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 Title Page
 Preface
 Introduction
 An overview
 Distinguishing characteristics
 The CRSPs






Title: International Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSPs): the beginning years; a progress report (draft)
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Title: International Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSPs): the beginning years; a progress report (draft)
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Preface
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
    An overview
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Distinguishing characteristics
        Page 5
        Page 6
    The CRSPs
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
Full Text


DRAFT
DRAFT


Ii




The International Collaborative Research Support Program
(CRSPs)


The Beginning Years; A Progress Report


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DRAFT








Preface



This report was prepared by the BIFAD Staff in cooperation

with the Bureau for Science and Technology/AID for use in a BIFAD

review of the CRSP concept, accomplishments to date, and future

directions. It is intended to serve as an overview of the CRSP

concept and includes a brief summary of each the eight CRSPs. The

report does not present a comprehensive inventory of

accomplishments or assessment of the impact of the program.









The International Collaborative Research Support Program

CRSPs



The legislation that created BIFAD -- the Board for

International Food and Agricultural Development -- was enacted 10

years ago this December. In an amendment to the International

Development and Food Assistance Act of 1975 that has come to be

known as Title XII, the Congress provided for "long-term

collaborative university research on food production,

distribution, storage, marketing, and consumption" in ways that

"maximize the contributions to the development of agriculture in

the United States and in agriculturally developing nations."

One of the most innovative initiatives developed by BIFAD

under Title XII is the Collaborative Research Support Program, a

concept aimed at increasing and making more effective use of this

country's land grant and other agriculturally oriented

universities in AID's foreign assistance programs.

The logic is unassailable. Large areas of overlap exist in

the problems of food and agriculture. Great potential mutual

advantage lies in joint research efforts that cut across national

boundaries and differing levels of agricultural development. For

example,

-- Most commercial crops and animals produced in the U.S. have

origins in what are now the developing countries.

-- Interest in the improvement of plant germplasm and animal

breeds is virtually universal.









-- Production-limiting factors, such as pests, climate, and

soil constraints, are often best studied under the conditions of

maximum stress that frequently occur in developing countries.

-- Solutions to many specific, major technical problems require

critical masses of scientific talent and institutional resources

not usually available in a single U.S. institution or to a single

developing country.

CRSPs thus serve the dual objectives of benefitting

agriculture in developing countries and in the United States.

The largest challenge presented by the new concept of

Collaborative Research Support Programs, the CRSPs, lay in

developing the mechanisms for carrying it out.


An Overview

CRSPs by their nature are long-term. The intent is not only

to find solutions to constraints through research, but also

simultaneously to develop greater institutional capability for

research in the developing countries. The goal here is the

establishment of institutional relationships that will endure and

transcend the life of the formal CRSP. The research program in

each CRSP therefore addresses institutional development requirements

and accommodates training needs through graduate degree programs,

research assistantships and workshops for candidates of host countries.

Each CRSP has a global plan with objectives and stated

strategies for achieving these objectives. For cost-

effectiveness, resources are concentrated in a minimum number of

countries necessary in a major ecological zone or geographic

region to achieve the objectives.











Criteria in selecting the prime country sites include:

*The problem to be researched involves a major source of food

and income or relates importantly to agricultural or fishery

production in the country;

*A basic institutional research capability exists in the

country.

*The country's government is committed to supporting the

research, and its policies are supportive of research, extension

and production.

*The AID Regional Bureau and appropriate USAID Mission agree

to the research program at the specific site.


The first CRSP (Small Ruminants) was launched just seven

years ago, in October 1978. The following year the Sorghum and

Millet CRSP received its first grant, and the year after that,

the Bean and Cowpea CRSP.

These three CRSPs pioneered in developing the CRSP

structure, which had no precedent. Much of the effort

in the early years of the first CRSPs was devoted to adjusting

plans as experience was gained in their implementation.

Guidelines published in June 1985 now incorporate the experience

gained in planning and implementing the CRSPs since the first

guidelines were initiated in 1977 and amended in 1979.

Since 1981 five additional CRSPs have been funded, the most

recent, the Fisheries/Stock Assessment CRSP, in August 1985.









Distinguishing Characteristics:

All CRSPs are the product of an AID/BIFAD process for

establishing and maintaining a list of research priorities in

agriculture in developing countries. The constraints and

characteristics of the problems to be researched in the

developing countries are then identified in the initial stages of

planning. The interests, resources and research capabilities of

developing country governments and their research institutions are

determined. The U.S. institutions best suited by virtue of

technical capability, experience, interest and commitment of

their own financial resources are identified.

The CRSP is a unique model for conducting agricultural

research programs. Some of the principal distinguishing

characteristics that have evolved over the brief lifespan of

Title XII and BIFAD are:


-- CRSPs have the dual goal of improving agriculture in the

developing countries and in the United States.

-- Participating U.S. institutions agree to contribute at least

25 percent of the cost of the CRSP from non-federal resources (in

money or in kind), justified on the basis of benefits that can

accrue to their state's agriculture and their institution.

-- Host country governments also contribute to the programs by

providing facilities, money and/or personnel.

-- Each CRSP is designed to stimulate collaboration and program

development between scientists of participating U.S. and

developing country institutions.





4 .



-- Each research program is designed to address priority

constraints identified jointly by AID, BIFAD, U.S. universities,

and host country institutions.

-- The research is carried out by multidisciplinary teams

working in collaborative efforts across a wide range of

biological, physical, social and economic disciplines.

-- Training and institution building are natural parts of a

CRSP in its objective of increasing the research capability of a

developing country.

-- The participating U.S. universities organize themselves for

program management and financial accountability under a lead

institution, the Management Entity. Policy direction comes from

a Board of Directors elected by the participating institutions.

Technical oversight and planning are provided by a Technical

Committee made up of principal investigators participating in the

CRSP.

-- AID delegates management responsibility to the lead

university (the Management Entity) and holds it responsible for

the program and accountable for AID funds.

-- International scientific linkages are established with

international IARCs, research institutions of developed nations,

and scientists of non-participating U.S. universities.

-- Each CRSP is periodically reviewed and evaluated by an

External Evaluation Panel composed of senior scientists selected

world-wide from institutions not involved in the program.








The CRSPs


The Small RuminantCRSP

First Grant: October 1978
Collaborating U.S. Institutions: Washington State University,
Winrock Internation, University of Missouri, Texas A&M
University, North Carolina State University, University of
California-Davis, Utah State University (California State
Polytechnic University cooperating), Texas Tech University,
Colorado State University, Montana State University
Management Entity: University of California-Davis
Geographic Scope: Worldwide (Brazil, Indonesia, Kenya, Morocco,
Peru)
Training Activities: LDC students, 60 MS; 24 PhD
U.S.students, 16 MS; 12 PhD
Annual Funding ($1,000):
FY 83: $2,800 (AID); $1,210 (U.S.Universities; $1,275 (Host CountrN
FY 84: $2,900 (AID); $1,360 (U.S.Universities; $1,360 (Host Countr;
$ 125 (other)

Forty percent of the sheep and 77 percent of the world's
goats are in developing countries in Africa, Asia, the Near East
and Latin America. The low initial cost of these small ruminants
and their modest requirements for housing and maintenance make
them particularly well suited for smallholders in the developing
countries.

Advances in disease control and nutritional management have
already opened new doors of profitability to thousands of village
farmers.

A new vaccine against one major disease of goats (contagious
caprine pleuropneumonia-CCPP) has already been developed and is
proving highly successful in protecting goat herds from West
Africa to Asia, where 48 million goats are potential victims.

Another major threat to milk goat herds caprinee arthritis-
encephalitis-CAE) is being attacked through the selection of
virus-free herds that can be used as breeding stock.

A simple treatment of a mineral/vitamin injection
administered shortly after the birth of lambs and kids can
virtually eliminate another disease (white muscle disease) that
now causes up to 50% mortality rates of offspring in many regions.









The Sorghum/Millet CRSP

First grant: July 1979
Collaborating U.S. Institutions: University of Arizona,
University of Kentucky, Purdue University, Mississippi
State University, Texas A&M University, Kansas State
University, University of Nebraska
Management Entity: University of Nebraska
Geographic Scope: Worldwide (Africa, Latin America and Caribbean)
Training Activities:
Annual Funding ($1,000):
FY 83:
FY 84:

Sorghum and millet are the predominant food grain crops in
the arid and semi-arid regions of the world and thus are major
sources of food for the people of South Asia, much of Sub-Saharan
Africa, and certain regions of Latin America and the Caribbean.
Although these grains are not now used widely for human food
in the United States, sorghum is highly important as a source of
livestock feed in this country and there is increasing interest
in millet in the southern plains of the U.S.

Farmers in Sudan are now obtaining yields of more than 150%
above their best local varieties with a new sorghum hybrid
developed and tested by CRSP scientists building on previous
research efforts of a number of other groups.

Other varieites are being improved by breeding for tolerance
to soil acidity, a particular problem in many tropical regions.
Millions of hectares previously unsuited to sorghum production
can now be utilized.

Basic biochemical research on sorghum seed has shown that
the chemicals that make some sorghums unattractive to foraging
birds are separate and distinct from the chemical component that
limits the nutritional utilization of sorghum by children. It
was previously believed that these two characteristics were a
product of the same chemical complex. The new finding paves the
way for scientists to maintain or enhance the bird resistant
characteristics of some sorghums while at the same time improving
its nutritional and digestibility characteristics.









The Bean/Cowpea CRSP

First Grant: October 1980
Collaborating U.S. Institutions: Colorado State University,
University of Georgia, University of California-Davis,
University of California-Riverside, Michigan State
University, Virginia State University, University of Georgia,
University of Arizona, Washington State University,
University of Wisconsin, Boyce Thompson Institute,
U.S. Department of Agriculture, University of Nebraska,
University of Puerto Rico, Cornell University
Management Entity: Michigan State University
Geographic Scope: Worldwide (Africa, Latin America and Caribbean)
Training Activities:
Annual Funding ($1,000):
FY 83:
FY 84:

Beans and cowpeas are a staple in the diets of most people
living in East and West Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean.
They are the only reasonable alternative to animal protein, which
is too expensive for many to buy. These crops are produced
primarily by families on small farms for their own subsistence
and they have not in the past received the research attention
accorded cash crops.

New varieties of tropical black beans that require only half
the added fertilizer as their parent varieties but still yield as
much are now being used as breeding stocks for commercial
production in the Dominican Republic, Tanzania and the United
States.

New cowpea stocks with a short, early maturing growth cycle
and/or drought resistant characteristics are now in production in
Botswana, Cameroon, and Senegal. In this research, local testing
of available genetic resources backed up by precise laboratory
and technical evaluations has resulted in a quantum jump in
production potential in a very short period of time.

A screening technique to identify seed sources infected with
a major disease of both beans and cowpeas (Bean Common Mosaic
Virus) is a major advance in the management of this disease which
frequently causes yield losses of as much as 30 to 50 percent.
The screening technique is cheap and does not require highly
trained personnel or complex laboratory procedures.








The Soil Management CRSP


First Grant: September 1981
Collaborating U.S. Institutions: Texas A&M University,
Cornell University, North Carolina State University,
Hawaii University
Management Entity: North Carolina State University
Geographic Scope: Worldwide (Peru, Brazil, Indonesia, Niger)
Training Activities:
Annual Funding ($1,000):
FY 83:
FY 84:

Losses caused by erosion and soil degradation are suffered
worldwide. The problems are intensifying, particularly in the
developing countries, and as populations increase so do the
probabilities for ever-widening disasters unless some of the
basic problems are corrected.

Vast areas of land exist in the humid tropics that are
currently not suitable for food production. Slash and burn
agricultural practices have also resulted in incalculable losses
to land in these regions.

Research conducted within this CRSP, and building upon
previous work, shows that careful management of both soils and
crops, can sustain food production on acid soil found in the
Amazon basin, avoiding the damaging effects of shifting, slash
and burn cultivation now practiced by many farmers.

Soil management studies have been extended to rice
production in tropical swamps; salinization of soils under
irrigation; soil compaction; and the maintenance of soil organic
matter under continuous cultivation. A key element in these
studies has been the close association between soil management,
forage crop production and animal management.




0 .




The Nutrition CRSP

First Grant: December 1981
Collaborating U.S. Institutions: University of California-
Los Angeles (in cooperation with University of California-
Berkeley), University of Connecticut (with Yale University
and University of Massachusetts participating), Purdue
University (with University of Arizona and University of
Kansas participating)
Management Entity: University of California-Berkeley
Geographic Scope: Worldwide (Kenya, Egypt, Mexico)
Training Activities:
Annual Funding ($1,000)
FY 83:
FY 84:

While starvation and malnutrition are starkly visible
catastrophes, the effects of mild-to-moderate undernutrition are
often quiet tragedies that go largely unremarked. The losses in
growth and vitality, to the people and to a country, are
nonetheless enormous. Adequate information on such
undernutrition and its effects has never been collected.

The collection of field data in the three countries,
representing different food and cultural systems, has been
completed and the main effort is now shifting to analysis. In an
unexpected development in Kenya, the data already collected and
analyzed under the CRSP served as an early warning for the Kenyan
government of the approaching famine. The timely arrangements
that could thus be made for imported food aid were instrumental
in saving many lives.









The Aquaculture/Pond Dynamics CRSP


First Grant: September 1982
Collaborating U.S. Institutions: Oregon State University
(cooperating with University of Arkansas-Pine Bluff),
Auburn University, University of Hawaii, University of
Michigan, Michigan State University
Management Entity: Oregon State University
Geographic Scope: Worldwide (Honduras, Indonesia, Jamaica,
Panama, Philippines, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Thailand)
Training Activities:
Annual Funding (1,000)
FY 83:
FY 84:

Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing and most promising
methods for increasing fish production. In contrast to fishing
practices in open waters, aquaculture attempts to manage or
control all or part of the life cycle of aquatic plants and
animals in controlled locations. This form of fish culture
already provides nearly 15 percent of the total fish supply in
developing countries.

This CRSP is designed to provide relevant new.information on
increasing fresh-water fish production from farm and community
farms. Early results from water-conditioning studies to remove
impurities and chemical contaminants show significant
improvements in fish survival and pond yields from very small
investments. Another technique can improve light penetration
which in turn increases pond productivity.








The Peanut CRSP


First Grant: January 1982
Collaborating U.S. Institutions: Alabama A&M University,
(subgrant to University of Florida), University of Georgia,
North Carolina State University, Texas A&M University.
Management Entity: University of Georgia
Geographic Scope Worldwide: Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso,
Niger, Nigeria, Sudan, Thailand, Philippines, and at CARDI
in the Caribbean.
Training Activities:
Annual Funding ($1,000)
FY 83:
FY 84:

The peanut is a major source of vegetable protein for people
in Africa, Asia and parts of Latin America. In the Cameroons,
for example, 63 percent of all farmers grow peanuts and use half
of their crop in stew-type dishes. World-wide, an average 60
percent of peanut production is marketed for direct consumption
or as oil; 32 percent is used for food by the producer; and 8
percent is retained for seed.

New improved cultivars, management practices and utilization
processes are being developed.

Superior cultivars and breeding lines have been introduced
and are being evaluated in Africa and the Caribbean.

A superior strain of rhizobia for nitrogen fixation
discovered at the International Crops Research Institute for the
Semi-Arid Tropics in India has been used in Africa by CRSP
scientists and found superior to common African and Southeast
Asia strains in tests at several locations.

Improved methods for detecting aflatoxin in peanuts and for
the removal of contaminated peanuts in processing have
been developed and are now being tested in a pilot model in
Senegal. Aflatoxins are among the most toxic and carcinogenic
chemicals known. They are a serious problem in peanuts in most
developing countries. Research conducted within this CRSP has
greatly enhanced the capacity to detect and remove aflatoxins
from contaminated peanuts. CRSP scientists are also cooperating
in studies with the French Institute of Virology in Senegal to
determine the extent of human aflatoxin infection.









The Fisheries/Stock Assessment CRSP

First Grant: August 1985
Collaborating U. S. Institutions: University of Maryland,
University of Rhode Island, University of Washington,
University of Illinois-Carbondale, Texas A&M University,
Iowa State University
Management Entity: University of Maryland
Geographic Scope: Worldwide (Costa Rica, the Philippines)
Training Activities:
Annual Funding ($1,000)
FY 83:
FY 84:

On a world-wide basis, we derive 18 percent of our animal
protein from fish. Yet fish harvests are not keeping pace with
increasing demands because of poor management and over-fishing.

This newest CRSP is designed to increase marine fish
production in the coastal waters of developing countries. Small
scale tropical fisheries in the coastal waters of these countries
are sources of protein food for millions of people. Better
management of these natural fisheries resources can provide for
an assured, continuous supply of needed protein.




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