ADAPTABILITY TEST OF THE CROPPING PATTERN IN FARMER'S FIELD
AS DETERMINED BY MANAOAG SITE RESEARCH
Regalado M. Aseron- /
Results of the 1976-77 cropping pattern trials conducted by the BPI-IRRI Outreach in Manaoag, Pangasinan shows that the pattern containing two rice crops (R-R-UC) are promising alternative to the traditional rice-mungo (RMung) pattern usually practiced by the farmers in the project area.
The adaptability of the technology was tried on rainfed areas with either similar and with certain variable soil conditions. The RPTR Office took charged of establishing "Production Plots" on strategic places along the main highway or feeder roads accessible to farmers and passers-by. Plot size was 1,000 sq m.
Plots established were managed and supervised by the Farm Management Technologist in direct cooperation with -the farmer-cooperators.
Selected Site and Cooperators
Selected municipalities were pre-determined on the bases of soil
texture and the potential production of the area. Areas with heavy soils (San Manuel silt loam and Bani clay) capable of longer water retention were given preference in the selection of sites. Bund locations and topography representing the larger areas of the surrounding fields were also taken into consideration in the selection of the specific sites.
Farmer cooperators were selected from among the clientele of the Bureau of Agricultural Extension Technicians assigned in the chosen communities.
First Crop Rice
All technicians and farmers involved with the project were oriented and required to do the actual work in the establishment and management of the plots.
l-/ Research Assistant, RPTR Department, International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Laguna.
A total of 12 plots were established in 4 municipalities: Sta. Barbara 2 plots; Calasiao 2 plots; Alaminos 5 plots and Bani
Farmer cooperators provided the labor and the use of their land and IRRI in cooperation with the BAEx technicians provided the materials or inputs needed and the technical supervision. Four plots were established on areas plowed in December and January and the other 8 plots were seeded in areas prepared after the first rain in May. Two of the 3 plots in Bani were established on puddled soil and all the remaining 9 plots were seeded on dry soil (DSR). Four of the DSR plots were seeded by broadcasting in the furrows and the remaining 5 plots were hand-drilled or row-sown.
The earliest seeding date was on May 7 and the latest on June 4, 1977. Seeding dates were:
May 7 plot in Suncay, Calasiao
8 plot in Suncay, Calasiao
9 one plot in Balingueo, Sta. Barbara
10 1 plot in Kayukay, Alaminos
13 3 plots 1 Sampot, Alaminos 1 Lucap, Alaminos
1 Magsaysay, Alaminos
21 1 plot in Balinijueo, Sta. Barbara
23 1 plot in Bued, Alaminos
June 4 3 plots 1 Garrita, Bani (DSR) 2 Ambabaay, Bani (WSR)
1. Areas plowed in Dbcember and January were harrowed two to three times to
pulverize the soil before furrows were formed with the use of the ordinary
plow or if the soil condition will permit, use "lithao".
2. Recommended basal application of urea at the rate of 30 kg N/ha and
topdressed with 30 kg N and 40 N at 30 days and P.I. respectively was
3. Seeds were treated with Zinc Oxide before.being row-sown or broadcasted
on dry soil. Seeds for puddled soil were soaked and incubated respectively for 24 hours before being broadcast on puddled soil. The rate of
seeding was 100 kg/ha for DSR and 120 kg/ha for WSR.
4. For the dry seeded areas a peg tooth harrow was passed along the
furrows to cover the seeds and fertilizer.
5. Application of herbicide (Machete 600 E.C.) was delayed from 9-13 days
after seeding due to insufficient soil moisture, however, it was applied
before weed seeds germinated.
6. After rice emergence (4-20 days after seeding), regular observation and
data collection on pest, disease incidence soil and crop condition and other related information were taken and immediate recommended remedial
measure were applied on the different locations.
Selection of site and cooperators should have been completed right after harvest of the last crop of the season so the area could be prepared early. An early campaign will also give us a chance to observe field conditions in relation to an ideal location representative of the larger target area.
The start of the moonson rain was much delayed this year. Thus, plot
establishment, rice emergence and application of herbicides were also affected. On the 3rd and 4th week of June, rice in Calasiao and Sta. Barbara suffered from moisture stress. However, typhoon Ilang brought enough rain and crops have been able to recover.
Weed control using Machete 600 E.C. lasted only for 15-25 days depending on soil moisture at the time of application and after the application after which, new weeds were observed.
The plots in Bued, Magsaysay and Kayukay, Alaminos were suspected of
having nutritional disorder. It could be lack of phosphorous and possible potassium or some other minor elements. At 20-30 DARE, the crops from affected plots were stunted in growth and the normal green color turned dark, leaf blades were narrow with brown spots and appeared to have small compacted culm. Tillering was greatly reduced and in some plots, the majority have no tillers.
The plot in Kayukay was plowed under, puddled and re-broadcast with pregerminated seeds. Only 5% was able to produce panicles.
A fertilizer trial was established within the production plots in Magsaysay, Alaminos and Ambabaay, Bani by Mr. Gines to test the addition of P & K as a way of alleviating the condition. It could be due to late application of inputs used and showed no significant difference among treatments.
On July 29, 1977, 30 kg (14-14-14) complete fertilizer were applied to the plots of Mr. N. Sanchez and 20 kg to Mr. Eulogio Aquino's plot, all of Ambabaay, Bani. Twenty five (25) days after application of the complete fertilizer, a dramatic crop growth response was observed. Tillering was greatly induced. Normal green color of the leaves was obtained.
The plots in Ambabaay, Bani were treated with Machete liquid instead of
the granule. The fields were not well prepared and poorly levelled making it impossible to have a more or less uniform depth of impounded rain water. Seeds on som e spots with accumulated rain water were damaged by the herbicide.
Rice blast and helminthosporium were the diseases observed and rice
folder, stemborer and whorl maggot and rice bugs were the insect pests found in the area but the damage caused were not severe. But birds greatly damaged the first crop of ricein Calasiao area.
Table 1 shows the harvest data of the production in Pangasinan.
Table 1. Grain yield (t/ha). IRRI-PCARR-BAEx cooperative projects on
cropping systems in rainfed rice areas, Series III, 1977-78.
Production plots, IR36, Firstaid Second Crops.
Yield (t/ha) Total
First Crop Second Crop Harvest
1. Sta. Barbara 5.6 0.60* 6.20
5.1 1.06* 6.16
2. Calasiao 3.0** 1.70* 4.70
2.0** 0.63* 2.63
3. Alaminos 3.2 0 3.20
2.8 0 2.80
2.8 0 2.80
4. Bani 2.5 2.66*** 5.66
2.9 2.33*** 5.23
2.8 2.53*** 5.33
Suffered from moisture stress at P.I. to the start of heading stage.
70-75% damaged by bird and continuous rain at harvesting stage.
Grains germinate at panicle.
Suffered also from long dry days but have better water holding
capacity. Soil is heavier or more clayey.
A total of 3 field days in 7 locations planted to rice were held in
4 municipalities of Pangasinan: one field day in Alaminos with 2 locations, another field day in Bani with 3 locations and the last field day in Calasiao and Sta. Barbara with 3 locations.
The purpose of these field days were to show to farmers and government officials, personnels, etc., the potential of the rice technology.
Each field day was a well attended affair. Municipal officials, government technicians, officials and farmers, participated in these field days.
"Field Day" had been repeatedly experienced as one of the most effective wasy in convincing or imparting a new technology to farmers.
Second Crop Rice
Maximum tillage was adapted in all the plots with second crop.
Sufficient soil moisture was available in the farmers field after harvest. This condition enabled them to transplant the second crop of rice on puddled soil.
1. Two (2) weeks before harvesting the first crop, a seedbed was
established to enable seedlings needed for the second crop.
2. The field was plowed after the harvest of the first crop followed
by 2-3 harrowings.
3. Basal application of fertilizer and Furadan 3G at the rate of 100-50-50
and .5 kg a.i. per hectare on the last harrowing.
4. Pulled seedings 16-18 days old and dipped in zinc solution before
transplanting. (Distance of plants 20 x 20 cm; 2-3 seedlings per
5. 20-25 DAT observed for insect damage and pests occurence. Sprayed
with insecticide when necessary. (10% damaged to crop).
6. 25 DAT rotary weeding (not done in this project; soil was too dry).
Spot handweeding was done.
7. 95-100 DAT collection of harvest samples before harvest of the
A total of eleven (11) plots were established throughout the project areas. Crop in all the plots had good growth up to the tillering stage.
Lack of rain for a very long period after planting, almost up to the later part of October made the soil cracked up to 2 inches wide and the soil surface dried up to 2-3 inches deep. As a consequence, plants in many areas got wilted and ultimately were destroyed.
Some of the affected areas were:
1. Calasiao, Pangasinan 90% of the crop were wilted at noontime.
2. Kayukay, Alaminos, Pangasinan in one of the plot where the
first crop was a failure, plants suffered from moisture stress
at the booting and heading stage, ultimately destroyed the whole
Least expected however, "Typhoon Unding" on Oct. 29, 1977 was a blessing in disguise to the crops. The plants partly recovered, although it was a bit late already to the other areas that were badly damaged by the moisture stress like Alaminos area.
Bani area, gifted with heavy clay soil and Sta. Barbara and Calasiao where water table was shallow (20-30 ft) gave a much stronger resistance against the drought hence was able to harvest a second crop though yields were not as expected (Table 1).
To grow two crops of rice in rainfed areas, the following conditions must be present:
1. there is a favorable rainfall distribution in the area.
2. there is a longer water retention of the soil in the area
3. there is a supplementary irrigation installed in areas with
shallow water table (20-30 ft. deep).
If the first 2 condition is not present in the area, the 3rd condition is a must to be able to consistently produce two crops of rice and an upland crop.