• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Map
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Advertising
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Chapter I
 Chapter II
 Chapter III
 Chapter IV
 Chapter V
 Chapter VI
 Chapter VII
 Chapter VIII
 Chapter IX
 Chapter X
 Chapter XI
 Chapter XII
 Chapter XIII
 Chapter XIV
 Chapter XV
 Chapter XVI
 Chapter XVII
 Chapter XVIII
 Chapter XIX
 Chapter XX
 Chapter XXI
 Chapter XXII
 Chapter XXIII
 Advertising
 Map showing the Russian Empire...
 Back Cover
 Spine






Group Title: Boy travellers in the Russian Empire
Title: The boy travellers in the Russian Empire
CITATION PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055357/00001
 Material Information
Title: The boy travellers in the Russian Empire adventures of two youths in a journey in European and Asiastic Russia with accounts of a tour across Siberia voyages on the Amoor, Volga, and other rivers, a visit to central Asia, travels among the exiles, and a historical sketch of the empire from its foundation to the present time
Physical Description: 505, 4 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Knox, Thomas Wallace, 1835-1896
Harper & Brothers ( Publisher )
Bobbett & Hooper ( Engraver )
Publisher: Harper & Brothers
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1887, c1886
Copyright Date: 1886
 Subjects
Subject: Children -- Conduct of life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Conduct of life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Voyages and travels -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Friendship -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Rivers -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Exiles -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile fiction -- Russia   ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1887   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1887
Genre: Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Thomas W. Knox.
General Note: Publisher's advertisements precede and follow text.
General Note: Frontispiece and maps printed in colors; maps printed on endpapers; illustrations engraved by Bobbett & Hooper.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055357
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002469907
notis - AMH5418
oclc - 57268639

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    Map
        Page 1
    Frontispiece
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
    Advertising
        Page 4
    Preface
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    List of Illustrations
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Chapter I
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Chapter II
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Chapter III
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Chapter IV
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Chapter V
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
    Chapter VI
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
    Chapter VII
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
    Chapter VIII
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
    Chapter IX
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
    Chapter X
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
    Chapter XI
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
    Chapter XII
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
    Chapter XIII
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
    Chapter XIV
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
    Chapter XV
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
    Chapter XVI
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
    Chapter XVII
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
    Chapter XVIII
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
    Chapter XIX
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
    Chapter XX
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 425
        Page 426
        Page 427
    Chapter XXI
        Page 428
        Page 429
        Page 430
        Page 431
        Page 432
        Page 433
        Page 434
        Page 435
        Page 436
        Page 437
        Page 438
        Page 439
        Page 440
        Page 441
        Page 442
        Page 443
        Page 444
        Page 445
        Page 446
        Page 447
        Page 448
        Page 449
        Page 450
    Chapter XXII
        Page 451
        Page 452
        Page 453
        Page 454
        Page 455
        Page 456
        Page 457
        Page 458
        Page 459
        Page 460
        Page 461
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        Page 466
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        Page 468
        Page 469
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        Page 471
        Page 472
        Page 473
        Page 474
        Page 475
        Page 476
        Page 477
        Page 478
        Page 479
    Chapter XXIII
        Page 480
        Page 481
        Page 482
        Page 483
        Page 484
        Page 485
        Page 486
        Page 487
        Page 488
        Page 489
        Page 490
        Page 491
        Page 492
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        Page 494
        Page 495
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        Page 497
        Page 498
        Page 499
        Page 500
        Page 501
        Page 502
        Page 503
        Page 504
        Page 505
    Advertising
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Map showing the Russian Empire routes as described by "the boy travellers"
        Unnumbered ( 511 )
    Back Cover
        Cover
    Spine
        Spine
Full Text





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THE -BOY TRAVELLERS IN



THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE




ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY IN
EUROPEAN AND ASIATIC RUSSIA, WITH ACCOUNTS OF A TOUR ACROSS SIBERIA
VOYAGES ON THE AMOOR, VOLGA, AND OTHER RIVERS, A VISIT TO
CENTRAL ASIA, TRAVELS AMONG THE EXILES, AND A HISTORICAL
SKETCH OF TIE EMPIRE FROM ITS FOUNDATION
TO THE PRESENT TIME





BY THOMAS W. KNOX





Llnstnratch








NEW YORK
HARPER & BROTHERS, FRANKLIN SQUARE
1887

















BY THOMAS W. KNOX.


TIE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST. Five Vol-
umes. Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $3 00 each. The
volumes sold separately. Each volume complete in itself.
I. ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTIIS IN A JOURNEY TO JAPAN AND CHINA.
II. ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTIIS IN A JOURNEY TO SIAM AND JAVA. With
Descriptions of Cochin-China, Caimbodia, Sunitra, and the Mialty Archipelago.
III. ADVENTURrES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY TO CEYLON AND INDIA. With
Descriptions of Borneo, the Philippine Islands, and Biurlinh.
IV. ADVENTURES OF To YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY TO EGI'T AND PALESTINE.
V. ADVENTURES OF TwO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY TIIROUGI AFRICA.


THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA. Adven-
tures of Two Youths in a Journey through Ecuador, Peru,
Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentine Republic, and Chili; with
Descriptions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, and Voyages
upon the Amazon and La Plata Rivers. Copiously Illustrated.
Svo, Cloth, $3 00.

TIHE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.
Adventures of Two Youths in a Journey in European and
Asiatic Russia, with Accounts of a Tour across Siberia, Voy-
ages on the Amoor, Volga, and other Rivers, a Visit to Central
Asia, Travels Among the Exiles, and a Historical Sketch of the
Empire from its Foundation to the Present Time. Copiously
Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $3 00.


TIE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN" TO THE NORTH POLE
AND BEYOND. Adventures of Two Youths in the Open
Polar Sea. Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $2 50.


HUNTING ADVENTURES ON LAND AND SEA. Two
Volumes. Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $2 50 each. The
volumes sold separately. Each volume complete in itself.
I. THEi YolNG NJI3ROD IN NORTH AMERICA.
II. THE YOUNG NIMRODS AROUND TIE WORLD.

PUBLISHED BY HARPER & BROTHERS, NEW YORK.

iAny of the aboce volumes sent by mail, postage prepaid, to any part ofthe Uniled
Slates or Canada, on receipt of the price.








Copyright, 1886, by lARPilAl & BIROTHERMa.-All riltos reserved.
















PREFACE.


IN preparing this volume for the press, the author has followed very
closely the plan adopted for The Boy Travellers in the Far East,"
and also for his more recent work, The Boy Travellers in South Amer-
ica." Accompanied by their versatile and accomplished mentor, Dr.
Bronson, our young friends, Frank Bassett and Fred Bronson, journeyed
from Vienna to Warsaw and St. Petersburg, and after an interesting so-
journ in the latter city, proceeded to Moscow, the ancient capital of the
Czars. From Moscow they went to Nijni Novgorod, to attend the great
fair for which that city is famous, and thence descended the Volga to the
Caspian Sea. On their way down the great river they visited the prin-
cipal towns and cities along its banks, saw many strange people, and lis-
tened to numerous tales and legends concerning the races which make up
the population of the great Muscovite Empire.
They visited the recently developed petroleum fields of the Caspian,
and, after crossing that inland sea, made a journey in Central Asia to
study certain phases of the "Eastern Question," and learn something
about the difficulties that have arisen between England and Russia. Af-
terwards they travelled in the Caucasus, visited the Crimea, and bade fare-
well to the Empire as they steamed away from Odessa. Concerning the
parts of Russia that they were unable to visit they gathered much infor-
mation, and altogether their notes, letters, and memoranda would make a
portly volume.
The author has been three times in the Russian Empire, and much of
the country described by "The Boy Travellers" was seen and traversed
by him. In his first journey he entered the Czar's dominions at Petro-
pavlovsk in Kamtchatka, ascended the Amoor River through its entire
navigable length, traversed Siberia from the Pacific Ocean to the Ural
Mountains, and continuing thence to Kazan, Moscow, St. Petersburg, and
Warsaw, left the protection of the Russian flag eleven thousand miles
from where he first went beneath it. His second visit included the Cri-






6 PREFACE.

mea and other regions bordering the Black Sea, and his third was confined
to Finland and other Baltic provinces.
In addition to his personal observations in Russia, the author has
drawn upon the works of others. Many books of Russian travel and his-
tory have been examined; some of then have been mentioned in the text
of the narrative, but it has not been practicable to refer to all. Indebt-
edness is hereby acknowledged to the following books: Free Russia,"
by HIepworth Dixon; "Turkestan" and "Life of Peter the Great," by
lion. Eugene Schuyler; "A Piide to Khiva," by Col. Fred Burnaby;
" Campaigning on the Oxus, and the Fall of Khiva," by J. A. Macgahan;
" Life of Peter the Great" and "Life of Genghis Khan," by Jacob Ab-
bott; "The Siberian Overland Route," by Alexander Michie; "Tent-life
in Siberia," by George Kennan; "Reindeer, Dogs, and Snow-shoes," by
Richard J. Bush; "The Invasion of the Crimea," by A. W. Kinglake;
"Fred Markham in Russia," by W. II. G. Kingston; "The Knout and
the Russians," by G. De Lagny; "The Russians at the Gates of IIerat"
and The Region of the Eternal Fire," by Charles Marvin; Travels in
the Regions of the Upper and Lower Amoor" and Oriental and West-
ern Siberia," by Thomas W. Atkinson; and "The Russians at IHome,"
by Sutherland Edwards. The author has also drawn upon several articles
in IIarper's Macgazine, including his own series describing his journey
through Siberia.
The publishers have kindly permitted the use of illustrations from
their previous publications on the Russian Empire, in addition to those
specially prepared for this book. As a result of their courtesy, the author
has been able to present a "copiously illustrated book, which is always a
delight to the youthful eye.
T. W. K.




















CONTENTS.




CHAPTER I. PACI
DEPARTURE FROM VIENNA. FRANKi'S LETTER. A FAREWELL PROMENADE. FROM
VIENNA TO CRACOVW.--THE GREAT SALT-MINE OF WVIELICZKA, AND WIIAT WAS
SEEN THERE. CHURCHES AND PALACES UNDERGROUND. -VOYAGE ON A SUBTER-
RANEAN LAKE ................... .................. ......................... .. 1

CHAPTER II.

LEAVING CRACOW.- THE RUSSIAN FRONTIER.--THE POLICE AND THE CUSTOM-IIOUSE.
-RUSSIAN CENSORSHIP OF BOOKS AND PAPERS.--CATCHING A SMUGGLER.--FROM
TIHE FRONTIER TO WARSAW.-SIGHTS AND INCIDENTS IN TIHE CAPITAL OF POLAND.-
FROM WARSAW TO ST. PETERSBURG ............................................. 40

CHAPTER III.
IN THE STREETS OF ST. PETERSBURG.-ISVOSISCHIKS AND DROSKIES.-COUNTING IN RUS-
SIAN.- PASSPORTS AND THEIR USES. ON TIE NEYSKI PROSPECT.- VISITING THE
CHURCH OF KAZAN.--THE RUSSO-GREEK RELIGION.--UNFAVORABLE POSITION OF
ST. PETERSBURG.-DANGER OF )ESTRUCTION.-GREAT INUNDATION OF 1824.-STATUE
OF PETER THE GREAT.-ADMIRALTY SQUARE.-TIE SAILORS AND THE STATUE...... 58

CHAPTER IV.

DINNER IN A RUSSIAN RESTAURANT. -CABBAGE SOUP, FISH PIES, AND OTHER ODD
DISHES. THrE SAMOVAR AND ITS USES. RTTSSIAN TEA-DRINKERS. JOLTAI
CHAI."- ALEXANDER'S COLUMN,--FORTRESS OF STS. PETER AND PAUL.- IMPERIAL
ASSASSINATIONS.-SKETCHIIES OF THE PEOPLE.-RUSSIAN POLICE AND THEIR WAYS.. 70

CHAPTER V.
NUMBER AND CHARACTER OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE.-PAN-SLAVIC UNION.-ST. ISAAC'S
CIHURCII: ITS HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION.-THIE WINTER PALACE AND TIE HER-
MITAGE.- SIGHTS IN THE PALACE.- CATHERINE'S RULES FOR TIER RECEPTIONS. -
JOHN PAUL JONES IN RUSSIA.--THE CROWN JEWELS AND THE ORLOFF DIAMOND.
-ANECDOTES OF TIE EMPEROR NICHOLAS.-RELICS OF PETER THE GREAT.-FROM
PALACE TO PRISON.-TOMBS OF RUSSIA'S EMPERORS.-A MONUMENT AND AN ANEC-
DOTE ........................................................ ... .. ......... 93


CHAPTER VL.
THE GOSTINNA DYOR: ITS EXTENT AND CHARACTER.-PECULIARITY OF RUSSIAN SIOP-
PING.-CURIOUS CUSTOM.. OLDU-CLOTHES MARKET. ITAY-MARKET.- PIGEONS IN
RUSSIAN CITIES.-FROZEN ANIIALS.-CHURCH AND MONASTERY OF ST. ALEXANDER
NEVSKI. A PERSIAN TRAIN. A COFFIN OF SOLID SILVER. THE SUMMER GAR-







8 CONTENTS.
PAG E
DEN.-SPEAKING TO TIHE EMPEROR.--KRILOFF AND HIS FABLES.-VISIT TO A RUS-
SIAN THIIEATRE.-" A LIFE FOR TIIE CZAR."-A RUSSIAN COMEDY ................ 110


CHAPTER VII.

NEWSPAPERS IN RUSSIA: THEIR NUMBER, CHARACTER, AND INFLUENCE.--DIFFICULTIES
OF EDITORIAL LIFE.--TIIE CENSORSIP.-AN EXCURSION TO PETERHOF, ORANIEN-
BAUM, AND CRONSTADT.---SIGmTS IN TIE SUMMER PALACE.- CRONSTADT AND TIIE
NAVAL STATION.--TIE RUSSIAN NAVY.--THE RUSSIAN ARMY: ITS COMPOSITION AND
NUMBERS.--TIIE COSSACRS.--ANECDOTES OF RUSSIAN MILITARY LIFE............. 130

CHAPTER VIII.
VISITING THE UNIVERSITY OF ST. PETERSBURG.-EDUCATION IN RUSSIA.-PRIMARY AND
OTHER SCHOOLS. TIIE SYSTEM OF INSTRUCTION. RECENT PROGRESS IN EDUCA-
TIONAL MATTERS.- UNIVERSITIES IN THE EMPIRE: THEIR NUMBER AND LOCATION.
-RELIGIOUS LIBERTY.--TREATMENT OF THE JEWS.--TIHE ISLANDS OF TIHE NEVA,
AND WHAT WAS SEEN TIERE. IN A "TRAKTIR."-BRIBERY AMONG RUSSIAN OF-
FICIALS .................... ........... ... .......... .......... .... .......... 150

CHAPTER IX.

STUDIES OF ST. PETERSBURG.--MUJIKS.-" TIIE IMPERIAL NOSEGAY."-A SHORT-HIS-
TORY OF RUSSIAN SERFDOM: ITS ORIGIN, GROWTH, AND ABUSES. EMANCIPATION
OF TIE SERFS. PRESENT CONDITION OF THE PEASANT CLASS. SEEING THE EI-
PEROR.-HOW THE CZAR APPEARS IN PUBLIC.- PUBLIC AND SECRET POLICE: THEIR
EXTRAORDINARY POWERS.--ANECDOTES OF POLICE SEVERITY.-RUSSIAN COURTS OF
LAW. .... ............... ........ ....... ...................... ............ 172

CHAPTER X.

WINTER IN RUSSIA. FASHIONABLE AND OTHER FURS. SLEIGIIS AND SLEDGES. NO
SLEIGII-BELLS IN RUSSIAN CITIES. OFFICIAL OPENING OF THE NEVA. RUSSIAN
ICE-lILLS.- BUTT-WE-WEEK."-KISSING AT EASTER. AN ACTIVE KISSING-TIME. -
RUSSIAN STOVES AND BATIIS. EFFECTS OF SEVERE COLD. --THE STORY OF THE
FROZEN NOSE. How MEN ARE FROZEN TO DEATH ...................... ..... 193

CHAPTER XI.
LEAVING ST. PETERSBURG.--NOVGOROD TIIE GREAT: ITS HISTORY AND TRADITIONS.-
liURIK AND IIS SUCCESSORS.- BARBARITIES OF JOIIHN THE TERRIBLE.-EARLY IIIS-
TORY OF RUSSIA.- AN IMPERIAL BEAR-HUNT.-ORIGIN OF TIlE HOUSE OF RoMxN-
OFF. -"A LIFE FOR TIHE CZAR."--RAILWAYS IN RUSSIA FROM NOVGOROD TO
Moscow. .................. ................... ......... ..... ...... ... ..... 211

CHAPTER XII

FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF MOSCOW. -- UNDULATIONS OF THE GROUND. IRREGULARITY OF
THE BUILDINGS, AND TIHE CAUSE THEREOF. NAPOLEON'S CAMPAIGN IN RUSSIA. -
DISASTER AND RETREAT.-THE BURNING OF MOSCOW.-THE KREMLIN : ITS CIURCH-
ES, TREASURES, AND HISTORICAL ASSOCIATIONS.- ANECDOTES OF RUSSIAN LIFE.-
THE CHURCH OF ST. BASIL ......... ........ ... ..... ; ............. ... ....... 230

CHAPTER XIII.

THE GREAT THEATRE OF MOSCOW. -OPERATIC PERFORMANCES.- THE KITAI GOROD
AND GOSTINNA DVOR.-ROMANOFF HOUSE AND THE ROMANOFF FAMILY.-SKEITCH Or








CONTENTS. 9
PAGE
THE RULERS OF RUSSIA.-ANECDOTES OF PETER THE GREAT AND OTIIERS.-CHUCRCII
OF TIIE SAVIOUR. MOSQUES AND PAGODAS. TIE MUSEUM. RIDING-SCHOOL. -
SUIIAREFF TOWER.--TRAKTIRS.--OLD BELIEVERS.--THE SPARROW HILLS ANI) THE
SIMONOFF MONASTERY .......................................................... .252

CHAPTER XIV.

A VISIT TO THE TROITSKA MONASTERY, AND WHAT WAS SEEN THERE. CURIOUS LE-
GENDS.-MONKS AT DINNER.-EUROPEAN FAIRS.-TiHE GREAT FAIR AT NIJNI NOV-
GOROD.-SIGIlTS AND SCENES.- MININ'S TOMB AND TOWER.-DOWN THE VOLGA BY
STEAMBOAT.- STEAM NAVIGATION ON TIlE GREAT RIVER. --KAZAN, AND WHAT WAS
SEEN THERE.-THE ROUTE TO SIBERIA.. ....................................... .. 271

CHAPTER XV.

AVATCHA BAY, IN KAMTCIIATKA. ATTACK UPON PETROPAVLOVSK BY THE ALLIED
FLEET.--DOGS AND DOG-DRIVING.- RAPID TRAVELLING WITH A DOG-TEAMI. POPU-
LATION AND RESOURCES OF KAMITCIIATKA. REINDEER AND THEIR USES. --THE
AMOOR RIVER. NATIVE TRIBES AND CURIOUS CUSTOMS. TIGERS IN SIBERIA. -
NAVIGATION OF THE AoonR. OVERLAND TRAVELLING IN SIBERIA. RIDING IN A
TARANTASSE. A ROUGH ROAD. AN AMUSING MISTAKE. FROM STRATENSK TO
NERTCIIINS.-- GOLD--MINING IN SIBERIA. ..................... ...................... 289

CHAPTER XVI.

THE EXILES or SIBERIA.--TIE DECEIMBRISTS AND THEIR EXPERIENCE.- SOCIAL POSI-
TION OF EXILES.-DIFFERENT CLASSES OF EXILES AND THEIR SENTENCES.--CRI1I-
NALS AND POLITICALS.-DEGREES OF PUNISHMIENT.-PERPETUAL COLONISTS.- How
EXILES TRAVEL. LODGING-HOUSES AND PRISONS.- CONVOYS.- THRILLING STORY
OF AN ESCAPE FROMI SIBERIA. SECRET ROADS. HOW PEASANTS TREAT THE Ex-
ILES.-PRISONERS IN CIIAINS ........... .... ............. ...... ..... ..... 313

CHAPTER XVII.

CHARACTER OF TIE SIIERIAN POPULATION. ABSENCE OF SERFDOM, AND ITS EFFECT.
-A RUSSIAN FETE.--AMuSErMENTS OF THE PEASANTRY.-COURTSHIP AND MARRIAGE.
-CURIOUS CUSTOMS.- WHIPPING A WIFE.- OVERLAND THROUGH SIBERIA AGAIN.-
CHETAII AND THE BOURIATS.--IN A BOURIAT VILLAGE.--VERCKNE UDINSK.--SIBE-
IIAN ROIBBERS.- TEA-TRAINS AND TEA-TRADE.--KIACIITA.--LODGED BY TIE POLICE.
-TRADE BETWEEN RUSSIA AND CHINA ................ ..................... .. 334

CHAPTER XVIII.

GENERAL ASPECTS OF MAI--MAI-CIIIN.-DINNER WITH A CIIINESE GOVERNOR.-A THE-
ATRICAL PERFORMANCE.-LAKE BAIKIL: ITS REMARKABLE FEATURES.-A WONDER-
FUL RIDE.--IRKUTSK : ITS POPULATION, SIZE, AND PECULIARITIES.- SOCIAL GAY-
E'IIES.-PRIEPARATIONS FOR A LONG SLEIG-II-RIDE.- LIST OF GARMENTS.--VARIETIES
or SLEIGoS.--FAREWELL TO IRKUTSK.--SLEIGHING INCIDENTS.-FOOD ON THE ROAD.
-SIBERIAN MAILS. ADVl.NTAGES OF WVINTElR' TRAVELLING. SLEIGIING ON BARE
GROUND.-A SNOWLESS RLEGION. -- KRASNOYARSI. ............................. 354

CHAPTER XIX.

POSITION AND CHARACTER OF KRASNOYARSK. A LESSON IN RUSSIAN PRONUNCIATION.-
MARKET SCENE.--SIBERIAN TREES.-TIE OUIIIAIA."'-A NEI SENSATION.-ROAD-
FEVER AND ITS CAUSE. AN EXCITING ADVENTURE WITI \VOLVES.-- IOW WOLVES
ARE HUNTED. FROM KRASNOYARSK TO TOMSK. STEAMI NAVIGATION IN SIBERIA.-








10 CONTENTS.
PAGE
BARNAOOL.--aINES OF THE ALTAI.-TIGERS AND TIGER STORIES.-THE "BoURAN. --
ACROSS TIE BARAIBA STEPPE.--TUrEN AND EKATERINEBURG.- FROM EUROPE TO
ASIA.-PER., KAZAN, AND JNIm NOVGOROD.-END OF TIIE SLEIGH-RIDE .......... 377

CHAPTER XX.

DOWN TIIE VOLGA AGAIN.-RUSSIAN RECEPTION CEREMONY.- SIMBIRSK, SAMARA, AND
SARATOV. GER.NAN SETTLERS ON TIIE VOLGA. DON COSSACKS. ASTRACHAN.-
CURIOUS POPULATION. VOYAGE ON TIIE CASPIAN SEA.--THE CASPIAN PETROLEUM
REGION.-TANK--STEAM3ERS.- INTERESTING FACTS AND FIGURES OF THE NEW PETRO-
LIA. PRESENT PRODUCT OF THE BAKU OIL-FIELDS.- EXCURSION TO BALAKHIANI,
AND VISIT TO THE OIL-WELLS.-TEMPLES OF THE FIRE-WORSHIPPERS.- ANTIQUITY
OF TIE CASPIAN PETROLEUM REGION.-MARCO POLO AND OTHER AUTIIORITIES.... 403

CHAPTER XXI.

A GLANCE AT CENTRAL ASIA.-RUSSIAN CONQUEST IN TURKESTAN.--WAR AND DIPLO-
MACY AMONG TIE KIRGIIESE TRIBES. RUSSIAN TAXES AND THEIR COLLECTION. -
TURCOMAN AND KIRGIIESE RAIDS. --PRISONERS SOLD INTO SLAVERY. FORTIFIED
VILLAGES AND TOWERS OF REFUGE. COMMERCE IN TURKESTAN. JEALOUSY OF
FOREIGNERS.- TRAVELS OF VAMsIIRY AND OTHERS.-VAiMBEIRY'S NARROW ESCAPE.
-TURCOMAN CHARACTER. -PAYMENTS FOR HUMAN HEADS. -MARRIAGE CUSTOMS
AMONG THE TURCOMANS.-EXTENT AND POPULATION OF CENTRAL ASIA............... 428

CHAPTER XXII.

FRANK AND FRED IN THE TURCOMIAN COUNTRY. TII TRANS-CASPIAN RAILWAY.-
SKOIIEI.EFF'S CAMPAIGN, AND TIE CAPTURE OF GEOK TEPE. ENGLISH JEALOUSY
OF RUSSIAN ADVANCES.-RIVERIS OF CENTRAL ASIA.--THE OXUS AND JAXARTES.-
AGRICULTURE IIY IRRIGATION.-- KIIIVA, SAMARCAN), AND BOKIIARA. -A RIDE ON
TIE TRANS-CASPIAN RAILWAY.-STATISTICS OF TIIE LINE.-KIZIL ARVAT, ASRKAAD,
AND SARAIIS. ROUTE TO HEAT AND INDIA. TURCOMAN DEVASTATION. TlE
AFGHAN BOUNDARY QUESTION. -- HOW MERV WAS CAPTURED. O'DONOVAN AND
MACGAIIAN : THEIR REMARKABLE JOURNEYS. RAILWAY ROUTE FROM ENGLAND TO
INDIA.-RETURN TO BAKU ................ ............................. 451

CHAPTER XXIII.
BAKU TO TIFLIS.-THE CAPITAL OF THE CAUCASUS. MOUNTAIN TRAVELLING.-CROSS-
ING TIE RANGE. PETROLEUM LOCOMOTIVES. --BATOUM AND ITS IMPORTANCE. -
TREBIZOND AND EHlZEROOM. SEIASTOPOL AND THE CRIME. SHORT HISTORY
OF THE CRIMEAN WAR.-RUSSO-TURKISII WAR OF 1877-78.-BATTLES IN TIIE CRIME
AND SIEGE OF SEBASTOPOL. VISITING TIlE MALAKOFF AND REDAN FORTS.- VIEW
OF TIlE BATTLE-FIELDS.-CIIARGE OF TIE LIGIIT BRIGADE AT BALAKLAVA.--PRIS-
ENT CONDITION OF SEBASTOPOL.-OI)ESSA.-ARRIVAL AT CONSTANTINOPLE. -FRANK'S
DREAM.--Tml END............................................. .............. 480



















ILLUSTRATIONS.



W inter Scene in Russia ................................................... .. Frontispiece.
PAGE PAGE
Fred's Reminder ....................... 15 Russian Officer with Decorations ......... 66
St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna.......... 16 A Russian Priest ...................... 68
View of the Palace of Cracow............ 17 Convent of Solovetsk in the Frozen Sea.... 71
Kosciusko, 1777 ....................... 18 The Inundation of 1824.................. 72
Kosciusko, 1817 ....................... 19 Statue of Peter the Great................. 73
Church of St. Mary, Cracow............. 20 Improvising a Statue ................... 75
Polish Jew of high Rank ............... 21 Tea-sellers in the Streets................. 77
Polish Jews of the Middle Class.......... 22 Russian Restaurant at the Paris Exposition. 78
Our Guide in Costume .................. 23 An Out-door I. I ..1 ... ................ 79
The Inspector-general .................. 24 Russian Mujiks drinking Tea ............ 81
The Shaft.................. ........... 26 Plant from which Yellow Tea is made..... 82
Descending the Shaft .................. 27 Column in Memory of Alexander I........ 83
Lamp-bearers ......................... 28 Peter the Great........................ 85
A Foot-path ........................... 29 Assassination of Peter III............... 87
An Underground Chapel ................ 31 Paul I.............. ...... ........... 88
Men Cutting Salt in the Minle ............ 32 Russian and Finn ...................... 89
Finishing the Columns. ................. 33 Dvornik and Postman .................. 90
Subterranean Stables.................... 34 Lodgings at the Frontier. ................ 91
A Mining Singer. .............. ..... .. 35 Ordered to leave Russia ................ 92
" Gliick-auf !" ....................... 36 Finland Peasants in Holiday Costume..... 94
FMte in the Grand Saloon of Entertainment. 37 Inhabitants of Southern Russia.......... 95
A Retired Director...................... 38 St. Isaac's Church and Admiralty Square.. 96
Outer Wall of Cracow................... 40 Priest of the Church of St. Isaac ......... 98
Custom-house Formalities ............... 41 Catherine II. of Russia .................. 99
Passport not Correct................... 42 Reception of John Paul Jones by the Em-
In the Passport Bureau ................. 4.3 press Catherine ..................... 101
Way Station on the Railway............. 45 Russian Attack on the Turkish Galley ..... 103
Before Examination .................... 46 The Orloff Diamond..................... 104
After Examination...................... 47 Nicholas I............... ............ 105
Scene on the Railway ................... 48 Peter III ............................. 106
Shutes for 1.... .... Coal on the Railway.... 49 Circassian Arms as Trophies of Battle..... 107
Polish National Costumes ............... 50 Statue of Nicholas I..................... 108
Peasant's Farm-house .................. 51 Politeness in tie Market-place ............ 11l
Royal Palace at Warsaw ................ 52 Importuning a Visitor .................. 113
Shrine at a Gate-way................... 53 Frozen Animals in the Market ........... 114
Lake in the Park....................... 54 Market for old Clothes................... 116
A Business Man of Warsaw ............. 55 Pigeons in a Russian City ............... 118
In St. Petersburg ...................... 56 Persian Horses presented by the Shall .... 119
Isvoshchiks in W inter................... 59 Russian Peasant Girl ................... 120
Drosky Drivers .................. ...... 60 Russian Nurse-maid and Childrenl......... 121
Sledge of a high Official .................. 63 Some of Kriloff's Friends. ................. 122
Russian Workmen on their way Home .... 65 Kriloff's Characters in Convention ....... 123









12 ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE PAGE
The Fox as a Law-giver .................. 126 Officers sitting in Judgment .............. 191
One of Kriloff's Characters .............. 127 Russian Grand-duke and Grand-duchess .. 192
Closing Scene in a Russian Play .......... 128 Fur-bearing Seals....................... 194
Kriloff's Statue in the Summer Garden, St. Sea-otter ............................. 195
Petersburg .......................... 129 The Beaver ........................... 195
Press-room of a Daily Newspaper......... 131 The Ermine ........................... 196
Interviewing an Editor................... 132 The Raccoon.......................... 196
Prince Gortchakoff ..................... 133 Russian Ice-hills........................ 198
Cabinet and Chair in the Palace .......... 135 Soldiers off Duty-Butter-week ........... 199
Illumination in a Russian Park........... 136 The Easter Kiss-agreeable ............. 200
Tapestry and Fire Utensils at Peterhof .... 137 The Easter Kiss-in the Family .......... 200
Door-way of Peter's House at Zaandam, Hol- The Easter Kiss-difficult............... 201
land ............... ............... 138 The Easter Kiss-disagreeable ........... 201
A Student of Navigation................. 139 The Emperor's Easter Kiss.............. 203
Steam Frigate near Cronstadt............ 140 Peasant Girl in Winter Dress ............ 204
Frigate under Sail and Steam ............ 141 A Bath in the East .................... 206
The Dreadnought type of the Peter the Russian Street Scene in Winter ........... 208
Great .............................. 142 Lost in a Snow-storm ................... 210
The Russian Army-Regular Troops...... 143 Workmen of Novgorod-Glazier, Painter,
Cossack Lancers and Russian Guard-house. 144 and Carpenters ........................ 212
The Russian Army-Irregular Troops..... 146 An Old Norse Chief ..................... 213
Grand-duke Michael .................... 148 View on the Steppe .................... 216
Iron-clad Steamer of the Baltic Fleet...... 149 Ivan the Terrible...................... 217
Little Folks at School ................. 151 Alexis Michailovitch, Father of Peter the
Learning to W eave ..................... 152 Great................... ........... 219
Mineral Cabinet in the University......... 153 Michael Feodorovitch, First Czar of the Ro-
Parlor in a High-school for Women ...... 155 manoff Family....................... 220
Private Room of a wealthy Student...... 156 Too near to be pleasant ................ 221
Lower Recitation-room .................. 157 Wolf attacking its Hunters ............ 222
One of the Professors .................. 158 Old Picture in the Church............... 224
Descending a Shaft.................... 159 A Bishop of the Greek Church........... 225
Galleries in a Mine...................... 160 Millennial Monument at Novgorod........ 227
In the Library ......................... 161 Russian Boats......................... 228
A .II .. Dormitory ................... 162 Portrait of Catherine II. in the Kremlin Col-
Jewish Burial-ground ................... 163 election .............. .... .......... 229
Clothes-dealer of Moscow ................ 164 Street Scene in Moscow.................. 231
A Russian Troika....................... 165 Bivouacking in the Snow ................ 232
A Villa on the Island ................... 166 Battle between French and Russians...... 233
A Russian Family ...................... 167 Napoleon Retreating from Moscow........ 235
Culplit Street-sweepers.................. 169 Alexander I.......................... 236
A Business Transaction ................ 170 View in the Kremlin ................... 237
Peter the Great dressed for Battle .......... 171 A Prisoner ordered to Execution ......... 238
An Imperial Nosegay.................. 173 The Kremlin of Moscow ................ 239
3. i playing Cards ................... 174 The Great Bell underground ............. 240
Peasant's House in Southern Russia ...... 176 Visiting the Great Bell ................ 241
Peasants' Huts ........................ 178 Empress Anne ........................ 242
Esthonian Peasants .................... 179 The Empress Elizabeth .................. 243
Alexander II., the Liberator of the Serfs... 181 Coronation of Alexander III............. 245
Alexander III., Emperor of Russia........ 182 Peter II .............................. 246
Battle between Russians and Circassians ... 184 Bishop in his Robes. ..................... 247
Schamyl's Village in the Caucasus ....... 185 Great Gun at Moscow .................. 249
The Empress Marie Fodlorovna, Wife of The Cathedral at Moscow ............... 250
Alexander III ...................... 186 Napoleon's Retreat from Moscow.......... 251
Russian Peasants at their Recreation...... 187 Dress of Peasants-Scene from a Russian
"Who is the Spy ?" ............ ..... 189 Opera ................ ............ 253









ILLUSTRATIONS. 13

PAGE PAGE
A Dressing-room of the Opera-house ...... 254 Banished for Five Years ................ 318
Working the Ship in "L'Africaine "... ... 255 Banished for Three Years ............... 318
Minin-Pojarsky Monument............... 257 Colonist's Village in W inter.............. 319
Peter's Escape from Assassination ........ 258 Exiles leaving Moscow .................. 321
Peter the Great as Executioner........... 260 Tagilsk, centre of Iron-mines of Siberia .... 322
Catherine I ............................ 261 A Siberian Valley ...................... 323
Catherine II ........................... 263 Two Exiled Friends Meeting ............ 325
Grand-duke Nicholas Alexandrovitch. ..... 264 Escaping Exiles crossing a Stream ....... 326
Skinned and Stuffed Man................. 266 Ivanoff's Cave......................... 327
Russian Beggars ....................... 267 Exiles among the Mountains ........... 329
Tartar Coffee-house in Southern Russia.... 269 Siberian Peasants ...................... 331
Gallery in the Palace ................... 270 Siberian Milk-women ................... 332
Copy of Picture in the Monastery ......... 272 Siberia in Summer ..................... 333
Window in Church of the Trinity......... 273 An Exile Peasant and his Friends ....... 335
Pity the Poor. ......................... 274 A Siberian Landscape .................. 336
Curious Agate at Troitska ............... 275 Girls Playing at Skakiet................. 337
Paper-knife from Troitska-St. Sergius and A Village Festival ....................... 338
the Bear ........................... 276 Russian Peasant Women ............... 340
Specimens of Ecclesiastical Painting on Glass 277 Making Calls after a Wedding .............. 42
Russian Cooper's Shop and Dwelling...... 278 Ceremony after a Peasant's Wedding...... 343
Nijni Novgorod during the Fair.......... 280 The Mountains near Chetah.............. 345
Nijni Novgorod after the Fair............ 281 A Bouriat Village....................... 346
Tartar Merchant ....................... 282 A W wandering Priest..................... 347
Returning from the Fair................. 283 Crossing the Selenga .................... 349
Launching a Russian Barge.............. 285 Finding Lodgings at Kiachta ............. 351
Tartar Village near the Volga............ 286 Chinese Cash from Mai-mai-chin i......... 352
Tartar Baker's Shop ................... 287 Articles of Russian Manufacture .......... 353
A Siberian Village ..................... 289 Scene in a Chinese Temple .............. 354
Petropavlovsk, Kamtchatka.-Mount Avat- Theatre at Mai-mai-chin .................... 355
clia in Background .................. 290 The Tiger ....... ..................... 356
A Herd of Reindeer ......1 Natul Ac Le aik.............. 291 A Natural Arch on Lake Baika...... 357
Dog-teams and Reindeer ................ 293 Caverns on Lake Baikal ................ 358
Light-house at I, i ................... 294 Part of Irkutsk ........................ 359
Ermine-trap.......................... 295 View of the Principal Square in Irkutsk... 360
Interior of a Native House .............. 295 Dressed for the Road.................... 362
The Reindeer........................... 296 A Vashok.............................. 363
Fish-market at Nicolayevsk.............. 291 My Kibitka............................ 364
Scenery on the Amoor .................. 298 Farewell to Irkutsk ..................... 365
Gilyak W oman ........................ 299 W ork of the Frost-king................ 367
Gilyak Man ............................ 299 Interior of a Russian I lnn ................ 369
Native Boat-Amoor River.............. 300 Mail-driver and Guard.................. 370
Goldee Children ....................... 300 Distant View of a Siberian Village........ 371
Visiting a Goldee House at Night ......... 301 Soldiers in Siberian Ferry-boats........... 373
Inauguration of Genghis Khan........... 302 View of Krasnoyarsk from the opposite Bank
Junction of the Argoon and Shilka to form of the Yenisei ........................ 374
the Amoor........................... 303 A Dangerous Ride ...................... 376
Scene in a Posting Station ............... 304 Beggar at a Siberian Station ............. 378
A Tarautasse......................... 306 Policeman at Krasnoyarsk............... 380
i. -, ....... Horses at a Siberian Station ..... 307 Hills near a Siberian River .............. 381
The Right of Way in Russia............. 309 Jumping an Oukhaba "............... 382
Getting out of Difficulty ................. 310 Wolves Attacking a Buffalo .............. 384
Valley of the Amoor above Ouk-se-me..... 312 A Siberian Wolf ....................... 385
Interior of an Exile's Hut............... 314 Summer and W inter in Russia............ 386
Exiles passing through a Village ......... 315 Village on a Russian Estate............... 388
A Town built by Exiles.................. 317 A Slight Mishap ....................... 389








14 ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE PAGE
Summer View near Barnaool.............. 391 Receiving Payment for Human Heads -
Attacked by a Tiger. ................... 393 Khiva .............................. 443
Bearcoots and Wolves .................. 394 Turcoman Trophy-A Russian Head ...... 445
The Steppe in Summer ................. 395 Kikbiiri-A Race for a Bride............ 447
Specimen of Rock-crystal ............... 397 View of the Citadel of Khiva............. 448
Monument at tle Boundary ............... 397 An Ozbek Head ....................... 449
Western Slope of the Ural Mountains ..... 398 Map showing the Relations of Russia and
Descending a Hlill-side Road ............. 400 England in the East .................. 451
Baptizing through the Icee ............... 401 Sand-storm in the Desert ................ 452
End of the Sleigh-ride .................. 402 Turcoman Court of Justice .............. 453
Offering of the Villagers ......... ...... 404 Kirgiese Tomb ........................ 454
Shoeing an Ox ........................ 406 Charge of Russian Cavalry against Turco-
Knife-whip ............................. 407 mans ............................... 455
Armenian Bishop of Astrachan .......... 408 Russian Army on the Turcoman Steppes... 457
A Tartar Khan ........................ 409 Winter Camp in Turcomania............. 459
Tartar Postilions ....................... 410 Turcoman Irrigating Wheel .............. 460
Tartar Palaces in Southern Russia ........ 411 Scene at a Ferry on the Oxus............. 461
Gypsy Family at Astraclan .............. 412 Map of the Russo-Afghan Region......... 462
An Oil-steamer on the Caspian Sea ........ 413 Turcoman Woman Spinning ............. 464
Tanks at a Storage Depot ................ 413 Village of Turcoman Tents............... 465
View in an Oil Region .................. 414 The New Russo-Afghan Frontier.......... 466
Bits for 1., i..i.. W ells .................. 415 Old Sarakhs ........................... 468
A Spouting W ell ....................... 416 Sarik Turcoman W oman- ................ 469
Derrick and Tanks in the American Oil Pul-i-Khisti and Ak Tapa ............... 470
Region ............................. 417 Penjdeh .................. .......... 471
An Oil Refinery with Tank Cars .......... 419 Colonel Alikhanoff ..................... 472
Tartar Camel-cart at Baku............... 420 Tile Great Highway of Central Asia....... 473
Ancient Mound near the Caspian Sea ...... 421 Turcoman Farm-yard ................... 475
Curious Rock Formations ............... 422 Map of Turkestan, showing Route of Trans-
Modern Fire-worshippers Parsee Lady and Caspian Railway..................... 476
Daughter ........................... 423 Crossing a River in Central Asia.......... 478
A Burning Tank ....................... 425 A Native Traveller ..................... 479
A Fall in Oil........................... 426 Looking down on the Steppe ............ 481
A Rise in Oil .......................... 426 View of Tiflis .......... .............. 483
Camp Scene near the Altai Mountains ..... 429 The Pass of Dariel, Caucasus ............ 485
A Kalmuck Priest...................... 430 Governor-general of the Caucasus ....... 486
Scene on the Edge of the Kirghese Steppe.. 431 Ruined Fortress in the Caucasus.......... 487
Kirghese Group ....................... 432 Ruined Church near Batoum............. 488
Kirghese Chief and Family............... 433 Quarantine Harbor, Trebizond............ 489
Caravan in Russian Territory............ 434 View of Erzeroom ...................... 490
Kirghese Raid on a Hostile Tribe ......... 436 Turkish Authority ...................... 492
Lasgird-A Fortified Village in Northern View of Sebastopol .................... 495
Persia.............................. 438 Ruins of the Malakoff, Sebastopol......... 496
Tower of Refuge ...................... 439 Russian Carpenters at Work ............. 498
Framework of Turcoman Tent ........... 440 Cossacks and Chasseurs ................. 499
The Tent Covered ...................... 440 British Soldiers in Camp ................ 501
Interior of Tent ........................ 441 Alfred Tennyson ....................... 502
V'imb6ry's Reception by Turconan Chief on A Broken Tarantasse .................. 503
the Caspian Shore ................... 442 The Bosporus ......................... 504
Map to accompany the Boy Travellers in the Russian Empire .................... front Cover.
Map showing the Russian Empire Routes as Described by the Boy Travellers........ Back Cover.
















THE BOY TRAVELLERS
IN THE

RUSSIAN EMPIRE.


CHAPTER I.
DEPARTURE FROM VIENNA. FRANK'S LETTER.-A FAREWELL PROMENADE.-
FROM VIENNA TO CRACOW.-THE GREAT SALT-MINE OF WIELICZKA, AND
WHAT WAS SEEN THERE.-CHURCHES AND PALACES UNDERGROUND.-VOY-
AGE ON A SUBTERRANEAN LAKE.
IERE are the passports at last."
S" Are you sure they are quite in
order for our journey 2"
k 'i "Yes, entirely so," was the reply; the
S i Secretary of Legation examined them care-
l fully, and said we should have no trouble at
the frontier."
"Well, then," a cheery voice responded,
we have nothing more to do until the depart-
a,, ure of the train. Five minutes will complete
the packing of our baggage, and the hotel bill
FRED'S REMINDER. is all settled. I am going for a walk through
the Graben, and will be back in an hour."
So saying, our old acquaintance, Doctor Bronson, left his room in the
Grand Hotel in Vienna and disappeared down the stairway. IIe was
followed, a few minutes later, by his nephew, Fred Bronson, who had
just returned from a promenade, during which lie had visited the Ameri-
can Legation to obtain the passports which were the subject of the dia-
logue just recorded.
At the door of the hotel he was joined by his cousin, Frank Bassett.
The latter proposed a farewell visit to the Church of St. Stephen, and







16 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

,,1. ,. -i,,t -ti.,l in t,. ,.1:.rii, _- ----

al i- -:-. r-i,- r t -k --





F: I, I It : ._ .,i i,.h. ttt Itr -
t-

..ill. .jll- -- _




P- ES,






(1''%1.''l ,', '' i] ti.,I."-I: ---P --L-- : : _" _
.- .
I C 1.. .. -.. -til
Sth it







0 01 1 ...t 1 I -._:_:1 1 r.

z 1, 17, _.1















SI- .ST :PHEP 1,,DL VEN







FAREWELL VIEW OF VIENNA. 17

would have been pretty sure to occur to him that he owed his sister a
letter before it was too late for writing it.
They made a hasty visit to the church, which is by far the finest relig-
ious edifice in Vienna, and may be said to stand in the very heart of the
city. Fred had previously made a note of the fact that the church is
more than seven hundred years old, and has been rebuilt, altered, and en-
larged so many times that not much of the original structure remains.
On the first day of their stay in Vienna the youths had climbed to the top
of the building and ascended the spire, from which they had a magnificent
























VIEW OF THE PALACE OF CRACOW.

view of the city and the country which surrounds it. The windings of
the Danube are visible for many miles, and there are guides ready at hand
to point out the battle-fields of Wagram, Lobau, and Essling. Our young
friends had a good-natured discussion about the height of the spire of St.
Stephen's; Frank claimed that his guide-book gave the distance from the
ground to the top of the cross four hundred and fifty-three feet, while
Fred contended, on the authority of another guide-book, that it was four
hundred and sixty-five feet. Authorities differ, considerably as to the
2







18 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

exact height of this famous spire, which does not appear to have received
a careful measurement for a good many years.
From the church the youths went to the Graben, the famous street
where idlers love to congregate on pleasant afternoons, and then they re-
turned to the hotel. Fred devoted
.himself to the promised letter to his
sister. With his permission we will
I' look over his shoulder as he writes,
and from the closing paragraph learn
S.. the present destination of our old
.. .' ," friends with whom we have travelled
in other lands."
1: lk jWe have been here a week, and
like Vienna very much, but are quite
'- willing to leave the city for the in-
\ --teresting tour we have planned. We
start this evening by the Northern
Railway for a journey to and through
KOSCIUSKO, 1tti. Russia; our first stopping-place will
be at the nearest point on the rail-
way for reaching the famous salt-mines of Wieliczka. You must pro-
nounce it We-litc-ka, with the accent on the second syllable. I'11 write
you from there; or, if I don't have time to do so at the mines, will send
you a letter from the first city where we stop for more than a single
day. We have just had our passports indorsed by the Russian minister
for Austria-a very necessary proceeding, as it is impossible to get into
Russia without these documents. Until I next write you, good-by."
The travellers arrived at the great Northern Railway station of
Vienna in ample season to take their tickets and attend to the regis-
tration of their baggage. The train carried them swiftly to Cracow-a
city which has had a prominent place in Polish annals. It was the scene
of several battles, and was for a long time the capital of the ancient king-
dom of Poland. Frank made the following memoranda in his note-
book:
Cracow is a city of about fifty thousand inhabitants, of whom nearly


"The Boy Travellers in the Far East" (five volumes) and "The Boy Travellers in
South America" (one volume). Adventures of Two Youths in a Journey to and through
Japan, China, Siam, Java, Ceylon, India, Egypt, Palestine, Central Africa, Peru, Bolivia,
Chili, Brazil, and the Argentine Republic. New York. Harper & Brothers.







SIGHTS IN CRACOW. 19

one-third are Israelites. It stands on the left bank of the Vistula, on a
beautiful plain surrounded by hills which rise in the form of an amphi-
theatre. In the old part of the city the streets are narrow and dark, and
cannot be praised for their cleanliness; but the new part, which lies out-
side the ancient defences, is quite attractive. The palace is on the bank
of the river, and was once very pretty. The Austrians have converted it
into a military barrack, after strip-
ping it of all its ornaments, so that
it is now hardly worth seeing. i
There are many fine churches in I -
Cracow, but we have only had time
to visit one of them-the cathe- -
dral. lp
"In the cathedral we saw the
tombs of many of the men whose
names are famous in Polish his- '- .
tory. Polish kings and queens al- i
most by the dozen are buried here,
and there is a fine monument to the -- :.
memory of St. Stanislaus. His re-
mains are preserved in a silver -.
coffin, and are the object of rever-
ence on the part of those who still ,.*. .
dream of the ultimate liberation of ,i ..'. .
Poland, and its restoration to its old -'-' -:
place among the kingdoms of the .,.' ...._
world. KOSCIUsKO, 1817.
"We drove around the princi-
pal streets of Cracow, and then out to the tumulus erected to the mem-
ory of the Polish patriot, Kosciusko. You remember the lines in our
school reader,
"'Hope for a season bade the world farewell,
And freedom shrieked as Kosciusko fell.'

We were particularly desirous to see this mound. It was made of
earth brought from all the patriotic battle-fields of Poland at an enormous
expense, which was largely borne by the people of Cracow. The monu-
ment is altogether one hundred and fifty feet high, and is just inside the
line of fortifications which have been erected around the city. The Aus-
trians say these fortifications are intended to keep out the Russians ; but







20 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

it is just as likely that they are intended to keep the Poles from making
one of the insurrections for which they have shown so great an incli-
nation during the past two or three centuries.
As we contemplated the monument to the famous soldier of Poland,
we remembered his services during our Revolutionary war. Kosciusko
entered the American army in 1776 as an officer of engineers, and re-
mained with General Washington until the close of the war. He planned
the fortified camp near Saratoga, and also the works at West Point.
When our independence was achieved he returned to Poland, and after
fighting for several years in the cause of his country, he made a brief visit
to America, where he received much distinction. Then he returned again
to Europe, lived for a time in France, and afterwards in Switzerland,












p I I I
.. _li_- -, I. -- -


I. II -, .I
iIT, -0-





CHIRCII OF ST. MARY, CRACOW.

where he died in 1817. The monument we have just visited does not
cover his grave, as he was buried with much ceremony in the Cathedral
of Cracow."
Why don't you say something about the Jewish quarter of Cracow,"
said Fred, when Frank read what he had written, and which we have
given above-
I'll leave that for you," was the reply. You may write the descrip-
tion while I make some sketches."







THE JEWS' QUARTER IN CRACOW. 21

"I'n agreed," responded Fred. "Let's go over the ground together
and pick out what is the most interesting."
Away they went, leaving Doctor Bronson with a gentleman with whom
lie had formed an acquaintance during their ride from the railway to the
hotel. The Doctor was not partial to a walk in the Jews' quarter, and
said he was willing to take his knowledge of it at second-hand.
On their way thither the youths stopped a few minutes to look at the
Church of St. Mary, which was built in 1276, and is regarded as a fine
specimen of Gothic architecture. It is at one side of the market-place,
and presents a picturesque appear-
ance as the beholder stands in
front of it. .
The Jews' quarter is on the op- '
posite side of the river from the ,- .
principal part of the city, and is -
reached by a bridge over the Vis- '
tula. At every step the youths
were beset by beggars. They had .
taken a guide from the hotel, un-
der the stipulation that he should 'l
not permit the '- :_.- to annoy
them, but they soon found it would '
be impossible to secure immunity
from attack without a cordon of '
at least a dozen guides. Frank .
pronounced the beggars of Cracow -
the most forlorn he had ever seen, _
and Fred thought they were more -- --
numerous in proportion to the -----
population than in any other city, -
with the possible exception of POLISH JEW OF IIIGH RANK,
Naples. Their ragged and starved
condition indicated that their distress was real, and more than once our
young friends regretted having brought themselves face to face with so
much misery that they were powerless to relieve.
Frank remarked that there was a similarity of dress among the Jews
of Cracow, as they all wore long caftans, or robes, reaching nearly to the
heels. The wealthy Jews wear robes of silk, with fur caps or turbans,
while the poorer ones must content themselves with cheaper material,
according to their ability. The guide told the youths that the men of







22 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

rank would not surround their waists with girdles as did the humbler
Jews, and that sometimes the robes of the rich were lined with sable, at a
cost of many hundreds of dollars.
Fred carefully noted the information obtained while Frank made the
sketches he had promised to produce. They are by no means unlike the




IIi '






























sketches that were made by another American traveller (Mr. J. Ross
Browne), who visited Cracow several years before the journey of our
friends.
"But there's one thing we can't sketch, and can't describe in v pi in."
said Fred, "and that's the dirt in the streets of this Jews' quarter of Cra-
cow. If Doctor Bronson knew of it I don't wonder he declined to come
.,I.T ,,,









I, "' ---1Y











7,'




POLISH JEWS OF T-_ -MIDDLE CLASS.



Brow-e), w .ho visited Craco several years before the jou-ey of our

sethut there's one thing we can't sketch, and can't describe in (;r J.oss
said Fred, "and that's the dirt in the streets of this Jews' quarter of Cra-
cow. If Doctor Bronson knew of it I don't wonder he declined to come







GOING TO THE SALT-MINES. 23

with us. No attempt is made to keep the place clean, and it seems a pity
that the authorities do not force the people into better ways. It's as bad
as any part of Canton or Peking, and that's saying a great deal. I won-
der they don't die of cholera, and leave the place without inhabitants."
In spite of all sorts of oppression, the Jews of Cracow preserve their
distinctiveness, and there are no more devout religionists in the world
than this people. The greater part of the commerce of the city is in
their hands, and they are said to have a vast amount of wealth in their
possession. That they have a large share of business was noticed by Fred,
who said that from the moment they alighted from the train at the rail-
way-station they were pestered by peddlers, guides, money-changers, run-
ners for shops, beggars, and all sorts of importunate people from the quar-
ter of the city over the Vistula. An hour in the Jews' quarter gratified
their curiosity, and they returned to the hotel.
There is a line of railway to the salt-mines,but our-friends preferred
to go in a carriage, as it would afford a better view of the country, and
enable them to arrange the time to
suit themselves. The distance is
about nine miles, and the road is .S_
well kept, so that they reached the ,
mines in little more than an hour
from the time of leaving the ho- '
tel. The road is through an undu-
lating country, which is prettily dot- i'
ted with farms, together with the i' -
summer residences of some of the '.
wealthier inhabitants of Cracow.
On reaching the mines they
went immediately to the offices,' '.
where it was necessary to obtain .'
permission to descend into the -'
earth. These offices are in an old
castle formerly belonging to one of I
the native princes, but long ago :-' -1 --
turned into its present practical .
uses. Our friends were accom- -
panied by a commissioner from the OUR UE IN COSTUME
hotel where they were lodged in
Cracow ; lie was a dignified individual, who claimed descent from one of
the noble families of Poland, and the solemnity of his visage was increased






2-4 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

by a huge pair of spectacles that spanned his nose. Frank remarked that
spectacles were in fashion at WVieliczka, as at least half the officials con-
nected with the management of the salt-mines were ornamented with
these aids to vision.
A spectacled clerk entered the names of the visitors in a register kept
for the purpose, and issued the tickets permitting them to enter the
mines. Armed with their tickets,
they were conducted to a building
close to the entrance of one of the
mines, and ushered into the pres- .
ence of the inspector-general of the .-
works. lie was also a wearer of spec- -'
tackles, and the rotundity of his fig- ,
ure indicated that the air and food ,
of the place had not injured him. 1 .
"The inspector-general received .i'
us politely-in fact everybody about .; '
the place was polite enough for-the
most fastidious taste," said Frank in
his note-book-" and after a short :
conversation he called our attention
to the robes which had been worn .
by imperial and royal visitors to /
the mines. The robes are richly
embroidered, and every one bears -
a label telling when and by whom
it was worn. The inspector-general THE INSPECTOR-GENERAL.
treated the garments with almost as
much reverence as he would have shown to the personages named on the
labels. We realized that it was proper to regard them with respect, if we
wished to have the good-will of this important official, and therefore we
appeared to be dumb with amazement as he went through the list. When
the examination was ended we were provided with garments for the de-
scent. Evidently we were not regarded with the same awe as were the
kings and emperors that had preceded us, as our robes were of a very
common sort. They were like dressing-gowns, and reached nearly to our
heels, and our heads were covered with small woollen caps. I do not be-
lieve they were labelled with our names and kept in glass cases after our
departure.
"I made a sketch of our guide after he was arrayed in his under-







DESCENDING THE SHAFT. 25

ground costume and ready to start. Fred sketched the inspector-general
while the latter was talking to the Doctor. The portrait isn't a bad one,
but I think he has e'. -i it.1. somewhat the rotund figure of the affable
official.
From the office we went to the entrance of one of the shafts. It is
in a large building, which contains the hoisting apparatus, and is also used
as a storehouse. Sacks and barrels of salt were piled there awaiting trans-
portation to market, and in front of the building there were half a dozen
wagons receiving the loads which they were to take to the railway-station.
The hoisting apparatus is an enormous wheel turned by horse-power ; the
horses walk around in a circle, as in the old-fashioned cider-mill of the
Northern States, or the primitive cotton-gin of the South. Our guide
said there were more than twenty of these shafts, and there was also a
stairway, cut in the solid earth and salt, extending to the bottom of the
mine. We had proposed to descend by the stairway, but the commis-
sioner strenuously advised against our doing so. Ile said the way was
dark and the steps were slippery, as they were wet in many places from
the water trickling through the earth. I-is arguments appeared reason-
able, and so we went by the shaft.
"Tihe rope winds around a drmn on the shaft supporting the wheel,
and then passes through a pulley directly over the place where we were
to descend. The rope is fully two inches in diameter, and was said to be
capable of bearing ten times the weight that can ever be placed upon
it in ordinary use. It is examined every j..,in-; and at least once a
week it is tested with a load of at least four times that which it ordi-
narily carries. When it shows any sign of wear it is renewed; and
judging from all we could see, the managers take every precaution against
accidents.
Smaller ropes attached to the main one have seats at the ends. There
are two clusters of these ropes, about twenty feet apart, the lower one
being intended for the guides and lamp-bearers, and the upper for visitors
and officials. Six of us were seated in the upper group. It included our
party of four and two subordinate officials, who accompanied us on our
journey and received fees on our return; but I suppose they would scorn
to be called guides.
There is a heavy trap-door over the mouth of the shaft, and the
rope plays freely through it. The guides and lamp-bearers took their
places at the end of the rope; then the door was opened and they were
lowered down, and the door closed above them. This brought the upper
cluster of ropes in position for us to take our places, which we did under







26 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.






I -












all was ready the signal was given, the trap door was
opened once more, and we began our downward journey
into the earth.
As the trap door closed above us, I confess to a
rather uncanny feeling. Below us gleamed the lights in
the iands of the lamp bearers, but above there was a
darkness that seemed as though it might be felt, or
sliced off with a knife. Nobody spoke, and the attention
of all seemed to be directed to hanging on to the rope.
Of course the uppermost question in everybody's mind
was, What if the rope should break ?' It doesn't take
long to answer it; the individuals hanging in that cluster
below the gloomy trap-door would be of very little con-
sequence in a terrestrial way after the snapping of the
rope.
We compared notes afterwards, and found that our
sensations were pretty much alike. The general feeling
was one of uncertainty, and each one asked himself sev-
eral times whether he was asleep or awake. Fred said a
part of the journey was like a nightmare, and the Doc-
tor said he had the same idea, especially after the noise
of the machinery was lost in the distance and everything
was in utter silence. For the first few moments we
could hear the whirring of the wheel and the jar of the
machinery; but very soon these sounds disappeared, and








SANITARY CONDITIONS UNDERGROUND. 27

we glided gently downward, without the least sensation of being in mo-
tion. It seemed to me not that we were descending, but that the walls
of the shaft were rising around us, while our position was stationary.
"Contrary to expectation, we found the air quite agreeable. The offi-
cial who accompanied us said it was peculiarly conducive to health; and
many of the employes of the mines had been at work there forty or fifty





-- .. --







...__ I -







- ~~~~~~-.- ,- .- l .-.. .. -_












DESCENDING THE SHAFT.


years, and bad never lost a day from illness. We had supposed it would
be damp and cold, but, on the contrary, found it dry and of an agreea-
ble temperature, which remains nearly the same all through the year. No
doubt the salt has much to do with this healthy condition. Occasionally







28 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

hydrogen gas collects in some of the shafts which are not properly venti-
lated, and there have been explosions of fire-damp which destroyed a good
many lives. These accidents were the result of carelessness either of the







`z -.-- -Y




--j




















LAMP-BEARERS.


miners or their superintendents, and since their occurrence a more rigid
system of inspection has been established.
"We stopped at the bottom of the shaft, which is about three hundred
feet deep; there we were released from our fastenings and allowed to use
our feet again. Then we were guided through a perfect labyrinth.of pas-
sages, up and down ladders, along narrow paths, into halls spacious enough
for the reception of an emperor, and again into little nooks where men







A SUBTERRANEAN CITY. 29

were occupied in excavating the salt. For several hours we wandered
there, losing all knowledge of the points of compass, and if we had been
left to ourselves our-chances of emerging again into daylight would have
been utterly hopeless.
"And here let me give you a few figures about the salt-mines of
Wieliczka. I cannot promise that they are entirely accurate, but they are
drawn from the best sources within our reach. Some were obtained from
the under-officials of the mines who accompanied us, and others are taken
from the work of previous writers on this subject.
The salt-mine may be fairly regarded as a city under the surface of
the earth, as it shelters about a thousand workmen, and contains chapels,
churches, railways, stables, and other appurtenances of a place where men
dwell. In fact it is a series of cities, one above the other, as there are
four tiers of excavations, the first
being about two hundred feet below
the surface, and the lowest nearly -
two thousand. The subterranean
passages and halls are named after .
various kings and emperors whoe
have visited them, or who were fa- '.
mous at the time the passages were .
opened, and altogether they cover iit =
an area of several square miles. In
a general way the salt mines of i i___
Wieliczka may be'said to be near-
ly two miles square; but the ends
of some of the passages are more
than two miles from the entrance
of the nearest shaft. The entire
town of Wieliczka lies above the
mines which give occupation to its
inhabitants.
"There is probably more tim- -.
ber beneath the surface at Wie-
liczka than above it, as the roofs A FOOT-PrATI.
of the numerous passages are sup-
ported by heavy beams; and the same is the case with the smaller halls.
In the larger halls such support would be insufficient, and immense col-
unmus of salt are left in position. In several instances these pillars of
salt have been replaced by columns of brick or stone, as they would be







30 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

liable to be melted away during any accidental flooding of the mine,
and allow the entire upper strata to tumble in. This has actually hap-
pened on one occasion, when a part of the mine was flooded and serious
damage resulted.
Our guide said the length of the passages, galleries, and halls was
nearly four hundred English miles, and the greatest depth reached was
two thousand four hundred feet. If we should visit all the galleries and
passages, and examine every object of interest in the mines, we should be
detained there at least three weeks. Not a single one of all the workmen
had been in every part of all the galleries of the mine, and he doubted if
there was any officer attached to the concern who would not be liable to
be lost if left to himself.
"Nobody knows when these mines were discovered; they were worked
in the eleventh century, when they belonged to the kingdom of Poland,
and an important revenue was derived from them. In the fourteenth
century Casimir the Great established elaborate regulations for working
the mines, and his regulations are the basis of those which are still in
force, in spite of numerous changes. In 1656 they were pledged to Aus-
tria, but were redeemed by John Sobieski in 1683. When the first par-
tition of Poland took place, in 1772, they were handed over to Austria,
which has had possession of them ever since, with the exception of the
short period from 1809 to 1815.
While the mines belonged to Poland the kings of that country ob-
tained a large revenue from them. For two or three centuries this revenue
was sufficiently large to serve for the endowment of convents and the
dowries of the members of the royal family. The Austrian Government
has obtained a considerable revenue from these mines, but owing to the
modern competition with salt from other sources, it does not equal the
profit of the Polish kings.
"Except when reduced by accidents or other causes, the annual pro-
duction of salt in these mines is about two hundred millions of pounds, or
one hundred thousand tons. The deposit is known to extend a long dis-
tance, and the Government might, if it wished, increase the production to
any desired amount. But it does not consider it judicious to do so, and is
content to keep the figures about where they have been since the begin-
ning of the century. The salt supplies a considerable area of country;
a large amount, usually of the lower grades, is sent into Russia, and the
finer qualities are shipped to various parts of the Austrian Empire.
We asked if the workmen lived in the mines, as was currently re-
ported, and were told they did not. 'They would not be allowed to do








SALT-MINERS AT WORK. 31

so, even if they wished it,' said our guide. By the rules of the direction
the men are divided into gangs, working eight hours each, and all are re-
quired to go to the surface when not on duty. In ancient times it was
doubtless the case that men lived here with their families. At one time







--,-' -
l1,







4 1 I I


















AN UNDECGROLND CHAPEL.


the mines were worked by prisoners, who did not see daylight for months -
together, but nothing of the kind has occurred for more than a cen-
tury at least.'
Several times in our walk we came upon little groups of men work
i it



f-.1 .
-: i : .












AN UNDERGROUND CIHAPEL.


the mines were worked by prisoners, who did not see daylight for months "
together, but nothing of the kind has occurred for more than a cen-
tury at least.'
Several times in our walk we came upon little groups of men work-
ing in the galleries; and certainly they were not to be envied. Some-
times they were cutting with picks against perpendicular walls, and at
others they were lying flat on their backs, al;_=ii, away at the roof not







32 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

more than a foot or two above their heads. The shaggy lamp-bearers-
generally old men unable to perform heavy work-stood close at hand,
and the glare of the light.falling upon the fli-1!;, crystals of salt that
flew in the air, and covered the half-naked bodies of the perspiring work-
men, made a picture which I cannot adequately describe. I do not know
that I ever looked upon a spectacle more weird than this.
"We had expected to see the men in large gangs, but found that they






.- -'





















were nearly always divided into little groups One would think they
would prefer any other kind of occupation than this, but our guide told
us that the laborers were perfectly free to leave at any time, just as
though they were in the employ of a private establishment. There were
plenty of men who would gladly fill their places, and frequently they had
applications for years in advance. As prices go in Austria, the pay is
very good, the men averaging from twenty to fifty cents a day. As far
..... .; ...





_- c __ =- i-__ -


MEN CUTTING SALT IN TIIE AIINE.


were nearly always divided into little groups. One would think they
would prefer any other kind of occupation than this,but our guide told
us that the laborers were perfectly free to leave at any time, just as
though they were in the employ of a private establishment. There were
plenty of men who would gladly fill their places, and frequently they had
applications for years in advance. As prices go in Austria, the pay is
very good, the men averaging from twenty to fifty cents a day. As far
as possible they are paid by the piece, and not by time-the same as in
the great majority of mines all over the world.
But the horses which draw the cars on the subterranean railways are







UNDERGROUND HALLS. 33

not regarded with the same care as the men. They never return to the
light of day after once being lowered into the mine. In a few weeks
after arriving there a cataract covers their eyes and the sight disap-
pears. By some this result is attributed to the perpetual darkness, and
by others to the effect of the salt. It is probably due to the former, as
the workmen do not appear to suffer in the same way. Whether they
would become blind if continually kept there is not known, and it is to
be hoped that no cruel overseer will endeavor to ascertain by a practical
trial.
"Every time we came upon a group of workmen they paused in their
labors and '..-_..1 for money. We had provided ourselves with an abun-
dance of copper coins before descending into the mine, and it was well we
did so, as they generally became clamorous until obtaining what they
wanted. Fortunately.they were satisfied with a small coin, and did not
annoy us after once being paid.
"I cannot begin to give the names of all the halls, galleries, and pas-
sages we went through, and if I did, it would be tedious. We wandered
up and down, down and up, forward and backward, until it seemed as if
there was no end to the journey. And to think we might have been
there three weeks without once repeating our steps! I will mention at
random some of the most interesting of the things we saw. To tell the





6, II I






FINISHIISN TE COLUMNS.


whole story and give a full description of this most wonderful salt-mine
in the world would require a volume.
"The chamber of Michelwic was the first of the large halls that we
entered, and was reached after a long journey through winding passages
and along foot-paths that sometimes overhung places where it was impos-
sible for the eye, aided only by the light of the lamps, to ascertain the
,.. I'. .' 1" .0







34 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

depth of the openings below. In some of the dangerous places there was
a rail to prevent one from falling over; but this was not always the case,
and you may be sure we kept on the safe side and close to the wall.
"In the hall we were treated to a song by one of the mining over-
seers, an old soldier who had lost an arm in some way that was not ex-
plained to us.' IHe had an excellent voice that ought to have secured him
a good place in the chorus of an opera troupe. lie sang a mining song
in quite a melodramatic style; and as he did so the notes echoed and re-
echoed through the hall till it seemed they would never cease. In the
centre of the hall is a chandelier cut from the solid salt, and on grand oc-























SLBTERRANEAN STABLES.


casions this chandelier is lighted and a band of music is stationed at one
end of the vast space. Its effect is said to be something beyond descrip-
tion, and, judging from the effect of the overseer's voice, I can well be-
lieve it.
From this hall we went through a series of chambers and galleries
named after the royal and imperial families of Poland and Austria, pass-
ing chapels, shrines, altars, and other things indicating the religious char-
acter of the people employed in the mines or controlling them, together







SUBTERRANEAN FIREWORKS.

with many niches containing statues of kings, saints, and martyrs, all hewn
from the solid salt. Some of the statues are rudely made, but the most
of them are well designed and executed. In some of the chapels wor-
shippers were kneeling before the altars, and it was difficult to realize that
we were hundreds of feet below the surface of the earth.
"By-and-by our guide said we were coming to the Infernal Lake.
The lamp-bearers held their lights high in the air, and we could see the
reflection from a sheet of water, but how great might be its extent was
impossible to guess. As we approached the edge of the water a boat
emerged from the gloom and came towards us. It was a sort of rope
ferry, and we immediately thought
of the ferry-boat which the an-
cients believed was employed to '
carry departed spirits across the '
river Styx. Certainly the darkness -
all around was Stygian, and the '''
men on the boat might have been
Charon's attendants.
"We passed down a few steps,
entered the boat, and were pulled/
away from shore. In less than a '. '.
minute nothing but the little circle. -'
of water around ns was visible; the
sides of the cavern echoed our ---
voices and every other sound that- :
came from our boat. In the mid- -
die of the lake we paused to ob--- '
serve the effect of the sound caused
by the waves created by the rock- .
ing of the boat. It reverberated -
through the cavern and away into
the galleries, and seemed as though A I\INING SI~ NG R.
it would last forever. When this
sensation was exhausted we moved on again. Doctor Bronson asked the
guide how far it was to the other end of the lake, but before the answer
was spoken we had a fresh surprise.
"There was a flash of light from a point high above us, and almost at
the same instant another, a little distance ahead. The latter assumed the
form of an arch in red fire, displaying the greeting' GLicLK-AUF 1' or GooD-
LUCK!' though this is not the literal translation. We passed under this








36 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.




































"GLUCK-AUF!"

arch of red fire, and as we did so the words 'Gliick-auf! Gliick-auf!' were
shouted from all around, and at the same time flashes of fire burst from a
dozen places above the lake. We shouted Gliick-auf !' in reply, and then
the voices from the mysterious recesses seemed to be quadrupled in num-
ber and volume. The air was filled with flashes of light, and was every-
where resonant with the words of the miners' welcome.
"At the other end of the lake there was a considerable party waiting
to receive us, and of course there was a liberal distribution of coin to ev-
erybody. I ought to have said at the outset that we arranged to pay for

/







FESTIVAL IN THE MINE. 37

the illumination of the lake and also of certain specified halls, in addition
to the compensation of the guides. The illmninations are entirely pro-
portioned to the amount that the visitors are willing to give for them. It
is a good plan to unite with other visitors, and then the individual cost
will not be heavy. Twenty dollars will pay for a very good illumination,
and fifty dollars will secure something worthy of a prince, though not a
first-class one.
They showed us next through more winding passages, and came at
length to the Grand Saloon of Entertainment; which is of immense ex-






..



n six lre c irs i r t r

S' .I 'A 'I .

i '' q I i J"

I. H '.,I- ,_- ,










-._ -" _, ,_ -' --; --" -- _- -



FPT4 JEN THE GRAIND SAL OON OF E Ri NMENlTl H'\ M '

tent. and has no less th)an six larg-, e clandeliers lianmiT from the roof. It
is lighted on the occasion of thc visit of a king or emperor (of course lie







38 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

has to pay the bill), and the effect is said to be wonderful. There is an
alcove at one end, with a throne of green and ruby-colored salt, whereon
the emperor is seated. A blaze of light all through the hall is reflected
from the myriad crystals of salt
which form the roof and sides; the
floor is strewn with sparkling salt;
the columns are decorated with ev-
-- I ergreens; festoons of :1 g-. abound
S through the place; and a band of
music plays the airs appropriate to
the hall and the guest.
." The workmen and their fam-
S_ ilies assemble in their holiday dress,
and when the music begins the
whole party indulges in the Polish
iI national dance. It is a strange
spectacle, this scene of revelry five
hundred feet below the surface of
-_I 1 -, the earth, and probably among the
S.' sights that do not come often before
the Imperial eyes. These spectacles
'- must be arranged to order, and for
S weeks before an Imperial or Royal
visit a great many hands are en-
A IETIRED DIRECTOR. gaged in making the necessary prep-
arations. From all I heard of these
festivals, I would willingly travel many hundred miles to see one of
them.
By means of the illuminating materials that we brought with us, we
were able to get an approximate idea of the character of one of these gala
spectacles. After our last Bengal-light had been burned, we continued
our journey, descending to the third story by many devious ways, and
finally halting in a chamber whose roof was not less than a hundred feet
above us.
"' Do you know where you are?' said our guide.
Of course we answered that we did not.
"' Well,' said he, you are directly beneath the lake which we sailed
over in a boat a little while ago. If it should break through we should all
be drowned, dead.'
We shuddered to think what might be our fate if the lake should







CHARACTER OF THE MINERAL SALT. 38

spring a leak. It did break out at one time and flooded many of the gal-
leries, and for a long while work in all the lower part of the mine was
suspended. There have been several fires, some of them causing the loss
of many lives; but, on the whole, considering the long time the mine has
been opened and the extent of the works, the accidents have been few.
"The deepest excavation in the mine is nearly seven hundred feet
below the level of the sea. We did not go there, in fact we did not go
below the third story, as we had seen quite enough for our purposes, and
besides we had only a limited time to stay in the mine. As we came up
again to daylight, hoisted in the same sort of chairs as those by which we
descended, we made a final inspection of the salt which comes from the
mine.
"'There are three kinds of salt,' said the guide. 'One that is called
green salt contains five or six per cent. of clay, and has no transparency;
it is cut into blocks and sent to Russia exactly as it comes from the mine.
The second quality is called spiza, and is crystalline and mixed with sand ;
and the third is in large masses, perfectly transparent, having no earthy
matter mingled with it. The salt is found in compact tertiary clays that
contain a good many fossils; the finest salt is at the lowest levels, and the
poorest at the higher ones.'
"Well, here we are at the top of the shaft, tired and hungry, and ex-
cited with the wonderful things we have seen. The visit to the salt-mines
of Wieliczka is something to be long remembered."

Since the visit herein described, the manner of working the salt-mines
of Wieliczka has undergone a decided change. Owing to the influx of a
stream the lower levels of the mines were _:1....1. .1, and for some time re-
mained full of water. In order to free them it was necessary to introduce
powerful pumping machinery of the latest designs, and also to replace the
old hoisting apparatus with new. 1Horse-power was abandoned in favor
of steam, both for hoisting and pumping; new precautions were taken
against fire ; all improved systems of mine-working were tested, and those
which proved useful were adopted; and to-day the mines of Wieliczka
may be considered, in every respect, the foremost salt-mines in the world.







40 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.









CHAPTER II.

LEAVING CRACOW.-THE RUSSIAN FRONTIER.-THE POLICE AND THE CUSTOM-
HOUSE.-RUSSIAN CENSORSHIP OF BOOKS AND PAPERS.-CATCHING A SMUG-
GLER.-FROM THE FRONTIER TO WARSAW.-SIGHTS AND INCIDENTS IN THE
CAPITAL OF POLAND.-FROM WARSAW TO ST. PETERSBURG.

THE sun was setting as our friends reached Cracow, on their return
from Wieliczka. The walls of the city were gilded by the rays of
light that streamed over the hills which formed the western horizon. In
all its features the scene was well calculated to impress the youthful trav-
ellers. Frank wished to make a sketch of the gate-way through which
they passed on their entrance within the walls, but the hour was late and








ilT E -- .
S--- --ii' ', --' P-









-. r" I y ,.
.--- ---







ENTERING RUSSIA. 41

delay inadvisable. The commissioner said he would bring them a photo-
graph of the spot, and with this consolation the young man dismissed from
his mind the idea of the sketch.
All retired early, as they intended taking the morning train for the
Russian frontier, and thence to Warsaw. They were up in good season,
and at the appointed time the train carried them out of the ancient capi-
tal of Poland.
At Granitsa, the frontier station, they had a halt of nearly two hours.
Their passports were carefully examined by the Russian officials, while
their trunks underwent a vigorous overhauling. The passports proved to
be entirely in order, and there was no trouble with them. The officials
were particularly polite to the American trio, and said they were always
pleased to welcome Americans to the Empire. They were less courteous
to an Englishman who arrived by the same train, and the Doctor said it
was evident that the Crimean war
had not been entirely forgotten.
Several passengers had neglected -
the precautions which our friends
observed at Vienna, in securing the .'
proper endorsement to their pass- --
ports, and were told that they could r -.
not pass the frontier. They were'
compelled to wait until the pass-
ports could be sent to Cracow for
approval by the Russian consul at il
that point, or else to Vienna. A 'li'.
commissioner attached to the rail- '
way-station offered to attend to the 'lJ
matter for all who required his 'r li I
aid; formerly it was necessary for' '"- IIII- '
the careless traveller to return in
person to the point designated, but '.i li ,
of late years this has not been re- I '''I
quired. i
"This passport business is an CUOsroMno IL- C FRMALITIs.
outrageous humbug," said the Eng-
lishman with whom our friends had fallen into conversation while they
were waiting in the anteroom of the passport office. "Its object is to keep
improper persons out of Russia; but it does nothing of the kind. Any
Nihilist, Revolutionist, or other objectionable individual can always obtain







42 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

a passport under a fictitious name, and secure the necessary approval of
consuls or ambassadors. Ivan Carlovitch, for whom the police are on the
watch, comes here with a passport in the name of Joseph Cassini, a native
of Malta, and subject of Great Britain. His English passport is obtained
easily enough by a little false swearing; it is approved by the Russian
minister at Vienna, and the fellow enters Russia with perfect ease. The
honest traveller who has neglected the formality through ignorance is de-
tained, while the Revolutionist goes on
his way contented. The Revolutionist
j' ~-:, always knows the technicalities of the
"- law, and is careful to observe them ; and
'' it is safe to say that the passport system
'n, _ever prevented any political offender
from getting into Russia when lie
t. ,wanted to go there.
I have been in Russia before," he-
S- continued, "and know what I am say-
\ ing. The first time I went there was
from Berlin, and on reaching the fron-
PASSPORT NOT COERECT. tier I was stopped because my passport
was not properly indorsed. I supposed
I would have to go back to Berlin, but the station-master said I need not
take that trouble; I could stop at the hotel, and he would arrange the
whole matter, so that I might proceed exactly twenty-four hours later. I
did as he told me, and it was all right."
How was it accomplished ?"
"Why, he took my passport and a dozen others whose owners were in
the same fix as myself, and sent them by the conductor of the train to
K.. hi. -1 .. -.where there is a Russian consul. For a fee of two English
shillings (fifty cents of your money) the consul approved each passport;
another fee of fifty cents paid the conductor for his trouble, and he
brought back the passports on his return run to the frontier. Then the
station-master wanted four shillings (one dollar) for his share of the work,
and we were all en 7-. to enter the Russian Empire. We got our bag-
gage ready, and were at the station when the train arrived; the station-
master delivered our passports, and collected his fee along with the fees
of the conductor and consul, and that ended the whole business. The
consul knew nothing about any of the persons named in the passports,
and we might have been conspirators or anything else that was objection-
able, and nobody would have been the wiser. Russia is the only country








TRAVELLERS EXAMINED. 43

in Europe that keeps up the passport system with any severity, and it only
results in putting honest people to trouble and expense, and never stops
those whom it is intended to reach. There, they've opened the door, and
we can now go before the representatives of the autocrat of all the Rus-
sias."
One by one they approached the desk, with the result already stated.
At the examination of the 1 --..:- in the custom-house the clothing and





I










1 "- i
!i A














IN THE PASSPORT BUREA.'

personal effects of our friends were passed without question, but there was
some difficulty over a few books which the boys had bought before leav-
ing Vienna. One volume, pronounced objectionable, was seized as con-
traband, but the others were not taken. Every book written by a foreign-
traband, but the others wiere not tak~en. Every book written by a foreignl-







-44 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

er about Russia is carefully examined by the official censor as soon as it
is published, and upon his decision depends the question of its circulation
being allowed in the Empire. Anything calculated to throw disrespect
upon the Imperial family, or upon the Government in general, is prohib-
ited, as well as everything which can be considered to have a revolution-
ary tendency.
They are not so rigid as they used to be," growled the Englishman,
as he closed and locked his trunk after the examination was completed.
"In the time of the Emperor Nicholas they would not allow anything
that indicated there was any other government in the world which
amounted to I. 1;!1-, and they were particularly severe upon all kinds
of school-books. Now they rarely object to school-books, unless they con-
tain too many teachings of liberty; and they are getting over their squeam-
ishness about criticisms, even if they are abusive and untruthful. The
worst case I ever heard of was of an inspector at one of the frontier sta-
tions, who seized a book on astronomy because it contained a chapter on
'The Revolutions of the Earth.' HIe said nothing revolutionary could be
allowed to enter the Empire, and confiscated the volume in spite of its
owner's explanations.
Under Nicholas," continued the Englishman, Macaulay's History
of England' was prohibited, though it could be bought without much
trouble. After Alexander II. ascended the throne the rigors of the cen-
sorship were greatly reduced, and papers and books were freely admitted
into Russia which were prohibited in France under Louis Napoleon. All
the Tauchnitz editions of English works were permitted, even including
Carlyle's French Revolution.' It is possible that the last-named book had
escaped notice, as you would hardly expect it to be allowed free circula-
tion in Russia. Books and newspapers addressed to the professors of the
universities, to officers above the rank of colonel, and to the legations of
foreign countries are not subjected to the censorship, or at least they were
not so examined a few years ago. Since the rise of Nihilism the authori-
ties have become more rigid again, and books and papers are stopped
which would not have been suppressed at all before the death of Alex-
ander II.
If you want to know the exact functions of the censor," said the
gentleman, turning to Frank and Fred, here is an extract from his
instructions."
With these words he gave to one of the youths a printed slip which
stated that it was the censor's duty to prohibit and suppress "all works
written in a spirit hostile to the orthodox Greek Church, or containing







MONEY-CHANGING AT THE FRONTIER. -:5

anything that is contrary to the truths of the Cl-(i-r; I religion, or sub-
versive of good manners or morality; all publications tending to assail
the inviolability of autocratical monarchical power and the fundamental
laws of the Empire, or to diminish the respect due to the Imperial family ;
all productions containing attacks on the honor or reputation of any one,
by improper expressions, by the publication of circumstances relating to
domestic life, or by calumny of any kind whatever."
The boys thanked the gentleman for the information he had given
them on a subject about which they were curious; and as the examina-
tion of the custom-house was completed, they proceeded to the restaurant.
which was in a large hall at the end of the station.
Near the door of the restaurant was the office of a money-changer,












1hi



I U-






WAY STATION ON THE RAILWAY.

its character being indicated by signs in at least half a dozen languages.
Passengers were exchanging their Austrian money for Russian, and the
office seemed to be doing an active business.
.,,- -- _.,I- i _,_ i -,, ., -- .- ... - --











That fellow has about as good a trade as one could wish," said the
Englishman, as he nodded in the direction of the man at the little win-
dow. Two trains arrive here daily each way for people going north
lie changes Austrian into Russian money, and for those going south lie
;--." I' ":, _-.,- I-- --







46 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

changes Russian into Austrian. He receives one per cent. commission on
each transaction, which amounts to four per cent. daily, as he handles the
money four times. I have often envied these frontier bankers, who run
no risk whatever, provided they are not swindled with counterfeits, and
can make twelve hundred per cent. annually on their capital. But per-
haps they have to pay so dearly for
the privilege that they are unable to
get rich by their business. By-the-
"way," said he, changing the subject
-a 't; abruptly, did you observe the stout
lady that stood near us in the ante-
room of the passport office ?"
Y "es," answered the Doctor,
Sand she seemed quite uneasy, as
though she feared trouble."
Doubtless she did," was the re-
S'.'. ply, but it was not on account of
l iher passport. She was probably
SI' laden with goods which she intend-
ed u, _I 1;1,- into Russia, and feared
lt I.,',1';? Detection. I noticed that she was
rDi-i'I i.., called aside by the custom-house
officials, and ushered into the room
-. devoted to suspected persons. She
isn't here yet, and perhaps they'll
BEFORE EXA.MINATIO.N keep her till the train has gone.
Ah here she comes."
Frank and Fred looked in the direction indicated, but could not see
any stout lady; neither could the Doctor, but he thought he recognized a
face lie had seen before. It belonged to a woman who was comparatively
slight in figure, and who took her seat very demurely at one of the tables
near the door.
That is the stout lady of the anteroom," said the Englishman, and
her form has been reduced more rapidly than any advocate of the Banting
or any other anti-fat system ever dreamed of. She was probably detected
by her uneasy manner, and consequently was subjected to an examination
at the hands of the female searchers. They've removed dry goods enough
from her to set up a small shop, and she won't undertake -iiin _-_1;-_ again
in a hurry. Import duties are high in Russia, and the temptation to
smuggle is great. She was an inexperienced smuggler, or she would







THROUGH RUSSIAN POLAND. 47

not have been caught so easily. Probably she is of some other nationality
than Russian, or they would not have liberated her after confiscating her
contraband goods."
The incident led to a conversation upon the Russian tariff system,
which is based upon the most emphatic ideas in favor of protection to
home industries. As it is no part of our intention to discuss the tariff in
this volume, we will omit what was said upon the subject, particularly as
no notes were taken by either Frank or Fred.
In due time the train on the Russian side of the station was ready to
receive the travellers, and they took their places in one of the carriages.
It needed only a glance to show they had crossed the frontier. The Aus-
trian uniform disappeared, and the Russian took its place; the Russian
language was spoken instead of German; the carriages were lettered in
Russian ; posts painted in alternate
stripes of white and black (the in-
vention of the Emperor Paul about
the beginning of the present cen-
tury), denoted the sovereignty of .- .t'
the Czar; and the dress of many of '
the passengers indicated a change of
nationality.
The train rolled away from
Granitsa in the direction of War-
saw, which was the next point of '
destination of our friends. The
country through which they trav-
elled was not particularly interest-
ing; it was fairly though not thickly : -
settled, and contained no important
towns on the line of the railway,
or any other object of especial in- .
terest. Their English acquaintance
said there were mines of coal, iron,
and zinc in the neighborhood of AFTER EXAMINATION.
Zombkowitse, where the railway
from Austria unites with that from eastern Germany. It is about one
hundred and eighty miles from Warsaw; about forty miles farther on
there was a town with an unpronounceable name, with about ten thousand
inhabitants, and a convent, which is an object of pilgrimage to many pious
Catholics of Poland and Silesia. A hundred miles from Warsaw they







48 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

passed Petrikau, which was the seat of the ancient tribunals of Poland;
and then, if the truth must be told, they slept for the greater part of
the way till the train stopped at the station in the Praga suburb of
Warsaw, on the opposite bank of the Vistula.
As they neared the station they had a good view of Warsaw, on the
heights above the river, and commanded by a fortress which occupies the
centre of the city itself. Alighting from the train, they surrendered their
passports to an official, who said the documents would be returned to them



v --:-._--_- -- __ r-A _/i": --


; --- -


-- _t -; --
------ -- '' : L-- .- C- :- ---^ -- :
--- .qL







SCENE ON THE LAILWAY.

at the IHtel de 1'Europe, where they proposed to stop during their so-
journ within the gates of Warsaw. Tickets permitting them to go into
the city were given in exchange for the passports, and then they entered a
rickety omnibus and were driven to the hotel.
It was late in the afternoon when they climbed the sloping road lead-
ing into Warsaw, and looked down upon the Vistula and the stretch of
low land on the Praga side. Fred repeated the lines of the old verse from
which we have already quoted, and observed how well the scene is de-
scribed in a single couplet:

"Warsaw's last champion from her heights surveyed,
Wide o'er the fields a waste of ruin laid."

Laid desolate by many wars and subjected to despotic rule, the coun-
try around Warsaw bears little evidence of prosperity. Many houses are







A BIT OF POLISH HISTORY. 49

without tenants, and many farms are either half tilled or wholly without
cultivation. The spirit of revolution springs eternal in the Polish breast,
and the spirit of suppression must be equally enduring in the breast of
the Russian. It is only by the severest measures that the Russians can
maintain their control of Poland. A Polish writer has well described the
situation when he says, Under a cruel government, it is Poland's duty
to rebel against oppression; under a liberal government, it is her duty to,
rebel because she has the opportunity."
After dinner at the hotel our friends started for a walk through the
principal streets ; but they did not go very far. The streets were poorly
lighted, few people were about, and altogether the stroll was not particu-
larly interesting. They returned to the hotel, and devoted an hour or so
to a chat about Poland and her sad history.
"Walls are said to have ears," the Doctor remarked, "but we have
little cause to be disturbed about them, as we are only discussing among






-7-




,;X -










centuries, and at one time Poland had the best of the fight. IHow many
of those who sympathize so deeply with the wrongs of Poland are aware
of the fact that in 1610 the Poles held Moscow as the Russians now hold
Warsaw, and that the Russian Czar was taken prisoner, and died the next
year in a Polish prison ? Moscow was burned by the Poles in 1611, and
thousands of its inhabitants were slaughtered ; in 1612 the Poles were
4







50 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

driven out, and from that time to the present their wars with Russia have
not been successful."
"I didn't know that," said Frank, until I read it to-day in one of our
books."
Nor did I," echoed Fred; and probably not one person in a hun-
dred is aware of it."
Understand," said the Doctor, with emphasis-" understand that I do
not say this to justify in any way the wrongs that Russia may have vis-



i ,
J-~
.. "- ^ .. -- .















POLISH NATIO.NA. COST ,MES.
,IV,







ited on Poland, but simply to show tat all te wrong has not been on



















one side. Russia and Poland have been hostile to each other for centu-
Jill-,7k
x-.i "" I7" .







ries; they are antagonistic in everything-language, religion, customs, and









national ambitions- and there could be nho permanent eace between
ries; they arc antagonistic in everything-language, religion, customs, and
national ambitions- and there could be no permanent peace between







THE PARTITIONS OF POLAND. 51

them until one had completely absorbed the other. Twice in this cen-
tury (in 1 :i, and 1863) the Poles have rebelled against Russia, because
they had the opportunity in consequence of the leniency of the Govern-
ment. From present appearances they are not likely to have the oppor-
tunity again for a long time, if ever."
One of the youths asked how the revolution of 1830 was brought
about.
Poland had been, as you know, divided at three different times, by
Russia, Austria, and Prussia," said tile Doctor, the third partition taking
place in 1795. At the great settlement among the Powers of Europe, in
1815, after the end of the Napoleonic wars, the Emperor of Russia pro-
posed to form ancient Poland into a constitutional monarchy under the
Russian crown. His plan was adopted, with some modifications, and from























EAS 1TS FAl -lOUS1 .

1815 to 1830 the country had its national Diet or Parliament, its national
administration, and its national army of thirty thousand men- Th1 Rus-
sian Emperor was the King of Poland, and this the Poles resented ; thley
belled, and were defeated. After the defeat te nstitti






drawn and the national ay abolished; the Polish universities w
drawn~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ an t. naioa ar-=-boised;_--_-is,
,.lv rs te "'t'







002 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

closed, the Polish language was proscribed in the public offices, and every
attempt was made to Russianize the country. It was harshly punished
for its rebellion until Alexander II. ascended the throne.
Alexander tried to conciliate the people by granting concessions. The
schools and universities were reopened: the language was restored ; Poles
were appointed to nearly all otlicial positions; elective district and munic-
ipal councils were formed, and also
a Polish Council of State. Bunt
A-.,----- nothing short of independence
A," : '- I .
S- would satisfy the inhabitants, and
,1i 1I,, .', then came the revolution of 1SG3.
',.' i...It w as suppressed, like its prede-
S---- cessor, and from that time the
ROYAL PALACE AT WARSAW. Russians have maintained such an
iron rule in Poland that a revolt
of any importance is next to impossible. All the oppression of which
Russia is capable cannot destroy the spirit of independence among the
Poles. They are as patriotic as the Irish, and will continue to hope for
liberty as long as their blood :1. i, in human veins."
A knock on the door brought the Doctor's discourse to an abrupt end.
It was made by the commissioner, who came to arrange for their excursion
on the following day.
We will see in due course where they went and what they saw. It is
now their bedtime, and they are retiring for the night.
The next morning they secured a carriage: and drove through the
principal streets and squares, visiting the Royal Palace and other build-
ings of importance, and also the parks and gardens outside the city limits.
Concerning their excursion in Warsaw the youths made the following
notes :
We went first to the Royal Castle, which we were not permitted to
enter, as it is occupied by the Viceroy of Poland, or the Emperor's Lien-
tenant,' as he is more commonly called. It is a very old 1.'i1.1; which
has been several times altered and restored. There were many pictures
and other objects of art in the castle until 1831, when they were removed
to St. Petersburg. In the square in front of the castle is a statue of one
of the kings of Poland, and we were told that the square was the scene of
some of the uprisings of the Poles against their Russian masters.
From the castle we went to the cathedral, which was built in the
thirteenth century, and contains monuments to the memory of several of
the kings and other great men of the country. It is proper to say here








RELIGIONS OF THE PEOPLE. 53

that the Catholic is the prevailing religion of Poland, and no doubt much
of the hatred of Russians and Poles for each other is in consequence of
their religious ,irf. i, ,,,,-. By the latest figures of the population that
we have at hand, Russian Poland contains about 3,800,000 Catholics,
..i:,ii'InI Protestants, 700,000 Jews, and '. .I1,'"n members of the Greek
(. i r.ii.l and adherents of other religions, or a little more than 5,000,000
of inhabitants in all. Like all people who have been oppressed, the Cath-






'-i ,
2








SI AT A GATEWAY.






i il"


-ti' l lt:l '








SMUSE' AT A GATEWAY.


olics and Jews are exceedingly deout ll and idhe to t11 heir
religious faith. (' ii. I, and synagogues are numerous in Warsaw, as in
the other Polish cities. In our ride through Warsaw we passed many







54 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

shrines, and at nearly all of them the faithful were kneeling to repeat the
prayers prescribed by their religious teachers.
From the cathedral we went to the citadel, which is on a hill in the
centre of the city, and was built after the revolution of 1830. The expense
of its construction was placed upon the people as a punishment for the
revolution, and for the purpose of bombarding the city in case of another
rebellion. From the walls of the cit-
adel there is a fine view of consider-
able extent; but there is nothing in
the place of special interest. The
fort is constantly occupied by a gar-
rison of Russian soldiers. It contains
a prison for political offenders and
a military court-house, where they
are tried for their alleged offences.
There are ten or twelve squares,
____or open places, in Warsaw, of which
the finest is said to be the Saxon
Square. It contains a handsome
monument to the Poles who adhered
to the Russian cause in the revolu-
tion of 1830. Some writers say it
was all a mistake, and that the Poles
whose memory is here preserved were
really on their way to join the regi-
LAKE IN THE PARK. ments which had declared in favor of
the insurrection.
". There are several handsome streets and avenues; and as for the pub-
lic palaces and fine residences which once belonged to noble families of
Poland, but are now mostly in Government hands, the list alone would be
long and tedious. One of the finest palaces is in the Lazienki Park, and
was built by King Stanislaus Poniatowski. It is the residence of the Em-
peror .of Russia when he comes to Warsaw; but as his visits are rare, it
is almost always accessible to travellers. We stopped a few minutes 'in
front of the statue of King John Sobieski. There is an anecdote about
this statue which the students of Russian and Polish history will appreci-
ate. During a visit in 1850 the Emperor Nicholas paused in front of the
statue, and remarked to those around him, The two kings of Poland
who committed the greatest errors were John Sobieski and myself, for
we both saved the Austrian monarchy.'







SIGHTS AND INDUSTRIES OF WARSAW. 55

"Inside the palace there are many fine paintings and other works of
art. There are portraits of Polish kings and queens, and other rare pict-
ures, but not as many as in the Castle of Villanov, which we afterwards
visited. In the latter, which was the residence of John Sobieski, and
now belongs to Count Potocki, there are paintings by Rubens and other
celebrated masters, and there is a fine collection of armor, including the
suit which was presented to Sobieski by the Pope, after the former had
driven the Turks away from Vienna. It is beautifully inlaid with ivory
and mother-of-pearl, and covered with arabesques of astonishing delicacy.

















'.-. i \ _ .-,~ ._ 4









A BUSINESS MANN OF WARSAW.


We could have spent hours in studying it, and you may be sure we left it
with great reluctance.
Warsaw has a population of nearly three hundred thousand, and
there are a good many factories for the manufacture of carriages, pianos,
cloth, carpets, and machines of various kinds. The city is the centre of a






56 TIHE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

large trade in grain, cattle, horses, and wool, and altogether it may be con-
sidered prosperous. Much of the business is in the hands of the Jews,
who have managed to have and hold a great deal of wealth in spite of the
oppression they have undergone by both Poles and Russians.
"The women of Warsaw are famous for their beauty, and we are all
agreed that we have seen more pretty faces here than in any other city
of Europe in the same time. The Jews of Warsaw are nearly all blonds;
the men have red beards, and the hair of the women is of the shade that
used to be the fashion among American and English actresses, and is not



N 7- ,I ,il, -
















IN ST. PETERSBURG.

yet entirely forgotten. We bought some photographs in one of the
shops, and are sure they will be excellent adornments for our albums at
home.
In the evening we went to the opera in the hope of seeing the na-
tional costumes of the Poles, but in this we were disappointed. The
operas are sung in Italian; the principal singers are French, Italian, Eng-
lish, or any other nationality, like those of opera companies elsewhere, and
only the members of the chorus and ballet are Poles. Russian uniforms
are in the boxes and elsewhere in the house, and every officer is required
to wear his sword, and be ready at any moment to be summoned to fight.
The men not in uniform are in evening dress, and the ladies are like those
The men not in uniform are in evening dress, and the ladies are like those







IN ST. PETERSBURG. 57

of an audience in Vienna or Naples, so far as their dress is concerned.
The opera closed at half-past eleven ; our guide met us outside the door, and
when we proposed a stroll he said we must be at the hotel by midnight,
under penalty of being arrested. Any one out-of-doors between midnight
and daylight will be taken in by the police and locked up, unless he has
a pass from the authorities. In troubled times the city is declared in a
state of siege, and then everybody on the streets after dusk must carry a
lantern.
"As we had no fancy for passing the night in a Russian station-house,
we returned straight to the hotel. Probably we would have been there
by midnight in any event, as we were tired enough to make a long walk
objectionable."
The next day our friends visited some of the battle-fields near War-
saw, and on the third took the train for St. Petersburg, six hundred and
twenty-five miles away. There was little of interest along tbe line of
railway, as the country is almost entirely a plain, and one mile is so much
like another that the difference is scarcely perceptible. The principal
towns or cities through which they passed were Bialystok and Grodno, the
latter famous for having been the residence of several Polish kings, and
containing the royal castle where they lived. At Wilna, four hundred
and forty-one miles from St. P. I.. -1lI-_, the railway unites with that
from Berlin. The change of train and transfer of baggage detained the
party half an hour or more, but not long enough to allow them to inspect
this ancient capital of the independent duchy of Lithuania. At Pskof
they had another halt, but only sufficient for patronizing the restaurant.
The town is two miles from the station, and contains an old castle and
several other buildings of note; it has a prominent place in Poland's war
history, but is not often visited by travellers.
At Gatchina, famous for its trout and containing an Imperial palace,
an official collected the passports of the travellers, which were afterwards
returned to them on arriving at the St. Petersburg station. As they ap-
proached the Imperial city the first object to catch the eye was a great
ball of gold outlined against the sky. Frank said it must be the dome
of St. Isaac's Church, and the Doctor nodded assent to the suggestion.
The dome of St. Isaac's is to the capital of Russia what the dome of St.
Peter's is to Rome-the first object on which the gaze of the approaching
traveller is fixed.







5S THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.









CHAPTER III.
IN THE STREETS OF ST. PETERSBURG.-ISVQSIICHIKS AND DROSKIES.-COUNTING
IN RUSSIAN. -PASSPORTS AND THEIR USES.-ON THE NEVSKI PROSPECT.-
VISITING THE CHURCH OF KAZAN.-THE RUSSO-GREEK RELIGION.-UNFAVOR-
ABLE POSITION OF ST. PETERSBURG.-DANGER OF DESTRUCTION.-GREAT INUN-
DATION OF 1824.-STATUE OF PETER THE GREAT.-ADMIRALTY SQUARE.-THE
SAILORS AND THE STATUE.

A COMMISSIONER from the I-Itel de l'Europe was at the station.
Doctor Bronson gave him the receipts for their trunks, and after
securing their passports, which had been examined on the train during
the ride from Gatchina, the party entered a carriage and rode to the hotel.
Frank and Fred were impatient to try a drosky, and wondered why the
Doctor had not secured one of the vehicles characteristic of the country.
"You'll have abundant opportunities for d..l,--h;l,'1;ii." said Doctor
Bronson, in reply to Fred's query on the subject. For the present the
vehicle is not suited to our purposes, as we have our hand-'i. .-- i: and
other trifles; besides, we are three individuals, while the drosky is only
large enough for two."
The youths confirmed with their eyes the correctness of the Doctor's
assertion as the little vehicles were whizzing around them in every direc-
tion. The drosky is a stout carriage on low wheels, somewhat resem-
bling the victoria of Western Europe, and is drawn by a single horse.
The isvoshchik, or driver, is seated on a high box in front, and somehow
lie manages to get an astonishing speed out of the shaggy animal that
forms his team. Frank afterwards wrote as follows concerning droskies
and isvoshchiks:
"It is astonishing to contemplate the swarm of droskies with which
St. Petersburg and every other Russian city abounds. They are to be
found everywhere and at all hours. No matter where you may be, or at
what hour of the day or night, you have only to call out Isvoshchik!'
or 'Drosky!' and one of the little carriages appears as if by magic.
Not only one, but half a dozen will be pretty sure to come forward. The
drivers contend, and not always very politely, for the honor of your pat-







DROSKIES AND ISVOSHCHIKS. 59

ronage; but as soon as you have made your selection the rejected ones
drop away and leave you undisturbed.
"There is something interesting in the manner of the isvoshchik,
especially in the marked contrast before and after he has made a bargain
with you. Until the transaction is closed, lie is as independent as the
hackman of New York or the cabby of London. The moment the bargain
is settled and he has accepted your offer, he is your willing slave. Offer





















Vi.
I --





ISVOSIICIIKS IN WINTER.

him forty copecks an hour, and lie refuses, while demanding fifty or sixty;
you walk on, and lie pretends to go away, and if your offer is unreason-
ably low he will not trouble you again. Suddenly he reins up his horse
close to the sidewalk, springs from his seat, and with the word 'Poshozoltz'
(' If you please') lie motions you to enter the carriage. lIe is now at
your service, and will drive just as you desire; your slightest wish will
be his law.
Doctor Bronson told us we must learn how to count in Russian, and
also acquire a few phrases in common use; the more of them we could
learn the better. While on the train from Warsaw to St. Petersburg we
learned to count. I think we did it in about two hours, as it was really







60 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

very simple after we had gone through the numerals up to ten and
fixed them in mind. Perhaps you would like to know how it is done;
well, here it is:
The numerals from one to twelve are o-deen, dva, tree, che-tee-ri, pyat,
shayst, sem, vocem, de-vee-at, de-ci-at, odeen-nat-zat, dva-nat-zat. For thir-






























DROSKY DRIVERS.


teen, fourteen, and so on, you add 'nat-zat' to the single numerals till you
get to twenty, which is dva-deciat,' or two tens. Twenty-one is dra-
deciat-odeen,' or two tens and one, and so on. You go up to thirty, which
is tree-deciat,' or three tens, but generally shortened in pronunciation to
treetsat' or tritsat.' All the other tens up to ninety are formed in the
same way, with the exception of forty, which is 'sorok.' Ninety is deviat-
na-sto' (' ten taken from hundred'), and one hundred is sto ;' two hundred
na-sto (' ten taken from hundred '), and one hundred is sto ;' two hundred







RIDING IN THE STREETS. 61

is 'dva-sto.' The other hundreds are formed in the same way to five
hundred, which is pyat sot;' six hundred is 'shayst sot,' and the other
hundreds go on the same way; one thousand is 'tis-syat-sha.' You can
now go ahead with tens and hundreds of thousands up to a million, which
is meel-yon'-very much like our own word for the same number.
"It helps us greatly in getting around among the people without a
guide. We can bargain with the drivers, make purchases in the shops,
and do lots and lots of things which we could not if we didn't know how
to count. Any boy or man who comes to Russia should learn to count
while he is riding from the frontier to St. Petersburg, and if he takes our
advice he will do so. He can find it all in Murray's or any other good
guide-book, and he will also find there the most useful phrases for travel-
ling purposes.
In driving with the isvoshchiks, we have found them very obliging,
and both Fred and I have been many times surprised at their intelligence
when we remembered that very few of them were able to read or write
their own language. When they find we are foreigners, and do not speak
Russian, they do not jabber away like French or German drivers, or Lon-
don cabbies, but confine themselves to a very few words. Take one we
had to-day, for example: as he drove along he called our attention to the
churches and other public buildings that we passed by, pronouncing the
name of the building and nothing more. In this way we understood him;
but if he had involved the name with a dozen or twenty other words we
should have been in a perfect fog about it.
In winter the drosky makes way for the sledge, which is the tiniest
vehicle of the kind you can imagine. Two persons can crowd into a
sledge, though there is really room for only one. Whether you are one or
two, you sit with your face within ten or twelve inches of the driver's
back, which forms almost the entire feature of your landscape. The
sledges in winter are even more numerous than are the droskies in sum-
mer, as many persons ride then who do not do so when the weather is
warm.
Everybody rides in a Russian city in winter-at least everybody who
claims to have much respect for himself; and in fact riding is so cheap
that it must be a very shallow purse that cannot afford it. For a drive of
a mile or less you pay eight or ten copecks (ten copecks equal eight cents),
and you can ride a couple of miles for fifteen copecks, and sometimes for
ten. By the hour you pay forty or fifty copecks; and if you make a
bargain you can have the vehicle all to yourself a whole day for a dollar
and a half, and sometimes less. They go very fast; and if your time is






"THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

limited, and you want to see a good deal in a little while, it is the best
kind of economy to hire an isvoshchik to take you about."
We left our friends on the way to the hotel when we wandered off to
hear what Frank had to say about the droskies and their drivers. The
ride along the streets was full of interest to the youths, to whom it was all
new; but it was less so to Doctor Bronson, who had been in St. Peters-
burg before. They drove up the Vosnesenski Prospect, a broad avenue
which carried them past the Church of the Holy Trinity, one of the in-
teresting churches out of the many in the city, and then by a cross street
passed into the Nevski Prospect, which may be called the Broadway of
the Russian capital. We shall hear more of the Nevski Prospect later on.
At the hotel they surrendered their passports to the clerk as soon as
they had selected their rooms; the Doctor told the youths they would
not again see those important documents until they had settled their bill
and prepared to leave. Frank and Fred were surprised at this announce-
ment, and the Doctor explained:
The passports must go at once to the Central Bureau of the Police,
and we shall be registered as stopping in this hotel. When the register
has been made the passports will be returned to the hotel and locked up
in the manager's safe, according to the custom of the country."
Why doesn't he give them back to us instead of locking them in the
safe ?" one of the youths inquired.
It has long been the custom for the house-owner to keep the pass-
port of any one lodging with him, as he is in a certain sense responsible
for his conduct. Besides, it enabled him to be sure that nobody leaves
without paying his bill, for the simple reason that lie can't get away.
When we are ready to go we must give a few hours' notice; the passports
will be sent to the police-office again, with a statement as to our destina-
tion ; after we have paid our bills and are ready to go, the passports will
be handed to us along with the receipt for our money."
That makes hotel-keeping a great deal more certain than it is in
American cities, does it not ?" said Fred.
And you never hear in Russia of a man running away from a hotel
where he has contracted a large bill, and leaving nothing but a trunk filled
with straw and stove-wood as security, do you ?" Frank inquired.
Such a thing is unknown," the Doctor answered. I once told
some Russian acquaintances about the way hotel-keepers were defrauded
in America by unprincipled persons. One of them exclaimed, What a
happy country! and how cheaply a man could live there, with no police
officers to stop his enterprise !' "













..I r
,i ', 'r ,s I' -" *' iF -;.- '- -:
'p- t rl .-. -, 'r t 'I / : 0-



S i- -,, I-- "- ..r"-' ',1 ,, ''I'
avz--
.E A ,I .-,
a' ,- *, 2 /-'. *' r ,

u -" .' '" ,','



/ I .- I ,' -
'---G O- A p! ,CA.
-
r" ---- ; -h l ----= = _,,,- ,= -. .. -1 "- - .- --_- _
, r -:- r I! :,'I '' Ii .- ', --- - ,
---- H -- -------- r =- -- ,,, .... =_ 1 .' == 'i -- ' .. -
.~ _- ,: ,. .. .- .- --I, I -



SI,~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~, III' Ol'ttI(I OFCIL







64 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

"When you go from one city to another," said the Doctor, "the for-
mality to be observed is slight, and the hotel people will attend to it for
you without charge. When you are going to leave Russia, a few days'
notice must be given at the police-office; and if any creditors have filed
their claims against you with the police, you must settle them before you
can have your passport. If any one owes you money, and you have rea-
son to believe he intends leaving the country, you can stop him or get
your money by leaving your account with the police for collection. Ab-
sconding debtors are nearly as rare in Russia as absconding hotel-patrons,
for the simple reason that the law restricts their movements. In spite of
what our English friend said of the passport system, there are some ex-
cellent features about it. Another thing is-"
They were interrupted by a servant, who came to ask if there were
any friends in St.Petersburg whom they wished to find. The commis-
sioner was going to the Police Bureau with the passports, and would make
any inquiries they desired.
The Doctor answered in the negative, and the servant went away.
"That is what I was about to mention," said Doctor Bronson, as soon
as the door was closed. "The first time I came to St. Petersburg I was
riding along the Nevski Prospect, and saw an old acquaintance going in
the other direction. He did not see me, and before I could turn to fol-
low him he was lost in the crowd of vehicles. But in two hours I found
him, and we had a delightful afternoon together. How do you suppose
I did it ?
Why, I sent to the Police Bureau, paid two cents, and obtained a
memorandum of his address. For a fee of two cents you can get the
address of any one you name, and for two cents each any number of ad-
dresses. In numerous instances I found it a great convenience, and so
have other travellers. If you wanted to find a friend in New York or Lon-
don, and didn't know his address, you would have a nice time about it;
but in Moscow or St. Petersburg there would be no trouble whatever."
As soon as they had removed the dust of the journey our friends went
out for a stroll before dinner. The I6tel de 1'Europe is on the corner of
the Nevski Prospect and one of the smaller streets, and only a short dis-
tance from the Kazanski Sobor, or Church of Kazan. But before they
enter this celebrated edifice we will look with them at the grand avenue,
the Nevski Prospect.
"It is straight as a sunbeam for three miles," said Fred in his note-
book, "with the Admiralty Buildings at one end, and the Church of St.
Alexander Nevski at the other, though the latter is a little way from the







THE NEVSKI PROSPECT. 65

line. It is perfectly level from end to end, like a street of New Orleans
or Sacramento. St. Petersburg is built on a marsh, and through its whole
extent there isn't a hill other than an artificial one. It is a broad avenue
(one hundred and thirty feet in width), reminding us of the boulevards of
Paris, and the crowd of vehicles coming and going at all hours of the day
and far into the night makes the scene a picturesque one.
"All classes and kinds of Russians are to be seen here, from the mu-
jik, with his rough coat of sheepskin, up to the officer of the army, whose







N.















-:Rf
,_---2_













RUSSIAN ORKMN ON TR WA ME
















hardly one of them without the .or yoke, over the horse between the
shafts. The horses are driven furiously, but they are completely under
5







G(5 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.










L '- .' .



























RUSSIAN OFFICER WITH DECORATIONS.

the control of their drivers, and accidents are said to be very rare. Per-
haps this is owing to the fact that a driver is liable to severe punishment
if he causes any injury to a pedestrian.
"Somebody has remarked that the Nevski Prospect ought to be called
Toleration Avenue, for the reason that it contains churches of so many
different faiths. There are of coarse the Russo-Greek churches, represent-
ing the religion of the country, and there are Catholic, Lutheran, Dutch,
and Armenian churches, standing peacefully in the same line. It is a pity







THE CHURCH OF KAZAN. 67

that the adherents of these diverse religions do not always agree as well as
do the inanimate edifices that represent them.
"The buildings are very substantial in appearance, and many of them
are literally palaces. The military headquarters are on the Nevski, and so
is the palace of one of the grand-dukes; then there are several palaces
belonging to noble families. There is the Institution of St. Catherine,
and the Gostinna Dvor, or Great Market-place, with ten thousand mer-
chants, more or less, transacting business there. We'll go there to make
some purchases and tell you about it; at present we will cross the Nevski
to the Church of Kazan.
"It reminds us of the Church of St. Peter at Rome, as it has a colon-
nade in imitation of the one which attracts the eye of every visitor to the
Eternal City, and takes its name from Our Lady of Kazan," to whom it
is dedicated. Kazan was once a Tartar city, and the capital of the Tartar
kingdom of the same name. It was fortified, and stoutly defended, and
gave the Russians a great deal of trouble. In the sixteenth century John
the Terrible conquered the kingdom and annexed it to Russia. The last
act in the war was the capture of the city of Kazan. The Russians were
several times repulsed, but finally the Kremlin was carried, and the Tartar
power came to an end. A picture of the Virgin was carried in front of
the attacking column, and this picture, all devout Russians believe, gave
the victory over the M.1.-I:ii. The church was built in memory of the
event, and the sacred picture from Kazan is preserved and worshipped
here.
"It is a beautiful church, in the form of a cross, two hundred and thir-
ty-eight feet long and one hundred and eighty-two feet wide. From the
ground to the top of the cross above the cupola is more than two hundred
and thirty feet, and the cupola is so large that it is visible from a long dis-
tance. As we entered the church we were struck by the absence of seats.
We were told by the Doctor that Russian churches contain no seats, and
all worshippers must stand or kneel while at their devotions. To this
there are no exceptions; the same requirement being made of the Em-
peror as of the most obscure peasant.
"There is no instrumental music in the Greek Church, and church
choirs composed of male and female voices are unknown here. All the
singers in the churches are men; the prayers are mostly intoned, and all
the congregation joins in the responses. There are no pews, or reserved
places of any kind, except a standing-place for the Emperor, all worship-
pers being considered equal; neither are there any fees to be paid by
those who come to worship.







68 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

"The picture of Our Lady of Kazan, which has such a miraculous le-
gend connected with it, is richly covered with precious stones, said to be
worth nearly a hundred thousand dollars. There are other costly pictures
in the church, but none to equal this one. There are a good many flags,
and other trophies of war, along the walls and around the pillars ; and, to
tell the truth, it has almost as much the appearance of a military museum
as of a cathedral. There are the keys of Hamburg, Leipsic, and other cit-
ies which at various times have been captured by Russia, and the church
contains the tombs of several Russian generals who were killed in the war
with France in 1812.
We observed a curious effect in the pictures in this church which
we found afterwards in a great many holy pictures in Russia. The hands
and face, and any other flesh, are
painted on a flat surface, but the
dress and ornaments are often
raised in gold, silver, or other metal,
and studded with precious stones,
according to the will or financial
S... ability of the owner. The (C'I,. I,
rejects all massive images of the
Saviour or saints as idolatrous, and
,-. *says they violate the command-
ment Thou shalt not make unto
i I thyself any graven image." It
'._ does not exclude mosaics, and any-
'S thing produced in low relief, but the
S. -- rule that flesh shall be represented
by a flat surface is imperative.
S----"We afterwards attended serv-
': ice in the Kazan church, and were
St impressed with its solemnity and
-..-L -.i simplicity. The vocal music had
.- an admirable effect as it resounded
A. RssI.AN PrII:ST. through the vast building, and we
have never anywhere seen a congre-
gation more devout than this. Nearly every one held a candle, and care-
fully guarded the flame from the draughts that occasionally swept over
the congregation. Illuminations have a very important place in all
church ceremonies, and there are no weddings, betrothals, funerals, or any
other sacred services, without candles or tapers.







PIETY OF THE RUSSIANS, 69

Lights are kept burning in front of the principal pictures in the
churches. Throughout the Empire there is an BEikon, or sacred picture, in
the principal room of every house whose owner is an adherent of the
Church of the country, and often in every room of consequence. On en-
tering a room where there is such a picture, every devout Russian crosses
himself; and so great is the respect shown to it, that when Russian thieves
enter a room for the purpose of i.. ;!,l, they spread a handkerchief over
the picture so that the saint who is represented upon it cannot see them.
Religion has a more important part in the practical life of the Rus-
sians than in that of any other people of Europe. The blessing of the
Church is invoked upon every undertaking. Steamboats, ships, and all
other craft are blessed by the priest at their launching or before being
put into service; the locomotives and carriages of a railway are similarly
treated; and the same may be said of every vehicle, machine, or other
thing of consequence. So with cattle, horses, sheep, and other live-stock;
and so, also, with the furniture and adornments of the house.
"In the theatres the Government does not allow the representation of
any kind of religions ceremonial as part of a performance, lest it might
bring religion into ridicule, and under no circumstances can an actor be
dressed to personate a priest. The Czar, or Emperor, is the recognized
head of the Church, and among the common people he is regarded as
only a little less than a.1;. ;; -,.
Those who have lived long among the Russians, and ought to know
them, say the venerative feeling among the common people is very great,
and more so among the higher classes than in the Latin countries of
Europe. They are devout church-goers, and the feasts and fasts of the
Church are carefully observed. They form a serious drawback to business
matters, as there are certain days when no man or woman can be induced
to work at any price. The owners of establishments which require to
be kept constantly in operation manage to get around this custom by
keeping their employs constantly in debt, as the Russian law and custom
compel a man to work steadily to discharge such indebtedness.
"Pilgrimages to monasteries and shrines are more common among the
Russians than any other Christian people, and the poorer classes often go
on long and painful journeys through their religious zeal. A large num-
ber of Russian pilgrims can be found in Jerusalem every year at Easter,
as well as at other times. So important is this pilgrimage that the Rus-
sian Government maintains a convent at Jerusalem for lodging its sub-
jects ; and the Crimean war practically grew out of a quarrel which was
brought about with reference to the holy places of the famous city.







70 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

"Great numbers of pilgrims go every year from all parts of Russia to
the Convent of Solovetsk in the Frozen Sea, seven or eight hundred miles
to the north-east of the capital.
"We may have more to say on religious matters before leaving Russia,
but for the present we will drop the subject and continue our walk on
the Nevski."
As they strolled in the direction of the Neva, the river that gives its
name to the long avenue, Fred asked how it happened that St. Petersburg
was built on a marsh instead of upon elevated ground.
"It was because Peter the Great wanted a capital city that could be a
seaport, and this was the best site that could be found. Moscow was in-
land (it is four hundred miles from here to that city), and Peter realized
that no country could be great and important without communication
over the sea to other lands. So he came here and founded the city
which bears his name. It was a forbidding place, but his will was law,
and the city grew and lived though a hundred thousand men perished in
the first year of its construction. The first house was built in 1703. In
1712 Peter declared it his capital, and the Imperial court was moved
here from Moscow. For a long time the place was very unhealthy, and
even down to the present day it is not by any means the best location
in the world for a city. The drainage is defective, the drinking-water is
not good, especially in the summer season, and the city has several times
suffered from inundations.
For many years every vessel coming to the port, and every cart enter-
ing the city, was required to bring a certain number of stones for filling
the marsh and paving the streets. Where the large buildings stand, fab-
ulous amounts have been expended in making foundations, and many of
them have cost more than the buildings that stand upon them. The
foundations of the Church of St. Isaac are said to have cost four millions
of dollars, and twenty-five years were spent in their construction."
Frank asked about the inundations mentioned by the Doctor.
There have been some eight or ten of them," the Doctor answered.
"Tlhe most serious inundation of this century was in 1824, when the
water of the Neva rose thirteen feet and four inches above its ordinary
level. Observe that line," said he, as he pointed to a mark upon a build-
ing; "that is the point to which the waters rose in the inundation of 1824."
The mark was nearly four feet above the level of the sidewalk where
they stood. Frank and Fred regarded it with astonishment, while the
Doctor continued:
"In a single night (November 17th) property to the value of twenty







C-











_:-


:~_-r~-_ .-__,L .
,,~~~~~ ~ ~ .. .,, ,--.::,,, .: ,.,, .,.--
r;;







-- -,--- T ,-





OF S _IN_ _TH F__- -..N S
-_ _



CON'IENT OF SOLO,'I'TSK I\ TlE FRO/EN SEA.







72 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

millions of dollars was destroyed, and it was estimated that not less than
eight thousand people lost their lives. The flood was caused by a strong
westerly wind which combined with the tide and forced the waters in







----- -- --" -III -

























THE INUNDATION OF 1824.

from the Gulf of Finland, which is here formed like a funnel. Now sup-
pose the flood had occurred in April, at the time when Lake Ladoga breaks
up and pours its accumulated ice and water through the Neva, what would
have been the result ?"
SWould the city have been destroyed ?" queried one of the youths.
So it is said, by many wo have studied its position. They aver that
!-- t l ~, .. .. .
A .,- .-, : "
Z. Ad ,;' . .,., ,e", ,,-.; ." -i-'l ,. ., .















So it is said, by many who have studied its position. They aver that







EFFECTS OF THE INUNDATION. 73

when a high tide, a westerly wind, and the breaking up of the ice in Lake
Ladoga shall all come together, the streets of St. Petersburg will be not
less than twenty feet under water, and Russia will be obliged to select an-
other site for her capital. But as it is not likely that all these things will
happen during our visit, we won't borrow any trouble about the matter."
S" I have read," said Fred, that in that inundation the prisoners in
the fort were drowned in their cells. The lower part of the fort was
flooded, was it not ?"
Yes," the Doctor answered; "but so many romances have been
written on the subject that it is difficult to get at the exact truth. It is
very likely that the prisoners in the lower cells of the fort were drowned,
and I believe the authorities admit that such was the case. In the Paris
Exhibition of 1867 there was a startling picture representing the death of










-: --

J--
I I f4 [: ff

T-. [:_ -' .. 1C. ;,-_-__








STATUE OF PETER THl GREAT.


a Russian princess who was imprisoned there at tlhe time. She is repre-
sented standing on her little bed surrounded by rats that have been
driven from their holes by the flood. The water is nearly up to the level
of the bed, and is pouring in at the grated window. The picture haunted
-etc -tndn n -e --:tl ----- -urn nl c --- -2# -{i :'" t- L '." '! v ... ,- '







74 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

me for years after I saw it, and even now it occasionally comes up in my
dreams. I haven't thought of it for some time, but this question of yours
has revived it."
They continued their walk towards the Neva, with an occasional glance
at the needle-like spire that rises above the Admiralty buildings. They
came out into Admiralty Square, a large open space, which gave them a
view of the Admiralty buildings, the Church of St. Isaac, the equestrian
statue of Peter the Great, and the Winter Palace, together with one of the
bridges spanning the Neva to the islands opposite.
"Which shall we see first ?" queried the Doctor of his young com-
panions.
"Whichever you think best," answered Frank, to which Fred nodded
approval.
Our time just now is limited," said the Doctor, "and perhaps we will
satisfy ourselves with the statue of Peter the Great. But as we walk
about we must not fail to take in the general view, which is of unusual
interest."
Tile statue is well known through its frequent representation in en-
gravings, and is one of the most remarkable monuments of the Imperial
city. It was ordered by the Empress Catherine, and was cast by Falconet,
a Frenchman. The inscription upon it reads-
"PETUU PERVOMU.-EKATERINA VTORYA."
(To Peter I.-By Catherine II., MDCCLXXXII.)
Evidently Catherine had a sufficient idea of her consequence, as the letters
which make her name are considerably larger than those of her illustrious
sire's.
The horse," said Fred, in his note-book, is on the brink of a preci-
pice, where he is being reined in by his rider. Peter's face is towards the
Neva, while his right hand is directed to the city which lie built. Under
the horse's feet is a serpent, which typifies the difficulties the Czar has
overcome. The horse is balanced on his hind legs and tail, his forefeet
being clear from the rock. It is said that the weight of the statue is
about ten thousand pounds.
The statue stands on a block of granite that originally weighed fif-
teen hundred tons, and was brought from Finland. The block is fourteen
feet high, twenty feet broad, and forty-three feet long. It consists of two
pieces that have been carefully joined together, and the operation of mov-
ing it was a triumph of engineering skill.
I have read a good story apropos of this monument-about two boys







AN AMUSING INCIDENT. 75

who belonged to an English ship that was lying at the quay beyond the
statue. They had wandered off into the city and lost their way, and in
order to get back they engaged a carriage. But after engaging it they
were in trouble, as they could not tell the driver where to go.
"Two sailors from the same ship happened along, and to them the
boys told the story of their perplexity. The sailors were in the same
predicament, as they wanted to get back to the ship, and didn't know
which way to go.



_i I ; i ; I1
















IMPROVISING A STATURE.

If we only knew what the Russian is for that statue,' said one of
the boys, we could make him understand.'
They tried all the words they knew, but to no purpose. Suddenly
an idea occurred to one of the sailors. HIe asked the other to get down on
all-fours, which lie did, wondering what was the matter with his comrade.
Jack mounted his friend's back as though hlie were a steed, and took the
attitude of Peter the Great as nearly as lie could remember it. The other
sailor caught at the idea, and reared slightly on his feet in the position
of Peter's horse. The isvoshchiks comprehended what was wanted, and
roared with delight; the two sailors jumped into a drosky, which fol-
lowed the carriage containing the boys, and in due time the party arrived
safely at its destination."
safely at its destination."







76 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.








CI-IAPTER IV.
DINNER IN A RUSSIAN RESTAURANT.-CABBAGE SOUP, FISH PIES, AND OTHER ODD
DISHES.-THE SAMO VAR AND ITS USES.-RUSSIAN TEA- DRINKERS.-JOLTYAI
CILIl4.-ALEXANDER'S COLUMN.-FORTRESS OF STS. PETER AND PAUL.-IMPE-
RIAL ASSASSINATIONS.--SKETCHES OF THE PEOPLE.-RUSSIAN POLICE AND
THEIR WAYS.
IXSTEAD of returning to the hotel for dinner, our friends went to a
traktir, or Russian restaurant, in a little street running out of Admi-
ralty Square. The youths were anxious to try the national dishes of the
country, and consequently they accepted with pleasure Doctor Bronson's
: .- ... t relative to their dining-place.
"The finest and most characteristic restaurants of Russia are in Mos-
cow rather than in St. Petersburg," said the Doctor, as he led the way to
the establishment they had decided to patronize. St. Petersburg has a
great many French and German features that you do not find in Moscow,
and when we get to the latter city we must not fail to go to the Mos-
kovski Traktir,' which is one of the most celebrated feeding-places of the
old capital. There the waiters are clad in silk shirts, or frocks, extending
nearly to the knee, over loose trousers of the same material. At the estab-
lishment where we are now going the dress is that of the ordinary French
restaurant, and we shall have no difficulty in finding some one who speaks
either French or German."
They found the lower room of the restaurant filled with men solacing
themselves with tea, which they drank from glasses filled and refilled from
pots standing before them. On each table was a steaming samovar to sup-
ply boiling water to the teapots as fast as they were emptied. The boys
had seen the samovar at railway-stations and other places since their en-
trance into the Empire, but had not thus far enjoyed the opportunity of
examining it.
We will have a samovar to ourselves," said the Doctor, as they
mounted the stairs to an upper room, and then you can study it as
closely as you like."
The Russian bill of fare was too much for the reading abilities of any
one of the trio. The Doctor could spell out some of the words, but found







RUSSIAN DINNERS. 77

they would get along better by appealing to one of the waiters. Under
his guidance they succeeded very well, as we learn from Frank's account
of the dinner.
Doctor Bronson told us that cabbage soup was the national dish of
the country, and so we ordered it, under the mysterious name of tsc/hee e
kcarsha. The cabbage is chopped, and then boiled till it falls into shreds;
a piece of meat is cooked with it; the soup is seasoned with pepper and
salt; and altogether the tschee (soup) is decidedly palatable. IKashia is
barley thoroughly boiled, and then dried over the fire until the grains fall
apart. A saucerful of this cooked barley is supplied to you along with the
soup, and you eat them together. You may mingle the karsha with the


1-







-I'

V ,:






.' ^ S T ,'




TEA-SELLERS IN THE STREETS.


tschee as you would mix rice with milk, but the orthodox way of eating is
to take a small quantity of the karsha into your spoon each time before
dipping it into the soup. A substantial meal can be made of these arti-
cles alone, and there are millions of the subjects of his Imperial Majesty
the Czar who dine to-day and many other days in the year on nothing
else. The Emperor eats tschee, and so does the peasant-probably the







78 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

Emperor has it less often in the year than does his poor subject; but the
soup is of the same kind, except that very often the peasant cannot afford
the important addition of meat."
"Don't forget," Fred interposed, when the foregoing description was
























RUSSIAN RESTAURANT AT THE PARIS EXPOSITION.

read to him-" don't forget to say that they served us a little cup or mug
of sour cream along with the t8chee."
Yes, that's so," responded Frank; "but I didn't like it particularly,
and therefore came near forgetting it. We remember best the things that
please us."
"Then perhaps you didn't like the zakushka, or appetizer, before din-
ner," said the Doctor, "as I see you haven't mentioned it."
"I hadn't forgotten it," said the youth, "but was going to say some-
thing about it at the end. You know the preface of a book is always
written after the rest of the volume has been completed, but as you've
called attention to it, I'll dispose of it now. Here it is:
"There was a side-table, on which were several plates containing rel-
ishes of different kinds, such as caviare, raw herring, dried beef, smoked







THE ZAKUSHKA. 79

salmon cut in little strips or squares, radishes, cheese, butter, and tiny sand-
wiches about the size of a half-dollar. A glass of cordial, of which sev-
eral kinds were offered, goes with the zakudshka for those who like it; the
cordial and a few morsels of the solid things are supposed to sharpen the
appetite and prepare it for the dinner which is to be eaten at the table.
"The zacku(s/hk is inseparable from a dinner in Russia, and belongs to
it just as much as do any of the dishes that are served after the seats are
taken. While we were standing around the side-table where it was served
at our first dinner in St. Petersburg, Doctor Bronson told us a story that
is too good to be lost. I'll try to give it in his words:
There was once a Russian soldier who had 'a phenomenal appetite;
he could eat an incredible quantity of food at a sitting, and the officers of




- .. -
;V A














could eat an entire sheep at a sitting. The sheep was selected, slaugh-
AN OUT-DOOR T_,',A-PAPTY.




when lie had gained a bet, lie exerted himself to the best of his ability.
SOne day the colonel made a ager for a large amount tat his ma









could eat an entire sheep at a sitting. The sheep was selected, slaug.-
tered, and sent to a restaurant, and at the appointed time the colonel ap-
peared with the soldier. In order to help the man along, the keeper of
the restaurant, had cooked the different parts of the sheep in various ways;







SO THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

there were broiled and fried cutlets, roasted and boiled quarters, and some
stews and hashes made from the rest. Dish after dish disappeared. When
almost the entire sheep had been devoured, the soldier turned to the colo-
nel and said,
"'If you give me so much zcdaiusJJcln I'm afraid I sha'n't be able to
eat all of the sheep when they bring it.' "
"But to return to soups. In addition to tsc/iee, the Russians have
k7wa, or fish soup, made of any kind of fish that is in season. The most
expensive is made from sterlet, a fish that is found only in the Volga, and
sometimes sells for its weight in silver. We tried it one day, and liked
it very much, but it costs too much for frequent eating except by the
wealthy. A very good fish soup is made from trout, and another from
perch.
"After the soup we had a pirog, or pie made of the spinal cord of the
sturgeon cut into little pieces about half as large as a pea. It resembles
isinglass in appearance and is very toothsome. The pie is baked in a deep
dish, with two crusts, an upper and an under one. Doctor Bronson says
the Russians make all kinds of fish into pies and patties, very much as we
make meat pies at home. They sometimes put raisins in these pies-a
practice which seems very incongruous to Americans and English. They
also make solianka, a dish composed of fish and cabbage, and not at all
bad when one is hungry; red or black pepper liberally applied is an im-
provement.
What do you think of okrosllkka-a soup made of cold beer, with
pieces of meat, cucumber, and red herrings floating in it along with bits
of ice to keep it cool? Don't want any. Neither do we; but the Rus-
sians of the lower classes like it, and I have heard Russian gentlemen
praise it. Many of them are fond of bactven ia, which is a cold soup made
in much the same way as okroslhka, and about as unpalatable to us. We
ordered a portion of okkros/ika just to see how it looked and tasted. One
teaspoonful was enough for each of us, and batlvenia we didn't try.
After the pirog we had cutlets of chicken, and then roast mutton
stuffed with buckwheat, both of them very good. They offered us some
boiled pig served cold, with horseradish sauce, but we didn't try it; and
then they brought roast grouse, with salted cucumbers for salad. We
wound up with Nesselrode pudding, made of plum-pudding and ices, and
not unknown in other countries. Then we had the samovr, which had
been made ready for us, and drank some delicious tea which we prepared
ourselves. Now for the sacmovar.
"Its name comes from two words which mean 'self-boiling;' and the







HABITS OF TEA-DRINKERS. H1

samovar is nothing but an urn of brass or copper, with a cylinder in the
centre, where a fire is made with charcoal. The water surrounds the
cylinder, and is thus kept at the boiling-point, which the Russians claim
is indispensable to the making of good tea. The beverage is drank not






'- i i "' i




| '- ,





I ::_, "%














IRUSSIAN MIUJIKS DRINKING TEA.

from cups, but front glasses, and the number of glasses it will contain is
the measure of a samovar. The Russians rarely put milk with their tea ;
the common people never do so, and the upper classes only when they
have acquired the habit while abroad. They rarely dissolve sugar in their
tea, but nibble from a lump after taking a swallow of the liquid. A
peasant will make a single lump serve for four or five glasses of tea,
and it is said to be an odd sensation for a stranger to hear the nibbling
.-






89 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

and grating of lumps of sugar when a party of Russians is engaged in
tea-drinking.
We sat late over the samovar, and then paid our bill and returned to
the Square. Doctor Bronson told us that an enormous quantity of tea is
consumed in Russia, but very lit-
tle coffee. Formerly all the tea
.. used in the Empire was brought
i- overland from China by way of
-. ; ..".-- Siberia, and the business enabled
,= "' the importers of tea to accumu-
---- .late great fortunes. Down to
SI .. 1 only one cargo of tea an-
nually was brought into Russia
b..y sea, all the rest of the impor-
', ". station being through the town of
.I. iachta, on the frontier of Mon-
S' I golia. Since 1860 the ports of
~' y -.- ^the Empire have been opened to
Stea brought from China by wa-
-.-; .' 'ter, and the trade of Kiachta has
~ r greatly diminished. But it is
i I still very large, and long trains
-, of sledges come every winter
Through Siberia laden with the
tea which has been brought to
iI Kiachta on the backs of camels
from the districts where it is
grown.
PLANT FROM WHICH YELLOW TEA IS MADE. There is one kind of the
Chinese herb, called joltai cial
(yellow tea), which is worth at retail about fifteen dollars a pound. It
is said to be made from the blossom of the tea-plant, and is very diffi-
cult to find out of Russia, as all that is produced comes here for a mar-
ket. We each had a cup of this tea to finish our dinner with, and noth-
ing more delicious was ever served from a teapot. The infusion is a pale
yellow, or straw-color, and to look at appears weak enough, but it is
unsafe to take more than one cup if you do not wish to be kept awake
all night. Its aroma fills the room when it is poured out. All the pens
in the world cannot describe the song of the birds or the perfume of the
flowers, and so my pen is unable to tell you about the aroma and taste







MONUMENTS IN ST. PETERSBURG. 83

of joltai chai. We'll get a small box of the best and send it home for
you to try."
It was so late in the day when our friends had finished their dinner
and returned to the Square, that there was not much time left for sight-
seeing. They were in front of the Winter Palace and St. Isaac's Church,
but decided to leave them until another day. Fred's attention was drawn
to a tall column between the Winter Palace and a crescent of lofty build-
ings called the btat-major, or staff headquarters, and he asked the Doctor
what it was.
That is the Alexander Column," was the reply to the question. "It
is one of the largest monoliths or single shafts of modern times, and was
erected in 1832 in memory of Alexander I."
"What a splendid column!" said Frank. "I wonder how high it is."




01. .. 11- ----.







Mumll. I












COLUMN IN MEMORY OF ALEXANDER I.

Thereupon the youths fell to guessing at the height of the column.
After they had made their estimates-neither of them near the mark but
considerably below it-Doctor Bronson gave them its dimensions.







84 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

The shaft, without pedestal or capital, is fourteen feet in diameter
and eighty-four feet high ; it was originally one hundred and two feet
high, but was reduced through fear that its length was out of proportion
to its diameter. The base and pedestal are one single block of red granite
about twenty-five feet high, and the capital is sixteen feet high. The
angel above the capital is fourteen feet tall, and the cross in the hands of
the angel is seven feet above it. With the platform on which it rests,
the whole structure rises one hundred and fifty-four feet from the level of
the ground."
"They must have had a hard time to make the foundations in this
marshy ground," one of the boys remarked.
"They drove six rows of piling there, one after the other, before get-
ting a foundation to suit them," said the Doctor. "The shaft alone,
which was put up in the rough and finished afterwards, is thought to
weigh about four hundred tons, and the pedestal and base nearly as much
more. Unfortunately the shaft has suffered from the effects of the severe
climate, and may be destroyed at no distant day. Several cracks have
been made by the frost, and though they have been carefully cemented,
they continue to increase in size. Pieces have fallen from the surface of
the stone in the same way that they have fallen from the Egyptian obelisk
in New York, and it is very evident that the climate of St. Petersburg is
unfriendly to monuments of granite."
The bronze on the pedestal and capital is from Turkish cannon which
were melted down for the purpose. The only inscription is in the few
words,
TO ALEXANDER THE FIRST, GRATEFUL RUSSIA."

Frank made a sketch of the monument together with the buildings of
the 'P. .' ..' and a company of soldiers that marched past the foot of
the column. Doctor Bronson said the soldiers belonged to the guard
of the palace, where they had been on duty through the day, and had
just been relieved.
From the column and the buildings surrounding it the trio of strangers
walked to the bank of the river and watched the boats on the water,
where the setting sun slanted in long rays and filled the air with the
mellow light peculiar to high latitudes near the close of day. It was
early in September, and already the evening air had a touch of coolness
about it. St. Petersburg is in latitude 60' North, and consequently is quite
near the Arctic Circle. Doctor Bronson told the youths that if they had
come there in July they would have found very little night, the sun set-







DAYS AND NIGHTS IN THE CAPITAL. 85

ting not far from ten o'clock and rising about two. In the four hours
of night there is almost continuous twilight; and by mounting to the
top of a high building at midnight one can see the position of the sun
below the northern horizon. Any one who goes to bed after sunset
and rises before sunrise would have very little sleep in St. Petersburg
in summer.
"On the other hand," said the Doctor, the nights of winter are very































PETER THE GREAT


long. Winter is the gay season here, as the city is deserted by fashionable
people in summer, and one is not expected to make visits. Tlic Imperial
court goes away; thle Emperor as a palace at Yalta in the Crimea, and
there ie passes thie autumn months, unless kept in St. Petersburg or
M.,-..ow by the affairs of the nation. They have some public festivities







86 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

here in summer, but not generally, most of the matters of this kind being
reserved for the winter."
Boats were moving in all directions on the placid waters of the river,
darting beneath the magnificent bridge that stretches across the stream,
and carrying little parties, who sought recreation or were on errands of
business. On the opposite side of the Neva, and beyond the Winter
Palace, was the grim fortress of Sts. Peter and Paul, with whose history
many tales of horror are connected, and where numerous prisoners of
greater or less note have been confined. "It was there," said Doctor
Bronson, "that Peter the Great caused his son Alexis to be put to death."
Caused his son to be put to death!" exclaimed the youths together.
"Yes, it is generally believed that such was the case," the Doctor an-
swered, "though the fact is not actually known. Alexis, the son of Peter
the Great, was opposed to his father's reforms, and devotedly attached to
the old superstitions and customs of Russia. Peter decided to exclude
him from the throne; the son consented, and announced his desire to
enter a monastery, from which he managed to escape to Austria, where
lie sought the protection of the Emperor of that country. Peter sent
one of his generals in pursuit of Alexis; by a combination of threats and
promises he was induced to return to St. Petersburg, where he was thrown
into prison, and afterwards tried for high -treason and condemned to
death. Peter pardoned but did not release him. On the 7th of July,
1718, he died suddenly, and it was and is now generally believed that he
was poisoned or beheaded by his father's order."
And was he really guilty of high-treason ?" Fred asked.
"According to Russian law and custom, and particularly according to
the law and custom of Peter the Great, he certainly was," Doctor Bronson
replied. "Remember, the Emperor is autocratic in his power, at least in
theory, and in Peter's time he was so actually. The will of the founder
of the Russian Empire was law ; Alexis was opposed to that will, and con-
sequently opposed to the Imperial law. The progress of Russia was more
in the eyes of Peter than the life of any human being, not even excepting
his own son, and the legitimate heir to the throne. The proceedings of
the trial were published by Peter as a justification of his act.
"Peter II., the son of Alexis and grandson of the great Peter, died
suddenly, at the age of fifteen; Peter III., grandchild of Peter the Great
through his daughter Anna, was the husband of the Empress Catherine II.;
but his reign was very short. His life with Catherine was not the hap-
piest in the world, and in less than eight months after he became Em-
peror she usurped the throne, deposed her husband, and caused him to







AN IMPERIAL MURDER. B7

be strangled. Catherine was a German princess, but declared herself
thoroughly Russian when she came to reside in the Empire. If history is
correct, she made a better ruler than the man she put aside, but this can
be no justification of her means of attaining power.
Her son, Paul I., followed the fate of his father in being assassinated,
but it was not by her orders. She brought him up in complete ignorance










MI









ASSASSINATION 01 PEE








of public affairs, and compelled him to live iaway from the Imperial court.
Until her death, in 1796, she kept him in retirement, although she had
t












his sons taken to court and educated under her immediate supervision.
ASSASSINAT1O N OF PETER 1I11


of public affairs, and compelled him to llve away from the Imperial court.
Until her death, in 1796, she kept him in retirement, although she had
his sons taken to court and educated under her immediate supervision.
Treatment like this was calculated to make him whimsical and revengeful,
and when he became emperor he tried to undo every act of his mother
and those about her. He disbanded her armies, made peace with the
countries with which she was at war, reversed her policy in everything,
and became a most bitter tyrant towards his own people. IIe issued ab-
surd orders, and at length his acts bordered on insanity.
"A conspiracy was formed among some of the noblemen, who repre-






8I THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.
sented to his son Alexander that it was necessary to secure the abdication
of his father on the ground of incapacity. Late at night, March 23d,
1801, they went to his bedroom and presented a paper for him to sign.
lie refused, and was then strangled by the conspirators. Alexander I.



















PAUL I.

was proclaimed emperor, and the announcement of Pauls death was
hailed with delight by his oppressed subjects. Among the foolish edicts
hlie issued was one which forbade the wearing of round hats. Within an
hour after his death became known, great numbers of round hats were to
be seen on the streets.
"You've had enough of the history of the Imperial family of Russia
4-:
























for the present," said the Doctor, after a pause, and now we'll look at
the people on the streets. It is getting late, and we'll go to the hotel,
making our observations on the way.
Here are distinct types of the inhabitants of the Empire," the Doc-
tor remarked, as they passed two men who seemed to be in animated con-
versation. The man with the round cap and long coat is a Russian
peasant, while the one with the hood over his head and falling down to
his shoulders is a Finn, or native of Finland."
'ow far is it from here to F Mstoy ?" Frank asked.
"Only over the river," the Doctor replied. You cross tie Keva ta
Only over the river," tile Doctor replied. "I-ou cross thle rueun to







THE GOVERNMENT OF FINLAND. S9

its opposite bank, and you are in what was once the independent duchy
of Finland, but has long been incorporated with Russia. When Peter the
Great came here he did not like to be so near a foreign country, and so
made up his mind to convert'Finland into Russian territory. The inde-
pendence of the duchy was maintained for some time, but in the early
part of the present century Russia defeated the armies of Finland, and the
country was permanently occupied. Finland has its constitution, which
is based on that of Sweden, and when it was united with Russia the con-
stitutional rights of the people were guaranteed. The country is ruled by
a governor-general, who is appointed by Russia; it has a parliament for





------ i _--



















RUSSIAN AND FINN.

presenting the grievances and wishes of the people, but all acts must re-
ceive the approval of the Imperial Government before they can become
the law of the land."
What are those men standing in front of a building said Fred, as
lie pointed to a fellow with a broom talking with another in uniform.
SThe one o in uniform is a postman," was the reply, and the other is a
dvornLik, or house guardian. The dvorlnik sweeps the sidewalk in front of







90 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

a house and looks after the entrance; he corresponds to the porter, or por-
tie', of other countries, and is supposed to know the names of all the ten-
ants of the building. The postman is reading an address on a letter, and
the dvorni k is probably point-
ing in the direction of the
.,'room occupied by the person
S -- to whom the missive belongs."
'" I have read that letters in
Z -. '" Russia are examined by the
S. police before they are deliver-
Sed," said one of the boys. "Is
that really the case ?"
Formerly it was, or at
Least they were liable to ex-
amination, and it probably
". w a happens often enough at the
present time. If a man is
suspected of treasonable prac-
tices his correspondence is lia-
"- ble to be seized; unless there
--- -_--- is a serious charge against him,
it is not detained after exam-
S nation, provided it contains
we _w... nothing objectionable. The
DVi:ORNK AND POSTMAN. Post-office, like everything else
in Russia, is a part of the mili-
tary system, and if the Govermnent wishes to do anything with the letters
of its subjects it generally does it. The correspondence of foreigners is
rarely meddled with. Writers for the foreign newspapers sometimes com-
plain that their letters are lost in the mails, or show signs of having been
opened, but I fancy that these cases are rare. For one, I haven't the least
fear that our letters will be troubled, as we have no designs upon Russia
other than to see it. If we were plotting treason, or had communications
with Russian and Polish revolutionists in France or Switzerland, it is
probable that the Government would not be long in finding it out."
"What would happen to us, supposing that to be the case?" Frank
inquired.
Supposing it to be so for the sake of argument," the Doctor an-
swered, our treatment would depend much upon the circumstances. If
we were Russians, we should probably be arrested and imprisoned ; but as







EXPELLED FROM RUSSIA. ()[

we are foreigners, we should be asked to leave the country. Unless tie
matter is very serious, the authorities do not like to meddle with foreign-
ers in any way that will lead to a dispute with another government, and
their quickest way out of the difficulty is to expel the obnoxious visitor."
How would they go to work to expel us ?"
"An officer would call at our lodgings and tell us our passports were
ready for our departure. lie would probably say that the train for the
frontier leaves at 11 A.M. to-morrow, and he would expect us to go by that
train. If the case was urgent, he would probably tell us we must go by
that train, and lie would be at the hotel at ten o'clock to escort us to it.
lie would take us to the train and accompany us to the frontier, where
le would gracefully say good-by, and wish us a pleasant journey to our
homes. If matters were less serious, lie would allow us two or three days,
perhaps a week, to close our affairs; all would depend upon his orders,
and whatever they were they would be carried out.








uir





2--3






LODGINGS AT TIE 'FRONTIIER.


"Before the days of the railways objectionable parties were taken to
the frontier in carriages or sleighs, the Government paying the expense of
the posting; and no matter what the hour of arrival at the boundary, they
were set down and left to take care of themselves. An Englishman who
had got himself into trouble with the Government in the time of the Eim-







92 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

peror Nicholas, tells how he was dropped just over the boundary in Prus-
sia in the middle of a dark and rainy night, and left standing in the road
with his '. _- _- fully a mile from any house. The officer who accom-
panied him was ordered to escort him over the frontier, and did it exactly.
Probably his passenger was a trifle obstinate, or he would not have been
left in such a plight. A little politeness, and possibly a few shillings in
money, would have induced the officer to bring him to the boundary in
the daytime, and in the neighborhood of a habitation.
"Expelled foreigners have rarely any cause to complain of the incivili-
tv of their escorts. I know a Frenchman who was thus taken to the fron-
tier after a notice of two days, and he told me that lie could not have re-
ceived greater civility if lie had been the guest of the Emperor, and going
to St. Petersburg instead of from it. lie added that he tried to outdo his
guardians in politeness, and further admitted that he richly deserved ex-
pulsion, as lie had gone to the Empire on a revolutionary mission. On
the whole, he considered himself fortunate to have escaped so easily."
The conversation led to anecdotes about the police system of Russia,
and at their termination our friends found themselves at the door of the
hotel. Naturally, they shifted to other topics as soon as they were in the
presence of others. It was an invariable rule of our friends not to dis-
cuss in the hearing of any one else the politics of the countries they were
visiting.














ED TO LEAVE RIA.

ORDERED TO LEAVE RUSNIA.







POPULATION OF THE EMPIRE. 93









CHAPTER V.
NUMBER AND CHARACTER OF TIE RUSSIAN PEOPLE.-PAN-SLAVIC UNION.-ST.
ISAAC'S CHURCH.-ITS IIISTORY AND DESCRIPTION.-THE WINTER PALACE
AND THE HERMITAGE. SIGHTS IN THE PALACE. -CATHERINE'S RULES FOR
HER RECEPTIONS.-JOHN PAUL JONES IN RUSSIA.-THE CROWN JEWELS AND
THE ORLOFF DIAMOND.-ANECDOTES OF THE EMPEROR NICHOLAS.-RELICS OF
PETER THE GREAT.-FROM PALACE TO PRISON.-TOMBS OF RUSSIA'S EMIPER-
ORS.-A MONUMENT AND AN ANECDOTE.

W IIEN the subject of the police was dropped by our friends, Frank
asked a question about the Russian people and their origin. The
Doctor answered that the topic was a broad one, as the Empire contained
more than a hundred different nations and tribes of people, and that they
spoke forty distinct languages. Many of the smaller tribes were assimi-
lating with the Russians and losing their distinctiveness, even though they
preserved their language; but this was by no means the case throughout
the Empire.
Not in Poland, I think," said Frank, "judging by what we saw and
heard, and probably not in Finland."
"Quite right," added Doctor Bronson; "and the same is the case with
the German population in the Baltic provinces. Though they have long
been an integral part of the Empire, there are thousands of the inhab-
itants who cannot speak Russian, and refuse to teach it to their children.
They are less revolutionary in their ways than tile Poles, but none the less
desirous of preserving their national characteristics.
The population of Russia is about one hundred millions," he contin-
ued, and it is spread over an area of nearly if not quite seven million
square miles of land. Russia occupies about one-eighthl of the land sur-
face of the globe, but is very thinly inhabited. European Russia, in-
cluding Poland, Finland, and other provinces, covers two millions of square
miles, while Siberia, or European Asia, extends over at least five millions.
This does not include the disputed territory of the last few years in Cen-
tral Asia. It is pretty certain to come under the rule of the Emperor, and
will add another half-million, if not more, to his dominions.
"The inhabitants are very unevenly distributed, as they average one







94 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

hundred and twenty-seven to the square mile in Poland, and less than two
to the mile in Asiatic Russia. About sixty millions belong to the Slavic
race, which includes the Russians and Poles, and also a few colonies of










W7


























FINLAND PEASANTS IN HOLIDAY COSTUME.

Servians and Bulgarians, which amount in all to less than one hundred
thousand. The identity of the Servians and Bulgarians with the Slavic
race has been the excuse, if not the reason, for the repeated attempts of
Russia to unite Servia, Bulgaria, and the other Danubian principalities
-I-













Russia, to unite Servia, Bulgraria, and the other Danubian pr~incipallities







PAN-SLAVIC UNION. 95

with the grand Empire. The union of the Slavic people under one gov-
ernment has been the dream of the emperors of Russia for a long time,
and what could be a better union, they argue, than their absorption into
our own nation T"
Fred asked who the Slavs were, and whence they came.
According to those who have studied the subject," Doctor Bronson
answered," they were anciently known as Scythians or Sarmatians. Their

















,1














INIABITIANI S OF SOUTHERN RUSSIA.

early history is much obscured, but they seem to have had their centre
around the Carpathian Mountains, whence they spread to the four points
of the compass. On the north they reached to the Baltic; westward, they
went to the banks of the Elbe; southward, beyond the Danube; and
eastward, their progress was impeded by the Tartar hordes of Asia, and







96 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

they did not penetrate far into Siberia until comparatively recent times.
With their extension they split up into numerous tribes and independent
organizations; thus their unity was lost, and they took the form in which
we find them to-day. Poles and Russians are both of the same race, and
their languages have a common origin; but nowhere in the world can be
found two people who hate each other more heartily. However much
the Russians have favored a Pan-Slavist union, you may be sure the Poles
look on it with disfavor.
The ancient Slavonic language has given way to the modern forms
in the same way that Latin has made way for French, Italian, Spanish,























ST. ISAAC'S CHURCH AND ADMIRALTY SQUARE.


and other tongues and dialects with a Latin origin. In fact those lan-
guages hold the same relation to Latin that Polish, Russian, Servian, and
Bulgarian hold towards ancient Slavonic. Te Roish Church uses Latin










in its service, and the Russo-Greek Church uses the old Slavonic ; tIhe
Poles, Bohemians, and others have adopted the Roman alphabet, but the
Russians use the Slavonic characters in a modified form. The Russian
alphabet has thirty-six letters, some being Roman, others Greek, and oth-
ers Slavonic. After you have learned the alphabet and can spell out the
q----1 -_ -









ST'. ISACS CIIRCIl AND ADMIRALTY SQUARE.


and other tongues and dialects xvith a Latin origin. In fact those lan-







e -s Slavonic. After you have learned the alphabet and can spell out tie







THE CHURCH OF ST. ISAAC. 97

signs on the shops and street corners, I'll tell you more about the lan-
guage."
It was getting late, and the party broke up a few minutes after the
foregoing conversation. Before they separated, Doctor Bronson i _.. i.. 1
to the youths that he should expect them to read up the history of Rus-
sia, and not forget the Romanoff family. "The Romanoffs," said he, "are
the reigning family of Russia, just as the Guelphs are of England and the
Hapsburgs of Austria."
It was speedily arranged that Frank would devote special attention to
the first-named subject, while Fred would assume the responsibilities of
the latter. And while you are on the subject," the Doctor added, turn-
ing to Fred, see if you can find about the origin of the Orloff family,
which is one of the most interesting traditions that has been handed
down."
Fred promised, and the party separated for the night.
They were all up in good season the next :..ii !;-, and after a substan-
tial breakfast, in which the samovar had a prominent place, they set out
for a round of sight-seeing in the modern capital of Russia.
Returning to Admiralty Square, they visited the Church of St. Isaac,
accompanied by the guide they had engaged at the hotel. The man was
of Russian birth, and spoke English with considerable fluency. Evidently
he understood his business, as he told the history of the sacred edifice with
a careful adherence to dates.
"Peter the Great built a wooden church on this very spot," said the
guide, "in 1710, but it was destroyed by fire. Afterwards the great Cath-
erine erected another, which was finished in 1801; but it only remained
eighteen years. The present building was begun in 1819, and its com-
pletion took nearly forty years. It was consecrated in .1 ..', and is con-
sidered the finest church in the Empire."
The last statement might be disputed by some of the citizens of Mos-
cow," said the Doctor to the youths, but there is no question about the
church being the finest in St. Petersburg. Observe its admirable propor-
tions," he continued. "It is in the form of a Greek cross, with its four
sides of equal length, and the architect who planned it certainly had a
correct eye for his work."
You observe," said the guide, that each of the four entrances is ap-
proached by three flights of stone steps, leading up from the level of the
square. Each of these flights of steps is cut from a single block of Fin-
land granite."
The youths made note of this fact as they wondered how the huge
7






98 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

masses of stone were brought from their quarries; and they also noted
that the four entrances of the church were between pillars of granite sixty
feet high and seven feet in diameter, polished to the smoothness of a mir-
ror. An immense dome forms the centre of the edifice. It is of iron,
covered on the outside with copper, and this copper is heavily plated with




















S,



PRIEST OF TIE CHURCH OF ST. ISAAC.


pure gold. It is the dome which first caught the eyes of the travellers as
they approached the city, and forms an important landmark from every
direction. The cupola rests on thirty granite pillars, which look small
enough when seen from below, but are really of great size.
In the inside of the church are paintings by Russian artists, and there
are two columns of malachite fifty feet high, and of proportionate diame-
ter-the largest columns of this costly mineral anywhere in the world.
Immense quantities of malachite, lapis-lazuli, and other valuable stones are
used in the decoration of the church, and our friends thought that if there
was anything to criticise it was the great amount of ornamentation and
gilding in the interior. But I have no doubt," wrote Fred in his note-
book, "that this display has its effect upon the worshippers in the church,







HERMITAGE AND WINTER PALACE. 99

and particularly among the poor peasants and all others of the humbler
classes. In all the countries we have visited, whether of the Christian,
Moslem, Buddhist, or other faith, we have found the religions edifices
adorned in the most costly manner, and there is no reason why Russia
should form an exception to the general rule. Many of the paintings,
columns, and others decorations of this church were the gift of wealthy
Russians, while others were paid for by the contributions of the people,
or from the funds in Government hands."
From the Church of St. Isaac our friends went to the Hermitage
and the Winter Palace, the latter being named in contradistinction to the
Summer Palace, which is at Tsarskoe-Selo, a few miles from the capital.
We will see what the youths had to say of their visit to these edifices.
Fred will tell the story.
"To describe all we saw there would take a fair-sized volume," said
Fred, "and we will only tell what impressed us most. The palace was
built in a great hurry, to take the place of the one that was burned in
1837. It was ready for occupation
in 1839; and when you know that
it is four hundred and fifty feet long '.--
by three hundred and fifty wide, : "t,
and rises to a height of eighty feet, .
you will agree with us that the.
Russians are to be praised for their
energy. Our guide had procured
the necessary ticket for admittance,
and we passed in through an enor-
mous gateway opposite the Column .
of Alexander. Two servants in ,
livery showed us through the halls ,, I
and galleries, and for hours we wan- S
dered among pictures which repre-
sent the victories of Russia over its -.----
enemies, and amid costly furniture
and adornments, till our feet and CATHERINE II. OF RUSSIA.
eyes were weary. The Throne-
room of Peter the Great is one of the finest of the apartments, and the
Hall of St. George is the largest. It measures one hundred and forty feet
by sixty, and is the scene of the grand balls and receptions which the Em-
peror gives on state occasions. There is a beautiful apartment, known as
the drawing-room of the Empress. Its walls and ceiling are gilded, and




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