DRY-SEEDED RICE: AGRONOMIC EXPERIENCES IN A
RAINFED AND PARTIALLY IRRIGATED AREA 1/
H. Gines, L. Lavapiez, J. Nicolas, R. Torralba and R.A. Morris-
Cropping pattern tests and research-managed experiments conducted
for three crop years (CY) beginning 1975 have shown that R-R-UC pattern
has potential for production in the rainfed and partially irrigated
environments as found at the IRRI-BPI Cropping Systems Outreach site at
Manaoag, Pangasinan. To successfully grow this pattern, it is necessary
to dry seed the first rice crop as early as April. This early planting
provides sufficient time for a second crop of rice to be established in
early September, by making full use of early wet season rainfall. Research-
managed experiments on date of DSR seeding have shown no adverse effect
to rice seeds sown in extremely dry soil. Fertilizer management studies
likewise have indicated that there is no detrimental effect to placing
low doses of basal fertilizers in furrows with seed. Yield comparisons
have shown that DSR fields have consistently outyielded TPR fields and
consequently, the farmer have given higher gross returns. Although higher
material and labor costs were required for DSR, returns over variable
costs have still been higher compared to TPR because of the higher yields
obtained. Among the patterns tested at the site DSR-TPR-UC has been
found to be the most profitable.
Paper presented at the 9th Annual Scientific Meeting of the
Crop Science Society of the Philippines, Iloilo City, May 11-13, 1978.
Senior Research Assistant (MCD), Research Aide, Research
Assistant (Economics), BPI Technician and Agronomist/Philippine CS
Outreach Coordinator, respectively, Cropping Systems Program, Inter-
national Rice Research Institute, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines.
Variations in multiple cropping systems have arisen as a result
of a multitude of factors. Dalrymple (1971) and Wang and Yu (1973)
have divided these factors into two broad categories: bio-physical
which includes among others the influence of climate and soil, and
socio-economic, which deals with the relation of cropping systems to
population and employment. Where the increase in agricultural land
cannot keep pace with population growth, a heavy burden is imposed
upon present cultivated land for food production. The adoption of
multiple cropping systems has been suggested as a means for better and
fuller utilization of limited land and other related agricultural
The distribution of annual rainfall profoundly influences the
type and intensity of cropping patterns. Using soil and socio-economic
information, intensified cropping patterns can be planned for rainfed
or partially irrigated areas. To increase the efficiency with which
available water is used and at the same time increase cropping intensity,
it is necessary to plant crops which have high requirements for water
during the season of heaviest rainfall, i.e., rice, and to plant crops
which require less water when the water supply is short. A cropping
pattern consisting of transplanted rice crop followed by an upland crop
under these conditions can easily be grown with practically no risk.
However, as Wickham (1977) has shown land preparation for traditional
transplanted rice (TPR) requires large amount of water and the rice
crop often can only be established near the peak of the rainy season.
The goal of the IRRI-BPI Cropping Systems Outreach site at
Manaoag, Pangasinan is to successfully grow two rice crops and an
upland crop on rainfed or partially irrigated land units (Figure 1).
To do this, dry seeding (DSR) the first rice crop is advantageous
because it can be established and harvested much earlier than a TPR
crop. Instead of waiting for the peak of the rainy season (June-July)
to accumulate sufficient water to permit puddling, rice can be
seeded in dry soil beginning in mid-April, a month before the rains
normally start in mid-May. As a result, DSR emergences and makes its
initial growth on light early wet season rains. Thus, time is saved
for the second rice crop which can be transplanted in late August
to early September, with water sufficiently available to support the
crop. Puddling prior to transplanting of the second crop does not
require a period for rainfall accumulation, because the soil has been
well soaked by the time the first crop is harvested. After the second rice
crop, the residual soil moisture can still support an upland crop which
can be established by mid-December.
This paper will present an agro-economic evaluation of the DSR
technology covering crop years (CY) 1975-76, 1976-77 and 1977-78 in
the test site barangays Pao, Lipit, and Caaringayan of Manaoag,
Dry-seeded rice (DSR) was established by drilling rice seeds
in furrows on dry soil. The recommended inputs used on cropping
pattern test plots are presented in Table 1. Using these inputs
and related practices, the performance of DSR has been evaluated
under farmer's management conditions on cropping pattern fields of
approximately 1000 m2. In some cases sets of treatments were super-
imposed on cropping pattern test plots replicated across locations.
These were used to obtain additional information on the performance
of fertilizer, insect and weed management practices, over a range of
site conditions. Where controlled research results were important
to make treatment comparisons, replicated experiments were conducted
in research-managed plots or in farmer's fields. Additional experimental
methods will be described in the presentation uf results under specific
studies. Economic data was monitored from farmer-cooperators partici-
pating in the agronomic studies, from a group of non-participating
farmers and from local product and input markets. Results of these
economics monitoring activities are discussed in the last section of
Agronomic Results and Discussions
DSR on Cropping Pattern Fields. Dry-seeded rice technology was introduced
at the Manaoag, Pangasinan research site during the CY 75/76. A pH-
induced iron deficiency, coupled with weed problems, however, resulted
in crop failures or low yields. In 1975, of the 31 DSR plots, about
one-half were plowed-under within two months after crop establishment.
Naturally, farmer-cooperators who were selected to try DSR the next
year, CY 76/77, were reluctant to use the technique because of the
many previous DSR crop failures. In 1976, only five farmers agreed to
dry seed their plots; their yields are summarized in Table 2.
During CY 76/77, a superimposed experiment was conducted to
investigate the nutritional disorder which caused poor DSR performance
in CY 75/76. Five rice varieties were dry seeded on twenty fields
where iron and zinc deficiency symptoms had been observed. Results
showed that IR36 and IR1514 were quite tolerant to the pH-induced
iron deficiency problem (Figure 2). IR28, the variety used in the
CY 75/76 DSR patterns performed poorly. The varieties did not show
iron deficiency symptoms in low-lying areas far from the canal whereas
on well drained plots close to the canals, non-tolerant varieties were
mostly severely affected. The conclusion from the experiment was that
by using IR36 and avoiding very well-drained fields, the DSR establish-
ment method held promise for Manaoag, Pangasinan.
Because of the relatively high yields obtained by the five
farmers who dry-seeded rice in 1976, the results of the varietal
tolerance trial, and the fact that the time of DSR harvests coincides
with the high rice price period, the attitude of many farmer-cooperators
and neighboring farmers toward the DSR technique changed. Eighty-one
percent of the farmer-cooperators dry seeded during the CY 77/78. The
CY 77/78 DSR yields are summarized in Table 3. Forty-one out of 48
plots obtained yields in the range of 4.2 to 6.9 t/ha. Lower yields
were generally associated with weed problems. Most farmers, however,
were able to control weeds by applying butachlor at the rate of 2.0 kg
ai/ha followed by one handweeding.
As a follow-up to earlier zinc response studies, a series of
treatments were imposed on DSR cropping pattern fields to gather
information about the variability of zinc deficiency across fields and
the response obtained by artificially reducing soil pH with H2SO4 in
order to increase iron and zinc availability. Yield data from three
treatments have been ranked in ascending order and plotted in Figure 3.
Other results indicate the iron treatment was ineffective, and therefore
may be considered an untreated control. Paired t-tests indicated that
there were differences between the H2SO4 treatment and the iron treatment
at the 10% level of significance. Although Figure 3 shows the treatment
differences were not major, the results indicate differences were greater
as high yield levels were approached implying that iron or zinc or both
may be limiting yields when all other yield increasing factors are amply
available. Yields from the zinc dust treatment were intermediate,
suggesting zinc dust does not completely correct zinc deficiency or that
iron may be deficient also.
Research-managed Experiments on DSR. The problem of iron-deficiency on
dry-seeded rice was partly solved by using IR36 and avoiding very well-
drained fields. Yet, information for improving fertilizer management
was lacking. In view of this, research-managed experiments were conducted
in early 1977 to investigate row applications of N, P, K as basal fertil-
izers and sources of N fertilizers. The timing of DSR establishment was
Time of DSR establishment. Establishment of DSR as early as
possible is desirable because it allows an early establishment of
second and subsequent crops, thereby making full use of available soil
moisture. Eight planting dates at five-day intervals starting on
April 22 and end on May 27, were used as treatments in experiment to
investigate the effect of pre-rainfall field duration on yields, weeds
and stands. All cultural practices recommended for the CP trials on
DSR were followed. Results are summarized in Figure 4. Dates of
emergence were almost identical regardless of planting date. The earliest
seeds planted (April 22) remained unaffected in the soil for about a
month before a germinating rain. Weed counts at 3 weeks after emergence
(WAE) showed a very small increase in population from April 22 to May 22
and virtually none in the May 27 planting. Grain yields were comparable
among planting dates although there was a yield decline for the planting
that was made after the soil had become very wet (May 27). This experiment
indicates that there is no severe danger to sowing DSR in extremely dry
soil. Furthermore, given the difficulty in predicting the rainfall onset,
it is advantageous to dry-seed early to assure that early than expected
rainfall is used to fullest benefit.
Row placement of N, P, and K as basal fertilization. In the
cropping pattern trials, N, P, and K fertilizers have been applied in
the furrow with the rice seeds during planting. The impact of these
fertilizers, singly or in combination, on seed damage, rate of seedling
development and yield response, was not fully known. Two experiments
were conducted to examine N, 0 anc. K fertilizer effects. A 3x2x2
factorial in RCB design was conducted in Caaringavan, Manaoag, Pangasinan
to determine if row placed basal N, P, and K fertilization would have a
beneficial or detrimental effect on early crop establishment or crop
yields. Three N levels (0, 20, 40 kg N/ha) and two levels each of P
and K (0, 20 kg/ha P205 and K20) were used. All the N, P and K
fertilizers were drilled in the furrow with the rice seeds. Twenty kg
N/ha was top-dressed on all plots at 30 DAE and again at PI. A 2x2x2
factorial in RCB design using 2 N and P levels (0, 20 kg/ha) and pre-
soaked and unsoaked seeds was conducted in Pao to determine the effects
of fertilizer and seed pre-soaking when a single pre-planting flush of
water was given. A check treatment in addition to N and P treatments
was included with pre-soaked seeds. Because the Pao area has an
irrigation pump, the experimental area was flushed with water to aid
in tillage and promote early growth. IR36 was the variety used in the
trial. The soil moisture was close to field capacity at seeding.
The results presented in Table 4a indicate a low but sta-
tistically insignificant yield response to basal N in Caaringayan
was obtained. Because of the generally high yield levels even without
basal N, small responses would not be detected in an experiment with
only moderate sensitivity. However, other experiments described later
showed significant response to basal N applications should be expected.
No significant P or K responses were obtained; mean yields for P and K
over basal N levels ara presented in Table 4b. An AOV indicated there
were no statistically significantly treatment main effects or inter-
actions. However, a small mean yield increase due to K was observed
which was also reflected in higher K content in the tissue (1.6 vs.
Results in Table 5 indicate that there was a slight response to
N, but analysis showed it was not statistically significant. There
was no obvious response to P, as indicated by the yield means. The
presoaking treatment also did not increase yields or advance growth
materially. The high fertilizer level check, which had to be introduced
to investigate possible basal K responses out-yield the treatment
receiving only basal N and P by 0.25 t/ha; the difference approached
statistical significance. The generally lower yields obtained in the
Pao experiments compared to CP yields shown in Table 3 and to the
Caaringayan experiment were due mainly to high weed populations. Weed
counts at 3 WAE showed an average of 6 grasses, 44 sedges and 16 broad-
leaves per one-half m quadrat which is common to the well-drained
conditions on which the trial was run. Weeds continued to grow even
after two handweedings because the field could not hold water. Competition
between rice and weeds for water and nutrients may have resulted in low
N fertilizer sources for basal application. Ammonium sulfate has
been the main N fertilizer material source recommended for DSR in CP
test fields. The practice has been to apply ammonium sulfate in the
furrow with rice seeds at planting. However, ammonium sulfate is
relatively expensive compared to urea. Because the efficacy of urea as
a basal N source had not been compared to ammonium sulfate using DSR
establishment methods, two experiments were conducted using ammonium
sulfate (AS), urea and sulfur-coated urea (SCU) at two levels of basal
application. A zero basal N treatment was included for comparison.
Slow N-releasing SCU fertilizer was included to determine if high
leaching or volatilization losses would occur under Pangasinan soil
conditions. The three N sources were applied as basal treatments at
20 and 40 kg/ha. All treatments, including the zero basal check,
received one or two top-dressings of AS.
Experiment yields from Pao (Table 6) show that significantly
responses were generally obtained using basal N applications and
efficiency of ammonium sulfate at both N levels was greater compared
to urea. No statistically significant difference was observed between
AS and SCU treatments. However, the significantly lower yields for
urea treated plots suggests, that under conditions found in Pao, urea
was lost by some mechanism. The insignificant difference between yields
ofplots that received N at 30 DAE and at PI versus those that received
N only at PI suggests that two applications of N (t basal and at PI)
may be sufficient, at least if SCU is used as a basal fertilizer.
The advantage of applying the basal 40 kg N/ha is shown by the significant
yield increase obtained from 40 kg N/ha treatment over the 20 kg N/ha.
As shown in Table 7, all basal N sources treatments performed
equally well in the Caaringayan area and produced significantly higher
yields over the check not receiving a basal treatment. Yield differences
between sources and between applications of 20 and 40 kg N/ha were not
statistically significant. The lower efficiency of urea compared to AS
found in the Pao results was not expressed in Caaringayan yields, perhaps
because the field in Caaringayan was flooded more completely over the
duration of the experiment.
Severe weed problems at the Pao area may have resulted in lower
yields compared to Caaringayan results. Weed counts at 3 WAE showed an
average of 3 grasses, 90 sedges and 8 broadleaves at Pao compared to
only 2, 2, and 1, respectively, per one-half m sample area at
Economic Results and Discussion
DSR and TPR in experimental cropping patterns. DSR crops performed
poorly during the first crop year (CY 1975-76) compared to CYs 1976-77
and 1977-78 (Table 8). The poor performance was mainly due to two
major problems; namely: (a) iron and zinc deficiencies and (b) weeds.
In CY 1975-76, IR28 was used and it suffered from severe iron deficiency,
which resulted in low yield or crop failures, and hence, negative net
returns. IR36, a variety found to be tolerant to low iron availability
was planted in the DSR and TPR plots during CY 1976-77 and 1977-78.
There was a marked improvement in DSR yields and consequently higher
returns compared to TPR (Table 9). Average CY 1976-1977 adn 1977-78 DSR
yields increased by 81% over the first year (1975-76), whereas average
gross returns increased by 121% and net returns became positive.
Average material costs for the last two crop year (76-77 and 77-78) on
DSR planting decreased by about 25%. The decreased was partly due to
the reduced amount of kg N/ha fertilizer applied (from 119 kg N/ha to
100 kg N/ha). Likewise, despite higher harvest labor costs, total labor
cost went down by 7% primarily due to proper handling of weed problems
at the start of the experiment.
Through early DSR establishment, a second rice and an upland
croO could be planted in a DSR-TPR-UC pattern, compared to the less
intense TPR-UC pattern when TPR was used to establish the first rice
crop. A comparison of the gross returns between the DSR-TPR-UC and
TPR-UC patterns showed the former pattern increased gross returns by
118% over the latter pattern for CY 1976-77 (Table 10). Also, average
net returns above variable costs (NR) from the DSR-TPR-UC pattern were
147% greater than average NR from the TPR-UC pattern (Appendix Table 2).
DSR under farmer existing systems: CY 1976-77 vs. CY 1977-78. In CY 77/78,
DSR yields increased in farmer's own fields (non-cooperating fields) by
about 40% over CY 76/77, and therefore gross and net returns increased
also by 30 and 19 percent, respectively. Material cost for the CY 77/78
plantings increased by 6% whereas labor cost went up by 51%. The material
costs increase was attributed to increased applications of all chemical
inputs (fertilizers, insecticides, and herbicides), whereas the increased
labor input went mainly to weeding and harvesting operations. Weeding
labor expended on farmers' DSR fields in CY 77/78 was very high. Forty
percent of the total farm labor input was used for weeding compared to
the previous year's use of only 8% for weeding operations.
Higher CY 1977-78 DSR yields may be due to increased seeding
rates (126 kg/ha vs. 86 kg/ha), increased use of HYV (93% vs. 81%) higher
N fertilizer rates (63 kg N/ha vs. 55 kg N/ha) and improved weed control
(Appendix Table 3).
DSR establishment is crucial to successful R-R-UC patterns in
rainfed or partially irrigated environments similar to those of the
Manaoag site. Cropping pattern tests in Manaoag have demonstrated
that by dry seeding IR36 as early as April, a second rice crop could
be established by early September and an upland crop by late December.
Moreover, DSR yields were higher than TPR yields. For those two reasons,
the DSR-TPR-UC patterns produced higher gross returns than TPR-UC
patterns. Material costs requirements of the former pattern were higher
due to higher seeding rates and the additional crop in the pattern.
Because harvesting and post-harvesting labor costs are correlated with
yield (1/5 of total production), and DSR weed control requires more
labor, higher labor costs were expended on DSR-TPR-UC patterns.
Despite these higher cost however, returns over variable costs were
greater for DSR crops than TPR crops and the DSR-TPR-UC pattern was
found to be more profitable than TPR-UC and other patterns tested under
the rainfed and partially irrigated conditions found at the Manaoag site.
Dalrymple, D.G. 1971. A survey of multiple cropping in less developed
nations. USDA Foreign Econ. Report No. 12, Washington: p.108.
Wang, Y.T. and Y.H. Yu. 1973. Historical evaluation and future
prospect of multiple crop diversification. Paper presented in
the seminar on multiple crop diversification in Taiwan and its
relevance to Southeast Asian countries. Taipei, Taiwan: 34 pp.
Wickham, T.W. 1977. Water Management for Lowland Rice: Water Require-
ments and Yield Response. Paper presented at the "Soils and Rice"
Symposium, International Rice Research Institute, Los Baios,
Laguna, September 20-23, 1977.
Table 1. Recommended inputs for dry seeded rice, Manaoag, Pangasinan.
100 kg/ha; 25-30 ems between furrows. Coat
seeds with ZnO (200 gms/kg seed); If Zn
deficiency appears, spray 2% ZnSO4
Twenty kg N/ha basal drilled in furrows +
30 kg N/ha, 30 DAE + 20 kg N/ha at PI
0.5 kg ai.i/ha carbofuran (mixed with basal
fertilizer). Spray Azodrin at 0.5 kg a.i.
/ha if leaf folders appear and surpasses
10% economic threshold.
Spray butachlor at 2 kg a.i./ha immediately
after seeding if the soil is wet, or imme-
diately after a germinating rain followed
by one handweeding
Table 2. Grain yields DSR cropping pattern cooperators fields, Manaoag,
Pangasinan. 1976 wet season.
Grain Yield (t/ha)
D. Paine 5.16 3.43
T. Idor 6.66 4.34
H. Rosana 5.33 4.35
Average 5.72 4.04
G. Valdez 6.58 5.44
V. Quiban 6.71 6.23
Average 6.64 5.84
Overall Average 6.18 4.94
Table 3. Yields of
DSR and weed population scores at 15 and 40 DAE,
Yield Range No. of Average Yield Weed Scale-/
(t/ha) Observations (t!ha) 15 DAE 40 DAE
< 3.5 7 3.14 3.0 2.1
> 3.5 < 4.5 16 4.24 3.6 1.3
> 4.5 < 5.5 17 5.00 2.2 1.4
> 5.5 < 6.5 5 6.13 3.0 1.4
> 6.5 3 6.93 1.0 1.0
abundant but not important
questionable economic damage
moderate economic damage
severe economic damage
The effect of row-placed basal N on the yield of dry-seeded
IR36, Caaringayan, Manaoag, Pangasinan 1976 wet season (t/ha).
Basal Nitrogen (kgN/ha)-
Applied as basal. All treatments, including 0, also
received 20 kg N/ha at 30 DAE and at P.I.
Average over two P levels, two K levels and 4 replications.
CV = 15.7
Table 4b. The effect of row-placed P and K on the yield of dry-
seeded IR36, Caaringayan, Manaoag, Pangasinan, 1976 wet
Potassium (kg K.O/ha)
(kg P20 /ha)
0 5.06-! 5.17
Average over 3 N levels and 4 replications
C.V. = 15.7
Table 5. Effect of row-placed N and P basal fertilization on the
yield of dry seeded IR36 performance after a single
flush irrigation. Pao, Manaoag, Pangasinan, 1976 wet
0 20 Mean
Phosphorus 0 20 Mean
(kg P205/ha) 0 271P-' 2894 2.81
20 2616 2914 2.77
Mean 2.67 2.90
30 DAE and at P.I.
as basal. All plots received 20 kg N/ha at
of two seed treatments and four replications.
CV = 12.9
Table 6. Effect of sources and levels of basal N applications on yield
of dry seeded IR36.
Pao, Manaoag, Pangasinan.
1976. Wet season.
Basal N Fertilizer Yield
(kg/ha) source/ (kg/ha)
0 (Check) 1705
20 AS 2183
40 AS 2603
Linear contrasts F. value
Basal vs. no basal 5.73*
AS vs. Urea 8.08**
AS vs. SCU 0,87ns
Urea vs. SCU 3.66ns
30 DAE vs. none 0.01ns
20 N vs. 40 N 5.40* C.V, = 16.9
a/ Fertilizer material used for topdressing was A.S.
AS = Ammonium sulfate; SCU = Sulfur coated urea
b/ Received 20 kg N/ha at P.I. All other treatments received
20 kg N/ha at 30 DAE and at P.I.
Table 7. Effects of sources and levels of basal N applications on the
yield of dry seeded IR36.
Caaringayan, Manaoag, Pangasinan. 1976 wet
Basal N Fertilizqr Yield
(kg/ha) source- (kg/ha)
0 (Check) 5014
20 AS 6192
40 AS 5186
Linear contrasts F. value
Basal vs. no basal 6,09*
AS vs. Urea 1.23ns
AS vs. SCU 0.51ns
Urea vs. SCU 0.15ns
30 DAE vs. none 0.63ns
20 N vs. 40 N 2.20ns C.V. = 10.4
- Fertilizer material used for
AS = Ammonium sulfate; SCU =
topdressing was A.S.
sulfur coated Urea
- Received 20 kg N/ha at P.I. All other treatments received
20 kg N/ha at 30 DAE and at P.I.
Table 8. Mean rice yield (t/ha) by crop establishment, Manaoag, Pangasinan.
Crop year DSR-TPR-X TPR-X
75-76 2.54 (16)a 2.84 (106)
76-77 5.26 ( 6)b/ 3.48 ( 58)
77-78 4.51 (50)-/ 3.97 ( 15)
( ) No. of observations
a/ IR28 for DSR; IR36, IR28, IR30, IR1561, C4-137 for TPR, CY 75-76.
b/ IR36 for both DSR and TPR, CY 76-77 and 77-78.
Table 9. Comparative economic performance of DSR and TPR (first crop) in
cropping pattern tests, Manaoag, Pangasinan.-
Item DSR TPR
No. of plots 16 106
Yield (t/ha) 2.54 2.84
(/ha)-' 2546 2848
Material cost input
(P/ha) 1483 950
Labor costs (P/ha) 2347 1416
cost (0/ha) 3830 2366
Returns above va-
(P/ha) -1284 482
a/ 1975-76: 1l.00/kg; 1976-77: l1.30/kg; 1977-78: Y1.20/kg
S1975-76: rO.75/ha for operation less the use of animal and V1.50/hr
for operation using animal power.
1976-77: V0.80/hr (less animal); V1.75/hr (with animal power)
1977-78: Labor cost/hr was based on monthly fluctuation of wages.
Table 10. Gross return (W/ha) ey pattern groups, Manaoag, Pangasinan,
Item DSR-TPR-UC TPR-UC
No. of plots 4 24
First crop (DSR) 6871 4138
Second crop (TPR) 4706 2236
Third crop (UC) 2314 --
Total 13881 6374
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar
TPR Mug, CP
^B ush sitoo
Figure 1. Comparison between two cropping patterns by first rice
crop establishment plotted against the 24-year rainfall
average. Manaoag, Pangasinan.
H High poddy position
C Close to anol
F For from canal
Fig. 2 Performance of five dry-seeded
in four production complexes.
2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
Cumulative distributions (empirical) of three seed or soil
treatments, on IR36 (DSR), Manaoag, Pangasinan, wet season
22 2 12 22 I
Apr 22 0
Apr 27 0
G S B
7 2 4-
8 0 6
6 I 2 4.86
8 1 5 4.63
8 8 3
8 8 2
II 5 I
1 0 0
in 1/2 meter
22 2 12 22: I II
April May June
Figure 4. Effect of date of seeding and rainfall on emergence,
weed population and yield of dry-seeded rice, Manaoag,
Pangasinan, 1977 wet season.
3 WAE -
Appendix Table 1.
Percent increase/decrease in yield, costs and returns.
of experimental DSR, Manaoag, Pangasinan, CY 1975-76
1976-77 and % increase/decrease
I T E M 1975-76 1977-78- one past year
Variety used IR28 IR36
Yield (ton/ha) 2.54 4.61 81
Gross Return (W/ha)a/ 2546 5620 121
Material cost input
(V/ha) 1483 1127 -24
Labor costs (r/ha)-/ 2347 2178 -7
Total variable costs
(r/ha) 3830 3305 -14
Returns above variable
costs (W/ha) -1284 2315 280
a/Average for 2 years
Appendix Table 2.
Cost and return (?/ha) by
Pangasinan, CY 1976-77.
pattern groups, Manaoag,
PATTERN GROUPS h L Total variable Gross N e t
DSR-TPR-Upland Crops 3397 4664 8061 13881 5820
TPR-Upland Crops 1859 2162 4021 6374 2353
Appendix Table 3.
Comparative economic performance of DSR in farmers'
managed plots, existing system, Manaoag, Pangasinan,
CY 1976-77 and 1977-78.
decrease over the
I T E M 1976-77 1977-78 decese the
No. of farmers 9 17 --
No. of plots 14 43 --
Yield (ton/ha) 1.67 2.34 40
Gross Return (f/ha)a/ 2174 2822 30
Material costs ('/ha)bl 466 540 16
Labor costs (W/ha)c/ 769 1165 51
Total Variable cost (C/ha) 1235 1705 38
Return above variable costs (W/ha) 939 1117 19
a/1976-77; V1.30/kg; 1977-78; ?1.20/kg.
b/Includes costs for seeds, fertilizers, insecticides and
c/Labor cost was computed at 10.80/hr for farm operations less
the use of animal and 1l.75/hr for plowing, harrowing'and
furrowing which involved animal power.