ADAPTABILITY TEST OF THE CROPPING PATTERN IN FARMER'S FIELD
AS DETERMINED BY MANAOAG SITE RESEARCH
Regalado M. Aseron--
Results of the 1976-77 cropping pattern trials conducted by the BPI-IRRI
Outreach in Manaoag, Pangasinan shows that the pattern containing two rice
crops (R-R-UC) are promising alternative to the traditional rice-mungo (R-
Mung) pattern usually practiced by the farmers in the project area.
The adaptability of the technology was tried on rainfed areas with
either similar and with certain variable soil conditions. The RPTR Office
took charged of establishing "Production Plots" on strategic places along
the main highway or feeder roads accessible to farmers and passers-by.
Plot size was 1,000 sq m.
Plots established were managed and supervised by the Farm Management
Technologist in direct cooperation with the farmer-cooperators.
Selected Site and Cooperators
Selected municipalities were pre-determined on the bases of soil
texture and the potential production of the area. Areas with heavy soils
(San Manuel silt loam and Bani clay) capable of longer water retention were
given preference in the selection of sites. Bund locations and topography
representing the larger areas of the surrounding fields were also taken into
consideration in the selection of the specific sites.
Farmer cooperators were selected from among the clientele of the
Bureau of Agricultural Extension Technicians assigned in the chosen
First Crop Rice
All technicians and farmers involved with the project were oriented
and required to do the actual work in the establishment and management of
l/Research Assistant, RPTR Department, International Rice Research
Institute, Los Banos, Laguna.
A total of 12 plots were established in 4 municipalities: Sta.
Barbara 2 plots; Calasiao 2 plots; Alaminos 5 plots and Bani -
Farmer cooperators provided the labor and the use of their land and
IRRI in cooperation with the BAEx technicians provided the materials or
inputs needed and the technical supervision. Four plots were established
on areas plowed in December and January and the other 8 plots were seeded
in areas prepared after the first rain in May. Two of the 3 plots in Bani
were established on puddled soil and all the remaining 9 plots were seeded
on dry soil (DSR). Four of the DSR plots were seeded by broadcasting in
the furrows and the remaining 5 plots were hand-drilled or row-sown.
The earliest seeding date was on May 7 and the latest on June 4, 1977.
Seeding dates were:
May 7 plot in Suncay, Calasiao
8 plot in Suncay, Calasiao
9 one plot in Balingueo, Sta. Barbara
10 1 plot in Kayukay, Alaminos
13 3 plots 1 Sampot, Alaminos
1 Lucap, Alaminos
1 Magsaysay, Alaminos
21 1 plot in Balingueo, Sta. Barbara
23 1 plot in Bued, Alaminos
June 4 3 plots 1 Garrita, Bani (DSR)
2 Ambabaay, Bani (WSR)
1. Areas plowed in Dbcember and January were harrowed two to three times to
pulverize the soil before furrows were formed with the use of the ordinary
plow or if the soil condition will permit, use "lithao".
2. Recommended basal application of urea at the rate of 30 kg N/ha and
topdressed with 30 kg N and 40 N at 30 days and P.I. respectively was
3. Seeds were treated with Zinc Oxide before-being row-sown or broadcasted
on dry soil. Seeds for puddled soil were soaked and incubated respective-
ly for 24 hours before being broadcast on puddled soil. The rate of
seeding was 100 kg/ha for DSR and 120 kg/ha for WSR.
4. For the dry seeded areas a peg tooth harrow was passed along the
furrows to cover the seeds and fertilizer.
5. Application of herbicide (Machete 600 E.C.) was delayed from 9-13 days
after seeding due to insufficient soil moisture, however, it was applied
before weed seeds germinated.
6. After rice emergence (4-20 days after seeding), regular observation and
data collection on pest, disease incidence soil and crop condition and
other related information were taken and immediate recommended remedial
measure were applied on the different locations.
Selection of site and cooperators should have been completed right after
harvest of the last crop of the season so the area could be prepared early.
An early campaign will also give us a chance to observe field conditions in
relation to an ideal location representative of the larger target area.
The start of the moonson rain was much delayed this year. Thus, plot
establishment, rice emergence and application of herbicides were also affected.
On the 3rd and 4th week of June, rice in Calasiao and Sta. Barbara suffered
from moisture stress. However, typhoon Ilang brought enough rain and crops
have been able to recover.
Weed control using Machete 600 E.C. lasted only for 15-25 days depending
on soil moisture at the time of application and after the application after
which, new weeds were observed.
The plots in Bued, Magsaysay and Kayukay, Alaminos were suspected of
having nutritional disorder. It could be lack of phosphorous and possible
potassium or some other minor elements. At 20-30 DARE, the crops from
affected plots were stunted in growth and the normal green color turned dark,
leaf blades were narrow with brown spots and appeared to have small compacted
culm. Tillering was greatly reduced and in some plots, the majority have no
The plot in Kayukay was plowed under, puddled and re-broadcast with pre-
germinated seeds. Only 5% was able to produce panicles.
A fertilizer trial was established within the production plots in Magsaysay,
Alaminos and Ambabaay, Bani by Mr. Gines to test the addition of P & K as a
way of alleviating the condition. It could be due to late application of
inputs used and showed no significant difference among treatments.
On July 29, 1977, 30 kg (14-14-14) complete fertilizer were applied to
the plots of Mr. N. Sanchez and 20 kg to Mr. Eulogio Aquino's plot, all of
Ambabaay, Bani. Twenty five C25) days after application of the complete
fertilizer, a dramatic crop growth response was observed. Tillering was
greatly induced. Normal green color of the leaves was obtained.
The plots in Ambabaay, Bani were treated with Machete liquid instead of
the granule. The fields were not well prepared and poorly levelled making it
impossible to have a more or less uniform depth of impounded rain water. Seeds
on som e spots with accumulated rain water were damaged by the herbicide.
Rice blast and helminthosporium were the diseases observed and rice
folder, stemborer and whorl maggot and rice bugs were the insect pests found
in the area but the damage caused were not severe. But birds greatly damaged
the first crop of ricein Calasiao area.
Table 1 shows the harvest data of the production in Pangasinan.
Table 1. Grain yield (t/ha). IRRI-PCARR-BAEx cooperative projects on
cropping systems in rainfed rice areas, Series III, 1977-78.
Production plots, IR36, First ad Second Crops.
Yield (t/ha) Total
Location of Farm
First Crop Second Crop Harvest
1. Sta. Barbara 5.6 0.60* 6.20
5.1 1.06* 6.16
2. Calasiao 3.0** 1.70* 4.70
2.0** 0.63* 2.63
3. Alaminos 3.2 0 3.20
2.8 0 2.80
2.8 0 2.80
4. Bani 2.5 2.66*** 5.66
2.9 2.33*** 5.23
2.8 2.53*** 5.33
Suffered from moisture stress at P.I. to the start of heading stage.
Suffered from moisture stress at P.I. to the start of heading stage.
70-75% damaged by bird and continuous
Grains germinate at panicle.
rain at harvesting stage.
Suffered also from long dry days but have better water holding
capacity. Soil is heavier or more clayey.
A total of 3 field days in 7 locations planted to rice were held in
4 municipalities of Pangasinan: one field day in Alaminos with 2 locations,
another field day in Bani with 3 locations and the last field day in Calasiao
and Sta. Barbara with 3 locations.
The purpose of these field days were to show to farmers and government
officials, personnel, etc., the potential of the rice technology.
Each field day was a well attended affair. Municipal officials, govern-
ment technicians, officials and farmers, participated in these field days.
"Field Day" had been repeatedly experienced as one of the most effective
wasy in convincing or imparting a new technology to farmers.
Second Crop Rice
Maximum tillage was adapted in all the plots with second crop.
Sufficient soil moisture was available in the farmers field after harvest.
This condition enabled them to transplant the second crop of rice on
1. Two (2) weeks before harvesting the first crop, a seedbed was
established to enable seedlings needed for the second crop.
2. The field was plowed after the harvest of the first crop followed
by 2-3 harrowings.
3. Basal application of fertilizer and Furadan 3G at the rate of 100-50-50
and .5 kg a.i. per hectare on the last harrowing.
4. Pulled seedings 16-18 days old and dipped in zinc solution before
transplanting. (Distance of plants 20 x 20 cm; 2-3 seedlings per
5. 20-25 DAT observed for insect damage and pests occurence. Sprayed
with insecticide when necessary. (10% damaged to crop).
6. 25 DAT rotary weeding (not done in this project; soil was too dry).
Spot handweeding was done.
7. 95-100 DAT collection of harvest samples before harvest of the
A total of eleven (11) plots were established throughout the project
areas. Crop in all the plots had good growth up to the tillering stage.
Lack of rain for a very long period after planting, almost up to the
later part of October made the soil cracked up to 2 inches wide and the soil
surface dried up to 2-3 inches deep. As a consequence, plants in many areas
got wilted and ultimately were destroyed.
Some of the affected areas were:
1. Calasiao, Pangasinan 90% of the crop were wilted at noontime.
2. Kayukay, Alaminos, Pangasinan in one of the plot where the
first crop was a failure, plants suffered from moisture stress
at the booting and heading stage, ultimately destroyed the whole
Least expected however, "Typhoon Unding" on Oct. 29, 1977 was a bless-
ing in disguise to the crops. The plants partly recovered, although it was
a bit late already to the other areas that were badly damaged by the moisture
stress like Alaminos area.
Bani area, gifted with heavy clay soil and Sta. Barbara and Calasiao
where water table was shallow (20-30 ft) gave a much stronger resistance
against the drought hence was able to harvest a second crop though yields
were not as expected (Table 1).
To grow two crops of rice in rainfed areas, the following conditions
must be present:
1. there is a favorable rainfall distribution in the area.
2. there is a longer water retention of the soil in the area
3. there is a supplementary irrigation installed in areas with
shallow water table (20-30 ft. deep).
If the first 2 condition is not present in the area, the 3rd condition
is a must to be able to consistently produce two crops of rice and an upland