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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Operating the exsys-based acid3B...
 Evaluation of ACID3B
 Test data
 An overview of the ACID3B expert...






Title: Expert system to determine lime requirements for soils of the humid tropics: version acid3b
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055430/00001
 Material Information
Title: Expert system to determine lime requirements for soils of the humid tropics: version acid3b
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Centre for Soils Research, Bogor, Indonesia
Publisher: University of Hawaii and North Carolina State University
 Subjects
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055430
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Operating the exsys-based acid3B expert system
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Hardware requirements
            Page 1
        Data requirements
            Page 1
        Beginners guide to the acid3b expert system
            Page 1
            Starting the system
                Page 1
            Entering data
                Page 3
                Page 4
                Page 5
                Page 6
        Rerunning the program
            Page 7
            Changing an entry
                Page 8
            Rerunning the program with new data
                Page 9
        Directed graph of ACID3B
            Page 10
        Display of rules
            Page 11
        Sitiung transmigration area, Indonesia
            Page 12
    Evaluation of ACID3B
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Test data
        Page 15
    An overview of the ACID3B expert system
        Page 16
        A brief summary of the knowledge base
            Page 16
        Introduction to a rule-based system
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
Full Text


/


TROPSOILS





foT qohls of t hM [uni T7orpipo











By

The Centre for Soils Research, Bogor, Indonesia
University of Hawaii and North Carolina State University


VERSION ACID3B


























About TropSoils


TropSoils is a collaborative research program whose goal is to develop
improved soil management technology for developing countries in the tropics.
Primary funding is provided by the U.S. Agency for International
Development through Grant DAN 1311-G-SS-1083-00. This action is in
support of Title XII "Famine Prevention and Freedom from Hunger" of
the Foreign Assistance Act.


For more information, contact TropSoils Project:
Centre for Soil Research University of Hawaii
Jalan Ir. H. Juanda No. 98 Dept. of Agronomy & Soil Science
Bogor, Indonesia 1910 East-West Road
Honolulu, HI 96822




















TABLE OF CONTENTS


I. OPERATING THE EXSYS-BASED ACID3B EXPERT SYSTEM.

A. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS . . .

B. DATA REQUIREMENTS . . . .

C. BEGINNERS GUIDE TO THE ACID3B EXPERT SYSTEM
Starting the System . . .
Entering Data . . . .
Conclusions . . . .

D. RERUNNING THE PROGRAM . . .
Changing an Entry . . . .
Rerunning the Program with New Data .

E. DIRECTED GRAPH OF ACID3B . . .

F. DISPLAY OF RULES . . .

G. SITIUNG TRANSMIGRATION AREA, INDONESIA. .

I. EVALUATION OF ACID3B . . .

I. TEST DATA . . . . .

V. AN OVERVIEW OF THE ACID3B EXPERT SYSTEM .

A. A BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE KNOWLEDGE BASE .

B. INTRODUCTION TO A RULE-BASED SYSTEM .


* 1













. 10

. 1

. .12

. 13
. 1





. 1
. .1 7
. i







. 13

. .15


. .16




. .17


I

II

I










OPERATING THE EXSYS-BASED ACID3B EXPERT SYSTEM


A. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
256K RAM
IBM compatible machine with PC-DOS 2.0 or above
Monochrome or color monitor
Graphics optional (graph of Al tolerances to various crops
can be displayed if the machine has a graphics card and
a graphics monitor)
A double-sided double density (360K) drive


B. DATA REQUIREMENTS
Soil order
Soil great group (if known)
Crop (choices include: maize, soybean, upland rice, mung
bean, peanut, cassava, sweet potato, pasture legume,
pasture grass, cowpea)
Depth of incorporation
Bulk density
ECEC ("effective cation exchange capacity" obtained by
summing KCL extractable Al, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, and
other cations units are cmol/kg (meq/100g)
EXTRAL (the extactable aluminum plus hydrogen as determined
by KC1 batch extraction units are cmol/kg (meg/100g)
Green manure (choices include: not been applied, applied at
about 5 ton/ha or 10 ton/ha)
Fineness factor (the proportion of lime which passes a 60
mesh sieve (given in a fraction from 0 to 1.0)
CaCO3 equivalent (determined by adding excess HC1 and back-
titrating with NaOH; values should range from 0.0 to
1.8)
Soil pH


C. BEGINNERS GUIDE TO THE ACID3B EXPERT SYSTEM.

Starting ACID3B

Step 1. Start the machine

Step 2. Insert the operating system (PC-DOS 2.0, 2.1, 3.0, or
3.1) and load the operating system. A successful load is
indicated by the display of the prompt, A>

Step 3. Remove the operating diskette. Insert the ACID3B
diskette. Check that the following three files are on the
diskette by typing dir and pressing : EXSYS.EXE,
ACID3B.TXT, and ACID3B.RUL). If these files are not present, the
ACID3B system will not run.










Step 4. At the A> prompt, type


A>EXSYS ACID3B


The system will respond by identifying the EXSYS program and
asking you to:


Press any key to start:


Step 5. Press any key. The screen will say


READING DATA


followed by:


Do you wish instructions on running the program (Y/N):


(If you respond with Y, you will be given background
information on the EXSYS program and will be instructed how to
return to the program.)

Step 6. Respond with N. The next question asked is:


Recover previously saved position Y/N (default = N):


Step 7. Press N. The next question is:


Do you wish to have the rules displayed as
they are used (Y/N) (Default = Y):


If you respond with Y, the rules will be displayed that have
been concluded to be true. If the response is N, the system will
proceed with questions and display the conclusions directly
without indicating the rules used.


Step 8. Press N. As the title and the names of the authors
appear you will be prompted










OPERATING THE EXSYS-BASED ACID3B EXPERT SYSTEM


A. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
256K RAM
IBM compatible machine with PC-DOS 2.0 or above
Monochrome or color monitor
Graphics optional (graph of Al tolerances to various crops
can be displayed if the machine has a graphics card and
a graphics monitor)
A double-sided double density (360K) drive


B. DATA REQUIREMENTS
Soil order
Soil great group (if known)
Crop (choices include: maize, soybean, upland rice, mung
bean, peanut, cassava, sweet potato, pasture legume,
pasture grass, cowpea)
Depth of incorporation
Bulk density
ECEC ("effective cation exchange capacity" obtained by
summing KCL extractable Al, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, and
other cations units are cmol/kg (meq/100g)
EXTRAL (the extactable aluminum plus hydrogen as determined
by KC1 batch extraction units are cmol/kg (meg/100g)
Green manure (choices include: not been applied, applied at
about 5 ton/ha or 10 ton/ha)
Fineness factor (the proportion of lime which passes a 60
mesh sieve (given in a fraction from 0 to 1.0)
CaCO3 equivalent (determined by adding excess HC1 and back-
titrating with NaOH; values should range from 0.0 to
1.8)
Soil pH


C. BEGINNERS GUIDE TO THE ACID3B EXPERT SYSTEM.

Starting ACID3B

Step 1. Start the machine

Step 2. Insert the operating system (PC-DOS 2.0, 2.1, 3.0, or
3.1) and load the operating system. A successful load is
indicated by the display of the prompt, A>

Step 3. Remove the operating diskette. Insert the ACID3B
diskette. Check that the following three files are on the
diskette by typing dir and pressing : EXSYS.EXE,
ACID3B.TXT, and ACID3B.RUL). If these files are not present, the
ACID3B system will not run.










OPERATING THE EXSYS-BASED ACID3B EXPERT SYSTEM


A. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
256K RAM
IBM compatible machine with PC-DOS 2.0 or above
Monochrome or color monitor
Graphics optional (graph of Al tolerances to various crops
can be displayed if the machine has a graphics card and
a graphics monitor)
A double-sided double density (360K) drive


B. DATA REQUIREMENTS
Soil order
Soil great group (if known)
Crop (choices include: maize, soybean, upland rice, mung
bean, peanut, cassava, sweet potato, pasture legume,
pasture grass, cowpea)
Depth of incorporation
Bulk density
ECEC ("effective cation exchange capacity" obtained by
summing KCL extractable Al, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, and
other cations units are cmol/kg (meq/100g)
EXTRAL (the extactable aluminum plus hydrogen as determined
by KC1 batch extraction units are cmol/kg (meg/100g)
Green manure (choices include: not been applied, applied at
about 5 ton/ha or 10 ton/ha)
Fineness factor (the proportion of lime which passes a 60
mesh sieve (given in a fraction from 0 to 1.0)
CaCO3 equivalent (determined by adding excess HC1 and back-
titrating with NaOH; values should range from 0.0 to
1.8)
Soil pH


C. BEGINNERS GUIDE TO THE ACID3B EXPERT SYSTEM.

Starting ACID3B

Step 1. Start the machine

Step 2. Insert the operating system (PC-DOS 2.0, 2.1, 3.0, or
3.1) and load the operating system. A successful load is
indicated by the display of the prompt, A>

Step 3. Remove the operating diskette. Insert the ACID3B
diskette. Check that the following three files are on the
diskette by typing dir and pressing : EXSYS.EXE,
ACID3B.TXT, and ACID3B.RUL). If these files are not present, the
ACID3B system will not run.










OPERATING THE EXSYS-BASED ACID3B EXPERT SYSTEM


A. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
256K RAM
IBM compatible machine with PC-DOS 2.0 or above
Monochrome or color monitor
Graphics optional (graph of Al tolerances to various crops
can be displayed if the machine has a graphics card and
a graphics monitor)
A double-sided double density (360K) drive


B. DATA REQUIREMENTS
Soil order
Soil great group (if known)
Crop (choices include: maize, soybean, upland rice, mung
bean, peanut, cassava, sweet potato, pasture legume,
pasture grass, cowpea)
Depth of incorporation
Bulk density
ECEC ("effective cation exchange capacity" obtained by
summing KCL extractable Al, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, and
other cations units are cmol/kg (meq/100g)
EXTRAL (the extactable aluminum plus hydrogen as determined
by KC1 batch extraction units are cmol/kg (meg/100g)
Green manure (choices include: not been applied, applied at
about 5 ton/ha or 10 ton/ha)
Fineness factor (the proportion of lime which passes a 60
mesh sieve (given in a fraction from 0 to 1.0)
CaCO3 equivalent (determined by adding excess HC1 and back-
titrating with NaOH; values should range from 0.0 to
1.8)
Soil pH


C. BEGINNERS GUIDE TO THE ACID3B EXPERT SYSTEM.

Starting ACID3B

Step 1. Start the machine

Step 2. Insert the operating system (PC-DOS 2.0, 2.1, 3.0, or
3.1) and load the operating system. A successful load is
indicated by the display of the prompt, A>

Step 3. Remove the operating diskette. Insert the ACID3B
diskette. Check that the following three files are on the
diskette by typing dir and pressing : EXSYS.EXE,
ACID3B.TXT, and ACID3B.RUL). If these files are not present, the
ACID3B system will not run.










OPERATING THE EXSYS-BASED ACID3B EXPERT SYSTEM


A. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
256K RAM
IBM compatible machine with PC-DOS 2.0 or above
Monochrome or color monitor
Graphics optional (graph of Al tolerances to various crops
can be displayed if the machine has a graphics card and
a graphics monitor)
A double-sided double density (360K) drive


B. DATA REQUIREMENTS
Soil order
Soil great group (if known)
Crop (choices include: maize, soybean, upland rice, mung
bean, peanut, cassava, sweet potato, pasture legume,
pasture grass, cowpea)
Depth of incorporation
Bulk density
ECEC ("effective cation exchange capacity" obtained by
summing KCL extractable Al, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, and
other cations units are cmol/kg (meq/100g)
EXTRAL (the extactable aluminum plus hydrogen as determined
by KC1 batch extraction units are cmol/kg (meg/100g)
Green manure (choices include: not been applied, applied at
about 5 ton/ha or 10 ton/ha)
Fineness factor (the proportion of lime which passes a 60
mesh sieve (given in a fraction from 0 to 1.0)
CaCO3 equivalent (determined by adding excess HC1 and back-
titrating with NaOH; values should range from 0.0 to
1.8)
Soil pH


C. BEGINNERS GUIDE TO THE ACID3B EXPERT SYSTEM.

Starting ACID3B

Step 1. Start the machine

Step 2. Insert the operating system (PC-DOS 2.0, 2.1, 3.0, or
3.1) and load the operating system. A successful load is
indicated by the display of the prompt, A>

Step 3. Remove the operating diskette. Insert the ACID3B
diskette. Check that the following three files are on the
diskette by typing dir and pressing : EXSYS.EXE,
ACID3B.TXT, and ACID3B.RUL). If these files are not present, the
ACID3B system will not run.










Press any key to start:


Step 9. Press any key. You will be given a description of the
data used in making the recommendations and again asked to:


Press any key to start:

You have now started ACID3B.


Entering Data
This section includes a sample run of the program using as
data soil order Ultisol, great group Paleudult, soybean cultivar
Willis, DEPTH INCORP. 15, BULK DENSITY 1.1, ECEC 4.0, EXTRAL 3.2,
no green manure added, Fineness factor .7, CaC03 equivalent 1.1,
and pH 5.0-5.5.

Step 10. Press any key. The next screen will read:


You prefer to
1 continue
2 see more information about this expert system


Notice that along the bottom of the screen the following
appears. These instructions will appear at the bottom of each
screen that requests data.

Enter numbers) of appropriate valuess, WHY for information on
the rule being applied QUIT to store data and exit or for
help


(If you type H and then press at this point in the
program you will be given an explanation of the WHY and QUIT
functions. Help information is available throughout the program.
If you type WHY you will be shown the rule which is being
tested.)


Step 11. Press 1 and then . The following will appear:


Soil information:
1 soil location is in the Sitiung transmigration area
2 soil location is not in the Sitiung transmigration area


Step 12. Press 2 and then . You will then be asked for
soil order.












Soil order is
1 Histosols
2 Mollisols
3 Vertisols
4 Entisols
5 some Alfisols
6 Inceptisols
7 Oxisols
8 Ultisols
9 Spodosols
10 Aridisols
11 not known


Step 13. Press 8 then . Next, soil great group
information is asked for.


Soil
1
2


information
soil great group is known
soil great group is not known


Step 14. Press 1 then . All the Ultisol great groups will
be listed.


Ultisol great group is
1 none of these
2 albaquults



19 rhodudults

Press any key for more values

Press any key and the rest of the great groups will be listed on
the next screen.

Step 15. Press 12 (Paleudults) and then .


The crop
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8


is (Critical Al saturation is shown)
maize (corn) (30 %)
soybean (0 to 25 %)
upland rice (40 to 60 %)
mung bean (0 %)
peanut (40 %)
cassava (75 %)
sweet potato (30 %)
pasture legume(20 to 85%)











9 pasture grass (20 to 95%)
10 cowpea (60 %)
11 known but you prefer to enter your own critical level of
Al saturation
12 known but you would like to see a graph showing the Al
tolerances of the above crops.


Step 16. Press 2 and then . The next screen will ask for
the cultivar.
(For some of the crops cultivar will not be asked.)


The cultivar is
1 Willis
2 Orba
3 unknown


Step 17. Press 1 and then .


The value of the variable DEPTH OF INCORP is needed.


Please input the value of DEPTH OF INCORP.: the depth of
incorporation of the lime in centimeters (15 cm is a usual
value).


Value:


Step 18. Type 15 and press


The value of the variable BULK DENSITY is needed.


Please input the value of BULK DENSITY: the usual soil bulk
density that is needed to calculate weight/volume conversions.
(values range from 0.6 to 1.8 or so) kg/L.


Value:


Step 19. Type 1.0 and press


Please input the value of ECEC: the "effective cation exchange
capacity" obtained by summing KC1 extractable Al, exchangeable
Ca, Mg, K, and other cations units are cmol/kg.











Value:


Step 20. Type 4.0 and press .


Please input the value of EXTRAL.: the extractable aluminum plus
hydrogen as determined by KCl batch extraction units are cmol/kg
(meq/100g).


Value:


Step 21. Type 3.2 and press .


Green manure has
1 not been applied
2 been applied at about 5 ton/ha fresh weight prior to this
crop
3 been applied at about 10 ton/ha fresh weight prior to
this crop



Step 22. Type 1 and press


The value of the variable FINENESS FACTOR is needed.


Please input the value of : the.proportion of lime which passes a
60 mesh sieve (given in fraction from 0 to 1.0).


Value:


Step 23. Type .7 and press .


Please input the value of : the calcium carbonate equivalent as
determined by adding excess HC1 and back-titrating with NaOH
according to standard procedures (ASA Monograph No. 9). Values
should range from 0 to 1.8 (MgC03 about 1.8, CaCO3 about 1.0).


Value:










Step 24. Type 1,1 and press . The final data asked for
will be pH.


Soil pH is
1 < 4.0
2 4.0 5.0
3 5.0 5.5
4 5.5 6.0
5 > 6.0
6 not known


Step 25. Type 3 and press . Data entry is now complete.


Conclusions

1 Recommend you apply 3 to 4 tons of lime/ha. :95/100
2 Possible low exchangeable Mg, critical level is around
0.15 cmol/kg. :75/100.






All choices , value>0 , Print

, Change and rerun ,
Quit/store , New sort criteria , rules used ,
Help , Done :


The choices are now displayed with the most likely first.
The number following the choice reflects the degree of confidence
given for the choice. You may ask how the computer arrived a
particular answer by entering the line number. To print the
final list of choices, press

.
You may change any of your data entries and see what effect
this has on the final conclusion by selecting the change and rerun
option, . You will be shown a list of all the input you
provided to the program. Enter the number or numbers of the
items you wish to change and the computer will redisplay the
screens which ask for the data. After you input the new data, the
list of all the input will be redisplayed. If the data is the way
you wish it, press to run the data. .
An example of how to change an entry and rerun the system is
given in the next section. If you press you will be given the
option of running the program again from the beginning.

D. RERUNNING THE PROGRAM

There are two ways to rerun the program without having to
exit and re-enter. The first is to change one or more entries and
rerun the program with the other data still the same. For









example, if you wish to change the crop you may do so without
having to re-enter the rest of the data. The second way is to
rerun the system using all new values.

Changing an entry

We will return again to the recommendations displayed at the
end of the program.

1 Recommend you apply 3 to 4 tons of lime/ha :95/100
2 Possible low exchangeable Mg, critical level is around
0.15 cmol/kg. :75/100



All choices
, value>0 , Change and rerun ,
Quit/store , New sort criteria ,
Help , Done (D>:

Step 1. Press and the following will appear at the bottom of
the screen:

Do you wish to store the current values for comparison with the
new values you will be calculating? (Y/N) (Default=):

Step 2. Press Y and the screen will read:

1 The crop is (Critical Al saturation is shown) soybean
(0 to 25%)
2 Soil pH is 5.0-5.5
3 Ultisol great group is paleudults
4 Soil order is Ultisols
5 You prefer to continue
6 Soil information: soil great group is known
7 The soybean cultivar is Willis
8 Green manure has not been applied
9 Soil information: soil location is not is the Sitiung
transmigration area
10 Variable [LIME FACTOR] = 1.65
11 Variable [EXTRAL] = 3.2
12 Variable [ECEC] = 4.0
13 Variable [DEPTH OF INCORP] = 15.0
14 Variable [BULK DENSITY] = 1.1
15 Variable [CaC03 EQUIVALENT] = 1.1
16 Variable [FINENESS FACTOR] = 0.7

You may change as many variables as you wish. In this
example we will change the crop (line 1).










Step 3. Type 1 and press . The next screen will read:

The crop is (Critical Al saturation is shown)
1 maize (corn) (30 %)
2 soybean (0 to 25 %)
3 upland rice (40 to 60 %)
4 mung bean (0 %)
5 peanut (40 %)
6 cassava (75 %)
7 sweet potato (30 %)
8 pasture legume(20 to 85%)
9 pasture grass (20 to 95%)
10 cowpea (60 %)
11 known but you prefer to enter your own critical level of
Al saturation
12 known but you would like to see a graph showing the Al
tolerances of the above crops.


Step 4. Type 1 and press . The next screen will confirm
your selection and display all the values you have entered.

1 The crop is (Critical Al saturation is shown) maize (corn)
(30%)
2 Soil pH is 5.0-5.5
3 Ultisol great group is paleudults
4 Soil order is Ultisols
5 You prefer to continue
6 Soil information: soil great group is known
7 The soybean cultivar is Willis
8 Green manure has not been applied
9 Soil information: soil location is not is the Sitiung
transmigration area
10 Variable [LIME FACTOR] = 1.65
11 Variable [EXTRAL] = 3.2
12 Variable [ECEC] = 4.0
13 Variable [DEPTH OF INCORP] = 15.0
14 Variable [BULK DENSITY] = 1.1
15 Variable [CaCO3 EQUIVALENT] = 1.1
16 Variable [FINENESS FACTOR] = 0.7


Enter number of line to change, to run the data,
for help or any other key to redisplay data:

Step 5. Press and the program will run again and give new
recommendations.

Running the program again with new data.
Refer again to the instructions displayed at the bottom of
the screen when recommendations are given.









Step 1. Type D and you will be given the option of running the
program again and putting in new data.


Run again (Y/N) (Default=N) :


Step 2. Type Y and the following will appear:


Same file (Y/N) (Default = Y)


Step 3. Type Y and you will begin again at:


Do you wish instructions on running the program (Y/N):


E. DIRECTED GRAPH OF ACID3B
An information chart of ACID3B is available for those who
wish additional information about the system. If we return to
Step 10 under the section on starting the system and begin with:

You prefer to
1 continue
2 see more information about this expert system



Enter numbers) of appropriate valuess, WHY for information on
the rule being applied, QUIT to store data and exit or for
help

Step 1. Press 2 and then .

This leads to a directed graph of ACID3 expert system. (If
you have a monochrome monitor and the screen is completely green,
press until the chart is visible.) As indicated by the
commands given at the bottom of the screen, it is possible to
scroll the chart up or down and use the commands given (Key: PgUp
PgDn Home End X=exit ?=Help).


Step 2. Press X. The system will display the following:

To restart the system PRESS D (Done) and run again.



All choices
, value>0 , Print

, Change and rerun ,
Quit/store , New sort criteria , rules used ,
Help , Done :











You may reenter the system by pressing C and then following
the same procedure as given in the previous section for changing
an entry. In that case, the line you wish to change is
1 You prefer to see more information about this expert system

If you do not wish to continue by re-entering the system, you
may type and have the option of either stopping or rerunning
the system from the beginning.


F. DISPLAY OF RULES
There are at least three ways to see the rules tested for
validity by the program:

1. Respond affirmatively to the question Do you wish to have
the rules displayed as they are used (Y/N). Unlike the example
used in C above, rules that have been found to be true will be
displayed as the program proceeds.

2. When indicated by the program information line at the
bottom of the paper, you may type WHY to see the rules used.
Pressing when a rule is displayed will allow you to see
previous rules in the chain.

3. When recommendations are given at the end of the
program, the program information line at the bottom of the page
will instruct you to type the line number in order to see the
rules used in making that recommendation.

Sample rule

RULE NUMBER; 22
IF:

(1) You prefer to continue
and (2) Soil order is some Alfisols or Inceptisols or Oxisols
or Ultisols
and (3) Soil information: soil great group is known or soil
great group of not known
and (4) Al or Mn toxicity is probable or not likely
and (5) [LIME FACTOR] > 0.5
and (6) [LIME REQ] < 0.3


THEN:










No lime is recommended. Probability=95/100


Input IF line number for info on how it was derived for
reference for the topic, for help or to continue:

Typing the line number in the IF part will allow you see
previous rules on the chain. The probability value assigned
indicates the likelihood of the solution. For any rule, it is
possible to see what reference materials were used by pressing
. will give you more detailed information on the program.


G. SITIUNG TRANSMIGRATION AREA, INDONESIA

If in section C Step 12, we had selected 1 soil location
is in the Sitiung transmigration area, the procedure would have
been somewhat different. Because this program was developed using
data from this area, and much more data is available, you are
asked the location of the sample rather than soil order or great
group. For example,

Soil sample was obtained from

1 Sitiung I (all Blocks)
2 Sitiung II (Blocks A, B or C)
3 Sitiung II (Block D or E)
4 Sitiung IV or V
5 none of the above

The data asked for here is different than for soils not in
the Sitiung transmigration area. You will be asked:

Extractable K is
1 less than 0.12-0.15 cmol K/kg
2 greater than 0.12-0.15 cmol K/kg
3 not known

and

Olsen extractable P is
1 less than 10-12 mg P/kg
2 greater than 10-12 mg P/kg
3 not known

This information is used in determining P and K fertilizer
requirement for areas within Sitiung.











EVALUATION OF ACID3B


Attached is a table with 10 test sets of soil conditions.
Please enter these into the expert system and note the
recommendations made. Your answers to the following questions
together with any comments, data, and publications you think
appropriate would be very much appreciated. (Responses may be sent
to Russell S. Yost, Dept. of Agronomy and Soil Science, 1910 East-
West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822)

1. Do you agree with the predicted lime requirements given
for the text soil and crop data? How do these compare with lime
requirements you would make using the same data?
















2. Do you feel that the interpretations, cautions and
informative notes included in the output were sufficient?









3. Do you think the system asks the right questions in the
right order? If not, please explain the sequence you would have
preferred.











4. Do you have a different recommendation philosophy which
you feel would be more appropriate?









5. Under what conditions do you think this system would be
most useful? What modifications or additional considerations are
important in your situation?










6. Did you have any particular difficulty using this system?













TEST DATA


Soil order
Great group
Crop
Depth Incorp
Bulk Density
ECEC
EXTRAL
Green Manure
Fine. Factor
CaCO3 equiv.
Soil pH
P or K
Recommend.:

Cautions:

Notes:





TEST DATA


1 2
Ultisol Oxisol
Paleudult Haplorthox
Willis, soy. rice
15 10
1.0 1.1
4.0 3.2
3.2 2.8
0 0
0.7 0.8
1.1 0.7
5.0-5.5 4.0-5.0


3
Inceptisol
Sulfaquept
maize
20
1.3
4.2
13.5
5
0.8
0.7
4.0-5.0


4
Ultisol
Hapludult
peanut
12
0.9
5.5
2.5
10
0.5
0.8
5.0-5.5


5
Ultisol
Hapludult
cassava
10
1.1
2.2
1.0
0
0.6
0.9
4.0-5.0


Soil order
Great group
Crop
Depth Incorp
Bulk density
ECEC
EXTRAL
Green manure
Fine. factor
CaCO3 equiv.
Soil pH
P and K


6
Ultisol
Paleudult
soybean
15
1.1
1.0
0.3
0
0.8
1.0
4.0-5.0


7
Ultisol
Paleudult
soybean
15
1.1
4.5
3.8
0
0.8
1.0
4.0-5.0


8
Ultisol
Paleudult
soybean
15
1.1
3.0
4.5
0
0.9
0.9
5.5-6.0


9
Ultisol
Paleudult
cassava
15
1.1
4.5
3.8
5
0.7
0.6
4.0-5.0


10
Mollisol

soybean
15
1.1
4.5
3.8
0
0.5
1.1
6.0


Recommend.:

Cautions:

Notes:










A BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE KNOWLEDGE BASE


Expert systems are designed to simulate a human expert's
approach, knowledge and experience in making a diagnosis or
recommendation. ACID3B is a prototype system for making lime
recommendations in the humid tropics. The knowledge base is being
developed from existing information and research experience. The
primary objective, as part of the Tropsoils project, has been to
address soil acidity problems in highly weathered soils of
Sumatra, Indonesia. We have focused on extractable acidity
(mostly exchangeable Al) as the primary cause of yield reduction
due to soil acidity. A summary reference for the knowledge base
is a review paper by Kamprath (1984). The main concepts in the
database are:

1. Growth limiting effects are primarily due to exchangeable
Al + H (exchangeable acidity) although if all cations are present
in very small quantities some lime is probably needed to provide
Ca. It is assumed that toxicity to exchangeable acidity is
closely related with Al + H saturation.

2. Crops vary considerably in their tolerance to
exchangeable acidity, extremes are represented by mung bean (very
intolerant, tolerating no more than 0 % Al saturation) and cassava
(very tolerant -- about 75% Al + H saturation.)

3. Organic material seems to reduce lime requirements. The
approximation is currently 10 ton/ha of fresh organic material
reduces lime requirement by 1 ton/ha.

4. Lime requirements need to be based on soil analyses in
order to accurately reflect the soil conditions.

5. Although data is sparse, an attempt is made to determine
the approximate effects of lime quality on the lime requirement.
Included are the neutralization value relative to calcium
carbonate and an estimate of physical reactivity as related to the
particle size. The estimate of neutralization value is a
relatively well defined laboratory procedure in which an excess of
acid is added to the lime and allowed to fully react. The excess
acid is back-titrated to estimate the unreacted acid for
calculation.

Particle size fractions have been used to estimate the
physical reactivity of the limestone. Here many factors have been
discussed and are relevant to field estimation of time required
after application before crops can be planted. One of the simpler
measurements of lime quality as affected by particle size is given
by the estimate of the amount of lime of various particle sizes
needed to give approximately equivalent yields.
The calculation of lime requirement is based on the need to
neutralize sufficient Al to reduce Aluminum saturation to the
'critical Aluminum saturation' which has been established for the










A BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE KNOWLEDGE BASE


Expert systems are designed to simulate a human expert's
approach, knowledge and experience in making a diagnosis or
recommendation. ACID3B is a prototype system for making lime
recommendations in the humid tropics. The knowledge base is being
developed from existing information and research experience. The
primary objective, as part of the Tropsoils project, has been to
address soil acidity problems in highly weathered soils of
Sumatra, Indonesia. We have focused on extractable acidity
(mostly exchangeable Al) as the primary cause of yield reduction
due to soil acidity. A summary reference for the knowledge base
is a review paper by Kamprath (1984). The main concepts in the
database are:

1. Growth limiting effects are primarily due to exchangeable
Al + H (exchangeable acidity) although if all cations are present
in very small quantities some lime is probably needed to provide
Ca. It is assumed that toxicity to exchangeable acidity is
closely related with Al + H saturation.

2. Crops vary considerably in their tolerance to
exchangeable acidity, extremes are represented by mung bean (very
intolerant, tolerating no more than 0 % Al saturation) and cassava
(very tolerant -- about 75% Al + H saturation.)

3. Organic material seems to reduce lime requirements. The
approximation is currently 10 ton/ha of fresh organic material
reduces lime requirement by 1 ton/ha.

4. Lime requirements need to be based on soil analyses in
order to accurately reflect the soil conditions.

5. Although data is sparse, an attempt is made to determine
the approximate effects of lime quality on the lime requirement.
Included are the neutralization value relative to calcium
carbonate and an estimate of physical reactivity as related to the
particle size. The estimate of neutralization value is a
relatively well defined laboratory procedure in which an excess of
acid is added to the lime and allowed to fully react. The excess
acid is back-titrated to estimate the unreacted acid for
calculation.

Particle size fractions have been used to estimate the
physical reactivity of the limestone. Here many factors have been
discussed and are relevant to field estimation of time required
after application before crops can be planted. One of the simpler
measurements of lime quality as affected by particle size is given
by the estimate of the amount of lime of various particle sizes
needed to give approximately equivalent yields.
The calculation of lime requirement is based on the need to
neutralize sufficient Al to reduce Aluminum saturation to the
'critical Aluminum saturation' which has been established for the










various crops (Cochrane et al., 1980). Our modified form of the
equation is :

Lime requirement (t/ha) = 1.4(exch. acidity (CAS*ECEC/100)
exch. acidity = 1 N KC1 extractable Al + H
CAS = critical Aluminum saturation of the crop
ECEC = 'effective cation exchange capacity'
1.4 represents the relation of the cmol of CaCO3 required to


neutralize 1 cmole of Al + H in field studies adjusted for both
bulk density and depth of incorporation. In this case 1.9 cmol of
Ca was required for each cmol of Al + H, the bulk density was
assumed to be 1.0, and the depth of incorporation was assumed to
be 15 cm.

Preliminary data suggest approximately 0.53 cmol KC1-
extractable acidity is neutralized for each cmol of Ca added as
CaCO3 (Wade et al., 1985). This corresponds to a relation of 1.9
cmol of CaCO3 being required for each cmol of extractable acidity,
a value much in keeping with results reported elsewhere (Kamprath,
1985). This reference points out the need to consider the
effectiveness of lime in neutralizing the extractable acidity.
Such data need to be obtained in field studies if possible because
of the need to ensure that one is testing the liming material and
soil reactivity in conditions that are representative of the
situation or group of farmers to which the eventual recommendation
is intended to apply.

The system is designed to apply to the Humid Tropics with
soils of the Ultisol, Oxisol, and Inceptisol orders. In addition,
the system has additional information pertinent to the Sitiung
region, Indonesia. The general recommendations are based on other
relationships such as a general reactivity of 2 cmol of CaCO3 for
each cmol of extractable acidity. Levels of critical aluminum
saturation are, so far, the same for the general recommendation as
for the specific location in Sitiung. Other data and results from
the Tropsoils work in Sitiung are incorporated such as minimal
requirements of P and K for soybean, rice, cowpea and peanut.


INTRODUCTION TO A RULE-BASED SYSTEM

ACID3B has been developed on a rule-based expert system
development shell, EXSYS. The shell provides editing facilities
to design output formats, to run test datasets, and to ensure
modifications have not disrupted the core logic flow of the
system. The inference engine is backward chaining and provides
probability accumulation in dependent, independent, and averaging
modes. Only relatively simply WHY capability is provided which
displays the rules which are being evaluated in the information
input mode or provides the chain of fired rules in support of a
recommendation. Programming effort is minimal with this software,









however with the usual loss in flexibility for certain types of
expert system construction.

In EXSYS the search procedure follows several relatively
simple rules. These search rules will be discussed in the sequence
in which they operate.

1. Rule selection. The first search or "pattern matching"
that is done on the knowledge base begins with the "choices".
Choices in EXSYS are all the potential conclusions from which the
system can choose in presenting final results. None, one or
several choices are possible with any consultation (or "run" of
the system).

The first choice is selected to determine if it can be proved
true or false. The search routine determines which rules have
this choice in their THEN part. If there are more than one, the
first rule (in numerical order) is the one chosen for analysis.

RULE 11.
IF:
You prefer to continue
The soil great group is Paleudults

THEN:
No lime is recommended probability (100/100) <- This is the
first choice of the list of choices. This choice will cause RULE
11 to be selected first for analysis.

2. Condition selection. Once the rule is selected EXSYS
then proceeds to analyze components of the rule -- the
"conditions". In EXSYS a condition is composed of two parts: the
"Qualifier" and the "Value". After selecting which rule to
analyze EXSYS then determines which "condition" to analyze. This
selection is quite logical -- the first condition in the IF part
of the rule is selected for evaluation. The purpose of the
evaluation is to determine if the condition is true or false. The
system determines if the condition is true by first searching the
file of facts or input already concluded to be true, if the
condition is not in the list of facts, then the system searches
rules which have the condition in their THEN parts. If the system
finds a rule with the condition in the THEN part, it then
determines whether the conditions in the IF part of that rule are
true or can be concluded to be true from other rules by chaining.
If our first condition can be determined to be true then the
system will proceed otherwise it will, as a last resort, display
the first condition in the rule that had our first condition in
its THEN part. These conditions will be displayed in the form of
the qualifier and values, asking the user to indicate which ones
are successive conditions. For example:










Rule 11
IF: (qualifier) (value) (search order)
You prefer to continue <- first searched
The soil great group is Paleudults <- second searched


THEN:
No lime is recommended probability (100/100) <- This is the
first choice of the list of choices.
This choice caused this rule to be
selected first for analysis.
RULE 22
IF:
If you have use this system before and you don't need to see
details of this system. <-This condition will be searched
for and, if not found, will be
displayed for user selection
THEN:
You prefer to continue <-This condition matches the
condition in Rule 11 and is
why RULE 22 was selected. (This
relationship between rules is
also known as chaining.)

The search begins with the selection of a rule to analyze.
The first "Choice" in the list of Choices is selected. A rule
which has this choice in its THEN part is then selected. If there
is more than one rule with the choice in its THEN part, the rule
that has the smallest rule number will be selected. The IF part
of the selected rule will then be looked at. The first condition
will be selected and determined whether it can be proved true or
false from information already determined to be true. If the
condition cannot be determined to be true or false based on
information already in the system, the system will put the
condition on screen and ask the user directly which combination of
qualifiers and values are true.

The order of the conditions in the first selected rule will
determine the order of the questions asked of the user. For
example, one would prefer that the most likely conditions be asked
first. This can be done by placing the most commonly selected
choice as the first in the choice list (Choice 1). This order
should match the "directed graph" or decision tree that we
recommend you first construct to document the logical organization
of the expert system. In other words, the first condition in the
rule should ask the most general information. This will ensure
that the system will reduce the number of rules to be searched in
subsequent steps. If a very specific condition were placed first,
it might ask for information that is irrelevant to most of the
system.




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