Citation
Final report of the USAID/CARDI Small Farm Multiple Cropping Systems Research Project #538-0015

Material Information

Title:
Final report of the USAID/CARDI Small Farm Multiple Cropping Systems Research Project #538-0015
Series Title:
Final report 1978-82
Creator:
Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute
Publisher:
Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Caribbean ( LCSH )
Farming ( LCSH )
Agriculture ( LCSH )
Farm life ( LCSH )
Spatial Coverage:
Trinidad and Tobago -- Trinidad -- Caribbean
Anguilla
Antigua and Barbuda
Aruba
Bahamas
Barbados
Belize
Bermuda
British Virgin Islands
Cayman Islands
Colombia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Dominica
Dominican Republic
El Salvador
French Guiana
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guatamala
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Jamaica
Martinique
Mexico
Montserrat
Netherlands Antilles
Nicaragua
Panama
Puerto Rico
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Suriname
Trinidad and Tobago
Turks and Caicos Islands
United States Virgin Islands
Venezuela

Notes

Funding:
Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services (UFDC@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
15794131 ( oclc )

Full Text
rABBA kO: OULRAL RESEARCH k AND DEVELOPMENT NSTITUTE
ICARDI-USAID
* *SMALL FARM SYSTEMS
RESEARCH PROJECT -(538 -0015)
final report 1978 -8
Vol."I
CARDI, University Campus, St. Augustine, Trinidad, W.I. July, 1983.




CARDI is a regional organization serving twelve Member States of the Caribbean Covmunity. It provides for the research and development needs of the agricultural sector in the region as identified in national plans and policies.
This is an output of the CARDI/USAID Project 538-0015.




CARIEBM AGualLUMAL TESFAR-al Da7UM.jDjrnwrn=
(CAIRDI)
FINAL REPOIC OF 7m
USAID/CAPD1 SMALL FARM I.tT= cr4oppING
sysTEm rammmm PM= #538-0015
August 1978 Noved:)er 1982




Preface
The CARDI/USAID Small Farms Multiple Cropping Systems Research Project (538-0015) was a four year project beginning September 1, 1978 and ending November 30, 1982. This document represents the final report of the project. It is presented in four volumes:Volume I Introduction, highlights and list of
proj ect personnel.
Volume II Summary of Baseline Surveys of 8
proj ect countries.
Volume III Farm Characterisation profiles and
specialised surveys.
Volume IV Constraints identified, Back-up research,
on-farm tests, Interventions, Training activities and Bibliography.
The Baseline Surveys give an agro-socio-economic overview of small farming in the project countries. Sub-samples of farmers in each country were used for case studies. Because of the complexity of the systems in the Caribbean the number of case studies is large. A series of specialised surveys has been conducted to sugment or supplement the information necessary to identify the major constraints country-wise and systems-wise. Back up research and on farm tests have been conducted in all countries and interventions tested and validated on farmers fields. This phase of testing and validation is ongoing at present.




The training activities of the project were targeted to up-grade staff of the Institute, the Ministries of Agriculture and other research and/or development bodies.
Various reports and publications have been generated within the project. In addition, relevant literature was collected and circulated. The bibliography gives details of all publications. These publications are available under separate cover.
It is hoped that this report would prove valuable to Planners, researchers and other related groups/agencies.
CALIX TE GEORGE MSc
Project Leader
SAMSUNDAR PARASRAM Ph..D
Director, Research and Development.
1983-08-25




CONTENTS
Page
Sample ................................. ... ....... 2
Methodology ........................... ........... 7
3.1 Antigua ............................... ........... 9
3.2 Nevis ................................. ........... 29
3.3 Montserrat ................ ........... ........... 34
3.4 Dominica .................. ........... ........... 55
3.5 St. Lucia ................. ....................... 82
3.6 St. Vincent ........ ...... ....................... 109
3.7 Grenada ............ ...... ....................... 137
3.8 St. Kitts .......... ...... ....................... 161




BASELINE SURVEYS




3.BASLIE -SURVENYS
T11e purpose of the project is .to inrprove small holder fanning systems in the Eastern Caribbean trough the development of iranageen anL6 rd~ ticm recmrmations* for use by sukail farers. Th~e Project also aimns to "create a socio-e=arnic data base through surveys andi on--fain research Since little Lnfozmrticn was available on the fanning syftens used by enall fanrs of the territories to he covered by tre project. and1 of the socio-ecownic f actors inf tengx their choice of qystm, it was decided that an early priority of the project ;,-vuld be to combuict a detailed survey of selected target areas to define the characteristics of farm in th~se areas.. The survey data would. be used to help identify ooperatingr
-anners in the various territories and1 the nature of information to be gathered frcn them on a continuing basis.
CARP)I corttracted width the University ot the iest. Ind1ies M(Tl) throughh its Facult-" of Agriculture, to undertake Baseline Surveys. 'The Departuent of Aricultural Tctension of TWx'i conducted Phase T of thle Survey in the three territories of st. Vincent. St. -ucia. andi Dminica. The semi phase of the baseline surveys was corrhicted by the Departirent of Agricultural Ecorctnic3 and Fann Ilanageaent of u. !iI. and~ covered the territories of Atiqua Pbntserrat and Gre-nada. CkMI in co-operation vrith Ministry of Agriculture, St. Ritts/Nevis conducted the baseline survey in St.Kitts/Nevis.




objectivess and Scope
Me agreemr.t. betwxamn Url cm2l MMI witli re spect to PhFse I of 1-he
w recwr,- d th morning out of an Aq-m-Socio,-F=na.dc
survL- I U'"MY nrt
less than 12C 51vall Fa--,- lbldims in. w, 7h cf tIm thxee torritcries mentioneI abow- Tbe target qn-mr. he fanno of one to five.-acrec
in size., except that for St. Lucia tds tarr-,--t group woulrl be farms frcm ale to-15 acrea in size .
The guidelines m-neleO for tlie survey indicateO that analysis of ther data should- reveal, armmg other thifigs:
1. Crqm,, imlarawal systans
a) gnm, of fboc, r-Tors. fruit.. xool,s, vegetables, etc.
(b) exdrnals
corztndnts to rrsductign
(a) on fanp
(b) off--farn,
3. jor constraints to of producF.
Major rzmblems affedj-= the farm fxuly -dch can/dc &Pfect.
productkvrity
.VaMM,_r3 MkSt !DMly,
'a) tc 3ucceee.
respond to te&m!nT
C. Cther =Iatzel factors, a-- rmealed by Lac souxmy
7. Imessabi I ift7y
The SUrveY sanPle CMISiStod of 948 wal-I f banners 120 chosen f ran
t je 4
each of L of St. Vincent- Daninic St. Incia, Amtigua,
Grenaday Yjcntserrat and St. Kitts and 108 fraa Nevis.
2




In St.. %7ince-nit t',-e 'gr '.ulture e e-ire
to hzwe the sm-7-le select&, f:r-tym -tr ts
turad di, ic
into wt'dch i-siana is Tt s Cz. "'e
I 7e fivL district,
Contained hic,,he:3t conce ntxzalaon- of ii- the islar&,
includeCt rFncT(-, of ccologicad fe nL g rcqicn as -ucil as cropping
iVpz
c- U-,.e isiarC. ai-id -refore, considered as beilig txxiff-y xrcnrese,.t Avc of ti ,e s-xr-11 fp=lng s,jntenz o-E the territory. A furlt-,er factor f:' -- requositing the excla.sion of t1irree agricultzin-2. districts frcrn. t1he franc -zis tliat tkis Txyould elirdnate the possdl-ility of include ing ipl : n ommAe f vho are involved in otlnr on -going research, or developTent project activities, arrA3 ti--.e inclusion of Cata :ftC'n whan vyoulO bias t13.e s-anrey results.
Ilve samle fram 7as therefore t1n Fanner Readstration ran vided by the -Agricultural Statistics Unit of the ministry of TTfricultt=e of all fanners irt the five se-ler-ted districts. The caxrls viere the result of '--M island. -iAde -rFrmr registration exerci! -e was concluded in lbwm.ber, 1976. The ("ata or, the =-ds had not vet be i analyseC tc, deb--nnine. the nuraber of each acreage category of farmers t -1.ere vere in P,)di d1ic-Itrict.. A ranlm- scTvle off 120 names of faners? in tJ-,e one to five acre category vpas selected, uYeighted ve,,nr roughly hy C1istrict or, the k'I'asis of miiat officials of tLr -Iinistry of Agriculiture co.nsidere were the estinnotec" prorort-i-ons of t ds category of smzll -C-aT-kxF in the vario 'n (Ictricts.
5he wzmle frcm St. vircat tl-, erefore consisted, of '12.) ran-ownly
selected szralll fcanrevs from five of -U,,.e eLa7lat agricultural districts of tkie island, xAio controlled a rurdruim. of one acre zmd a TncLjxmxr, of five acres of fam la.6,. axid. viio are iriilinq, if &,osenl- to coolvxate vath 0APD! field staff in tl-i.e Srall Fam, Crqpping- Systens Research Project.
."-C fa29"PrS survive
., -d in DorLinica ccn-:1isted of a proportionate random sample of 120 fanmrs in the one to fivr- ;7cre qmirl selected frcyn. -,-ll 10 Darishes of tin island. The sarrie rens seiectex the assist mice of the
3




AaricultinF.'d is-"Acs Unit of the Miidstxy of Agricallture mdnq, tzbles of i.urbers to select f-rcyn nixrbere ,! lists,, rk- r of
farmers Iri t '- e cat-r-c1ory as identified in a recent (1-19,'6.1/77)
gricuibwal Cu-':"Sus C)4 t:-Ie iSImx3'
Lucia tlie criteria for xi*AhoO o-r. Sel.ectioll o", C', e
were dif fcara 'a tJ.'-.rc;e e:.d.o-ted in -the other islands, Th f,,didstry of dth (7-TDI aq;ree-l tlk.t target rzmup faxmrs
in tke C"'ne I'm 1.5 cxe g roup, The of Pgx culture a1w 1-00te its %u sel.iaction of -far rrs tcm inc"Lude(I. ix,,, cun7e\y, '."he c".en.iror extension officers frcv of tl'ie five agricultural e.,Istricts in the is1mmd.
,mre to selec t c',. specific]. nimtmer c-1" farmers frero their district to
iv.. incl-u0ne, in tIv: survey serple.
cri-teria on vfiich the eo te-nsim (-)f f -icers required to base Uheir selections vvere sl--irpulatecl. ir. a rc m. rarieiin. f rcr, the I 1-b-iistry' s Lead Office to th(.,! Senior Paricultural X,,sdstant of the 'Live agric-0-tural Districts. Irne relevimit r, ,xtinnn of- t-7r se nevorm..*Iur are as
lbe Pro-ect id..11 fam!r--, in following
acres
(b) IC; acres
,c) ac-ms.
Re P'L Farmers
In m6er to ini-I-date the proqrzt --.- !r.)u are re< jrer2 first to sel.ect. the, wSt co, operative faxrem in our District who will be vd1linq to participate- Ln t110 r-'Tr"'ject.
DistriCt i.-Ilocations are as follows
.3"-'r t" 31) famarers
2 6
,: cy; itheM
kxiLVIestern 241
IM AL 120




Lhe rx,xt atep i s- to cateciarise em selecteL fan-Pars, on t1je basis of the acrea7cs T.ntianeCl a:bow, and ammine tiie ratio of flamTers in each catego3:1r. ,-one tIds tie third ster) vU1 be to include additional
faiTners, J.', Fmy Of* Clo cateCjOrles to give gmn balanoee t- the categories.
select fa=Nars it imuld be necessary to get saie L-ilication of z -,
(a) Age
(b) Area of holding
(c) 07ize, of holdim
Mv_ St. Lucia sample is therefore not a ra-xianly selected one and
LIZIOt Objectively Lbe considered as bedr.,-_. statistically repres.ext of small fandna in that islaxil. 1?1 are hiases built into the smple because of Ui-_ Trethod, of selection. Panri-iers vA)o are riot v;eU laxmn to the it: --ion of Eicer zs vxell as- ttrise ev n if well kwtm cb mt- get alow, uNM the exterior of ficer -All have beer- autarkaticany left
out. Py extEm ion of this ;,--7x er. xring r xvsented in the
saTtIle VM. be ienx ,.-entatiw_' of f n_-_ni_1 r, a2zeady being, inf luenced by. tib -St. lucic agricult-,=I c7-tPannior. T :.-_vioes rather than of Emll fanm.ng i-general.. E .z.ver: sir in -Che zanv-,le it rav be t!-ot the rejor ecologi6al f a=dng areas of the dslanc' are aloc, ireclu',&. Ln t1re s*=N-.
Tn Antigua, the 19115 cens-us of agriculture ii--licated that tbA=e
wexp, 5.551 fa=ears in the cateeq= 0 _25 wiiich oxesented apprcDd:-mately ,96. percent of- tl ,-_. f a=,-. -population. Frm .-this it ulas estknated that there were 1.- 500 fa, *a.thin the. one to five acre cateciory,,., the majority of the reruinfbx be3mg under one acre. Distrilmtion of fanraims acoorc1ing to districtswas as follows
North 590 East 4,01. and South 455 fa=kers.




These fonW.. tlxe I-eais for selection of f arms to be included in the sample. .In Post cases choice of farmis ,,as done on a random1 basis. The finial sample chostn. ircIu~ixg replacenvntv- wras as follcws North 47 -~s 30, and South 43
In ~rt r t the 1979 fan'er registrationi survey conducted by the Munstxy of Acprivicur,? and the Land De-1onnt Authority was used as the basis for the saple frmne. There were approixtely 409 farrers in the category one to five acres. Their distribution as well as the number of farmers chose from aog them are given belowINorth Central East South To~tal
1-5s cres 95 131 150 34 409
arheen 34 51 55 12 152
17e aditictia1 321 fa~nrs were included for possible replacenets in, the SOPF10
Official statistics on Gre#hade. agriculture rzrnaled that 12,510 or percent, of f axnywai were ir. tlhe 0 5 acre bracket From theme an initial sample frame of 350 fariers were chosen. on which to base the .nq -ad 120 -farmers to be surveyled th distributions; are sham below East Vlet kbrtt South 7Ibta
i5 acres 290 50 250, 252 350
Chosen 49 13 415 41 146
Even, though the sanrle required only 120 farers, ant a&ical 26 were included as possible replacents.
In St. Kitts, a census carried out by staff of the MNidstty of Agricul~ture indicated that there were 698 s! all farmes. Fatm Size 1 Acre or Less > i-2 > 2-3 > 3-5 >5 Others Total
No Faimers 256 189 182 26 1238 898
No.Chosen 4r29 16 30 5 120
6




In Nevis, CARDI conducted a reconnaisance survey which indicated that there were 1066 farmers of which 937 were in the target group 1-5 acres. 120 of these were chosen randomly for the base-line survey.
Methodology
Descriptive survey tec-hniQues were anployed in the investigation. Following consultation with staff of subject- matter d&partmnts of the Faculty of Agriculture as el-1 as with staff of CARDI. a 130 question interview schedule was designed by the Department of Agricultural Extension for administering in personal interviews with the selected sample of farn~rs. The questions -ere grouped into the following sections.
Farm Size and Tenure Pattern
NumTnber and S ie of Parcels, Topography, Rainfall Soil Type. Distance
to Parcel and
Market, Crop Ombinations and Irrigation Systems
Farming Activities and Cr~pinq Practices
Livestock and Poultry,: Disposal of Produce. management System,
Cash Receipts
Labour Availability and Use
Credit Sources
Marketing Outlets. Crop Storage, Total Farm Sales
Informtion Channels and Media Use
Famrr.- Buildings and Equipnen Inventories
Socio-econr~ic Background, Household Expenditure. Decisicr~making.
Innovativeness. Attitudinal Dispositions
Ikriticn Health Care and Caumity Needs
For ease of recordica answers in the field and of coding responses
for analysis the majority of questions in the schedules were of the fixed alternative type.
The schedule was first ore-testedO_ on a group of small farmers in
Trinidad. Interviewr. nd fi6ld sup' ors were recruited frar the eight islands and jointly trained for four days in three (3) separate Workshops.
7




Three days were use- iii classra sessions -hich de-It with the c,,jectivo-of the survey, the IAzpose urmerlying every question of the scheulce and interviewing~ tec-im~es, In addition to. uncerr~oinq practice inter viewing at the' classrocn sessions the trainee interviewers Fzxomt one -fula-1 day in the f ield usir thte survey saheule to in trviev qrouTaps of --:a!1 fanrers in the one to 15 acre category xto had' wt been selecteC in tle St. LUcia surve samle.
This field ex-ercise, in adcklition to sensitisina~ thle nrospective 3-rterviwrs to field conditions served as a second pre. testirrg of t! e questiczmaire. The day follouing~ the field exercise wrns spent with trainees in analysinq the problems they had experienced and. farners, react-ions to the questions. As a result sm~e radmr alterations were rade to the wordnT of sa of the cauesticrxs.
Furtherre.. it was anticipated tha-t many of the farmers to be interviewed in St. Lucia any' Ecmnica v~culd be less fluent in REklish than in the French- patois widely spoken in those islands. Attention was therefore Paid to intervieviers frcan these islands agreeing to a cm r. translation into patois of the various schedule questions.




3. 1. ANTIGUA
A. aR-ACTERISTICS OF TH, SMAIL FIP.R.
1. Background Factors
(i) Sex, Age and Ethnic Origin
The ratio of nale to female small farm operators irn Antigua was
almost 4:1. There were 95 (79.2 per cent) male farmers in the sa ple
in contrast to 25 (20.8 per cent) who were female. The mean age of the sample was 50 years and the modal age was 53. Almost 90 per cent (86-6) were of African descent while another 12 6 per cent were not recorded as
of African, Mixed, Carib or East Indian descent.
(ii) Literacy, Marital Status and Household Size
A high level of literacy was found among Antiguan farmers. Eighty-four
per cent can both read and write. while 10A, per cent indicated they can
neither read nor write, 3.3 per cent are able to write only and a remaining
1.6 per cent can only read. The majority (60.8 per cent) had attained between Standard Four to Seven of primary schooling:. less than five per cent had no formal schooling' almost seven per cent had same secondar,"
schooling and one farmer had completed the secondary stage.
The majority of small farmers (65.9 per cent) are married legally
and another 2.5 per cent live in common-law unions. Almost 20 per cent (18.4) are single. The mean household size is 6.4 persons and the modal
size is eight. Fifty per cent of the sample have between one and five
dependents, almost 30 per cent have as many as six to ten dependents.
(iii) Stability
Antiguan small farmers reveal a relatively, high degree of residential
stability. As many as 20 per cent are resident in the current farming area for more than 60 years. moreover, 94.2 per cent indicated that they had no
intention of moving from the area in idch they were at the time of the
survey9




(iv) Occupation
In the esaple, the majority (59 2 per cent) indicated that their sole occupation was farming. About 10 per cent were employed in lower rangs of the civil service, while others worked as unskilled labourers in road gangs, fishLing and agriculture-related commerce such as hucksters or market vendors (approximately 15 per cent altogether) It wras noticeable that about 16 per cent were in multiple occupations covering such activities
as security guards, caretakers and service-sector employees.
(v) Family Income
About 30 per cent have annual incomes of up to $2 500*, whereas
another 37.5 per cent are in the category between $2,501 and $5,000. Of the remaining 25 per cent with incomes greater than $5,000 a little less than 1.0 per cent (9.2) have incomes of more than $10,000.
Beside the despondent contributions to family income were as
follows: 13,4 per cent frcm spouses 21.9,, per cent frcr sons, 26.8 per cent from daughters and 7.5 per cent front other relatives.
(vi) Nutrition
A very high proportion (94_1 per cet) of Antiquan Small farmers
indicate that they eat vegetables "often' i.e several times a week. This information should be considered with due caution as it is conmron for most "locally-gromv food crops" to be referred to as vegetables. Therefore, the responses may have been inflated.
Seventy-nine per cent of respondents use meat several tim-s a week"
and even higher proportions do likewise with regard to fruits (86.2 per cent) fish (85.6 per cent) and milk (83.9 per cent) Of all these kinds of food, the majority (64.4 per cent) of those consuing vegetables often produced
*Dollar here refers to the Eastern Caribbean Dollar with exchange of
EC$2o70 = US$1o00
10




these themselves, whereas most other fcds were purchased. Ecwever, the majority of the root crops consumed were home-grown. The data indicate. in qualitative terms. a relatively balanced pattern of food ccrisumiption:, with several items purchased.
II. Farm Oriented Factors
(i) Tinme Spent and Labour Used on the Farm
Sixty-five per cent of small farmers spend up to six hours daily on their farnrs during the cropping season, The modal daily time spent is four to six hours. ahenty per cent spend six to eight hours daily and 14.2 per cent indicated that they can spend more than eight hours daily during the cropping season.
In thie outof-crop season the data reveal that a similar modal pattern of four to six hours are spent daily during the cropping period while the
proportion of farmers spending less than two hours was higher in the out-of-crop season more fanr3rs spend longer hours (42.5 per cent) then.
The assistance of family labour is utilised by the majority of small
farm operators (approxiLately 60 per cent) Of those receiving family assistance, 30 per cent said one family maber provided assistance. Almost 30 per cen-t indicated that they received assistance on a shared labour basis fro. per-ons other than family mnbers.
(ii) Use of Farm Records
Less than 10 per cent of the sample in Antigua acknowledged keeping any records.
The reason most often cited for not keeping records was that they did not consider this to be necessary (43.4 per cent) and others (29.2 per cent) cited a "tin, factor" as the reason for not keeping records.
11




It was said either that they "have no tire or to keep records 'takes too much tine- Literacy was ci led as a reason by only seven respondents.
(iii) Innovativeness
Only one farmer in the Antigua sample (n = 120) acknledged being
familiar with any new variety or agricultural practice. while the respondent was not currently practising the innovation, it had been previously used between two to five years.
(iv) Persons Consulted in Farm Planning
Almost 40 per cent of small farmers consult no one in planning their farm operations. Of those who seek advice 29.2 per cent referred to the extension officer as the person consulted most regularly, followed by their spouses (25.8 per cent). Other family members, relatives or neighbours
are consulted by only very few farmers.
In making decisions about the adoption of an innovation, 65.9 per cent consider the opinion of the extension officer to be "important or very important". The second most important source of opinions was the small farmer's spouse (56.8 per cent). Of less importance was the opinion of
a son or daughter, cited by 42.5 per cent of the sample, or of a relative or r~eighbour, 2705 and 15,8 per cent respectively.
III. Credit Facilities and Practices
Of the credit facilities available to small farmers in Antigua, four farmers indicated that their first preference was a commercial bank and two reported that they preferred the Agricultural Development Bank One hundred and thirteen (113) of the farmers in the sample (94.2 per cent) had never borrowed or had no preference.
12




There was little credit activity during q the past year. More
disturbing however, is the fact tat of tl 120 farers.. 109 (90.8 per cent) believed that there -.as no credit source available w Len needed.
IV. Marketing Facilities and Practices
Ninety-eight farmers (01.7 per cent of the sample) lives less than ten miles from market: eighteen far=rrs (15.0 per cent) lived between 11 and 20 miles from the market. Only 37 per cent lived within five miles of market. Arong suggestions for improving the marketing systr., the highest proportion (56.7 per cent) suggested the establishment of collection points. Forty-six farmers (38.4 per cent) suggested better transport. The construction of better access roads ard the formation of coa-operatives were mentioned by 25 farmers (20.9 per cent) each. Farmers did not think that grading and standardization (supported by 9.2 per cent) and storage (supported by 5.4 per cent) were important marketing improvements. The emphasis on collection points and transport is directly related to
(1) the spread of farms frcrm market centre and (2) the fact that 37 farmers (72.5 per cent) left hcme at least once per week to market produce.
V. Ccmmmication Channels
The largest proportion of the sample (45.9 per cent) identified the extension officer as their source of advice on technical problems. Almost one third of respondents indicated that they rely on self-exerience when faced with technical problems on their farms.
For information on improved farming practices, 96 per cent listen to the radio, seldom or often" as a most valuable source. A larger proportion (85 per cent) visit a neighbour 's farm rather than a Government farm (58.3 per cent) or large estate (50.8 per cent) as a source of information on improved practices.
13




Of the kinds of agricultural information required on radio. 85. ceft want to know "Iho to grow crops' and 80.8 per cent want to kr= "'when to plant". oher kinds of information requested dealt with times for spraying and available market prices for crops.
VI. Membership in Groups
A relatively low level of group membership obtains among the Antiguan small farmers included in the study. The majority are members of no groups and of those belonging to any group, 40.8 per cent are members of a church groupVII.o Attitudes
The majority of farmers in the sample (55.8 per cent) consider
material rewards in the form of "good money- to be the single most important factor in selecting a job. Almost 30 per cent are of the view that personal liking for the job is for them the single most important factor.
In discussing occupational aspirations of small farmers for their
sons, less than five per cent or only four respondents indicated they would like their sons to choose fanning as a career. Eighteen per cent prefered low or medicizc as a career for their sons. It is noticeable that 56.7 per cent said they bad no preference for an occupation their sois should choose. In a social context of very limited occupational opportunities, it is logical to expect preferences will be influenced by considerable uncertainty.
An equally high proportion, the majority (57.5 per cent), indicated no preference for the jobs they would like their daughters to choose. Interestingly, the highest proportion of those indicating a preference (23.3 per cent), wo uld like their daughters to be a teacher or nurse. No farmer wanted his daughter to choose farming as a career.
14




As an indi cator of the relative strength of these occup~ationial aspirations, rw;,odants iwro asked ,,4-zn they consider to be o1f mrer irportanv&- a son was a lawyer or doctor or another NJIh was am
agriclturist, Th2- majority (54.2 per cent) considered -":e profC.,sions to be equally iirnrtanxt and slightly mere respon~tents (20.0 to 101.3 p,--r cent) thought the.z agriculturist to be rmore irortant tlia2 the2 nxdical doctor or lawyer.
T'he grea rajori4ty of small famcrs (FO. peaxr cent) considered university education to be the le-vel they would like their offspring to attain. In keeping with their high esecn for education as a mans for social mbility 90 per cent are of the opinion that the best form of security for thcir children is a high Jxevol of educati-on0
The prevailinci attitude c-mng srriall farmers in regard to land
inheritance is their prefrece for divieaing land equally arong theirx off-spring (8J7.5 per cent) in contrast to the- imnxatiblc inheritance whereby land is left to one, usually thc eldest of their offspring.
It is intercsting 'Chat the i-majority o-f respondents indicated that they save on a reguar basis a portion- o.-f their cornigs. Most of those savings (65 perx cent) did this through a L-rL
B0 FI1 FT24
I. Farm Size mad Fragrmntation
The 120 sal fa=m included in the sample ware grouped as follows;,
Farm sizo. (acres) Mmrrber of Famrs Per cent of Tobtal2
1.00 1.99 57 47.5
2.00 2.99 33 27.5
M~O 3.93S9 18 15.0
4.00 5.00 12 10.0
120 10O00
15




The majority of farms (96 3 per cent) contained only one holding
(i.e. only one parcel of land) Only to fcams contained two holdings and no fams contained three or four holdiicngs. The information in the sample suggests that fragmentation is not a feature of lnmall farming in Antigua.
The imdian farm size was 2.09 acres and the farms seemed to be almost fully utilized;, only to of the 120 farms contained unutilized (waste) landm. These two farms contained less than one acre of waste land each.
It would seem therefore, that because of the relative absence of
waste land, increases in the output of small farmers must result from more intensive rather than more extensive cultivation of the land uider their control. It would also seem that the pattern of cultivation will be supported by the fact that the farms are relatively flat (only three farms consisted of mostlyy steep" land) and unfragmented.
II. Tenure and Location of Parcels
The dominant method of acquiring the use of land was th!e payment of
an annual rent; 110 of the 120 farms adopted this system of tenure Frueehold (four farms) and leashold (one farm) played minor roles. 0No family land was encountered.
Fifty per cent of the farms are located wit1hin a mile of the farmer s dwelling and the majority of farms (93.3 per cent) are located within three miles. Five farms are located between four and six miles franom the farmer' s dwelling and one farm is over six miles away.
Thirty-1four farms (28 .3 per cent) are located within three miles of market and 53 farms (45.8 per cent) are located within six miles of market. Sixty-three farms (52.5 per cent) are more than six miles from the market.
16




The major methods of transporting produce to market are hired truck, public transport and farmers owned vehicles. They transport 65.8 per cent, 13.4 per cent and 12.5 per cent, respectively of the produce. Seven point five per cent (7.5%) of the produce of small farms, is "headed to market either by the farn.r or hired labour.
It would seem that the parcels of land are favourably located
fanmers have relatively easy access to the farms. The farms, however, seem to be located far franom markets but 91.7 per cent of the produce are taken to the market by some type of mechanical transport. Therefore, distance from markets may not be a constraint to agricultural production. It must be noted, however, that 11.7 per cent of the farms are only accessible by dry weath roads. Nonetheless the low annual rainfall might be a compensating factor.
III. 'ITools, Equipnent, Machinery and Farm Buildings
For a majority of small farmers in Antigua (67 .5 per cent of the
sample) the inventory of farm tools consists of one to five pieces of hand tools. Thirty-five farmers (29.2 per cent) owned from six to ten pieces of hand tools. Only three farmers ownmed more than eleven pieces of hand tools and one fam~er owned none.
Thi-Ly four f farmers (28.3 per cent) owned knapsack sprayers, one of
these sprayers -.s mtorized. Only five farmers c med any form of irrigation equipment. Si farmers owned trucks, carts or other similar farm equipment and two farmers owned one tractor each.
Farm buildings were also few and far between. The total sample of
120 farmers owned only two cow pens, one sheet/goat pen, and one store-rocm. Only four farmers (3.4 per cent of the sample) own.ed the land they farmed. The lack of equipment and relatively few farmers wh owned land could partially explain the reason for the uidercapitalised nature of small
farming in Antigua.
17




IV. Crop_ Enterprises
(i) Crops gpwn by the Sall Farmer
Root crops and vegetables are the crops most frequently grown by
small farm rs in Antigua. Among the root crops, sweet potatoes were grown by 76 farmers (63.3 per cent) i yamrs by 52 farmers (433 per cent) cassava by 28 farmers (23.3 per cent) and eddoes by 24 farmers (20 per cent). The three most coao uly grown vegetables were cucurbits (35.8 per cent) carrots (27.5 per cent) and tanatoes (20.8 per cent) Among the other vegetables in cultivation were onions, okra, cabbage and peppers.
Corn was grown by 21 farmers (17.5 per cent) and pigeon peas by
15 farmers (12.5 per cent) Although Antigua is not a major banana producer, 25 per cent of the fanmrs surveyed grew this crop. Not many fanrers cultivated tree crops. Iangoes (6 farmers) citrus (3 farmers) and avocado (3 farmers) were the most cammnly occurring tree crops.
Cotton and sugar cane tmo non food crops, were also grown., Nineteen farmers cultivated cotton and six sugar cane,. The following sumarises the number and per cent farms growing the more important crops:
Crop Farms oi 14dchI grown
iNo Per cent
Root Crops
S-et potatoes 76 633
Yams 52 433
Cassava 28 23.3
Eddoes 24 20.0
Vegetables
Cucurbits 43 35.8
Carrots 33 27.5
Tomatoes 25 20.8
18




crop Farms on V-7hich Clrown No Per cent
Vecetables:
Onion 12 10.0O
Okra 12 10.0
Cabbage 11 S.
Peppers 75.
Corn 21 17.5
Pigeon Peas 15 12.5
Bananas 30 25.0
Sugar-cane 6 5.0
Maim6 5.0
citrus 3 21
Avocado 3 2.5
Cotton 19 15. 1
(ii) Intercropping
For the survey crops were considered to be intercropped if they were
grown together on the sc-zrre plot of land (ie in mixed stands). The survey shcmd that intercopping is not canyonly practised and crops arc rmst often
grown on a noriocrop ba-sis in Antigua. Bananas and- corn had the h-icghest
feeny of cocurrence in crop ccai~nttos.cype eto h
fanrners survcyd interoropped bananas with other food crops, eddoes
(S .3 por cent), okra (8.3 per cent). pigeon peas (G6. p--er cent), cotton
(6.3 per cent),, swieet potatoes (5.2 per cent) and cucurbits, (4 t6 per cent)
wre gramn in intercropping systans. The following gives details on the
per cent of farm-s intecroppoing the most frequently grown crops.
19
V




Crop Per cent farms growing
specific crops
Sweet potatoes 5. 2
Cassava 0.0
Eddoes 8.3
Cucurbits 4o6
Carrots 0.0
Tomatoes 0.0
Onions 0.0
Okra 8. 3
Cabbage 0.0
Peppers 0 .0
Corn 19.0
Cotton 6.3
Pigeon peas 6.7
Bananas 20. 0
(iii) Crops on Parcels
Most farmers had a single parcel and hence, thle data show most of the crops in Parcel I. A single long .termn crop is normally grown on the
parcel 31 parcels (25.4 per cent) had one crop. Two short-term crops were grown on seven parcels (5.7 per cent) and another seven parcels had three or more long-term crops. For short-term crops, these were grown onr, a larger number of parcels than for long-term crops. Two or more short-term crops were groa on the majority of parcels. Only 10 parcels (8.2 per cent) had one crop, whereas 18 (14.7 per cent) had two crops, Twmty--three (18,5 per cent) had three crops, 25 (20.4 per cent) had four crops, 16 (13.1 per cant) had five crops and 20 (16.3 per cent) had over five crops.
(iv) Tost Important Crops Grown
On the basis of acreage cultivated, the most important crop grown was sweet potatoes. This crop had the highest acreage on 37 parcels (30.3 per cent) and wans followed by bananas, 17 parcels (13.9 per cent) cotton, 15 parcels (12.3 per cent);: yams 10 (8.2 per cent) and tomatoes and carrots seven parcels (5.7 per cent). On the basis of returns, sweet potato was again the most important crop grown. This crop had the highest return on 28 parcels (22.9 per cent) and was followed by bananasm cotton and tomatoes, 13 pexarcels (10.6 per cent) each.
20




(v) Reasons for Crop Ckzicc
Good market arnd suitable 1and ce'e given- as the r.jor factors
influencing the acreage of crops gran in Antiguan. l-bour supply was also cited but was considered less critics. rTcm fDarmrs a:Iso tended to chose those crops withi low7 labour requirements. In most cases these wYere first parcel choices.
Incae also played a significant role in choice of crops g'nm by small farmers in mAntiqua. Good market was emphasised by approximately 42 per cent of the fxrimers sampled. These choices were also influencedl by the suitability of land and low labour requirements.
(vi) Management Practices
Sweet potato is grm by a majority of farmers for both home use and for sale. Only seven farmers produced the crop mainly for hame use and no one produced the crop for sale. Most farmers intended to plant in the following year. Sce planting takes place year round but a majority of farmers plant in October. Harvest is year round with a majority of farmers harvesting between Novnber and March. As noted earlier, the crop is normally grown in pure stand. Local varieties are used and the crop is normally planted on ridges. Sweet potato is not normally stored as most fanrers dispose of the crop soon after harvesting.
Yams, like sweet potatoes, are grown for both home use and for sale. Most farmers hvad plans for planting the follw-ing year but 15.4 per cent of those growing tihe crop had no plans to do so. The usual planting time is May/June with harvesting taking place in December to March. Ycms are grown on ridges and unlike sweet potatoes, a number of farmers store part of the crop.
Cassava is grown for both home use and for sale. Of the 28 farmers
growing this crop, eight cultivate cassava mainly for ixe use. T4nty-six of these farmers had intentions of planting in the following year.
21




Cassava is planted year round with a majority of farmers planting in Ayn to July. Harvesting is year round. All 28 farmers cultivate, the crop in pure stand and used a local variety. The crop is normally planted on ridges and in rows. The crop is not usually stored.
For eddoes the crop is normally grown both for sale and for domestic use. Practically all farmers intended to plant the following year. The usual planting time is May to July and harvesting, December to March. Local varieties are used and they are cultivated in pure stands. Planting is normally on ridges, but same farmers plant in the furrows, on mounds on beds and on the flat. The crop is not normally stored.
Of the 90 farmers growing root crops, only 17 (18.9 per cent) used fertilisers. Thirty-five farmers (38.9 per cent) used chemical sprays and 13 (14.4 per cent) other chemicals. Organic manures were used by only five farmers.
Forty of the 43 farmers growing cucurbits produced the crop for sale and for domestic consumption. Six farmers (14 per cent) had no plans to grow the crop in the next year. The usual planting time is September/ October and harvesting time, November/December. Local varieties are grown and the crop is cultivated on ridges and in pure stands. The land formation used in planting is quite variable. 42 per cent of the farmers growing this crop planted on the flat, 28 percent in furrows7 16 per cent on beds and 14 per cent on ridges. Planting is generally in rows, but 19 per cent of the farmers used an irregular planting pattern.
Carrots were grown by 33 farmers and 12 per cent reported their crop to be lost or destroyed. Seventy-three per cent produced the crop both for sale and domestic use. Most farmers had plans to plant the following year. The crop is normally planted in September/October and harvested in December to February. It is always grown in pure stand and usually on beds but sometimes on ridges. Scventy-three per cent of the farmers used the row planting metlod and 24 per cent, an irregular planting method. The crop i not stored and only one farmer reported receiving a subsidy.
22




To toes were grownm by 25 farmers and 23 of these farmers grew the
crop for both honm use and for sale. Twelve per cent of the fan:ers did not intend to plant the crop the following year and four per cent were undecided. The crop is normnally planted between August and Ibvember with a majority of farmers plaEntinMcUg in October. Harvesting usually takes place between Novaber and 1'-arch. As for most other crops grown by small farmers in Antigua. it is grown in pure stand. Both local and ihmroved varieties are cultivated. Seventeen farmers planted on ridges, six on beds and one each on the flat and in the furrow. One farmer reported receiving a subsidy. The crop is not stored by farmers.
Thirty -eight per cent of the farmers gr aing vegetables used
fertilizer, 54 per cent used chemical sprays, 19 per cent, other chemicals and six per cent used. organic manures.
3Bananas were gr,am by 30 fanners for both homea use and for sale.
Six farmers (20 per cent) grw the crop mainly for home use. Approximately one half of the farmers intended to plant the following year and seven per cent war uncertain. The usual! planting month is June but harvesting normally takes place year round. Is noted earlier sm e intecropping is practised. Local varieties are used end the crop is r nlly planted on the flat and in rows. Only one farmer fertilised the cop- t-.,o used chemical sprays, and one used organic marure. Eight farmers (27 per cent) stored the crop, presumably for ripening, and one farmer reported receiving a subsidy.
Corn was grom by 21 farmers, six of whom produced the crop mainly for hcme use and 13, for both hame use and for sale. All farmers intended to plant the crop in the following year. Some farmers planted corn year round while others planted between May and August. Nineteen per cent of the farmers intercropped. Planting in furrows was the most popular method of planting with 48 per cent of the farmers using this approach. Twenty-four per cent planted on ridges, 14 per cent on the flat and nine per cent on beds.
23




With regard to fertiliser usage, only 19 per cent of the farmers growing corn used this input. Thirty -eight per cent used chanical sprays and 19 Fer ce nt, other chemicals.
Pigeon peas, like most of the other crops grown is both partly sold and pa tly consumed in the hom-. Of the 15 farmers growing this crop two reported that their crop was lost or destroyed. Harvesting normally takes place during thle months of December, January and February. Most of the farmers cultivated the crop in pure stands and used local varieties. All farmers plant in rows and usually on ridges or on the flat. No farmer received a subsidy and the crop is not stored,.
Forty per cent of the farmers growing grain legumes used fertiliser, 56 per cent chemical sprays and 36 per cent, other chemicals.
Cotton is normally grown for sale. Of the 19 farmers producing this crop, two grew it mainly for home use and another two for both home use and for sale. V-hen asked ..ether or not they intended to plant the next year, 14 farmers responded I yes four no and one did not know. The crop is normally planted between August and October. Harvesting normally takes place between December and February. The crop is grown in pure stand and both local and imported varieties are grown by the farmers. It is planted either on the flat or on ridges and always in iri s. Forty-two per cent of the farmers growing this crop used fertilisers, 47 per cent cheadcal sprays,
21 per cent used other chemicals and 16 per cent, organic manures. Most farmers do not store the crop. Only one farmer received a subsidy for the cultivation of cotton.
V. Livestock Enterprises
(i) General Types of Animals Kept
Most of the livestock reared in Antigua were kept off the farm. Of the 120 farm parcels in the Antigua sample, livestock were only kept on six.
24




Cattle were kept on three parcels, pigs on two and sheet and goats., on one parcel. lb rabbits were reared on any of the parcels and only one fane:kept any poultry.
(ii) Cattle
Of the five farmers that reared cattle, one owned less than five,
three owned less than 10 and one had nore than 45 animals. Four farmers had only local type cattle. In relation to the management system practised. one farmer grazed his animals in the open while three farmers tethered their cattle. Three farmers (2.5 per cent) did not dispose of their meat by home use or by selling, thus having no cash sales from meat disposal.
(iii) Pigs
Five famers ( 4 per cent) only kept pigs. Of these, four had five pigs or less and one reared between 35 and 45 pigs. The pigs were all of the local type. All pigs reared were penned. One faner disposed of his meat by home use while four farmers dlid not sell or dispose of their nmev- -' homne use, thus there were no cash sales.
(iv) Goats
Only two farmers in the Antigua sample kept goats, one with less than five heads and the other with between 16 and 25 heads. The animnials were of local type and were kept on a penned system of management. Cre farmer neither sold his meat nor used it at hone, but another farmer produced this meat for home use only. In the case of the latter: between $100 $500 was received fram meat sold. No goats were lost in the past year.
(v) Sheep
Te farmers had five sheep or less on the farms and only one farmer
had between 11 and 15 sheep. Local type sheep were kept on two farms while on one farm both local and improved types of sheep were kept. Also, two farmers kept their sheep penned, while one tethered his sheep. In relation
25




to the disposal of meat,, one farmer neither sold nor used meat at hcre, one farmer used the aeat at home and one farmer gave no response. Two farmers received no cash sales while one received ween $500 and $1.000 Mo
sheep vre lost in the past year by the farmers sampled.
(vi) Rabbits
None were kept by any farmers in the Antigua sample.
(vii) Poultry
No broiler or layer poultry were reared by farmers in the Antigua
sample. One farmer did have 12 cotmn type fowls which were kept running loose and used for home consumption. None of these fowls were lost during the past year.
(viii) Draught Animals
Thirty farmers (25 per cent) in the Antigua sample had donkeys, 19 of them had only one donkey each.
(ix) Constraints to Livestock Production
The sirvey attemted to obtain information from farm operators regardirthe different factors which acted as constraints to increased production of livestock. It also collected data on the nature of the expenses actually incurred in livestock production. This information is given below
Factors 7' 7
Constraining h
Greater Production Cattle Pigs Goats Sheer. Poultry
--t f feed -I
Availability of feed 1
Market conditions
Praedial larceny 1
Land suitability .2 .
Vet. fees/A I. .
Inadequate labour ...
Other 7 2 1 4
26




Feed cost and availability were cited only in the case of one farm
operator who kept pigs. Ioever, in the case of one fzmer rearing goats
praedial larceny was a factor. Land suitability affected two farm operators
that kept cattle. Market conditions, veterinary fees and inadequate labour
were not identified as important constraints on the level of livestock
production. Other factors were important in the case of tlhe 14 farm operators
rearing cattle. pigs, goats and sheep.
Livestock
Expenses Incurred
on Farmrs Cattle Pigs Goats Sheep Poultry
Bought feed 1
Home gram feed 2
Pen constructiorVn/
Repairs
Bought mdicines 15 2 3 2
Bought minerals 1
Paid Vet. fees 3
Hired labour
Other 2 1 1 1
Only one farm operator who kept pigs actually bought feed. 'ITo farm
operators with sheep used home-grown feed. HIkever, 22 farm operators actually purchased medicines for livestock and three paid veterinary fees. Five farm operators incurred expenses for their livestock on account of "other factors"o No farm operators incurred any expenses in respect of pen construction (or repairs) in in hiring labour.
VI Farmers' Expressed Camunity Needs
Along with data on the technological dimensions (crop and livestock) in the small farm system, attention was directed at identifying the community needs of the farmers. Information was collected on what farmers considered to be their most pressing socio-econcmic needs, the kinds of improved agricultural services and type of action desired to alleviate the problems.
27




To Antiguan small farmers, 48.3 per cent would like to see improved roads in their cmmities. Improvemnts in physical infrastructure, electricity and water were cited by 28,3, 27.5 and 26.7 per cent of the sample, respectively. Same 13 per cent identified a need for co munity centres and/or recreational facilities. The majority of the sample felt that such facilities should be provided by the government rather than by individuals. Low responses were recorded in regard to what the simple considered as their most pressing agricultural needs. However, ten per cent would like to see more employm-ont opportunities either in aqro-based industries or in other sectors. Perhaps this is a forceful indication of the deep level
of frustration which has engulfed the small farm sector in Antigua. Until concrete evidence is provided by adequate policy and practice to indicate realistic opportunities for overcoming the stagnation of small scale agriculture, it will not be surprising to find more and more farmers oriented towards what they perceive as "greener pastures".
28




3.Z. NEVIS
A. CuAC- STICS OF '2ITE SMAIL FAoEP
The sa-mle consisted of 67.3% males and 32.7% females. Only 13% of
the fanrs eroe under 40 while 18.7% were over 70, the largest proportion
was in the age grc,p 56-70 (44.9%) .
8.8% could read and wTite and 28% hIad had same secondary education.
63.6% were married with the most coron household size being 1-5 persons.
69 farmers (64.5%) had no employnnt outside of the farm while fishing
and trades were the most ccmon occupations of those reporting outside
employment.
The main findings on crop agronormy are siumarised in Table 1. The
crop grown most frequently by the famers mwas sweet potato, followed by yams,
with bananas, tannia and cassava also of i-,ortance. The small number of
crops mentioned by each fanrmer was al rost certainly influenced by the timing
of the survey in April-ay very cixy months whe- n few crops were planted.
The majority of crops %were most frequently planted in mixed stand with
only peanuts, cotton, sugar cane and onions being more frequent in pure stand.
The method of planting was normally on ridges, only a few crops were
usually planted on the flat or on beds.
The responses to the question on most frequent planting time, showed that
almost all crops were planted during August and Septaember which is the time of
most reliable rainfall. A secondary peak of planting time occurred in May, again
a time when same rain can be expected. A cmron response to the question on planting time was 'ith the rain' i.e. faners will plant at any time of year
if rain -is falling.
29




Table 1: Nevis Baseline SModyalz Agrorrvdc Practices
I No. o~ reproved Relative Occurrence ini
Ifazxrrs variety j pure or mixed stand Most frqetplanting nthxod
COSgma~ng reported Pure star1' FgalJ Mixedjgrae o standl
greate i Flat 1 bnds Fuirrowl Ridgesi Bedsj Setpotato I 7A _____ _____________a 31 ___Peanuts 18 __ _____Corn { 18 _____Cahbage 17 1 _ __ _
T natoes 15 1 _____ _____Carrots 9 ________________ pea 7-Cotton6 __Peppers 5 V
Coconuts 3 __ __ _
Sugar cane 3 1_
Onions 2 1______ ______ $
-Cucurbits 2 ___ ____ ___w I
Lettuce 1 ____ ____ __ ___ ___ ___Herbs 1 __ _ _ __ __ __ __ _
Bredfrit __ __ NR tNR NR ____




Table 1 cont 'd
I_____ -, f euet Tst frequent I-ost frequent disyosal Storage practice
C:FT P- S~---- ie Us alf Bt Store Not stored
___ ____ 1 st 2nd f 1st 2_ _ ___ ___ li__ ___ illy,__ _SMct ro-tato, Aug. Sept IFeb. Dec~. _________ A-ug7 may reb.. for _ __ _Earnra All yr.__ All yr, ___
T nria Aug~. iHay Feb-1111ar _ __ _ ___
~2ac~av Aug~ Hy march Feb _ _- _POe-xuts 'Sept. %Lay Dec. Au Fec ______KCn _r, AugugnDecCall a!ge {SrJDc. Jan/
FO -JntcCS ep { Dec Jan _ _V
Carrots _j Sept. Dec. I~_
1-br. Pigeon Peas L June Set Dec can-V _7ctTon_ SAe. v__ ___Peppers le t ov-Jan I _______ ____Coconuts -11l Yr{ ~ly~
fluI ar cane iAll yr; __ FAll y. I _Onions Sept___ -_______.__Cm urbits St Lz Dect__ _______ __ Both
-ei tuc July~_
Kl-ckeye peas A~ug0 __ ___t.__Herbs Sept -} Jan.-- _ __ _ _
L:lyr31__ ___ ___ ____V.iI te




As a result of the above mentioned planting times, the peak harvest peric d for almst, all crops was the period December -1arch, a factor which leads to the marketing problems experienced by most farmers, One significant crop harvested outside of this period is nkngoes, which can account for an important source of inccn when no other crops are bearing.
klbst crops were grown for both home use and sale, notable crops grown mst frequently only for home use were cassava, corn and pigeon peaso In Nevis, cassava and corn are often ground for flour and cornmeal for home use, corn is also often solely for poultry feed. Cotton and lettuce (1 farmer) were the only crops grown soley for sale.
Crops generally were not stored apart from yams, peanuts, corn and
cotton. Cotton storage would be over the extended harvest period and between harvest and the commencing of cotton purchasing by Government.
Cnly two crops were reported lost or destroyed, these were peanuts and yamsw, the latter reported as a loss by 16.4% of the sample, probably the result of severe anthracnose infestation of the crop in recent years.
Livestock
The majority of farmers kept livestock of some type with cattle being kept most frequently. No farmer kept rabbits. The mst common herd size was between 1-5 head.
Generally local, unimproved types were kept with improved types,. only being reported for cattle and then in only three cases.
The aniwdls were most often tethered or stake penned for swine although sizeable proportions of sheep and goats were reported as either grazed or running loose.
32




The tendency was for farmers to keep animals for sale only. This was imm"t mnrked for cattle hieth Iall an.als had alxtnst ats rrony fpxrsr keeping them for both hawe use and sale. Surprisingly, a large proportion of livestock fanw-rs reported no disposal of anirals in the past 12 nenths.
Findings are sumr-oised briefly in Table 2.
Table 2. 1Axdal Livestockc Farmng Practices
Y1b0 T oonnn no. of 1:11. of k1bt crdIbt ccmnon %faTr
reerin fa r1,11 Io din icposal __ not disrf5 -0 1 kep a,-70nt ~OQboth hoe posing in
Type tpiori It only juse past year
____ ____ __ Ionly
Cattle 55 3 Toth 40.2
Sie44 I0 qta11k e 24.3
Goats 260 Teth." 15.0
___ ~~~ered ___
Sheep__ 0 Toth- 36.4
___ ___ ~ered __ __
Poultry Ier kpt by 27%, of the sample and all reportedI keeping canwio fm~~l only.. hace nonrm.zLly were running loose. 0 Nne of the farmrs, used any of their pou-vz as mecat. either for horm use or sale.0 Drzt--,rjht animals were kept by thirty-'nine. farreprs, thirty-~eight of wham kept donkeys and one kept a horse.
33




N. I.Ir CIS OF TIM aimz Flylm
Aga mriOl Orir-iivJust over 70 pez cnnt o.,L" :i-mil--sorrat'G sniall farmers in-Itne sa--Tdo are male. Thn mam-i age is -53L yc=s, wi-Ul a Illigh mcdal age grou-, of (A. to G.S; years. IT.iere were only tm fanrnrs .Iho are- .25 years or yuxi-jer. 711 the fann operators im tlie Tbz-itsarrat sankle are of ]African. Jiezscomt.
(ii) Literacy.." al Status SU,-le
LIlle rM.jority (CJ75. Der C,ant) of flie. fz-r,,,,m;.rs can rec at
a -nd ,-,rrite vddl
an additional 2.5 percent vbo can eunli.7- rzuiC and 1.6 r sr oart -Aho can write only. Ahmst 420 percent have 1:x3,iefitted froa fonial schooling
but 72 per omt receilwod up to stancard 7 of a pripLary educ,--tion. .7 ratlier magligilbtIC. proportion (2.5 per cu-mt) received sa-p- secondai-7 education.
Fifty-fout- cm.1-- of the -fazzlv rs in the cm- jn xrrlu-)' .
inJIRmt,-0 that Ithey an:- skt,- ie -,,-j(70.3 liv in houseliolds of up to five ; ersmns alvl z-anol:2ier
20 percenl--- livz in of six to -)ersoziz,. 7ne
(59-2 per mart-) 'Uav !.atv. iaen orne and five dol:Yendmts.
(iii) Stability
.1bro than 50 per c(:.nt of Vie szunple klcvc lived", intho current fannii-iq area, at the of Un survey, (SqpLLTlDar IS79) for -nore than 30 years.
As a highly sta!)le lx)pmladon, 1-S' -,"lur cent have lived in the same fanning area for i,,ore t1m 50 vearc. dic ,,r--at majority (93.4 per mit indicated that they had no Lnteintio!-, to wm frcr. TAnere they presamtl y resided.
3 4




0:0 0--cuPatIL01
j
k*-,(X-",:!;fc"! Lao c-7
'Y U an: sL:: r centas Srdlled l=F"Oemmm1 ml ', 7.0 ar
(V) A inm
Nmut 50 k-er,=at a tctz-1 fenily i-noom of vm to "l-500 per
C'nalza. 7121--mot D -, ar can l-- i;, ranr :3 tc 00"
I)Cr i: MM "fAil 71 Ejaa H-vc r caalL. ca-m 1)0tv"'caa ?5,000 my"t
Y 10 ;j 3 3 an fL!Z:A-.X '3 /,nr zore t'iAP71
,?10,000
111. cdScusSinig is to
persons ota x -dimi lala,.-a fann to Dyndily
r.:AL -:= 1 a con-tributh-ig
:!arzainus to fnaily L. c.'. om --r florc S 0; IS
!auym to cmtrEc-n-, JIL-noa--c-- f,-,Y%iilv inamn
is sq )Plaamto 'JI "'na.; in faver
Cases, 00- ,n r3lalzivas an, 7 even n )I-rnlativos an to I-Ile.
houscholI h-loo-7n
(vi) 1 ,ut--itirx-l
Zle Stapl, usal oftan by Ue largest proportions ol:* 0amp1c.,
in axe bananas (93. 3 per oant) root corps. (u73 _2 par cent)
A 'I
rio: iM an --e tal
nea-lc (7-1 per cc, v3 vr:.:.




These data are qualitative responses and could not be collected in objectively quantificable categories. Consequently, they provide rough estimates of the relative frequency of the use of the major foodstuffs in the small farmnersa consixution pattern.
Of the great majority of the respondents who consume bananas often, 85.6 per cent reported that these are hle grown. In regard to root crops, the majority (59.2 per cent) kniicated that these crops are hoae grown while another 30.6 per cent reported that they both grow their own and purchase these crops. All rice was purchased, so. 30.7 per cent purchased the meat they ate and 42.9 per cent purchased. their vegetables. This, perhaps indicates that since the bulk of vegetable production by small far.mrs are for an export market, they utilize a portion of incomes earned by their exports to purchase the vegetables they consume.
II. Fani-oriented factors
(i) Tine spent and Labour used on the Farm
In the Montserrat sample, 47.5 per cent of the farmers indicated
that they spend two to four hours daily in farnm work during the cropping season. About one quarter of the sample spend between four and six hours as a daily average and another 22 per cent speid between six and eight hours. These figures are relatively lower than the data of the small farmer operations in tntigua where as many as 34 per cent recorded! spending as many as six to eight hours daily in the cropping season.
In the outof-crop season, a larger proportion of the sample spent few hours in facing activities. Only about 13 per cent indicated that they spand, at this tite, four or more hours daily on the farm.
36




(ii) 7,1s7 af 1,01'r-": i-tccor."o
Onh
I
tani r,:
fanow=s stuffed 3,3' r san
for 7-v ,)J-1.7
fact lat c- ds to
uc 'ir cazlt: C-C t,lo samle ar "La: 'ar
hiZ "I"Ir ccnc qav,:or no-c Ig th.,
Q 4 w _7. furti x awidarica to
cor. min -to the
c, 11 ar'." systans. Few crsvr i-ve L..urovvi ent3 hava lynm reconrvml
-F E.71r, -- -,
or t:acso- -.ars. 7:1nose that- 'zva _- ai r nain emna-Acally cos.I.., or tia--lcrm,atoly b .f .nctavlsion S.-arvices.
is _:o not" dlat ,J_'LnL:t p: j cznt of raall faurnnrs
:L-l "Hontsorrat :o ram, 1 Dlcumning Idleix
Carmi-," operation. Of ;-,llo cxt -_nsion officer is
t."ic perso.,a co.r.,sult, x-, o
As a fm -ler aoa ,C- o: t _o,2 I.-:f ")01-1,Viour,,
-Elc bata, rweal w1at El-a o,)i7dcllZ c4-1117111=3- .Layon .t_ ara t lcago of ene emLernion offi-3- ,r -1 Z,:71-r ( i calt) avict
the spo7jz o. 77 _r cant) TiLic jo el:, -'L)l!troLS,- to
to C211t)
consiCar Ul-.a o-,)kdon of tLair sca-,se as -ms-lC Lr ..')-rtzalt of sa cc z they Consult.
III. afadit Facilitic!s Practic! .S
Of ldv crorUt facilitie', anrzdlablk, -to snall fanmrs in bntsoxrat, t ,70 fan-:vxs irv2icatx ,:"l that their first ,.-)raf-crance Noras for a caym--cial bank, ayo )r forrefll m-ppoorativa cr----'-Lt unions mid ono f.m-rear prof-rod a -,Vney-lend,=. Qnra hmrdrad anft fiftNan fan-ers 05.,'Jl i ver cant) had nover
-)r hnz no profara-c--- for any particular source.
37




During the past year, only shc fz-am*ors ol.-)taiaod lce:.as Erm the.
awdlablo sources. rLwo of these 1=-is i,7are- for general farLII pr-4xiction. Four wexa for p poses o1lier than procxuction or the purckicpa o."" Ln txb ; and ,rexe q-.'ob,.Lbly for consumption.
'The six loans diArdireAu durin j year Tt.,ere proviaed :. y
bmks Q loarLs) co-qxirative crerfUlt-- tudons (2 loans) wz a roney, -- lan&x (1 lcon) IAlt; .nugh on-: faz ,-Ler ohtaina :! two loi uis frcr..i a ca. x.%--rcial Lank.,
Uieze i w.s little crefUt acti*kdtl.1 among fa.w!rs of thc,! The iiajority of feurners (A.2 c(mt) !,-<-Aiavedi Uhat no crrz,,< -. tsouz-cr ,,-,!as availaI)le when,
IV. -.'Lqrkpth-iq Facilitiaz and T-Iracticos
Sevanty-one fz-wzv.rs per c : -nt of tile saoVle) lived iTare t1kwn five miles f ra i the nearest -,arheting depot.. Of tl-x-se, 10 f axyx rs liv W .M.re tlkmi 11 ziles from the de-pot.
on. suggestions for Che h-Vrowenpnt of -. i -t f cilitiLs,
k n ze ing a the
highest ,prqjx)ztdon .x .-r ceat) of Lzrnall fa=..ers jx). Che maTLio-'aLQ the. provision of lx -,ftar transport. In Mie viLh that suggesticv, 36.7 per cent ulc' provision of access road.s. IJ,'dr'tj7-:Eaar
:Far-,-tzxs (2,J,3 ;:Y-,r c rit) v yggesteL3 the for-mt-ion of a)-q y.=aLives. FIL'113 settin'j up C;f xdloctian pohitz and jrcvling and storLig not cxonsid xcG critical to Uie inpro, Arziant of mar.katLng facilities in bi --at.
V. Ca"'U'lication. Chmwiels Used
I-boai faced teduAca' oroILICris, ".7 -,,)rr ccmt of saall fanwrs
reffx to :.i extension off icer cis th- inost iy-.rporllt,-- nt source of hifoxmation. One out of- avax j five fanmors aonsul-Z-- .o ane as an advisory source of ted-inical infor.iatio-i.
38




na lk of i q- -Uia :naioritv of
ana: ro Li 1-.u s c, 1; 7 c s, c, tc, raolic -ds
is hn shaz ant 'a Cant)
who con.0L.',or a a of L'Iformtion
On i k)vova:' E.jrr, =1
1-- :1-J'Ll-l"s of Lifo'n-mtian "' y vmult] to lraAl ra; 'JO -Ost ,&uit. 11 .:o 01)07.yC pr 4 C. 7 7,x- r
Cn:Tl
axe
7
(70 :nr c to plant' (G7.3 per cc:Yc) S
onr u.:mt)
in Grax)s
,As, indicated hi the T atigua situation, the la-vol of ca'a'amity ticipa
ldirouqh group ma-,ters kn7 amil -fannar_. :La Ibntaarnit is v--r-.;, lcw, Lass
thm two mm-t of the sma,)lo are. of aay ua=mmuty grou ,- axC:?rt
for to a church or roli,710.)z rou'?.
t:la Lrz!!cz&Cd tllat LaoY 'XDlon:pa'I -to tA nds latter ty-n c-17 :7=CUP
-It-titu1as
':"_Aa grz!zv : majori-It-v (70 yx3z ommt) of E,-.lall faniars sarx lc '. ill i)
,ara :,j _10.-I T .1il, 1- ,J- -)r-:- t actor
L nov is U a s _ost hL tan ft
in sol--atimj a jdo. 1% rclativ-_dy anallcr --)rc-,n -ion CZ2.C oant) aM of iie viz-v -d.Lat avd of- job; is t m
factor oli vinic., W 1):030 _Oln SIIAZCacu
llio. occupational of fan,'t=s il nf_) aro -xwaats were
idwiti.L-1- 7L in rfa- t, :nn;_ ermces tli -v 1,,! for sans an('"L
daughters. ri ,e dmicc of oc =paxtiran for Sorls WC1:3
Uiat of ;-:I la ,ryar or SLir ar-zevenli i-)cr cant of tho sengla indicatcd,
Uds Prolferonca. Smi- 32 por Cault for -Elat cz t;agory
of jdbs as Ln tlia ss;arvico sector, as _,.ijv.J_.l s,arvaalL-S, tranqport vroz l s or
319




workers. it is pax-Licularly Strikkig t1lat lass thc-La one, parmat Lndicax cl, F,,. 1:0.r -LiX.ALLVj il!*S cln OCcL4,xitim za scri.
Si; ,tv cr .1c J- S
04 would. dymse toad-drig or
wq ldk- preferrea for their (., fnt S
'a:u( -or 1", per M.'rit
for jdDs Li -Lia scrvicx- sec4a-r as or clar.,Lcal ccc-, ,rrc- Lal ;,cr.'F,-crs
Inere is a Ust:L,.c,--Jy higlhc r -in the smplo. izno ccrvsiderad
la l Or Zm.l Klore k.Vx-,rtLmC. Uian Oaly 5.7 x:, ,it ,vercOf the that lm ,T or iciiv as a Irofeassior. for thedr son was as
Lil-mr1cmit as a sriculture.
educationall aspircytions ky .Narmamits for laieir ciiiljxs--,l in
the rue-in, at Lhe levol of udversit:,y, cz, ducmtion (G6 per cemit) This is I'lavevor, a noticeeMo contrast to as mF n ly as Exx cmit hi kitigua, vAlo that their cLiYxen shouW Imme a university oducaticn.
These hidicatims, ara Li .; Lx ;,Anq T,,rL-di _"D cacult of the sauple who are of vi(--xl thaZ- Iest of their ddldreri couli
have is a hial.;h
TO 1:11L J. Aja Ml:KIMS :1-, great rx-Ijor4-ty Of ur"lal, -r .. k).ntscrrat s-mTple, it is bettor to divide. lcmd uoua- 1-1 mm-ig Lieir at IJ-ie Um of
deati.t. JUghty-oight -t-r ceat wera of thiz view im c-mtrw,-'C --o shc px cent ihio would leave t lcu-ij to one cluld.
libe. majority of Uic farmers in I'lontserrat dlo saw), do so
through a lbamk -- pner c(?j,L. '! ,icmty--five per cpmt save on t:iair u-za vhile 24 per cent reported' no scavin. s.
40




B. TrM FAXII
120 ZM3
rarm (.Acrc 141,viLer o--,' ?Cr C:nt 0:vtz!
1.00 T
00 0
3. OCI 3 E) 2, 10. 0
4.00 5. 0 G.6
Eighty---[: -Jo farm ("'S.I p-r c- -it of the total) co-,jtai;je-! o2fL o1j:3 rarcel,, Of tin f-rag-xi-ite-I farm, 113 (W.S p2r ceiit) contahieJ threp Ird:CfAs cinc., fiv fanrs (13.2 per c-ent-) cantahniar! four percels. IE '111 pharcols nxzthmn tliar,2 are 170 parcels in snqpii-- of Uicso parcels
i4j (03.2 -a--r cont.) enze lc#ger thcam un-,-- acm. It v-, ould &3a'a.. i iiere.that fray-ntation dMS occur aT.MrT ON111 f-CL-j-G J"-I
-a firs-- Parcels (xLitaLaal uicultivatet land. Lq 1.1 Casos thc mimmt of was ano cicre in t-wo casaa -L-Lia mr-mt
vas -tiore -dia, me. it i,luuldl U,:)IC -Chesecond, Uhird anJ, fc.,ux, :. parccir ware afxuir. for 10--Causc LicLloncc, of' vastaj-e
an these 1101 3 is V: ;-_ 10-: Only o- '7 -d-ve 53 pzarce:-Is hi tids category contaLiix! nny cultivated ian. ezi a of -Eqis, four contaLned less thm one-half acz= of41-




'! -,nure mn imation. o r rexcels
1a"Jinau'rt, )th-x.1A. o-5 mgmirizig t.1he use of 1xi-i-1 was Ulaa paym,znt -, -f mn &*airotl r thc 1210 f-cman6s in tli-. sxjAe 1013 ()Y0.00 rxeZ C Mlt) v,,nxe
rezitc of 17V -;w-,xcn-1.s Li -Eie sxm)1e, 162 rmLcz farrm,
00.4 fr,-,,c*no.1,L, ,,. fcM."Aly land (one far-.i) ancl I (one
. 'jfj-; 7--Siy, CYX CQ of Is veni locanba l U."a
fcunnrs, &iCIlia-Ig Z,,nd ,)Lu: cenk ),,,7ure locate.51 within three
ziiles. Only five per cElit (sevm.. faxrx--) xenxe loca"Laft more them four n.iiles czuy.
Only 47 of- -Lia, 120- fa.cx (33.2 por cxmit) ,vrc located itridiin '&irac r il s of -- Seven --ane fam-us r t) var
,u -,VW] V -Va cm-1 e oca: ed
within siX -mles of 1 vu-kat. Of Une 5- subsidiaryy parcels (,p .Wcels other U-kan the f ix"-t jp xccl) only 2' por mit vvero locat,.xl lvitaii. three ad -s of -i-narket Eui: ncs,- Y, cant) T,,7orc. located. than six
mile's awa j.
I --)lic transport vT,,z 1 c .1-1,re of 2 ,;r c,,).t of the
f ar.r, to market, 32 !.)er cent. IC174 Y2r Cen't -t ,-as
Iea to t7in f ---nmr or dr.-Y3 (Anly ,Lx Damors
Uivci 7,ar aant) us,:-. ,l -A -L ir om
It Tmuld se,,mi t1lat tinro is little if ostcland 1 :! x)te.ntial
for incraasirx,, ,, ankall fanmar pm ur--Uan )-ust take, Cie foxn ow k tuisive rather tiian oxLensive toe of lan !. 'ffna intensive me of 1&a ,
dyl-nnd onthe provision o.f certalm infrastructure inputs.
Eleavai of tiap parcels stuUed (G.2 per cmit) consist of "mostly steep" lzuu:t aud my xex-ire terracing or other skular treatiremit 1 f
.LL L Wen UMIS
(6 2 1:,ex carit) are accy-meibIc only by "dry weather" roads.
4 ?.




fu- 7 a ad trans-, Or
jv. Ucula.rly acc2 z rca :.- :--am-t ccr,-xic!ar:.K,. L-1 kl,--tC-.il L-1 -my
plan for r.,-,all -E: x k i
z.7is in nts,=a:-achincry m Farm" ll ualdLnqs
For U-1a -wjor .=mors -a t:13 sam- cont) th l.
hivantorv o-r f6rni L-,,)ols co--LsistCi Of U30 tO fiVc2 ,)iCZC:3 Cif IINI-IJ -,'OOlS.
cant) sL- -.ttn of ha.xl
tools zm,- t mm ra;.-orts.:! iaiat cr-me -7, n- toolo. No tractors
or irrriga L-Lori equipc=t in tho sano.La.
is a v .iv Ic,- lcvc l of in, f,=t.L -,uil igs. ,:he
altirc sa:npic, Qf 120 fc ,-Ylsz!rz ancngl than, mm -four pig -xmi"z, 'two ccw pans wn fi tl-=- s'- -a a- pai3. The situation is evczm
S=T-ious 1. Ilcll it is C=d iiat -U7f!i c-7,, p3ns, ,oth poultry
oms x 7%0 0-r-xir n a, shrigle famor.
DY, C--o,-)
(i) Cro'DS Gzam. lyy Irl-10 S"-'xall
1)Cr C Mllk- Of all faxroxers fjrc-.7 ort Or -z-.,orc rcct craps. Bananas wer-e- th,:! s.2c*nd nos-C. frccouantly ;prmvi ,dj"i 61 -por -a."t of all f-arimrs gmzhig C-as crq .- --cr4cp--,i;,ht L-vr ment grem, vagatE -,1--s- 3/2 p= cmnt, grain
le-ym-vus and 12 par cant ccv-ton. craDs were grc,, ,--i ly, only nbie
farmers (7.5 per cmt) anal corn by six fm-7ers (5.0 per mmt) .
Amnej th-2 rooZ crops, z-:%---t potatoes,, dozh-K-n ancl irare. eadh gwa.-m ijy at leaVIC 34 por ceint of tho farrurs survqyc i m.-a yawn, '- ,y -ld'
,x-x mnt. Pa:,r,-)cr the mm?o?ular vorptnble am", it ims folla7,,d La
declinLig pcrpulaxity by carrots, cabbages, cucarbi-s, omons an : twatces.
43




'-b ,t fax.mxs gaming l3gua s, gru, P vuyut vihidi ii1w; grmzi 3 r cemt Of" C-dam fam'.1em th,. ).mut x r,.: gu itly
Cri-10
e. ad, i)
eila an l ;.xx casit of- farru-rs rjm iing
th(-- ITure iqportmmt CZO,)S,, Farmon. Illicil Grakm Crol.) 'Par amit
'200t. C rqps
Svxaet potato, ,z 112
5 37 5
3/1. 2
YE
Vegetables
Poppers
Caxrots 6 1 17.5
ce: vjes 16 13.2
4 ll,,7
1.1 11) _2 C. 7
3
7
rigeoil 'C". 7
73 GO. J
12 5
Cotton 13 10. ,
Tre e Crops 9 7, S
L-1-tercropping
4 is a commn ,-,)r, ctice in x,tsc- rrat &,::, is indicated im the follorelLiq "Alidl giwz cha percentage of fax-mrs practicing the Systear"I Of klmluutim44




Cre, -D
mrwh-19
lam 73
7 1
Pap,
4', 7
43
57.1
2, 7. 3
37.5
/n.
4 -1. 7
Picpoll 13cas
Bananas
Plaintahn C-,, 7
Cot to, I 7 7
Larmi'l Y&-n zar- Lh.:. thr-,c crrop -,!*Os-l--- oft-ozi
not-cI Uiat U-mx, are) mlativoly Rxng tor-i takc! sctva:,
to 12 fram plaiting ;:o
aln, o--ily crq? to any grc, t oxlc amt is c YLto
,: for all. OUIC"r crar)s sliarp-Ly with -diosr- for
llmtigw. Suxvoy -Liat inhig is lit'Lle practilcad.
(iii) Crq2s of Parcol
majorilqr of farm=.-, -jrm.7 -thoL. on Parc, -,l -. cr7t lmrrccls
tendeC to havc p sinqlo cro,'t (G3 (3-1,.3 Of th-'e. -73
parc,2-1s) iDa=.As (!L ') r":x ca -*_) li lc ,,Ir- tcmm crono




and 0--aly Six 'pea-cols three or !"ure loncj--tena crqps,. r or a' icxc, i ;ev i of craps 'uws grura an ead-i pvwrcel. zi zzingl short- -bl, -F ;;'az; (- -) pxra, .Is per two iort- tenn
0. 3 0 parCC
crot)s on piarc, :ds, -L*;,-m,, '-) Cra,)S j four Cro".'s 11'.3 (C.S, im-ir o<:,nt.) cl.,O fiv -- 17
bst of Uie short-torm crops imre also qrmrn on ?axca
(J.v) "bot Grown
On Ul", basis of ;L"c-re'n ci.iltl,'Zva a 'L, the most k,Tporta xt crops wre bmima juld ,!--tearlults. haul t' lcunjest acreage on 46 parcels and
,x--unui n 2 ,)awcals 70"
--ar- ts a tr,?") cro-po ,7,ere kollovoW ):,,y smeet potatoes
and e 07 pexce" aa -0 xx,A (13 parwls) a id dao,acan lwarcels)
afis of retimms, Iban&ias (4"1, oarcels) i.,7as also cro) e-T'i" Lt tI,7 s ft-,Ilavm, ; by peanut (21", parcels)
Xqppers (20 (J-5 mttun (13 parcels) and sweet
potatoes (9 parcels)
M -Reasunis for Cro
G=,I ",,kLexcts x1rd 1'x7 L ,LYMIC "'Klro .s Itne major reasorms
inf lumcing t1he acrea, ,n Of C-1,1000s s-,,dtc,biIi-t:y c2f the lane, i.,7as
also ',-nt vns consid'orad te, I",ass cri-tica.L. .7% 3LI,,ilar pattern
was -unz cx- an wi incum
ba:EA5.
(vi)
Srmet oolulto !S ax", grazzi ;'.)Y a iajor4ty of farmers for 4,-)Li llhazxz iz,;a md salo. Lihacty-xbr it t of farmers graying th crop to
plzmt La the following year, rilie crop is plaifted and lmrvesta:I all year romd. Local arietim are gramt me, 36 per cent of -Lhe fax7mrs intaxarqpjx d. Ibst farx-ro used ridges. nle crop is not no3nfially stored.




a -a r
tl Sc ara,)O 'naLlIv for ..arnconsu: 'I -.Dz cr-n-": in cz,.sn Of '=-aar
fz ar-, a
Ic. aro. ) ; vo
aro 1,110=17oia,,
0 :1. lcz crq,
th 1 of cUlt t: L
.: AIXR,,UCO an]; lccal )laat ,.nz 4, , ,
IYX:"! Cal
Y 'r CXJ
&2l Cant 0.'- tds Crop di'? so
'or ho-Ix., I-Isc. 'S x A,.uc -Er folla
7ing year. Uic j IS 7, to Jzl-lv !-)Izt SC7, r, n!"Int y3ax roluld.
also .2-cs j
:,tr tit zaaalz rmiy of harvesting
oc;i,, --.I a the are
C 1 -rav, -id
art;; u -s- a
1)racticallar all rO ly of ilhe 2" fcmvmr3 gra,,!jiy4
yax's us,
c-:,ppo aro
'I'lly scvan of the fana=s "Trawixiof the f ar.,::,xs
d-ja:clCU.1 Spro
or-aLAc
,anmas ,.,,kaxc r,7 1. 4
/J I:=. J..Lj rC)ot-- Cps, sa-'re mxc
,;Olc thc T'ba": far-.oIm knc", ialtjmticzl s t0
PlEMIt 'EVIC zl,, Xt IV an A majority of Lxnl, S gmaa.7 tile .,n -'r. ML.'aa 2tan& ush"g
lOcc-11 ",71rict-LDS. T 1. crap is norkil: y 9MAll Olt Ulrl flat. "V ,ry faq fanIM"3 an th.u crop. Only four f-armrs
r0i)ortoc -'"-ho visc of INO diatucal sprays or Orgz" ,Jic ,kL.Iures
aro. US 31,i. Cf f, "0r., JO !aot :-;tor.: talo crap b-at a
pOr for rk -XIang, purpoz;Ds.
47




M p
c).F
C* L.v
ccalt OA : Arl
it LUIY ',,-'Or ,zle an., 1 3,''
for
fal'n-nCIO cl. O' ) i's L11
T., )i I ,no.s
of Lv,
c 1 o4
Ekx c it .uiz, G a
Pl lc *; 0.71 rL c,:m. Of, tlie fan.'.1=3 stor. sax! 0. ,. t"lxo, Auc n aff *,,-.e mmva i Lv.,
gmninl 'Ageoa cxIly cAght farmers
9-rent this crap it for Iimn wsc,, All aight farners,
kurv pi&vIs W -plaat i: Ie lantirig tal-, cs place year rouml,
F mm'tm; also A3FO- L I-V jz of thva ci,.*A-. fanverscr
Traq the crcz.-., :Li pur,) s" uz' %-Jas AC, Cr On ridlljos Or oil Ule
flat xi'd loc.;al fanux ntamr] 'As croin.
a.ily Lertilizar
dia."fioal
,Ran)::,xs (unkalv xS
l-*y .1.0' f rr t. -0 -X: r c, -Zlt or- vilar graw, the cral..) ,; : Ven caat of :,z,,rs
katandc"'I 'to p.l."nxi. in 1 y-a!x. PlrauiLinj, v, ta
ke
Y(L zx rcxuac". cw,'c of crc)l
b-i purc alcwi ft. ;bSt I LLm local VCn-ictil-Z.
Cam)ts lpfnxe gra"'.".1 'by .21 farnv= (17. par \mt) Uie ma.jor.,c-;:,u 0 7)
of vacm it fc).: I'vIdl szah) arld 6=PStic consu'lotion. EannX3
intcaded to plpx c L".1 r.. -Plmotiag is :aoraelly beb
MIE y Mk:l July, wyl hietrw sting, isi Sep-UnIxer/October. accyp is pluatexl
rwLwrily on am-14. in rm,,-o. Poxty,:,.ai flrt per cent of ttlae Lanaers, g-rcK,,*f
49




the crop did so in mixed stands. Only four of the farmers recognised that they were using imported seed and the others did not know the variety they grew. The crop is not normally stored by farmers.
Cabbages: Sixty two percent of the farmers cultivating this crop produced it both for sale and for domestic consumption. Only 75 per cent of the farmers had plans to grow cabbages the following year. Planting and harvesting the crop seem to be a year round activity. Fifty per cent of the farmers intercropped. Improved varieties were used by 50 per cent of the farmers. The crop is planted mainly on ridges (55 per cent) and, to a lesser extent, in rows (25 per cent). The crop is not stored.
Cucurbits were grown by 14 farmers and as for most of the other vegeablbs, they were grown by individual farmers for home consumption and for sale. Cucumbers and pumpkins were the predominant cucurbits cultivated. All farmers intended to plant in the following year and planting and harvesting apparently take place year round. Fifty-seven per cent of the farmers grew the crop in mixed stands. Local varieties are generally used and planting is usually on mounds. However, some farmers plant on ridges (22 percent), beds (14 per cent) and on the flat (14 per cent). Planting is normally in rows. These crops are not stored by farmers.
Onions were grown by 11 farmers, eight of whom produced the crop for both home use and for sale. All farmers had plans to plant the crop in the following year. September/October was the time during which most farmers planted onions. A majority (73 per cent) grew the crop in pure stand. Five farmers (45 per cent) used improved varieties. Planting is usually on beds and in rows. Thirty-six percent of the farmers stored some onions.




r, I "
ItvMto"n5.
by eigl-rt. faxnrms rit "h,' ti n of of -,-_,n..rmrs
produac)z: dae crpp. f'or use farnors
izritended to p1mit Cie ;-mL scatttf_=- d
throuc -11,1n D.'' rnzrs in rmlra
jhout tlho year of 11
StzaI mid t1firee, ia ...-ULV' staikz. lazo fiva f lars variatLm.
Faar planta.1 an 17 ,K) an lclia flat anc! aria fam -r ,a (XI 'md
ridgcz. 'bst farnr-. xsz vt;:,,x-! ra,,7z. 4'lic repport(-,j 1--1,e of ta..atoec.
Unix Lx p.-r Cant of Itne f arf rzs producing vc gataloles Lme
fertilizan Crul:z '11.5 j..)er cent usexi chemical sprays vi'hile 30.4 ',-.xic ca,Y; uscy.1 other ciancals. ;.'b cyne reported, Uae use of orq&-ic zxvrarm.
Cotton was cultivated 1by 13 famers, who produce it maimly for sale. Sevanty-seven cent of the f&r-mrs had plans to plant ha -Lie foliad-ng
yGar, 15 par cant haCl no plans and eight per cent didrnpt
111-re normal planting U-tva i3 August Ito Octokxx, wit i a majority of fanmrs plantkiq La Sqpbat r. Aivesting tcn as place in
-Lirdh. Me crop is uv.-tallv g--mm Ln pure stanJ aund botli locat! cmd ircprovax. varieties ara roportea to graom. '. hirty xv. -x^ cm-ft cf tho farmers edcA riot 1"Ma07 tiLa wariety they gnw, ahe crop is falla'ays id'mtawa m ridges and in rafflo-. Ovnr Iial-f Un faxTaers grading this crq? SLOne. it for sare U.n.
V. Livastoc.'r
(i) ('Amaral
Of Uki total o-.r- LAS 17ar-a pExcols in the .britserrat sa-: )le, livastod-z imare koric on 77. Cattle were, ',,e,?t an 23 parcels, i-)igs orn two an-6. sheop and goats an Z. Various cakirmations of livestock vem 3mpt -oil Cla ranahiing 27. !-abbits Tk--re reare d on one parcel only &ic poultry on 1L A significant maybe of cattle, goa-ts saeq-" 3.11 -Licular, and also saw, pigs were k: ?t afff the far.,,^..




(ii) Cattle
amit) in an 7hilts= CTL ='-rlanall
Cattle, 25 of Una affnal Ono Eun-l fiw cmnuls an.-I M-al
-LK a:i-" tan Z Zatrals. 1 -7
'i.. 1".:ao; .-an.z'rs kept anly local ty .' C '-'Illilc
five lrv- U13 t irpo of cattle only. In relation -to LIvn
.Ystc--,l practiiad, oric farrx x graza" hiz cmirzUsL., the c,,,,en zn,'i E'ectilarcO their stord Tvxop. fz=mars not dis =c cf the ai
sollLig or ha-:e usa -aria:, 1-110 CF,,GWi ditahlad, -froal E.-lis actdvi-tw
fj-' 4 ) D-j
TIam:taan :uar,. ,:zs pk= cmlt) -p s 07. lalr: -fa: Ya' Of
. i j
13 lla'A Flxk 3 or lass on, IL-OL"naa 1-1 encl L4 --igs. Fiv -to -x z.t fan erc. L no Galling or atam tz, cuif. c-,-n the
lfaat. .-RD lAjo wmrc loot curing -'Cln
(il.7)
I)---r aamt) :L.-x Unlgoa rLtnic J-Ia. JUive or icss., idno 'iau fiv anfi tom, tnm
I nt
-'7aan ano ImJ 16 and' 25 threc- ha(-,', xorc "" 7 i:ut
1 ss 35 On-,:,, had. -Uaam "d5. bst of the riz,I-mrs rc z=al
rs) them. ona stalm-i- '.Iio 04icur alla..n, to x"In loose. ;,b czsh ilica-10 fror; sol.-
OLLaaad Ll af Un -o&, Carmezrs ,11-5,' j -er ca-it) ecal
bt,x R rzr=s tmn.-iar- -...x.)n thaai :100 while tl=aa fan s dotai-nal betuuai
it, x" fran -MOU ,nat sold. -losses of goats- were
in' t"le hzt 3"Car..




(v) klYr- k
.)7). fzvxrs., of thana izad firo L,11iIL, oz, .'h,?2s ,
t A t, m ank, ialo, f x.x -0
ux, L' an"." ank.-mJ-7 Oil S
f0.r-I.YZS t -1-,C,:aara-,'I ta'Xin f
thack x. "n'xTI cas,-, vnca,,c was, d.L.taina 1 ,y oJ., ...,arners
frop
jol" cm, L'.4 h,? caz: at .e.x -f -VXS, X k, k 0 M: I
4). -,, ,o fzx- zzs losl- ,"..urimp CI-3 '"apt yeaz
an"! ead.-I
Only One f r r A's ki ,,,'L tsarrat sF. wid betxmn
xi. fiv"2 of au 1 11,1.1s earz,",
:,I, 10 w".15 disi c "".0 1 ccl C Iv
pos ,Or- r,
fraa Galc of .0-2'r T-=% =; ,ariarced ,urhig
(Vii) ,trcatz"'id LI:Ooilcr k.)Ou,ltx-v cax, ,, fa :- .a -,ns ccvjr, ;. 4.L.-I the
sax)IO, sk", 1-j la.- x
C-a,710 -L a Cp4- I
L o birds- It-a -Ulo --Iisposal Of U.10, SL
n&t Sall iL or ill: aL t=ar.wws usa,:' the
one 3016 ancrtinr di iv:)ii:iicx, of those. t-Ungs. Frx.,.nrs i iho 'X,, pt
puult3 'y ,.' 3. nolt any in t ie ,)-Ast w: ar.




(viii) lrzvx ).t Aakivals
farmnars in Lhe 7,bntsarrat sai-.ple kept donkaye.. 7'-Il 11C.." aily oile eankey az a an- to- h.7 -I morc
--.ze jAwns =.- Producticaa
lv zu7:-my at,'.: ICO 07,7t: ,jn- jXlfor O- far...,=s -?,v. c
tc factors zadterl cis arstv1hits to irezrowea livs-pro.Iactiozi. It- alzo c:oIl-,.)ctnd data on tne nature., of Una e zym-Lscs
actuclly Lncurrak i.-Y fam.mro in livastoc:- productian. LIfornnation ralatimg to -"tln 3a2ztrz!hits to prodi-ic-tian is givaa belcu-Fcac ors
Griaat: r Production 1 Cat-tlic ?igs (30a.tz shaep Poultry
( os-C c,-F T'
of
narlnt cone, -0
pr; T
V, t. Fens/ A.I,
Lialcqaratc 1,a!xA?.r
3




reed avai"Ality, facd cost and "othcr'- factors 'had the : Ost
offacts on all classes of livestoc-k. Availability of feeu7 was cit".."'I ',:ry 1 fpwnnurs h'i all livestock cla6scs an., eqpecia14 those ielno cattle anf) vtlile tju--- Oost o.f fcxx] was giver, by 12 fanyers wz-io also
cat-Itle pic to femforz
is. -.Iraadial larceny vory i: .V)Ortm,
ehc%7!p anci. -x) a. lesser c xtcmt,. laid suitability affectAaLl far. ,Pars rearing cattle., sheep and goats, an-.1 -.-narket conditions were onlv citac-i hy one cattle f,--wxr. Ld-our a,-O va mrimny fees imra -not
considerable to 'DO. wnstrahy't, to J-rezter livesto& -productioa.
54




A. aiAMI-m2jZI7IcS OF Iiim MYLLT FA-Mm
Bad FacLors
(i) 'nige, sa arc Et -Mic (&igitri
Li Uxa Dauncia smIde, F-I;'x)st '02 I>ar cmt of fam operators., in-m male. Taa majori-cy (70 per comit) wara Letv-nm the agas of 41 and 70, with Un mdal age of c,3 =7 the rawm age of the m-.ple Was ill. Ala s 90 inercaut of farm merators arc fo African atimnic origin and 10.8 w-,r amt of rm.-- racial d--sa--nt, ofaile less t2m on(-- per is of cacil.; origin.
(ii) Literac -, 21irital S atmm and IL'buscInIc".. Size
Im 'majority of fc-amaxr hl t1ie sa:1ple (62.3 per cmt.) com reze mz! write, less Uian one p=- =-it cam reed only ma a furU= 4.2 per caIt can wriba, only raug'aly orne c c of every tilrap fa=mrs can ricitlvar raad rx;r wrPte.. Ahmot six -p-erc--mit had at-L y level of
education, wO about- 50 cent had conpletod at Iaaost ---a= years of prkme- al sdiooling.
-y sd=l. E dxn 20 Ixx cant of tlu, scmtple had no, f onk
I bst faim, =-s (70. 0 pox m-it) are- eitInx legally =xrioOl or have esLablisod caxont-law =*ons (15.tP r --r mznt) The household siza for the sa:,:c)le is bi-nnoIal and eight persons per hous e -iold) The mean house;aold size is six. Tho avnrage =Lxar of de endents per farm operator is roughly four.
55




13 a of resideAYtial sta,Alit y 7vxan ,j
fannow. !Fbor t1le Cdiaj. of
A f Ar -r: cm S..' r c it izvilicat"N! U -air 01-1.11-Y cccqy vltic'n to he f aradlziq 13 C 41L of arc as
tradesmen such is pltratirvr or rvisonry. Ten ,,- cent earn a
part of their living, carce.-rcial enterprises
-3 1 er c are
in tlie retail tr&,1a of fann jxaAxe. A re-einirk -Y ant. egPloyel in aa& areas as iiIjAny, proviSing unskilled labour for road works or lov-1eval DuAic sorvics johs.
(V) Tiay"Mly Inou-.-YD
fbirly acc,Urate o','- faixily ixica(Ll unis arrived at frauti
indications of, Wbuxccs of ON, n.,'Z: '%.xerises for lx)useiaold
ami fana rv-eeds. lbre than if) (AA) A.PAV60hinual abcakS of $500
or less. Fifty-five p ,r o: at ;.-Avc, arrazI i:1Cvix's "1,000 azand $5; 000. Lots tl nn -Ii nt y)er =1-ft' i. c. 0! )Iy s-tabod tliat they have cmuiual Iacames of rllorc"' than
In sonic 26.7 1-4,r contof 'households; stores
family incorx, ona or :x=- ; sons anG Mughters were also contrilnxbDrs in 19.2 per Net and 7.5 rar tent and 7.5 per = t o-f 'bousehol& respectively, Wr clerntors cent) ackiowlxllged that other
relatives also ccUrIbuxtiaxt to animal ftnily MccMe.
56




(Vi) 1711-1tritio71
rMic mot fregamt-ly cozismzr y-! focd-- of tle Dam:LAca sm-m,ln ara root crai-is arr11 1),riamnaz. -,bre Eu-w Do per cant (S'53.30 conzir-ting Cheso foodIS do zo f rom their a m. oaltivatio.-is. F. si-mif icant proportion of the smTple also use fish, fmits 7:..0 andl 07.1 r*r amt respectivaly)
or a relatively fr .-ant 1,azis,. scwmal tLI-,s a TAAL-- tIy3fruits co-wv--ma ,,=o hrreri7,--1y q1-Lxjm': (G3. I-) per ce.-it) 7 fish an ,a ad to "U1e ..-IAjority of- t -Ie swipe. (77.5 anz:, 75, 2%
1)--,r cm-it respectively) Zg s anC'! ;a-zzit %),,ora also reputed to be 'imed often" by relentively hirge proper ,*ioi-L- of the- smple ( 6.9 -in,-! .63, SID, per cm t re.mpactively) . Tak ,m tq -athar, these item, mi fat migges-14: z, Afairly high nutrV.;ional status, of Da-Lnica small fazmrs. it vyould s---,(-n ne=--swry to Ixe cautious hi =riving alt suc:i a conchisimi, shx* tha data, obtained relied m mfbjective asa3sammts, of Nr; rj s,--l0.a-.f" and 4q oftm".
11. 'Farvt-Orimtel Factors
W Tim -,,--xnt a--id labour us- ,d on the far.-i
-Imarig the smlAo of Inait.-ica- far-xms, the M-.tjority spe sbz to eight hours per z1ay in farrdxig activities during the crappLng s;aason. In the cyXc--of----crq) season, tho Tw.al tir.,e spent on the fam, is t,.,o to four hours dailav. "g-most '20 ix--r ceat of farmers obtain th-, assistance of at L ,azu:; oria o1zhar r'-,,,ily zxm = for IzO on the fam As zwamy
-is ll par c,,--,i.t indicate i-ir: -v r--c,iv-- assistanc-- frmi four four or mra
of tlic, ."Ousblold gramp.
rZha cusltari of c hared icLour is practised by 41.7 per camt of =rall far., ers izi Dommica.
(ii) Use of Fam Zecoras
"-s than 10 1x-xce-,it of Cia D-amica- smImAe any farm records.
1;7




1 bst f arx rs in Dcundmica. said Ibrcq don It JILt u xnssary to ka, ap fana records (27. C; pv.)r cani:) lAky=st 25 iyx C It d: t lcir to read or writa cts tlu raasow for not 1,eejpkxjx rocor,. s d,. aas anoi6jier 10 'per cant indiccea d t "at takes too .Madl
(iii) ImlovativoZ12SIS
Adle tlnzne has beex- (xA -isLhrablo taclmolo,-jical dev'::'1CjMx1't ia t; lk agricul-=al lieLA h. sud,. aroas as disease cointro.L. new or se varieties zuid kTx-rvec aulburan pract-icas, t2ie laval of awarl-i'ass ainong lxcumca small fannrs saa-x-, ziogligible. Only four fann opera-Wra A-,ro familiar 1 dth vbat ',lipy consiitmki a .-xaw vari!rLy of practdC"S. "AL' lahese 1:M ". 'I L;ecz uoixic ct variety lx* tnxxn
four :Umiovaltorz' Aa;. wie new pra tice, ox .,r
two to 17ive vears mrid one oLhar fancier iadaicmda ge<., L u,_Lig a nav practiu or variu, y 1( ss tlkLi ti,.x) yaars.
It is tlie ;policy of Lx-u ma associatimis to Supply grc",nrs widl feriro-lim-r is ,)ai(, ior -Dy a oms levicAl crl their produce. Az expec-ted, a Idgh proparticr of Lmiall farsuors usse fertilizers on Li( r
aLzost 75 \par ce .. t fo cj='rLnq that crop indicated 16ds.
iRNever, -Uia use of dix:ndcal s,.)rays and' otiner chauca'W is cansidaralz jy lovi. O.nly of -EWwars qru4&aq banmias use 6KMdcal sprayL.; xid
less t1ww oae r c usic oUier dl amcals (we cidies or herbci s) and r=e use organic mxiura.
For other mijor gra m ;Jv t1io small faxlxxs, i: -ien; is a relatively
proportio--a wdag fl, xtilizars on jpla:itaiiis (34.4 :?or cuit) wid roots and tx3Wrs (59.3 V--r cza-L-) 'but WIy -neggligilAe ntunWrs abdicatee a usa of diernical. s,.)raYn,- or other di, qicals, 1,or wzs no practice of using orgafiic nzaure by ;_xxiiinica ,.w.rdl fanciers. A xx-naficial sidc-offo ct occurs in Cae trwisfer of &xUIL ar ted-n-Liciaes fro--,I 1xvi to ot.-ior crux. Fertili.;'.ar ix.Vported ;-or ixmia;ngts :-wi availaJAc, to anall fan ers
-Lzaa4h %;ha ccut-0aity associoetic'i, Aw ca ivLl application -to ot1ier :'mjor crops grcxan cy tha fan,,, j.
33




Uv) '?exnsons
.,Ale Ilk-4jori %- alLy Co- -,--L
ty 04 fox-Aars not -'rmnn 33- -Ir "t anyone in
dacisions o-a fa-n n1a:mLz t:'-r7i -1:0 0-,ay- (- ;U 0) hoicated t1ley Conzal-Loi rxnc C-zm ---m 1:2 nir simuse as. the
Persaa wiioulb--d most La fam "2 Cisom. .2C) !>= C"Mt of
tII2 smiple cmisult Z't -Ision officer.
IMae aph-lion Source --ast hir;daly considered :hi (1--cisiom alboiYL a no-7
variety or is -Lhat of t2n; f-a-mim's spaisn. Ronaghly t -lo tliirfi of
farrnars vulith misid-ered' t -n p-Dinion of their apmmes to !-. a
i',qportmx#--. GUiar -;-I'M11 opoim--s, relative knvortance is slioun -to opirda.as of a son or claugliter (403, 3 por cent), the off icer (33-3) per cant) a relative or naiglilmur (21. 4 and 16 4 per cnet re-q,Yectively)
II. Credit Facilities and Pzactica
Of 0ae, credit fc-Icilities availekbI3 to Dammca mmll faxmrs' Sawan
rezvn-wants iredcatal that -Umir first pref3raica vras fcz the oa-op-cm:it mion. Anacher five rqpomed tnair first prefer-ance to '.x a oanu=cial Ikmik mQ for four Z=-,rs: Uicir pr-ferra,,q source of crodix: is t:ie m-ux)Iity associationn to xftich Cho I>alon g.
DLxj-nq tha pasle yoar, "L13 u-naIj. farnzrs in Dcuumca had takem low-10 fmi'm Uhe available credit source. of the purr*ses stated. for thnso lopZ13, the higlmost mamvx, --Uv,:-- wera for improving overall famn productioiiz. Other mwpos3s ci4a---' vnm for Durchcm: of foricilizer, dnmcals mid' i'mid.
7hn highest rrat er of loE ms, eight) Tmra fircm a co-ol.VZatilrecredit U-do-n. Six Dmriers -had loans frcm iheir Cmuc0lity Acsociationz, five frai the Agricultural Emal(ygnexit Dxg ,, four fm-1 camurcial and another four frcn a neillf-our, frienl or relative. fanmars said they obtained cr&d4- fron a itmmzy -lnnlor.
5 9




IV. Yiarke tinrj IT, xdlitic,-s
Sca, 2(1 ,, x:x of gaw no c3ti:,-Kz-UD 0:1, I.-Ile le
nearest .oir ham. 'bre thwi 5,") par c, Ll '-J
- as fra.11 -die n clst da pt 15
L Ll 'i .
0. 'Jn
37-0 ixar Cx,,TL had their Llhla-l 20
fra'-.1 a
for the -wxk hig zyst Llh,2! 'drjh, t
pro"Xxtoy,-l OI.Li per ccxrr ) umdl lr-LIT! ars in he sx;yplc:,
0-thez -.:!,uggestions of f arcd :,)Y dia :DCx=-:dca awy"la v, 0-ro
tacrease, of aollection points to rcdllaw the, stancescs
the, of -,ccens roids so that-fa=LK!:Cs couL'J. --asil, trmsTport,., m
C 02..or mttar Y.,eAch
Could gkAc to :2.
V. Camixiaicatian
lnfbr.rz ldan sources cmsulin, 3'..py 1-ammil 2ZU::YM3 L" 1111 11 cakxise the officer mLdy 4C 7 .- rac c a: a grxx, 1: r (2 7 ykw
cmit) 7 3izer Ae pro xrtion (2ill. 7 -,,wx ami-) Lridicato-I that ough
aflvia- forui ano. t;n-an they fetc x l ,rltll) tac;mical far.-An,,y lbst fzwj"Cers listm to raClio oer ce ,At.) rather ldia a visit.
estates Qj cu-lt) or .-, -armr, (29 E*x camt.) as zour(:. --s of
information a.i k.-prov, -farmcln,,T practices.
ob-ile ac mT,,,r as 55 per cant report UL-rt they lma7 dx a-istrict o &L.czmsion officer, 2.2 -r cant. kidicate that the officer never visit
falml.




a, 71i -IS CI.L -4 xt ICZ-1 if'202^4 atic,21 I'daid I far, mrs wish to L-JbtaL-,i fzma
-Ora radio ar -.InLnly hai bo crcpsa, hai to plant c =,Uain crops an-.mnt nricez of fam-, -,iro6iica at -Uia ma ,,Dt, ha,,7 to ca-we ank-v-ds aic". dzr15 of
1-my i,
-"cat mrc
=n in the a Ln ,-, -ex: t-4
mrmbars of- c0--0,:)Cra::ivcS (31.7 7c!x ua-nt) Galy 10 :.2r cmc of the sanVlc
tc a druxdn an anot -- --x nk ,-,a iaz= cant aadn I-selong Lo village
councils or xI Agricult ural "oc--' '%
VII. IAI :itudas
Sl:ig'.itly leos bama t1dn- rcr cmt) of -th,:! Dcmdnica sanjple
Ware of api-don -IC11at Lh niost kiV cant criterion in selecting
a jdb is hai" Can. ix --zCo frcra thc job. Of prinaaary L-rportamca
to ot-= =spandants -rc sudh persaial 1!Idnrj fLcr en j&) or
Cie to ltdca thz! jdo 1-0 on-,,s f,-m-ly (27.5 and
25.0 -fx= comt res7vctivalv) Oa-a, 1-0 caasiCar tIn single nnst
iri mrt&nt, factor in sc-117 cti:a,-7 a jc;-, ix-, I-n provides for anc.
jetall aA
Sevantem pc-,- c,--,Y'c r ,Ashcc i, ti-mil, soci5 to --.urzwn f-arniang, as a career.
AL,mt 20 p2r ca-rt would liko -Unir mn to entar za oraf-cssion Suc:1 as undicine Or an a-Ltitu&2 carmanly iomd Lzi ot:-iar strat-: of bie
society. Lqm! pro?ort-ions cant) Lm-d.cated a prcf --renoe for
their sons to t'-naanars or blm Wor7w=s (sldlic-C crafctaaan,
modaw-Lics or c&= trademai) jdos are not zn-rely Imaw to IlavO
higher statuz- in 1: ic vill&-jos but exa also believed to -pay bcl:ter Lim
f




r be lar ,,est pmXportion-1 of r =-,Nm 1 ts (652 per cent)
their daug?,Yters to becix-r, adt -ier x adiars or Y-xtrses. t:LAan. 17_tv% ,")er (vat-it b1dim-ted ca prafameacy Aw their OxrughdUers to be in, olC len,,, 1bt a S.terlez" Smill Li indica.,L-In a desizo for hi,.-,,
to purme Eaz=&r; as a
As Wi indi(>ator of a ra_:, : ,Xrzfermacf :, Ita"7awd's P10 cR CEIrce+, 11m far-kars wene adke d, whor., UL cy vnu.1171 consider T,,zra Lipor""laat ah jo n wno '14as a lawyer or f1c.K*1:or or wilo rv!as au A _Iisttnctivcdy
-arjc f).rp,;<)rticpn (40 ixn- lav, or -,madicine om_,_- -iuse (30
per cunt) iz lo ;preferra7l agzicrultwa. ncrEher 30 per cant Claujf1it U- ),:. profess-Ioar, 4-3rc a-lually b V:crtzmnt
To fmwther identif ,, jxxcfa, tionz of txCup,rUonal. prestige,
in their communities, timy vojarc as]i a,,] to naxi tdho, Llwee 1-y- daay considered. Aost Lifluential &id ':c ornate ti-le occupations of th se perzons.
About 40 par c.:nt of the simple folt all t1lrcx_ of thce Ilost irl-I"luential
TmAoters of t1leir camunity ware faur-rrs. Another 17.5 por cemit of respondents vras of td qpirdon that a tead-,, r or priest also exerted, a relatively high dc jree_, of
I ArO (-- ,Azatianal as.,-,. rations for tl,.eir mra -vi-" il- amixj the sam-al farm:-cs in the Dor-dzdca saq)le. Ilia majority (56 pz-,r cant) would like, Vacir dliJLCxrm to a universi-by ; education mad a. further onethira ,dsh their L -Lildnm to ccxxpleta secondary school. In CXYnj,,.1nction wiUl these high clucaLional aspirations, -the widerl iiygi attitude -Ehai: W-ucation, is the lyzzt fo:P1 'of securit-y for th children was foun& ixi 75 ix3r cmt of tlia sample.




1&,,c euuallv all their diii6rm
m-as also Lnc:icaL,;N 1.y t-ia (, '3 per cent) of J"F=*ers
hi Dadunio l. :',z ,x,rv0si7j,-.- attAtu( c of mma11 holders iL. 11PS
co-ntLm:,x,-. L,) Z-- lumcc ::-, id'jL daCXC- a
-if Of 1M- fr,!e7--a-jt,-Itia-j M7w 11
f ar.:r-,rs,.
h. Ja-tmura: jla tamr,-Is saving smno o-F -Ennir = nhi7s was
raportux! by vnor,: tivvi GO -k-X-'.Nr cm-it of -:2rian Of Uio various, x,,-ays in
lenich '-xrv Dy wus z-av- %"; a cam-larcial )"A". una:1 30 ,:,or cent of
respoo-Pdents, rAailo aLw7t 23 co-q-3,arative ci,2 another
10 per ccn-it lkciyt t v-- -'- at llcailo,
Farm Zzi I
.1, I'M fan Cs
III-1Z -.I uni'- in sa71)L3 grouLpocl as follcw,.?,,Fain Size (acr, 2.s) X:x cez J-it 0' Total
1. 0
4.0 2.)r)
3.0 3. ,D 2-1. 2
Sbtal 100. D
Iliere 43 -Earnm ca, L)osa 7- of: only om lholdLg (i.e. a parcel)
About the s&m nwizer cr 33.3 cmt) had two -,,-vxcels, utdic anoti=
25 fanm, ('M per clmt) 7wxe -Aiaa:: up, o-E -Uiraa parcels.each. Tacna were six- fzwyus idth faar parcedr. cadch.
%53




(Xily t iraa. of t-h,- LIN) fx:Y:rrs r itel o,.Vc cLny Of t-licir IF)-ndz. T.'airty-six fc=s (30 pr--r cnarvt of thc- simple.) cra, jdnad m waste lmd pnc, those )OrUarns not cul- mro m,jxxteC b-, very
steq:,). xllmlc -, it Can In wncludce, that the E;,;ell faxrx-xs aro :D.dily utilizLig I'dicatwer lwedb cnxo to diain, Incraasc.,d p.,mcb.1cl:ion
Tamil; imLalv, tIvx-fom r -,uall- fzn -, zmre intansiv, ratii z Ehpui ;mrcaxtuI ive 1&idi usa.
II. Tanure an,--I TXcation of.-Darcels
Irne 120 fpx-ix=s in t-r- sa:!Vle, xyjetlior operated a tot4il '234 parco-",:.or loldLngs. Aougjl-dy cue-LArcl of all holclings are- occupied frechold. r'Ihc ot-ier bmmre sys-taor., in r3ascan, ,Lag cxrdar of fraquaiq ;, -ere far.,Ily land (300. ("1 per cent) ca.,i-jal reartcal (15. 0 -,,)er cant) ahare cro7tpinn(G. 41 pear c4mit) and. sqwtting' on govcrnnx iY .-. lant.1s (3. 0 -r maat) cr,-ily five casas of leasc-bolC-, -n7yarc, azr! srmurxttilig. on i,7cre recordeti.
,mnj, the parcels, nindaer one vmcs fountJ, t-he itiole rangw% of tanuxc systems, f-mm f-reehold (Cie. JcxaLiwit sys' -firough farudly lands and. ro-atcal to 3qmatti.3 on private, mid lands. Sirdlarly, the full range: of
tmiwe system is foun.j arx..-ri thc parculs nut,cz- but, hoxa fz-ALly Ime is t2l", dcL",dzIan-t t'myarc systwl
The ;-,mjority of _,oxcx,13 one, (i.e. firs-L pxirc, -is) i.,-; situate,
t",)Ue Of. fain.,: xs' ha- ,nz mvid, saz a Or per of fir, t pexcel
-L -: Ii, nuA r tv7o ,xarc.:As (i.e. accon, poxcals) yaore thm-1 '21) cmrt c-are also wit Lti 'dzee itdles of -fa:cmcs' IIcrws. Skmilculy a Treet nujori.Ly (70 ccTQ of Lhird ,.mrc;,-As ar,: r,-itlnin a
distwice of threc u es rmn fanmxsl ham.
'Zhe fact timt unall farmers' laolc, gs ana rjmerally witlain reasonable
'Jistances f.cm. their 3ha.,Cs imst noc 'lead. to m underesti-mation of tia severe "difficulty of accents' J:bxnm,-zn face on account of t2he =ugged topography vri h whidla thev have, to deal.




'>: ,it7Y oxnt
to ;-,2 undulating &m O."AIN7 Cant
war C)_ z.-l, 0-, 'a 1 7
v:-r xcols -7ar;-- --, ex;tD sbao
71, to S; 11 illei holdLngs cu-j,)os- prcadamnantly
04- 1
1,- ,-vv cxdl 0. 1 --i= c amt)
cm--t Of all farn 'L OldL-rjs esthvat --d to rconiva GO or -,,rr;D kncfazz, of ra ii ,.3 por cczit vx3r- in -Eie
raxxg ,- 0. to G") inchc4"zl.T Irs (riva o' cip had -Licir 11imns on a far,
iiz- prnc;i-icc % o.'! a r i.-7, ng f=xs outside
parc --=X iuld o7,,-=-at:U
of en villclg : is ty'-dua. wmt) -use a w-mbination
of rw-, 1 s- to (jA to i r i cl ,hirty (23 cuYL) une only
trials or foo' -- lov, UhOlr i-ig a mtorable
-11-- 04C 'n- 3=2 Lhe ty: of transport
awdlablo L-Xlumc 0- in Systam and how
'-I of -U=t cro,.,) ls rci2ac t-',A:, Lomd:, :a =,all fai -r 1
per wilt of tii, S-FaID10) is -1:21C Li six niR--,S zxlmv.
or mioL- ,r3r 13 (10.0 cm-iL) t.27 -o ,m"L, S --WTay ddle
Lor tx cxnt) E-.: is t1irz>-) -Alcs or lects ai-my.
III. Tools, and R-=- -A-1dLci2:i
For 100 of the Da ,.,-Lh-dca siNall frx-cers, (03 pez ca-it of the sxmie) the inventorv of f,-=i tools Consist of one to five pizamm of haT4 tools Idalc auiotlier 13 farrf=s (15 pzx ca-it) a-m six to 10 picce.s.




Fe-vw. farruars -Ian )Or otmed a
mtoris.,-x.- spray;.x anal C). famer c&zied
irrigatio."'I
GapitA Lmmstnmant ii 1.', uildLaus is y of the
Daunica wall '24I'mn, rs cxrnnc a. st-or i aad-,:i. One. I.,zd a QaL-Lle pem, zt,: f'-p-m=s had ra pi ,nl -,ad, -Id anotiler 1,
-1 r -I a S:
AW7 IJO,-It -IM--,)
F en For-ItT-fiw, (37.5 cant of seuklar) of 120 fcum'ors 'Iav: holdLIjs ,thicl.l hold on fra,31101,31.
IV.
z5a:vina is a izajor contributor to tl-u-- gross dcaestic product Paid
foreig,,n cadhange earnings of IX-uhiica, and indeed all tt-ie TILm'Niar : Islan1s. Om Iiundr cind boo (01"5 per comt) of the Da=ica anall faxPy;-rc-,, cultivate bananas. As, cuiparai witlh 30 L.,x)r cant of tile St. Vince-at sapple. 7he DocAnica a-tell farmer cultivaWs rmra loang-term crops "djan VL,cor tizm
cumterparts. rifty-tim (43.3 per camnt) ffimn- rs cultivatcal. cowyrits, 13 per cezit) pro,Iuc(-' bay md 3e-. (20. 3 per cent)
(13.3 .yx cent of Lhe of 120 fat,,-cers cTron
alid 9G NO ,zr cent) granv, ki .iphasisi-tig th(- -poi_,it Dmauldca
ruoll -Czm-,Y---rs do not Lwolv-,-, to -Uio szmv, u- tant ih e-tc, produa ion of a wide ralnjo of short terai crops as Jloes tho St. Vincent gzmll fa= Bigirty-one (34. 5 --er cnant) of -6ic 234 holdings Li the Da-d-niczz sa,,tple contained mire, than tm long-tem craps each. Sixt-y-one r.?Ircels ]Lang-tamn c;--a,,) ead'i .rxa on another 66 (2- .2 I:x- r cant) of the 23d. -, roe-,ls on. e lang-tem, cro cultivatL4.
On G3 (28 por amt) or Ilie ,parcels one or b4o shor-terii crops Uere
motivated., ort 110 n more thmi bifo short-teum craps
w L parcels (4. 7 2 N. r mr i -Q
-vpxc cultivated. The rwLtrun xiuxb,,r rewarded as betrg gram on an- para:I w sev(?Al. AS in tlx St. Vizicomt saqpl( the maxtrun number of short-term




Crops cui-tiv"ata-, an amy narcol. dscn-- Is!ed with ddsta;ica of holddng frm the f vi,. a --kt."unumi of smrcn Clif -feran'c arops for
nut"C-1 fiviz; for oarcol -,-rLT'!,')= t:-Lr2:a, and fb= for !mrc-21 nvx2nr four.
-7aa nr, Ot C.-fopr, X.10trj Ui-,- siall fnxnx l-xs neraf-ii Unir
cf M tac sam'!1"de F07-- as follm-m:
Fariv; cm 1T;.'-'C:II cjrc, Irj
1 Xi T
3
-not Cr s
Da s 11(-2 1 solo
rlmll- 77
13,
35 W
43. 3
Coma 25.0
ca 15. 7
3
7
9.2
5.0
cai 3.3
C=Ots 7 5 01
Pigwil 5
(57




TI"Ya crcyps fo,"..1""I -tjo Xl:xo Ule "
tha 1-J'asis of acea
as
rcal Tlarc -,,l 2 ( r-,77)
,Tiz'L r Of: Fanz Order AanLea o.: Far.-,-Ls, 71,x* ordox
Dc Jq
2 J3
citnis 5 7 4
3.5 5 5
Taxmias 3 7, 5* 4 6.5
3 CUX
x%t poi...a ,:oas "S I
Cocoa 3 7.5 1 10
io
on ";,,asis O.."E le, econo."Aic ta Uti famier, -Uhn crops cmisidared
to '.A-- n,,o ,i3t Lq&-ort L)-t (or parcah; wl -;l;-0 aro
arc,I b. (iy--77)
Crq? of ran.o Par %- Order
Bwiwia .53 1 '37 1
Dasham 0 5
Pl&itaLiss 5.5 2.5
Coconuts 11 7 4
Day 6 3
Tat-viia 3
Citrus 7 4 3 7.5
Cassava 3 7. i
Cocoa
Pasture
ScMeoet potalmxes 11 7




Ly both stcui,Ivu 's bmizmir- ouj'.r,:z pC 4 tio
z n, ,s it also did on
-Uha 'basiz of frequpncy of an all Cr=nuts hold t1e thirk .
aX4 Sexm:1 1 posptions On thc izzis of acreage -mr-I aconcric retur.w respec-Uvely 1lie &ata rkwoalad Eiat dashaun is s,:ico.-f ixq-ortant crcr,) in tmmof acreage. LvltivatL-17 liat raill'a-'-d fi.J7UI in -'cw,Iz Of econanic returns. Day shared tlus third :osition (or, U-1e Im.-sis of acznag cultivat,-. ',) vIth coomut.-, and also ra&.-, t-ird as far as com a--ic ret=ns ax-- concerncy,,(ii) Crop
tlie smpla of fams sur-%r,.ryrx' Le=ia wm the crm, mst often grcF;m hi catbi-nations. crop conibinatiorms uith bmiana riplorte 2 N tLms, --xoi2Is (dasheemn wid tannia) vpre reporteI G1 t:Laas. rnn
fxr n.uency of occuraice of other crops in combinat-iow within the smrple is as follam;
crops 7requznqy ot occuraice Ln
crop carbinatim
Coconut 25
no
yan
J"
Cocoa 4
Citrus 11
Coffee 10
3ay 9
Plantain 7
5
Smet potato 5
Lines 5
Cucurbit--, (cumemr, diristo-phame
and p=pkizi 5
Avocado 3
2




T,,Ownn t:cv a La
in -Uie. Dcm-bAce, szrple, wni.tlh o 7 ""Oh 7thcxe WERS 110
repo t iat a shoit (xop is .311 ui-Li zKnothor crap.
141it-11 tae Dwindca -.ill f-wn": 'nr, er'n'hasis i,-, cri Che craltivation of tree- crq,-,s ,,fhkh are othc,r i:;x-ops sudi as
aroids and km -1 tir, Cr p 'x :L0. cnr
yarm o(-curr;-,%-; 20 -L s L o m46 ti
r
11hera are. CarbLinetions O.L tx' >3 Cr-o-L,:)S, With Cownut. ".001C. ..-Tuently Occx=41g ki c4xibinaLims, fcllowr- I by cocoa mi ,I citn.-m in t11"Lat
Fn qumcy of omt=Mnaa Crop =ibinantion in saunple,
3anana + aroids 33
+ coconut 17
+ bay 4
+ tree crop., combinations
(citnis'. avocado, rengo, lines) 11
o,,I:her root crop L we t .: s, (yme, ,,
potato, ginger, cassava) 5
+ cucuebibs (christc -).bmie arrI
t-mcimber i.1
Pxoid + II-roids 17
+ 7
+ ob-ler root Crops 1
+ le Wm--s (iricluding pigeon ,x-.as) 3 3ay + COMAut I
+ Coffe", 1
Citnis + nutiie< 1
+ mangoes 1
+ cocoa 1
Avocado + citrus aad cocoa I
+ cocoa wid coffee am2 I7r-,xY.'Lfxdt 1
70




-CanutT + Cof.,
+ COCC)r.. 3
+ avocacio
+
+ a3coa mu: brea,_Ifruit
Umes + cocoa
+ COCOMIt
1,111tar"g + Ora:ncie pu-i- :I Cirmmzon
Dar6iica cro-) am-binations contrast ummko y with thoso O-E the
St. %I:Lick ,. six-ijoPa. Short7-tr_,n-i crops such as % net potixtm. com;. pea.-nut:pigeon and carrot zwe not give-ri the sm, emphasis; hn the DmitAcan
rm7orpkig system but Listead, with Cie excapd-an of bananas, tree crops
-LLnarA,_ t m crop ca-biliatioas.
(iii) -kmage-irmt practims
S3,1mauna and plantain are gmm L-oth !or ha-e use mrid for sale and ara Tlazite ; yeox rmmd- Sam banana farmers Plant t: i,3 crop manly 71uring ls y
-to July. U.0 1rajority of f-armrs grm, t-insu crops in st&ILLs. imm-al syst-mi of plmthig is ki ru,z on tir-_ flet.
wanty six of Irlie 102 fam-. =s jranng Nmmias use anJ
another 2.. fe=rs use d-mr-Acal prays. 116 farwr rq.ort:e,a"- av-drig rcz of organic manure in his cr,--),-, production -:ystom.
1,'Irv-_st.uct takes place tkzouglhout, -Uie year. Thie highest prirms izra reporteUy oL*mize,: for 1,ananm in I'_,qy bo July and t1iie la*,-st prices in ,bvcn',x---x to Jammry. Tim -price_ rotceived yettem is -the reverse for plimitaduri. Me majority of fawwazs Um7 :L.j)rov,-_d varieties of bmvxias and local varieties of plantain.
71




-r'-- avarte& as for nost Opexation's, Toynnt-y.
fo,- -rmw Irinc ficL." exeOzis. V, for
24 fryc ).trol 7i:Ll fO,1dj6WV,)StjTj T. Fift,el. 'aran';.z J."IcluTacl
frait nmd S'4 fruit
to ,v--.Lnt.
"bre U'izn E x-r acnt of Uic d1cm hi grua x (3 c7cdc )f 416) u.- o
-o-n crop" a S phlcft.." frcc-.1 1'erUdi"-",ar Use -for Lonemas.
-ix gr(Y'.."ers jco"'Ori -CUng Cal s-,prays for this c cm-).
; -z "A"I'l Ixvizmaas fcvaily ici 1 at '%dnly USY,,*l for. cill cropping
', Iilx I labour v7as use 10 gr(-xprs for land. clearinc.
six t rovnrs, for drain di by four jrcwp -rs for Ickunrestirr. TEIghteen
rjrcxers iyxcw--n-,-,-1 costs or -i=&sporting ti-ioir produce to r.w' het.
is gra'm 'oy 1-15 fam-!rs zm "l is, usually p1mited all year romd .Ydtkx the mjoritv of it pDzka."i in*the mnUis ilay to July. cro,') is r'kLinly grmn in cmbinatian 111J.V i oLhar ,,,rop.c. be :'k jority of farmers repor"L&I gral"fing the .1mr Ta-'n Ua" ")-ut fkIrnm-rs also produce for
the, mareL. 11kre cm) JLS III DOWtS 0.A the f lat., Jo
a eaaq.-t is 'by fanx'xs to sto.-Lx-, t"'i's 7he najority :of farmers
is
im-Iicav:i Utdr to G=-' -L""u,:" -irc 'arc dLtainEY2 for -Uliz; crop from, virtually all yenr rovmL
Augim-L to Lvctdlx ,r and laor-st -Enx.l to
da is irmally -y13.ziater'! all year round N!AUi pe-v. pil d-itL'ig
period. frqn Ilay to Judy. r fac; imjority of faworoc cLL1-r'-ivav'. Lhe crop, in
CmlbinaLion, wiLh othcr crops, a smaller nvxn lr cjrcrT Ule crqr) ill pun -4
s-twid. rT
L.ie crop ip gra.-m -, .ialrll, avi mour0s. Production is for hm-,
use. Llarvesting t-Res place virtually all die year -Lirough, and no
attapt is mde to store this prociuce. The patten of market prices is
as for easiim-n.
7?




YMM 1,,7 3S farno= ; _-Lnly for hain use The crop is : Janta2
'XIL-11I. V :ErU-. 1:0 JUD47 ix ra,,s cii :,-nounds- Tie majority of farmers ,,.-eporLad1v ctorz- tii, L
'zo-iUC:" :Ecr n trx liazvest. '7Z=rvasting s 'Clax ly
froa j*:,*0va, ..ar prince bAnp 7lighast fora vritil
Ll jaunmr,7,
plmey 3j, fma Fe"oruary to LTulv and ir--a-vestcZ! .-nainly in
7 I!n7 Is T-nn fa_ _aoel t: !_ cro, JL; fure sta Z., w-knij
Consid-l-ar to bxe k7m)rovaf vaxia n r
i03, T113 0 1, is the crq,
ad"Ong rlf-",ge 7. dqlh 3sl- )niens axe j_-j A(Ma," r -to 7-L-,,ZrLln7
!Or.-:uOt pric,3-, L-1 jamww"',
'Cassmwl is grom 7jy 12 fcmncrs L1 -Ula Sample for
use as uell as
for svml a-m1 th3 others ki crop
CCL-OL"I&tians. I bst -o
jo an c ns hi '.iay to july, miller cl-axititiao,
plallbsrl a-'C various iar 1::Lnc s t:,zou, ^icut: Idie yeax. The cra) is harvested 1C, O J'-') :.:caZ:L3 alla.,x aka,:7 itil:n of Imrv,-st is ahso staggered t1rougi-'aut ya'ar. lzzn for -Ena crqLz vcn U
-4, v e e iromynout
the Y, ar.
A faurl:,7 Idgh prornrtia.a Of 107 fz-,n-cm ,Tao mitivat0 roct wid tul-er crol.-) 70 ror c -n,,U Ln',,=.o gradng crops.
lb fa=. fal: uses organi_- all-- vc-77 (threz, -m l ti-n respectively)
mal, a usa of d-iamcal an"_. th,=:a 17_zc-qps
.il-a fanynr all sel ron t:,
lect am_l i=n planting ma, 3-rial f a -heir oll fiallclis. Fz-.-uky lC43'x01= C-,,Iy is for nust cultural agorations.. lalt sax him-f! 'LaLy)ur is. also -oxna for lcad clezring (31) gramars) ,Jrainaago (26 jra7--xs) pla:,.Tting (11 gro-,pars) control (22 gra,,arz) Ficiw Zanners reparLeaul -mmixrd-lig any costs exc, -,pt for ltrcawporthig
produaa to farmers) .
73




Cbommts are (jrcF!,n I)y '32 fa-ra, rz- jxy jj for sale mvd hann usc,, '.-he cr is 1)la:,Itxzd -diroug.'acaut U-10 Y Nlr- is zilzc year nxri( I.Ave greater nud>--r o-t, remmrdi l graiinq the crop :Li: StA jjz.
C3cY-x)iiut.(,, are jamarally in rmz on Una flat. place, all year zom,-', xi.,I is throughout -Irlic, ye,%n
Cocoa is graAm for hvtli t ,mxh,,;t ZU-1,J I-I(xim 113"e. "bst farmx-, planet tlnc crorp Ln Ay to Tuly. 'll'ic crop is -piainteri bi rcr.,Ts ml t1he f.1at
and is 110st fre(pently grmrn in st'U'V-S. -.-,kajority of f m ers,
mre of- the, opinion Ciat gnv a loced variatv of cowa. ITIv "Inah,
lervestLng period is Ndwn -r to .Tlxiuary,. 7ne price of cocoa is fairly oven k.1iroughout tho yeer.
7 .iy is &n. jxpor-taxyt casIi crop for 1 faxi-mrs ir. -': he S.Aie crap is gmrn in pure stano. az irt,11 as ca.-ibinatioms. Planting i.-; Clone in rav3 Q.n -Lne f lat durixig thn, rainy. -.seascu, with 1-ea- plaint-Lg frana Augus t to October. han7asting takes place (: oxing the secorO half of. tileUw. lx.)&. i'mvesthig kxnriod 3 x ixirj Dc-tholxx W a?(vn,.ber. Tito price remaixis fairly mrhi in me (aan
Citnvu3 Js gzmm for '-)ot% hare uto aru for sa-lr:;,, Tlhe ozop is p1mi-ted
Ue SCOsanl with plaird-u frCm to Jul ,,,. Plaritt.,
-'s ill ra-Is 'xo the cro,:, Ix,-Lig grcA,.,,n rw-,j-qly in rjLx.--x.I, 6ta;n(;,,G. Ilhe
io(,' Is IWr ra
fust to Octobe. AUi a sn .iall off-nt mn c p earlier Li t.-ic 7oax,, ane 'Idcjhxest in- Februxuy to, iypril. at-kl lcnquat
frmi 'l-kwe 'ILer to Jwmmny.
CoMe is grcun Irl small. farrivars in Daminica. mabily for bacm... use..
The crap is planted minly 2 hig Jay -to July hi ra,7,-, on the flat. Coffee is usually ci-mm in md. stands. Pez r. harvesting is fran 110van'box to
-igi =icns are dxtalnx! La tlie j.-eriods iiav to July, and.




pricns frcm Nov-m-ar I!=ug].-, !:.,pr-'I. ':-Vinio-n 3-0 ildvide I
i r! farmers ar, to tAicther 4,4py grcru or
uit iz gmm D 'amars ill t1lo Dcuindon le Cx0p
is rTC'w'.A soh-: y for Ilcma,- nz.:I is plmtc-, -11 -vaar 2:t7j-n,.' o-:i ftatz-=., mot -froT. in
s'-- ha::v tLag p-cricV.1 jul 't'7 to GCUJ30r.
'bx'e cm -'s CIC'Xyd.Y- for nc -clv fo tho 13 -oost "*2: Kfwmtlv gru T.'- cro )z va ta-' 'C .ILdca '3 xal tin lc-vel of -todi-mological
input an crops is %:' .ly nLit:i of -Eia 7' fan-mrs
culltivabo : trae =2s =1 of Craps &1'-a dipmcal )-a;:!
me xqpor :3:t --varL f=. senren f tiers vLo repoztc. I
hiring lvl o"- to assist cc.ytr )11" all. Cultul.-al O'nxa don's -.ror t1y m2
cra :'s a Cndhd 01% fa-mily labaur. -o :-.^mt of other crops already disc-'L'ns '." --nae-'atLIO Costs 1'--)!x)ur vmxc lkmtt to -C:I
trz,=,c-r--,ALion of nra:*Luca to
A.s a -yroun, vCgetebles am r-2ICiI--iv.--ly crops a.-Ong mmall
-I.g tl,- 4
f'.WLMrs L1 Dm'dmica. -L."WrUmt 79g-tzL -os gram are
cucufoits (11 'Lar..-,-rs) carrots (sowam far lvxo) amA tankitoc-3 (shc fzmriers) Of U10. -*-,-*I far-'.x =S v?10 O'n- typo or ("t"rur of v-- 7etn.'Jle aa-ily six
on i .iesc crcps ai-1,61 not Ca sbygie me xwtrO. using, ox-janic ::prays or of m-ly JkL.-21.
V.
Of- the 30 f a-- in tlio, Dcminica se-mla i lno reared cwctla 33 aomed
-Fiva or less ;mm' -&,a rareLink-ig fivo .-Carnurs had six to 10 anvils.
T,i--Yt of th=o fammnzs aming local scr,- cattle, im :Uq2rovad
of Cattle M'I' 1-'iw an- I sarib anii-ols.
75




,A Of t'10 r3sponAInts to-Lix,_xed their amirmals
aromid frcm, one spot to tlie a-iiA as t1io forRqo in ane q, t !.xcam eyliamste ,,, rive fanyars reporLad, tll t that 'IkW graz yl xmf I>armed thair omimo1s, ttiiic anotl'ier t=:n mri,,c)-ted haviivj 1:rris )MI vvidch tneir aninials housex.L One fararer his mnkval mv anotiiar jhacl hio mimls runny loosx .
S:Lz far-mrs reported,, loo5ez of aritmils oveir t.-ie past yeaz,, O.ne fanwer reported that loss 1, n s as a result of Ctisease, anolmer said. loss was clue to physical kijury, and Lim oth.-_x rospandmts reported "Larmay wid otly,r causelsQ as Idie raasori for low e xianced.
-us
Thirty-o.ane farnm s in the. Dandniui smAw)le kept pigs. Of theze, 2, maixAl fivse or less, an,', the otIher tnvo -wich mmel xllor(- tbam five 01,11S. Twenty-sevei f ar,x-.,rs kept local scrua) ankvals and, two kept LyprovoC br eeds. Eleven f arr, oxs kept thair pigs in jpens, the others wra eitlier tethered, staked-ju-mod, or ran E bout loose.
Pour farmers Duqht fead -Eor thior pigs. Other ex1:xm-scs inc=red Juring the rzst. year
'!Nn coristruction and repair 1 f arrim
x)-ug 1 3 f- a r. v.-z s
L'i".1and mmf: plcmlallts 'A' fiarr =S
Ziwee farmers rprorbai rec ,Avirig 71)ati "-_i 100 and $'200 each,, fran sale of pork durj-,ij tliz past year. No -,naners inre soli.
76




TUrty-tvc fFminn-3 ju,"l-lit-a Dopmnica sample reared gwts. Twenty-shc of th,:Sa 'Onch iia,], 'LEivo joats or less c-uxl U-ite ra-mikiing six 1,.a,-'. mo= Ulm fiv:, goatE,; oan'.1. fanTers-t'-ithered. -U-Icir allLnals, sawn usafl
-f i=izi- LaM=C- -I&.A t! ir W 1S
Ca4al .1 and perming., and t o
nmnLrj 100s,":'. T-1-le C"L cmmcir-'litur'? reImrted as havin- bami Lncurred luring thi-- nast year nre construcl-ion and re!,-iirs (one far--.i,--,-) rmdicLias (ti-n f,v-x----s) ,aimeral w-noltnnn-ts (One fanzr)
J-zinaar nzmrt -1. ultilisi.ng --,iiI:4: fronii 'Us goats. other for lhwe use
or sale. Seve-a far-mrs slaughteral mimls for hcmr use. I o famer rp,,portau slatughtaring for sale oi] mcat only. One ffan.er reportexl receiving less
-Limi *,:3_'0O for Jch a sola of mzat. jA-0 CCOMMC %,Mc-S MqCe of the hides.
(iv) Sheep
.R7-W,;y-t:vx) fcarmers Ln -E,,o rearerd slicep. T;xity faniers
five or lcss animals and than five. Seventeen famars amed
local scnf-- sheen. Me C-7 ,nj s --Li ar to tI
C; i 1 mic for goats.
Five fa--,,i--xs r2por--'- lons.---n ti U'n -:-)ast ynr. Toxoe far.-aars repox-L-d
that- t-he cause mas due- to tM of Stray (:c,,:;f7am f=nrs reportoI sj=dinq on i:hc purchcmso of ffeoc,, and. one
eadh imported spzm.Mqg. on m--ticiziez, mineral cupplarnnt and v,.-,-Lcx.Liary fees.
ting sale of -mat during the To st year raalis .! Inia only fanaer report -a
less Chan ,1100 f-ra,-:a uh-a venture.
M '47 aVbitz
Five -Larrq--rs in the !Xmih-dca saq)le reared ralkits. TNm fanmors had five or lass xiirklls and the rana:Ubig three had more tham fivo. T11 fiv-3
77




f-armars r *sport-d, that thz,,dr ro.7,2.litz ,.,,,.ro 111io famous reported Itliat tie meat produm-1 wzas for hmr. iisa only. One faxr ,,?r raportax3. losses in the lpast yrcar..t;,' zt coul(7. not st,-xlc srx" cif ically c ai),sc of the losses.
(Vi) ?oultry
One fc in Lie, sa,,,VDR-, kept less than 25 Lxoilers. !?ifty-fi,,m fazm-rs ept cmimn fa7ls, 11 fa.x-xs Jkopt their fauls in all otiir.-rs x-mming loose. lrhirtv., fr had' 1(--,ss t1m 12 birds aadi, and atnatlier ,,l
had lew l-iwi A "Ard., eadi.
Fifte-en f.-a=,iors ropoete.-I sp-nding money on the purchase of feed. Other expenditure ixicurred vere for-.
3Nm construction a-rid impairs 2 fanxrs Purchase of .,Lwz!ic:Lies 2 f arrmxs
Only Wo farwr.-, reported selling th,-Ar wat and eggs, the otharo co-sum.tl-L--se pro&=ts entirely in the hcrie.
(vii) Draught anii-als
Six f-axm-rs reT.orted mming a do.a-ey each. '-Io direcic ex, eases waxo reported as having Lxym inc=,ad on maintamance of those animals.
(viii) (bmtraints to livostocL: production
I-he table below giver. a of -vfhat respond=ts cmsid,-red are
the factors xediicli hinder greater 1xcx'!uction of livzstock.
F actors mnstraining
gmatez production Cattl Pi(3s (,-;r-e.ts SI
L leCT) Poultry
S 0
.vailabili-ty of 31 5
Pr alial larcf.-my- 2 '3 3 12
land suitab.!Ii y 26 G
78




,As, far av, cattle pr(x arftim is concemad tha factor 00-nsi;-:", zred ly tha
Li tlio Dmwiica wov1r -1:0 :,-, UIC most Cormtraird-n-j is
suitability. :,Iv,-dl&, ility or feed is consi"IareCl a constraint by fiva faa:,wz:;, Praedial laromny is not- ca-ziCorau serious constraint, as is tlio caa-*2 in St. ITincamt.
Cost of fbf- -, is Cis L'.1portairt co-n-straint to tlia in=aasad proClur-tlaI of poultry, sheep all"I joato" follcv A b lamd sui- ility, praedial lax m -Licl awdlal,,ilitv of fe-ed ixi t:-at Iand suitability aml- cost of faced exe the i.,mjor factors co-nz-'crai:-Lnq -)ig
VI of Famm inmm
As kyAwted in tbo- 02ismission of tin-.-2 St. Vili=-it sm-TAc, farm inccvr-mas troe-tal an t1he variable of: ti-- Damnica smole mid =Iationships het-wem fvmn inccrix- an, 13 mets of indcpe2zn -nt variabl-,2; itrare tested by mans of the Chi It rzts found ti-m-t am-ong Daydnica
mmll fan-v--xs, ldier:- is no rclatio."hip het-,n en inccm. zmcllz
1. sex of farm qp-.--a,-tor
A.. zramlez ol.In -x 7 pam is yx= faxzzi
3. tha wn-Toatoa in fam plam-dnu Occisions
sl-xm-me, -.2-A-tansion officer or scr-c otlinr T: =saa) of or,Aztz=3 of first paro2l from f 7. -myual rai-.rF 1.
Tha data also in that Lzzoors vyltil i-mrn than five
arc mm li]kazly to hava Idglaox ixicams thcan those with less t1kin five d,:-)pxLl:Lnt-. OkUlzarly, farmers, i ao less than 40 y,ars old terrd to I,.-.v3 proportionately hi,71. er -Enat those 110 years old and over.




A
Par.,. -n th'a spaaw)1e, it was W-xv D-v -.t
01 x rpa-A,3, acres had signify cmotly,
iii one to 'Ucm e- acre cat, -;gm7,
1 lir 1v Ti-ost of-b-i-i fx) 1-k n ous."1 11,1 ;
o'. to 1flLr- 0---nclultic, -,,Uxe faxrn, o,,.-x,, rator) 1-'Im ;n
hol wil, 1 r,,T or imra -d Z "my tm-yt iv ly
an, grounds 1-1o.t lzanj ioasiLoLls (i.e. ,,Y)ra V-ian 1-0
ccrnsux a a hi,-Iier riL,-- aad -diordIvy dcpv !ss incxms. Cri the, o-1.her
-pa-1.0'. 3,ml] ,., "0. , -, s (Ior,s EtlUi I:- ,.4 kIII UL:-ellOIJI IVO i a Pzovi;-i
Suffic'u-n-vt fcwdl-y labour W full ocano.-ric rtamtial o-f the f arm
mit. 14-- is aa area of corisi.I raLdo- -Literast rot piriwg furfl-ier re.suarch
vre detail( dat to .-Ikermiac, the, influenc.r. of householu size
ZU "if cor--ix)sition arx Emm inm:e.
3 -of-,-) of 71xu-imnas, coconuts, Kzy, citrus, or dashom as
major farrit crops Clic! -not hwre mr,17, siqmi;ficar-,t iriflumce k.i increasing
or 61, ; ressinq the Ln7el of- fcqr.,.^ incom. 1.1mxwer, -,ttrxm s&rnet potato
is Emma as the maki crop, is a sigpdficmt positive influi-mce
fjvi i U qn,
.. V w, -ia
on totad farm hncax ,. ):!,,i polite 'to 11 t f ound in
St. ViAcemt.. In tlie latter svr, ,N. is qr,-vin wid,'.y as Cal
a Mrt crol") ,eheraas in Dsminic Cro is -IOSS N-ridOlY Xcnam
and is intandch, solely for the local
4. 1-af-orr.matias.-i Source Tl ia ounsultat-ion .)f !: Ae :-)a&omsion of ficer as
-i scarce of tad-)aical kif-broation is wzy signify icil"At 1v to
ix(prowk, femm kawm-,s. Fanmrs itcio consulted', o-fficors .%T'ai'm
fomo to .,Iave higher imom "-1 Lontimsa itio consult, rd othx
80




V3 I Faxmars,
Sinuza agricu-it-ural -:rust ahi at em owrall L.-prvied staurif.,=,
of livii-ig for tho flaming -da3 na d!3 4 = 1;y farx, rz
t1iaYise1v-.:;s sp.:,cific attm'Cion must he Iborm in mind as hitz!g-ral
to a ca-prch,-nsi:vD rur.:,l jr-.ratcrgy Lnformitian Ms dytr-dil'ya in
regard to o7xmi-dty and also or th: ajricult=al. sector
in particular, azi w-A! = suggzzt, d4 soludons for ia: Aing ti-rasa na3ds.
Arronqg ---)aibdca s7mll -ue-'x iaemtific-C 17 -Ur2 largesIt nu.%x--r
(42 ix,r c---mt) vmz tlw t for -"'ora ml roa-ds. 0&.,ar camunity naeds strongly L lf -,rexe for i;-Lpr,-wGm-aii1C Lin cl,-,, =_city a-nd wat-ar svLYj.-)lies. "More,
-U= oria fifth of -U-ie saxla iC2ntiJ'LY,. tiha -riesi for Iiprovc '.-iosita1 and, liclath care, amr2 mor,:! Urwit 10 ->er cavit w;ara ccnc..=.wu -Lwt -th--,ara SraaiA:--- :J07 :Lr')rC.'Vaa Fram-ic Ccrtmemity facilities 'and Sci.0010. Ilhe solultioms ix-,re seen minly the ros-ponsLuility of ths govavent b.L at least a r.dnori-tu in Dadrdca (atl:-,ost 10 par cant) imlicateCd th-at scme for.m of cmruuty ectior. might also play a r-art in solving their ,.vseds.
It vmsl surprisi-m.r -to Fj:-Id Ul-kit iii of lcx- rotumm, from their -tc -w--irzjricu-ltu.P.l c-.&,,z only a f- T m.mll famer explicitly :Uidicatel
tlmt tlh4' y FIgricultural Thirtean cc,.it
of tile wmdl Ocjudd !:Uzo- to sac improve% i syst mm, 15
par camt zini a3xut mv eLV)1p_rxj-it opimrumiticS arva :'Lout SCvm
Per Camt, -Jyidicat :dl for :Lnzym, cr,--jit fa-cilitic,.s. Less theui tim
per caat !-nLJ-L zx)ra for fammmg M1 13-Gs V.2n -)L'x Omt xmn-"-agricultural im-.)Wts to ;-,e zmc' easiby zlvail'--b'La.




3,62 ST. LUCIA
Ao CFARCTERISTICS, OF T SMALL FApZR
1. Background Factors
(i) Sex.. Age and Ethnic Origin
The mean ag of thE farm operators in St. Lucia was 47 years and the
mode was slightly higher (48). Almost 77 (76.7%) per cent of farms are of
African origin and close to 18 (1705%) per cent are mixed, Less than five
per cent are East Indies.
(ii) Literacy, Marital Status and Household Sizes
The majority of farmers (60.8 per cent) can read and write but n, re
than one third of the sample (34.2 per cent) could neither read nor write,
indicating a relatively sizeable proportion to be illiterate, wile almost
twelve (11.7 per cent) had no formal schooling, the majority (70 per cent).
had completed primary school. About three per cent had reached secondary
schooling and beyond.
A majority (64.2 per cent) of farmers were either married or lived
in common law unions. A relatively high proportion (26.7 per cent) is single.
The mean household size is eight despite the higher proportion which is
single. The mean number of dependents for each farm operator is six. P.dmost
50 per cent (47.5) of the St. Lucia sample had between 6 and 15 dependents.,
(iii) Stability
The length of residence of the St. Lucia farmers as indicated by the.
number of years they lived in the locality at the time of the survey is in the majority of cases (59.2 percent) more than 20 and as many as 50 years.
The modal length of residence is 25.5 years.
82




(iv) Occupation
The majority (70.8 per cent) of the St. Lucia sample is occupied ronly
in fanning. Some farmers (S 3 per cent) are also occupied in non-agricultural commercial enterprises such as shop-keeping,, and a few (5.8 per cent) are engaged in the trades, usually carpentry and masonry. A smaller proportion (3.3 per cent) also participates in the retailing of agricultural produce or other agriculture-related crerce. Fewer still are employed as civil service low level manual or clerical workers and as unskilled labourers.
(v) Family Income
Broad indicators of combined sources of family earnings and expenses were used as rough estimates of annual inccme. These revealed th t the majority (69.2 per cent) of the St Lucia sample have incanes of nere than $5,000 (EC.) per annum with almost 30 per cent (27.5) earning more than $10,000 per annumn. Not only do the St. Lucia farmers operate larger
acreages (up to 15 ac.), but also as a sample "hand-picked" by extension officers, they can be expected to be better-off and "more successful This was reinforced by their being nore likely to be chosen by officers to whan they are better kno.
Anong family erbecrs contributing to household income daughters accounted for 20.0 per cent of the sample, whereas sons contributed to 18.3 per cent of the households and spouses 16.9 per cent.
(vi) iNutrition
The food item consumed by the highest proportion of the St. Lucia
sample is root crops (96.4 per cent) More than 90 per cent (93.6) of the sample indicated they ate fruits several times a week. The other staple foods of the St. Lucia sample are milk, fish, vegetables and meat. In general terms this indicates a relatively satisfactory nutritional status of the farmers sampled.
83




While most root crops consumed were bcmne grown (36.7 per cent) other frequently coinsruted foods such as milk and fish were purchased by large prop,,rtions of the sample, eg 70 per cent and 94,,2 per cent respectively. Vegetables were hoe grown by almost 42 per cent (41.7) of the swmpleo
Given the bias of the St. Lucia sample, it is inadvisable to conclude that St. Lucia farmers in general have such a high nutritional intake apparently implied in the "frequent consumption of milk fish, vegetables and meat. Reference to specific nutritional surveys should be consulted before arriving at a more representative view.
II FarmOriented Factors
(i) Time Spent and Labour Used on the Farm
During the cropping season, almost 50 per cent (47) of the St. Lucia sample spend more than eight hours a day on the farm. More than 50 per cent
also indicated they spend up to six hours a day. In the out of crop season only 15 per cent spend more than eight hours a clay on the farm and about 40 per cent (38) spend up to four hours daily on the farm. At least 60 per cent of farmers in the sample indicate they receive labour assistance from one or more family members on the farm,. Thirty (30) per cent of the sample also used shared labour.
(ii) Use of Farm Records
Only one fifth of the sample stated that they kept any farm records at all. Of those who do not keep records, the reasons given included, the inability to read or write (23.2 per cent) not considering keeping records to be necessary (16. 8 per cent) or because it was thought to be too time consuming (14.7 per cent) What is noticeable is that no one specific type of reason was frequently responsible for the low level of record keeping among farmers. This suggests a general underlying lack of awareness about the value and need of keeping and using farm records.
84




(iii) Innovativeness
The response of fanrs in the St. Lucia sample to new or improved agricultural practices was in general, quite low. Less than 20 per cent (18.3) in St. Lucia said they were "familiar" with a new variety of agricultural practice, The proportion using a new variety or practice was 13.3 per cent of the sample. With regard to the time over which a new or improved variety/practice was impl1ented, one farmer in the sample stated this was being done for ore than five years, less than 10 per cent (8.3) had been using a new variety/practice for less than two years.
Almost all farmers (97.2 per cent) growing bananas use fertilisers r
that crop. But in contrast 49 per cent use chemical sprays arnd 19.8 per cent use other agricultural chemicals. For vegetables, plantain, root and tuber crops, 55.8, 50.0 and 48.2 per cent respectively indicate they used fertilisers. Other than 36.5 per cent who use chemical sprays for vegetables, the use of other chemicals or organic manure was not practised in regard to any other crops.
(iv) Persons Consulted by Farnmrs
Of the vxious persons consulted in farm planning decisions 54 per cent of the St. Lucia sample cited the extension officer. These data are not surprising w e~n it is recalled that the St. Lucia s-mple was hand picked by extension cffi.ers.
Relatively si.maller proportions of the sample indicated that they
consulted their spouses (15 per cent) : relatives (3.4 per cent) or neighbours (4.2 per cent). Less than 10 per cent (9.2) s-tated that they consult no one about farm planning.
85




Decisions about a new variety or practice were arrived at with the assistance of opiLions primarily frcm spouses. Nearly 70 (68.9) per cent cited spouses as opinion sources consulted for these kinds of decision, and 67.8 per cent conosulted the extension officer, whereas 36.7 per cent consulted a son or daughter. Of relatively less importance ae opinions of a relative or neighbour. Thirtyr-four (34) per cent of the sample indicated they consulted a relative and 30.8 per cent a neighbour.
III. Credit Facilities and Practices
In the year preceding the survey,, five farmers had secured loans from commercial banks.
IV Marketing Facilities and Practices
Only 13. 3 per cent of farmers said they were located less than five miles from the nearest marketing depot, Almost 50 per cent (43.3) are located between five and 10 miles from the nearest depot. Noticeably, more than one-third of the sample are as many as 11 to 20 miles from the nearest marketing depot. Five farmers were as far as 20 miles or more from the nearest depot.
Faxrrs suggestions for improving the marketing systems, included the following,..
(a) designation and identification of more collection points.
(b) provision of additional and improved access roads to facilitate
adequate movement of farm produce to marketing outlets;
(c) better transport methods to enable increased volume and efficiency
in getting produce quicker and safer to markets;
(d) the formation and effective functioning of marketing cperatives
86




V. Cmmunication Chnneels Us&d
Almost 90 per cent (G8.3) of the fe~rrs in St. Lucia stated that
they consulted the extension officer when thecy have technical farming problems". A relatively snll proportion (4.2 per cent) indicated that they sought advice frmn "no one-, and 2.5 per cent said they do so from a neighbour.
Among sources consulted for information on improved farming practices, the highest proportion of the St. Lucia sample indicated that they listen to the radio (87.5 per cent) More farmers reported visiting a neighlbour's farm (70.5 per cent) than a government farm (37.5 per cent) or a large estate (35.5 per cent) in order to secure information on improved practices.
As can be expected, given the basis on which the extension officers
participated in selecting the sample, 82.5 per cent claimed they knew their district extension officer and almost as many (81.7 per cent) indicated they were visited by the officer.
Of the kinds of technical information requested frcm radio programrne, the largest proportion of the sample (75.0 per cent) indicated interest in information on how to grow crops, others rquired information on when plant (53.3 per cent), how to care animals (36.7 per cent) times for spraying (35.0 per cent) or kinds of incentives available to farmers (27.5 per cent).
VI. Iebership in Groups
Group membership was only acknowledged by a relatively small nuber of the St. Lucia sample. Anong those belonging to any groups, the highest proportion mentioned the village council (34.2 per cent) with almost as many being members of a church group (33.3 per cent) Other than these two kinds of groups, 17.5 per cent indicated they were members of a co-operative.
87




VII. Attitudes
AJmost 50 per cent (48 .3) of the St. Lucia farmers indicated that the single nost important factor to be considered in choosing a job was whether. or not it provided "good money"'. The criterion of ho "'beneficial" the job was to their family was cited by 28.3 per cent of the sample. A far smaller proportion of fannrmers referred to "good status" (9.2 per cent) or personal liking" of the job (5.0 per cent) as the most incortant criterion in their view.
The sample respondents were asked to identify what jobs they prefer
for their sons and daughters. Almost 50 per cent (45.9) stated they wished their sons to choose farming rather than medicine, law or a teaching job, The second largest choice (22.9 per cent) was made for their sons to became blue collar workers (such skilled tradesmen as mechanics, masons or plunxmbers). The generally accepted high status professions of medicine and law were chosen as the most preferred job for their sons by 12.08 per cent of the, St. Lucia sample. Some 11 per cent indicated they had no preference.
More than 50 per cent (53.8) of parents in the sample would like their daughters to became teachers or nurses. The next most preferred job for daughters was that of white collar clerical occupations. Of the 106 fanme in the sample with girl children, only three would like to see their daughters as farmers.
As a direr .t indicator of the respondents' attitude to agriculture as a career, they were asked whom they would consider more important a son who was a lawyer or a doctor or one who was an agriculturist. Forty-six per cent considered the agriculturist more important, whereas 27 per cent thought law or medicine was more important and a similar 27 per cent considered them equally important.
The great majority of farmers in the sample held education in high esteem. Almost 70 per cent (69.2) thought education was the best security in life for their offspring.
88




More than 60 per cent (62.5) wanted their offspring to receive a
university education. The next largest proportion of the sample (22.5 per ce.nt) wanted their offspring to go through secondary school and 12.5 per cent were concerned that-their offspring go as far as they can reach-.
The attitude of respondents to land inheritance was indicated by tlhe high proportion (74.2 per cent) who held the view that they would divide their land arrong all their children rather than leave it all to one child.
A little more than 70 per cent (70.9) indicated a positive attitude
toward saving some of their earnings. The majority (61.7 per cent) of those who saved, did so through a commercial bank, with only five persons indicating they saved through a co-operative and another five reported saving their money at home.
B. THE FAlA
I. Farm Size and Fragmentation The 120 s -ll farmers in the St. Lucia sample were grouped as follove
Farm size (acres) Number of Farms Per cent
1.0 .99 10 80.3
2.0 2.92 7 5.8
3.0 3.99 8 6.7
4.0 4 .99 7 5.8
5.0 ,99 55 45.8
10.0 15.00 33 27,5
Total 120 100.0
8C ,




There is an average of less than two parcels per farm in the St, Lucia sample. Of the 120 farms in the sample 42 or 35 per, cent consisted of only one parcel 46 (3 per cent) each contained two parcels, 29 (ie, 24 per cent) were each me up of three parcels, and the remaining three farms consisted of four parcels each.
SevQnty-six per cent of all parcels were fully utilised, i.e. they contained no waste and. On 28 parcels there were uncultivated land of up to acre rper parcel and an equal number of parcels each contained between one half and one acre of unutilised land.
II. 'enure and Location of Parcels
In the St. Lucia sample 112 of all parcels (48 per cent) are occupied freehold. The other tenure systems, in descending order of frequency are family land (29 .2 per cent) annual rented (11.2 per cent) leashold (4,7 per cent) squatting on government lands (3.4 per cent) and squatting on private lands (1.7 per cent). Only one case of share cropping was recorded.
Eighty- -three (69.2 per cenxt) of the first parcels are situated less than one mile from the fanmers' home and 38 (48.7 per cent) of the second parcels and 12 (37.5 per cent) of the third parcels are less than one mile away.
One hundred and ninety-seven (85 per cent) of the total number of
parcels in the sample are less than three miles away frcm the farmers' homes. Only 36 parcels are four or more miles distance from the farmer's hme.
Thirty-nine parcels (16.7 per cent) in the sample were classified by respondents as mostly flat. The remainder were roughly evenly distributed among the topography classifications mostly steep (28 per cent) gradual slopes (29 per cent) and undulating (27 per cent) .
90




The majority (64o8 per cent) of thl-z. holdings in the sample consisted of heavy soils. Only 43 (18.5 per cent) were classified as being light and another 35 (15.0 per cent) consisted of both light and heavy soils.
One hundred and eight.z=four (79.0per cent) of the total number of farm parcels were estimated to receive 60 or -more inches of rain per year. Another 45 received more thlan 40 inches and the remaining four less than 40 inches annually.
Only 13 fanr~rs (10.8 per cent of the sarmle) had their honme on a
farm parcel The practice of village residence and operating farms outside of the village is typical. One fifth of the farm parcels are reached via rotorable road and a similar proportion by footpath. About half the parcels are reached via a combination of motorable and non-motorable roads.
For the majority of parcels the nearest market was more than six miles away. are than three quarters of the parcels in the sample are further than four miles franm the nearest market.
III. Tools, Rquipment, ,Machinery and Farm Buildings
For 56 (46.7 per cent) of the St. Lucia small farmers the inventcry
of farm tools consisted of six to ten pieces of hand tools- 35 (29, 2 per cent) owned one to five pieces while another 29 (24.1 per cent) owned 11 to 20 pieces. Forty-.four (36.7 per cent) owned one krapsack sprayer each, nine others owmed txo each, one fanner owned three and another owmed four. One famnner owned a nmotorised sprayer and another owned a tractor. Five farmers owned irrigation lines and another owned irrigation lines as well as pumrp.
Nineteen farmners invested in farm buildings and/or storerooms. Three farmers owned one cattle pen each; nine farmers each owned a poultry pen, 17 farmers owned a pig pen, a piece and four others owned one sheep/goat pen each.
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'7. CA Enterprises
(i) Crops gron by the Iill Farner
Banana is the most important cash crop to the St. Lucia small farmer. The crop is grown by 106 farmers, i.e. 88.3 per cent of the total sample.
The St. Lucia small farmer, places some emphasis on tree crops in his cropping system, .Long term crops were grown on 216 parcels (92.7 per cent) of the sample. One hundred farmers (83.3 per cent) cultivated coconuts79 (65.8 per cent) graw breadfruit; 68 (56,7 per cent) grow citrus,. C ca avocado, nutmeg and coffee are important crops in the St. Lucia small farm cropping enterprise.
Of the 233 parcels in the St. Lucia sample, short term crops were
grown on 175 holdings (75.1 per cent). On 70 of the number one parcels more than two short term crops were grown and 101 of the first parcels contained long term crops. The maximum number of short term crops cultivated on one holding was nine. Thne number of short term crops grown on a holding decreased with distance of holding from the farmer's home viz. a maximum of nine for parcels one and two, seven for parcel three. and four for parcel four,
The most commonly cultivated crops among the small farmers and th1: frequency of occurrence in the sample are as follows:
Frequency of Occurrence Crops No. Per cent
Banana 106 88.3
Coconuts 100 83.3
Avocado 36 30M0
Cocoa 45 37.5
Plantain 60 50.0
Citrus 68 56,7
Breadfruit 79 65.8
Mangoes 61 50.8
Cabbage 19 15.8
Yam 90 75.0
Dasheen 68 65.0
Tannia 52 43.3
Tatatoes 21 17.5
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Crops Number Per cent
Cucurbits 11 9,2
Ginger 5 4.2
Coffee 32 25.7
Sweet potato 21 17.5
Cassava 10 83.3
Carrots 19 15.8
Hot pepprs 9 7,5
Peanuts 4 3.3
Nutmeg 4 3.3
Onions 4 3.3
Parcels 1 ajid 2 are the rost important parcels (there are only 32 third parcels and three fourth parcels in the sample) and the data are discussed in relation to those two parcels.
For these two parcels the crops found to be the most important on the basis of area cultivated are as follows: Rank order of Crops
Parcel Do. 1(n-120) Parcel LbNo.2 (n=78)
Crop 1o. of farms Rank Order No. of farms Rank Order
Banana 72 1 37 1
Coconuts 26 2 17 2
Citrus 5 3 1 7
Sweet potato 2 5 3 5
Peanuts 2 5
Yam 2 5 4 3
Cocxa 1 7.5 3 5
Dasheen 1 7.5 3 5
Considered on the basis of the economic returns to the farmer, the
crops considered to be most important (or most valuable) on parcels one and two arez
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