Agronomic results and discussi...
 Economic results and discussio...

Title: Dry-seeded rice: agronomic experiences in a rainfed and partially irrigated area : paper presented at the 9th annual Scientific Meeting of the Crop So
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Title: Dry-seeded rice: agronomic experiences in a rainfed and partially irrigated area : paper presented at the 9th annual Scientific Meeting of the Crop So
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Language: English
Creator: Gines, H.
Lavapiez, L.
Nicolas, J.
Torralba, R.
Morris, R. A.
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Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
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Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Agronomic results and discussions
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Economic results and discussions
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
Full Text


H. Gines, L. Lavapiez, J. Nicolas, R. Torralba and R.A. Morris-


Cropping pattern tests and research-managed experiments conducted
for three crop years (CY) beginning 1975 have shown that R-R-UC pattern
has potential for production in the rainfed and partially irrigated
environments as found at the IRRI-BPI Cropping Systems Outreach site at
Manaoag, Pangasinan. To successfully grow this pattern, it is necessary
to dry seed the first rice crop as early as April. This early planting
provides sufficient time for a second crop of rice to be established in
early September, by making full use of early wet season rainfall. Research-
managed experiments on date of DSR seeding have shown no adverse effect
to rice seeds sown in extremely dry soil. Fertilizer management studies
likewise have indicated that there is no detrimental effect to placing
low doses of basal fertilizers in furrows with seed. Yield comparisons
have shown that DSR fields have consistently outyielded TPR fields and
consequently, the farmer have given higher gross returns. Although higher
material and labor costs were required for DSR, returns over variable
costs have still been higher compared to TPR because of the higher yields
obtained. Among the patterns tested at the site DSR-TPR-UC has been
found to be the most profitable.

Paper presented at the 9th Annual Scientific Meeting of the
Crop Science Society of the Philippines, Iloilo City, May 11-13, 1978.
Senior Research Assistant (MCD), Research Aide, Research
Assistant (Economics), BPI Technician and Agronomist/Philippine CS
Outreach Coordinator, respectively, Cropping Systems Program, Inter-
national Rice Research Institute, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines.


Variations in multiple cropping systems have arisen as a result

of a multitude of factors. Dalrymple (1971) and Wang and Yu (1973)

have divided these factors into two broad categories: bio-physical

which includes among others the influence of climate and soil, and

socio-economic, which deals with the relation of cropping systems to

population and employment. Where the increase in agricultural land

cannot keep pace with population growth, a heavy burden is imposed

upon present cultivated land for food production. The adoption of

multiple cropping systems has been suggested as a means for better and

fuller utilization of limited land and other related agricultural


The distribution of annual rainfall profoundly influences the

type and intensity of cropping patterns. Using soil and socio-economic

information, intensified cropping patterns can be planned for rainfed

or partially irrigated areas. To increase the efficiency with which

available water is used and at the same time increase cropping intensity,

it is necessary to plant crops which have high requirements for water

during the season of heaviest rainfall, i.e., rice, and to plant crops

which require less water when the water supply is short. A cropping

pattern consisting of transplanted rice crop followed by an upland crop

under these conditions can easily be grown with practically no risk.

However, as Wickham (1977) has shown land preparation for traditional

transplanted rice (TPR) requires large amount of water and the rice

crop often can only be established near the peak of the rainy season.

The goal of the IRRI-BPI Cropping Systems Outreach site at

Manaoag, Pangasinan is to successfully grow two rice crops and an

upland crop on rainfed or partially irrigated land units (Figure 1).

To do this, dry seeding (DSR) the first rice crop is advantageous

because it can be established and harvested much earlier than a TPR

crop. Instead of waiting for the peak of the rainy season (June-July)

to accumulate sufficient water to permit puddling, rice can be

seeded in dry soil beginning in mid-April, a month before the rains

normally start in mid-May. As a result, DSR emergences and makes its

initial growth on light early wet season rains. Thus, time is saved

for the second rice crop which can be transplanted in late August

to early September, with water sufficiently available to support the

crop. Puddling prior to transplanting of the second crop does not

require a period for rainfall accumulation, because the soil has been

well soaked by the time the first crop is harvested. After the second rice

crop, the residual soil moisture can still support an upland crop which

can be established by mid-December.

This paper will present an agro-economic evaluation of the DSR

technology covering crop years (CY) 1975-76, 1976-77 and 1977-78 in

the test site barangays Pao, Lipit, and Caaringayan of Manaoag,



Dry-seeded rice (DSR) was established by drilling rice seeds

in furrows on dry soil. The recommended inputs used on cropping

pattern test plots are presented in Table 1. Using these inputs

and related practices, the performance of DSR has been evaluated

under farmer's management conditions on cropping pattern fields of

approximately 1000 m2. In some cases sets of treatments were super-

imposed on cropping pattern test plots replicated across locations.

These were used to obtain additional information on the performance

of fertilizer, insect and weed management practices, over a range of

site conditions. Where controlled research results were important

to make treatment comparisons, replicated experiments were conducted

in research-managed plots or in farmer's fields. Additional experimental

methods will be described in the presentation uf results under specific

studies. Economic data was monitored from farmer-cooperators partici-

pating in the agronomic studies, from a group of non-participating

farmers and from local product and input markets. Results of these

economics monitoring activities are discussed in the last section of

the paper.

Agronomic Results and Discussions

DSR on Cropping Pattern Fields. Dry-seeded rice technology was introduced

at the Manaoag, Pangasinan research site during the CY 75/76. A pH-

induced iron deficiency, coupled with weed problems, however, resulted

in crop failures or low yields. In 1975, of the 31 DSR plots, about

one-half were plowed-under within two months after crop establishment.

Naturally, farmer-cooperators who were selected to try DSR the next

year, CY 76/77, were reluctant to use the technique because of the

many previous DSR crop failures. In 1976, only five farmers agreed to

dry seed their plots; their yields are summarized in Table 2.

During CY 76/77, a superimposed experiment was conducted to

investigate the nutritional disorder which caused poor DSR performance

in CY 75/76. Five rice varieties were dry seeded on twenty fields

where iron and zinc deficiency symptoms had been observed. Results

showed that IR36 and IR1514 were quite tolerant to the pH-induced

iron deficiency problem (Figure 2). IR28, the variety used in the

CY 75/76 DSR patterns performed poorly. The varieties did not show

iron deficiency symptoms in low-lying areas far from the canal whereas

on well drained plots close to the canals, non-tolerant varieties were

mostly severely affected. The conclusion from the experiment was that

by using IR36 and avoiding very well-drained fields, the DSR establish-

ment method held promise for Manaoag, Pangasinan.

Because of the relatively high yields obtained by the five

farmers who dry-seeded rice in 1976, the results of the varietal

tolerance trial, and the fact that the time of DSR harvests coincides

with the high rice price period, the attitude of many farmer-cooperators

and neighboring farmers toward the DSR technique changed. Eighty-one

percent of the farmer-cooperators dry seeded during the CY 77/78. The

CY 77/78 DSR yields are summarized in Table 3. Forty-one out of 48

plots obtained yields in the range of 4.2 to 6.9 t/ha. Lower yields

were generally associated with weed problems. Most farmers, however,

were able to control weeds by applying butachlor at the rate of 2.0 kg

ai/ha followed by one handweeding.

As a follow-up to earlier zinc response studies, a series of

treatments were imposed on DSR cropping pattern fields to gather


information about the variability of zinc deficiency across fields and

the response obtained by artificially reducing soil pH with H2SO4 in

order to increase iron and zinc availability. Yield data from three

treatments have been ranked in ascending order and plotted in Figure 3.

Other results indicate the iron treatment was ineffective, and therefore

may be considered an untreated control. Paired t-tests indicated that

there were differences between the H2SO4 treatment and the iron treatment

at the 10% level of significance. Although Figure 3 shows the treatment

differences were not major, the results indicate differences were greater

as high yield levels were approached implying that iron or zinc or both

may be limiting yields when all other yield increasing factors are amply

available. Yields from the zinc dust treatment were intermediate,

suggesting zinc dust does not completely correct zinc deficiency or that

iron may be deficient also.

Research-managed Experiments on DSR. The problem of iron-deficiency on

dry-seeded rice was partly solved by using IR36 and avoiding very well-

drained fields. Yet, information for improving fertilizer management

was lacking. In view of this, research-managed experiments were conducted

in early 1977 to investigate row applications of N, P, K as basal fertil-

izers and sources of N fertilizers. The timing of DSR establishment was

also studied.

Time of DSR establishment. Establishment of DSR as early as

possible is desirable because it allows an early establishment of

second and subsequent crops, thereby making full use of available soil

moisture. Eight planting dates at five-day intervals starting on

April 22 and end on May 27, were used as treatments in experiment to

investigate the effect of pre-rainfall field duration on yields, weeds

and stands. All cultural practices recommended for the CP trials on

DSR were followed. Results are summarized in Figure 4. Dates of

emergence were almost identical regardless of planting date. The earliest

seeds planted (April 22) remained unaffected in the soil for about a

month before a germinating rain. Weed counts at 3 weeks after emergence

(WAE) showed a very small increase in population from April 22 to May 22

and virtually none in the May 27 planting. Grain yields were comparable

among planting dates although there was a yield decline for the planting

that was made after the soil had become very wet (May 27). This experiment

indicates that there is no severe danger to sowing DSR in extremely dry

soil. Furthermore, given the difficulty in predicting the rainfall onset,

it is advantageous to dry-seed early to assure that early than expected

rainfall is used to fullest benefit.

Row placement of N, P, and K as basal fertilization. In the

cropping pattern trials, N, P, and K fertilizers have been applied in

the furrow with the rice seeds during planting. The impact of these

fertilizers, singly or in combination, on seed damage, rate of seedling

development and yield response, was not fully known. Two experiments

were conducted to examine N, 0 anc. K fertilizer effects. A 3x2x2

factorial in RCB design was conducted in Caaringavan, Manaoag, Pangasinan

to determine if row placed basal N, P, and K fertilization would have a

beneficial or detrimental effect on early crop establishment or crop

yields. Three N levels (0, 20, 40 kg N/ha) and two levels each of P

and K (0, 20 kg/ha P205 and K20) were used. All the N, P and K

fertilizers were drilled in the furrow with the rice seeds. Twenty kg

N/ha was top-dressed on all plots at 30 DAE and again at PI. A 2x2x2

factorial in RCB design using 2 N and P levels (0, 20 kg/ha) and pre-

soaked and unsoaked seeds was conducted in Pao to determine the effects

of fertilizer and seed pre-soaking when a single pre-planting flush of

water was given. A check treatment in addition to N and P treatments

was included with pre-soaked seeds. Because the Pao area has an

irrigation pump, the experimental area was flushed with water to aid

in tillage and promote early growth. IR36 was the variety used in the

trial. The soil moisture was close to field capacity at seeding.

The results presented in Table 4a indicate a low but sta-

tistically insignificant yield response to basal N in Caaringayan

was obtained. Because of the generally high yield levels even without

basal N, small responses would not be detected in an experiment with

only moderate sensitivity. However, other experiments described later

showed significant response to basal N applications should be expected.

No significant P or K responses were obtained; mean yields for P and K

over basal N levels ara presented in Table 4b. An AOV indicated there

were no statistically significantly treatment main effects or inter-

actions. However, a small mean yield increase due to K was observed

which was also reflected in higher K content in the tissue (1.6 vs.


Results in Table 5 indicate that there was a slight response to

N, but analysis showed it was not statistically significant. There

was no obvious response to P, as indicated by the yield means. The

presoaking treatment also did not increase yields or advance growth

materially. The high fertilizer level check, which had to be introduced

to investigate possible basal K responses out-yield the treatment

receiving only basal N and P by 0.25 t/ha; the difference approached

statistical significance. The generally lower yields obtained in the

Pao experiments compared to CP yields shown in Table 3 and to the

Caaringayan experiment were due mainly to high weed populations. Weed

counts at 3 WAE showed an average of 6 grasses, 44 sedges and 16 broad-
leaves per one-half m quadrat which is common to the well-drained

conditions on which the trial was run. Weeds continued to grow even

after two handweedings because the field could not hold water. Competition

between rice and weeds for water and nutrients may have resulted in low


N fertilizer sources for basal application. Ammonium sulfate has

been the main N fertilizer material source recommended for DSR in CP

test fields. The practice has been to apply ammonium sulfate in the

furrow with rice seeds at planting. However, ammonium sulfate is

relatively expensive compared to urea. Because the efficacy of urea as

a basal N source had not been compared to ammonium sulfate using DSR

establishment methods, two experiments were conducted using ammonium

sulfate (AS), urea and sulfur-coated urea (SCU) at two levels of basal

application. A zero basal N treatment was included for comparison.

Slow N-releasing SCU fertilizer was included to determine if high

leaching or volatilization losses would occur under Pangasinan soil

conditions. The three N sources were applied as basal treatments at

20 and 40 kg/ha. All treatments, including the zero basal check,

received one or two top-dressings of AS.

Experiment yields from Pao (Table 6) show that significantly

responses were generally obtained using basal N applications and

efficiency of ammonium sulfate at both N levels was greater compared

to urea. No statistically significant difference was observed between

AS and SCU treatments. However, the significantly lower yields for

urea treated plots suggests, that under conditions found in Pao, urea

was lost by some mechanism. The insignificant difference between yields

ofplots that received N at 30 DAE and at PI versus those that received

N only at PI suggests that two applications of N (t basal and at PI)

may be sufficient, at least if SCU is used as a basal fertilizer.

The advantage of applying the basal 40 kg N/ha is shown by the significant

yield increase obtained from 40 kg N/ha treatment over the 20 kg N/ha.

As shown in Table 7, all basal N sources treatments performed

equally well in the Caaringayan area and produced significantly higher

yields over the check not receiving a basal treatment. Yield differences

between sources and between applications of 20 and 40 kg N/ha were not

statistically significant. The lower efficiency of urea compared to AS

found in the Pao results was not expressed in Caaringayan yields, perhaps

because the field in Caaringayan was flooded more completely over the

duration of the experiment.

Severe weed problems at the Pao area may have resulted in lower

yields compared to Caaringayan results. Weed counts at 3 WAE showed an

average of 3 grasses, 90 sedges and 8 broadleaves at Pao compared to
only 2, 2, and 1, respectively, per one-half m sample area at


Economic Results and Discussion

DSR and TPR in experimental cropping patterns. DSR crops performed

poorly during the first crop year (CY 1975-76) compared to CYs 1976-77

and 1977-78 (Table 8). The poor performance was mainly due to two

major problems; namely: (a) iron and zinc deficiencies and (b) weeds.

In CY 1975-76, IR28 was used and it suffered from severe iron deficiency,

which resulted in low yield or crop failures, and hence, negative net

returns. IR36, a variety found to be tolerant to low iron availability

was planted in the DSR and TPR plots during CY 1976-77 and 1977-78.

There was a marked improvement in DSR yields and consequently higher

returns compared to TPR (Table 9). Average CY 1976-1977 adn 1977-78 DSR

yields increased by 81% over the first year (1975-76), whereas average

gross returns increased by 121% and net returns became positive.

Average material costs for the last two crop year (76-77 and 77-78) on

DSR planting decreased by about 25%. The decreased was partly due to

the reduced amount of kg N/ha fertilizer applied (from 119 kg N/ha to

100 kg N/ha). Likewise, despite higher harvest labor costs, total labor

cost went down by 7% primarily due to proper handling of weed problems

at the start of the experiment.

Through early DSR establishment, a second rice and an upland

croO could be planted in a DSR-TPR-UC pattern, compared to the less

intense TPR-UC pattern when TPR was used to establish the first rice

crop. A comparison of the gross returns between the DSR-TPR-UC and

TPR-UC patterns showed the former pattern increased gross returns by

118% over the latter pattern for CY 1976-77 (Table 10). Also, average

net returns above variable costs (NR) from the DSR-TPR-UC pattern were

147% greater than average NR from the TPR-UC pattern (Appendix Table 2).

DSR under farmer existing systems: CY 1976-77 vs. CY 1977-78. In CY 77/78,

DSR yields increased in farmer's own fields (non-cooperating fields) by

about 40% over CY 76/77, and therefore gross and net returns increased

also by 30 and 19 percent, respectively. Material cost for the CY 77/78

plantings increased by 6% whereas labor cost went up by 51%. The material

costs increase was attributed to increased applications of all chemical

inputs (fertilizers, insecticides, and herbicides), whereas the increased

labor input went mainly to weeding and harvesting operations. Weeding

labor expended on farmers' DSR fields in CY 77/78 was very high. Forty

percent of the total farm labor input was used for weeding compared to

the previous year's use of only 8% for weeding operations.

Higher CY 1977-78 DSR yields may be due to increased seeding

rates (126 kg/ha vs. 86 kg/ha), increased use of HYV (93% vs. 81%) higher

N fertilizer rates (63 kg N/ha vs. 55 kg N/ha) and improved weed control

(Appendix Table 3).


DSR establishment is crucial to successful R-R-UC patterns in

rainfed or partially irrigated environments similar to those of the

Manaoag site. Cropping pattern tests in Manaoag have demonstrated

that by dry seeding IR36 as early as April, a second rice crop could

be established by early September and an upland crop by late December.

Moreover, DSR yields were higher than TPR yields. For those two reasons,

the DSR-TPR-UC patterns produced higher gross returns than TPR-UC

patterns. Material costs requirements of the former pattern were higher


due to higher seeding rates and the additional crop in the pattern.

Because harvesting and post-harvesting labor costs are correlated with

yield (1/5 of total production), and DSR weed control requires more

labor, higher labor costs were expended on DSR-TPR-UC patterns.

Despite these higher cost however, returns over variable costs were

greater for DSR crops than TPR crops and the DSR-TPR-UC pattern was

found to be more profitable than TPR-UC and other patterns tested under

the rainfed and partially irrigated conditions found at the Manaoag site.

Literature Cited

Dalrymple, D.G. 1971. A survey of multiple cropping in less developed
nations. USDA Foreign Econ. Report No. 12, Washington: p.108.

Wang, Y.T. and Y.H. Yu. 1973. Historical evaluation and future
prospect of multiple crop diversification. Paper presented in
the seminar on multiple crop diversification in Taiwan and its
relevance to Southeast Asian countries. Taipei, Taiwan: 34 pp.

Wickham, T.W. 1977. Water Management for Lowland Rice: Water Require-
ments and Yield Response. Paper presented at the "Soils and Rice"
Symposium, International Rice Research Institute, Los Baios,
Laguna, September 20-23, 1977.

Table 1. Recommended inputs for dry seeded rice, Manaoag, Pangasinan.



Spacing/Seed Requirement

Fertilizer Recommendation

Insect control

Weed Control

IR 36
100 kg/ha; 25-30 ems between furrows. Coat
seeds with ZnO (200 gms/kg seed); If Zn
deficiency appears, spray 2% ZnSO4

Twenty kg N/ha basal drilled in furrows +
30 kg N/ha, 30 DAE + 20 kg N/ha at PI

0.5 kg ai.i/ha carbofuran (mixed with basal
fertilizer). Spray Azodrin at 0.5 kg a.i.
/ha if leaf folders appear and surpasses
10% economic threshold.

Spray butachlor at 2 kg a.i./ha immediately
after seeding if the soil is wet, or imme-
diately after a germinating rain followed
by one handweeding

Table 2. Grain yields DSR cropping pattern cooperators fields, Manaoag,
Pangasinan. 1976 wet season.

Grain Yield (t/ha)
IR36 IR1514

D. Paine 5.16 3.43
T. Idor 6.66 4.34
H. Rosana 5.33 4.35
Average 5.72 4.04

G. Valdez 6.58 5.44
V. Quiban 6.71 6.23
Average 6.64 5.84

Overall Average 6.18 4.94

Table 3. Yields of
CY 77/78,

DSR and weed population scores at 15 and 40 DAE,
Manaoag, Pangasinan

Yield Range No. of Average Yield Weed Scale-/
(t/ha) Observations (t!ha) 15 DAE 40 DAE

< 3.5 7 3.14 3.0 2.1
> 3.5 < 4.5 16 4.24 3.6 1.3
> 4.5 < 5.5 17 5.00 2.2 1.4
> 5.5 < 6.5 5 6.13 3.0 1.4
> 6.5 3 6.93 1.0 1.0

abundant but not important
questionable economic damage
moderate economic damage
severe economic damage

Table 4a.

The effect of row-placed basal N on the yield of dry-seeded
IR36, Caaringayan, Manaoag, Pangasinan 1976 wet season (t/ha).

Basal Nitrogen (kgN/ha)-






Applied as basal. All treatments, including 0, also
received 20 kg N/ha at 30 DAE and at P.I.

Average over two P levels, two K levels and 4 replications.
CV = 15.7

Table 4b. The effect of row-placed P and K on the yield of dry-
seeded IR36, Caaringayan, Manaoag, Pangasinan, 1976 wet
season (t/ha).

Potassium (kg K.O/ha)

(kg P20 /ha)

0 20
0 5.06-! 5.17

20 4.99







Average over 3 N levels and 4 replications
C.V. = 15.7

Table 5. Effect of row-placed N and P basal fertilization on the
yield of dry seeded IR36 performance after a single
flush irrigation. Pao, Manaoag, Pangasinan, 1976 wet

Nitrogen (kg/ha)a-/
0 20 Mean
Phosphorus 0 20 Mean
(kg P205/ha) 0 271P-' 2894 2.81

20 2616 2914 2.77

Mean 2.67 2.90

a Applied
30 DAE and at P.I.


as basal. All plots received 20 kg N/ha at

of two seed treatments and four replications.

CV = 12.9

Table 6. Effect of sources and levels of basal N applications on yield

of dry seeded IR36.

Pao, Manaoag, Pangasinan.

1976. Wet season.

Basal N Fertilizer Yield
(kg/ha) source/ (kg/ha)

0 (Check) 1705

20 AS 2183
Urea 1939
SCU 2096

40 AS 2603
Urea 1833
SCU 2358
SCUL/ 2119

Linear contrasts F. value

Basal vs. no basal 5.73*
AS vs. Urea 8.08**
AS vs. SCU 0,87ns
Urea vs. SCU 3.66ns
30 DAE vs. none 0.01ns
20 N vs. 40 N 5.40* C.V, = 16.9

a/ Fertilizer material used for topdressing was A.S.
AS = Ammonium sulfate; SCU = Sulfur coated urea

b/ Received 20 kg N/ha at P.I. All other treatments received
20 kg N/ha at 30 DAE and at P.I.

Table 7. Effects of sources and levels of basal N applications on the

yield of dry seeded IR36.

Caaringayan, Manaoag, Pangasinan. 1976 wet


Basal N Fertilizqr Yield
(kg/ha) source- (kg/ha)

0 (Check) 5014

20 AS 6192
Urea 6278
SCU 5795

40 AS 5186
Urea 5354
SCU 6004
SCU~' 5756

Linear contrasts F. value

Basal vs. no basal 6,09*
AS vs. Urea 1.23ns
AS vs. SCU 0.51ns
Urea vs. SCU 0.15ns
30 DAE vs. none 0.63ns
20 N vs. 40 N 2.20ns C.V. = 10.4

- Fertilizer material used for
AS = Ammonium sulfate; SCU =

topdressing was A.S.
sulfur coated Urea

- Received 20 kg N/ha at P.I. All other treatments received
20 kg N/ha at 30 DAE and at P.I.

Table 8. Mean rice yield (t/ha) by crop establishment, Manaoag, Pangasinan.

Crop year DSR-TPR-X TPR-X

75-76 2.54 (16)a 2.84 (106)

76-77 5.26 ( 6)b/ 3.48 ( 58)

77-78 4.51 (50)-/ 3.97 ( 15)

( ) No. of observations

a/ IR28 for DSR; IR36, IR28, IR30, IR1561, C4-137 for TPR, CY 75-76.

b/ IR36 for both DSR and TPR, CY 76-77 and 77-78.

Table 9. Comparative economic performance of DSR and TPR (first crop) in
cropping pattern tests, Manaoag, Pangasinan.-


No. of plots 16 106
Yield (t/ha) 2.54 2.84
Gross return
(/ha)-' 2546 2848
Material cost input
(P/ha) 1483 950
Labor costs (P/ha) 2347 1416
Total variable
cost (0/ha) 3830 2366
Returns above va-
riable cost
(P/ha) -1284 482


6 58
5.26 3.48

6338 4525

1463 897
2126 1626

3589 2523




50 15
4.51 3.97

5411 4371

1069 1159
2187 1598

3256 2757



a/ 1975-76: 1l.00/kg; 1976-77: l1.30/kg; 1977-78: Y1.20/kg

S1975-76: rO.75/ha for operation less the use of animal and V1.50/hr
for operation using animal power.
1976-77: V0.80/hr (less animal); V1.75/hr (with animal power)
1977-78: Labor cost/hr was based on monthly fluctuation of wages.

Table 10. Gross return (W/ha) ey pattern groups, Manaoag, Pangasinan,
CY 76/77

Pattern groups

No. of plots 4 24
First crop (DSR) 6871 4138
Second crop (TPR) 4706 2236
Third crop (UC) 2314 --

Total 13881 6374

Rainfoll (mm)








Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar



^B ush sitoo



Figure 1. Comparison between two cropping patterns by first rice
crop establishment plotted against the 24-year rainfall
average. Manaoag, Pangasinan.

/=-Ihitoo /

x ..

Yield (t/ha)

7 -







H High poddy position
L Low
C Close to anol
F For from canal


Fig. 2 Performance of five dry-seeded
in four production complexes.

rice varieties
Manaoag, Pangasinan,


2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
Yield (kg/ha)

Figure 3.

Cumulative distributions (empirical) of three seed or soil
treatments, on IR36 (DSR), Manaoag, Pangasinan, wet season

April May
22 2 12 22 I

Seeding (0)
Apr 22 0

Apr 27 0

Emergence (*)

7 2 4-

8 0 6

6 I 2 4.86

8 1 5 4.63

0 0

0 0

8 8 3

8 8 2

II 5 I

1 0 0

in 1/2 meter

22 2 12 22: I II
April May June

Figure 4. Effect of date of seeding and rainfall on emergence,
weed population and yield of dry-seeded rice, Manaoag,
Pangasinan, 1977 wet season.


Weed count
3 WAE -




May 2

May 7

May 12

May 17

May 22

May 27






E 40




Appendix Table 1.

Percent increase/decrease in yield, costs and returns.
of experimental DSR, Manaoag, Pangasinan, CY 1975-76
and 1976-78.

1976-77 and % increase/decrease
I T E M 1975-76 1977-78- one past year

Variety used IR28 IR36
Yield (ton/ha) 2.54 4.61 81
Gross Return (W/ha)a/ 2546 5620 121
Material cost input
(V/ha) 1483 1127 -24
Labor costs (r/ha)-/ 2347 2178 -7
Total variable costs
(r/ha) 3830 3305 -14
Returns above variable
costs (W/ha) -1284 2315 280

a/Average for 2 years

Appendix Table 2.

Cost and return (?/ha) by
Pangasinan, CY 1976-77.

pattern groups, Manaoag,

PATTERN GROUPS h L Total variable Gross N e t
Cash Labor

DSR-TPR-Upland Crops 3397 4664 8061 13881 5820

TPR-Upland Crops 1859 2162 4021 6374 2353

Appendix Table 3.

Comparative economic performance of DSR in farmers'
managed plots, existing system, Manaoag, Pangasinan,
CY 1976-77 and 1977-78.

Percent increase/
decrease over the
I T E M 1976-77 1977-78 decese the
1st year

No. of farmers 9 17 --
No. of plots 14 43 --
Yield (ton/ha) 1.67 2.34 40
Gross Return (f/ha)a/ 2174 2822 30
Material costs ('/ha)bl 466 540 16
Labor costs (W/ha)c/ 769 1165 51
Total Variable cost (C/ha) 1235 1705 38
Return above variable costs (W/ha) 939 1117 19

a/1976-77; V1.30/kg; 1977-78; ?1.20/kg.

b/Includes costs for seeds, fertilizers, insecticides and

c/Labor cost was computed at 10.80/hr for farm operations less
the use of animal and 1l.75/hr for plowing, harrowing'and
furrowing which involved animal power.

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