• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Introduction
 Constraints to productivity
 Ongoing research activities
 Research highlights to date
 Future plans
 Tropsoils staffing pattern






Title: Tropsoils Project - Indonesia (Soil Management CRSP)
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055429/00001
 Material Information
Title: Tropsoils Project - Indonesia (Soil Management CRSP)
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: University of Hawaii
North Carolina State University
Center for Soil Research
Publisher: University of Hawaii; North Carolina State University; Center for Soil Research
Publication Date: 1987
 Subjects
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Asia -- Indonesia
 Notes
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055429
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Constraints to productivity
        Page 5
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Ongoing research activities
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Research highlights to date
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Future plans
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Tropsoils staffing pattern
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
Full Text


























TROPSOILS PROJECT INDONESIA

(SOIL MANAGEMENT CRSP)


February 1987











TROPSOILS PROJECT INDONESIA

(SOIL MANAGEMENT CRSP)





FUNDING AGENCY




U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C.


DATE STARTED:


June July 1983.


COLLABORATING INSTITUTIONS.



1. University of Hawaii (lead institution).

2. North Carolina State University (support institution;
active participation ended July 1986).

3. Center for Soil Research, Bogor, Indonesia.


RESEARCH SITE:


2 S, 101 E (see location maps, p. 2-3)


Sitiung, West Sumatera, Indonesia; approximately 210 km SE of
Padang. Time to travel: 5 hours by car and 7.5 hours by public
transportation.























0"


Kalimantan


Java X a (
BALt




C3 o


Location of Sitiung region, West Sumatra, Indonesia


_ _




























LEGEND \ 2' /. > / sIIC
, SOIL SR.MPLE SITE
0 TGNNS
1 DISSECTED PENEPLRIN 4 -~'
2 TRANSITION PENEPLRIN-TERRACES\
3 SUBRECENT TERRfCES
4 RECENT FLOUGDPLIN .V
5 GRANITE .
A TROPSOILS LAND RESTORATION SITE
B TROPSOILS LAND CLEARANCE SITEI !.



Main geomorphic units and sample locations, Sitiung. SI-SVC marks
location of transmigration settlements.-









SITIUNG AGRICULTURE: Most transmigrant families are engaged in
raising field crops. Field work is mostly done by hand. Common
crops are rice, corn, soybean, peanut, cowpeas, cassava, and
mungbeans. Vegetables and fruits are grown in the home gardens.
In the newer settlements, a major portion of the farm produce is
for home consumption.

Javanese and Sundanese farmers usually till the land and like to
see it clean of weeds. The indigenous minang farmers, on the
other hand, employ no-till farming practice. Most farmers know
the value of lime, fertilizers, and pest control chemicals, but
few can afford to use as much as they would like to.

Crop yields are generally low to very low, but can be improved
with sound management. The following table presents a comparison
of crop yields under low and high input management systems.



YIELD, t/ha
CROP


Low input


High input "


Upland rice 0.7 2.5
Corn (monoculture) 2.0 5.5
Corn (corn + rice) 0.11
Soybean 0.3 2.0
Peanuts 0.6 2.0
Cowpeas 0.6 1.5
Mungbeans 0.0 1.0

* Experimental yields


CONSTRAINTS TO PRODUCTIVITY*


Researchers' Perception

1. Poor soil fertility
2. High soil acidity and
aluminum saturation
3. Moisture stress
4. Soil variability
5. Soil erosion
6. Poor supply of agricultural
inputs
7. Poor genetic stock
8. Poor quality seeds
9. Pests and diseases


-Farmers' Perception


1. Poor soil and climatic
conditions.
2. Inadequate labor
3. Shortage of cash
4. Marketing problems
5. Poor extension services
6. Government policy
7. Lack of irrigation works
8. Pests and diseases


* These are not ranked in order of importance






7

The anticipated project team will include Ron Guyton (senior agronomist),

Lalit Arya (senior soil physicist), Carl Evensen (junior agronomist), Stacy

Evensen (nutritionist), Stephenie Kan (junior agricultural economics graduate

student), unnamed senior farming systems researcher with interest/experience in

extension, and an unnamed junior agroforester. Changes and additions may occur

due to funding uncertainties, and the unavailability of new team members to

participate in this planning process.

The following six major categories summarize our Indonesian on-site

program. Rationale, activities, and personnel requirements are listed for

each:

1. Liming and Soil Fertility

Liming

Various lime trials have been done in Sitiung. The initial results have

been consistent with published information regarding soil acidity on similar

soils in other parts of the world. However, there is a noticeable lack of long

term lime studies on soils in Indonesia, as well as in the humid tropics in

general. Now we have the opportunity to study long term aspects of liming as

indicated below:

Maintenance: Studying annual lime application for maintaining an

established or desired level of acidity.

Residual: Duration or length of effectiveness of a single application.

Downward Movement of Ca into the soil profile and its effect on crop

growth.

Effectiveness of lime on various soil types.

Soil Fertility

Phosphorus: The studies on phosphorus have consistently indicated a very

strong response to P fertilizer on previously unfertilized soils, but relatively






8

low rates of both initial and maintenance applications have been sufficient to

establish and maintain plateau crop yields. A more indepth look at the

maintenance or longterm phosphorus fertilizer requirements needs to be done.

Also, experimentation of the interaction of phosphorus with lime has recently

been initiated and should be continued.

Potassium: There has been a remarkable response to K fertilizer on

Sitiung soils, requiring high rates and frequent applications to provide plateau

yields of most food crops. Apparently potassium leaches very rapidly from the

soil and at least one study (effect of organic materials on the replenishment of

potassium and curtailment of leaching) should be continued. Conservation of

potassium will be critical to establishing viable and continuous crop

production.

Micronutrients: No experimentation has been initiated to date by

TropSoils on micronutrients. We have not witnessed any identifiable

deficiencies in either our research plots or farmer fields. However, a survey

of plant tissue from various locations and crops would help establish the

general micronutrient status of the soils and relevance of future research on

that subject.

All of the above topics will provide experimental data that can be used by

the CSR soil testing program, led by I. P. Gedjer Widjaja-Adhi, to help

establish valid indices for making lime and fertilizer recommendations, using an

expert system. The established trials will be supervised by Ron Guyton, and new

trials will be done in collaboration with anticipated new CSR personnel.

2. Soil and Water Conservation Work to date by TropSoils has illustrated

that soil moisture shortages, soil erosion, and excessive runoff are serious

problems in West Sumatra. Despite 2500-3000mm of annual rainfall, crops suffer

from moisture stress that eventually results in serious reductions in yields.






9
Crop roots appear to be confined wi-nin the depth of tillage, which is

manually performed with a hoe to a depth of ten to fifteen cm. This shallow

rooting depth reduces the amount of water stored in the soil that is available

to the plants. Thus, crops cannot utilize any of the soil moisture stored below

a depth of 6 inches. There is reason to believe that a further major

restriction to root development is the presence of toxic levels of aluminum

below the depth of tillage and, therefore below the depth of lime incorporation.

Neutralizing soil acidity creates favorable conditions for root growth and a

favorable chemical environment for nutrient availability

Soil moisture storage is affected by internal drainage conditions.

Although the West Sumatra soils are clayey, many of them are composed of stable

aggregates. We believe that much of the infiltrated water rapidly drains below

the root zone. It may be possible to alter the soils structure to impede this

internal drainage, thus increasing soil moisture storage in the root zone.

On the steeper cultivated slopes, excessive runoff and soil erosion occur

quite easily. A large portion of the rainfall that otherwise could be stored in

the soil profile is lost to runoff. Continued removal of topsoil, which holds

the limited amount of plant nutrients results in a serious decline in

productivity. The problem is most serious for resource-poor farmers because

they cannot easily replenish the lost nutrients and other inputs to restore soil

productivity. It is imperative that management practices developed for farmers

in this region be conservation-effective practices in order to sustain economic

crop production in this humid environment.

During 1986-1987, the major focus of research will be oriented toward the

following objectives:

Determining the extent and rate of downward movement of lime and the

effect on root development and water absorption;







10

Characterizing the available water retention properties of soils in the

Sitiung area;

Investigating the effect of residues, both surface and incorporated, on

water retention and soil losses;

Exploring the potential of various conservation effective farming

systems; and,

Investigating the effects of current and revised tillage practices on

soil and water conservation.

Anticipated non-CSR personnel involved in this project will include Lalit

Arya and a junior scientist. Involvement by the farming systems researcher in

the study is expected.

3. Organic Material and Forage Management The marked response of some crops

to green manure in previous experiments in Sitiung has suggested that the proper

management of organic materials might reduce the need for lime and fertilizers

on Sitiung farms. Also, the importance of livestock and difficulties in finding

adequate feed has suggested the need to assess more productive forage systems.

A series of experiments has been initiated in Sitiung to 1) quantify the

influence of green manures on crop yields, 2) evaluate fertilizer and

herbaceous legumes and forage grasses for use on transmigrant farms, and 3) to

incorporate information from Sitiung transmigrants in the selection and design

of green manure and forage management systems. These are:

Alley Cropping: There is presently one experiment being conducted to

determine the green manure and wood productivity of three legume trees at three

levels of lime application and their influence on intercropped food crops.

Source and Application-Method of Green Manure: Two experiments are

being conducted to compare methods of production and application of two species

of herbaceous legumes.









Forage Crop Evaluation: Two experiments are underway designed to select

promising forage and green manure species and determine their fertilizer

requirements.

Compost: A farmer-managed experiment is being conducted in Sitiung home

gardens to compare crop response to compost, farmyard manure, inorganic

fertilizers and fishpond sludge; and to assess the interest of farmers in these

different fertilizers and amendments.
0
Carl Evensen and Russell Yost in Hawaii are the primary researchers in

this series of experiments. For the composting trials, Carl will be assisted by

Stacy Evensen and the farming systems researcher.

4. Agroforestry The farming system of the indigenous population of Sitiung

includes shifting cultivation which culminates in tree crops (rubber, coffee,

fruit trees). A variety of tree crops are also grown on transmigrant home

gardens. The appropriateness and advantages of tree crops in the Sitiung

environment are now obvious, including tolerance to soil acidity, reduced risk

of pests, soil conservation, more effective use of available soil moisture, more

reliable cash incomes, and lower human labor requirements. It appears that the

development of improved soil management practices for field crops alone will

1) not result in a satisfactory income for transmigrants, and 2) is not

consistent with the farming system of the indigenous population at all. The

following activities have high priority:

Legume Tree Evaluation: This experiment has been undertaken in

collaboration with NFTA, investigating the nitrogen contribution of these

leguminous trees, and assessing suitability for the Sitiung environment.

Food-Tree Intercrop: Ideally a whole series of experiments would be

initiated which use these kinds of crop mixtures. Such experiments could focus

on soil fertility, soil biology, soil physical and/or conservation questions.







12

leguminous trees, and assessing suitability for the Sitiung environment.

Food-Tree Intercrop: Ideally a whole series of experiments would be

initiated which use these kinds of crop mixtures. Such experiments could focus

on soil fertility, soil biology, soil physical and/or conservation questions.

The legume tree evaluation is being undertaken by Carl Evensen. The

planned agroforestry graduate student would be responsible for the series of

experiments called "Food-Tree Intercrop". This would be an ideal context in

which to collaborate with another institution such as the Horticulture research

station in Solok, the Abai Siat Rubber Replanting Project in the Sitiung area,

or the NES coconut project in Rimbo Bujang.

5. Extrapolation Soil management research on infertile, strongly acid, Red

Yellow Podzolic soils of Indonesia by the TropSoils Project has uncovered three

major soil constraints that restrict crop yields. These are aluminum toxicity,

and severe phosphorus and potassium deficiencies. Project personnel have

developed a computerized expert system that enables extension agent to make

recommendations to neutralize toxic aluminum with lime or organic matter. The

research on phosphorus shows that although the soils are severely deficient in

this element, the problem can be corrected with relatively low initial, and

still lower maintenance, rates. In the case of potassium, rapid leaching of

this nutrient from the root zone into the toxic subsoil renders this element

more difficult to manage in these soils than similar clay soils elsewhere in the

world. Research, however, proves that lime and organic matter improve the

potassium fertilizer use efficiency by crops.

This two part activity is designed to test the technical, economic and

social suitability of TropSoils research findings in farmer fields.

The first part consists of testing the accuracy of the lime rates

recommended by an expert system, and establishing the-range of transferability






13

of the low phosphorus fixation rate, the high potassium leaching rate and the

effectiveness of green manure to counter the toxic effects of aluminum in acid,

Red Yellow Podzolic soils of Indonesia. In addition, efforts will be made to

incorporate the diverse kinds of social science input into an expert systems

designed to predict the crops likely to be grown.

In line with the farming systems approach being utilized, the technologies

and systems identified as promising must be tested under farmer conditions. A

tentative set of "Best Management Practices" has been identified and the process

of testing the systems will be initiated. Similarly, two or three "special

studies" on aspects of the farming systems can be expected, dictated by

observations and information needs of the team. One, year-long study that will

be completed is the characterization of home gardens. An enterprise record /

keeping study is being initiated and will be partially completed during this

year.

The work in Sitiung will be carried out with the assistance of local

extension agents. To do so, appropriate contacts with extension officials and

provincial administrators will be required.

In addition, the project will require the services of an economist to

evaluate the benefits that accrue to users of the technology. The Farming

Systems Researcher will evaluate farmer reactions to the innovation and the

likelihood of their retaining the technology, as well as providing ongoing

feedback to other members of the team on matters related to farmer acceptance of

technology. Continued support is anticipated from Perry Philipp, Hal McArthur,

Kathy Wilson, and Carol Dixon at the University of Hawaii.

The development of the decision support system will continue at the

University of Hawaii, under the leadership of Goro Uehara, Russell Yost and

Steve Itoga.









6. Linkages The goals and objectives of TropSoils are closely related to

these many other programs and institutions in Indonesia. The total

accomplishments of these programs can be increased by periodic interaction to

share relevant information, and by working collaboratively where mutually

beneficial results can be achieved. Since its beginning in Indonesia, TropSoils

has had a highly beneficial collaborative relationship with the Centre for Soil

Research. However, there appear to be additional opportunities to add to this

success.

As a means to initiate these actions, the following are suggested:

a. Continue the major collaborative effort with the Centre for Soil

Research in the same manner as has existed from the beginning of the

program.

b. Appoint a joint committee to devise a plan and promote the

extrapolation of current technology on the proper use of lime. The

composition of the committee would include a representative from CSR,

one from Extension and one from TropSoils.

c. Initiate an exchange of the Annual Work Plans between the TropSoils

program and the SARIF program in Sitiung.

d. Conduct and annual joint meeting to review the accomplishments of each

program during the past year, and the plans for activities during the

coming year.

e. Maintain a sensitivity to the opportunities which may arise for

collaboration with other institutions which could be mutually

beneficial.

7. Constraints Major constraints to accomplishing the activities identified

above, in addition to uncontrollable environmental factors, are personnel

staffing and adequate funds for operations.







15

The level of funding from TropSoils to support operating expenses, is most

uncertain. This is due in part to the uncertainty of actions by the U.S.

Congress and in part to the competing demands for TropSoils funds from

components of the program in other countries. While every effort will be made

by the Management Entity to maximize the funding for TropSoils Indonesia,

substantial additional support will be required to conduct fully the activities

set forth above.
I













ONGOING RESEARCH ACTIVITIES



1. SOIL FERTILITY

a. Lime reaction

crop response
residual effect
maintenance


b. Phosphorus

Crop response
critical levels
maintenance
lime X phosphorous model
rock phosphate vs. TSP

c. Magnesium

crop response (rice-peanut; maize-soybean)
maintenance



d. Fe-toxicity: fertility management
to eliminate "orange disease" in
flooded rice.


e. Effect of calcium and molybdenum on
productivity of forage legumes


f. Nitrogen sources


2. VARIETY SCREENING

a. Peanut screening for
acidity tolerance



3. ORGANIC MATERIAL AND FORAGE MANAGEMENT

a. Alley cropping


- effect of lime X tree species











b. Green manure management

source of GM, method of application,
liming rates


c. Tree legumes


d. Forage legumes and grasses




4. SOIL PHYSICS AND EROSION/CONSERVATION


a. Root growth problems

Aluminum toxicity and liming
Effect of organic amendments



b. Post-clearing management

organic residue and cover crops
tillage
chemical inputs



c. Erosion/Conservation

evaluation of conservation practices

bench terrace
bund terrace
grass strip
slot mulch
bare

5. SOCIOECONOMICS

a. Farmer practice and production study.















RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS TO DATE

AGRONOMIC

A. LIME

1. Efficiency: lime to achieve 20% acid saturation (A1+H)
(about pH 5) for most efficient use of lime.

2. Crop tolerance to acid saturation: Mungbean 0
Soybean 15%
Maize 30%
Peanut 40%
Rice 60%

3. Prediction: LR (t/ha) = 1.5 (exch Al+H -(RAS*ECEC))
Where RAS is required acid saturation,
ECEC is effective CEC (sum of bases)
BD=1.0 and tillage is 15 cm

4. Maintenance: approximately 1/3 of initial rate per year
will maintain the established level of acid saturation.

5. Incubation: none required, lime reacts very quickly in
the warm, moist soils of the udic environment.


B. PHOSPHOROUS

1. Soils have low P-fixation capacities despite high clay
and high Fe contents; 20-80 kg P/ha is sufficient to
reach optimum yields.

2. Rates of 10 to 20 kg P/ha/crop are adequate to maintain
sufficient available soil P.

3. Method of application of P fertilizer is not critical
for agronomic effectiveness but broadcasting has, by
far, the lowest labor requirement.



C. POTASSIUM

1. Under high yield environment, high rates of K are
required to achieve maximum yields.

2. Poor residual effect; should make applications each crop.

3. Rice blast is suppressed with KC1; probably due to C1-.













D. ORGANIC MATERIAL


1. Newly cleared soils

a. No response to lime despite 50% AS; organic acids
complex Al.

b. Burning increases yields, does not reduce organic C.


2. Green manuring

a. Alleviated lime response of rice.

b. Improved efficiency of P fertilizer.

c. Alleviated K response.


3. Alley cropping

a. Albizia falcataria and Calliandra calothyrsus prunings
alleviated lime response of rice and improved
fertility.

b. Trees tolerate poor soils and soil acidity.

c. Trees tolerate frequent pruning, i.e. coppice well.



E. SULFUR:

No response to S fertilizers on corn, soybean, or mungbean
on either recently cleared soil or soil cultivated for
5-years.



F. MAGNESIUM: (Initial information)

1. Strong visual response of maize and soybeans

2. Little response of rice and peanut.



G. VARIABILITY:

1. Base status (Ca, Mg, K) best correlated with variable
growth.

2. Organic C and extractable P not correlated.












CROP MODELS AND EXPERT SYSTEMS:

Modeling work has been carried out mainly at the University of
Hawaii. A corn model has been tested and validated in Hawaii and
Indonesia. An expert system (ACID3B) that mimics the human
expert has been developed to make liming recommendations for a
variety of soil and crop conditions.



SOCIOECONOMICS

Social scientists (anthropologists, economists, etc) have played
a valuable support role in TROPSOILS research efforts. While
agricultural researchers have concentrated on specific
constraints to crop production (e.g. assessing problems relating
to soil acidity), social scientists have taken a broader view.
In general, their role has been to assess current farmer
practices, the potential for proposed research as perceived by
the farmer-user and to provide continuous monitoring and feedback
relating to the socioeconomic and cultural aspects of the
TROPSOILS research program. Using various methodologies
including participant observation, time allocation studies, and
farmer record-keeping systems, these researchers have provided
the following:


1. A characterization study of ethnic variation in soil
management practices which led to a variety of experiments
on different tillage practices.

2. Documentation of the potential of tree crop cultivation
among the indigenous population fueling TROPSOILS' interest
in agroforestry research.

3. A survey of sources and amounts of household income. This
information allowed researchers to tailor their lime trial
treatment levels to more closely approximate farmers'
capabilities.

4. Justification for continuation of a forage grass trial via
documentation of time required for local farmers to collect
animal feed.


5. A food consumption survey which provided useful information
about dietary preferences thus enabling researchers to
focus on appropriate crops for experimentation.


These are just a few examples of how an awareness of farmers'
traditional practices, economic and labor capabilities and
constraints and farmers' perceptions of proposed technologies has
allowed TROPSOILS researchers to more effectively work with and
develop technologies for use by local farmers in Sitiung.














FUTURE PLAN


Tropsoils workplan for 1986-87 was prepared in May 1986. It was
developed from considerations of ideas contributed by Center for
Soil Research, University of Hawaii, North Carolina State
University, Management Entity, U.S. Agency for International
Development, and the Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research
and Development. Six major Areas of activity were identified.
These were:

1. Liming and Soil fertility.

2. Soil and Water conservation.

3. Organic material and forage management.

4. Agroforestry.

5. Extrapolation/Extension/Socioeconomics.

6. Linkages with other programs and institutions.


Staffing needs were specified for each activity. It was assumed
that the funding level would be maintained and the necessary
professional staff would be brought in.

Several things have happened since this workplan was developed.
Most important is the cutback in the budget that both UH and CSR
have suffered. The University of Hawaii Tropsoils budget has
been reduced by 49% and that of CSR by about 75% As a result,
staff and other material support f.r the project had to be
curtailed. For example, socioeconomics and agroforestry
positions have not been filled. We had anticipated that a few
graduate students/research associates would join the project in
Sitiung. None are expected now. Equipment necessary for
initiating new activities have not been made available. CSR has
asked its staff members in Sitiung to discontinue some of the
experiments.

Moreover, Tropsoils program in Sitiung is in a state of
transition. All members of the original American team have
departed, except Carl and Stacy Evensen. Stacy plans to leave
end of February 87. Carl will leave in June 87. New members,
Ron Guyton and Lalit Arya arrived in Sitiung 5 to 6 months ago.
Ron is a forage agronomist. He is supervising the soil fertility
experiments left in progress by Mike Wade. He is also supervising
maintainence and repair of equipment and vehicles. Lalit is a
soil physicist. He is responsible for developing and
implementing a research program in soil physics and soil and
water conservation. Lalit is also the current team leader and
has many administrative and supervisory responsibilities.














Progress has been slow because of a number of factors (listed
under factors affecting progress). All of the activities
envisioned in the 1986-87 workplan have not been implemented. At
the present time, it seems that Lalit Arya and Ron Guyton will
be the only two American staff in Sitiung. There is a
possibility that CSR will call back some of its B.S. level staff
and locate them elsewhere.

Future plans for Tropsoils research must, therefore, consider the
above circumstances. The team in Sitiung has had several
discussions and feels that 1986-87 workplan addresses soil
management issues that are relevant to Sitiung as well as to
other humid tropical regions. The team does not see how a future
workplan would be any different from the current plan. In other
words, the current workplan should continue to provide the
guideline for activities in the immediate future. There is need,
however, to consider the many constraints that the project is
facing and prioritize the activities.

The team recommends the following research activities.




AGRONOMIC

1. New liming trials should be initiated with emphasis on
monitoring the movement of calcium with depth and time for
several rates of lime application. These trials should
also attempt to establish the effective root zone of
different crops and how it is affected by liming.
Leaching losses of calcium must be determined. Include in
these experiments the observations of residual effect of
applied lime on crop yield. It would be desirable to
establish one trial of this type on each of the three
major soil types.

2. Past studies on phosphorus have shown little effect of
phosphorus without lime. Very little growth was obtained
if no lime was applied. It is therefore recommended that
only phosphorus X lime experiments be continued. It may
be desirable to expand the trial to include the three
major soil types.

3. Studies on soil potassium have shown a dramatic response
of crops to applied potassium. Again, all responses were
obtained in presence of lime. Potassium is known to leach
out of the soil fast. It would be desirable to initiate
trials that would establish the rate of leaching and the
residual effects of applied potassium. An investigation
of the effects of organic materials on replenishment of K
and curtailment of leaching should be initiated.










4. Investigations of root growth problems in Sitiung soils.
Both the mechanical and chemical limitations should be
investigated and indices established to recommend
ameliorating treatments. This study may be carried out in
conjunction with # 1. Field investigations should be
supplemented by laboratory and greenhouse measurements.


5. Characterizing the hydrologic properties and processes in
Sitiung soils. Despite 2700 mm annual rainfall, and high
clay content in Sitiung soils, crop failures due to
moisture stress are quite frequent. The reports are based
on visual observations only. Most investigators suspect
limited root growth. Some suggest excessively rapid
internal drainage as the cause of low moisture retention.
No studies have ever been conducted to reveal the real
nature of moisture limitations in these soils. The
proposed investigation would quantify soil properties that
govern moisture retention and depletion. It would produce
information on extractable soil moisture, crop moisture
use, and losses due to evaporation and internal drainage.
Results of these investigations along with those of the
investigations of root growth problems will form the
basis for recommending water management practices or
initiating appropriate new research. Information produced
will also serve as inputs to crop simulation models.

6. Sitiung farmers know the value of chemical inputs, but
only few can afford them. Those few who can, will
generally consider only low rates of lime and fertilizer.
Therefore, alternatives to chemical inputs must be
investigated. Marked response of some crops to green
manure, recorded in previous experiments, suggests that
proper management of organic materials might reduce or
eliminate the need for lime or fertilizers on Sitiung
farms. Trials need to be initiated to develop cropping
and soil management systems in which adequate organic
residue is produced and returned to the soil, in a manner
most convenient to the farmer. Combinations of residue
management, tillage, and low levels of chemical inputs
should be evaluated ,as alternatives to high input
chemical management or conventional clean cultivation with
little or no chemical inputs.

7. Soil erosion and runoff have been viewed as serious
problems in the Sitiung area. Efforts should begin to
explore the potential of various conservation effective
farming systems.

8. A new area to be added to the Tropsoils program is variety
screening for acid tolerance. The criteria for selection
may be crop yield or root growth response to levels of
aluminum saturation. Here's an opportunity to collaborate
with the Food Crops Research, Sukarami.














CROP MODELS AND EXPERT SYSTEMS:


Field experiments are expensive and often do not combine more
than a few variables. Outcomes are also uncertain due to
uncontrollable factors. Simulations overcome these difficulties
and are able to predict crop performance in a variety of
situations. Work has been in progress in Hawaii on crop
simulation models and expert systems. Testing and validation of
these models require data on weather, crop phenology, and soil
characteristics. Efforts should begin to produce complete and
reliable data sets expressely for the purpose of testing and
validation of simulation models and expert systems. Again, there
is an opportunity for the Food Crops Research and the Tropsoils
project to work together in this effort.



SOCIOECONOMICS:

Farmer practice information produced through the farmer practice
and production study carried out by Mrs. Stacy Evensen has been
most relevant and useful. This must continue. However, the
future of this effort remains uncertain, as Stacy plans to leave
end of February 1987, and a replacement for her has not been
thought of.



EXTENSION:

It has been suggested that Tropsoils engage in extension
activities. But Tropsoils does not have the expertise that are
needed. Furthermore, soils information alone may not form an
appropriate extension material.

Tropsoils and Food Crops Research may work together to combine
soils and crops information to produce agronomic packages for
important crops in the region.

The process of extension will, however, require involvement of an
agricultural education and communications expert. Such an expert
is unavailable. Local extension agents may be invited to
participate in this effort. However, it is for the heads of the
concerned programs/institutions to decide how best to approach
the issue relating t-o..extension.














TROPSOILS STAFFING PATTERN


NAME/AFFILIATION


POSITION


DATE DATE
ARRIVED DEPARTED


E X P A T R'I A T E


Dr. Lalit M. Arya/UH


Dr. Ronald F. Guyton/UH

Mr. Carl I. Evensen/UH



Mrs. Stacy Evensen/UH


Dr. John R. Thompson/UH


Dr. Mike Wade/NSCU

Dr. Carol J. Colfer/UH


Mr. Dan W. Gill/NSCU


Dr. Richard G. Dudley


Ms. Stephenie Kan
Univ. of Florida

Ms. Ellen Veger
Univ. Amsterdam


STAFF


Team Leader
Soil Physicist

Agronomist

Research Associate,
Ph.D Candidate,
Agronomy & Soil Science

Research Associate,
Nutrition

Team Leader
Agronomist

Soil Scientist

Team Leader/Farming
Systems Specialist

Ph.D Candidate
Soil Science

Consultant in Fisheries
Biology

Agric. Economics
M.S. graduate student

Anthropology
Graduate student


IND O N E S I A N S T A F F


Mr. Sholeh/CSR


Dr. IPG Widjaja-Adhi/CSR


Site coordinator
(Soil Scientist)

Site Coordinator
Soil Scientist
(Now country coordinator)


9/86


8/86

10/84



10/84


7/83


7/83

7/83


6/84


2/86


4/86


8/86


12/85


7/86

7/86


6/86


6/86


11/86


11/86


10/86


10/85


9/86











Ir. Fahmuddin Agus/CSR

Ir. Sidik Talao'hu/CSR

Ir. Ida Bagus Aribawa/CSR

Ir. Cuk Sugyarso/CSR

Endang Hidayat/CSR

Mulyadi/CSR

Ir. Bujang Rusman M.S.
Univ. Padjadjaran

Ir. Kasli M.S.
Univ. Padjadjaran

Opan Sopandi/CSR

Rum Harayitno/CSR

Sarjiman/CSR

Martono/CSR

Asda Wijaya/CSR

Suwandi/CSR

Jamalinal/CSR

Sartini

Wagino/CSR

Ratno GM/CSR

Ratno SI

Adi Nagoro

Tarmin

Sukirno

Sugeng

Wakidi

Haryono

Maryono

Madi o


Junior Soil Scientist

Junior Soil Scientist

Junior Soil Scientist

Junior Soil Scientist

Field technician

Field technician

Soil Scientist
Ph.D Candidate

Soil Scientist
Ph.D Candidate

Field technician

Field technician

Field technician

Field technician

Field technician

Field technician

Field Technician

Lab technician

Lab technician

Driver

Driver

Driver

Driver

Driver

Field Asst. local

Permanent Laborer

Permanent Laborer

Permanent Laborer

Permanent Laborer


7/84

9/85

7/85

8/86

7/84

7/83

9/86


9/86


7/84

7/83

8/83

7/83

4/85

8/83

8/84

9/86

10/84

9/83

12/83

4/85

6/85

11/84

8/84

10/85

1/86

7/83

7/83














Lasmi

Lasyem

Khairul Munir

Dr. Joko Santoso/CSR


Dr. Soleh Sukmana/CSR


Ir. Al-Jabri/CSR

Ir. Karim Makarim/BORIF


Ir. Heryadi/CSR

Ir. Edi Santoso/CSR

Ir. Agus Sofyan/CSR

Ir. Edi Joniarta/CSR

Ir. Tory Budiastoro/CSR

Herman Agus/Andalas Univ.

Ir. Wicahyono/CSR

Kasno/CSR

Kasmini/CSR

Atin S/CSR

Gunawan/CSR

Yusup

Sapar

Gusnawardi

Sunardi

Johansyah


Permanent Laborer

Permanent Laborer

Project Secretary

Site coordinator
Soil Scientist

Site Coordinator
Soil Scientist

Soil Scientist

Soil Scientist
Ph.D Candidate

Junior Soil Scientist

Junior Soil Scientist

Junior Soil Scientist

Junior Soil Scientist

Junior Soil Scientist

Junior Ag. Economist

Junior Soil Scientist

Lab technician

Lab technician

Field technician

Field Technician

Driver

Driver

Driver

Driver

Project Secretary


8/82

4/85

2/85

7/83


7/84


12/84

5/83


9/83

2/83

9/83

10/85

9/83

1/85

1/84

7/83

1/84

8/82

8/82

9/83

11/84

4/83

1/84

8/84


6/84


9/85


7/85

5/85


.3/85

9/85

5/84

3/86

6/86

7/85

2/85

5/86

5/86

9/83

1/84

6/86

3/85

8/83

4/84

11/84




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