TROPICAL SOILS RESEARCH PROGRAM
PLAN OF WORK
Department of Soil Science
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, N.C. 27650
Planning Conference in Yurimaguas
October 25-29, 1982
February 15, 1983
INTRODUCTION ...... .... ............................. 1
OBJECTIVES ... ...................... ................ 1
JUSTIFICATION ............. .... ....................... 2
Relevance ..................... 2
Continuation of OngingRsarc.................. 3
PREVIOUS WORK AND PRESENT STATUS ...... ................... 5
PROCEDURES ...... ... ............................... 9
1. Stability of Fertilizer-Based Continuous Cropping Systems. . 9
1. Minimum Input Crop Production Systems ................ .10
1. Legume-Based Pasture Production Systems .... ............ 10
2. Tree-Based Production Systems ..... ................. 11
3. Intensive Management of Alluvial Soils ... ... ........ 11
1. On-Farm Technology Validation and Socio-Economic Assessment. 13 2. Peru Selva Network .......................... 14
3. Manaus Technology Validation ... ................ 14
4. Indonesian Technology Validation ... ............... .15
5. Extrapolation via REDINAA Soils Network .............. .16
1. Soil Characterization and the Fertility Capability
Classification System ..... .................... 17
2. Acid Savannas Support Role ..... .................. .17
1. Technology Dissemination and Transfer ................ .18
INSTITUTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS ..... ..................... .. 18
Peru ...... ... .. ................................ 18
Indonesia ....... ... .............................. 19
Brazil .............................. 20
Other TROPSOILS Universities ..... .................... 20
PROGRESS INDICATORS ........ .......................... 21
STAFFING PATTERN AND BUDGET ........ ...................... 22
LITERATURE ...... ... .. .............................. 27
The Tropical Soils Program is the portion of North Carolina State University's Soil Science Department that conducts the international dimension of its training, research and extension activities. Such activities are supported by a variety of funding sources including state support for teaching, and several grants, contracts and cooperative agreements for research and extension. These activities are coordinated by two faculty members under the overall direction of the department head. The Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program of AID, known as TROPSOILS, provides the support for the core research of the Program. Other sources of support contribute significantly to the overall scope of the Program. This paper describes an integrated plan of work of the Tropical Soils Program for the 1982-1986 quinquenium in order to provide a complete perspective. Activities supported by non-TROPSOILS sources are so indicated. As in any research program, plans willbe altered as new data become available.
The overall purpose of NCSU's Tropical Soils Program is: to develop and transfer, together with national institutions and other TROPSOILS universities, improved soil management technologies for productive and sustained farming systems in the humid tropics and acid savanna ecosystems on an agronomically, economically and ecologically sound basis.
The objectives for 1982-1986 are:
1. to determine the long-term stability of continuous crop production
systems based on judicious lime, fertilizer and management inputs for marginal soils of the humid tropics;
2. to develop soil management practices for continuous crop production
systems based on minimum lime, fertilizer and tillage inputs for marginal soils of the humid tropics.
3. to develop soil management practices for different landscape positions under alternative farming systems, including legume-based pastures, flooded rice production on alluvial soils, and, given adequate funding, agroforestry on undulating soils;
4. to extrapolate, validate and adapt research results to other humid tropical areas including farm locations, the Peru Selva Network, Manaus, TROPSOILS/Indonesia, and the REDINAA soils network; 2
5. to obtain additional soil characterization data for soils in the humid tropics and acid savannas to improve the Soil Fertility Capability Classification System as a tool for data extrapolation; and
6. to foster the transfer of improved soil management technologies through dissemination of results, cooperative research networks and training of tropical soil scientists.
The humid tropics is a crucial ecosystem affecting the future survival of
humankind, because of its agricultural potential and the widespread concerns about the ecological consequences of deforestation. Projections by FAQ of world food supply and demand indicate that an additional 200 million hectares of new lands must be put into cultivation before the turn of the century just to maintain the present per capita food production levels in the developing world. This amount of land, which exceeds the present harvested cropland in the United States, is needed in addition to the expected increase in yields per hectare in areas presently under cultivation. The use of high yielding varieties, fertilization and irrigation in fertile soils has resulted in impressive increases in food production in the tropics during the last decade. It is now widely acknowledged that the next major thrust for increasing world food production is in the marginal soils of the developing world where, because of severe climatic and soil constraints, the preservation of the soil resource base is also a major concern.
Where in the world are 200 million hectares of virgin or underutilized
lands suitable for food production? Several worldwide land resource evaluation studies indicate that the greatest potential lies in the humid tropics and acid savannas. Large scale expansion of agricultural land in other ecosystems is hampered by low temperatures, lack of water, severe erosion hazards, or already
intensive land use.
The humid tropics and acid savannas are blessed with little temperature
limitations during much of the year and a high percentage of favorable topography for agricultural development. The main factors limiting their development are low native soil fertility, limited transportation and marketing infrastructure, and lack of appropriate soil management technology. Without such technology, farming systems intended to replace shifting cultjiv tion often result in poor crop yields, economic failure and ecological damage. ~ 7 2 ~ LIL4
Systematic soil management research in the humid tropics is in its infancy. The only long-term research effort in acid soils of the humid tropics is NCSU's in Yurimaguas, Peru since 1971. Although much valuable information has been gathered by this and other programs, the results are currently insufficient in breadth and depth to produce a set of validated soil management technologies for the humid tropics. This conclusion was reached by two recent worldwide studies, the Soil Constraint Conference (IRRI, 1980) and the Bonn Conference on Agricultural Production (Wolff, 1980), as well as by the National Academy of Sciences' study on ecology and development in the humid tropics (National Research Council, 1982). Many of the problems are intricate and require longterm field research.
Continuation of Ongoing Research
In September 1981, AID conducted a review of NCSU's Tropical Soils Program activities in Yurimaguas (Spain et al., 1981). The Review Team recognized four
main contributions and recommended continuation with emphasis on specific aspects
"Results: The 'Agronomic-Economic Research on Tropical Soils' Project
at Yurimaguas, Peru has produced a number of outstanding results:
1) Continuous annual cropping has been demonstrated to be feasible on
infertile acid soils (Ultisols) in the humid tropics.
2) Soil chemical and some soil physical properties have been monitored
over a period of nine years to determine effects of land clearing
and cropping systems. This effort has produced baseline information
of value throughout the humid tropics.
3) Subsoil acidity and low fertility have been ameliorated by downward
movement of calcium and magnesium under continuous high input cropping
4) Small farm extrapolation and validation trials are resulting in the
development of methodology of potential importance for all of the
Recommendations: 1) Important questions related to the medium and longterm stability of continuous cropping systems on the inland soils of
the humid tropics need careful attention.
2) It is recommended that research on minimum tillage, residue management,
chemical weed control and legume based pasture/annual crop rotations
be given high priority.
3) Complementary research in plant breeding and integrated pest management is needed to support the project but should be funded from other
4) It is recommended that a highly competent individual with no less than
full completion of Ph.D. course requirements in agricultural economics
be assigned to Yurimaguas to assure that adequate data are available
for financial and economic analysis.
5) The Amazon Agricultural Research Network (Red de Investigacion Agraria
de la Amazonia REDINAA) provides a framework within which the soil
management research at Yurimaguas can be developed further. It should
be used as a mechanism for extension of the Yurimaguas results to other countries within the Amazon basin. Scientists working with
REDINAA could provide a continuing review of the work at Yurimaguas,
recommending which activities should be continued, which should be
strengthened and which should be dropped or could best be carried out
at other locations."
Senior faculty involved in the Tropical Soils Program have carefully studied
these recommendations keeping in mind TROPSOILS' objectives, the various worldwide
studies on research priorities and the availability of funds. Criteria for
selecting specific research areas include: 1) Identification as priority research in TROPSOILS' grant document and by the review team, 2) technical and
funding feasibility to conduct research, 3) whether research addresses alternative farming systems in the humid tropics.
PREVIOUS WORK AND PRESENT STATUS
Following is a summary of the more relevant results of NCSU's Tropical
Soils Program as related to present Program objectives. This covers continuous on-site research in the primary Humid Tropics Peru site, Yurimaguas, since 1971, in the primary Acid Savannas site, Planaltina, Brazil (with Cornell University) from 1972-1979, in various secondary and extrapolation sites in other humid tropical and acid savanna regions, as well as campus-based research. Data are recorded in the Program's technical reports (NCSU, 1972-1980) and in several review articles (Sanchez, 1973, 1977; Buol and Sanchez, 1978; Nicholaides, 1979; Sanchez, 1979; Valverde and Bandy, 1981; Sanchez et al., 1982; Nicholaides et al., 1982).
Land must be cleared before continuous cropping can be attempted. Thus, the initial research pertinent to this objective dealt with land clearing methods. The traditional slash-and-burn-method of land clearing produced crop yields far superior to mechanically cleared land due to fertilizer value of the ash and due to no compaction or topsoil removal as in bulldozed clearing (Seubert et al., 1977). Later research revealed that reclamation of soil previously by bulldozer clearing is possible by use of subsoiler or chisel plow; this indicated that although physical soil problems caused by bulldozer clearing last for several years they can be corrected by appropriate tillage techniques (Alegre and Cassel, unpublished).
Later research also revealed that among mechanized land clearing systems the use of a floating blade following by burning and fertilization was the least harmful in terms of crop yields (Alegre et al., 1981).
The ash from burn cleared primary forests does not appear to contain as
high a fertilizer value as ash of burn cleared secondary forests due to less burned woody material in primary forests (Smyth, unpublished data).
In traditional shifting cultivation systems, yields declined to about
30% of the first crop after only two croppings. This was due primarily to soil fertility depletion and weed competition (Yillachica- 1978), Yield declines can be prevented with crop rotation, proper fertilization and lime amendments as dictated by soil test information (Villachica, 1978). Improving soil fertility following monitoring of soil fertility dynamics provided the key for continuous production (Villachica, 1978). Timing of appearance of nutrient deficiencies varied widely among similar fields. Long-term effects of continuous cropping include an improvement in topsoil and subsoil chemical properties, particularly downward movement of calcium and magnesium. Physical properties with ontinuous
_e jrlyfertilized (NCSU, 1980).
High crop yields of three crops per year have been continuously maintained since 1972 (Sanchez et al., 1982). Twenty-seven consecutive crops have been harvested from the same plot of land due to proper amendments and management. Objective 2:
The use of some organic amendments has produced positive results, particularly grass mulching for corn and green manuring with kudzu for other crops. Composting crop residue can partially substitute for inorganic fertilization (Bandy and Nicholaides, 1979). Short-term legume fallows appear promising as an alternative to managed fallows (Bandy and Sanchez, 1981).
Evaluation of varieties and breeding lines of rice, cowpeas, peanuts,
soybeans and sweet potatoes for their tolerance to soil acidity revealed a good potential for acid tolerance in rice, cowpeas and peanuts in minimum lime input studies (Piha and Nicholaides, 1981).
Multiple cropping combinations can produce up to five harvests a year,
often at an agronomic advantage (Wade, 1978; Benites, 1981).
Several acid-tolerant pasture grass and legume ecotypes appear to be well
adapted to the humid tropics and a few appear particularly attractive under
grazing pressure (Ara et al., 1981).
Several tree species (Gmelina arborea, Gulielma gasipaes) show promise
for an intercropped agroforestry combinations in the humid tropics (Bandy, unpublished data).
Several rice varieties have produced over 7 t/ha on flooded alluvial soils
in the humid tropics (Bandy, unpublished data).
Objective 4: 7
Research demonstration trials in small farms of the surrounding area have
revealed, over a two-year period, that improved high input continuous cropping
systems are transferable to small farmers who normally practice shifting cultiS vation (Mesia et al., 1980). Small farmers using the improved systems have
produced 9-10 tons/ha/year of grain, while their traditional systems produce
less than 2 t/ha/yr. Economic feasibility studies have revealed net farm profits of greater than U.S. $2,000/yr. are realizable by the small farmers using
the improved system, while the traditional incomes are U.S. $750/yr. per family
for a 1.45 ha cropped area (Hernandez and Coutu, 1981).
Use of FCC and on-site soil testing allowed for successful extrapolation,
validation and adaptation of Yurimaguas technology to Bolivian Ultisols
(Nicholaides et al., 1978).
Soil characterization studies in the Amazon of Peru, Colombia, Brazil
and Venezuela revealed soils of Yurimaguas to be representative of most
wide-spread soil constraints of Amazon Basin and similar to most soils in
eastern North Carolina (Benavides, 1972; Buol, 1972; Sanchez and Buol, 1974,
1975; Schargel, 1978; Tyler et al., 1978). Recent satellite-based studies of
the entire Amazon have confirmed these assertions (Cochrane and Sanchez, 1981).
The Fertility Capability Classification System (FCC) developed by the
Tropical Soils Research Program provides a quantitative first approximation of
soil fertility limitations to crop production by using information from existing
soil survey reports (Buol et al., 1975). The FCC has been extremely useful in 2 setting parameters for extrapolability of research results to other areas (Buol
and Couto, 1980; Buol and Nicholaides, 1980).
Research into acid savannas emphasized the beneficial effects of residual
phosphorus applications, deep liming, selection of plants for tolerance to aluminum and low phosphorus level and on the managment of other macro- and micronutrients (Gonzalez et al., 1979; Yost et al., 1979; Naderman and Sanchez, 1979;
Smyth and Sanchez, 1980; Sanchez and Salinas, 1981).
Since its inception in 1971, the Program has degree trained and returned
to developing countries nearly 30 soil scientists. All of these are in either
responsible research or administration positions in their countries of the humid
tropics or acid savannas.
Program staff annually give approximately 20 presentations of research results to scientists and administrators in developing and developed countries.
Over 2,000 scientists and administrators in 102 countries receive Program
publications by being on our computerized mailing list. Program staff are
actively involved in several international soil management research networks
such as REDINAA, IBSRM and the International Land Clearing Workgroup.
The following twelve major research components are proposed to attain the six objectives. Each component consists of various experiments. Field experiments at Yurimaguas and Manaus are identified by the respective numbering systems of those stations; those in Indonesia were developed for consistency with the Yurimaguas numbering system.
1. Stability of Fertilizer-Based Continuous Cropping Systems.
The previously described conclusions of the AID review team (Spain et al., 1981) cited much progress on continuous cropping systems, but emphasized the need to determine the stability of these systems over time. At Yurimaguas, the primary research site, research consolidating the judicious-input continuous cropping technologies will center on maximizing fertilizer and lime use
The central continuous cropping experiment monitoring crop yields and soil nutrient dynamics with time will continue. Additional emphasis will center on refining the critical available nutrient levels of macro- and micro-nutrients to increase continuous crop yields. Some experiments such as residual lime effects (Y-102), reclamation of bulldozed land (Y-106), minimum input fallow system (Y-201), have been discontinued as results are sufficient.
Specific experiments are:
Y-101. Central continuous cropping and soil dynamics experiment
Y-103. Increased efficiencies of K fertilization
Y-104. Mechanized farming systems
Y-105. Physical properties and continuous cropping systems
Y-107. Refinement of macronutrient critical levels Y-108. Refinement of micronutrient critical levels
1. Minimum-Input Crop Production Systems
The review team endorsed the Program's major initiative on minimum-input
crop production systems centering on both lower inputs and conservation tillage practices. Use of acid-tolerant species and varieties, minimum soil disturbance
and promotion of Ca and Mg movement into the subsoil are key components of experiments now in progress. A central experiment will be designed and implemented when sufficient information is obtained. Experiments are as follows:
Y-202. Managed kudzu fallow
Y-203. Rock phosphate residual effects
Y-204. Acid tolerance: cultivar screening
Y-205. Acid tolerance: agronomic modifications
Y-206. Minimum tillage and K interactions
Y-207. Minimum tillage and P, S, Ca, Mg interactions
Y-208. Ca and Mg movement
Y-209. Weed control and tillage
Y-210. Central low input experiment (to be developed)
The Program's initiative on developing soil management practices for alternate farming systems for various topographical positions is consistent with the review team's recommendations. Three main research components are included.
1. Legume-Based Pasture Production Systems
Pasture research continues using acid-tolerant germplasm from CIAT to improve beef production and prevent soil erosion in degraded pastures. Experiments included introduction of various legume and grass ecotypes, pasture establishment, grazing pressure and pasture reclamation studies. They are conducted on the Yurimaguas station; future ones may be off the station, possibly in Iquitos.
Y-301. Pasture germplasm adaptation (CIAT regional trial "B")
Y-302. Grass-legume mixtures under grazing
Y-303. Pasture establishment trials
Y-304. Pasture reclamation and rotation trials
Y-305. Pasture quality and nutrient recycling
2. Tree-Based Production Systems
Addressing this research area adequately will depend on receipt of additional funds, perhaps from ICRAF. The shift of Cornell to the Acid Savannas necessitated NCSU allocating one of its two senior scientist positions to the soil fertility area to have been covered by Cornell; the effect being a delay of the initially proposed work on agroforestry and, to an extent, economics. Agroforestry research is considered an important issue to be addressed as soon as additional funds are obtained. The purpose is to determine the role of valuable trees in sustained systems, either alone or interplanted with crops or pastures. Preliminary acquaintance work continues with two main species, 1) Gmelina arborea intercropped with various agronomic and pasture species and 2) pijuayo, Guilielma gasipaes, intercropped with four legume covers. Nutrient response trials with both species are also in progress. A more developed agroforestry project will be planned. Experiments are:
Y-401. Gmelina arborea intercropping
Y-402. Pijuayo-legume cover crops
Y-403. Gmelina arborea fertilization
Y-404. Pijuayo fertilization
Y-405. Agroforestry systems (to be developed)
Y-406. Alley cropping
3. Intensive Management of Alluvial Soils
About 8% of the Amazon consists of relatively fertile, usually flood-free soils derived from river alluvium. Research was initiated in Yurimaguas in 1980
at the request and with the funds of CORDELOR (Loreto Development Authority) to determine the potential of paddy rice in the Amazon Basin. The research is on a first terrace Tropaqualf with little flooding hazard and includes land preparation and planting systems, varietal adaptation, fertilization, water management, weed control. Azolla work is planned for mid-1983, in collaboration with the University of Hawaii and the National Rice Program of Peru, as well as rotational systems of upland crops with flooded rice. Experiments
Y-501. Varietal adaptation to flooded conditions
Y-502. Land preparation and planting systems
Y-503. N fertilization and management Y-504. P fertilization and management
Y-505. K:Mg balance
Y-506. Water management
Y-507. Herbicide use on flooded rice
Y-508. Seed production
Y-509. Varietal adaptation to non-flooded conditions
Y-510. Azolla-Anaebaena (to be developed)
Y-511. Flooded rice-upland crop rotations (to be developed) Objective 4:
Extrapolation, validation, and adaptation of technologies developed in Yurimaguas to other humid tropical areas was recommended by the review team, citing REDINAA as an example vehicle. Such work answers the basic question of how much adaptation is needed to use the research results in other regions with different climate, degree of expression of socio-economic constraints and socio-economic conditions. Certainly the question must be answered for small farms in the Yurimaguas area and in rapidly developing areas of the Peruvian selva such as Alto Mayo, Huallaga Central, Alto Huallaga, Pichis Palcazu,
Pucallpa, Iquitos and Madre de Dios. Validation of research results should be of major advantage to the Hawaii/AARD/NCSU research in the transmigration areas of Sumatra, Indonesia. Such an approach in Manaus has resulted in a revolutionary design for technology validation. The four major components in meeting Objective 4 should not only broaden our knowledge of extrapolation limits, but also be of immense benefit to small farmers in the humid tropics.
1. On-Farm Technology Validation and Socio-Economic Assessment
The review team emphasized that the small farm extrapolation and validation trials are resulting in the development of methodology of potential importance for all the Peruvian selva. On-farm research with selected small farms near Yurimaguas will continue with the support of INIPA's extension staff to determine whether the technologies being developed are acceptable to the area's farmers.
On-farm validation provides an excellent basis for economic analysis.
However, the shift of Cornell to the Acid Savannas also resulted in some delay
of the high priority economics component. Although the limited funds do not allow us to follow the review team's recommendation fully, studies on economic analysis of different soil management alternatives on different landscape positions will be undertaken in cooperation with NCSU's Economics and Business Department, NCSU Strengthening Grant and the REE Program. The socio-economic feasibility of the alternative farming systems developed through research will also be assessed in collaboration with Peruvian and NCSU economists and sociologists. Specific projects are:
Y-701. On-farm validation: near Yurimaguas
Y-706. Economic analysis of alternative soil management systems
Y-707. Socio-economic analysis of new technology
2. Peru Selva Network
INIPA is developing a National Selva Program, part of which is geared at testing and validating the Yurimaguas technology in other parts of the Peruvian Amazon. Cooperation to date has been established within Puerto Maldonado (CIPA XVII), Pichis Palcazu Special Project, the Alto Huallaga Special Project (PEAH), INIPA and the Universidad Nacional de la Selva (UNAS) in Tingo Maria,
and inTarapotowith CIPA and the Escuela Superior de Educacion Profesional (ESEP). Where possible, according to manpower and financial resources, requests to provide research support to these experiments will be provided by the TSRP, as the trials are considered consistent with the Program's extrapolation objectives. The following trials are planned but others are likely
to be initiated at a later time.
PM-100. Continuous cropping in Puerto Maldonado
PM-300. Pastures regional trial in Puerto Maldonado
TM-100. Continuous cropping: high and low inputs in Pumahuasi,
Tingo Maria and Aucayacu
TM-300. Pastures regional trial in Pumahuasi, .Tingo Maria
TM-310. Legume covers in steep eroded hillsides in Tingo Maria
TP-100. Continuous cropping: high and low inputs in two locations
3. Manaus TechnologyValidation
The Program began research at EMBRAPA's Manaus State Research Station (UEPAE de Manaus) in May 1981 in response to a request from Brazil and with
financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation and EMBRAPA. An on-site NCSU senior scientist is testing the validity of the Yurimaguas technology in a heavy clay Oxisol with a marked dry season; socio-economic situations are
different from Yurimaguas. A chronological nutrient dynamics experiment is an improved version of the Yurimaguas continuous cropping central experiment
and provides a framework for identifying and correcting soil fertility limitations as they appear over time. The phosphorus management and organic management-alley cropping experiments are specifically aimed to provide urgently needed data for local conditions. Experiments are:
10039. Chronologic correction of nutrient deficiencies in annual
crop rotations and permanent crops
10013. Rates, methods of application and critical phosphorus levels
for annual cropping systems
10021. Sources of organic fertilizers for corn and cowpea,
including alley cropping
M-202. Managed kudzu and secondary forest fallows
4. Indonesia Technology Validation
NCSU's support role in TROPSOILS/Indonesia is to assist the University of Hawaii in areas where the Tropical Soils Program's experience in the Amazon could be of value. NCSU staff will participate in the selection of experimental sites and soil classification, and in research on land clearing methods, soil fertility evaluation procedures and legume-grass pastures. All experiments will be conducted in close cooperation with Indonesian and Hawaiian scientists. Together with the larger Hawaiian effort, TROPSOILS/Indonesia represents a major effort to prevent soil deterioration in transmigration areas as well as to repair the damage where it has occurred. NCSU will post a senior soil scientist with Yurimaguas experience in Sitiung and at least one graduate student at the Ph.D. level. Considerable campus backstopping is envisions. Research areas
1-001. Soil characterization of research sites
1-002. Land clearing and land preparation methods in primary forests
1-003. Effects of different pre-clearing vegetation (primary, secondary
forest and alang-alang) on soil dynamics and crop yields
1-101. Chronological soil dynamics experiment (similar to M-101)
1-102. Alternate farming systems on properly cleared land (similar
1-301. Acid tolerant pastures for soil cover and beef production
(similar methodology at Yurimaguas using CIAT germplasm)
1-901. Develop soil fertility evaluation service for making
fertilizer recommendations to farmers
5. Extrapolation via REDINAA Soils Network
The Tropical Soils Research Program cooperated in REDINAA's program
development and has been asked to assist coordination of its soils network. The soils portion proposes to fund and conduct four types of activities or "modules" at various Amazon Basin stations in Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela (Sanchez and da Silva, 1982).
The review team recommended that REDINAA should be used as a mechanism for extrapolating Yurimaguas results to other countries of the Amazon Basin. Accordingly, the REDINAA experiments will be implemented in locations other than the Yurimaguas station with advice and support of the Tropical Soils Research Program team. Some selected and specific (e.g. agroforestry) REDINAA experiments may be conducted at Yurimaguas if they add to the knowledge resource base of that Program. Activities envisioned are:
R-001. Soil characterization of Amazon development areas (REDINAA
R-101. Soil dynamics in alternative farming systems (compares in one
trial shifting cultivation with annual crops, pastures, permanent crops and forestry production along with a native vegetation check) (REDINAA Module 1)
R-703. Training and conferences (REDINAA Module 4)
R-901. Strengthening soil and plant analyses laboratories and
development of critical levels (REDINAA Module 2)
This objective will be met by two major research components which have proven successful in the past. These are soil characterization and the FCC and an acid savanna support role.
1. Soil Characterization and the Fertility Capability Classification System
Soil characterization and further improvement of the FCC System are continuing activities designed to assist the extrapolation efforts. The Tropical Soils Program considers essential an adequate characterization of research sites and their impact areas, and will respond to requests of this nature.
The Program will continue characterizing and classifying soils, interpreting data for potential extrapolation sites throughout the humid tropics, and refining the FCC System to support that work. An extrapolation site will be located in Iquitos, Peru to link soil management research work there more closely with that in Yurimaguas. Main funding support will be from CORDELOR, the newly-initiated Amazon Research Institute and INIPA. Requests from USAID/Lima also propose work in the Pichis Palcazu, Alto Huallaga, Huallaga Central, Alto Mayo and Puerto Maldonado areas of the Peruvian Selva. Financial support will come from INIPA and USAID/Lima. Project FCC work includes the translation of FAO's World Soil Map and Agroecological Zones Study into an FCC map of the developing world.
Specific projects are:
Y-601. FCC refinement
Y-602. FCC map of the developing world
Y-603. New areas: characterization, classification and interpretation
2. Acid Savannas Support Role
Approval by AID/Washington for Cornell, as the lead university, and NCSU, as the support university, to perform research in this area has been received. Research and operational aspects will follow those detailed in the Letter of Intention signed with EMBRAPA and any Memorandum of Understanding between Cornell University and CPAC/EMBRAPA. NCSU's support role via graduate students
at CPAC is likely to involve:
B-101. Fertilizer management for optimum crop response on Oxisols
B-204. Tolerant cultivars for various constraints of Oxisols Objective 6:
Fostering technology transfer is necessary to achieve the goals of TROPSOILS and to provide the necessary feedback mechanisms. Joining forces with research networks, responding to requests to present Program results at conferences, and training soil scientists are expected to remain very high priority activities for NCSU's Tropical Soils Program..
Staff members will continue to disseminate results as invited speakers in conferences and symposia, or on-site visits if requested. Written technical materials will be distributed according to the Program's computerized mailing list. A storage-retrieval system for tropical soil management literature will continue to be developed. In addition, Program staff continues to cooperate in the establishment of tropical soils research networks and fostering the development of secondary sites according to the overall TROPSOILS objectives. The main efforts include REDINAA and the International Board for Soil Resource Management (IBSRAM).
A Tropical Soils Management Training Center is being developed in Yurimaguas by INIPA to train farmers, extension and research specialists on soil management practices in the humid tropics. Although this project is financed by the Peruvian Government, it does provide NCSU with an opportunity to assist in on-the-job training of change agents and the target group.
The NCSU Tropical Soils Program operates in Peru under the terms of an
official Technical Cooperation Agreement between the Government of Peru and NCSU
in effect since March 11, 1974. This agreement is of an indefinite duration, unless cancelled by either signator, with six months' notice. INIPA is the executing agency from the Peruvian Government. Dr. Carlos Valverde has had the leadership responsibility from Peru and has exercised this function for ten years in a most effective manner. INIPA has assigned PL-480 funds as counterpart funds for Yurimaguas, primarily for infrastructure building. The expected allocations for 1982 and 1983 are approximately U.S. $480,000 and $200,000. As allocations are made annually, it is difficult to predict future ones. CORDELOR is providing in 1982 and 1983 ,an extra U.S. $100,000 to support work at Yurimaguas and Iquitos. No projections can be made for these counterpart funds beyond dates mentioned.
The Program is proud of Peru's national Institutions' commitment to the
Program and the truly collaborative relationship that has developed throughout the years. Technology validation research in other Selva regions involve collaboration with the Alto Mayo, Huallaga Central, Alto Huallaga, Pichis Palcazu and Puerto Maldonado Special Projects, the Universidad Nacional de la Selva in Tingo Maria and INIPA's regional research and extension centers in the selva (CIPA X, XI, XVI, XVII, XVIII). USAID/Lima has always been helpful and a strong supporter of this Program. The International Potato Center (CIP) provides logistical support for the Program and in turn conducts potato adaptation research in Yurimaguas. CIP's assistance in very difficult logistical aspects has been a major positive factor in the Program's operations.
The programatic and budget relationships with Indonesia shall be according to the Memorandum of Understanding developed by the University of Hawaii and AARD (Agency for Agricultural Research and Development). NCSU will place onsite a senior scientist, covering salary and related personnel expenses, and
will purchase a work vehicle. According to the Memorandum of Understanding, housing and local operating costs will be covered by AARD. No estimates of the dollar value of the Indonesian contribution are available at this time,
but it is anticipated to be considerable.
NCSU's operations in Manaus are according to an agreement with EMBRAPA
and IICA (Interamerican Institute for Cooperation in Agriculture) with funding from the Rockefeller Foundation. IICA provides the necessary accreditation and logistical support for the Manaus operation. The 1983 level of support is approximately $75,000 from the Rockefeller Foundation and $75,000 from EMBRAPA. Both institutions have agreed in principle to continue the program for an indefinite period provided all parties are satisfied.
The programatic and budget relationship for Acid Savannas project in Brazil shall be according to any Memorandum of Understanding developed by Cornell University and EMBRAPA, and if not, then according to the Letter of Intent signed by representatives of EMBRAPA and NCSU on May 12, 1980, which by the wording of the agreement would become the Memorandum of Understanding under which the Acid Savannas Project would operate.
Other TROPSOIL Universities.
In addition to its support roles to the University of Hawaii's Indonesia Project and Cornell's Acid Savanna one, NCSU is informally developing close working relationships with Texas A & M. TROPSOILS universities are striving for common methodologies within the context of the Technical Committee and Board of Directors. It is expected that the combined strengths of the four universities will be used for the benefit of all sites as working relationships solidify.
As the grant agreement between AID and the Management Entity stipulates that a review by an External Advisory Panel be held at the midpoint of the five year -funding period, it is proposed that for all TROPSOILS projects the indicators of progress in accomplishing objectives be determined at that time, using the following criteria:
1) Start-up time required for initiation of research procedures.
a) Facilities on-site when project began. Facilities required for
initiation of research.
b) Ease, or difficulty, in locating personnel and equipment on site.
2) Once research procedures were initiated, demonstrable progress in
accomplishing objectives according to:
a) Scientifically valid research results showing whether or not
soil management technology was developed according to stated
b) Modification of treatments or research plans when findings so
c) Dissemination and utilization of definitive research results
to national institutions, and local farmers.
3) At the end of the 5-year period, quantitative estimates of the
adoption of soil management practices by:
a) National research institutions in the ecological zone.
b) National extension institutions in the ecological zone.
c) Farmers assisted by the national research and extension
An additional indicator would be a consensus among soil scientists and
development officials that improved soil management technologies have been developed for the agroecological zones.
It should be clear, however, that research is a continuing activity, that new problems arise as others are solved or as socioeconomic conditions change. Research in tropical soil management, no matter how well conducted, is not likely to answer all the major questions the users demand, particularly in regions as poorly understood as the humid tropics.
STAFFING PATTERN AND BUDGET
The proposed staffing pattern is shown in Tables I and 2 for the 1982-84 period. TROPSOILS will support 5.1 FTE's of faculty time while other funds available from the Tropical Soils Program (Rockefeller Foundation and REE/Peru) will support 1.6 FTE's. A total of five highly qualified administrative and technical support staff is included.
TROPSOILS will support a total of 7.75 FTE's of junior scientists time involving a total of 8 Ph.D. candidates and 3 M.S. candidates. In addition 7,00 FTE's of junior scientist time will be available to the Tropical Soils Program at no salary cost to TROPSOILS to further the objectives outlined in this proposal. These figures are illustrative of the level of effort but are expected to vary with time.
The budget request to TROPSOILS' Management Entity is outlined in
Table 3. These figures do not include the 25% matching contribution by NCSU, other sources of funds available to the Program, or counterpart contributions from the Peruvian, Indonesian and Brazilian institutions. Estimates of the expected contribution of host country institutions have to wait until the participation from Indonesia and Brazil (Acid Savannas).are adequately identified.
The budget projection shows that the amounts to be allocated by the
Management Entity during the first two funding period totaling $1,416,000 will cover the Program cost to until approximatley March 1, 1983, or two months before the expected end of the funding period. Calendar year budget projections include a 10% increase due to salaries and inflation for 1984, an 8% increase for 1985 and a 5% increase for 1986. At this rate the total TROPSOIL budget allocation of $4,300,500 will be expended by October 1, 1985, or one year ahead of the expected termination date. Our projections assume arriving at full range of activities by the end of 1982 and a steady state afterwards. Inflation increases of 10, 8 and 5% for 1984, 1985 and 1986 are very conservative under the traditionally high rate of inflation of Peru, Indonesia and Brazil. We recommend revision of funding levels be made at the time the entire TROPSOILS Program is reviewed in mid-1984.
Table 1. Faculty and support staff participation in NCSU's Tropical Soils Research Program
Name Title Responsibility Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 (1982-84)
J. J. Nicholaides Assoc. Prof. Coordinator/S.Management NCSU x x x x x x 0.8
P. A. Sanchez Professor Coordinator/S.Management Peru x x x x x x 0.4
0. E. Bandy Asst. Prof. Soil Management Peru x x x x x x 0.4
R. E. McCollum Assoc. Prof. Soil Fertility Peru x x x x x x 0.9
J. R. Benites Asst. Prof. Farming Systems/Socio-economics Peru x x x x x x 0.9
M. K. Wade Asst. Prof. Soil Management Indonesia x x 1.0
Assoc. Prof. Soil Fertility/Classification NCSU - x x x x 0.7
T. J. Smyth Asst. Prof. Soil Fert.-Manaus Project Manaus - x x 1.0
S. W. Buol Professor Soil Classification NCSU - x x x 0.2
D. K. Cassel Professor Soil Physics/Tillage NCSU x x x x x x 0.2
F. R. Cox Professor Soil Micronutrients NCSU x x -
C. B. Davey Professor Forestry NCSU - x
W. P. Robarge Asst. Prof. Soil Chemistry NCSU x x x x
R. H. Miller Professor Administration/Microbiology NCSU x x x x x x 0.2
G. C. Naderman Assoc. Prof. Soil Tillage Management NCSU x x x
A. G. Wollum Professor Soil Microbiology NCSU x x x
A. J. Coutu Professor Economics NCSU - x
Total FTE's on TROPSOILS FUNDS 5.1
Total FTE's on other Tropical Soils Research Programs funds 1.6
B. I. Monar Admin. Sec. Program Administration Peru x x x x x x 1.0
D. M. Silsbee Bilingual Sec. Program Administration NCSU x x x x X x 1,0
M. Gonzalez Admin. Sec. Peru Operations Peru x x x x x 1.0
P. Smithson Res.Tech.III Lab and Computer NCSU x x x x x x 1,0
J. Powell Res.Tech.III Lab and Computer NCSU x x x x x x 1.0
Table 2. Junior Scientists involved in NCSU's Tropical Soils Research Program
Name Title Responsibility Supervisor Support FTE
J. Alegre Grad. Asst. (PhD) Land clearing/Peru Cassel TROPSOILS 0.75
M. A. Ara Grad. Asst. (PhD) Pastures/Peru Sanchez TROPSOILS 0.75
L. Arevalo Soil Chemist (BS) Laboratory/Peru Benites PL-480
M. A. Ayarza Grad. Asst. (PhD) Soil dynamics-Pastures/Peru Sanchez Rockefeller Fndt. 0.50
0. Dubois Grad. Stud (MS) Economics/Peru Coutu Belgium/TROPSOILS 0,50
M. P. Gichuru Grad. Asst. (PhD) Low input systems/Peru Sanchez TROPSOILS 1,00
D. W. Gill Grad. Asst. (PhD) K dynamics/Peru Nicholaides TROPSOILS 0.75
R. Hoag Grad. Asst. (PhD) Soil characterization/Peru Buol TROPSOILS 0.75
L. B. Katz Grad. Asst. (MS) Al tolerance in peanuts Nicholaides TROPSOILS 0.50
I. D. G. Lins Grad. Stud. (PhD) Soil fertility/Brazil Nicholaides EMBRAPA
A. K. Makarim Grad. Stud. (PhD) Land clearing/Indonesia Cassel/Nicholaides AARD/World Bank
J. Mt. Pleasant Grad. Asst. (PhD) Weed control/Peru McCollum NSF/TROPSOILS 0.75
L. Newman Grad. Asst. (MS) Soil classification/Peru Buol NCSU/TROPSOILS 0.75
J. R. Perez Agroforestry Spec. (BS) Agroforestry/Peru Bandy PL-480
P. Rohman Grad. Asst. (14S) Micronutrients Cox NCSU
R. Schaus Pasture Spec. (BS) Pasture research/Peru Sanchez PL-480
L. Szott Grad. Asst. (PhD) Agroforestry/Peru Davey TROPSOILS/ICRAF 0.50
Total SY's TROPSOILS 0.75
Other Resources 8.00
Table 3. Projected NCSU requirements from TROPSOILS Management Entity by calendar year and first two funding
CALEDAR EARSTROPSOIL FUNDING PERIODS CALNDA YERS9/25/81 to 1/25/82 to
1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1/24/82 4/30/83
---------------------------- $1,000 -------------------------------------Salaries 268 352 387 418 439 92 356
Fringe benefits 41 47 52 56 59 15 53
Overseas allowances 30 40 44 48 50 10 40
Travel/freight 80 90 99 90 95 17 103
Supplies 30 40 44 48 50 10 33
Equipment 50 30 33 36 15 12 58
Consultants 5 3 3 3 3 5 16
Other direct costs 275 350 385 416 437 89 362
Overhead 151 194 213 227 237 50 200
Total $930 1,146 1,260 1,342 1,385 300 1,221
Alegre, J. C., D. K. Cassel and D. E. Bandy. 1981. Effects of tillage practices
on reclaiming a severely compacted Ultisol in Yurimaguas, Peru. p. 38. In:
Agron. Abstrs., Amer. Soc. of Agron. 1981 Ann. Mtgs., Madison, Wisc.
Ara, M. A., P. A. Sanchez, D. E. Bandy and J. M. Toledo. 1981. Adaptation of
acid-tolerant grass and legume pasture ecotypes in the upper Amazon. Agronomy
Bandy, D. E. 1977. Manejo de suelos y cultivos en sistemas de agricultura
permanente en la Selva Amaz6nica del PerG. En: Reuni6n-Taller FAO-SIDA
sobre Conservaci6n y Manejo de Suelos en AmerTca Latina. Lima, PerG.
Bandy, D. E. and J. R. Benites. 1977. Proyecto international de suelos tropicales,
Yurimagus. Ministerio de Alimentacion. Lima, Peru. 32 pp.
Bandy, D. E. and J. J. Nicholaides, III. 1979. Use of composts for crop production on Ultisols of the Amazon jungle. p. 42. In: Agron. Abstrs.
Amer. Soc. of Agron. 1979 Ann. Mtgs. Madison, Wisc.7
Bandy, D. E. and P. A. Sanchez. 1981. Managed kudzu fallows as an alternative
to shifting cultivation in the Amazon of Peru. Agronomy Abstracts 1981:40.
Benites, J. R. 1981. Nitrogen response and cultural practices for corn-based
cropping systems in the Peruvian Amazon. Ph.D. Thesis, N. C. State Univ.,
Benavides, S. T. 1972. Mineralogical and chemical characteristics of some soils
of the Amazonia of Colombia. Ph.D. Thesis, North Carolina State Univ.,
Raleigh, N.c. 216 pp.
Bigham, J. M., D. C. Golden, S. W. Buol, S. B. Weed and L. H. Bowen. 1978.
Iron oxide mineralogy of well-drained Ultisols and Oxisols: II. Influence
on color, surface area, and phosphate retention. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer.
. J 42:825-830.
Bigham, J. M., D. C. Golden, L. H. Bowen, S. W. Buol and S. B. Weed. 1978.
Mossbauer and X-ray evidence for the pedogenic transformation of hematite
to geothite. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 42:979-981.
Buol, S. W. 1973. Soil genesis, morphology and classification. In: P. A.
Sanchez (ed.) A Review of Soils Research in Tropical Latin AmeF-ica. North Carolina Agr. Exp. Station Tech. Bull. 219 (English and Spanish versions).
Buol, S. W. 1977. Soil moisture and temperature regimes in soil taxonomy.
pp. 9-12. In: Soil Taxonomy and Soil Properties. Trans. Research Record
642. Trans. Res. Board. Nat. Acad. Sci., Wash., D.C.
Buol, S. W. 1978. International Soil Taxonomy--Implications for North Carolina.
Soil Sci. Soc. of North Carolina Proceedings 21:63-66.
.. .-28Buol, S. W. 1981. Morphological characteristics of Alfisols and Ultisols.
Chapter 1. In: B.K.G. Theng (ed.): Soils with Variable Charge. Soil
Bureau, DSIRM-Lower Hutt, New Zealand.
Buol, S. W. and W. Couto. 1978. Fertility management interpretations and soil
surveys of the tropics. pp. 67-75. In: M. Drosdoff et al., (eds.):
Diversity of Soils of the Tropics. AS Special Pub. NIumE-er 34.
Buol, S. W. and W. Couto. 1981. Soil fertility capability assessment for use
in the humid tropics. pp. 254-261. In: 0. J. Greenland (ed.): Characterization of Soils. Wiley, London.
Buol, S. W. and H. Eswaran. 1978. The micromorphology of Oxisols. Proc. 5th
Int. Working Meeting on Soil Micromorphology. Granada, Spain. pp. 325-348.
Buol, S. W. and J. J. Nicholaides, III. 1980. Constraints to soil fertility
evaluation and extrapolation of research results. pp. 425-438. In: SoilRelated Constraints to Food Production in the Tropics. IRRI, Los- ahos,
Buol, S. W. and P. A. Sanchez. 1978. Rainy tropical climates: Physical potential present and improved farming systems. pp. 292-312. Trans. 11th Int.
Congr. Soil Sci. (Edmonton, Canada) 2:19-22.
Buol, S. W., P. A. Sanchez, R. B. Cate, Jr. and M. A. Granger. 1975. Soil
fertility capability classification. In: E. Bornemisza and A. Alvarado
(eds.): Soil Management in Tropical Amneica. pp. 126-145 (English version)
and pp. 129-145 (Spanish version). NCSU, Raleigh, N.C.
Cate, R. B., Jr. y A. J. Coutu. 1977. Interpretaci6n econ6mica de los datos
agron6micos de Yurimaguas en la Selva Amaz6nica del Perl. En: Reuni6nTaller FAO-SIDA sobre Conservaci6n y Manejo de Suelos en Am Fica Latina.
Lima, PerG. 14 p.
Cochrane, T. T., J. G. Salinas and P. A. Sanchez. 1980. An equation for liming
acid mineral soils to compensate for crop aluminum tolerance. Trop. Agric.
Cochrane, T. T. and P. A. Sanchez. 1981. Land resources, soil properties and
their management in the Amazon region: A state of knowledge report. In:
Amazon Land Use Research, CIAT, Cali, Colombia.
Cordero, A. 1977. Principles of intercropping: Effects of nitrogen fertilization and row arrangements on growth, nitrogen accumulation and yield of
corn and interplanted understory annuals. Ph.D. Thesis, N. C. State
Univ., Raleigh. 158 pp.
Cox, F. R. Micronutrients. 1973. In: Sanchez (ed.): A Review of Soils Research
in Tropical Latin America. Nort Carolina Agr. Exp. Station Tech. Bull. 219
(English and Spanish versions).
Cox, F. R. Potassium. 1973. In: Sanchez (ed.): A Review of Soils Research in
Tropical Latin America. NFrth Carolina Agr. Exp. Station Tech. Bull. 219
(English and Spanish versions).
Drosdoff, M., R. Daniels, and J. J. Nicholaides, III (eds.). 1978. Diversity
of Soils of the Tropics. Amer. Soc. Agron. Spec. Publ. No. 34. 119 pp.
Gonzalez, E. E., E. J. Kamprath, G. C. Naderman, W. V. Soares e E. Lobato. 1975.
Efeito da profundidade de incorporagao de calcario na cultura do milho em um solo 5cido de Cerrado do Brasil Central. Anais XV Congr. Bras. Ciencia
de Solo (Campinas):299-302.
Gonzalez, E., E. J. Kamprath, G. C. Naderman and W. V. Soares. 1979. Effect
of depth of lime incorporation on growth of corn on an Oxisol of Central
Brazil. Soil Sci. Soc. of Amer. J. 43:1155-1158.
Guerrero, R. 1971. Soils of the Colombian Llanos Orientales--Composition and
classification of selected soil profiles. Ph.D. Thesis, Soil Science
Department, North Carolina State University.
Guerrero, R. 1975. Soils of the eastern region of Colombia. In: E. Bornemisza
and A. Alvarado (eds.): Soil Management in Tropical America. North Carolina
State University, Raleigh (English and Spanish editions).
Hernandez, D. and A. J. Coutu. 1981. Economic evaluation of slash/burn cultivation options in Yurimaguas, Peru. p. 42. In: Agron. Abstrs. Amer. Soc.
of Agron. 1981 Ann. Mtgs., Madison, Wisc.
IRRI. 1980. Soil-related Constraints in Relation ito Food Production in the
Tropics. IRRI, Los Baios, Philippines. 468 pp.
Juo, A. S. R. and E. J. Kamprath. 1979. Copper chloride as an extractant for
estimating the potentially reactive aluminum pool in acid soils. Soil Sci.
Soc. Amer. J. 43:35-38.
Kamprath, E. J. 1972. Potential detrimental effects from liming highly weathered
soils to neutrality. Proc. Soil Crop Sci. Soc. Florida 31:200-203.
Kamprath, E. J. 1972. Soil acidity and liming. Committee on Tropical Soils:
Soils of the Humid Tropics. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.
Kamprath, E. J. 1973. Phosphorus. In: Sanchez (ed.): A Review of Soils Research
in Tropical Latin America. NortlFCarolina Agr. Exp. Station Tech. Bull. 219.
pp. 138-161 (English and Spanish versions).
Kamprath, E. J. 1973. Soil acidity and liming. In: Sanchez (ed.): A Review
of Soils Research in Tropical Latin America. -TNorth Carolina Agr. Exp.
Station Tech. Bull. 219. pp. 126-137 (English and Spanish versions).
Kamprath, E. J. 1973. Sulfur. In: Sanchez (ed.): A Review of Soils Research
in Tropical Latin America. North Carolina Agr. Exp. Station Tech. Bull.
219. pp. 179-182 (English and Spanish versions).
Kamprath, E. J. 1977. Phosphorus fixation and availability in highly weathered
soils. pp. 333-348. In: M. G. Ferri et al., (coord.): IV Simp6sio sobre
o Cerrado. Ed. Univ. 5-ao Paulo, BraziT.
Kamprath, E. J. 1978. Lime in relation to Al toxicity in tropical soils. In:
C. S. Andrew and E. J. Kamprath (eds.): Mineral Nutrition of Legumes in
Tropical and Subtropical Soils. pp. 233-245.
Kamprath, E. J. 1980. Soil Acidity in Well-drained Soils of the Tropics as a
Constraint to Food Production. In: Soil Related Constraints to Food Production in the Tropics. pp. 173-T87. IRRI, Los Banos, Philippines.
Lopes, A. S. 1975. A survey of the fertility status of soils under "Cerrado"
vegetation in Brazil. M.S. Thesis, North Carolina State University.
Lopes, A. S. 1977. Available water, phosphorus fixation and zinc levels in Brazilian Cerrado soils in relation to their physical, chemical and mineralogical properties. Ph.D. Thesis, North Carolina State Univ.,
Raleigh. 189 pp.
Lopes, A. S. and F. R. Cox. 1979. Relagao de caracteristicas fisicas, quimicas e mineral6gicas com fixagio de fosforo en solos sob cerrados. R. Bras. Ci.
Lopes, A. S. and A. G. Wollum, II. .1976. Comparative effects of methyl-bromide,
propylene oxide, and autoclave sterilization on specific soil chemical
characteristics. Turrialba 26:351-355.
Lopez, C. E. 1979. Nutritional requirements for Panicum maximum production in
the Amazon Jungle of Peru. Ph.D. Thesis, North Carolina State Univ. 250 pp.
MejTa, L. 1975. Characteristics of a common soil toposequence of the Llanos
Orientales of Colombia. M.S. Thesis, North Carolina State University,
Raleigh. 224 pp.
Mendez, J. and E. J. Kamprath. 1978. Liming Latosols and time effect on P
response. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 41:86-88.
Mombiela, F., J. J. Nicholaides, III and L. A. Nelson. 1981. A Method to
Determine the Appropriate Mathematical Form for Incorporating Soil Test Levels in Fertility Response Models for Recommendation Purposes. Agron.
Moura, F. W. and S. W. Buol. 1972. Studies of a Latosol Roxo (Eutrustox) in
Brazil: Clay mineralogy. Experientiae 13(7):218-234.
Moura, F. W. and S. W. Buol. 1972. Studies of a Latosol Roxo (Eutrustox) in
Brazil: Description, setting and characterization. Experientiae 13(7):201-217.
Moura, F. W., S. W. Buol and E. J. Kamprath. 1972. Studies in a Latosol Roxo
(Eutrustox) in Brazil: Phosphate reactions. Experientiae 13:235-347.
Moura, F. W. and S. W. Buol. 1972. Studies of a Latosol Roxo (Eutrustox) in
Brazil: Micromorphology effect on ion release. Experientiae 21;160-177.
Munn, D. A. and R. E. McCollum. 1976. Solution culture evaluation of sweet
potato cultivar tolerance to aluminum. Agron. J. 68:989-991.
Mesia, R., D. E. Bandy and J. J. Nicholaides, III, 1979, Transfer of agronomic
practices to the small farmer of the Amazon jungle. p. 46, In; Agron.
Abstrs. Amer. Soc. of Agron. Ann. Mtgs., Madison, Wisc.
National Research Council. 1982. Ecological Aspects of Development in the
Humid Tropics. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 297 pp.
Naderman, G. C. and P. A. Sanchez. 1980. Soil fertility and moisture studies
in the Cerrado of Brazil. In: H. B. Obeng and P. K. Kwahye (eds.):
Conference on Savanna Soils-f Africa and their Management. Soil Science
Society of Ghana, Kumasi.
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humid tropical America. Chpt. 16. pp. 243-277. In: W. Thorne and
M. Thorne (eds.): Soil, Water and Crop Production. AVI Press, Westport,
Nicholaides, J. J., III, F. R. Cox, G. S. Miner,i W. Couto, iR. E. McCollum,
S. W. Buol and E. Hinojosa. 1978, Extrapolation fertilizer trials in
Bolivia. p.43, In; Agron,Abstrs, Amer, Soc, of Agron, 1978 Ann,Mtgs,Madison, Wisc.
Nicholaides, J. J., III, P. A. Sanchez, D. E. Bandy, J. H. Villachica, A. J.
Coutu and C. Valverde. (in press). Crop production systems in the
Amazon Basin. Ini E. Moran (ed.): The Dilemma of Amazon Development.
Westview Press. Boulder, Colo.
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1978, 1980. Research on Soils of the Tropics. Contract AID/csd 2806,
Soil Science Department, N. C. State University, Raleigh (Peruvian sections also published in Spanish).
Piha, M. I. and J. J. Nicholaides, III. 1981. Field evaluation of legume,
sweet potato and rice varieties for tolerance to soil acidity. p. 45.
In: Agron. Abstrs. Amer. Soc. of Agron. 1981 Ann. Mtgs., Madison, Wisc.
Pope, R. A. 1976. Use of soil survey information to estimate phosphate sorption
by highly weathered soils. Ph.D. Thesis, North Carolina State Univ.,
Raleigh. 82 pp.
Salinas, J. G. and P. A. Sanchez. 1976. Soil-plant relationships affecting
varietal and species tolerance to low available soil phosphorus. Ciincia
e Cultura 28(2):156-168.
Salinas, J. G. 1978. Differential response of some cereal and bean cultivars
to Al and P stress in an Oxisol of Central Brazil. Ph.D. Thesis, North
Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C. 326 pp.
Sinchez, P. A. y S. W. Buol. 1971. Caracteristicas morfol6gicas, quimicas
y mineral6gicas de algunos suelos principales de la Selva Baja del PerG.
Programa Nacional de Arroz Informe Tcnico No. 56. 22 pp., Lambayeque,
Sanchez, P. A. and N. A. Nurena. 1972. Upland rice improvement under shifting
cultivation in the Amazon Basin of Peru. North Carolina Agr. Exp. Sta.
Tech. Bull. 210.
Sanchez, P. A. (ed.). 1973. A Review of Soils Research in Tropical Latin
America. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Tech. Bull. 219.
197 pp. (English and Spanish versions).
Sanchez, P. A. and A. M. Briones. 1973. Phosphorus availability of some
Philippine :rice soils as affected by soil and water management practices.
Agronomy J. 65:226-228.
Sanchez, P. A. and S. W. Buol. 1974. Properties of some soils of the upper
Amazon Basin of Peru. Soil. Sci. Soc. of Amer. Proc. 38:117-121.
Sanchez, P. A. and S. W. Buol. 1975. Soils of the tropics and the world
food crisis. Sci. 188:598-603.
Sanchez, P. A. 1976. Properties and management of soils in the tropics.
Wiley, New York. 618 pp.
Sanchez, P. A. 1977. Advances in the management of Oxisols and Ultisols in
tropical South America. pp. 535-566. Proceedings Int. Seminar Soil Environment and Fertility Management in Intensive Agriculture. The
Society of the Science of Soil and Manure, Japan.
Sanchez, P. A., C. E. Seubert y C. Valverde. 1977. Investigaciones sobre el
manejo de suelos tropicales en la Selva Amaz6nica del PerG. Investigaciones
Agropecuarias (Peru) 5:71-93.
Sanchez, P. A. 1979. Soil fertility and conservation considerations for agroforestry systems in the humid tropics of Latin America. pp. 79-124. In:
H. 0. Mongi and P. A. Huxley (eds.): Soils Research in Agroforestry.
ICRAF Bull. 1, Nairobi, Kenya.
Sanchez, P. A. 1980. The subhumid tropics: Technology and management strategies
for rainfed agriculture. pp. 35-65. In: Proceedings of the Agricultural
Sector Symposia. The World Bank, WashT-ngton, D.C.
Sanchez, P. A. and G. Uehara. 1980. Management considerations for acid soils
with high phorphorus fixation capacity. In: F. E. Khasawhneh, E. C.
Sample and E. J. Kamprath (eds). The Role-of Phosphorus in Agriculture.
American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisc. pp. 471-514.
Sanchez, P. A. and T. T. Cochrane. 1980. Soil constraints in relation to
major farming systems of tropical America. pp. 107-140. In: Soil Constraints
Conference, IRRI, Los Banos, Philippines.
Sanchez, P. A., J. H. Villachica and D. E. Bandy. 1980. Soil fertility dynamics
after converting a tropical rainforest to continuous cultivation in the
Amazon of Peru. p. 43. In: Agron. Abstrs. Amer. Soc. of Agron. 1980
Ann. Mtgs., Madison, Wisc.
Sanchez, P. A., R. K. Perrin and S. W. Buol. 1981. Concepts of program design
for soils research and information transferral in developing countries.
In: Experimental Designs for Predicting Crop Productivity with Environmental
and Economic Input for Agrotechnology Transfer. pp. 55-65. University of
Sanchez, P. A. and J. G. Salinas. 1981. Low-input Technology for Managing
Oxisols and Ultisols in Tropical America. Advances in Agronomy 34:279-406.
Sanchez, P. A. 1981. Soil management in the Oxisol Savannas and Ultisol jungles
of tropical South America. In: D. J. Greenland (ed.), Characterization
of Soils. pp. 214-252. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Sanchez, P. A., M. P. Gichuru and L. B. Katz. 1982. Organic matter in major
soils of the tropical and temperate regions. In: 12th Int. Congress of
Soil Science (New Delhi) 1:99-114.
Sanchez, P. A., D. E. Bandy, J. H. Villachica and J. J. Nicholaides. 1982.
Amazon basin soils management for continuous crop production. Science
Sanchez, P. A. y L. F. da Silva. 1982. Programa REDINAA/Suelos. Manejo y conservaci6n de suelos amazonicas bajo diferentes usos. Borrader.
INIPA, Lima, Peru. 60 pp.
Seubert, C. E., P. A. Sanchez and C. Valver. 1977. Effects of land clearing methods on soil properties of an Ultisol and crop performance in the
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