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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Summary
 The planning process
 Plan of work
 Tropsoils: NCSU project propos...






Title: TropSoils-NCSU: Proposal for continuation 1985-1989
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055437/00001
 Material Information
Title: TropSoils-NCSU: Proposal for continuation 1985-1989
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: North Carolina State University. Tropical Soils Program
Publisher: Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University
Publication Date: 1984
 Subjects
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
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Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Summary
        Page 1
    The planning process
        Page 2
        The external evaluation panel review
            Page 2
        Follow-up activities
            Page 3
            Page 4
        Administrative developments in Peru
            Page 3
        Support role in Indonesia and Brazil
            Page 5
        Collaborative research sites
            Page 5
    Plan of work
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Objective
            Page 6
        Strategy
            Page 6
        Philosophy
            Page 6
        Priorities
            Page 6
        Sites
            Page 8
        Plan of work
            Page 8
            Page 9
        Level of effort
            Page 10
        Program backstopping
            Page 11
        Staffing pattern
            Page 11
        Budget
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
    Tropsoils: NCSU project proposals
        Page 20
        Continuous cropping systems: Conservation tillage
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
        Continuous cropping systems: fertility management
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
        Low-input crop production systems for acid soils in the humid tropics
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
        Legume-based pasture for acid soils in the humid tropics
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
        Soil management for agroforestry systems in the humid tropics
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 55a
        Characterization, classification and interpretation of soils of the humid tropics
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
        Soil management research network for the humid tropics
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
        Soil erosion and reclamation of humid tropical uplands
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
        Soil fertility management in oxisols of manaus
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
        Soil management in transmigration areas of Sumatra
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
        Influence of texture and liming on P and Zn soil test levels and fertilizer management of cerrado oxisols
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
Full Text







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TROPSOILS-NCSU: PROPOSAL FOR CONTINUATION 1985-1989










Submitted to The Management Entity

Soil Management CRSP







by






Tropical Soils Program
Department of Soil Science
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7619


14 December 1984










TABLE OF CONTENTS


SUMMARY . . . .

THE PLANNING PROCESS . . .

The External Evaluation Panel Review
Follow-up Activities . ..
Administrative Developments in Peru..
Support Role in Indonesia and Brazil
Collaborative Research Sites . .

PLAN OF WORK . . . .

Objective . . . .
Strategy . . . .
Philosophy . . . .
Priorities . . . .
Sites . . . .
Plan of Work . . . .
Level of Effort. . . .
Program Backstopping . . .
Staffing Pattern . . .
Budget . . . .

TROPSOILS NCSU PROJECT PROPOSALS:


Continuous Cropping Systems: Conservation Tillage

Continuous Cropping Systems: Fertility Management


. . .20

. . 26


3. Low-Input Crop Production Systems for Acid Soils in the Humid
Tropics. . . . . ... ......... 31

4. Legume-Based Pastures for Acid Soils in the Humid Tropics. 38

5. Soil Management for Agroforestry Systems in the Humid Tropics. 44

6. Characterization, Classification and Interpretation of Soils of
the Humid Tropics . . . . .. 56

7. Soil Management Research Network for the Humid Tropics .... .63

8. Soil Erosion and Reclamation of Humid Tropical Uplands .... .70

9. Soil Fertility Management in Oxisols of Manaus . ... 75

.0. Soil Management in Transmigration Areas of Sumatra ...... 83

1. Influence of Texture and Liming on P and Zn Soil Test Levels and
Fertilizer Management of Cerrado Oxisols ... . . 93


Page

. .. 1

. 2

. 2
. 3
*3





. 310
. 5


. 6



. 6
. 6
. 8

. 10
. 11
. 11
. 11









SUMMARY


The proposal for extension of funding through years six to eight
and a plan of work for years four to eight under the Soil Management CRSP
are described in this document. The proposal was developed after a review
of North Carplina State University's TROPSOILS activities in Peru, Indo-
Snesia Bazi and Raleigh by the External Evaluation Panel. Subsequent
, planning y-- NCSU and collaborating country scientists followed. In the
case of our primary research site, the planning process culminated by
the formal approval of the TROPSOILS-Peru Committee that met at INIPA
on September 22, 1984. The first version was presented at the TROPSOILS
Board of Directors on November 14, 1984. This revised version incorporates
many of the suggestions received during that meeting.

The Plan of work continues to be aimed at developing agronomically,
economically and ecologically sound soil management options for different
soil, landscape nd socioeconomic conditions of the humid tropics. All
work is carriedU n close collaboration with INIPA in Peru, EMBRAPA in
Brazil and CSR in Indonesia. Field research is planned for sites in Peru,
Indonesia and Brazil. Activities in at least four humid tropical countries
are envisioned through a research network. First priority is given to
generating new soil management technology while the validation of such
technology through research support is a second priority.

A total of 11 projects are included in the proposal. Six projects
constitute the generation of soil management technology: low-input cropping
systems, agroforestry systems, conservation tillage, fertility management,
legume-based pastures and soil erosion. Five other projects constitute
technology validation and research support: soil characterization, research
support in Sumatra, Manaus, Brasilia and the research network.

The 11 projects are subdivided into 46 subprojects for which CRSP
funding is sought. Proposed staffing from NCSU includes an average of
5 FTE of senior scientists and 15 FTE of junior scientists and support
staff for the five-year period. Total budget request from CRSP amounts
to $5.4 million for the five-year period. These funds are matched by coun-
terpart funds from Peru, Brazil and Indonesia and other international
donors on a 50:50 basis.









THE PLANNING PROCESS

This document constitutes North Carolina State University's proposal
for continuation of its TROPSOILS activities for years four to eight (1985-
1989) under the auspices of AID's Soil Management Collaborative Research
Support Program. A summary of the Program's 12-year history was presented
in the TROPSOILS Triennial Report and will not be elaborated here. NCSU
proposes to continue its role as lead university in the humid tropics with
a primary site in Yurimaguas, Peru. It also proposes to continue its support
role in the humid tropics of Indonesia with the University of Hawaii and
in the acid savannas of Brazil with Cornell University. Agreements signed
with INIPA in Peru, EMBRAPA in Brazil and AARD in Indonesia continue to
provide the framework for cooperative research in these countries.

In addition, NCSU proposes to initiate collaborative work with several
additional humid tropical countries through a research network and colla-
borative project in Manaus, Brazil in this program. Consequently, NCSU
will have on-site senior staff in Peru, Indonesia and Brazil, and a network
relationship with four additional countries.

The planning process for this second phase of the Soil Management
CRSP began with on-site reviews of the External Evaluation Panel during
1984. This section describes the Panel's findings for the primary research
site, actions taken in response to the Panel's recommendation and the over-
all strategy that developed.

The External Evaluation Panel Review

The conclusions of the Panel's May 1984 Peru review, based on its
draft report, can be summarized as follows:

1. The Program is of high scientific caliber and has highly quali-
fied and enthusiastic staff dedicated to develop a center of excellence
in tropical soils research under less than ideal conditions.

2. The Program is strongly supported by INIPA and USAID/Lima and is
considered by both institutions an important component in the development
of the Selva.

3. The External Evaluation Panel endorses the Program's overall objec-
tive: develop and transfer in-depth soil management research on crop pro-
duction systems under high and low input use, legume-based pastures, agro-
forestry systems and soil classification.

4. The External Evaluation Panel recognizes the need for research
by other disciplines such as plant breeding, crop protection, agricultural
engineering and economics in order to integrate soil research results into
production systems. Given the limited CRSP budget, the Panel recommend
that INIPA counterpart funds be expanded to support such work, allowing
CRSP funds to be used for in-depth soil management research.









THE PLANNING PROCESS

This document constitutes North Carolina State University's proposal
for continuation of its TROPSOILS activities for years four to eight (1985-
1989) under the auspices of AID's Soil Management Collaborative Research
Support Program. A summary of the Program's 12-year history was presented
in the TROPSOILS Triennial Report and will not be elaborated here. NCSU
proposes to continue its role as lead university in the humid tropics with
a primary site in Yurimaguas, Peru. It also proposes to continue its support
role in the humid tropics of Indonesia with the University of Hawaii and
in the acid savannas of Brazil with Cornell University. Agreements signed
with INIPA in Peru, EMBRAPA in Brazil and AARD in Indonesia continue to
provide the framework for cooperative research in these countries.

In addition, NCSU proposes to initiate collaborative work with several
additional humid tropical countries through a research network and colla-
borative project in Manaus, Brazil in this program. Consequently, NCSU
will have on-site senior staff in Peru, Indonesia and Brazil, and a network
relationship with four additional countries.

The planning process for this second phase of the Soil Management
CRSP began with on-site reviews of the External Evaluation Panel during
1984. This section describes the Panel's findings for the primary research
site, actions taken in response to the Panel's recommendation and the over-
all strategy that developed.

The External Evaluation Panel Review

The conclusions of the Panel's May 1984 Peru review, based on its
draft report, can be summarized as follows:

1. The Program is of high scientific caliber and has highly quali-
fied and enthusiastic staff dedicated to develop a center of excellence
in tropical soils research under less than ideal conditions.

2. The Program is strongly supported by INIPA and USAID/Lima and is
considered by both institutions an important component in the development
of the Selva.

3. The External Evaluation Panel endorses the Program's overall objec-
tive: develop and transfer in-depth soil management research on crop pro-
duction systems under high and low input use, legume-based pastures, agro-
forestry systems and soil classification.

4. The External Evaluation Panel recognizes the need for research
by other disciplines such as plant breeding, crop protection, agricultural
engineering and economics in order to integrate soil research results into
production systems. Given the limited CRSP budget, the Panel recommend
that INIPA counterpart funds be expanded to support such work, allowing
CRSP funds to be used for in-depth soil management research.









5. The Program must satisfy both a global and a national objective
in its Peruvian operations. The global objective is to develop soil manage-
ment technology for the world's humid tropics with Yurimaguas as a CRSP
primary site. The national objective is to develop and transfer such tech-
nology in the Selva of Peru as a component of INIPA's National Selva Pro-
gram.

6. The Panel considers the training of soil management specialists
the most effective means for disseminating the Program's results. The train-
ing component must be strengthened. A full-time training coordinator is
needed at Yurimaguas.

7. The Program should strengthen its linkages with TROPSOILS activi-
ties in Indonesia, with IITA and with REDINAA.

8. Annual planning meetings should take place on a regularly scheduled
basis.

9. Several technical recommendations were made by the Panel. The
main ones are to decrease the number of soil samples; to decrease whenever
possible from three to two crop harvests per year, whenever possible, to
strengthen laboratory staff and to acquire several items of laboratory
equipment.

Follow-up Activities

Following the May Review, the Principal Investigators requested the
inputs of NCSU, INIPA and USAID staff members about the nature of the five-
year plan. Many discussions were held between June and September, including
staff stationed in Indonesia and Brazil. Project proposal drafts were de-
veloped and discussed. One Principal Investigator met with resident staff
in Yurimaguas, Pucallpa and Pichis-Palcazu from September 10-19 to finalize
the plan. A draft proposal was presented to the TROPSOILS-Peru Committee
in Lima on September 21, was unanimously approved, and constitutes the
basis for this proposal. Since the "Proyecto Suelos Tropicales"--as TROP-
SOILS is known in Peru--forms part of INIPA's National Selva Program, the
contents of this proposal will be presented at the Selva Program planning
meeting in INIPA formats, in order to be included in their annual plan
of work. A similar procedure takes place with EMBRAPA in our activities
in Manaus. The first version of this plan dated October 24, 1984 was pre-
sented to the TROPSOILS Board on November 13. This version includes modifi-
cations in response to suggestions received at the Board meeting.

Administrative Developments in Peru

In response to the External Panel's suggestions, INIPA has taken the
following actions:

1. INIPA appointed a "Comite Coordinador del Proyecto Suelos Tropi-
cales." It is composed of INIPA's Executive Director for Research, Director
for Crops Research, Director of the Yurimaguas Station, and Director of









Studies and Projects. NCSU is represented in the Committee by its Chief
of Mission in Peru, the TROPSOILS project leader and the TROPSOILS Prin-
cipal Investigator. Dr. Manuel Arca from INIPA and Dr. Pedro Sanchez from
NCSU are the joint Coordinators.

2. INIPA officially established the National Selva Program on Sep-
tember 6, 1984. TROPSOILS becomes a component of the Selva Program. This
provides a direct link with approximately 200 research and extension wor-
kers stationed throughout the Selva of Peru. The annual planning meeting
of the Selva Program was held November 23-30, with participation of our
Peru-based staff. The projects included in this proposal were submitted
at that time forming an integral part of the National Selva Program.

3. The Proyecto Suelos Tropicales (TROPSOILS-Peru) includes and is
supported by the following sources of funds: The Soil Management CRSP,
the "Proyecto Administracion de Suelos Tropicales" and "Proyecto Estacion
Experimental de Yurimaguas" (both funded by PL-480 funds), National Selva
Program activities related to soils and farming systems research (funded
by USAID, World Bank and BID), the Proyecto Agroforestal Yurimaguas (funded
by IDRC-Canada), the "Proyecto Regional de Arroz" funded by CORDELOR and
the PEPP-NCSU-INIPA Pichis-Palcazu Special Project.

4. INIPA established several new positions to serve as counterparts
for NCSU junior scientists stationed in Peru. The purpose of this action
is to train Peruvian scientists and develop working linkages with NCSU
faculty after graduate students return to campus. INIPA has established
four counterpart positions in agroforestry, soils-pastures (2) and weed
control. -The first three positions have been filled, and recruitment is
in progress for the fourth one.

5. In response to the Panel's request to provide support from other
disciplines, INIPA has established in its 1984 change budget three addi-
tional positions for an economist, a training coordinator and a tree crop
horticulturalist to be stationed at Yurimaguas. When these positions are
filled, TROPSOILS will count on the support of the following disciplines
with specialists stationed in Yurimaguas: germplasm evaluators from the
National Rice, Corn and Grain Legumes Programs, a pasture specialist, a
forester and a tree crops specialist from the National Selva Program, an
economist from the National Agroeconomics Program and a training center
coordinator/communications specialist.

For the 1985 budget, INIPA is proposing additional positions in ento-
mology and plant pathology for Yurimaguas and five M.S.-level positions
in soils. These soils specialists are to be trained at Yurimaguas and subse-
quently assigned to other Selva regions.

6. Continuation of key counterpart funds is envisioned in INIPA's
1985 budget request and long-term plans. The main sources of funds will
be the PL-480 sponsored projects entitled "Administracion de Suelos Tropi-
cales" and "Estacion Experimental de Yurimaguas" ($235,000); National Selva
Program activities financed by USAID, World Bank and Interamerican Develop-
ment Bank ($270,000), the Yurimaguas Agroforestry Project sponsored by









5. The Program must satisfy both a global and a national objective
in its Peruvian operations. The global objective is to develop soil manage-
ment technology for the world's humid tropics with Yurimaguas as a CRSP
primary site. The national objective is to develop and transfer such tech-
nology in the Selva of Peru as a component of INIPA's National Selva Pro-
gram.

6. The Panel considers the training of soil management specialists
the most effective means for disseminating the Program's results. The train-
ing component must be strengthened. A full-time training coordinator is
needed at Yurimaguas.

7. The Program should strengthen its linkages with TROPSOILS activi-
ties in Indonesia, with IITA and with REDINAA.

8. Annual planning meetings should take place on a regularly scheduled
basis.

9. Several technical recommendations were made by the Panel. The
main ones are to decrease the number of soil samples; to decrease whenever
possible from three to two crop harvests per year, whenever possible, to
strengthen laboratory staff and to acquire several items of laboratory
equipment.

Follow-up Activities

Following the May Review, the Principal Investigators requested the
inputs of NCSU, INIPA and USAID staff members about the nature of the five-
year plan. Many discussions were held between June and September, including
staff stationed in Indonesia and Brazil. Project proposal drafts were de-
veloped and discussed. One Principal Investigator met with resident staff
in Yurimaguas, Pucallpa and Pichis-Palcazu from September 10-19 to finalize
the plan. A draft proposal was presented to the TROPSOILS-Peru Committee
in Lima on September 21, was unanimously approved, and constitutes the
basis for this proposal. Since the "Proyecto Suelos Tropicales"--as TROP-
SOILS is known in Peru--forms part of INIPA's National Selva Program, the
contents of this proposal will be presented at the Selva Program planning
meeting in INIPA formats, in order to be included in their annual plan
of work. A similar procedure takes place with EMBRAPA in our activities
in Manaus. The first version of this plan dated October 24, 1984 was pre-
sented to the TROPSOILS Board on November 13. This version includes modifi-
cations in response to suggestions received at the Board meeting.

Administrative Developments in Peru

In response to the External Panel's suggestions, INIPA has taken the
following actions:

1. INIPA appointed a "Comite Coordinador del Proyecto Suelos Tropi-
cales." It is composed of INIPA's Executive Director for Research, Director
for Crops Research, Director of the Yurimaguas Station, and Director of









ICRAF-IDRC ($70,000), the CORDELOR rice project ($60,000) and the PEPP-NCSU
Contract to cover TROPSOILS's secondary research site at Pichis-Palcazu
($170,000). Total counterpart funds for 1985 amount to $805,000 bringing
the balance of TROPSOILS-Peru near 50% CRSP and 50% counterpart funds.
This represents a significant increase from 1983 where counterpart funds
represented 30% of the combined effort. The effective increase in counter-
part funds underlines INIPA's expansion of research and extension in the
Selva. In spite of this broadened mandate, the increase in counterpart
funds enables the CRSP funds to concentrate on in-depth soils research
that has worldwide relevance.

Support Role in Indonesia and Brazil

The planning process for the humid tropics of Indonesia and the acid
savannas of Brazil have centered on the nature of our limited support role
while overall negotiations have been handled by the CRSP universities with
lead responsibility for these sites. Specific research projects have been
arrived at in consultation with colleagues from the Center for Soils Re-
search, the University of Hawaii, EMBRAPA and Cornell University.

Collaborative Research Sites

Financing for the Pichis-Palcazu secondary site is assured for a three-
year period by a contract signed between PEPP and NCSU that allows Inter-
american Development Bank funds to be directly disbursed to NCSU.

Financing from the Rockefeller Foundation for the Manaus secondary
site is scheduled to terminate in late 1985. Given the changes in the Foun-
dation's priorities, it is unlikely that further funding could be obtained.
This proposal includes partial CRSP funding to continue this important
work at the clayey Oxisol site.

Operations for other research sites in Peru are contemplated under
the National Selva Program of INIPA. Four collaborative sites outside of
Peru are envisioned in this proposal.









ICRAF-IDRC ($70,000), the CORDELOR rice project ($60,000) and the PEPP-NCSU
Contract to cover TROPSOILS's secondary research site at Pichis-Palcazu
($170,000). Total counterpart funds for 1985 amount to $805,000 bringing
the balance of TROPSOILS-Peru near 50% CRSP and 50% counterpart funds.
This represents a significant increase from 1983 where counterpart funds
represented 30% of the combined effort. The effective increase in counter-
part funds underlines INIPA's expansion of research and extension in the
Selva. In spite of this broadened mandate, the increase in counterpart
funds enables the CRSP funds to concentrate on in-depth soils research
that has worldwide relevance.

Support Role in Indonesia and Brazil

The planning process for the humid tropics of Indonesia and the acid
savannas of Brazil have centered on the nature of our limited support role
while overall negotiations have been handled by the CRSP universities with
lead responsibility for these sites. Specific research projects have been
arrived at in consultation with colleagues from the Center for Soils Re-
search, the University of Hawaii, EMBRAPA and Cornell University.

Collaborative Research Sites

Financing for the Pichis-Palcazu secondary site is assured for a three-
year period by a contract signed between PEPP and NCSU that allows Inter-
american Development Bank funds to be directly disbursed to NCSU.

Financing from the Rockefeller Foundation for the Manaus secondary
site is scheduled to terminate in late 1985. Given the changes in the Foun-
dation's priorities, it is unlikely that further funding could be obtained.
This proposal includes partial CRSP funding to continue this important
work at the clayey Oxisol site.

Operations for other research sites in Peru are contemplated under
the National Selva Program of INIPA. Four collaborative sites outside of
Peru are envisioned in this proposal.









PLAN OF WORK


Objective

The objective of NCSU's TROPSOILS Program continues to be the same
as in our first work plan:

"To develop and transfer, together with national institutions and other
TROPSOILS universities, improved soil management technologies for produc-
tive and sustained farming systems in the humid tropics and acid savannas
on an agronomically, economically and ecologically sound basis."

Strategy

The Program's strategy is to continue focusing on different management
options for principal soils, landscape positions and levels of infrastruc-
ture development in the humid tropics. Instead of advocating a solution
for the humid tropics, the Program aims to provide a series of options
to farmers in the process of transition from shifting cultivation to set-
tled agriculture. Together with support from other disciplines, these op-
tions can become components of improved farming systems.

The principal management options are illustrated in Figure 1 in terms
of soils and landscape positions. This figure contains most major landscape
positions of the humid tropics on a worldwide basis. The research projects
are organized along the main management options indicated in this diagram.

In addition, the Program proposes continuation of research on soil
classification and interpretation and in the establishment of a Research
Network to foster the validation of research results in other regions of
the humid tropics.

Philosophy

The Program strategy is deeply rooted on the premise that without
technology, agricultural development in the humid tropics will be an eco-
nomic and ecological disaster of worldwide dimensions. With appropriate
technology, however, development cannot only be successful but will lead
to conserving vast areas of the humid tropics in its natural state. Pres-
sures for indisciminated deforestation subside when farmers realize that
they can produce more on a hectare of appropriately and continuously man-
aged soils than by clearing and abandoning several hectares every year.
Our focus concentrates on secondary forest fallows or degraded pastures,
rather than on primary forest areas, in an attempt to utilize first land
that has been previously cleared.

Priorities:

Considerable thought has been given to the relative importance of
the 11 projects included in this proposal. The fundamental issue is one
of balance between the generation of new soil management technology and









LRESTINGA SWAMP -
F-- -^ HIGH TERRACES -7-- HILLS------ ---- MOUNTAINS -
i- -_- 0-8% -- 3--o 15-30% r--F-- > 30 % -


ULTISOLS


AND DYSTROPEPTS


IINCEA ENT. + INCEP.


I I I
HIGH INPUT CROPPING*

OW INPUT CROPPING*
LOW INPUT CROPPING*


I PASTURES*
I
AGROFORESTRY*


! FOREST-AGRICULTURE MOSAIC


REGENERATING


REGENERATING


I
I


I


PROTECTION



SLOPES
SLOPES*


Figure 1. Soil Management Options for the Peruvian Amazon (from Sanchez and Benites, 1983). Tropical
Soils Program only involved in those marked with asterisks.


I I


I I









PLAN OF WORK


Objective

The objective of NCSU's TROPSOILS Program continues to be the same
as in our first work plan:

"To develop and transfer, together with national institutions and other
TROPSOILS universities, improved soil management technologies for produc-
tive and sustained farming systems in the humid tropics and acid savannas
on an agronomically, economically and ecologically sound basis."

Strategy

The Program's strategy is to continue focusing on different management
options for principal soils, landscape positions and levels of infrastruc-
ture development in the humid tropics. Instead of advocating a solution
for the humid tropics, the Program aims to provide a series of options
to farmers in the process of transition from shifting cultivation to set-
tled agriculture. Together with support from other disciplines, these op-
tions can become components of improved farming systems.

The principal management options are illustrated in Figure 1 in terms
of soils and landscape positions. This figure contains most major landscape
positions of the humid tropics on a worldwide basis. The research projects
are organized along the main management options indicated in this diagram.

In addition, the Program proposes continuation of research on soil
classification and interpretation and in the establishment of a Research
Network to foster the validation of research results in other regions of
the humid tropics.

Philosophy

The Program strategy is deeply rooted on the premise that without
technology, agricultural development in the humid tropics will be an eco-
nomic and ecological disaster of worldwide dimensions. With appropriate
technology, however, development cannot only be successful but will lead
to conserving vast areas of the humid tropics in its natural state. Pres-
sures for indisciminated deforestation subside when farmers realize that
they can produce more on a hectare of appropriately and continuously man-
aged soils than by clearing and abandoning several hectares every year.
Our focus concentrates on secondary forest fallows or degraded pastures,
rather than on primary forest areas, in an attempt to utilize first land
that has been previously cleared.

Priorities:

Considerable thought has been given to the relative importance of
the 11 projects included in this proposal. The fundamental issue is one
of balance between the generation of new soil management technology and









PLAN OF WORK


Objective

The objective of NCSU's TROPSOILS Program continues to be the same
as in our first work plan:

"To develop and transfer, together with national institutions and other
TROPSOILS universities, improved soil management technologies for produc-
tive and sustained farming systems in the humid tropics and acid savannas
on an agronomically, economically and ecologically sound basis."

Strategy

The Program's strategy is to continue focusing on different management
options for principal soils, landscape positions and levels of infrastruc-
ture development in the humid tropics. Instead of advocating a solution
for the humid tropics, the Program aims to provide a series of options
to farmers in the process of transition from shifting cultivation to set-
tled agriculture. Together with support from other disciplines, these op-
tions can become components of improved farming systems.

The principal management options are illustrated in Figure 1 in terms
of soils and landscape positions. This figure contains most major landscape
positions of the humid tropics on a worldwide basis. The research projects
are organized along the main management options indicated in this diagram.

In addition, the Program proposes continuation of research on soil
classification and interpretation and in the establishment of a Research
Network to foster the validation of research results in other regions of
the humid tropics.

Philosophy

The Program strategy is deeply rooted on the premise that without
technology, agricultural development in the humid tropics will be an eco-
nomic and ecological disaster of worldwide dimensions. With appropriate
technology, however, development cannot only be successful but will lead
to conserving vast areas of the humid tropics in its natural state. Pres-
sures for indisciminated deforestation subside when farmers realize that
they can produce more on a hectare of appropriately and continuously man-
aged soils than by clearing and abandoning several hectares every year.
Our focus concentrates on secondary forest fallows or degraded pastures,
rather than on primary forest areas, in an attempt to utilize first land
that has been previously cleared.

Priorities:

Considerable thought has been given to the relative importance of
the 11 projects included in this proposal. The fundamental issue is one
of balance between the generation of new soil management technology and









PLAN OF WORK


Objective

The objective of NCSU's TROPSOILS Program continues to be the same
as in our first work plan:

"To develop and transfer, together with national institutions and other
TROPSOILS universities, improved soil management technologies for produc-
tive and sustained farming systems in the humid tropics and acid savannas
on an agronomically, economically and ecologically sound basis."

Strategy

The Program's strategy is to continue focusing on different management
options for principal soils, landscape positions and levels of infrastruc-
ture development in the humid tropics. Instead of advocating a solution
for the humid tropics, the Program aims to provide a series of options
to farmers in the process of transition from shifting cultivation to set-
tled agriculture. Together with support from other disciplines, these op-
tions can become components of improved farming systems.

The principal management options are illustrated in Figure 1 in terms
of soils and landscape positions. This figure contains most major landscape
positions of the humid tropics on a worldwide basis. The research projects
are organized along the main management options indicated in this diagram.

In addition, the Program proposes continuation of research on soil
classification and interpretation and in the establishment of a Research
Network to foster the validation of research results in other regions of
the humid tropics.

Philosophy

The Program strategy is deeply rooted on the premise that without
technology, agricultural development in the humid tropics will be an eco-
nomic and ecological disaster of worldwide dimensions. With appropriate
technology, however, development cannot only be successful but will lead
to conserving vast areas of the humid tropics in its natural state. Pres-
sures for indisciminated deforestation subside when farmers realize that
they can produce more on a hectare of appropriately and continuously man-
aged soils than by clearing and abandoning several hectares every year.
Our focus concentrates on secondary forest fallows or degraded pastures,
rather than on primary forest areas, in an attempt to utilize first land
that has been previously cleared.

Priorities:

Considerable thought has been given to the relative importance of
the 11 projects included in this proposal. The fundamental issue is one
of balance between the generation of new soil management technology and









PLAN OF WORK


Objective

The objective of NCSU's TROPSOILS Program continues to be the same
as in our first work plan:

"To develop and transfer, together with national institutions and other
TROPSOILS universities, improved soil management technologies for produc-
tive and sustained farming systems in the humid tropics and acid savannas
on an agronomically, economically and ecologically sound basis."

Strategy

The Program's strategy is to continue focusing on different management
options for principal soils, landscape positions and levels of infrastruc-
ture development in the humid tropics. Instead of advocating a solution
for the humid tropics, the Program aims to provide a series of options
to farmers in the process of transition from shifting cultivation to set-
tled agriculture. Together with support from other disciplines, these op-
tions can become components of improved farming systems.

The principal management options are illustrated in Figure 1 in terms
of soils and landscape positions. This figure contains most major landscape
positions of the humid tropics on a worldwide basis. The research projects
are organized along the main management options indicated in this diagram.

In addition, the Program proposes continuation of research on soil
classification and interpretation and in the establishment of a Research
Network to foster the validation of research results in other regions of
the humid tropics.

Philosophy

The Program strategy is deeply rooted on the premise that without
technology, agricultural development in the humid tropics will be an eco-
nomic and ecological disaster of worldwide dimensions. With appropriate
technology, however, development cannot only be successful but will lead
to conserving vast areas of the humid tropics in its natural state. Pres-
sures for indisciminated deforestation subside when farmers realize that
they can produce more on a hectare of appropriately and continuously man-
aged soils than by clearing and abandoning several hectares every year.
Our focus concentrates on secondary forest fallows or degraded pastures,
rather than on primary forest areas, in an attempt to utilize first land
that has been previously cleared.

Priorities:

Considerable thought has been given to the relative importance of
the 11 projects included in this proposal. The fundamental issue is one
of balance between the generation of new soil management technology and









the testing and validation of such technology in other humid tropical areas.
The External Evaluation Panel report on Peru (pp. 16-17) clearly suggests
that the first priority for CRSP resources is to provide the lead role
in generating new technology for the humid tropics and that the second
is to provide a research support role to other locations in the Selva of
Peru as well as in other humid tropical countries. A minimum core program
would be the first priority and our networking activities, the second.
Priorities between these two categories have also been discussed with our
team and have been defined. The results are as follows:

Priority 1. Generation of New Technology for the Humid Tropics

1.1 Low-input cropping systems (Project 3)
1.2 Agroforestry systems (Project 5)
1.3 Conservation tillage, fertility management (Projects 1 and 2)
1.4 Legume-based pastures (Project 4)
1.5 Soil erosion (Project 8)

Project 2. Technology Validation and Research Support

2.1 Soil characterization and classification (Project 6)
2.2 Sumatra research support (Project 10)
2.3 Manaus research support (Project 9)
2.4 Research network (Project 7)
7.5 Brasilia research support (Project 11)

Sites:

Prior to CRSP support, NCSU activities in the humid tropics were mainly
confined to the Yurimaguas Experiment Station. With CRSP support, these
activities have expanded to Indonesia. We propose the incorporation of
additional collaborative sites in Manaus, Brazil which represent an inter-
mediate situation between the loamy Ultisols and weak dry season environment
in Yurimaguas and the clayey Oxisols with strong dry season typical of
the acid savannas. Additional collaborative sites have been established
in Peru with counterpart funds, including a periodic regime at Pichis-Pal-
cazu (3400 mm rainfall, Ultisols and Dystropepts) and a near ustic soil
moisture regime in Pucallpa (1500 mm).

Through the establishment of a modest research network, we believe
collaborative activities can expand to at least four other countries in
the humid tropics, without stationing NCSU scientist in them. The selection
of countries will be done in consultation with the Latin American and
Caribbean, African and Asian Bureaus of AID. The LAC Bureau has expressed
strong interest in this possibility. Figure 2 shows some potential linkages.

Plan of Work

The overall TROPSOILS-NCSU plan of work is presented in Table 1,
arranged into projects and experiments. For each experiment the person
responsible on-site, sources of funds and expected termination date are
indicated. Vacant positions are indicated where appropriate. A termination









the testing and validation of such technology in other humid tropical areas.
The External Evaluation Panel report on Peru (pp. 16-17) clearly suggests
that the first priority for CRSP resources is to provide the lead role
in generating new technology for the humid tropics and that the second
is to provide a research support role to other locations in the Selva of
Peru as well as in other humid tropical countries. A minimum core program
would be the first priority and our networking activities, the second.
Priorities between these two categories have also been discussed with our
team and have been defined. The results are as follows:

Priority 1. Generation of New Technology for the Humid Tropics

1.1 Low-input cropping systems (Project 3)
1.2 Agroforestry systems (Project 5)
1.3 Conservation tillage, fertility management (Projects 1 and 2)
1.4 Legume-based pastures (Project 4)
1.5 Soil erosion (Project 8)

Project 2. Technology Validation and Research Support

2.1 Soil characterization and classification (Project 6)
2.2 Sumatra research support (Project 10)
2.3 Manaus research support (Project 9)
2.4 Research network (Project 7)
7.5 Brasilia research support (Project 11)

Sites:

Prior to CRSP support, NCSU activities in the humid tropics were mainly
confined to the Yurimaguas Experiment Station. With CRSP support, these
activities have expanded to Indonesia. We propose the incorporation of
additional collaborative sites in Manaus, Brazil which represent an inter-
mediate situation between the loamy Ultisols and weak dry season environment
in Yurimaguas and the clayey Oxisols with strong dry season typical of
the acid savannas. Additional collaborative sites have been established
in Peru with counterpart funds, including a periodic regime at Pichis-Pal-
cazu (3400 mm rainfall, Ultisols and Dystropepts) and a near ustic soil
moisture regime in Pucallpa (1500 mm).

Through the establishment of a modest research network, we believe
collaborative activities can expand to at least four other countries in
the humid tropics, without stationing NCSU scientist in them. The selection
of countries will be done in consultation with the Latin American and
Caribbean, African and Asian Bureaus of AID. The LAC Bureau has expressed
strong interest in this possibility. Figure 2 shows some potential linkages.

Plan of Work

The overall TROPSOILS-NCSU plan of work is presented in Table 1,
arranged into projects and experiments. For each experiment the person
responsible on-site, sources of funds and expected termination date are
indicated. Vacant positions are indicated where appropriate. A termination
























Figure 2.

TROPSOILS NCSU

HUMID TROPICS RESEARCH LINKAGES 0 o

@ Active program-NCSU staff on site
Active program-formal linkages sN
o Informal working linkages









date is indicated only if earlier than 1989. Many experiments are not
scheduled to start until 1986 or 1987. The funding sources for each experi-
ment indicated in Table 1 are:

CORDELOR: Corporaci6n de Desarrollo de Loreto-Proyecto Regional de
Arroz
CRSP: Soil Management CRSP
CSR: Center for Soils Research (core funds)
EMBRAPA: Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (core funds)
IBSRAM: Funds for several donors given to IBSRAM
IDRC: Proyecto Agroforestal Yurimaguas-ICRAF, financed by the
International Development and Research Centre of Canada
PEPP: Proyecto Especial Pichis Palcazu
PL: Proyecto Administraci6n de Suelos Tropicales and Estaci6n
Experimental Yurimaguas, INIPA-financed by USAID/Lima with
PL-480 funds.
PN Agroeconomfa: National Agroeconomics Program, INIPA
PN Arroz: National Rice Program, INIPA
PN Leguminous: National Grain Legumes Program, INIPA
PN Ma'z: National Corn Program, INIPA
PN Selva: National Selva Program, INIPA
PPI: Potash Phosphate Institute
RF: Rockefeller Foundation

Level of Effort:

The Plan of Work is summarized in Table 2 by research projects. The
TROPSOILS/NCSU Program consists of 12 projects and a total of 96 experi-
ments or activities. Approximately one-half (49) of the experiments are
proposed to be totally or partially financed by CRSP funds, and the rest
by other sources. Of the 49 CRSP-supported experiments or activities,
21 are new experiments and 30 are continuing ones. It is relevant to note
that 16 experiments included in the previous work plan for Peru are termi-
nated and thus, not included in this proposal. In addition, Table 1 shows
seven experiments scheduled to be terminated in 1985. This proposal, there-
fore, represents a similar level of effort from CRSP sources, with the
21 new initiatives balanced by 23 experiments scheduled for termination
by 1985.

Although the quantity of experiments is only a gross indicator of
level of effort, these numbers show that program planning has been done
in a cautious manner. The advent of larger and more stable forms of counter-
part funds and its staffing reflects the real expansion of this program.
The following chapters provide the rationale and justification for the
research projects to be funded by the CRSP. No project is, therefore,
submitted for the project on flooded rice on alluvial soils; that is to
be entirely supported by counterpart funds.










Program Backstopping:

Following the Management Entity guidelines, the Program backstopping
operations are described separately. Backstopping consists of administra-
tive, laboratory and data processing support for the entire program. Opera-
tions take place at the Tropical Soils Program office on campus, at the
NCSU Mission to Peru offices at INIPA headquarters in Lima, and at the
Yurimaguas Experiment Station. IICA provides backstopping to our Manaus
operations in Brazil and the University of Hawaii team leader in Sumatra
serves that function.

The total backstopping budget is outlined in Table 3. Approximately
one-half the cost is for administrative functions and one-half is for
laboratory and data support.

Staffing Pattern:

Table 4 shows the staffing pattern of full-time equivalents charged
to the CRSP. This table does not include NCSU faculty time that is not
charged to the CRSP, nor does it include the staffing pattern of our coun-
terpart operations.

Budget

The consolidated budget request to the CRSP is presented in Table 5.
Budgets for each project are presented at the end of each project propo-
sal. The backstopping function is prorated into each research project
budget.

Table 6 shows the expected counterpart support by project, according
to the approved plan of work by INIPA of September 20, 1984 and calcula-
tions of counterpart support for Brazil. Since our counterpart institutions
work mainly on yearly budgets, these figures are subject to yearly adjust-
ments.

The following sections describe the 11 research project proposals.










Program Backstopping:

Following the Management Entity guidelines, the Program backstopping
operations are described separately. Backstopping consists of administra-
tive, laboratory and data processing support for the entire program. Opera-
tions take place at the Tropical Soils Program office on campus, at the
NCSU Mission to Peru offices at INIPA headquarters in Lima, and at the
Yurimaguas Experiment Station. IICA provides backstopping to our Manaus
operations in Brazil and the University of Hawaii team leader in Sumatra
serves that function.

The total backstopping budget is outlined in Table 3. Approximately
one-half the cost is for administrative functions and one-half is for
laboratory and data support.

Staffing Pattern:

Table 4 shows the staffing pattern of full-time equivalents charged
to the CRSP. This table does not include NCSU faculty time that is not
charged to the CRSP, nor does it include the staffing pattern of our coun-
terpart operations.

Budget

The consolidated budget request to the CRSP is presented in Table 5.
Budgets for each project are presented at the end of each project propo-
sal. The backstopping function is prorated into each research project
budget.

Table 6 shows the expected counterpart support by project, according
to the approved plan of work by INIPA of September 20, 1984 and calcula-
tions of counterpart support for Brazil. Since our counterpart institutions
work mainly on yearly budgets, these figures are subject to yearly adjust-
ments.

The following sections describe the 11 research project proposals.










Program Backstopping:

Following the Management Entity guidelines, the Program backstopping
operations are described separately. Backstopping consists of administra-
tive, laboratory and data processing support for the entire program. Opera-
tions take place at the Tropical Soils Program office on campus, at the
NCSU Mission to Peru offices at INIPA headquarters in Lima, and at the
Yurimaguas Experiment Station. IICA provides backstopping to our Manaus
operations in Brazil and the University of Hawaii team leader in Sumatra
serves that function.

The total backstopping budget is outlined in Table 3. Approximately
one-half the cost is for administrative functions and one-half is for
laboratory and data support.

Staffing Pattern:

Table 4 shows the staffing pattern of full-time equivalents charged
to the CRSP. This table does not include NCSU faculty time that is not
charged to the CRSP, nor does it include the staffing pattern of our coun-
terpart operations.

Budget

The consolidated budget request to the CRSP is presented in Table 5.
Budgets for each project are presented at the end of each project propo-
sal. The backstopping function is prorated into each research project
budget.

Table 6 shows the expected counterpart support by project, according
to the approved plan of work by INIPA of September 20, 1984 and calcula-
tions of counterpart support for Brazil. Since our counterpart institutions
work mainly on yearly budgets, these figures are subject to yearly adjust-
ments.

The following sections describe the 11 research project proposals.







Table 1. Plan of work. 1985-1989.


Project and Experiment On-site Funding* To
responsible source end


1. CONTINUOUS CROPPING SYSTEMS


101
102
103a
103b

109a
109b
111
112
113
114


Central continuous cropping experiment
Liming continuously cropped land
Potassium fertilization management
Nitrogen carryover in rotations and inter-
crops
Weed population shifts
Weed control in upland rice
Soil trafficability
Water balance in continuous cropping
Conservation tillage
Phosphorus and zinc fertilizer management


2. LOW INPUT CROPPING SYSTEMS


203 Germplasm screening for Al tolerance


206 Residue management, minimum tillage
207 Minimum tillage P Ca interactions
208 Downward movement of Ca and Mg
209 Weed control in low input systems
210 Central low input cropping trial

211 Manures and animal traction
215 Soil dynamics in low input systems
216 Burning and immediate fallows
217 Improving the tacarpo

3. LEGUME-BASED PASTURES

301 Germplasm introduction (ERB)
302 Grass-legume mixtures under grazing
303 Nutritional requirements for establishment
304 Regeneration of degraded pastures
305 Pasture seed production
306 Tolerance to diseases and insects
307 Potassium dynamics and recycling
308 Nitrogen transfer in mixed pastures
309 Pasture establishment in degraded lands

4. AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS

402 Cover crops for peach palm
403 Nutrient requirements for Gmelina arborea


Alegre
McCollum
McCollum

Benites
Mt. Pleasant
Mt. Pleasant
Alegre
Alegre
Alegre
McCollum



Rachumi
Lopez
Guillen
Villavicencio
Gichuru
Gichuru
Mt. Pleasant
Benites
Nure'na
Villavicencio
Benites
Benites
Alegre


Dextre
Dextre
Schaus
Dextre
Dextre
Dextre
Ayarza
Ara/Vela
Vela


Perez
Perez


CRSP-PL
CRSP-PL
CRSP-PL

CRSP-PL
PN Selva
PN Selva
CRSP-PL
CRSP-PL
CRSP-PL
CRSP-PL


PN Arroz, Maiz,
Leguminosas

CRSP-PL
CRSP-PL
CRSP-PL
PN Selva

CRSP-PL
PN Selva
CRSP-PL
CRSP-PL
CRSP-PL


PN Selva
CRSP-PL
PN Selva
PN Selva
PN Selva
PN Selva
CRSP-PL
CRSP-PL
PN Selva


CRSP-IDRC
CRSP-PL






Table 1 (Continued).


404 Nutritional requirements of peach palm
405 Alley cropping
406 Peach palm collection/propagation
407 Agroforestry species collection/propagation
408 Native fruit trees collection/propagation
409 Improved fallows
410 Forest fallow and soil regeneration
411 Fallows as nutrient accumulators
412 Soil dynamics under different management
options
414 Peach palm management for fruit or palmito
415 Multistrata polyculture
416 Agroindustrial potential of palms


Perez
Szott
Perez
Vacant
Vacant
Szott/Palm
Szott/Palm
Coral/Palm
Alegre/
Davelouis
Vacant
Vacant
Vacant


5. FLOODED RICE IN ALLUVIAL SOILS


501
502
503
507


Variety testing for flooded rice
Land preparation and planting methods
Nitrogen fertilization for flooded rice
Weed control in flooded rice


508 Seed production

509 Adaptation to upland conditions
510 Azolla management
511 Rotation with upland crops

6. SOIL CHARACTERIZATION AND INTERPRETATION

601 FCC evaluation and refinement
602 FCC maps of developing areas
603 Characterization of alluvial soils
604 Puerto Maldonado Experiment Station
605 Characterization of network sites
606 Maximum nutrient potential in the Amazon
607 Soil taxonomy and FCC software
608 Voleanic ash influence in transmigration
areas

7. ON-FARM RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY VALIDATION

706 Economic analyses of technical options

710 High input cropping validation
720 Low input cropping validation
730 Legume-based pastures validation
740 Agroforestry systems validation
750 Flooded rice technology validation
760 Reclamation of degraded slopes
770 Research Network
780 Training Center in Tropical Soils Management
790 Communications Service


Rachumi'
Arevalo
Areva 1(
Rachumi

Rachuml

Areval o
Arevalo
Arevalo


Buol
Buol
Hoag
Newman
Buol
Buol
Buol

Subagjo


Pomareda

Benites
Benites
Benites
Benites
Benites
Benites
Benites
Vacant
Vacant


CRSP-PL
CRSP-PL
IDRC
IDRC
IDRC
CRSP-PL
CRSP-PL
CRSP-PL

CRSP-IDRC
IDRC
I DRC
IDRC


PN Arroz
CORDELOR
CORDELOR
CORDELOR/
PN Arroz
CORDELOR/
PN Arroz
CORDELOR
CORDELOR
CORDELOR


CRSP
CRSP
CRSP/IIAP
CRSP-PL
CRSP
CRSP
CRSP

CRSP


PN Agro-
economics
PN Selva
PN Selva
PN Selva
PN Selva
PN Selva
PN Selva
CRSP-PL
PN Selva
PN Selva










Table 1 (Continued).

8. PICHIS PALCAZU SECONDARY SITE


800 Germplasm introduction from National Pro-
gress
801 Pasture germplasm evaluation (ERB)
802 Permanent crop germplasm evaluation
803 Weed control
804 Soil dynamics in low input systems
805 Grazing pressure trials (ERC)
806 Liveweight gain trials (ERD)
807 Soil dynamics under different management
options
808 Reclamation of eroded slopes
809 Flooded rice in alluvial soils
810 Watershed hydrology


del Castillo
Reategui
del Castillo
del Castillo
del Castillo
Reategui
Reategui
Reategui/
del Castillo
del Castillo
del Castillo
Elsenbeer


9. MANAUS EXTRAPOLATION SITE


901 Soil dynamics after clearing a virgin
forest
902 Phosphorus residual effects
903 Potassium fertilizer management
904 Guarani fertilization
905 Lime rates and residual effects
906 Tillage systems
907 Green manures selection and management
908 Planting dates and crop rotations
909 Micronutrient fertilization


Smyth
Smyth
Smyth
Smyth
Bastos
Correia
Smyth
Gal v5o
Cravo


RF-CRSP-EMBRAPA
RF-CRSP-EMBRAPA-PPI
RF-CRSP-EMBRAPA
RF-CRSP-EMBRAPA
EMBRAPA
EMBRAPA
EMBRAPA
EMBRAPA
EMBRAPA


10. SUMATRA RESEARCH SUPPORT


1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009


Reclamation of bulldozed lands
Sources and methods of lime application
Residual effects of lime
Phosphorus rates and placement
Residual effects of phosphorus
Potassium fertilization management
Sulfur fertilization
Micronutrient status
Soil dynamics under low input systems**


Makarim
Wade
Wade
Wade
Wade
Gill
Wade
Wade
Wade


CRSP/CSR
CRSP/CSR
CRSP/CSR
CRSP/CSR
CRSP/CSR
CRSP/CSR
CRSP/CSR
CRSP/CSR
CRSP/CSR


11. BRASILIA RESEARCH SUPPORT


1100 Texture influence of phosphorus and zinc
fertilizer management


Lins


EMBRAPA


*See text for definitions.

**To start in 1986-1987.


PEPP
PEPP
PEPP
PEPP
PEPP
PEPP
PEPP

PEPP
PEPP
PEPP
CRSP-PEPP







Table 2. Summary of research project included in this proposal.


No. of Subprojects
Base of Project New
Project short title operations leaders Total CRSP CRSP


1. Continuous cropping:conservation tillage Peru Alegre 4 4 3
2. Continuous cropping:fertility management Peru McCollum 6 4 2
3. Low-input cropping systems Peru Sanchez 10 6 2
4. Legume-based pastures Peru Sanchez 9 3 0
5. Agroforestry Peru Davey 14 8 3
6. Soil characterization and interpretation Raleigh Buol 8 8 4
7. Research Network Peru Benites 10 1* 1*
8. Soil erosion- Pichis Palcazu Peru Cassel 11 1 1
9. Manaus extrapolation Brazil Smyth 9 4 0
10. Sumatra research support Indonesia Wade 9 9 4
11. Brasilia research support Brazil Cox 1 1 1
12. Flooded rice in alluvial soils Peru Benites 8 0 0


Total


*Activities, not experiments.











Table 3. Program backstopping budget requested to the CRSP.


00. Program backstopping


Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Total


------------ $1000 -----------
Salaries 100 108 114 120 126 568
Fringe benefits 18 18 23 23 23 105
Supplies 8 8 8 8 10 42
Equipment 5 4 5 4 5 23
Travel, international 16 13 14 15 16 74
Travel, national 2 2 2 3 2 11
Allowances 0 0 0 0 0 0
Contract services 16 15 16 17 10 74
Freight 5 4 5 5 5 24
Other direct costs 10 10 10 12 12 54
Indirect costs 40 41 42 42 42 207
---------- ... .. -------- ------- ----- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ------.. . . -- .------------
Total CRSP 220 223 239 249 251 1182



Equipment includes: Microcomputer, spectrophotometers, re-
placement of lab, office and communica-
tions equipment.


00. Program backstopping Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Total

----- -------- --- FTE
Resident faculty: CRSP 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 2.4
Resident faculty: non-CRSP 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.5
Senior scientists, field: CRSP 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Junior scientists: CRSP 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Other (support staff) 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 25.0

Total 5.5 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 27.9








Table 4. Staffing pattern charged to CRSP funds by Project (Year 5).


Current
holder


Project #
0*1 1 2 3 4 5 I 6 1 7 8 1 9 110 ill Total


SENIOR SCIENTISTS: FTE

Principal Investigator P. A. Sanchez 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.1 I 0.7
Soil Fertility Spec. J. J. Nicholaides 0.3 0.3 0.3 -.1 1.0
Soil Physics Peru R. E. McCollum 0.7 0.2 0.1 _1.0
Soil Fertility Peru J. R. Benites 0.5 0.5 i 1.0
Soil Fertility Indon. M. K. Wade -1.0C
Chief NCSU Mission D. E. Bandy 0.1 o, --.
Soil Fertility Manaus T. J. Smyth -.O -.O


Total Senior Scientists 0.5 0.7 0.8 1.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.0 1.0 1.1 0.0 5.8


SUPPORT PERSONNEL:


Admin. Asst.
Secretary V
Tech. III
Tech. III
in. Asst. Lima
Admin. Asst. YMS.
Lab Tech. YMS.
Project Manager


B. I. Monar
D. M. Silsbee
P. C. Smithson
T. K. Forbes
L. M. Gonzalez
S. Florindez
0. A. Roman
Vacant


1.0 1.0
1.0 1.0
1.0 1.0
1.0 1.0
1.0 -1.0
1.0--------------------------------^ -__1.
1.0 1.0
1.0 1.0
1.0 1.0


Total Support Personnel 8.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8.0


JUNIOR SCIENTISTS:

Soil Physics Peru J. C. Alegre 1.0 --------- -1.0
Soil Erosion Peru H. Elsenbeer 1.0 1.0
Soil Fertility Peru J. Mt. Pleasant 1.0 1.0
Soil Fertility- Peru M. P. Gichuru 1.0 1.0
Soil Pastures Peru M. A. Ara 1.0 1.0
Soil Agrofor. Peru L. T. Szott 1.0 1.0
Soil Dynamics Peru C. A. Palm 1.0 1.0
Soil Microbiol. Peru vacant 0.5 0.5 1.0
Soil Classif. R. E. Hoag 1.0 1.0
Soil Fertility IND. D. W. Gill 1.0 1.0



a1 Junior Scientists 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.0 2.5 1.0 0 1.0 0 1.0 0 10.0


*Backstopping
**Soil Fertility Manaus position starts in 1986


Position









18

Table 5. Summary of request to Soil Management CRSP by
project, overall budget and staffing pattern.

=2======= ================================ =====================================
SUMMARY BUDGET BY PROJECT Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Total

--------------- $1000
1. Conservation tillage 137 131 141 140 123 672
2. Cont. cropping fert. agat. 114 127 113 122 124 600
3. Low input cropping systems 148 154 168 160 132 762
4. Legume-based pastures 72 68 63 68 69 340
5. Agroforestry systems 170 159 174 166 128 797
6. Soil characterization 62 55 52 71 59 299
7. Research network 124 129 135 86 89 563
8. Soil erosion 45 42 26 34 45 192
9. Manaus extrapolation 9 91 100 0 0 200
10. Sumatra support 181 168 170 191 185 895
11. Brasilia support 14 14 15 16 16 75

Total CRSP 1076 1138 1157 1054 970 5395



OVERALL BUD==ET BY LINE ITE2 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year Total
OVERALL BUDGET BY LINE ITEM Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year B Total


Salaries
Fringe benefits
Supplies
Equipment
Travel, international
Travel, national
Allowances
Contract services
Freight
Other direct costs
Indirect costs


S----- $1000
376 418 430 391 377 1992
44 t1( 50 57 3 50 49 250 L2-.s
76 75 77 65 65 358
50 45 30 63 26 214
100 93 96 82 77 448
28 33 35 34 32 162
65 72 69 56 58 320
74 79 84 68 52 357
31 29 33 27 26 146
49 53 52 42 37 233
183 191 194 176 171 915


Total CRSP 1076 1138 1157 1054 970 5395




TOTAL STAFFING PATTERN Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year B Total

FTE --------------
Resident faculty: CRSP 0.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 7.9
Resident faculty: non-CRSP 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 7.0
Senior scientists, field: CRSP 3.4 4.3 4.3 3.3 3.0 18.3
Junior scientists: CRSP 11.0 10.0 10.0 9.0 9.0 49.0
Other (non-CRSP) 7.7 6.8 5.8 4.8 4.8 29.9
Other (CRSP) 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 25.0


29.2 29.3 28.3 25.3 25.0 137.1


Total








19

Table 6. Total expected counterpart funds by project.


Year
Project 4 5 6 7 8 Total


HUMID TROPICS PROGRAM
1. Conservation tillage

2. Continuous cropping: fertil. mgmt.

3. Low input cropping system

4. Legume based pastures

5. Agroforestry systems

6. Soil characterization

7. Research network

8. Soil erosion Pichis

9. Manaus extrapolation

10. Transmigration Sumatra

11. Texture P Zn Cerrado

12. Paddy rice for alluvial soils*

Totals

Total for Peru

Total for Brazil**

Total for Indonesia


25 27

65 72

92 112

110 120

134 126

24 26

125 183

170 180

120 65

66 66

25 26

60 60

1016 1063 1

805 906

145 91

66 66


$1000
29 31 33 145


79

114

130

143

28

195

70

68

66

27

60


81

126

132

145

32

211

180

70

66

20

60


79

118

130

136

44

210

160

72

66

22

60


376

562

622

684

154

924

760

395

330

120

300


*This project is entirely supported by counterpart funds.

**Preliminary estimates subject to discussion with EMBRAPA, PPI and EMPAER.


I


I


1009 1154 1130 5372

848 998 970 4527

95 90 94 515

66 66 66 330


--










TROPSOILS-NCSU PROJECT PROPOSAL #1


Title: Continuous Cropping Systems: Conservation Tillage

Program: Humid Tropics

Project Leader: J. C. Alegre
North Carolina State University

Principal Collaborators: D. K. Cassel, G. C. Naderman, A. Aznaran,
M. Villavicencio

Project Objectives:

To develop proper soil management practices for the maintenance of
soil physical properties for sustained fertilizer-based continuous crop
production systems in humid tropical areas with favorable infrastructure
development.

Rationale:

The potential for soil erosion is high in continuously cultivated Ulti-
sols of the humid tropics because much of the rainfall occurs during brief
intense storms. In spite of the high annual rainfall levels, crops often
suffer from severe moisture stress during rainless periods of two or more
weeks. The management of excess water as well as soil moisture shortages
are important considerations for successful settled agriculture.

Conservation tillage, reduced tillage, minimum tillage, no-till have
been suggested and are currently in use in many parts of the world as manage-
ment practices that could be adapted to the Amazon in order to reduce soil
erosion and conserve water while increasing crop yields. The term "conserva-
tion tillage" will be used in the remainder of this proposal as any form
of tillage which conserves natural resources such as soil, water or energy.

When conservation tillage practices of any kind are imposed on cropland,
some change in the soil water balance or moisture regime occurs. For example,
some forms of conservation tillage leave crop residue from the previous
harvest on the soil surface. The presence of this residue will likely change
the moisture regime compared to a form of tillage where residue is incorpo-
rated into the plowed layer. Crop residue on the surface will reduce or
eliminate the impact of falling raindrops on the soil surface, increase
the infiltration rate, reduce surface runoff, increase the amount of water
being stored in the soil profile, and possibly lead to greater amounts of
water percolating out of the plant rooting zone. More percolating water
may give rise to greater downward transport of calcium and magnesium from
lime sources but may also leach more plant nutrients out of the root zone.

In addition to changes in moisture regime, conservation tillage is
also expected to alter soil physical and chemical properties. Many forms
of conservation tillage minimize mixing of the surface soil; hence, lime










TROPSOILS-NCSU PROJECT PROPOSAL #1


Title: Continuous Cropping Systems: Conservation Tillage

Program: Humid Tropics

Project Leader: J. C. Alegre
North Carolina State University

Principal Collaborators: D. K. Cassel, G. C. Naderman, A. Aznaran,
M. Villavicencio

Project Objectives:

To develop proper soil management practices for the maintenance of
soil physical properties for sustained fertilizer-based continuous crop
production systems in humid tropical areas with favorable infrastructure
development.

Rationale:

The potential for soil erosion is high in continuously cultivated Ulti-
sols of the humid tropics because much of the rainfall occurs during brief
intense storms. In spite of the high annual rainfall levels, crops often
suffer from severe moisture stress during rainless periods of two or more
weeks. The management of excess water as well as soil moisture shortages
are important considerations for successful settled agriculture.

Conservation tillage, reduced tillage, minimum tillage, no-till have
been suggested and are currently in use in many parts of the world as manage-
ment practices that could be adapted to the Amazon in order to reduce soil
erosion and conserve water while increasing crop yields. The term "conserva-
tion tillage" will be used in the remainder of this proposal as any form
of tillage which conserves natural resources such as soil, water or energy.

When conservation tillage practices of any kind are imposed on cropland,
some change in the soil water balance or moisture regime occurs. For example,
some forms of conservation tillage leave crop residue from the previous
harvest on the soil surface. The presence of this residue will likely change
the moisture regime compared to a form of tillage where residue is incorpo-
rated into the plowed layer. Crop residue on the surface will reduce or
eliminate the impact of falling raindrops on the soil surface, increase
the infiltration rate, reduce surface runoff, increase the amount of water
being stored in the soil profile, and possibly lead to greater amounts of
water percolating out of the plant rooting zone. More percolating water
may give rise to greater downward transport of calcium and magnesium from
lime sources but may also leach more plant nutrients out of the root zone.

In addition to changes in moisture regime, conservation tillage is
also expected to alter soil physical and chemical properties. Many forms
of conservation tillage minimize mixing of the surface soil; hence, lime










and fertilizers are often added to the soil surface or, during the planting
operations are placed in the soil at 3 to 5 cm depth in bands close to the
seeds. These chemicals are not mixed throughout the topsoil as is common
in conventional tillage. Some soil physical properties that are altered
to some degree by various tillage regimes are bulk density, mechanical impe-
dance, the aeration regime and soil temperature regime. The magnitude that
these properties will change will vary with time and depend upon the parti-
cular conservation and conventional tillage systems being compared.

Changes in the soil moisture balance and other physical properties
affected by various conservation tillage regimes are expected to have a
pronounced effect on soil trafficability. The range in soil water contents
over which the soil may be affected by tractor drawn machinery, man-operated
equipment, and foot traffic may be altered. Certainly the number of days
during the year when the soil can be tilled without inflicting damage to
soil physical properties will vary with different tillage regimes.

The combined results of all of the above changes by imposing conservation
tillage practices will certainly have an effect on both short- and long-term
crop production. We anticipate success in obtaining higher crop yields by
adoption of conservation tillage practices if chemical weed control can
be maintained.

Relevance to Other Activities:

Conservation tillage is increasing in popularity in many parts of the
United States, the world, and even in some areas of the humid tropics. For
example, Rattan Lal at IITA has conducted extensive research on the effects
of conservation tillage in Alfisols of West Africa. One concern expressed
by the May 1984 review at Yurimaguas was that no systematic consideration
was being given toward conservation tillage. One reason this topic arose
was that visible evidence of erosion was on land with 2 to 4% slope at one
or two locations on the station. In our opinion, erosion in these spots
was not worthy of major concern. Since grass strips surrounded all of these
sites thus trapping any sediment transported from the field and maximum
soil transport would have been less than 50 m.

On the other hand, because droughts of two weeks or longer are common
in Yurimaguas, conservation tillage may have considerable merit in altering
the soil moisture regime by storing more water in the soil profile for subse-
quent crop use. Then, too, as mechanization of agricultural practices proceeds
at Yurimaguas, it behooves us to develop tillage practices which are efficient
from the standpoint of labor, the number of passes over the field, and the
amount of energy or fuel consumed. Finally, even though we feel that erosion
is not a problem at the Yurimaguas station, much of the land that will be
brought into cultivation in the humid tropics itself, will be on land with
slopes greater than 2 to 4% and erosion will be a serious problem.

Information obtained during the first two to three years of this project
will be utilized in developing the management practices to install on the
proposed watershed erosion project Y-810.










Generalized Procedures:

Conservation tillage systems will be evaluated for mechanized farming
and for low input systems. All land will be intensively cropped. The soil
moisture balance for each tillage system will be evaluated; rainfall will
be measured, soil water content will be monitored using a neutron probe
and tensiometers. Soil physical property measurements will be evaluated
before the study begins and at selected intervals throughout the investiga-
tion. Plant measurements such as plant height and biomass will be periodically
monitored. Final yield and water use efficiency for each treatment will
be evaluated.

Scope of Work:

This project consists of four experiments: Conservation tillage (Y-113),
water balance (Y-112), soil trafficability (Y-1ll) and the central continuous
cropping experiment (Y-101).

Conservation Tillage Experiment (Y-113)

This study will have two major portions: high input and low input.

High input. The high input study will be a complete randomized block
design with four replications. Tillage treatments may include, but are not
limited, to the following:

1. No till. Chop residue wish bush-hog, plant with no till planter,
herbicide weed control.--

2. Minimum till-bush-hog, disk harrow once per year to incorporate
lime and P fertilizer, plant with no-till planter, herbicides weed control.

3. Conventional tillage like treatment #1. Bush-hog, disk-harrow before
planting each crop, plant with row planter, cultivate row crops.

4. Conventional tillage like treatment #2. Bush-hog, moldboard plow,
disk-harrow, cultivate row crops.--------

5. Subsoil-minimum till-Bush-hog, subsoil-bed-plant in same operation,
chemical weed control.

Prior to installing the experiment, the 1.5 hectare site will be inten-
sively sampled to determine the spatial variability of the following physical
properties; bulk density, mechanical impedance, in situ field capacity,
saturation, hydraulic conductivity, and infiltration rate. Corn, peanuts
and soybeans will be cropped. Plot size will be 50 x 10 m. Soil moisture
will be monitored during the study using the neutron probe and tensiometers.
Soil temperature will be monitored at selected depths in each treatment.
Runoff plots will be established at the lower end of each treatment to eval-
uate both surface runoff, sediment removal, and nutrient loss. The soil
physical properties measured initially will be periodically evaluated during
the 5-year study.









Low input. The experimental design and methodology are identical to
the high input study, except for plot size which is 5 x 1.6 m and treatments
which are listed below:

1. Zero tillage, residue left on surface plant with a no-till planter
pulled by a 14 HP tractor, chemical weed control.

2. Minimum tillage, slash by hand, disk with 14 HP tractor once per
year, plant with injector planter or small drill, weed with rolling weeder.

3. Conventional tillage like #1, disk with 16 HP tractor for each crop,
plant with injector planter or small drill, weed by cultivation.

4. Conventional tillage like #2, moldboard plowing or soil loosening
with 14 HP tractor for each crop; plant with injector planter or small drill,
weed by cultivation.

Water Balance Experiment (Y-112)

A detailed water balance will be developed for several of the tillage
systems described in Y-113. Precipitation will be measured with a rain gauge.
Surface runoff data will be available from experiment Y-113. Soil water
content at 10 to 15 cm depth intervals in the crop rooting zone will be
monitored periodically during the growing season. Tensiometers located at
two arbitrary depths below the rooting zone will monitor the hydraulic gra-
dient which will indicate if water is flowing downward out of the root zone
or upward into the root zone from the soil below. The in situ unsaturated
hydraulic conductivity for these soils will be measured using the instanta-
neous profile method. The flux of solutes below the soil root zone will
also be monitored using suction lysimeters.

Soil Trafficability (Y-111)

This study will have a two pronged approach. The first part of the
study is designed to determine the probability of having soil that is traf-
ficable for a given number of days per year. The rainfall data from Yurimaguas
and several other sites having longer term rainfall records will be accu-
mulated. Soil samples from each area will be collected and the Atterberg
limits established. Using soil and rainfall data, a series of probability
functions will be developed to determine those periods when one has the
greatest probability of performing tillage operations for the particular
soils-rainfall pattern at each site.

A field study to evaluate the trafficability of some of the treatments
established in experiment Y-113 will be conducted. After certain rainfall
events, the soil water content and the penetrometer resistance of the upper
45 cm of soil will be measured. Comparison of the soil water content with
the Atterberg limits will indicate if the soil is trafficable. These water
contents and penetrometer measurements will be repeated two or three times
daily until the tillage regimes become trafficable.










In addition to the above approach, a field test of trafficability will
be conducted. Based upon the results of the water content measurements above,
an attempt to drive a tractor with attached equipment across each plot will
be made. Differences in soil moisture regime as affected by tillage treatment
are expected to cause differences in trafficability. Trafficability is very
important for conservation tillage because herbicides and insecticides must
be applied when they are needed. Details for this study will be formulated
based upon the amount of land available.

Central Continuous Croping Experiment (Y-101)

The historical plots in Chacras I and III were designed for small hand\
tractors. Hand weeding and its deposition on alleyways have caused a gradual
buildup that affected surface water movement. The bulk of these chacras,
however, were used for other experiments that were terminated. This resulted
in a significant heterogeneity in soil physical and chemical properties.
The purpose of this work is to determine how this variability can be alle-
viated or eliminated by introducing the practices arising out of experiments
Y-111, Y-112 and Y-113. Grass waterways will also be introduced. The areas
will then serve mainly as a demonstration of continuous cultivation with
sound physical soil management, while allowing continuity in monitoring
the historical long-term plots. The seven treatments in the long-term plots
will be modified but will include checks, completely fertilized treatments
with proper conservation tillage. New treatments that may be introduced
are related to the frequency of fertilization in relation to the newly
developed conservation tillage practices. Three of the four replicates will
be maintained in Chacra I. Two crops per year will be grown, alternating
a cereal (corn or grain sorghum) with a grain legume (soybean or peanut).
Unless price advantages dictate otherwise, species that have Al-tolerant
varieties (upland rice and cowpeas) will be excluded from this trial, because
liming and fertilization are supposed to largely eliminate fertility con-
straints.











Principal Research Site: Yurimaguas Experiment Station


Duration: Five years

Budget (CRSP funds only)


PROJECT TITLE

1. Conservation tillage


Salaries
Fringe benefits
Supplies
Equipment
Travel, international
Travel, national
Backstopping
Allowances
Contract services
Freight
Other direct costs
Indirect costs


BUDGET REQUEST

Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year B Total


--------- $1000
28 28 37
3 \\ 3 1\ 4
8 8 9
12 6 2
8 10 11
3 3 3
28 26 29
9 8 7
9 11 11
4 3 3
8 B 8
17 17 17


40
1 4
7
10
8
3
33
7
6
2
3
17


------------------------------------------
Total CRSP 137 131 141 140
Counterpart funds 25 27 29 31


34
0 4
6
2
7
3
32
8
6
2
3
16


167
l 18
38
32
44
15
148
39
43
14
30
84


123 672
33 145


-----------------------------------------
Total Project 162 158 170 171 156 817

=--==ss === a=---=== ==s==-=s==s==s=s = s==s=


Equipment includes: Recording intensity raingauge, nutron
probe, injection planters, no till planters, bush hog, maxi-
merge planter and tool bar, granular insecticide applicator,
Gandy fertilizer applicator, disk bed farmers, spiketooth
harrow.



STAFFING PATTERN


1. Conservation tillage


Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Total


-- FTE .... ... .... ..----- -----------

Resident faculty: CRSP 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Resident faculty: non-CRSP 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 1.0
Senior scientists, field: CRSP 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 3.5
Junior scientists: CRSP 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.0
Other 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total .----------9 1.9------- 19 1.-------9 1.------9 ------9.5
Total 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 9.5

r-1=-->-----*-=*=-==-==s==== -s====~==asa 3=s==== sss=sssss= sssss


----------------------------------------------------------"'-










TROPSOILS-NCSU PROJECT PROPOSAL #2

Title: Continuous Cropping Systems: Fertility Management

Program: Humid Tropics

Project Leader: R. E. McCollum
North Carolina State University

Principal Collaborators: J. Mt. Pleasant, J. R. Benites, J. J. Nicholaides,
F. R. Cox (NCSU),
L. Ar6valo, M. Villavicencio (INIPA)

Project Objectives:

To improve the efficiency of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and zinc
applications and weed control in fertilizer-based continuous cropping systems
and to determine more precisely the residual effects of lime and phosphorus
applications.

Rationale:

The long-term continuous cropping experiment (Y-101) showed that high
crop yields can be obtained on a sustained basis provided the fertility
limitations are corrected by lime and fertilization based on soil tests.
This methodology produced harvests of 28 consecutive crops of upland rice-
corn-soybeans or peanuts grown in rotation. After eight years of continuous
cropping, soil chemical properties had actually improved while no detrimental
effects on soil physical properties were detected, provided vigorous crop
growth was insured by adequate fertilization.

Relatively little research has been done on how to improve the efficiency
of fertilizer applications for this management option. It has become increas-
ingly apparent that farmers likely to use this technology will do it in
a mechanized fashion rather than depending exclusively on hand labor. The
introduction of mechanized land preparation, either with conventional or
conservation tillage will affect fertilizer management. For example, deeper
tillage with a moldboard plow has effectively raised the phosphorus sorption
capacity of the plower layer because the top of the argillic horizon is
mixed with the 10 cm thick epipedon. Crop varieties have also changed since
the earlier fertility experiments were done in Yurimaguas during the early
1970's. Species with adapted cultivars tolerant to high levels of Al satura-
tion will no longer be included because their place is in the low input
system option. Consequently, further work will concentrate on species which
so far require liming to produce adequate yields in Yurimaguas: corn, soy-
beans, peanuts. Grain sorghum is also a possibility for planting during
the drier months.









Relevance to Other Programs:

The maintenance of fertility in acid soils of the humid tropics is
of worldwide relevance. Results of this project will provide data for compa-
risons with similar work done in Sitiung, Indonesia and Manaus, Brazil provid-
ing a range for edaphic and climatic variability within Oxisols and Ultisols
of udic, isohyperthermic regimes.

Scope of Work:

This project consists of six experiments, four supported by the CRSP
and two supported by counterpart funds. The four CRSP-supported experiments
are: nitrogen carryover in rotations and intercrops (Y-103b), residual effects
of phosphorus and zinc (Y-114), potassium fertilization management (Y-103a)
and residual effects of liming (Y-102). An additional experiment on weed
control currently supported by the CRSP on weed population shifts (Y-109a)
and chemical weed control in upland rice (Y-109b) will be taken over by
the weed control specialist to be appointed by INIPA. This scientist will
be backstopped by NCSU weed specialists as needed.

Generalized Procedures:

A cereal-grain legume rotation will be used with two or three crops
a year as appropriate. Some rotations will involve corn-soybeans, corn-
peanuts, grain sorghum-peanuts, including the possibility of a ratoon sorghum
crop as a third crop during the drier parts of the year. Upland rice will
be considered if its price advantage greatly exceeds that of other cereals
at a specific planting date.

The field layout of the new experiments of this project will be designed
in a way that the identity of the individual plots be preserved for several
years under mechanical tillage practices.

Plots are sampled for pH, exchangeable Al, Ca + Mg, K and Olsen-P prior
to each planting. Grain yields are measured and, where appropriate, dry
matter samples are analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn to calculate nutrient
extraction. Analysis of the subsoil fertility parameters is done periodically
on the potassium and liming experiments.

Nitrogen Carryover in Rotations and Intercrops (Y-103b)

A field experiment was initiated in 1984 to test the potential carryover
effect of nitrogen fixed by a grain legume crop to a subsequent crop of
corn. Corn and peanuts are planted as sole continuous crops, in row intercrops
and in a double rotation, where corn is planted where peanuts were just
harvested and vice versa. These four treatments form main plots with N fer-
tilizer rates for corn as subplots, with three replications. The hypothesis
is that planting corn after peanuts will decrease the fertilizer nitrogen
requirements of corn, while the effect of row intercropping will be less.









Phosphorus and Zinc Fertilization Experiments (Y-114)

Previous research in Yurimaguas has demonstrated the value of phosphate
rock and the generally short residual effect of P applications. This effect
is partly due to the relatively low P sorption capacity of the sandy topsoils
and consequent low required rates of P. The introduction of mechanical tillage
operations has effectively increased the P sorption capacity of the plowed
layer as previously mentioned. It also has triggered Zn deficiencies in
corn when P fertilizers are band-placed. The introduction of conservation
tillage, particularly no-till may further affect phosphorus management.
An experiment or group of experiments is in process of being designed to
test the following hypotheses and perhaps others:

1. What is the long-term residual effect of broadcast or banded P applica-
tions or a combination of both under several kinds of conservation tillage
practices?

2. Is there a potential advantage of the high reactivity Bayovar rock
phosphate over superphosphate in cropping systems that require liming to
pH 5.5?

3. Is there a negative P-Zn interaction and if so, how could it be
prevented or overcome?

4. What are the most effective systems of P fertilization for specific
conservation tillage practices?

Potassium Fertilization Experiments (Y-103a)

Potassium is the fertilizer element required in largest quantities
in Yurimaguas. Little is known about its dynamics under continuous cropping,
particularly in relation to liming. Two experiments were planted in 1984
to determine 1) effects of K rates at three levels of base saturation on
the yield and uptake of basic cations of a corn-grain cropping sequence;
2) the effects of the above treatments on the retention and leaching of
potassium in Ultisols of different textures.

The experiments were installed in adjacent previously bulldozed sites.
The soils represent the range in texture of Udults found in Yurimaguas.
Site A has a sandy topsoil over a sandy loam subsoil while Site B has clayey
texture throughout. Five rates of K required to increase exchangeable K
levels to 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 meq K/100 g were applied in a factorial
design with three levels of lime (0, 0.5 and 1.0 times the exchangeable
Al) in Site A and two levels in Site B. Crop yields, uptake of basic cations
and exchangeable bases in the profile will be monitored.

Liming of Continuously Cropped Land (Y-102)

Basic data on lime rates and depth of incorporation were obtained for
four years in an experiment initiated in 1978. Additional information is
needed on 1) the long-term residual effects and changes in subsoil chemical
properties; 2) the timing, placement and rates of lime applications under
conservation tillage.








29
The first item is to be answered by continuing sampling the old plots
for residual effects. A new trial will be designed to tackle the issue of
liming under conservation tillage that involves minimum soil disturbance.
Experience in Ultisols of Southeastern United States indicates that liming
is a more complicated issue under no-till farming. The second trial will
not be initiated until the results of the conservation tillage experiment
(Y-113) are sufficiently advanced to determine the most promising tillage
methods.











Principal Research Site: Yurimaguas Experiment Station

Duration: Five years

Budget (CRSP funds only)


2. Cont. cropping fert. agat. Year 4


Salaries
Fringe benefits
Supplies
Equipment
Travel, international
Travel, national
Backstopping
Allowances
Contract services
Freight
Other direct costs
Indirect costs


Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Total


-----------------

32 q 36

5 4
2 16
10 6
3 3
23 25
10 8
5 4
3 2
4 4
14 15


$1000
36
4
5
2
3
3
23
9
5
3
4
16


--------- ---------------------------
Total CRSP 114 127 113 122 124 600
Counterpart funds 65 72 79 81 79 376

Total Project 179 199 192 203 203 976

=========== =----====-===a==s=s ======s==-


Equipment includes:


Replacement for 1981 Chevrolet Suburban
in Year 5 Upgrading of laboratory
equipment.


2. Cont. cropping fert. agat. Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Total

FTE ---
Resident faculty: CRSP 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 1.2
Resident faculty: non-CRSP 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.5
Senior scientists, field: CRSP 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 2.5
Junior scientists: CRSP 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.0
Other 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Total 1.6 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 9.2


-- - -- - ------- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---










TROPSOILS-NCSU PROJECT PROPOSAL #3

Title: Low-Input Crop Production Systems for Acid Soils in the Humid
Tropics

Program: Humid Tropics

Project Leader: P. A. Sanchez
North Carolina State University

Principal Collaborators: J. Mt. Pleasant, M. P. Gichuru, J. R. Benites,
J. J. Nicholaides, J. C. Alegre, G. C. Naderman,
A. G. Wollum, Soil microbiologist (NCSU)
M. Villavicencio, A. Rachumf, J. Lopez,
W. Guill6n (INIPA)

Project Objective: To continue developing components of low-input soil
management technology for areas with limited infrastructure, as a transi-
tion phase between shifting cultivation and settled farming systems.

Rationale:

The vast majority of shifting cultivators in the humid tropics
is unlikely to rapidly adopt continuous cultivation technologies based
on the intensive use of fertilizers, lime and farm machinery. Experience
in frontier development indicates that farmers are reticent to make
major investments in fertilizers and machinery until the level of regional
development assures the transportation of purchased inputs and a reason-
able market for their crops. Several humid tropical areas have reached
this state, land values have subsequently increased, and farmers are
willing to make lasting investments in their farms. Key soils research
questions for such conditions are addressed in the two previous project
proposals. This proposal focuses on a transition crop production tech-
nology that may be readily adopted by farmers who want to increase their
production but are unable or unwilling to jump to fertilizer-based con-
tinuous crop production. We call it low-input technology to reflect
the low (but not zero) levels of purchased energy inputs, be it in the
form of fertilizers and herbicides or in terms of fossil fuel consumption.
This technology is not necessarily low in family labor input, or in
the applications of latest technology such as improved germplasm. Its
basic premise is to adapt plants to the soil constraints, rather than
correcting soil constraints to meet the plant's demands. Low-input tech-
nology is not a matter of applying less fertilizer than high input tech-
nologies. It is a different way of managing the soil.

In 1981, a low input technology strategy was designed, based on
the premise of introducing gradual changes in traditional shifting culti-
vation. Farmer interviews indicated that weed invasion rather than fer-
tility decline is perceived as the main constraint for prolonging the
cropping period. Our approach is to begin just like the shifting culti-
vators, but gradually introducing innovations at the time farmers normally









abandon their fields to forest fallow regrowth. Research at Yurimaguas
has shown that low input systems include the following components:

1. Slash and burn clearing, leaving stumps in place.

2. Use of crop varieties that can yield well at Al saturation levels
of 80%, thereby eliminating the need of lime to neutralize toxic
levels of aluminum.

3. A rotation of upland rice with cowpeas.

4. Zero or minimum tillage, tacarpo (stick) planting.

5. Chemical weed control

6. Modest rates of N, P and K applied to the cereal crop only.
In Yurimaguas, the rates are 60 kg N/ha, 50 kg P205 and 60 kg
K20/ha.

7. Leaving all crop residues deliberately in place and redistributed
in the field, if necessary.

8. Managed fallows may be planted if the farmer decides to cease
cultivation.

Such a system is considered transitory because fertility depletion
is expected to produce a crop yield decline with time. At a certain
point, the farmer may have to pursue other options such as land abandon-
ment, managed fallows, fertilizer-based continuous cropping, grass-legume
pastures or agroforestry. A replicated, farm level low input trial (Y-210)
is showing that the system is lasting considerably longer than expected.
Five crops, three of upland rice and two of cowpeas, have been harvested
in two years yielding a total 8.2 tons/ha of rice and 2.1 tons/ha of
cowpeas without any fertilizer applications. This is totally different
from our experience in many experiments with the continuous cropping
option where crop yields declined to virtually zero after the second
or third crop without fertilization. The reasons for the differences
are not understood. This project proposes to achieve a better under-
standing of how low input systems operate, continue improving the indi-
vidual components and study some new ones such as organic manures, slash
and mulch, and growing a fallow before beginning cultivation.

Relevance to Other Programs:

Results so far show much promise for the low input strategy as
a totally different option for acid soils in the humid tropics from
that of fertilizer-based continuous cultivation. The low input option
is likely to have a wider immediate applicability, because of its lower
risk, less demanding market infrastructure requirements. This transi-
tion technology is likely to be widely applicable throughout the humid
tropics. The use of managed fallows after cropping provides an excellent
cover for protection against soil erosion.









Scope of Work:

This project consists of 10 experiments, six of which are to be
supported by the CRSP and the rest by INIPA's national programs. All
research on screening crop varieties for Al tolerance (Y-203), high
yields and other desirable agronomic characters (Y-204) is already trans-
ferred to INIPA's national crop programs. Ongoing research on minimum
tillage, crop residue incorporation and interactions with K, P, Ca and
Mg (Y-206 and Y-207) are scheduled for completion in 1985. The trial
on downward movement of Ca and Mg (Y-208) is also scheduled for comple-
tion in 1985, but may be extended if the data so suggest. Research on
weed control in low input systems (Y-209), and the central low input
experiment (Y-210) are expected to continue. New experiments are planned
on soil fertility dynamics (Y-215), improving seed and fertilizer place-
ment with tacarpo (Y-217), burning and immediate fallows (Y-216) and
manure and animal traction (Y-211).

Generalized Procedures:

Secondary forest fallows are cleared by slash and burn, removing logs
but leaving stumps in place. A rotation of upland rice-upland rice-cowpeas
is established with a planting stick (tacarpo) and appropriate fertilizer
rates are applied, but no lime. Herbicides are used to control weeds and
kill live crop residues if necessary. Land in completed experiments will
be planted to a managed legume fallow. Soil dynamics and agronomy will
be followed in a similar manner to Project #2.

Germplasm Screening for Aluminum Tolerance (Y-203)

Screening of varieties or breeding lines for tolerance to 70-80% Al
saturation in the topsoil will continue, following the methodology developed
by Piha and Nicholaides. These projects are now the responsibility of INIPA
National Programs and will be managed by three specialists on-site and
supervised by the Program Coleaders. Yurimaguas is the National Rice Pro-
gram's primary screening site for acid tolerance in upland rice. Breeding
lines as early as F produced at CIAT's Villavicencio Station in Colombia
are first screened for blast tolerance in Alto Mayo and the survivors then
tested for Al tolerance in Yurimaguas. This is an essential component of
this strategy, as the leading variety "Africano Desconocido" is showing
inferior grain milling qualities.

Researchers from the National Corn Program are screening both corn
and grain sorghum germplasm from material gathered by CIMMYT and INTSORMIL,
respectively. The National Grain Legume Program will similarly screen soy-
bean, cowpea and peanut cultivars. Screening of sweet potato cultivars
will be taken over by the International Potato Center as part of the exten-
sion of their mandate to this crop.

Weed Control Measures for Low-Input Management Systems (Y-209)

Objective. To develop low-chemical input management methodologies
for controlling weeds on recently cleared land.










Procedure. An experiment was initiated in August 1983 using the upland
rice-upland rice-cowpea rotation subjected to the following variables:
tillage (some vs. none), residue management (incorporated vs. surface mul-
ches), two plant densities and several weed control methods. The first
phase of this experiment (6 crops) is expected to conclude in August 1985.
The second phase will examine the long-term effects of imposed treatments
on weed population shifts. Results so far indicate that several Cyperaceae
species become the most prevalent weeds in low input systems.

Soil Dynamics in Low Input Systems (Y-215)

Objective. To establish the pattern of soil fertility decline and
fertilizer response of low input systems, which is apparently quite different
from the established pattern under high input systems involving conventional
tillage.

Procedure. The chronologicc" design developed by Smyth and Bandy and
implemented in Manaus will be imposed on a newly cleared and burned chacra
in Y rimaguas. Design consists of 35 treatments with 4 replications in
80 m plots. Total area = 1.12 hectares. For details see experiment M-901
under the Manaus project.

Improved Tacarpo and Fertilizer Placement (Y-217)

Objective. To improve seed germination, emergence and fertilizer place-
ment by improving the use of the tacarpo (planting stick) in zero tillage
system.

Justification. The tacarpo is likely to remain the primary planting
tool for low input systems. The advantages of point tillage are often out-
weighed by uneven seed germination. Fertilizer placement under these condi-
tions has not been properly investigated. Jabbers and other mechanical
adaptations of tacarpo (including a double one for seed and fertilizer
placement) imported from U.S. and Brazil only work well when the land has
been tilled. Rotary injection planters have shown promise at IITA, but
their performance on fields riddled with stumps and ample crop residues
has to be determined.

Procedure. An experiment will be designed to test potentially improved
tools both of planting stick and rotary injection planters that could provide
a better seed germination and superior placement of fertilizer. The actual
treatments are to be developed in late 1985 and the trial is to be initiated
in 1986.

Burning and Immediate Fallow Planting (Y-216)

Objectives. 1) To test the value of burning felled secondary forest
vegetation vs. slashing it; 2) To determine the potential for immediate
planting of a managed fallow prior to growing crops.










Justification. The value of burning is seldom questioned as a means
for adding a surge of nutrients to acid infertile soils and providing a
good start for crops. It is also an effective way to clear debris and facili-
tate planting. Burning is also known to cause considerable losses of nitrogen
and sulfur to the atmosphere. Slash and mulch is only practiced in perudic
areas where the high and well distributed rainfall prevents effective burn-
ing. Slash and mulch would presumably reduce N and S losses and allow a
slower release of nutrients to the soil. One negative aspect would be the
difficulty in planting, although additional slashing with machete may alle-
viate this problem. It is not known whether the absence of burning will
increase or decrease the rate of resprouting from felled trees. When
aluminum-tolerant crops are grown, it is questionable whether the rapid
but short-lived increase in nutrient availability is better than a slower
release pattern. A preliminary comparison of slashing vs. slash and burning
a 25-year old secondary fallow in experiment Y-202 indicated somewhat higher
crop yields without fertilization in the absence of burning.

Scientists in Southeast Asia are advocating the immediate planting
of a kudzu fallow right after burning acid soils of their humid tropics.
This possibility suggests positive benefits in immediate recycling of the
surge in fertility and allowing time for the stumps to rot. It will also
leave the land ready for clearing as our experience indicates that clearing
kudzu fallow is a simple and straightforward practice. This practice appears
specially advantageous when more land is cleared and burned than the farmers
have the capacity to plant, due to seed, labor or fertilizer shortages.
The apparent disadvantages are not to be able to grow crops immediately.
To our knowledge, the advantages and limitations of this possibility have
not been systematically determined. Little is known about the differences
between grass and legume fallows in this respect.

Procedure. An experiment is proposed to test the advantage and limi-
tations of these two practices under low input systems. A ten-year old
forest fallow already cleared will be used and subject to the following
treatments, with four replications:

1. Slashed and burn-low input cropping
2. Slash and burn-kudzu fallow
3. Slashed and burned-Guinea grass fallow
4. Slashed and mulch-low input cropping
5. Slashed and mulch-kudzu fallow
6. Slashed and mulch-Guinea grass fallow

Plot size will be 500 m2, requiring a total area of 1.2 hectares.
Proposed measurements include monitoring of soil fertility dynamics, organic
matter and litter decomposition, above-ground biomass and after one year,
infiltration rates and root development.

Manures and Animal Traction (Y-211)

This experiment, to be conducted with support of the National Selva
Program, is at the design stage. The justification is the potential use
of water buffaloes for animal traction and the potential utilization of









manures gathered from buffalo milking corrals. CORDELOR is introducing
these animals into the Selva, primarily to work on paddy rice fields, but
potentially for this management option. Work is likely to be initiated
in 1986 or 1987.

Central Low Input Experiment (Y-210)

Objective: To integrate the main components that result from other
experiments of this project into farm-level alternatives.

Procedure. This trial was initiated in July 1983 and consists of two
treatments: with and without fertilization (30 kg N, 50 kg P and 60 kg
K/ha/rice crop) replicated twice in a 1 hectare field. It is planted accord-
ing to the generalized procedures described in this project. Labor and
other cost records are kept as well as monitoring crop yields and soil
dynamics once a year. As mentioned before, this trial has provided better
than expected results in terms of stability of crop yields. How long the
system will remain stable is the main justification for maintaining its
existence.











Principal Research Site: Yurimaguas Experiment Station

Duration: Five years

Budget (CRSP funds only)


3. Low input cropping systems Year 4


Salaries
Fringe benefits
Supplies
Equipment
Travel, international
Travel, national
Backstopping
Allowances
Contract services
Freight
Other direct costs
Indirect costs


Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Total


$1000
57
5
12
2
8
3
35
10
6
4
5
21


Total CRSP 148 154 168 160 132 762
Counterpart funds 92 112 114 126 118 562

Total Project 240 266 282 286 250 1324

-== = = = = =-============--==========-===


Equipment includes: Injection planters, replacement of
laboratory equipment, replacement of
one 1983 Chevrolet Suburban in Year 7.




3. Low input cropping systems Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Total

FTE ------
Resident faculty: CRSP 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 1.3
Resident faculty: non-CRSP 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.5
Senior scientists, field: CRSP 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 3.5
Junior scientists: CRSP 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.0 1.0 6.5
Other 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Total 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.1 2.1 11.8


--------------------------------------------------------------










TROPSOILS-NCSU PROJECT PROPOSAL #4

Title: Legume-Based Pastures for Acid Soils in the Humid Tropics

Program: Humid Tropics

Project Leader: P. A. Sanchez
North Carolina State University

Principal Collaborators: M. A. Ara, M. A. Ayarza, R. Schaus,
A. G. Wollum (NCSU)
R. Dextre, J. Vela (INIPA)
J. Toledo, E. Pizarro, M. Calder6n, J. Lenne (CIAT)

Project Objective:

To continue developing soil management technology components for im-
proved pastures production in acid soils of the humid tropics.
Rationale:

Pasture development for dual purpose (beef-milk) cattle production
is a major activity in the Amazon and also a major concern. The high demand
for beef, milk, and byproducts and the traditional role of cattle ranching
in expanding the agricultural frontier in tropical Latin America are among
the main reasons why pasture development is so important in the Amazon.
The direct transplanting of Southern Brazilian technology to the Amazon
resulted in widespread failures, arising major ecological concerns about
degradation of the environment. Outside of Brazil and Colombia, pasture
development in the Amazon occurs mainly in small-scale, mixed farming systems
based on shifting cultivation. The traditional technology is based on the
expected substitution of the planted grass pasture by "torourco," a mixture
of Paspallum conjugatum and Axonopus compressus. The same mixture, inci-
dentally, has been observed in pastures of many other humid tropical areas,
including Sitiung in Indonesia. When grazing pressures become too intense,
while cattle numbers remain constant, the pastures degrade. Considerable
soil compaction, runoff and erosion occurs, justifying many of the concerns
raised by ecologists.

Well-managed pastures, on the other hand, have several positive attri-
butes of relevance to the humid tropics. They keep the soil protected by
a plant canopy throughout the year, require low quantities of purchased
inputs per hectare, and can make good use of marginal soils unsuitable
for crop production. Furthermore, grazing animals have the potential to
recycle most of the nutrients they consume back to the soil.

It is clearly acknowledged that the main factor limiting cattle produc-
tion in the humid tropics is inadequate animal nutrition related to pasture
persistence and quality. These latter factors are directly related to soil
management. In 1978, a year after CIAT's Beef Program was reorganized as
a Tropical Pastures Program focused on acid, infertile soils, this project










was initiated at Yurimaguas in close collaboration with CIAT. Research
phases included testing of promising germplasm, pasture fertilization,
screening for insect and disease resistance and evaluation of mixed pastures
under grazing. Yurimaguas is the oldest site of CIAT's Tropical Pastures
Network with a continuous grazing trial with acid-tolerant germplasm in
the rainforest ecosystem. Extrapolation to other areas of Peru started
within the past two years.

With the advent of the National Selva Program's Tropical Pasture Net-
work, scheduled to begin in 1985, most of the agronomic activities formerly
supported by CRSP funds will be transferred to the National Selva Program,
allowing CRSP funds to be used for tackling specific soil-plant-animal
research problems affecting the quality and persistence of mixed grass-legume
pastures. The main ones center around the relationship between soil fer-
tility, pasture quality and animal intake, soil and grazing management
for pasture persistence, nutrient recycling by the grazing animal and the
transfer of nitrogen from legumes to grasses.

Relevance to Other Programs:

Most research on soil-plant-animal relationships in the lowland tropics
have been conducted in semiarid tropics and savanna ecosystems where pasture
productivity during the dry season is the primary concern. Very little
work has been done in the udic tropics where pastures grow and remain green
throughout the year. Competition between grasses and legumes is quite dif-
ferent from the ustic tropics, where the grass dries out during the dry
season while legumes generally remain green. The infinite growing season
of the humid tropics raises questions such as the role of legumes that
require specific research. Such information would be of value to the humid
tropics in general.

Scope of Work:

This project consists of nine experiments, three of which are to be
supported by the CRSP and the rest by the National Selva Program. It is
closely linked with CIAT, and all NCSU and INIPA personnel involved have
either worked at or received training at CIAT. The following experiments
of a primarily agronomic nature will be supported by the National Selva
Program: Germplasm introduction (Y-301), regeneration of degraded pastures
(Y-304), pasture seed production (Y-305), tolerance to diseases and insects
(Y-306) and pasture establishment in degraded lands (Y-309). Experiments
that include CRSP support are: grass-legume mixtures under grazing (Y-302),
nutritional requirements for pasture establishment (Y-303), potassium
dynamics and recycling (Y-307) and nitrogen transfer in mixed pastures
(Y-308).

Generalized Procedures:

Grass or legume accessions screened for acid tolerance by CIAT are
first grown under clipping in Yurimaguas and then mixed in grazing trials.
The basic premise is minimum additions of fertilizers, on the order of
50 kg P205/ha and 50 kg K20/ha and 10 kg Mg/ha per year, while maintaining










pH values between 4.0 and 4.5 and Al saturation levels between 60 and 95
percent. Conventional pasture establishment normally originates from pre-
viously cropped land or degraded pastures with no stumps left. Virgin forests
are seldom planted directly to pastures. Disk plowing is used to leave
a corrugated soil surface where grass or legume seeds (previously mixed
with inoculum) are planted in 50 cm rows. If botanical seed is not available,
sprigs are transplanted. Fertilization using ordinary superphosphate, KC1
and MgSO is applied along seed bands. Paddocks are fenced and provided
with mineralized salt and drinking water. Nellore or crossbred steers with
Zebu blood, of about 150 kg in weight, are brought from Ganadera Amazonas
ranches, and will be used until they reach approximately 250 kg weight.
Grazing pressure is determined in relation to expected green forage availa-
bility. Grazing management is rotational, with the same animals used for
all replicates of each treatment. Forage dry matter, botanical composition
and nutrient composition (where applicable) are determined prior to each
grazing period. Soil dynamics are followed once a year. Liveweight gains
are recorded at the end of each grazing period. All grazing trials are
considered long-term, because the most relevant data on pasture persistence
is gathered from the second to the sixth year.

Grass-Legume Mixtures Under Grazing (Y-302)

Objectives. To estimate pasture persistence of promising mixtures,
the changes in soil properties and obtain estimates of animal productivity.

Procedure. Experiment Y-302 was established in July 1980 with five
grass-legume mixtures selected from the most promising material from Experi-
ment Y-301 as treatments, and two replications with a plot size of 0.45
ha. Some associations have failed to persist. The surviving ones as of
October 1984 are: Brachiaria decumbens-Desmodium ovalifolium, Brachiaria
humidicola-Desmodium ovalifolium, Andropogon gayanus-Stylosanthes guianensis,
and Centrosema hybrid 438. A new mixture of Andropogon gayanus with
Centrosema macrocarpon is scheduled to replace Panicum maximuim-Pueraria
phaseoloides which failed. Under continuous grazing, imbalances developed
in several mixtures which threatened the persistence of the grass species.
This was partially corrected by shifting to alternate grazing management
and by replanting grass strips in some paddocks. Although annual liveweight
gains per hectare are 6 to 8 times that of Torourco pasture, relatively
low daily gains per animal suggest a pasture quality problem. Nitrogen,
potassium and sulfur are suspected to be the main limitations. The role
of tannins is being studied in Raleigh to determine whether the sulfur-
tannins relationship observed in acid savannas apply to the humid tropics.
After four years, some improvement in topsoil exchangeable Ca and Mg and
available P are beginning to be noted. We propose to continue this experiment
as the "central" trial of this management option, where soil-plant-animal
data continue to be monitored. The next three-year period is considered
critical for pasture persistence. Recent decreases in the legume percentage
of two mixtures indicate that much needs to be learned to maintain a grass:
legume balance in acid soils of the humid tropics.









Nutritional Requirements for Pasture Establishment (Y-303)

Objective: To establish critical levels of phosphorus, both external
and internal, for the establishment phase of eight main tropical pasture
species in Yurimaguas.

Procedure. Experiment Y-303 was established in October 1984 to deter-
mine the in-situ P critical levels of Andropogon gayanus, Bracharia
decumbens, Panicum maximum, the torourco mixture, Desmodium ovalifolium,
Stylosanthes guianensis, Centrosema pubescens and Pueraria phaseoloides.
After running P sorption isotherms, six P rates were determined. The trial
is a factorial of 8 species x 6 rates x 4 replications. Available soil
P and P in the plant will provide the critical levels. Virtually all infor-
mation on P critical levels of these species has been developed for high
P-fixing Oxisols. We expect higher soil critical levels in low P-fixing
Ultisols. This project constitutes the M.S. thesis project of Ing. Rodolfo
Schaus at the Universidad Nacional Agraria under the joint direction of
Drs. Arca and Sanchez.

Potassium Dynamics and Recycling (Y-307)

Objectives: 1) To study the effects of potassium fertilization and
grazing pressures on forage and litter production of a Brachiaria decumbens-
Desmodium ovalifolium; 2) to evaluate the importance of plant litter, animal
urine and leaching losses for the K-economy in pastures.

Procedure: Three field experiments will be established simultaneously.
The grazing experiment is a factorial of three annual rates of K fertili-
zation by two grazing pressures with three repetitions with a total area
of 1 hectare. A parallel clipping experiment with the same K levels provides
a comparison of the effect of grazing on K dynamics. A bare plot experiment
will account for soil chemical and physical properties related to K leaching.

The main parameters to be measured are: available forage before and
after grazing, botanical composition, litter dry matter, K content in bio-
mass, K in litter, exchangeable K and other bases in the profile and point
samples in excreta areas. Animal liveweight gains will also provide an
estimate of K removal. This experiment will be used to study the effect
of grazing on other nutrients by INIPA counterparts.

Nitrogen Contribution of Legumes in Mixed Pastures (Y-309)

Objectives. 1) To estimate the N contribution of two adapted legumes
that differ in palatability in mixtures with Brachiaria decumbens; 2) to
evaluate the effect of grazing pressures on the N contribution of Desmodium
ovalifolium to the grass; 3) to compare N availability to animals in mixed
grass-legume pastures with N-fertilized, pure grass pastures. It is hypo-
thesized that, 1) nitrogen transfer through animal excretion is expected
to be more important in the more palatable legume, (Centrosema hybrid 438)
while N release through legume litter may be more important in the less
palatable and therefore, less consumed species (Desmodium ovalifolium);
2) increasing grazing pressure decreases animal selectivity between grasses
and legumes and increases N intake by the animal and decreases litter accu-
mulation.









Two experiments are being installed at IVITA's Pucallpa Station to
test the above hypotheses. The grazing experiment consists of six treatments,
with three replications with a total area of six hectares. Treatments 1
and 2 consist of the Bd/Do mixture at a moderate grazing pressure (9 kg
available forage dry matter/100 kg animal liveweight) and at a high one
(4.5 kg DM/100 kg liveweight). Treatment 3 is Bd/Ch mixture, and the rest
pure Bd pasture fertilized at 0, 150 and 300 kg N/ha/yr. The latter four
are at the moderate grazing pressure. A parallel clipping experiment includes
similar treatments with four replications. Differences between N consumed
by the grazing animals between the mixed pastures and the pure grass pastures
without N fertilization will provide an overall estimate of N contribution
of the legumes. Differences between the grazing and clipping experiments
will be used to estimate the N transfer by the grazing animal. Differences
between N contributed by litter decomposition vs. decomposition of legume
ro~ts and nodules will be estimated through a third experiment in which
N -enriched Desmodium ovalifolium litter will be added.

In addition to the generalized procedures, this experiment will measure
pasture dry matter and N intake with fistulated animals, faecal output,
in-vitro and in-rumen dry matter digestibility. Besides estimating the
N contribution of the legume, this experiment will provide a quantitative
comparison of grass-legume pastures with nitrogen-fertilized grass pastures.
The economic analyses will be undertaken by the National Agroeconomics
Program, using data from IVITA's nitrogen-fertilized milk production module
in operation at the same location.











Principal Research Si


Duration: 5 years


Budget (CRSP funds on


4. Legume-based pastures


Salaries
Fringe benefits
Supplies
Equipment
Travel, international
Travel, national
Backstopping
Allowances
Contract services
Freight
Other direct costs
Indirect costs


te: Yurimaguas Experiment Station, IVITA
Principal Station, Pucallpa, NCSU
Soil Science, Crop Science and Amimal
Science laboratories


ly)


Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year B Total


$1000
13
2
6
2
3
3
13
3
5
2
2
9


Ttl----------------------------^----------"------------"~"----""34(j"-
Total CRSP 72 68 63 68 69 340
Counterpart funds 110 120 130 132 130 622

Total Project 182 188 193 200 199 962



Equipment includes: Cattle weighing balance, replacements
for other lab equipment.


4. Leguse-based pastures Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year B Total
........ --... .----......... .......---....---. .-- ----------------------------. ..------ .. ...-------
--------------- FTE------------
Resident faculty: CRSP 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.5
Resident faculty: non-CRSP 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Senior scientists, field: CRSP 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1
Junior scientists: CRSP 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.0
Other (Jr. scientist,non-CRSP) 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 10.0
Total 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 15.6---------------------------------
Total 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 15.6

-=-==--============-s=- -=====saaaa-asaa=


-- ------ ------- ---------- ---""------- - -- - -- - -










TROPSOILS-NCSU PROJECT PROPOSAL #5


Title: Soil Management for Agroforestry Systems in the Humid Tropics

Program: Humid Tropics

Project Leader: Charles B. Davey
North Carolina State University

Principal Collaborators: L. T. Szott, C. A. Palm, J. R. Davelouis,
J. C. Alegre, P. A. Sanchez, A. G. Wollum (NCSU)
M. A. Villavicencio, B. Pichanasi, R. Coral,
J. R. Perez (INIPA)
F. Torres (ICRAF)

Project Objectives:

1. To continue developing soil management components for improved
agroforestry systems on acid soils of the humid tropics.

2. To determine the value of trees and woody shrubs in producing food
or fiber.

3. To determine whether trees improve or stabilize soil properties
in the humid tropics.

Rationale:

Shifting cultivation, an ecologically stable system when populations
are small, breaks down under increasing population pressure. This is occur-
ring in much of the humid tropics and improvements are needed to increase
both the productivity and stability of cultivation systems. Trees are con-
sidered the natural "vocation" of the humid tropics as illustrated by the
ability of rainforests to grow and accumulate large quantities of biomass
on acid soils very low in nutrients. No soil management research program
in this ecosystem can be considered complete without bringing trees into
them. Agroforestry can be defined as growing trees along with crops or
pastures either simultaneously or in sequence. Several agroforestry systems
offer opportunities for reaching these goals in low to medium input produc-
tion systems. Most agroforestry research in the humid tropics, however,
has been conducted on high base status soils.

Agroforestry is the fourth soil management option being studied by
TROPSOILS-NCSU in Yurimaguas. This option focuses on acid, well-drained
soils that occupy flat to rolling topographies. Little is known quantita-
tively about soil-tree relationships under these conditions. Our involvement
in agroforestry started in 1980 with observational trials with two species,
melina (Gmelina arborea) and peach palm (Gulielma gasipaes), otherwise
known as pijuayo, pupunha, chontaduro or pejibaye. In 1982, a joint study
group composed of scientists from INIPA, ICRAF, CIAT and NCSU undertook










a sondeo-type survey in farms around Yurimaguas and Pucallpa to suggest
research priorities for integral agroforestry research. The recommendation
was to concentrate on crop-tree systems and secondary forest fallows at
Yurimaguas and to focus on pasture-tree systems at Pucallpa. Emphasis on
peach palm was recommended because Yurimaguas is one of its centers of
origin, because its fruit is considered as very well balanced in terms
of carbohydrates, protein, fats and vitamins, and because of the plant's
ability to coppice, which enables heart of palm (palmito) production for
export without killing the tree. Fast-growing trees for pulp or hardwood
production were also considered important. The study of secondary fallows,
either with natural or introduced species was also initiated in order to
bridge one of the major gaps in our understanding of the shifting cultivation
process: how do trees improve soil properties? During 1984, a literature
review on this subject provided the basis for new hypotheses that served
to formulate parts of this proposal.*

The agroforestry option, more than the crops or pasture options, re-
quires extensive efforts in germplasm collection and evaluation. The mech-
anisms for introducing and screening cultivars of crop or pasture species
are genuine soil management tools and are now routine. In agroforestry
we are at the initial stages of defining species. We know little about
growth habits, phenology and propagation characteristics. Conscious of
the need for inputs from other disciplines such as forestry and tree horti-
culture, a project was jointly submitted by ICRAF and INIPA which culminated
in the award of 260,700 Canadian dollars to INIPA for the Yurimaguas Agro-
forestry Project by the International Development and Research Center.
This project complements TROPSOILS activities and is guided by a Technical
Committee of which the TROPSOILS Principal Investigator is a member. Conse-
quently, this endeavor provides a unique opportunity to generate new infor-
mation on soil-crop-tree relationships.

Relevance to Other Programs:

To our knowledge, this is the first in-depth soil research project
on agroforestry in acid soils of the humid tropics that is integrated with
other disciplines and is linked with worldwide agroforestry research through
ICRAF. Although several experiments focus on one species, the principles
likely to evolve can be of value in other areas where other tree species
may be the priority. The findings of these studies may be widely applicable
to the 500 million hectares of this ecosystem in Asia, Africa and Latin
America.

Scope of Work:

The entire agroforestry project consists of 14 experiments of which
eight are proposed for CRSP support and six by the IDRC grant. Five of
the eight CRSP-supported experiments are ongoing established trials and
three are new. Ongoing experiments include: Nutritional requirements of


*Sanchez, P. A., C. A. Palm, L. T. Szott and C. B. Davey. Trees as soil
improvers in the humid tropics. In M. G. Cannell (ed.): Trees as Crop
Plants, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Midlothian, Scotland (in press).










Gmelina arborea (Y-403), nutritional requirements of peach palm (Y-404),
alley cropping (Y-405), improved fallows (Y-409), forest and soil regenera-
tion (Y-410). Three new ones are proposed: cover crops for peach palm
(Y-402), fallows as nutrient accumulators (Y-411) and comparative soil
dynamics under different management systems (Y-412). Research supported
by the IDRC grant includes: Peach palm cover crops (Y-402), collection
and propagation of peach palm ecotypes (Y-406), collection and propagation
of agroforestry species (Y-407), collection and propagation of Amazonian
native fruit trees (Y-408), management of peach palm for fruit or palmito
production (Y-414), multistrata polyculture systems (Y-415), and a market
potential study of Amazonian palms (Y-416), the latter in cooperation with
INIPA's National Agroeconomics Program.

Cover Crops for Peach Palm Plantations (Y-402)

An observational trial, planted in 1980 provided qualitative information
that a kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides) understory favors the growth and initial
fruiting of peach palm. After reviewing the information on interrow legume
management of rubber in Malaysia, several ideas came forth, including the
use of new legume species. A new cover crop experiment is proposed and
will include the following treatments:

1. Weedy cover (no management)
2. Kudzu, no fertilizer
3. Kudzu and 50 kg PO0 and 60 kg K 0 and 10 kg Mg/ha/year
4. Desmodium ovalifoium, without fertilization
5. Desmodium ovalifolium, fertilization as #2
6. Desmodium heterophyllum, without fertilization
7. Desmodium heterophyllum, fertilization as #2
8. Centrosema macrocarpon, without fertilization
9. Centrosema macrocarpon, fertilization as #2
10. Calopogonium caeruleum, without fertilization
11. Colopogonium caeruleum, fertilization as #2
12. Low input cropping (rice-cowpea) with appropriate fertilization

Plot size is estimated at 500 m2 each. A completely randomized design with
three replications will require approximately 1.8 hectares. The recommended
spacing and management practices for peach palm fruit production will be
used.

Main parameters to be measured are: ground cover, understory biomass
and N content, N fixation activity estimates, height and diameter of peach
palm, and fruit yields from the fourth year on. Dynamics of physical, chemi-
cal and biological properties will be monitored at planting and once a
year.

Nutritional Requirements of Gmelina arborea (Y-403)

Objective. To determine the response of Gmelina arborea to N, P, K,
Mg and lime applications.










Procedure. Seedlings of an improved upright variety from Jarf, Brazil
were planted in mid-1982 at 3 x 3 m spacing in a previously cultivated
Ultisol. Eighteen fertilizer treatments provide for a four point response
curve to N, P, K and Mg and to one rate of lime (1 ton/ha), and to Cu +
Mo + Zn. The experiment has three replications. Strong responses are evident
at one year over the check plots. Height and average diameter at breast
height (DBH) are being measured four times a year. The experiment will
continue through harvest at 9 years and as a residual for the second rotation.

Nutritional Requirements of Peach Palm (Y-404)

The objective, procedures and experimental design are the same as
in Y-403, except for different spacing. Stem height and DBH responses to
nitrogen (up to 200 kg N/ha/yr) phosphorus (25 kg P/ha/yr), potassium (75
kg K/ha/yr), magnesium (20 kg Mg/ha/yr) and to 1 ton/ha/yr lime are evident
at 18 months after transplanting. The experiment is scheduled to continue
for 15 years.

Alley Cropping (Y-405)

Alley cropping is a traditional agroforestry system developed in Java
where prunings of Leucaena leucocephala grown in rows are used as mulch
and a source of nutrients to annual crops grown between them. The principle
behind alley cropping is that trees fix nitrogen and cycle other nutrient
elements from the subsoil, providing them to the annual crops. This technique
has worked well in Alfisols of West Africa where IITA has improved it.
But, will it work in acid soils where Leucaena does not thrive and where
the subsoils are depleted of nutrients?

An experiment was initiated in August 1983 to attempt to answer this
question, using legume species believed to be acid-tolerant. A split plot
design was used to study six tree species, six spacings between alleys
and three fertilization levels in the tree rows, with four replications.
The alley species are: Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), guava (Inga edulis),
amaciza (Erythrina spp.), tornillo (Cedrelinga catenaeformis), Leucaena
diversifolia, believed to be acid-tolerant, and Leucaena leucocephala as
a check. Spacing between tree rows ranged from 2 to 4.5 m in 0.5 m incre-
ments. Fertilty treatments applied to the tree rows were: none, 2 ton/ha
of lime and 2 ton/ha of lime plus 100 kg P/ha as single superphosphate.
Food crops were grown under constant spacing and without fertilizer addi-
tions. Two additional treatments with sole crops with and without recommended
fertilization are used as checks. The first prunings were added to the
first crop (corn) in Feburary 1984. The second crop cowpeaa) is about ready
for harvest.

Soil chemical and physical properties are being monitored. The contri-
bution of nutrients added to the system in the prunings is also being ana-
lyzed.









Collection and Propagation of Peach Palm (Y-406)

Yurimaguas is one of the centers of origin of peach palm. Many ecotypes
grown in native communities differ greatly in trunk spininess and fruit
appearance. A collection effort was initiated in 1981 by Jorge Perez as
part of his thesis for the ingeniero forestal degree at the University
of Iquitos. About 70 ecotypes have been collected and characterized for
fruit properties. Great variability was observed in protein, vitamins,
fat contents, mesocarp color and other properties. Several ecotypes are
planted in the field to maintain a collection. A major limiting factor
is the outcrossing habit of peach palm. Continuation of this work is in
progress and is to be supported by counterpart funds.

Collection and Propagation of Agroforestry Species (Y-407)

Trees and woody shrub species for alley cropping, improved fallows
and timber production need to be collected from the vast germplasm resources
of the Amazon and elsewhere. The failure of Leucaena leucocephala as an
alley crop on acid soils (experiment Y-405) underscores the need for selec-
ting species that are naturally adapted to acid soils. Examples of promising
genera are Parkia, Schyzolobium, Erythrina, and Calliandra. Collection
of species for improved fallows or timber production is also needed. Examples
of promising species are anayocaspi (Callyphillum sprucianum), cetico
(Cecropia sp.), cituye (Heliconia sp.). Introduction of species considered
useful in Africa and Asia is also desirable. Examples of germplasm obtained
from IITA and the Niftal Project include Acioa barteri, Albizia falcataria
and several others. The proposed work includes:

1. Collect seed of candidate trees and woody shrubs (both N-fixing
and non-fixing) and determine whether they can be direct seeded in the
field or need to be germinated and raised in the nursery and transplanted
to the field.

2. Determine best spacing for the trees/bushes within rows, among
rows.

3. Determine their response to pruning and their ability to produce
viable seed or multiply by vegetative propagation.

Preliminary contact have been established with Dr. Roger Leakey of
the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology in Scotland for collaborative work
in studying vegetative propagation methods of these species. Cooperation
with the Von Humboldt Station of INFOR at Pucallpa is also envisioned.
This work is to be supported by counterpart funds, including additional
staff to be hired.

Collection and Propagation of Native Fruit Trees (Y-408)

The Amazon has a considerable number of fruit species that appear
well adapted to acid soils and that are virtually unknown outside the region.
Their fruits are sources of food, juices, spices or edible oils. We propose









similar collection and propagation of fruit tree species considered as
having promising agroindustrial potential in the Amazon. The species selec-
ted, apart from peach palm are: araza (Eugenia stipata), guarana (Paulina
cupana), camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia), ungurahui (Jessenia polycarpa), copoazu
(Theoboma grandifolium), achiote (Bixa orellana) and guava (Inga edulis
and Inga spectabilis). Collections will be conducted in cooperation with
INIPA's San Roque Station at Iquitos. Work is to be supported by IDRC grant
funds and will be led by the horticulturalist to be hired with those funds.

Improved Fallows (Y-409)

The purpose of this experiment is to determine whether the rate of
improvement in soil properties after the cropping phase of shifting culti-
vation can be accelerated by improved fallows in comparison with natural
forest fallow regrowth. The experiment is expected to broaden the inquiry
started by the kudzu fallow experiment (Y-202), now terminated.

A one-hectare mature secondary forest fallow was slashed, burned and
planted to upland rice without fertilization in August 1983. Aster the
rice harvest, the following treatments were installed in 100 m plots with
four replications, arranged in a randomized complete block design:

Natural fallow regrowth
Cajanus cajan
Inga edulis
Stylosanthes guianensis 136
Centrosema hybrid 438
Desmodium ovalifolium 350
Pueraria phaseoloides
High input cropping check
Low input cropping check

Above-ground biomass is sampled every four months. Soil fertility dynamics
and certain physical properties such as infiltration rates and bulk density
are periodically sampled. Botanical composition and the structure of the
fallows is also monitored. Litter quality and organic matter decomposition
will begin to be monitored after the second year. No weeding will be done,
allowing competition between the planted species and spontaneous ones.
After four years, the fallows will be cut, burned and planted to low input
crop rotations.

Forest and Soil Regeneration (Y-410)

Information about the natural processes involved in the regeneration
of favorable soil properties by secondary forest fallows is critical to
our understanding of shifting cultivation and hence, for designing improved
systems. This experiment represents an attempt to quantify soil dynamics
through the study and manipulation of fallows of various ages. The following
objectives are attempted in this study:

1. To observe the changes in soil properties associated with natural
secondary vegetation (purma) of different ages growing on similar Udults.









2. To quantify the potential or actual nutrient contributions from
various sources in an abandoned agricultural field and to estimate leaching
losses.

3. To experimentally investigate the effects of soil physical and
chemical properties on secondary succession by manipulating soil fertility
levels and residue input.

Objective 1 is to be accomplished by selecting purmas of known age,
growing on Paledults with similar color and textural gradients and located
on similar slopes around the Yurimaguas station. An attempt will be made
to identify indicator species that correlate with age of fallow.

Objectives 2 and 3 are expected to be accomplishing in a 3-hectare
plot cleared of tall secondary fallow, cropped and just abandoned by a
farmer near the Yurimaguas station. The land was rented from the farmer
in February 1984 and has been divided into four treatments, arranged in
a completely randomized design with four replications. The treatments are:

1. Removal of all plant residues
2. Plant residue left in place
3. Double the amount of plant residue
4. Fertilization in kg/ha/yr: 100 N, 100 P and 120 K

Measurements taken include rainfall and its chemical composition, bio-
mass, its structure and nutritional composition two times a year, soil
dynamics with time, infiltration and bulk density, leaching through zero-
tension lysimeters and root distribution in the top 50 cm. Total elemental
analysis to 1 meter depth was also performed. Soil respiration was measured
by COr entrapment field techniques once during the first year. If continued
for about 15 years, this experiment will provide a sound basis for under-
standing the process of soil productivity regeneration under fallows.

Fallows as Nutrient Accumulators (Y-411)

Two functions commonly ascribed to the fallow phase of shifting culti-
vation are: 1) to accumulate and conserve nutrients in the vegetation,
protecting them from leaching, and 2) to increase the organic matter of
the topsoil thereby increasing the cation exchange capacity and hence,
the total nutrient availability of the soil. The generally long fallow
periods required to restore fertility make shifting cultivation an extensive
form of land use, approximately 80% of the land being in fallow at any
one time. An ideal fallow would be one that takes up available nutrients
and recycles them efficiently within the system, shortening the time required
to restore fertility. Plant species differ in their nutrient uptake capaci-
ties, due both to different uptake kinetics and distribution of roots in
the soil. One might expect, therefore, certain plants to be better suited
for nutrient accumulation and recycling. Data on Gmelina arborea from Brazil
and Nigeria indicate this fast-growing tree is a Ca, and perhaps Mg, accu-
mulator. The soils under these trees have several times the exchangeable










Ca as the soil under rainforest. Certain bamboo and other grasses, on the
other hand, accumulate K in the plant tissue and the K-enriched litter
increases the soil exchangeable K. There are also reports that Cecropia
sp. are K accumulators. Tergas and Popenoe found in Guatemala that soils
under pure stands of Heliconia sp. had 3-4 times the available P as mixed
species fallows of the same age. And, it is well known that nitrogen-fixing
legumes enrich surface soils with available N. One would predict that fallows
planted or enriched with such species would restore soil fertility faster
than natural fallows.

Fertility improvement can be of two kinds: 1) increasing soil nutrient
availability during the fallow period itself, rendering the soil indeed
more fertile before reclearing, or 2) immobilizing increased quantities
of nutrients in the fallow biomass which would be rapidly released upon
clearing and burning. We are interested primarily in the first kind, although
the development of ash with higher nutrient contents would also be advan-
tageous.

The purpose of this new experiment, therefore, is to determine if
fallows planted with species known or reported to be nutrient accumulators
take up and recycle nutrients more efficiently than natural fallows, thereby
restoring fertility more quickly and reducing the time required for the
fallow phase.

A two-phase approach is proposed. Phase I consists of sampling otherwise
identical soils in fallows with or without the candidate species for nutrient
accumulators. This includes Heliconia spp. and Cecropia spp. both of which
readily invade abandoned fields. Preliminary results from fallows sampled
in Ultisols of Costa Rica do in fact corroborate the findings of Tergas
and Popenoe that soils under Heliconia are higher in available P. Further
spot testing is currently underway in Yurimaguas on soils and plant tissue
of Heliconia and Cecropia stands and in Gmelina arborea plots with and
without lime in experiment Y-403.

If the results of Phase I provide strong leads, an experiment will
be designed that will include these and other fallows in previously fer-
tilized and/or not fertilized plots. In addition to differences in available
and exchangeable nutrients under different planted fallows, changes in
the quantity and composition of soil organic matter and cation exchange
capacity might result from differences in the quality and quantity of litter
produced. Some types of litter are readily decomposed making nutrients
readily available to plants. Other types are not easily decomposed and
lead to the formation of humus and potential changes in the cation exchange
capacity of the soil. Both types of litter would be desirable for maximum
nutrient availability and retention.

Comparative Soil Dynamics Under Different Management Options (Y-412)

The potential effects of different farming systems on soil properties
in rainforest regions are frequently mentioned in both the scientific and
popular press. Statements such as "pastures degrade tropical soils," "trees










improve soil properties," "arable crops are erosive," abound. Such questions
are of fundamental importance to guide the development of marginal lands
in the humid tropics. There are no studies where the effects of different
management systems on soil properties can be determined in a rigorous way.
The purpose of this proposal is to compare systematically the effect of
different management options on well-drained Ultisols. It brings together
what we have learned as promising options in 12 years of research at Yuri-
maguas and places the options in a way they can be compared.

An 8-hectare field of Typic Paleudult soils located on 0-4% slopes
was selected on an area newly incorporated into the Yurimaguas Experiment
Station. The vegetation is a 10-12 year old secondary forest fallow, typical
of the target area of the Program. The field will be divided into 24 plots
by transects before clearing it July 1985. Each plot will be placed in
a manner that includes the topographical variability, including the small
percentage of wet spots (tahuampas) typical of this landscape. The experiment
will consist of eight management options as treatments with three replica-
tions arranged in a randomized complete block design. Land clearing will
be by slash and burn unless otherwise specified. The treatments developed
together by the INIPA and NCSU resident staff in Yurimaguas are:

1. Shifting cultivation (0.36 ha per plot). Land will be planted to
the traditional upland rice variety intercropped with cassava. After the
cassava harvest, the plots will be allowed to revert to fallow, thus permit-
ting the study of the fallow regeneration process. These plots will be
contracted out to farmers who will clear and manage them.

2. Mechanized continuous cropping (0.36 ha per plot). Land will be
cleared with a tractor equipped with a KG blade, burned, disked, limed
and fertilized according to soil test recommendations and planted to a
corn-peanut-soybean rotation. Grass waterways to dispose of excess water
will be established as needed. Ample room for turning tractors will also
be provided. Conservation tillage will be practiced after lime and phosphorus
are properly incorporated into the subsoil.

3. Transition technology (0.36 ha per plot). Plots will be cleared
by slash and burn, withdrawing logs for firewood but leaving stumps in
place. Low input technology with an upland rice-cowpea rotation will be
planted, fertilized and managed according to the practices developed in
Experiment Y-210. After three years, when most stumps have rotted out,
the land will be plowed, limed, fertilized and treated like treatment #2.

4. Low input technology with managed fallow (0.36 ha per plot). As
treatment #3 except that the upland rice-cowpea rotation will continue
until the yield declines become serious. Then it will be planted to kudzu
or another managed fallow, rested for two years, burned and planted again
to the low-input technology system.

5. Tree crop production (0.5 ha per plot). Land will be planted to
low input technology crops but interplanted to one species of value to
the plywood industry developing near Yurimaguas. Candidate species are
ishpingo (Amburana searensis), anayocaspi (Cordia alliodora), capirona
(Callyphillum sprucianum) or tornillo (Cedrelinga catenaeformis).










6. Peach palm production (0.5 ha per plot). Land will be planted with
peach palm spaced at 5 x 5 m with kudzu interrows fertilized according
to the soil test critical levels arising out of experiment Y-403. No initial
production of palmito is contemplated.

7. Mutlistrata system.(0.5 ha per plot). A traditional system developed
by Bora natives north of Iquitos, modified in relation to Yurimaguas condi-
tions will be tested as an option that reflects traditional management.
Plots will be cleared and planted to low input technology crops. Interspersed
among them araza (Eugenia stipata) seedlings will be planted at 3 x 3 m
spacing forming a second stratum. The third stratum will be composed of
hardwood trees planted also at the same time but at 5 x 5 m spacing. Candi-
date species are mahogany (Swetania macrophyla), ishpingo (Amburana
searensis) and Cordia alliodora. The annual crop stratum will gradually
be shaded out by the tree strata.

8. Forest fallow check (0.5 ha each). Plots will be left untouched
to serve as a check against other treatments.

Additional treatments involving legume-based pastures under grazing
were considered highly desirable but not feasible within the space available.
Two treatments (traditional vs. improved pastures) would add an additional
6 hectares of land to this experiment.

Forest biomass and nutrient composition will be estimated prior to
clearing. Rainfall records will be kept and rainfall chemical composition
analyzed.

The fertility-related parameters to be measured include chemical compo-
sition of the ash and periodic soil samplings at depths of 0-15, 15-30,
30-50 and 50-100 cm at the following months after burning: 0, 3, 6, 12,
18, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108 and 120. Total composite soil samples
per sampling period will be 96. Soil samples will be analyzed for pH (1:1
H20), organic C, total N, 1N KCl-extractable acidity, Ca, Mg and inorganic
N. Exchangeable K and available P, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu will be determined
by the modified Olsen extraction. 1N CuCl -extractable Al will also be
determined. Micronutrient determinations will be limited to the 0-15 cm
layer. Effective CEC and Al saturation will be calculated.

Soil physical parameters will include penetrometer resistance, bulk
density and water infiltration rates once a year. Biological parameters
will include litter quality indicators, estimates of N -fixation, and mycor-
rhizae populations with emphasis on the topsoil layer and the litter layer,
if present.

Agronomic parameters include yield determinations and growth of tree
crops. Estimates of total biomass will be done by appropriate techniques.
Estimates of nutrient uptake will also be done, with emphasis on the portions
removed from the field.

The representative of the National Agroeconomics Program stationed
in Yurimaguas will monitor labor inputs and production costs and returns.








54

Peach Palm Management for Fruit or Palmito (Y-414), Multistrate Poly-
culture Systems (Y-415) and Agroindustrial Potential of Palms (Y-416) are
to be designed by new staff hired under the IDRC grant to INIPA.











Principal Research Site:


Duration: 5 years


Yurimaguas Experiment Station and
surrounding areas.


Budget (CRSP funds only)


5. Agroforestry systems


Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Total


-------------- $1000 --------------
Salaries 45 49 54 35 30 213
Fringe benefits 4 4 5 3 q 3 / 19
Supplies 9 8 8 7 6 38
Equipment 10 2 3 20 2 37
Travel, international 8 8 8 8 8 40
Travel, national 4 4 4 4 4 20
Backstopping 35 31 36 39 33 174
Allowances 11 12 13 12 12 60
Contract services 9 10 10 7 7 43
Freight 3 4 4 4 3 18
Other direct costs 6 7 7 6 5 31
Indirect costs 26 20 22 21 15 104
-T------------------ -
Total CRSP 170 159 174 166 128 797
Counterpart funds 134 126 143 145 136 684
Total Proect 304 25 17 -- 64 141-------------------------------------
Total Project 304 285 317 311 264 1481

--------------------====-I======s2s-----


Equipment includes:





5. Agroforestry systems


Establishment of microbiology laboratory;
three chainsaws, replacement for Kjeldahl,
balances, vacuum pump and a replacement
for the second 1983 Chevy Suburban in year
7.

Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Total


---------------- FTE -------- ---------
Resident faculty: CRSP 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.5
Resident faculty: non-CRSP 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.5
Senior scientists, field: CRSP 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.5
Junior scientists: CRSP 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.0 11.5
Other (Jr. scientist,non-CRSP) 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 3.0

Total 3.8 3.8 3.8 2.3 2.3 16.0

==zz=zz=3tszz==zsss =zzzszsszzzszzzszzz Zs










EVALUATION REPORT ON PROPOSED SOIL MANAGEMENT CRSP RESEARCH PROJECTS


PROJECT TITLE: Characterization, Classification and Interpretation of
Soils of the Humid Tropics

SUBMITTED BY: S. W. Buol, North Carolina State University


EVALUATION:

Check the appropriate descriptor or write in one of your choice
in the blank space provided.

1. Statement of objectives

_quite clear; adequate; unclear;

2. Relevance of objectives to SM-CRSP goals

high degree; somewhat; marginal;

3. Potential contributions of the project

A. For increasing basic understanding of soil management principles

high; moderate; low;

B. For providing technology to improve soil management practices

high; moderate; low;

4. General experimental approach

commendable; adequate; questionable;

5. Budget

A. Positions requested

adequate; excessive; inadequate;

B. Operational support requested

adequate; excessive; inadequate;

6. Major strengths of project

Comments:









TROPSOILS-NCSU PROJECT PROPOSAL #6

Title: Characterization, Classification and Interpretation of Soils of
the Humid Tropics
Program: Humid Tropics

Project Leader: S. W. Buol
N. C. State University
Principal Collaborators: L. R. Newman, R. Hoag, P. A. Sanchez (NCSU)
R. Chumbimune (INIPA)
H. Subagjo (CSR)
National Soil Survey leaders of other countries
H. Eswaran (Soil Management Support Services)
Project Objectives:

1. To increase knowledge of soils and soil properties in the humid
tropics.

2. To characterize potential network sites to aid in proper site
selection of extrapolation work.

3. To improve the interpretation of Soil Taxonomy in agronomic terms
through the Fertility Capability Classification System.
Rationale:

Knowledge of the properties and distribution of soils of the humid
tropics serves as the basis for soil management. The link between the
subdisciplines of soil classification and soil fertility have always been
strong in TROPSOILS-NCSU. Proper selection of sites for extrapolation
work requires good soil characterization, classification via Soil Taxonomy
and interpretation in practical agronomic terms. This project proposes
continuation of these activities, several of which are outlined as sub-
projects here and others which may arise in the course of the 1985-89
quinquennium.

Relevance to Other Programs:

Increased knowledge about properties of humid tropical soils will
provide feedback for improving Soil Taxonomy and other natural classifica-
tion systems. Membership of NCSU faculty involved in this project on inter-
national committees of the Soil Management Support Service provides such
a link. Participation in the following committees is ongoing at present:
ICOMLAC (low activity clays), ICOMOX (Oxisols), ICOMAND (Andisols) and
ICOMAQ (aquic soils). SMSS covers direct costs. Our research will also
relate to the FAO-led soil reference base and framework on land evaluation.










Scope of Work:

This project consists of six subprojects all supported either partially
or totally by the Soil Management CRSP: characterization of network sites
(Y-605), maximum nutrient potential of principal soil areas of the Amazon
(Y-606), influence of volcanic ash in transmigration areas in Sumatra
(Y-608), FCC refinement and testing (Y-601), FCC map of the developing
world (Y-602) and soil taxonomy and FCC software for microcomputers (Y-607).
Two additional subprojects, characterization of alluvial soils of the
Amazon (Y-603) and characterization of Puerto Maldonado Experiment Station
(Y-604) are scheduled for completion in 1985 and are not described in
this proposal.

Characterization of Network Sites in the Humid Tropics (Y-605)

Objectives. Describe, sample, characterize and classify representative
soils in the humid tropics where agronomic research is to be conducted
or transferred by TROPSOILS collaborators.

Justification. Soil properties such as texture, depth, mineralogy,
structure and base saturation affect the responses obtained when management
practices are implemented. As management practices develop, researchers
and extension specialists need to evaluate other locations where the tech-
nology is applicable. This subproject will provide soil property data
needed to base technology transfer judgments. In addition, it provides
data to classify the soil used in any of the agronomic research.

Generalized procedures. Sites on existing experiment stations are
sampled by natural horizon thickness to a depth of 2 meters. Profile descrip-
tions are prepared in the field either by excavating a pit or from auger
samples. The profile description includes horizon thickness, color, texture,
structure, and consistence information. Samples of each horizon are taken
and chemical and/or mineralogical analyses are conducted as needed to
properly classify the soil. At locations remote from the established experi-
mentation site, similar descriptions and samples are obtained. These sites
are selected in response to requests by project researchers and/or colla-
borators who want to establish new research sites and/or farmer demonstra-
tion trials. Sites are visited by experienced soil survey personnel who
make the final site selection, prepare the profile descriptions, and are
involved in the sampling. Soil erodibility (K) factors will be determined
to evaluate sensitivity to erosion.

Maximum Nutrient Potential of Principal Soil Areas in the Amazon Basin
(Y-606)

Objective. Determine the quantity and composition of primary minerals
in the silt and sand fractions of really extensive soils in the Amazon
Basin.

Justification. Every soil has a measurable reserve of relatively
plant unavailable nutrients. These nutrients, such as Ca, Mg, K, P and
certain micronutrients, are slowly available as the coarser particles










weather. Collectively they are referred to as weatherable minerals when
used as soil classification criteria. Their quality and quantity are a
basis for predicting in what areas, i.e., parent material sectors, of
the basin are most probably going to experience deficiencies in certain
plant nutrients under cropping.

This subproject is an interface between soil survey and soil testing.
Whereas soil test techniques attempt to measure the amount of a plant
nutrient that is available to a crop because it appears in the soil in
an available form, this project attempts to determine the ultimate potential
source of the plant nutrients in geologically defined parts of the basin.
In brief, it attempts to evaluate the potential of different soils to
resupply the available forms of plant nutrients removed by crop harvest.

Generalized procedures. Five regional areas within the Amazon Basin
will be selected on the basis of the geologic origin of the parent material.
They are materials from: 1) sedimentary Andean source areas; 2) metamorphic
(felsic) Andean source areas; 3) volcanic Andean areas; 4) sedimentary
(sandy) Guayanan highlands source area; 5) Brazilian shield areas.

Paired sites of upland (well drained) and lowland (poorly drained)
soils will be sampled, by horizon, to a 2 m depth. Profile descriptions
will be prepared at each site. Characterization data, as needed for proper
classification, will be obtained on the samples. Samples from three major
horizons in each soil will be subjected to optical mineralogical determi-
nations of the sand fraction and total elemental analyses of the sand
fractions will also be made.

Survey of Volanic Ash Influence on Transmigration Areas in Sumatra (Y-608)

Objective. Determine the amount, thickness, and present composition
of amorphous material in the major soil and geographic areas of Sumatra.

Justification. Amorphous material weathered from volcanic material
in udic soil moisture regimes has significant influence on P reactions
in soils. The volcanic areas in Sumatra are on the southern coast of the
island but ash deposits extend over other geologic areas to the north
of the source area. Although the mantle of ash may no longer be recognized
because of weathering and pedoturbation processes, it may be detectable
and spatially predictable in the surface horizons of otherwise contrasting
soils. Landscape evolution may have produced micro variability with more
amorphous material on the stable landscape positions than on the hillslopes.

Correction of P deficiencies through fertilization is a major concern
to other projects in this program. From results in other areas of the
world, it is known that P fixation by amorphous Al cannot be managed the
same as P fixation by iron. Soils in some of the transmigration areas
are classified as Oxisols and thus, the initial hypothesis is that the
technology previously developed in Brasilia by our earlier project will
transfer. However, Brasilia has no known potential amorphous material
source such as volcanic ash. Also, if the natural geomorphic activity










has unevenly eroded the surface layers, local variability related to land-
scape position may significantly influence results from fertilization
application.

Generalized procedures. Sample sites on paired stable and sideslope
positions will be located on North-South transects across Sumatra. Profile
descriptions and samples to a depth of 2 m will be made at each site.
Sampling will be conducted by soil horizon but any horizon over 20 cm
thick will be subdivided. The samples will be subjected to NaF pH value
determination in the field and laboratory. The samples, total and size-
fractionated subsamples, will be analyzed by DTA to determine kaolin and
gibbsite content. Total amorphous material will be determined by KOH extrac-
tion and the remainder of each sample again subjected to DTA. Total amor-
phous material minus gibbsite and kaolin loss during KOH treatment is
a reliable measure of "true" amorphous material present. The Si/A1 ratios,
an indicator of P fixation potential, of the amorphous material will be
determined. Also, oxalate extractable Al will be determined as a sensitive
P fixation indicator. Appropriate P-fixation values will be determined
on selected samples.

Fertility Capability Classification: Refinement and Testing (Y-601)

Objectives. Further evaluate both existing and new data and experience
to formulate the best interpretation packages for each FCC group and to
develop systematic methodology for utilizing these packages within informa-
tion delivery systems such as an agricultural extension service.

Justification. FCC groups are being used as a basis for research
planning and technology transfer in many areas of the world. Modifications
have been made to utilize new research findings. Further modifications
are probable; however, they are expected to be minimal in concept.

Until now most attention has been given to developing criteria for
creating and placing kinds of soil into FCC groups. Little attention has
been given to systematic methods of presenting management recommendations
associated with each group. Whereas each FCC group outlines physical and
chemical constraints in the soil, there are several technologies available
to cope with each constraint. There is a need to organize and present
packages of technological alternatives of soil management that are most
compatible with the infrastructure constraints in various areas of the
humid tropics.

This subproject involves reviewing experimental and demonstrational
results in this and other projects in the tropics as well as farmer results
obtained on known kinds of soil as grouped by FCC criteria. These findings
are to be assembled into packages of soil management suggestions to guide
extension workers charged with the transfer of technology to the farmer
fields. In brief, the subproject will attempt to create a delivery mech-
anism by which current research information can be transmitted to the
farmer in a rapid and systematic fashion.









Generalized Procedures. It is apparent that many of the constraints
identified by FCC groups can be and are presently being overcome by dif-
ferent management techniques. The method selected depends upon the economic
and social status of the farmer as well as his perception of the risks
involved. Research results have demonstrated that both higher fertilizer
input technologies and low fertilizer input technologies are effective
in overcoming many fertility constraints. Local farmers and extension
specialists are often not appraised of these alternatives. Successful
scenarios of management practices on FCC groups will be assembled into
systematic packages for the extension specialist to study and make further
adaptations as he attempts to aid the farmer in management decision-making
relative to the particular soil constraints on his farm. The project per-
sonnel will review existing farm practices and research results on FCC
identified groups of soils and assemble the management alternatives in
a form compatible with the operations of technology transfer delivery
systems in developing countries in the humid tropics. Close working rela-
tionships with host country extension specialists will be developed.

Continuation of the FCC adaptation to wetland soils will continue
at the request of INSFFER (International Network for Soil Fertility and
Fertilizer Evaluation on Rice) co-sponsored by IRRI and IFDC, at its April
1984 meeting. Through this network, FCC is being tested in rice fields
of Burma, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri
Lanka, Thailand, Nigeria, Zambia and other countries.

Soil Constraints Map of the Developing World (Y-602)

Objective. Interpret the World Soil Map and other information generated
by soil survey projects in terms of fertility and management constraints.

Justification. A vast amount of data has been obtained by soil survey
projects in many areas of the developing world. This data is most often
presented in terms of natural soil classification terminology, such as
the World Soil Map legend, Soil Taxonomy, or national soil classification
nomenclature. These nomenclatures deal with physical, chemical, and miner-
alogical compositions of the soils and can serve as the basis for the
planning of long range activities, such as fertilizer manufacturing and
distribution, irrigation and drainage projects, and other agro-business
development projects. Technical interpretations of natural soil classi-
fication terminology are needed to make this information more understandable
and usable to soil management, agro-business, and development specialists.

This subproject is an extension of previous ones, but on a larger
scale. It attempts to generalize information determined at many research
sites and observed in many farming situations, to the soil data presented
on existing small scale maps via a series of technically specific maps
and reports.









Generalized Procedures. Existing soil maps of countries will be digi-
tized for computer manipulation. Soil map information will be interpreted
in terms of FCC groups and where needed other soil management constraint
information will be used. The output maps will identify areas, at a small
scale, that have severe soil acidity problems, potential major plant nu-
trient problems, and specific soil conservation problems to name a few
of the specific interpretations.

Soil Taxonomy and FCC Software for Microcomputers (Y-607)

Objective. To develop microcomputer software to aid in the teaching
and use of soil classification, both natural systems and technical systems
such as the FCC.

Justification. Present soil classification systems, when written
in key form, are bulky and cumbersome to use. Interactive microcomputer
programs have demonstrated that a great deal of the key sequence can be
bypassed. Their use in developing countries is mushrooming. Also, the
programs permit students and relatively inexperienced scientists to input
data from soil at their experimental site and properly classify soils
into Soil Taxonomy and/or FCC. Another advantage is the relative ease
of incorporating changes in classification criteria on a new or revised
disk, thus speeding the time of communication in the correlation process.

Generalized Procedures. Initial programs have been written in BASIC
for Apple and IBM microcomputers. The procedure is to program the classifi-
cation keys from Soil Taxonomy and FCC with appropriate modifications
in the wording needed to fit the constraints of the microcomputer hardware.
Both video and printer outputs can be made available to interested users.









Principal Research Site:


Duration: 5 years


NCSU Raleigh, field sites in several
humid tropical countries


Budget (CRSP funds only)


6. Soil characterization


Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Total


-------------- 000---------------------------
Salaries 18 12 12 13 13 68
Fringe benefits 2 \ 1 1 1 1 6
Supplies 3 4 3 4 3 17
Equipment 1 1 1 1 1 5
Travel, international 8 9 8 9 B 42
Travel, national 2 3 2 3 2 12
Backstopping 13 11 11 17 15 67
Allowances 0 0 0 0 0 0
Contract services 4 4 4 9 5 26
Freight 1 1 1 3 2 8
Other direct costs 2 2 2 4 2 12
Indirect costs 8 7 7 7 7 36
----------------------------------------------------------
Total CRSP 62 55 52 71 59 299
Counterpart funds 24 26 28 32 44 154
----------------------------------------------------------
Total Project 86 81 80 103 103 453



Equipment includes: Soil survey tools, laboratory replace-
ment, software.



6. Soil characterization Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Total

FTE-----------------
Resident faculty: CRSP 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.4
Resident faculty: non-CRSP 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 1.5
Senior scientists, field: CRSP 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Junior scientists: CRSP 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 6.0
Other (Jr. scientist,non-CRSP) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.0

Total 3.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 12.9









TROPSOILS-NCSU PROJECT PROPOSAL #7

Title: Soil Management Research Network for the Humid Tropics

Program: Humid Tropics

Project Leader: J. R. Benites
North Carolina State University
Principal Collaborators:

Research leaders in national programs in the humid tropics of colla-
borating countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America.

Objectives:

1. To validate and extrapolate available soil management technologies
to other countries beyond the TROPSOILS primary research sites.

2. To develop the capability of collaborating country personnel to
conduct, interpret and report user-oriented soil management research.

Rationale:

TROPSOILS has developed technology components of improved soil manage-
ment in acid soils of the humid tropics during the last 12 years. Some
examples are improved land clearing methods, selected acid-tolerant crop
cultivars, soil constraint determinations, monitoring soil dyanmics, improved
grass-legume pastures and managed fallows. Many of these findings are ready
to be tested across the humid tropics in order to ascertain their validity
and determine the necessary modifications to specific physical and socio-
economic situations.

Several national institutions responsible for research and extension
in humid tropical regions wish to apply TROPSOILS technology to their develop-
ment programs. Attempts at doing so have identified the lack of on-site
trained personnel as one major constraint to the validation and transfer
of technology. On the other hand, TROPSOILS scientists need to know whether
the technologies that appear promising at the primary research sites are
viable in other humid tropical environments. This project attempts to bridge
a major gap between CRSP-sponsored research and its utilization by national
research institutions.

Relevance to Other Activites:

This project will bring together the most promising results of TROPSOILS
research and will promote its validation and modifications on a systematic
basis. The on-farm and on-station research done by trained local scientists
will provide much needed feedback to TROPSOILS.









Scope of Work:

The Peruvian portion of this project is to be funded by INIPA's National
Selva Program. CRSP funds will be used for the international dimension.
The overall project is to be headquartered at the training center being
built at the Yurimaguas Experiment Station. Subprojects that focus on tech-
nology validation and transfer in Peru include economic analysis of tech-
nology options (Y-706), validation of continuous cropping technology (Y-710),
low input systems (Y-720), legume-based pastures (Y-730), agroforestry
(Y-740), flooded rice technology (Y-750) and reclamation of eroded hillsides
(Y-760), the Training Center itself (Y-780) and communication services
(Y-790).

The CRSP-sponsored activities concentrate on the international dimension
of the research network (Y-770). The remainder of this project proposal
concentrates on this issue.

Generalized Procedures:

The Research Network is a successful mechanism that has served to
validate CGIAR-generated technology throughout the world. Examples of suc-
cessful networks are INSFFER, coordinated by IRRI and IFDC, CIAT's Cassava
and Pasture Networks, originally supported by IDRC, and several others.
This project aims at using the experience gained by the various networks
with a farming systems research focus.

Close cooperation is expected with TROPSOILS scientists from Hawaii
and Cornell to take advantage of their acid soils expertise and to provide
a feedback mechanism to them.

Network participants will consist largely of B.S.-level research offi-
cers of national institutions who are stationed in humid tropical areas
of collaborating countries and are responsible for conducting field research.
During the first five years, work will be limited to Spanish, Portuguese
and English speakers, to be arranged in two groups. French capability is
envisioned beyond that period. Examples of potential collaborating countries
and their national institutions with a considerable likelihood of willingness
to collaborate are listed below according to language groups. Those marked
with an asterisk have USAID Missions.

Spanish/Portuguese Speaking:

Bolivia*: Instituto Boliviano de Tecnologfa Agropecuaria (IBTA)
Brazil: Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA)
Commissio Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira (CEPLAC)
Institute Nacional de Pesquisas Amazonicas (INPA)
Colombia: Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA)
Costa Rica*: Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderfa (MAG)
Centro Agron6mico Tropical de Investigaci6n y Ensefanza
(CATIE)
Dominican Republic*: Ministerio de Agricultura (MA)









Ecuador*: Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIAP)
Honduras*: Ministerio de Agricultura (MA)
Escuela Superior Agrfcola El Zamorano
Mexico: Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agricolas (INIA)
Escuela Superior de Agricultura Tropical (ESAT)
Panama*: Instituto de Desarrollo Agropecuario (IDIAP)
Peru*: Instituto Nacional de Investigaci6n y Promocidn Agropecuaria
(INIPA)
Other participating institutions in the National Selva Program
Sao Tome*: Ministerio da Agricultura
Venezuela: Fondo Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (FONAIAP)
Institute Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC)

English Speaking:

Belize*: Ministry of Agriculture
Cameroon*: Center for Soils Research
Ghana*: Soils Research Institute
Guyana*: Ministry of Agriculture
Indonesia*: Center for Soils Research (CSR)
Institute Pertanian Bogor (IPB)
Jamaica*: Ministry of Agriculture
Malaysia: Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute
(MARDI)
Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia (RRIM)
Institute Pertanian Malaysia
Liberia*: Ministry of Agriculture
Sierra Leone*: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry
Surinam*: Ministry of Agriculture
Trinidad*: Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute
CARDD)

Selection of participants will be done via the USAID Missions and
the national institutions with preference given to those countries that
have a USAID Mission. Cost of participant training will be borne by the
Missions or other institutions.

Efforts will be made to start validation trials on four additional
humid tropical countries outside of Peru, Brazil and Indonesia. Consultations
will be made with the AID Bureaus for Latin America and the Caribbean,
Africa and Asia. LAC Bureau agricultural staff has expressed strong interest
in this possibility. Informal linkages already made through REDINAA and
IBSRAM are likely to facilitate site selection. Candidate countries are
Bolivia, Ecuador, Panama, Costa Rica, Zaire, Liberia, Sierra Leone and
the Ivory Coast. After the in-service training portion is complete, coopera-
tive agreements will be established during these five years to initiate
on-site work. Figure 1 shows present linkages and in white, other third
world countries who could potentially join the network.

Network activities consist of five components: in-service training,
on-site research, cooperator meetings, data base, and monitoring tours.







kQ AT


^sOR
o ^a .
*6
.9


INIAP-
YURIMAGUAS -


A.


IBTA-


Figure 1.


TROPSOILS NCSU


HUMID TROPICS RESEARCH LINKAGES


Active program-NCSU staff on site
Active program-formal linkages
o Informal working linkages


SITIUNG


: v 7









In-Service Training:

A group of up to 20 selected participants will take the Soil Management
course to be held at the Training Center of the Yurimaguas Research Station
once a year. The course will be of six weeks duration; both theoretical
and practical aspects will be taught. The theory portion includes lectures
on basic climatology, soils, land clearing and preparation, crop management,
experimental design, economics, communications, TROPSOILS philosophy and
research results on different soil management options. Workshops on "sondeo"
in cooperation with the University of Florida and FCC methodologies are
included along with design of network trials. Individual consultation with
TROPSOILS and INIPA scientists on-site will also form part of the theory
portion of the source. Practical training includes soil classification,
laboratory analyses, land clearing, land preparation, fertilizer manage-
ment practices in the field, and micro-computer use.

Field Research:

Prior to the conclusion of the course, participants will design on-farm
and on-station trials that will be installed upon their return to their
institutions. The focus is likely to be the low input management option
as a starting point for addressing the more pressing problems of shifting
cultivators.

The low input technology developed at Yurimaguas may be the first
option to be validated. The hypothesis can be formulated as follows: "A
low-input cropping system will increase the farmer's overall output per
unit of land facilitating their transition from shifting cultivation to
permanent agriculture."

A variety of research activities could be adapted. Particularly useful
will be surveys, on-station research, research-managed trials, farmer-managed
tests, component trials, and on-station research.

Surveys will include the "sondeo" methodology in cooperation with
the University of Florida's Farming Systems Support Program and soil con-
straint analysis using the FCC system.

On-station research. Research stations in selected areas will test
the Yurimaguas low-input technology under local conditions and evaluate
its potential.

Researcher-managed trials. Researchers manage experiments on farmer's
fields. These trials help the team to define the characteristics of the
research area more precisely. Also, they assist the team in recognizing
the gap between current and potential yields. Finally, they provide means
for screening TROPSOILS technology according to its suitability for different
types of farmers and conditions.

Farmer-managed trials. Farmer-managed trials provide an excellent
means for evaluating how new technologies fit into the farmer's system
and how farmers react to the proposed changes. For best results, farmers










need to manage these tests using resources normally available to them.
Plots need to be large enough to permit accurate measurements of the farmers'
activities, particularly the use of family labor. The last step will be
farmer-managed test using commerical scale plot supervised by the extension
workers, without TROPSOILS involvement.

Component trials. Component trials combine the methods of researcher-
managed trials and farmer-managed tests to examine technologies for a range
of conditions. These trials tend to be single factor experiments, e.g.,
fertilizer treatments that are superimposed on farmer's ongoing activities
or on farmer-managed tests.

Follow-Up and Feedback:

A series of activities is designed to provide the necessary follow-up
that makes a real research network. It includes site visits by the TROPSOILS
network coordinator, annual meetings of cooperators that have established
trials, developing a data base of results adaptable to microcomputers,
and monitoring tours by leaders of the different national institutions.

Additional information:

More details on the work plan are available in a work document entitled
"Research Network for Acid Soils in the Humid Tropics" by Jose R. Benites,
July 1984, 20 pp.







69

Principal Research Site: Throughout the humid tropics


Duration: 5 years

Budget (CRSP funds only)


7. Research network


Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Total


------------------ $1000 -------------.----------
Salaries 12 16 16 13 13 70
Fringe benefits 1 1 1 1 1 5
Supplies 18 13 13 12 15 71
Equipment 3 4 4 1 2 14
Travel, international 15 17 17 10 10 69
Travel, national 3 5 7 7 7 29
Backstopping 25 25 28 20 23 121
Allowances 5 5 5 0 0 15
Contract services 14 14 15 7 4 54
Freight 4 4 5 2 1 16
Other direct costs B 8 8 3 2 29
Indirect costs 16 17 16 10 11 70
----------------------------------------------------------
Total CRSP 124 129 135 86 89 563
Counterpart funds 125 183 195 211 210 924
------------------------------------- W---------------------
Total Project 249 312 330 297 299 1487



Equipment includes:



7. Research network Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Total
---------------------------------------------------------
HIE------------
Resident faculty: CRSP 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 1.2
Resident faculty: non-CRSP 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Senior scientists, field: CRSP 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.0 1.1
Junior scientists: CRSP 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Other: INIPA Sr. sci.,non-CRSP 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 2.5

Total 0.7 1.1 1.1 1.1 0.8 4.8









TROPSOILS-NCSU PROJECT PROPOSAL #8


Title: Soil Erosion and Reclamation of Humid Tropical Uplands

Program: Humid Tropics

Project Leader: 0. K. Cassel
North Carolina State University

Principal Collaborators: H. Elsenbeer, D. del Castillo, J. R. Benites,
K. Reategui (NCSU)
A. Sanchez, J. Vargas, T. Paucar, T. Cruz,
A. Yanayaco, L. Capuhay, F. Alvarado (PEPP)

Project Objectives:

1. To adapt and modify the management principles developed at the
Yurimaguas primary research site to tackle immediate soil management
problems faced by colonists to this area.

2. To conduct original research on watershed hydrology of direct rele-
vance to CRSP objective.

Rationale:

The Pichis-Palcazu region of the Central Selva of Peru is being rapidly
connected to the rest of the country through a massive colonization project.
The entity in charge (Proyecto Especial Pichis-Palcazu (PEPP) requested
the direct involvement of INIPA and NCSU to validate the Yurimaguas results
under local conditions. A special grant from PEPP was awarded for a three-
year period (1984-1986) to conduct this work and NCSU field activities
started this year with the arrival of one senior soil scientist and one
junior scientist in Puerto Bermudez. The Pichis-Palcazu region is located
at 400 m elevation, with mean annual temperature of 26.5C, annual rainfall
of 3400 mm with no dry season, and a perudic soil moisture regime. The
main soils are Ultisols and Dystropepts. Most of the topography is rolling
to steeply sloping with only 15 percent of the area with slopes less than
4 percent. Virgin forests and degraded pastures are the main forms of ground
cover. The main differences in relation to Yurimaguas is the significantly
higher rainfall and sloping land. Many of the problems associated with
the High Selva development are present there.

Initial operations started with the selection of an experiment station
that encompasses the different soil-landscape positions of the valleys.
Drs. S. W. Buol and P. A. Sanchez studied the area in March 1983 and selected
the 600 ha La Esperanza Station, about 15 km north of Puerto Bermudez with
boundaries at the Pichis River and the Marginal Highway. This highway opened
several months ago. A tremendous influx of settlers have cleared land on
extremely steep slopes, planted corn and subsequently abandoned it resulting
in rather dramatic runoff and erosion.









Relevance to Other Programs:

The rapid clearing of steep soils along newly opened highways is unfor-
tunately typical of humid tropical development. This Pichis area provides
the CRSP with a unique opportunity to conduct research on both the prevention
of erosion and the reclamation of eroded lands abandoned after shifting
cultivation.

Scope of Work:

The overall plan of work for this region consists of 11 experiments
of which nine are technology validation for the area and one is of worldwide
relevance to the CRSP. Research in the first category includes: crop germ-
plasm introduction from national programs (Y-800), pasture germplasm evalua-
tion (Y-801), permanent crop germplasm evaluation (Y-802), weed control
(Y-803), soil dynamics in low input systems (Y-804), grazing pressure trials
(Y-805), liveweight gain trials (Y-806), soil dynamics under different
management options (Y-807), reclamation of eroded slopes (Y-808) and flooded
rice in alluvial soils (Y-809). The chronologic experiment Y-804 has the
same design as the one in Manaus (M-901) and the two proposed for Yurimaguas
(Y-215) and Sitiung (S-1009). The work on comparative soil dynamics (Y-807)
is roughly comparable to that in Yurimaguas (Y-412). All these experiments
will be supported by counterpart funds and are not described here.

One experiment proposed for CRSP support focus on watershed hydrology
(Y-810).

Soil Erosion in Upland Area of the Humid Tropics (Y-810)

Personnel involved: D. K. Cassel, H. Elsenbeer

Objectives. 1) To determine the baseline transport rates of water,
selected solutes, and sediment from an upland forested site before clearing;
2) to determine changes in the transport rates of water, selected solutes,
and sediment from the same upland site after it is cleared and managed
according to technological options suited to specific landscape positions.

Justification. Despite the great concern raised by the prospect of
severe land degradation following deforestation, there is a wide gap between
the number of preconceived opinions about the problem and the number of
actual data. The lack of runoff and erosion rates determined over a long
period of time and under different topographical, vegetation, and cropping
systems is conspicuous, especially for the humid tropical areas of Latin
America, and no data are available for the Amazon Basin. The results of
the few studies that have been undertaken cannot be extrapolated due to
restricting climatic and/or lithological factors. Others are semi-qualitative
or merely descriptive, based on visual observation. The available evidence,
however, indicates considerable potential for accelerated erosion as a
result of land clearing and subsequent cropping, especially on steeper
slopes. This assumes particular importance for although only 8% of the
Amazon Basin's total land surface is on slopes greater than 30%, the more










recent development schemes in the Peruvian portion are planned for regions
where steep slopes are of considerable areal extent, e.g., the basins of
the Pichis and Palcazu Rivers, and the Alto Huallaga Valley. If adverse
ecological and hydrological implications are to be avoided and continuous
crop production to be guaranteed, the implementation of conservation prac-
tices on steeply sloping land will be crucial, as well as the establishment
of limits for tolerable soil loss. Both require a sound knowledge of type
and magnitude of runoff and erosion processes before and after forest clear-
ing. Investigations in the Amazon headwater areas with respect to their
potential for power generation also stress the need for erosion research.
Large-scale forest clearing alters not only the hydrological balance of
a watershed, but also sediment production and transport, and, by implication,
half-life times of reservoirs.

Hence, there exists an urgent need for erosion research data which
are essential for the sound development of the upland humid tropics, be
it with respect to agriculture, ecology, or hydrologic balance.

The land in Yurimaguas where the TROPSOILS research has been concen-
trated is relatively level with very little land with slopes exceeding
4%. As indicated above, much of the future land clearing and development
will necessarily occur on slopes greater than 4%; in some areas, appreciable
acreages of land with greater than 4% slope are already being farmed. The
External Evaluation Panel in their review raised a concern about soil erosion
on the nearly level land in Yurimaguas. In our opinion, a more pressing
concern is the necessity of dealing with erosion on steeper land (4-20%).
By measuring the equlibrium levels of erosion and nutrient transport before
clearing, we will be able to relate them to the rates of accelerated erosion
and nutrient transport from cleared, cropped land for particular management
practices.

Procedure. Possible locations of the research site were investigated
in June 1984 by Helmut Elsenbeer, Dennis del Castillo and Keith Cassel.
Findings of this trip led to a decision to select the experimental site
near the Pichis area at INIPA's new La Esperanza Station. A small forested
watershed, 1 to 4 ha in area, will be instrumented to monitor runoff, sedi-
ment removal, and nutrient transport of individual rainfall events during
a 1- to 2-year period. The land will then be cleared and the appropriate
crops planted and various management practices used. Runoff, sediment re-
moval, and nutrient removal from specific management areas will be moni-
tored and analyzed for their effectiveness in controlling erosion.

After the specific research watershed has been selected, the appropriate
catchment and monitoring devices will be installed. Weirs, Gerlach troughs,
and suction lysimeters will be placed at appropriate locations and fluxes
of water, sediment, and nutrients will be monitored for many individual
rainfall events. Soil solution and runoff samples will be sent to Yurimaguas
and analyzed for selected nutrients.








73

After sufficient transport information has been collected on forested
land, it will be cleared and selectively managed according to soil and
slope. Different areas within the watershed will be planted to one or more
of the following: row crops, pasture crops, or tree crops. Runoff, sediment
and nutrient transport from the area in individual runoff events will be
measured for selected management systems.









Principal Research Site:


Duration:


La Esperanza Experiment Station,
Pichis Valley, Peru


5 years or more


Budget (CRSP funds only)


8. Soil erosion


Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year B Total


--------------$1000-------------------
Salaries 14 16 8 9 14 61
Fringe benefits 1 1 1 11 5
Supplies I 1 1 1 1 5
Equipment 4 1 0 0 1 6
Travel, international 1 1 2 1 2 7
Travel, national 1 1 1 1 1 5
Backstopping 9 8 5 8 12 42
Allowances 6 6 1 6 6 25
Contract services 1 1 1- 1 5
Freight 1 1 1 1 1 5
Other direct costs 1 1 1 1 1 5
Indirect costs 5 4 4 4 4 21
-------------- -------------------------------------------
Total CRSP 45 42 26 34 45 192
Counterpart funds 170 180 70 180 160 760

Total Project 215 222 96 214 205 952

==s==3===================-========s= ======


Equipment includes:


= ====S====f===S=== ===ZX=====SSZ===r===SS===-SSE==SSSS===S==S===S=SSES==3CSZE=ESSSSE
8. Soil erosion Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Total

FTE ------------------
Resident faculty: CRSP 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Resident faculty: non-CRSP 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.5
Senior scientists, field: CRSP 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Junior scientists: CRSP 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.0
Other (Sr. scientist,non-CRSP) 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 1.5
Total -- -- -- -4-- 1.4--- 1.4--- 1--- 4-- 1--- 4-- 7.0--


Total


1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 7.0









TROPSOILS-NCSU PROJECT PROPOSAL #9


Title: Soil Fertility Management in Oxisols of Manaus

Program: Humid Tropics

Project Leader: T. J. Smyth
North Carolina State University

Principal Collaborators: J. J. Nicholaides, P. A. Sanchez (NCSU)
J. B. Bastos, J. C. Correia, E. Moraes
M. Cravo, M. Pinheiro, E. C. Italiano,
E. U. Galvao (EMBRAPA/Manaus)

Project Objectives:

To adapt soil management practices developed primarily in sandy Ultisols
to clayey Oxisols in near ustic humid tropical environment in Central Ama-
zonia.

Rationale:

The near-ustic semievergreen seasonal forest ecosystem occupies approxi-
mately 57 percent of the Amazon. It is characterized by a strong 3-4 month
dry season, with a total wet season potential evapotranspiration of less than
1300 mm. Oxisols occupy 45 percent of the Amazon Basin, mostly in near ustic
and ustic soil moisture regimes. In order to test the TROPSOILS results from
the primary research site to the less humid areas of Central Amazonia, an
agreement was signed between EMBRAPA, IICA and NCSU to conduct cooperative
work at EMBRAPA's UEPAE Station located at 3S latitude, 38 km east of Manaus
at 56 m elevation. Predominant vegetation in Manaus is primary forest as opposed
to secondary forests in Yurimaguas. Soils are clayey, very fine, kaolinitic
Typic Acrorthox located mainly on flat plateaus, in contrast with the fine
loamy, siliceous Typic Paleudults of Yurimaguas. Phosphorus sorption capacity
for the clayey Oxisol in Manaus is intermediate between the high levels for
the Cerrado Oxisols and the Yurimaguas Ultisols (Figure 9.1). The joint project
started in mid-1981 when Dr. T. J. Smyth arrived at Manaus. It is jointly
funded by EMBRAPA, the Rockefeller Foundation (RF) and the Potash Phosphate
Institute (PPI). The RF grant is scheduled to terminate in 1985 and is unlikely
to be extended because of the Foundation's shift in its priorities. Considering
the contribution of this project to overall TROPSOILS goals, NCSU proposes
its continuation under partial CRSP support from 1986-1989.

Relevance to Other Programs:

The chronologic design developed by this project is extensively used
by the Program in other countries. The experiment is in its third year and
it appears highly desirable that it should continue. The differences between
Yurimaguas and Manaus in terms of vegetation, phosphorus sorption and rainfall
regime show the value of this type of cooperative extrapolation. Since most
experiments are long-term in nature, continuation of this work for the quin-
quennium will provide valuable information at low marginal costs.














500




400




300




200




100-



0
0.01


SOLUTION


Figure 9.1.


P (ppm)


Comparative P sorption curves for the Manaus Acrorthox and
the Yurimaguas Paleudult relative to a high P-fixing Cerrado
Haplustox.


0.02 0.03 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 1.0










Scope of Work:

For this region nine experiments are currently established, four of which
are to be supported by the CRSP and the remainder by EMBRAPA with direct involve-
ment by NCSU personnel. Research in the former category includes: soil dynamics
(M-901), phosphorus fertilization (M-902), potassium fertilization (M-903),
and guarana fertilization (M-904). In the latter category research consists
of: lime requirements and downward movement of Ca and Mg (M-905), tillage
systems (M-906), selection and management of green manures (M-907), selection
of planting dates and evaluation of crop rotations (M-908), and micronutrient
fertilization (M-909).

EMBRAPA-supported subprojects complement the CRSP studies by providing
information on additional factors not included in the CRSP-supported studies
which are necessary for the evaluation and adaptation of practices developed
in Yurimaguas Ultisols to Central Amazonia Oxisols. Studies on crop rotations
provide adjustments for the differences in socioeconomically important crops
and rainfall patterns between Manaus and Yurimaguas. Green manure studies
are designed to evaluate the potential modifications of existing cropping
and fertilization schemes in order to minimize fertilizer inputs. Studies
with lime and micronutrients provide insight into soil management practices
which are not appropriately covered by the CRSP-supported studies.

Soil Nutrient Dynamics and Fertility Management for Sustained Crop Production
on Oxisols in the Brazilian Amazon (M-901)

Farmers in the Brazilian Amazon have traditionally depended on nutrients
added to the soil by slash-and-burn clearing for the production of one or
two crops before the land is returned to fallow. Soil management systems de-
veloped for continuous cultivation on the Ultisols at Yurimaguas, Peru have
indicated that a key component for maintaining continuous and favorable crop
yields has been the judicious applications of lime and fertilizers as indicated
by soil analysis during the continual monitoring of soil nutrient dynamics.
Applications of these continuous cropping systems to other ecosystems in the
Amazon would require an understanding of soil nutrient dynamic patterns over
time, relative to those of the Typic Paleudults in Yurimaguas. Differences
in the ecosystems between Yurimaguas (secondary forest, weak dry season, Typic
Paleudult, fine loamy, siliceous soils) and Manaus (primary forest, pronounced
dry season, Typic Acrorthox, clayey, kaolinitic soil) suggested that soil
nutrient dynamic patterns and fertility managent would also differ between
sites.

Objectives. 1) To establish the patterns of soil nutrient depletion as
a function of time after clearing for a Central Brazilian Amazon Oxisol under
continuous cultivation; 2) to determine the fertilizer inputs required for
sustaining continuous crop production on these Oxisols; 3) to compare soil
fertility management systems of the Manaus Oxisols with those of the Yurimaguas
Ultisols.

Experimental Approach. An area of primary forest in size sufficient to
contain replicated treatments for N, P, K, Mg, S, lime and micronutrients
was cut and burned in September, 1981. Cultivation was initiated in November,









1981, and two crops are grown annually in rotation. Treatments for three or
four rates of each nutrient are established when soil and plant analyses suggest
a possible deficiency. A uniform rate of each nutrient is applied to all remain-
ing plots (excluding the check treatment) in subsequent crops, once a yield
response is obtained for a specified nutrient. Consequently, yield responses
to individual nutrients are evaluated as they occur, with corrections for
all previously observed deficiencies.

State of Progress. Nutrient levels in the ash from secondary forests
in Yurimaguas and those in the primary forest in Manaus were similar, although
primary forest biomass was more than twice the biomass of secondary forests.
Phosphorus was an immediate limitation to crop production on the Brazilian
Oxisol, as opposed to the production of one or two crops on the Peruvian Ultisol
before P was required. Soil K depletion patterns and fertilizer K requirements
were similar at both sites. Increases in soil Ca and Mg and decreases in soil
acidity were larger in the Oxisol than in the Ultisol. Consequently, Al satura-
tion levels in the Manaus Oxisol were maintained below toxic levels for a
longer period of time than in the Yurimaguas Ultisol.

Additions of P, K and lime beginning with the first, second and third
crops, respectively, of rice-soybeans-soybeans-cowpeas rotation provided a
cumulative grain yield of 7.3 t/ha, as opposed to 1.5 t/ha in the absence
of any fertilizers.

Results obtained in this project provide information as to what extent
soil nutrient dynamics and cropping systems developed on Ultisols in Yuri-
maguas, Peru, are applicable to Oxisol regions of the Central Brazilian Amazon.

Phosphorus Fertilization Alternatives for Continuous Cropping Systems in Amazon
Oxisols (M-902)

Phosphorus deficiency is a common property of Oxisols in the Brazilian
Amazon. For clayey Oxisols, P fertilization could become economically impor-
tant, as their P sorption capacities are of similar magnitude to Oxisols in
the Cerrado region. Although several studies in the region have demonstrated
marked yield responses to P fertilization with annual crops, information is
needed on soil test calibrations and the long-term effects of different P
fertilization strategies.

Objectives. 1) To obtain detailed P response curves and soil test calibra-
tion data for the main annual crops cultivated in the region; 2) to obtain
a description of the residual P fertilizer value; 3) to provide indications
of appropriate maintenance P fertilizer rates for sustaining adequate crop
yields.

Experimental Approach. A phosphorus study was established on a clayey
Typic Acrorthox cleared by burning from primary forest. Treatments were arranged
in a split-plot design, with broadcast P rates (0, 22, 44, 88 and 176 kg P/ha)
as main plots and banded P rates (0, 12.5, 22 and 44 kg P/ha), applied to
each crop, as subplots. Two crops are grown annually, with all other nutrients
under non-limiting conditions.









State of Progress. The annual rotation of corn-cowpeas was utilized for
the first two years of the study. For the Mehlich 1 extractant, critical soil
test P values were determined as 7 and 11 ppm, respectively, for corn and
cowpeas. The application of 44 kg P/ha maintained soil test P values at the
recommended level only for the first crop. With 88 kg P/ha, soil test P levels
were maintained above the critical values for three crops. Yield responses
to banded P were negligible at rates higher than 22 kg P/ha/crop. Yield in-
creases to banded P declined with increasing rates of broadcast P. The small
yield response to banded P with initial broadcast P rates of 88 and 176 kg
P/ha would not justify the additional fertilizer inputs.

The similarities in cumulative yields for the four initial crops on treat-
ments with identical rates of P applied by different methods suggested that
yields for this crop rotation were primarily a function of total applied P.
Cumulative yield of 7 t/ha with 88 kg P/ha was near maximal for this study.
In the absence of applied P, total yield was 1.1 t/ha.

Applicability of Results. Since P is one of the major fertilizer inputs
for the clayey Oxisols in the Brazilian Amazon, a thorough understanding of
the quantities, methods of application, and residual effects of P fertilizers
would be vital to establishing the economic feasibility of continuous cropping
systems in the region. Comparisons to similar studies in the Cerrado region
can provide insight to differences in the management of these Oxisol ecosystems.

Potassium Fertilization for Annual Cropping Systems in Amazon Oxisols (M-904)

The high levels of rainfall in the Central Brazilian Amazon and the natural
low cation exchange capacities of Oxisols in the region provide conditions
conducive to K leaching. Native soil K reserves can be expected to be small,
since clay mineralogy is predominantly kaolinitic. These conditions suggested
that K fertilizers could be a continual requirement for crop production on
these soils and that management systems should consider alternatives for mini-
mizing K losses.

Objectives. 1) To establish K response curves and soil test calibration
data for the main annual crops cultivated in the region; 2) to develop soil
K management systems which optimize fertilizer K utilization efficiency.

Experimental Approach. Potassium fertilization studies have been estab-
lished in phases. The initial phase was to characterize yield response curves
and soil test relationships with K fertilization. An experiment with five
rates (0, 16.5, 33, 66 and 132 kg K/ha) of annually broadcast applied KC1
was initiated in November, 1982. A corn-cowpea rotation is grown annually
with K applied prior to planting corn.

A second phase of the project was initiated in November, 1983, with the
establishment of a study for split applications of K fertilizer. Four levels
of K were utilized in this study (0, 13.5, 33 and 46.5 kg K/ha) in factorial
combination with three times of application during corn growth (0, 25 and
55 days after planting). Subsequently, cowpeas will be grown on residual K.









State of Progress. Movement of K added to the soil by burning the primary
forest was accompanied by profile measurements at different dates after burning.
At 2.5 months after burning K levels were higher in the profile of burned
plots than in the standing forest to the maximum depth sampled (75 cm). Five
months later K levels at all soil depths in the burned plots declined but
remained higher than the areas of standing forest. Topsoil K levels in the
burned plots declined to the original levels for the standing forest (20 ppm
K) at 20 months after clearing.

Corn yields increased significantly to the rate of 33 kg K/ha. Cowpeas,
grown on residual K applied before planting corn, responded in yield to the
rate 66 kg K/ha. These two treatments provided the highest efficiency for
K fertilizer utilization, with 33% K fertilizer removal at harvest over both
crops.

Results for corn yields and tissue and soil K analysis on treatments
with crop residue incorporation have suggested that K fertilizer input could
be reduced by minimizing removal of non-harvestable plant components. Yields
on treatments with crop residue incorporation and no fertilizer K applied
have approached yields achieved where crop residues were removed and 33 kg
K/ha was applied annually.

Applicability of Results. Results will provide information for K fer-
tilizer recommendations for major crops in the region and crop and fertilizer
management systems to optimize K utilization in these ecosystems.

Guarana Fertilization (M-906)

Guarana (Paullinia cupana) is a major permanent cash crop for small farmers
in the state of Amazonas. Commercial production is stimulated by a strong
demand for a national soft drink produced from the ground seed and by a growing
export market. To date, research on guarana has centered on the selection
of high-yielding cultivars. However, nutritional problems may become a future
limitation, as seed yields on some of the most promising clones would represent
an annual removal of 68, 4, 14 and 3 kg/ha of N, P, K and Mg, respectively.
Short-term studies have demonstrated yield responses by guarana to applications
of fixed quantities of fertilizers. However, the absence of data on yield
response curves for guarana to fertilizers has restricted the development
of fertilizer recommendations for this permanent crop.
Objectives. 1) To characterize the yield response curves of guarana to
rates of N, P, K and Mg fertilization; 2) to establish soil test and tissue
analysis calibration data on guarana for these nutrients.

Experimental Approach. Individual response curves for N, P, K and Mg
are established with four annual rates of each nutrient, while maintaining
the remaining nutrients constant at the highest rate. Early vegetative growth
rates are known to vary considerably among guarana clones. Therefore, three
promising clones of guarana were established as subplots on each fertilizer
treatment. Plants derived from vegetative propagation were transferred from
the nursery to the field in February 1983. Planned measurements include propa-
gation and extension rates of leaves and branches, yield, foliar analysis
and soil analysis.








81

State of Progress. A prolonged dry season immediately after planting
the guarana resulted in a high mortality rate of all three clones. Over 50%
of the original plants were replaced. Plant growth measurements in September
1983, indicated that all plants had been successfully established. Visual
observations thus far have suggested a probable response to N fertilization.

Investigations in this project provide insight to the soil-plant nutrition
relationships of a relatively unknown but important cash crop for the Central
Brazilian Amazon. The existence of adjacent fertility studies with annual
crops on the same site also provides opportunities to compare fertilizer require-
ments between annual and perennial cropping systems on the same soil.









Principal Research Si

Duration: 3 years

Budget (CRSP funds on


9. Manaus extrapolation


Salaries
Fringe benefits
Supplies
Equipment
Travel, international
Travel, national
Backstopping
Allowances
Contract services
Freight
Other direct costs
Indirect costs


te: EMBRAPA's UEPAE Station, Manaus,
Brazil


Yy)


Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Total


$1000
31
5
3
2
8
3
21
10
5
1
2
9


----------------------
0 0 64
0 0 10
0 0 6
0 0 4
0 0 16
0 0 5
0 0 41
0 0 21
0 0 9
0 0 2
0 0 4
0 0 18


Total CRSP 9 91 100 0 0 200
Counterpart funds 120 65 68 70 72 395

Total Project 129 156 16B 70 72 595



Equipment includes: Replacement parts and project vehicle
in year 6.


9. Manaus extrapolation Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Total

--------------FTE --------------------
Resident faculty: CRSP 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Resident faculty: non-CRSP 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.5
Senior scientists, field: CRSP 0.1 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 2.1
Junior scientists: CRSP 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Other (non-CRSP) 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9

Total 1.1 1.1 1.1 0.1 0.1 3.5

==="=======WE==E=-WE=SE:33 2" ESERESEW-=


----------------------------------------------------"-----"---










TROPSOILS-NCSU PROJECT PROPOSAL #10


Title: Soil Management in Transmigration Areas of Sumatra

Program: Humid Tropics

Project Leader: M. K. Wade
North Carolina State University

Principal Collaborators: J. J. Nicholaides, E. J. Kamprath, D. K. Cassel,
A. K. Makarim, D. W. Gill, T. J. Smyth,
P. A. Sanchez (NCSU)
G. Uehara, J. Thompson, C. Colfer (Univ. of Hawaii)
Dr. M. Sudjadi, Dr. Soleh, D. Santoso,
Irs. Heriyadi, Sukmana, Agus Sophian, Cahyono
R. Heriyatno, Martono, Dr. Sudjadi, Witjahyono,
Suwadi (CRS)

Project Objectives:

1. To adapt management principles developed at the Yurimaguas primary
research site to tackle agronomic problems of transmigrant farmers
in Sitiung, West Sumatra.

2. To assist in developing methods for reclaiming and maintaining
soil physical properties in mechanically cleared land.

3. To develop methods for managing and improving soil chemical proper-
ties in continuously cultivated land.

Rationale:

Transmigration projects in the outer islands of Indonesia constitute
the largest expansion of agriculture in humid tropical regions, bar none.
The rate of deforestation and the numbers of people involved pose problems
of greater immediacy than in the Amazon. In July 1983 TROPSOILS initiated
its research activities in Sitiung, West Sumatra as a joint effort of the
Agency for Agricultural Research and Development's Center for Soils Research
(CSR), the University of Hawaii and North Carolina State. Our role as the
support institution consists of conducting agronomic experiments which
are part of the overall program. The rationale for NCSU's role is to apply
some of the results obtained at our primary research site, Yurimaguas,
test them, validate or modify them to suit the physical and socioeconomic
conditions of this transmigration area. This extrapolation is aided by
a striking similarity in the physical setting. Sitiung is located at 1S
latitude, 100 m elevation, with 25.90C mean annual temperature, 2471 mm
mean annual rainfall with a weak dry season, undulating topography, predomi-
nantly clayey Ultisols and Oxisols and virgin rainforest vegetation. Yuri-
maguas' latitude is nearly 6S, elevation is 182 m, mean annual temperature
is 26.0C, mean annual rainfall is 2135 mm with a weak dry season, topography
is undulating, the main soils are loamy Ultisol but most shifting cultivation









is practiced on secondary forest. Although levels of infrastructure develop-
ment vary, perhaps the most important socioeconomic variable is spontaneous
settlement in Yurimaguas vs. directed settlement at Sitiung. Road infrastruc-
ture is better in Sitiung but urban development is not. The basic food
crops, rice, corn and cassava, are the same. Pasture development is important
in Yurimaguas but not so in Sitiung. Alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica),
a grass invader, is not found in Latin America. Knowledge of soil properties
and distribution is excellent in both areas. The main difference is the
consequence of bulldozer land clearing of primary forests in Sitiung in
comparison with the traditional slash and burn clearing of secondary forests
by individual farmers in Yurimaguas. Another important difference is that
although the range in soil-landscape positions is similar to that of Yuri-
maguas, most transmigrants are given a 2-hectare piece of land which limits
their management options.

Relevance to Other Programs:

TROPSOILS-Indonesia can make a contribution of worldwide impact if
soil management research can turn around the detrimental effects of lack
of land clearing and soil management technology. Our modest role in relation
to the one played by the lead institutions, University of Hawaii and CSR,
will hopefully contribute to the overall effort.

Scope of Work:

NCSU proposes to concentrate its involvement on 9 experiments which
are described in this proposal. Five subprojects are presently ongoing:
reclamation of bulldozed lands (1001), lime rates and maintenance (1003),
lime sources and application methods (1002), phosphorus rates and placement
(1004) and potassium fertilizer management (1006). Four new subprojects
are proposed: residual effects of phosphorus (1005), sulfur fertilization
(1007), micronutrients survey (1008) and a soil dynamics one (1009). Sub-
project 1003 is scheduled for termination in early 1985 and therefore,
will not be included.

Reclamation of Bulldozed Lands (S-1001)

Personnel involved: A. K. Makarim, D. K. Cassel, J. J. Nicholaides,
M. K. Wade

Objectives. To develop methods for 1) reclaiming for continuous culti-
vation those soils with topsoil removed by mechanical land clearing or
erosion, 2) effective management of natural rainfall for plant growth.

Justification. Areas of soils with little or no topsoil exist in the
Sitiung area as well as in many other areas of the humid tropics. Loss
of topsoil in some cases resulted from poor techniques associated with
mechanical land clearing activities. On sloping lands, erosion may have
been and still may be the main factor removing topsoil. Regardless of the
mechanism, reclamation of this severely damaged land is important in many
situations. For example, in Sitiung, where a massive reclamation project
is already in progress, some of the land in the resettlement area has no









topsoil. Farmers assigned to this land can grow only one crop per year
(rather than 3 crops grown by his neighbors) and it is not really a good
crop. These soils have high clay contents and appear to have poor infiltra-
tion rates with subsequent poor efficiency of water storage for crop use.
Techniques for reclaiming or restoring the productivity of soils with little
or no topsoil are desperately needed. The proposed research will investigate
several techniques for restoring crop productivity to soils that have lost
most or all of its topsoil.

First experiment. A highly eroded, mechanically cleared site was selec-
ted in Sitiung lid. Six tillage treatments were installed: hoeing to 15
cm, hoeing to 15 cm plus applying mulch to the soil surface, hoeing with
incorporation of organic matter, turning soil by spading fork to the 30
cm depth, spading in alternate 40 cm strips to the 30 cm depth, and roto-
tilling to 15 cm. Three soil fertility treatments superimposed upon each
tillage treatment were: FO, the addition of no lime and no fertilizer;
Fl, application of lime, N, P, K, Mg, S, Cu, and Zn at rates of 1500, 120,
49, 72, 70, 93, 1, and 4.5 kg/ha; and F2, application of the above nutrients
at rates of 6840, 150, 572, 144, 140, 187, 2, and 6 kg/ha, respectively.
The randomized complete block experimental design has 4 replications. The
site has already been cropped for 10 months of the 2-year period. Soil
physical and chemical properties were intensively measured before imple-
menting the study. Plant growth parameters and soil physical and chemical
properties will be periodically monitored during this 2-year period.

Second experiment. Several tillage treatments, with at least one of
them involving some type of mulching, will be examined for their effect
on water storage and water use efficiency by the plant. Details for this
field study have not been formalized but will hinge partially on the results
of experiment 1 described above and on other studies currently in progress
in Sitiung. Two or more tillage treatments from the first study or newly
devised treatments will be installed. The differential effect of those
treatments on water balance of rainfall will be evaluated. Soil water status
will be evaluated using moisture blocks, tensiometers, and the neutron
meter. Plant stress will be evaluated using the infrared thermometer and
possibly other techniques.

Residual Effects and Maintenance Rates of Lime (S-1003)

Personnel involved: M. K. Wade, E. J. Kamprath, D. Santoso, R. Heriyatno

Objectives. 1) To determine the critical level of soil acidity para-
meters for optimum production of upland rice, soybeans, and mung beans,
2) to determine a method predicting lime rates necessary to achieve a speci-
fied level of Al saturation; 3) to determine the annual lime application
rate required to maintain a specified level of soil acidity; 4) to monitor
the residual effect of various rates of one-time lime applications on a
rotation of annual food crops.

Justification. Soils in the Sitiung area, as well as many in the outer
islands of Indonesia in general, are quite acid. Most unamended soils from
Sitiung have pH values less than 4.5 and exchangeable acidity greater than









2.5 meq/100 ml soil, with a resulting base saturation greater than 60%
(many reach 80-90%). In order to successfully grow most food crops, e.g.,
peanut, soybean, mungbean, corn, liming is necessary. Even acid-tolerant
crops such as cassava and upland rice might be expected to respond to lime
on the more acid soils. Although much is understood about the science of
liming soils for agricultural purposes, on-site verification of rates and
establishing critical soil test acidity levels for the major crops is desir-
able. Beyond determining critical levels and initial rates for a given
soil and crop, it is necessary to study the residual effect of applied
lime under the local rainfall and soil conditions to determine how much
and how often lime will have to be reapplied in order to maintain a desired
level of base saturation.

An on-farm researcher-managed trial as a long-term study with a minimum
of three years was planted in Sitiung Block He in September 1983. The
experiment is 2-f ctor factorial with four replications in a RCB design.
Plots are 5 x 8 m The treatments are:

Lime rates (tons CaCO3-equivalent/ha)

1. 0
2. 1/2 (3/8 x exch. Al)
3. 1 (3/4 x exch. Al)
4. 2 (1.5 x exch. Al)
5. 4 (3 x exch. Al)

Lime maintenance

1. Residual only
2. Annual application to maintain first crop levels of Al saturation.

All plots received a blanket application of N, P, K, Mg and S as pre-
dicted necessary to eliminate deficiencies. The three-crop-a-year rotation
is upland rice-soybean-mungbean. Soil acidity parameters are being monitored
at different depths with time.

Phosphorus Rates and Methods of Application (S-1004)

Personnel involved: M. K. Wade, D. Santoso

Objectives. 1) to determine optimum rates of TSP (triple superphosphate-
20% P) fertilizer on a newly cleared soil (clay loam Ultisol); 2) to deter-
mine cost:benefit ratio of various methods of applying TSP fertilizer;
3) to study long-term effects of various P management schemes (i.e., various
rates and methods of application) on crop production and soil P levels;
4) to determine critical P soil test values for rice, peanut and cowpea.

Justification. Current transmigration policy is to supply 100 kg TSP/ha
twice per year. This is irrespective of soil type, soil analysis, or crops
grown. Most soils in the Sitiung area are extremely deficient in available
P and doses of 100 kg TSP (20 kg P) per ha are not likely to be adequate.




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