU
Freitas, Elias Senior Scientist Soil Physics EMBRAPA
Goedert, Wenceslau Administrator Administration EMBRAPA
Grove, Thurman Senior Scientist Management CU
Gustafson, Daniel J. Senior Scientist Coordination IICA
Helman, Howard Agri. Devlp. Off. Administration USAID
Klausner, Stuart Senior Scientist Soil Management CU
Kornelius, Euclides Senior Scientist Pastures CPAC
Lathwell, Douglas Program Coord. Coord/Res. CU
Lins, Ibere Junior Scientist Fertility NCSU
Lobato, Edson Senior Scientist Soil Fertility EMBRAPA

Lucey, Robert Administrator Administration CU
Luchiari, Ariovaldo Junior Scientist Agrometerology EMBRAPA Lusk, Howard Agri. Devlp. Off. Administration USAID
Macedo, Jamil Junior Scientist Pedology EMBRAPA
Marcano-Martinez, E. Junior Scientist Soil Chemistry CU McBride, Murray Senior Scientist Chemistry CU
McVoy, Christopher Junior Scientist Physics CU
Mendes, Cristina Junior Scientist Plant Ecology CNPQ
Metz, Joe Administrator Administration CU
Miranda, Leo Senior Scientist Soil Fertility EMBRAPA
Motavalli, Peter Junior Scientist Fertility CU
Nicholaides, John Senior Scientist Fertility NCSU
Osmond, Deanna Junior Scientist Management CU
Oyer, Edwin Administrator Administration CU
Pereira, Joao Senior Scientist Soil Fertility EMBRAPA
Peres, Jose Senior Scientist Soil Microbio EMBRAPA
Pontes, Raimundo Administrator Administration EMBRAPA
Quintana, Jorge Junior Scientist Fertility CU
Ranzani, Guido Administrator Administration EMBRAPA
Reid, Shaw Senior Scientist Management CU
Reis, Eduardo Senior Scientist Irrigation CPAC/
Resck, Dimas Senior Scientist Soil Management EMBRAPA
Richie, Dale Senior Scientist Management CU
Riha, Susan Senior Scientist Physics CU
Rodrigues, Gustavo Senior Scientist Plant Physio EMBRAPA
Snyder, Victor Senior Scientist Management CU

Sousa, Djalma Senior Scientist Soil Chemistry EMBRAPA
Stoner, Eric Senior Scientist Management CU
Suhet, Allert Senior Scientist Microbiology EMBRAPA
Taylor, Sam Agri. Devlp. Off. Administration USAID
Van Wambeke, Armand Senior Scientist Pedology CU
Vilela, Lorival Senior Scientist Soil Fertility EMBRAPA
Wagenet, Jeff Senior Scientist Physics CU
Wagner, Elmar Administrator Administration EMBRAPA
Wondergem, Abraham Junior Scientist Fertility UW

Personnel Engaged in the University of Hawaii Component of TropSoils
Name Position Specialty Affil.
Amien, I. UH
Amien, Istiqlal CSR
Arya, Lalit Senior Scientist Physics UH
Cassel, Keith Senior Scientist Physics NCSU
Cobb, Richard Agri. Officer Administration USAID
Colfer, Carol Senior Scientist Anthropology UH
Demb, Ada Administrator Administration UH
Dudley, Richard Senior Scientist Fisheries UH
El-Swaify, Samir Dept. Chairman Adm/Conserv. UH
Evenson, Carl Junior Scientist Management UH
Evenson, Stacy Junior Scientist Nutrition UH
Evi, Martha AU
Fahmuddin, Agus Junior Scientist Conservation CSR
Gedjer, Putu Senior Scientist Management CSR
Gill, Dan Junior Scientist Fertility NCSU
Godwin, Douglas Senior Scientist Modeling IFDC
Guyton, Ronald Senior Scientist Management UH
Hale, Joanne Agri. Officer Administration USAID
Hansen, James UH
Herman, Agus AU
Herwasona, Soedgito HB
Hidayet, Endang Junior Scientist CSR

Huang, Ruey Junior Scientist UH
Hue, Nguyen Senior Scientist UH
Hurdus, Alan Agri. Officer Administration USAID
Itoga, Stephen Senior Scientist Computers UH
Kan, Stephanie Junior Scientist Economics UF
Kanehiro, Yoshinori
Kilham, Phoebe UH
Li, Z.C. UH
Lin, Li-Ling Junior Scientist UH
Mochtar, Naim AU
Muljadi, D. Administrator Administration CSR
Ndiaye, Jean-Pierre UH
Newton, Barbara UH
Rauch, Marian UH
Santoso, Edi CSR Management CSR
Schultz, Janet Junior Scientist Conservation UH
Selva, James Senior Scientist Fertility UH
Sharpley, Andrew Senior Scientist Modeling ARS
Sholeh Senior Scientist Management CSR
Sigman, Vickie Senior Scientist Education UH
Smith, Ray Administrator Administration UH
Sudjadi, M. Administrator Administration CSR
Sukmana, Solah Senior Scientist Physics CSR
Suwardjo, Senior Scientist Management CSR
Tajeb, Mocharam Agri. Officer Administration USAID
Tang, Chung UH
Tappan, Walter Agri. Officer Administration USAID

Tuivavalagi, Nacanieli UH
Uehara, Goro Program Coord. Coord/Res. UH
Wade, Mike Senior Scientist Fertility NCSU
Wilson, Kathleen UH
Yost, Russell Senior Scientist Fertility UH

Participants Engaged in the North Carolina State University Component of TropSoils
Name Position Specialty Affil.
Acuna, E. Senior Scientist Pastures INIPA
Adiningsih, Sri Division Head Administration CSR
Agus, Fahmuddin Junior Scientist Physics CSR
Al-Jabri Junior Scientist Fertility CSR
Alegre, Julio Senior Scientist Physics NCSU
Alvarado, Alfredo Junior Scientist Classification NCSU
Ara, Miguel Junior Scientist Pastures INIPA
Arevalo, Luis Senior Scientist Fertility INIPA
Ayarza, Amparo Translator Translation NCSU
Ayarza, Miguel Junior Scientist Pastures CIAT
Ayre, Olinda Technician Laboratory NCSU
Aznaran, Andres INIPA
Aznaran, Andres Senior Scientist Tillage INIPA
Bandy, Dale Senior Scientist Management NCSU
Barreto, Ferdinan. EMBRAPA
Bastos, Joaquim EMBRAPA
Bathrick, David Agricultural Off Administration USAID
Benites, Jose Senior Scientist Management NCSU
Buol, Stanley Senior Scientist Classification NCSU
Bustamante, Miguel Training INIPA
Calderon, Mario Junior Scientist Pastures CIAT
Cantera, G. Senior Scientist Pastures INIPA

Cassel, Keith Senior Scientist Physics NCSU
Castilla, Carlos Junior Scientist Pastures CIAT
Castillo, Dennis Senior Scientist Management NCSU
Correa, Jose EMBRAPA
Cox, Fred Senior Scientist Fertility NCSU
Cravo, Manoel Senior Scientist Fertility EMBRAPA
Davelouis, Jose Junior Scientist Fertility INIPA
Davey, Charles Senior Scientist Agroforestry NCSU
de Moraes, Erci Station Director Administration EMBRAPA
Dextre, Rolando Senior Scientist Pastures INIPA
Dias, Migull EMBRAPA
Elsenbeer, Helmut Junior Scientist Physics Germany
Escabor, Ricardo EMBRAPA
Escobar, Mercedes Senior Scientist Economics INIPA
Fernandes, Erick Junior Scientist Agroforestry ICRAF
Flores, Miguel Senior Scientist Management INIPA
Florindez, Sue Admin. Assist. Administration NCSU
Fontes, Marisa Junior Scientist Chemistry CEPLAC
Forbes, Tonya Technician Laboratory NCSU
Fuigueroa, Jorge Senior Scientist Management INIPA
Gallo, Marta Senior Scientist Management INIPA
Galvao, Expedito EMBRAPA
Galvez, Marco Senoir Scientist Weed Control INIPA
Gedger, Putu Country Coord. Management CSR
Gichuru, Mwenja Junior Scientist Fertility NCSU
Gill, Dan Junior Scientist Fertility NCSU
Goedert, Wenceslau Director Administration EMBRAPA

Gonzalez, Mariela Admin. Assist. Administration NCSU
Gowland, Patricia Technician Laboratory NCSU
Guillen, Wilfredo Senior Scientist Pastures INIPA
Heryadi, M. Junior Scientist Fertility CSR
Hoag, Robert Junior Scientist Classification NCSU
Hooper, Jonathan Junior Scientist Classification NCSU
Ivazeta, Hemilce Senior Scientist Pastures INIPA
Kamprath, Eugene Senior Scientist Fertility NCSU
Kasno, Antonuis Technician Research CSR
Katz, Lisa Junior Scientist Fertility NCSU
Lara, Daysi Senior Scientist Pastures INIPA
Lenne, Jill Junior Scientist Pastures CIAT
Lermo, Juan Senior Scientist Agronomy INIPA
Lins, Ibere Junior Scientist Fertility EMPAER
Lisgel, Leon Senior Scientist Agroforestry USDA
Lopez, Jonathan INIPA
Lopez, Jonathan Senior Scientist Crops INIPA
Makarim, Karim Junior Scientist Management CSR
McCollum, Robert Senior Scientist Fertility NCSU
Medeiros, Valeria Secretary Bilingual NCSU
Melgar, Ricardo Junior Scientist Fertility Argentina
Merino, Jose Station Director Administration INIPA
Mesia, Ruben Senior Scientist Management INIPA
Miller, Robert Department Head Administration NCSU
Monar, Bertha Program Admin. Administration NCSU
Mt. Pleasant, Jane Junior Scientist Weed Control NCSU
Muljadi, D. Director Administration CSR

Naderman, George Senior Scientist Extension NCSU
Newman, Laurie Junior Scientist Classification NCSU
Ngachie, Victor Junior Scientist Fertility Cameroon
Nicholaides, John Program Coord. Cood./Res. NCSU
Nurena, Marco Junior Scientist Management INIPA
Oliveira, Luiz EMBRAPA
Pacora, Lander Agency Head Administration INIPA
Palm, Cheryl Junior Scientist Agroforestry NCSU
Palma, Victor Agency Head Administration INIPA
Pashanasi, Beto Microbiology INIPA
Perez, Jorge Senior Scientist Agroforestry INIPA
Phillips, Elizabeth Secretary Bilingual NCSU
Piha, Melvyn Junior Scientist Management NCSU
Pizarro, Esteban Junior Scientist Pastures CIAT
Racchumi, Alfredo Senior Scientist Upland Rice INIPA
Reategui, Kenneth Junior Scientist Pastures INIPA
Roman, Rafael Technician Laboratory NCSU
Ruiz, Pedro Senior Scientist Microbiology INIPA
Ruiz, R. Senior Scientist Pastures INIPA
Salazar, Angel Agroforestry INIPA
Salazar, Eleazar Junior Scientist Classification Venezuela
Sanchez, Pedro Program Coord. Coord./Res. NCSU
Santoso, Djoko Senior Scientist Management CSR
Schaus, Rodolfo Senior Scientist Pastures INIPA
Schnaar, Rob Senior Scientist Fertility Wageningen
Scholes, Mary C. Junior Scientist CSIR
Scholes, Robert Junior Scientist Ecology CSIR

Smith, Christopher Junior Scientist Classification NCSU Smithson, Paul Junior Scientist Chemistry NCSU
Smyth, Jot Senior Scientist Fertility NCSU
Subagjo, H. Junior Scientist Classification CSR
Sudjadi, Mohammed Director Administration CSR
Szott, Lawrence Junior Scientist Agroforestry NCSU
Tepe, Cesar Senior Scientist Paddy Rice INIPA
Toledo, Jose Senior Scientist Pastures CIAT
Ubiera, Amilcar Junior Scientist Mineralogy Dom. Repb.
Uribe, Eduardo Junior Scientist Fertility Colombia
Valverde, Carlos Agency Head Administration INIPA
Vela, Jorge Senior Scientist Pastures INIPA
Villavicencio, M. Station Director Administration INIPA
Wade, Michael Senior Scientist Fertility NCSU
Wagner, Elmar Director Administration EMBRAPA
Wegena, Putu Junior Scientist Fertility CSR
Zuniga, Luis Physics INIPA

Personnel Engaged in the Texas A & M University Component of TropSoils
Name Position Specialty Affil.
Adoulaye, A. INRAN
Alfari, I. DMN
Bationo, Andre Senior Scientist Fertility IFDC
Baumhardt, TAES
Bloodworth, Morris Department Head Administration TAMU
Boudouresque, Eric Junior Scientist Management UOA
Bronson, Roy Leader Administration NCRP
Bui, Elizabeth Junior Scientist Classification TAMU
Calhoun, Frank Program Coord. Coord/Classif. TAMU
Cardwell, Suzanne Assist. Adm. Administration TAMRF
Chase, Robert Senior Scientist Physics TAMU
Clark, John Leader Administration NCRP
Davis-Rainey, Jessica Junior Scientist Management TAMU
Denneson, Steve Junior Scientist Management CARE
Dicko, Mdm. M. Junior Scientist Research ILCA
Dixon, Joe Senior Scientist Mineralogy TAMU
Doumbia, M. Junior Scientist Management IER
Fuller, Flynn Agri. Dev. Off. Administration USAID
Gandah, Mahamadu Senior Scientist INRAN
Garba, Annou Senior Scientist Classification INRAN
Gardiner, James Junior Scientist TAMU
Garrett, Steve Administrator Administration TAMRF

Gibbons, Ron Director Administration ICRISAT
Gibson, Ernie Agri. Dev. Off. Administration USAID
Gonda, Jada INRAN
Goube, Gaoh Section Head Fertility INRAN
Grayball, Lynn Agri. Dev. Off. Administration USAID
Hallmark, Tom Senior Scientist Classification TAMU
Hatfield, Jerry Senior Scientist Cropping Syst. USDA
Heermans, John Senior Scientist Agroforestry FLUP
Hossner, Lloyd Program Coord. Coord/Fertility TAMU
Jackson, Curtis Director Administration ICRISAT
Jepson, Lance Agri. Dev. Off. Administration USAID
Klaij, Michael Senior Scientist Physics UW
Kouyate, Zoumana Program Coord. Coord/Mgt. IER
Lascano, Robert Senior Scientist Physics TAES
Long, Steve Junior Scientist Management TAMU
Mabry, James TAES
Maggio TAMU
Manu, Andrew Senior Scientist Laboratory TAMU
McCool, Donald Senior Scientist Physics USDA
Morandi, Kati Secretary Administration TAMU
Northcut, Gloria Secretary Administration TAMU
Nwanze, Kanayo Director Administration ICRISAT
Oneil, Michael Junior Scientist Research PP
Onken, Arthur Senior Scientist Fertility TAES
Ouattara, Mamadou Department Head Administration INRAN
Oundabar, Botorou Junior Scientist Research INRAN
Parker TAES

Payne, William Junior Scientist TAMU
Persaud, Naraine Senior Scientist Physics TAMU
Pfordresher, Ann Junior Scientist Classification TAMU
Piwonka, Technician Research TAES
Puentes, Ruben Program Mgr. Administration TAMU
Reddy, S.K. Agri. Dev. Off. Administration USAID
Runge, Ed Department Head Administration TAMU
Saley, Moussa Director Gen. Administration INRAN
Serafini, Phil Senior Scientist Management ICRISAT
Shadfan, Harbi Senior Scientist Mineralogy TAMU
Shihadeh TAMRF
Simpara, Mamadou Program Coord. Coord/Mgt. IER
Soumana, Indrissa Director Gen. Administration INRAN
Steve, Juan Senior Scientist Agroforestry FLUP
Stroosnijder, Leo Senior Scientist Physics WAU
Swindale, Les Director Gen. Administration ICRISAT
Thomas, Wilbur Agri. Dev. Off. Administration USAID
Traore, Fatagoma Director Gen. Administration IER
Upchurch, Dan Senior Scientist Cropping Syst. USDA
Van Bavel, C. Senior Scientist Physics TAMU
Vigil, Rudolph Agri. Dev. Off. Administration USAID
Vollmar, Glen Director, ME Administration INTSORMIL
Wendt, Charles Senior Scientist Physics TAES
Wendt, John Junior Scientist Fertility TAMU
West, Larry Junior Scientist Classification TAMU
Wheaton, Sandra Asst. Adm. Administration TAMRF

Wilding, Larry Senior Scientist Classification TAMU
Yerima, Bernard Junior Scientist Classification TAMU
Zaongo, Christopher Junior Scientist TAMU

Organizations and Institutions Collaborating with Cornell University
Abbreviation Name Country
CPAC Centro de Pesquisa Brazil
Agropecuaria dos Cerrados
EMBRAPA Empresa Brasileira de Brazil
Pesquisa Agropecuaria
NCSU North Carolina State USA
USAID U.S. Agency for International Brazil

Organizations and Institutions Collaborating with University of Hawaii
Abbreviation Name Country
AARD Agency for Agricultural Indonesia
Research and Development
AU Andalas University Indonesia
CSR Center for Soil Research Indonesia
IPB Institute Pertanian Bogor Indonesia
NCSU North Carolina State USA
USAID U.S. Agency for International Indonesia

Organizations and Institutions Collaborating with North Carolina State University
Abbreviation Name Country
CIAT Centro Internacional de Colombia
Agricultura Tropical
CPAC Centro de Pesquisa Brazil
Agropecuaria dos Cerrados
CSR Center for Soils Research Indonesia
CU Cornell University USA
EMBRAPA Empresa Brasileira de Brazil
Pesquisa Agropecuaria
IDS Institute of Development Finland
IICA Instituto Interamericano Brazil
de Cooperacion para la
INIPA Instituto Nacional de Peru
Investigacion y Promocion
IVITA Instituto Veterinario de Peru
Investigacion del Tropico
y Altura
PEPP Proyecto Especial Pichis- Peru
RU Reading University United Kingdom
UEPAE Unidade de Execucao de Brazil
Pesquisa de Ambito Estadual
de Manaus
UG University of Georgia USA
UH University of Hawaii USA
UNA Universidad Nacional Agraria Peru

USAID U.S. Agency for International Peru
UW University of Wageningen The Netherlands

Organizations and Institutions Collaborating with Texas A & M University
Abbreviation Name Country
AGRHYMET Centre Regional de Formation Niger
et d'Application en Agrometeorologie et Hydrologie CARE Cooperatives for American
Relief Everywhere
DMN Direction de la Meterorologic Niger
FLUP Forest and Land Use Planning Niger
ICARDA International Center for Syria
Agricultural Research in the
Dry Areas
ICRISAT International Crops Research Niger
Institute for the Semi-Arid
IER Institut d'Economie Rural Mali
IFDC International Fertilizer USA
Development Center
IFRSC Institute Francais de Recherche France
Scientifique et Cooperation
ILCA International Livestock Ethiopia
Center for Africa
INRAN Institut National de Recherche Niger
Agronomique du Niger
INTSORMIL Collaborative Research USA
Support Program on Sorghum
and Millet
IRAT Institut de Recherches France
Agronomiques Tropicals
NCRS Niger Cereals Research Project Niger

OICD Office of International USA
Cooperation and Development
SAFGRAD Semi-Arid Food Grain Research Burkina Faso
and Development
SMSS Soil Management Support USA
UN University of Niamey Niger
USAID U.S. Agency for International Niger
USDA United States Department of USA
UW University of Wageningen The Netherlands

Table 1. Expenditures of SM-CRSP Grant Funds by Object Item and Institution
. Management
Object Cornell Hawaii NCSU TAMU Office Total
Salaries $299,142 $768,691 $1,566,538 $839,545 $423,921 $3,897,837
Benefits/Allow $36,447 $165,029 $381,340 $168,523 $74,122 $825,461
Travel $103,413 $294,305 $429,327 $376,267 $193,914 $1,397,226
Supplies $22,827 $156,563 $396,673 $259,323 $10,497 $845,883
Equipment $47,496 $133,182 $204,433 $250,388 $22,522 $658,021
Other D.C. $157,302 $263,809 $945,631 $692,236 $107,230 $2,166,208
Overhead $224,844 $486,352 $861,379 $492,916 $323,873 $2,389,364
Total $891,471 $2,267,931 $4,785,321 $3,079,198 $1,156,079 $12,180,000

Cost Sharing Reported by Each University Participating in the Soil Management CRSP. September, 1981 -December, 1986
University Dollars
Cornell 342,990
Hawaii 479,676
N.C. State 1,889,102
Texas A &M 721,744
Total 3,433,512