Final report of the USAID/CARDI Small Farm Multiple Cropping Systems Research Project #538-0015

Material Information

Final report of the USAID/CARDI Small Farm Multiple Cropping Systems Research Project #538-0015
Series Title:
Final report 1978-82
Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute
Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Caribbean ( LCSH )
Farming ( LCSH )
Agriculture ( LCSH )
Farm life ( LCSH )
Spatial Coverage:
Trinidad and Tobago -- Trinidad -- Caribbean
Antigua and Barbuda
British Virgin Islands
Cayman Islands
Costa Rica
Dominican Republic
El Salvador
French Guiana
Netherlands Antilles
Puerto Rico
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Trinidad and Tobago
Turks and Caicos Islands
United States Virgin Islands


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Full Text








(538 -0015)

final report


- 82

:Volt. I!I

CARDI, University Campus, St. Augusrine, Trinidad, W.I. July, 1983.



-I I I I I

CARDI is a regional organization serving
twelve Member States of the Caribbean
Community. It provides for the research
and development needs of the agricultural
sector in the region as identified in
national plans and policies.

This is an output of the CARDI/USAID Project 538-0015.






August 1978 Novaener 1982


The CARDI/USAID Small Farms Multiple Cropping Systems Research
Project (538-0015) was a four year project beginning September
1, 1978 and ending November 30, 1982. This document represents
the final report of the project. It is presented in four

Volume I

Volume II

Volume III

Volume IV

- Introduction, highlights and list of
project personnel.

- Summary of Baseline Surveys of 8
project countries.

- Farm Characterisation profiles and
specialised surveys.

- Constraints identified, Back-up research,
on-farm tests, Interventions, Training
activities and Bibliography.

The Baseline Surveys give an agro-socio-economic overview of small
farming in the project countries. Sub-samples of farmers in each
country were used for case studies. Because of the complexity of
the systems in the Caribbean the number of case studies is large.
A series of specialised surveys has been conducted to sugment or
supplement the information necessary to identify the major
constraints country-wise and systems-wise. Back up research and
on farm tests have been conducted in all countries and interventions
tested and validated on farmers fields. This phase of testing and
validation is ongoing at present.

The training activities of the project were targeted to up-grade
staff of the Institute, the Ministries of Agriculture and other
research and/or development bodies.

Various reports and publications have been generated within the
project. In addition, relevant literature was collected and
circulated. The bibliography gives details of all publications.
These publications are available under separate cover.

It is hoped that this report would prove valuable to Planners,
researchers and other related groups/agencies.

Project Leader

Director, Research and Development.




Sample.................................. .......... 2

Methodology ........................... ............... 7

3.1 Antigua ............................... ............ 9

3.2 Nevis ................................. ............. 29

3.3 Montserrat ................ .............. ........... 34
3.4 Dominica ..................... ....................... 55

3.5 St. Lucia ................. ....................... 82
3.6 St. Vincent ........ ...... ....................... 109
3.7 Grenada ............ ...... ....................... 137

3.8 St. Kitts .......... ...... ....................... 161




The purpose of the project is to improve snall holder farming systems
in the Eastern Caribbean through the development of management and prodLc-
tion recnnendations' for use by snall farmers. The project also aims to
'create a socio-eonomic data base through surveys and on-farm research .
Since little information was available on the farming systems used by
small farmers of the territories to be covered by the project. and of the
socio-ecoanaic factors influencing their choice of systems, it was decided
that an early priority of the project ;wuld be to conduct a detailed
survey of selected target areas to define the characteristics of farms
in those areas. The survey data would be used to help identify cooperating
farmers in the various territories and the nature of information to he
gathered front than on a continuing basis.

CARDI contracted .with the University of the T-st Indies (MrI), through
its Facult-" of Agriculture; to undertake Baseline Surveys. 'he Department
of Agricultural Txtension of I1T, conducted Phase I of the survey in the
three territories of St. Vincent, St. Lucia and Dominica. The second
phase of the baseline surveys was conducted by the Department of Agricultural
Econatnmi and Farm lanagenent of U.WoI, and covered the territories of
Antiqua, bntmserrat and Grenada. CARDI in co-operation vrith Ministry of
Agriculture, St. Kitts/Nevis conducted the baseline survey in St.Kitts/Nevis.

objectivess and Scope

The agreement between U I and CAmDI with respect to PhaFc e I of the
survey required th carry-ing out of an Agrc-Socio Econcr.ic Survey of ret
less than 120 mall Farri Holdinms ir eawch cf the three territories
mentioned above. The target qroup rZiuld be farms of one to five:.acre
in size, except that for St. Lucia this target group wulV be farms from
one to 15 acres in size

The guidelines provided for the- survey indicate. that analysis of
the data should reveal, among other thicjs

1. Croppinq/arnial system
(a) group of food crops fruit, roots, vegetables. etc.
(b) animals
2. 2ajor constraints to Fr~ auction
(a) on farm
(b) off--farm,
3.- -ajor constraints to marketing of produce
I Major nmblems affecting the farm family -*.ich can/dc affect
5. Farers rTost likely
(e) tc succeed
(b) to respond to technology
t. C'therr related factors_, as revealed by thae survey
7. ~-ccessability

The ggaple

The survey sample consisted of :948 small farmers, 120 chosen frw,
each of the island of St Vincent- Daninice, St. Lucia, Antigua,
Grenada, Mcntserrat and St. Kitts and 108 front Nevis.

In St.. Vincent the i.nistr of i.ic.ulture indicated their desire
to have the s,.rple selected fr. five of -- ei-r',t rricultural districts
into which the island. is divide&.o It ;:. ...-..:e y lt tieas- e five districts
contained the highest concentration of i:ail f'orer: in the island,
included the. ctire rFnc e, of ecolc-ical fn g reins as erl as cropping
and livestod systs fou-nd o. -, the island, and could therefore !e considered
as being truly rresentative of the e-rll farming systers of the territory.
A further factor fr'- requesting the exclusion of three agricultur.l districts
fromn t1le :-.-. frar.. was tat this Tould eliminate the possibility of
including in th-i: sa~om e farmers who are involved in other on -going research
or development project activities, and the inclusion of data frcm whCa
vWould bias the survey results.

lThe sale frame was therefore the Farmer Registration Cards provided
by the Agricultural Statistics Unit of the Ministry of Agriculture of all
fanners in the five selected districts. The cards were e e result of an
island- wide farmer registration exercise wlich was concluded in lbvember.
1976. The data on the cards had not yet been analysed t, detc1inine the
number of each acreage category of farmers there vere in each district..
A random sample of 120 names of fart rs in the one to five acre category
was selected, weighted very roughly by district on the basis of wiat
officials of te irst griculture considered were the estiJ,ted
proportions of this category of small fanrers in the various district- s

The sample from St.o Vincent therefore corsisted of 120 rarnicd-ly
selected small farmers fra five of thie eiaht agricultural districts of the
island Aho controlled a .minruimT of one acre and a maximum of five acres of
farm land., and vho are -willing, if chosen, to cooperate faith CAPDI field
staff in th.e Srall Farm Cropping Systems Pesearch Project.

'ile farmers surveyed in Dcminica consisted of a proportionate random
sample of 120 faners in the one to five acre group selected from all 10
parishes of the island. The sample was selected wi-th the assistance of the

Ariculr. Statistics Unit of the ri-:-itry of Awiriculture ur.c-
tables of ra~ i nixer tor ) select from numbered lists,, ** pac~rish. of
farmers in th. e ired category as identified in a recent (1"'( ,/77)
Agricultural Census of the isIland,

I:. St Lucia the criteria for the .ethod of selection of the, 'aple
were c(J -:.:. ra:. thc';se adopted in the other islands. 'I:r. P" idistry of
ecrr i..2 '.: lad ith 7CARDI agreed t'ha.t the targett qmrcup sloul- he fanrers
in thie one o 15 r'r.ur, .'Te .'.-.i' ": :.;' of i-i..;l.:.rll alsoo r':de its
o sel.ectionr of farmers to e included in. the s ey e E ~ r'.-r extension
officers frc. e.aci of t'ihe five agricultural districts in the island
t,'were required to select a specified ninrer of farmers frof their district to
I.e included in the survey sample.

The criteria n ch te eteon vich the officers were required to base
their selections were stipulated in a mrremrarnduki frac the IMinistry s head
Office to the Senior Agricultural .i-x .L of the five agricultural
districts. The relev<.nt sections oCfr tie nef'oran .u are as follows .

'l.'- project pill i.n-ve farmers' in. te following categories;
(a) ~ 5 acreE
(b) 5 1C0 acres
(c) 10 15 acres

?r *'*. le'e.Ltcr, of i' .r:r r-": Procedure

In order to initiate the proqrar~m. y!r are required first to select
the most cr operative fa-ers in your District who will be willing to
participate in the project.

District a.llocations are as follows
orth 30 fanrners
cr'Lr;l 24
.Lter" 21
southern 21 24

The necxt -tep is, t categorise the selected farmers on the basis of
the acreages ntio.-ed. above andr examine the ratio of fnamers in each
category. ,:r~vg .'cne this the third step vill be to include additional
fanners i- ny of the cateCories to give s~ balance to the categories.
c:i-, selecting farmrs it omuld be necessary to get sane indication
(a) Age
(b) Area of holding
(c) Size, of holding

The St. Lucia sample is therefore not a rardanly selected one and
cannot objectively be considered as being statistically representative of
small farmina in that islanz There are biases built into the sample
because of tis' method of selection. Farrers vAho are not vell knon to the
etensiion officer as -.ell as those i1ho. evrn if well krn-m do not get
along well with the extension officer. -ill have been autrnatically left
out. By extension of this ~xcrgu~t tie J-.ll--far.inr represented in the
santle will 1be reesentative of frain ers~-s already being influenced
by. th -StE. Lucic agriculturl e--TerSioin Er:vices rather than of small
farming in general.. ic~ver. sirc.s J. ariciltural districts are
represented in the sarle it may be a:- -;?E that the iajor ecological farming
areas of the ..island are alhc irclud'.o ir. t'he Tt-y.

In Antigua, the 1975 census of agriculture indicated that there
were 5,551 farmers in the cateqgc. 0 25 acres -iich represented apprDi--
mately 96 percent of ,the. farr. population. Fran.this it was estimated that
there were 1-500 fanners within the one to five acre category,. the majority
of the remainder being under one acre. Distribution of fanrers according
to districts was as follows
North 500 East 401 and South 455 farmers.

These :fo tLy. the bsis for selection of fans to be included in the
sample. In Pnst cases choice of farms was done on a random basis. The
final sample chosen. it <: u.1. g replacenmnts~- was as follows
Ihrt-h 47 "j.-- 30 and South 43

In rortserrat; the 1979 farmer registration survey conducted by the
Ministry of A.ric'.ltu-., and the Lan-i Developrmnt Authority was used as the
basis for the sample frname There were approximately 409 farmers in the
category one to five acres. Their distribution as well as the number of
farmers chosen frcn -arAq them are given below-

North Central East South Total
1 -5 acres 95 131 150 34 409
Chosen 34 51 55 12 152

7he additional 32 fa~ners were included for possible replacements
in the sample

Official statistics on Grehada's agriculture revealed that 12,510
or 88 percent of fan sers were in the 0 -5 acre bracket. From these an
initial sample frare of 850 farmers were chosen on which to base the
required 120 famanrs to be surveyed. Bcth distributions are shown below

East est orth South Ibtal
5 acres 290 50 250 252 850
Chosen 49 13 45 41 146

Even though the sample required only 120 farers.. an additional
26 were included as possible replacements.

In St. Kitts, a census carried out by staff of the Ministry of Agriculture indicated
that there were 898 small fm'-rms.

Faom Size 1 Ace or Less )>i-2 > 2-3 >3-5 >5 Others total
No. Fanners 256 189 182 26 7 238 898
No. Chosen 40 29 16 30 5 120

In Nevis, CARDI conducted a reconnaissance survey which indicated
that there were 1066 farmers of which 937 were in the target group
1-5 acres. 120 of these were chosen randomly for the base-line

Descriptive survey techniques were arployed in the investigation,
Following consultation with staff of subject- matter departants of the
Faculty of Agriculture as -elI as with staff of CARDI. a 130 question
interview schedule was designed by the Department of Agricultural Extension
for administering in personal interviews with the selected sample of
farmers. The questions 'ere rouped into the following sections.

Farm Size and Tenure Pattern
Number and Sie of Parcels, Topography, Rainfall Soil Type. Distance
to Parcel and
Market, Crop Combinations and Irrigation Systems
Farming Activities and Croppinq Practices
Livestock and Poultry. Disposal of Produce. Management System.
Cash Receipts
Labour Availability and Use
Credit Sources
Marketing Outlets Crop Storage, Total Farm Sales
Information Channels and Media Use
Farm Buildings and Equipnenz Inventories
Socio-economic Background, Household expenditure. Decisicn-taking.
Innnvativeness. Attitudinal Dispositions
IMitriticn Health Care and Ccmunity Needs

For ease of recording answers in the field and of coding responses
for analysis the majority of questions in the schedules were of the fixed
alternative type,

The schedule was first ore-tested on a group of small farmers in
Trinicad. Interviewr'- -nd fi61d supe'Pors were recruited frro the eight
islands and jointly trained for four days in three (3) separate

Three days were used in classror sessions -hich dezlt with the cjectiveo
of the survey, the purpose underlying every question of the schedule
and interviewing techniques, In addition to undergoing practice inter
viewing at the classroc. sessions the trainee interviewers F.ent one ful.
day in the field using th1e survey sdceule to in trviei groups of r-ail
farmers in the one to 15 acre category mho had not been selected in the
St. Lucia survey sample,

This field exercise, in addition to sensitisina the prospective
interviewers to field conditions served as a second pre testing of the
questionnaire The day following the field exercise rws spent with
trainees in analysing the problems they had experienced and farners"
reactions to the questions. As a result some minor alterations vere made
to the wordin-T of same of the auesticrns

Furthermore, it was anticipated that many of the farmers to be
interviewed in St. Lucia and Dcamnica vould be less fluent in Endlish
than in the French-patois widely spoken in those islands. Attention was
therefore paid to interviewers from these islands agreeing to a era mon
translation into patois of the various schedule questions,



1. Background Factors

(i) Sex, Age and Ethnic Origin

The ratio of nale to female small farm operators in Antigua was
almost 4'l. r'here were 95 (79.2 per cent) male farmers in the sample
in contrast to 25 (20.8 per cent) who were female. The mean age of the
sample was 50 years and the modal age was 53. Almost 90 per cent (06.6)
were of African descent while another 12 6 per cent were not recorded as
of African, Mixed- Carib or East Indian descent,

(ii) Literacy, Marital Status and Household Size

A high level of literacy was found among Antiguan farmers. Eighty-four
per cent can both read and write, Mile 10.A per cent indicated they can
neither read nor write, 3.3 per cent are able to write only and a remaining
1.6 per cent can only read. The majority (60,8 per cent) had attained
between Standard Four to Seven of primary schooling: less than five per
cent had no formal schooling. almost seven per cent had same secondary"
schooling and one farmer had completed the secondary stage.

The majority of small farmers (65.9 per cent) are married legally
and another 2.5 per cent live in common-law unions. Almost 20 per cent
(18.4) are single. The mean household size is 6.4 persons and the modal
size is eight. Fifty per cent of the sample have between one and five
dependents, almost 30 per cent have as many as six to ten dependents.

(iii) Stability
Antiguan small farmers reveal a relatively, high degree of residential
stability. As many as 20 per cent are resident in the current farming area
for more than 60 years. Moreover, 94.2 per cent indicated that they had no
intention of moving from the area in which they were at the time of the

(iv) Occupation

In the sample, the majority (59.2 per cent) indicated that their
sole o,:.u..ticr was farming, About 10 per cent were employed in lower
rangs of ,the- civil service, while others worked as unskilled labourers
in road gangs, fishing and agriculture-related coraerce such as hucksters
or market vendors (approximately 15 per cent altogether). It was noticeable
that about 1.6 per cent were in multiple occupations covering such activities
as security guards, caretakers and service-sector employees,

(v) Family Income

About 30 per cent have annual incomes of up to $2,500*, whereas
another 37.5 per cent are in the category between $2,501 and $5,000, Of
the remaining 25 per cent with incomes greater than $5,000 a little less
than 10 per cent. (9.2) have incomes of more than $10,000.

Beside the respondent, contributions to family income were as
follows 13,4 per cent frcm spouses 21.9, per cent from sons, 26.,8 per
cent from daughters and 7o5 per cent from other relatives.

(vi) Nutrition

A very high proportion (94,,1 per ccnt) of Antiquan Small farmers
indicate that they eat vegetables "often' ioe several times a week. This
information should be considered with due caution as it is co~ron for most
"locally-growa food crops" to be referred to as vegetables. _-..refore,
the responses may have been inflated.

Seventy-.nine per cent of respondents use meat several times a week"
and even higher proportions do likewise with regard to fruits (86 2 per cent)
fish (85.6 per cent) and milk (83.9 per cent) Of all these kinds of food,
the majority (64.4 per cent) of those consuming vegetables often produced

*Dollar here refers to the Eastern Caribbean Dollar with exchange of
EC$2170 = US$1,00

these themselves, whereas most other foods were purchased. HIwever,
the majority of the root crops consumed were home-grown. The data indicate.
in qualitative terms. a relatively balanced pattern of food crnsumption,:,
with several items purchased.

II. Farm Oriented Factors

(i) Time Spent and Labour Used on the Farm

Sixty-five per cent of small farmers spend up to six hours daily on
their farmns during the cropping season, The modal daily time spent is
four to six hours. Iennty per cent spend six to eight hours daily and
14.2 per cent indicated that they can spend more than eight hours daily
during the cropping season.

In the out-of-crop season the data reveal that a similar modal pattern
of four to six hours are spent daily during the cropping period while the
proportion of farmers spending less than tro hours was higher in the
out- of-crop season, more fanrers spend longer hours (42.5 per cent) then.

The assistance of family labour is utilised by the majority of small
farm operators (approximately 60 per cent) Of those receiving family
assistance, 30 per cent said one family maber provided assistance. Almost
30 per cent indicated that they received assistance on a shared labour
basis frc~ persons other than family members.

(ii) Use of Farm Records
Less than 10 per cent of the sample in Antigua acknowledged keeping
any records.

The reason most often cited for not keeping records was that they
did not consider this to be necessary (43.4 per cent) and others (29.2
per cent) cited a "tim, factor" as the reason for not keeping records.

It was said either that they "have no tire' or to keep records 'takes too
much tim:. Literacy was ci led as a reason by only seven respondents

(iii) Innovativeness

Only one farmer in the Antigua sample (n = 120) acknowledged being
familiar with any new variety or agricultural practice. Mile the respondent
was not currently practising the innovation, it had been previously used
between two to five years.

(iv) Persons Consulted in Farm Planning

Almost 40 per cent of small farmers consult no one in planning their
farm operations. Of those who seek advice 29.2 per cent referred to the
extension officer as the person consulted most regularly, followed by their
spouses (25.8 per cent). Other family members, relatives or neighbours
are consulted by only very few farmers.

In making decisions about the adoption of an innovation, 65.9 per cent
consider the opinion of the extension officer to be :important or very
important". The second most important source of opinions was the small
farmer's spouse (56.8 per cent). Of less importance was the opinion of
a son or daughter, cited by 42.5 per cent of the sample, or of a relative
or reighbour, 27,5 and 15,8 per cent respectively.

III. Credit Facilities and Practices

Of the credit facilities available to small farmers in Antigua, four
farmers indicated that their first preference was a commercial bank, and
two reported that they preferred the Agricultural Development Bank, One
hundred and thirteen (113) of the farmers in the sample (94.2 per cent) had
never borrowed or had no preference.

There was little credit activity during the past year. iore
disturbing however, is the fact thit of th. 120 farmers., 109 (90.8 per cent)
believed that there -as no credit sourcaae aille wilhen needed.

IV. Marketing Facilities and Practices

Ninety- eight farmers (01,7 per cent of the sample) lives less than
ten miles from market- eighteen farers (15.0 per cent) lived bet een
11 and 20 riles from the market. Only 37 per cent lived within five miles
of market. A-mng suggestions for improving the marketing system the
highest proportion (56,7 per cent) suggested the establishment of collection
points. Forty-six fanrrrs (38.4 per cent) suggested better transport.
The construction of better access roads arnd the formation of co-operatives
were mentioned by 25 farmers (20.9 per cent) each. Farmers did not think
that grading and standardization (supported by 9,2 per cent) and storage
(supported by 5.4 per cent) were important marketing improvements. The
emphasis on collection points and transport is directly related to
(1) the spread of farms from market centre and (2) the fact that 07 farmers
(72.5 per cent) left home at least once per week to market produce.

V. Communication Channels

The largest proportion of the sample (45.9 per cent) identified the
extension officer as their source of advice on technical problems Almost
one third of respondents indicated that they rely on self-experience when
faced with technical problems on their farms.

For information on improved farming practices, 96 per cent listen
to the radio, "seldom or often" as a most valuable source, A larger
proportion (85 per cent) visit a neighbour's farm rather than a Government
farm (58.3 per cent) or large estate (50.8 per cent) as a source of
information on improved practices.

Of the kinds of agricultural information required on radio, 85,P
Sceht want to know lihn to grow crops and 80.8 per cent want to krn7
"when to plant". Other kinds of information requested dealt with times for
spraying and available market prices for crops.

VI. Membership in Groups

A relatively low level of group membership obtains among the Antiguan
small farmers included in the study. The majority are members of no groups
and of those belonging to any group, 40 8 per cent are members of a church

VII. Attitudes

The majority of farmers in the sample (55.8 per cent) consider
material rewards in the form of "good money to be the single most important
factor in selecting a job. Almost 30 per cent are of the view that personal
liking for the job is for them the single most important factor.

In discussing occupational aspirations of small farmers for their
sons, less than five per cent or only four respondents indicated they would
like their sons to choose farming as a career. Eighteen per cent preferred
low or medicine as a career for their sons. It is noticeable that 56.7
per cent said they had no preference for an occupation their sons should
choose. In a social context of very limited occupational opportunities,
it is logical to expect preferences will be influenced by considerable

An equally high proportion, the majority (57.5 per cent) indicated
no preference for the jobs they would like their daughters to choose.
Interestingly, the highest proportion of those indicating a preference
(23.3 per cent), would like their daughters to be a teacher or nurse. No
farmer wanted his daughter to choose farming as a career.

As an indicator of the relative strength of these occupational
aspirations, respondents were asked 4wom they consider to be of more
importance -- a son wo cas a lawyer or doctor or another In7 w'as an
agriculturi.t, The majority (54.2 per cent) considered 'he professions to
be equally ir.:ortant and slightly more respondents (20.8 to 10.3 per cent)
thought the agriculturist to be more important tliar the nxdical doctor or

The great majority of small farnmrs (0,8 per cent) considered
university education to be the level they would like their offspring to
attain. In keeping with their high eteem for education as a means fdr
social mobility 90 per cent are of the opinion that the best form of
security for their children is a high level of education.

The prevailing attitude among small farmers in regard to land
inheritance is their preference for dividing land equally arong their off-
spring (87.5 per cent) in contrast to the impartible inheritance whereby
land is left to one, usually the eldest of their offspring.

It is interesting that the majority of respondents indicated that
they save on a regular basis a portion of their earnings. Most of those
savings (65 per cent) did this through a h-@'ti


I. Farm Size and Fragmentation

The 120 mall farms included in the sample were grouped as follows;
Farm size (acres) 1rtber of Farms Per cent of ota2.

o100 1.99 57 47,5
2.00 2.99 33 27.5
3M00 3,99 18 15.0
4.00 500 12 10.0
120 100.0

The majority of farms (9~..3 per cent) contained only one holding
(i.e. only one t-x' rl of land) Only to farnms contained two holdings and
no farms contained three or four hIolLr.., The information in the sample
suggests that fragmentation is not a feature of anall farming in Antigua.

The median farm size was 2.09 acres and the farms seemed to be
almost fully utilized;, only two of the 120 farms contained unutilized
(waste) land. These two farms contained less than one acre of taste land

It would seem therefore, that because of the relative absence of
waste land, increases in the output of small farmers must result from more
intensive rather than more extensive cultivation of the land under their
control. It would also seem that the pattern of cultivation will be supported
by the fact that the farms are relatively flat (only three farms consisted
of "mostly steep" land) and unfragmented.

II. Tenure and Location of Parcels

The dominant method of acquiring the use of land was th!e payment of
an annual rent; 110 of the 120 farms adopted this system of tenure, r .e-1.
(four farms) and leasehold (one farm) played minor roles, 11o family land
was encountered.

Fifty per cent of the farms are located within a mile of the farmer' s
dwelling and the majority of farms (93.3 per cent) are located within three
miles. Five farms are located between four and six miles from the farmer's
dwelling and one farm is over six miles away.

Thirty-1four farms (2853 per cent) are located within three miles of
market and 53 farms (45.8 per cent) are located within six miles of market.
Sixty--three farms (52.5 per cent) are more than six miles from the market.

The major methods of transporting produce to market are hired
truck, public transport and farmers owned vehicles. they transport
65.8 per cent, 13,4 per cent and 12.5 per cent, respectively of the produce,
Seven point five per cent (7.5%) of the produce of small farms is "headed
to market either by the farmer or hired labour.

It would seem that the parcels of land are favourably located
farmers have relatively easy access to the farms. The f-arms, however, seem
to be located far from markets but 91,7 per cent of the produce are taken to
the market by some type of mechanical transport. Therefore, distance from
markets may not be a constraint to agricultural production. It must be
noted, however, that 11.7 per cent of the farms are only accessible by dry
weathl- roads, Nonetheless the low annual rainfall might be a compensating

III. Tools, Equipment, Machinery and Farm Buildings

For a majority of small farmers in Antigua (67.5 per cent of the
sample) the inventory of farm tools consists of one to five pieces of hand
tools. Thirty-five farmers (29.2 per cent) owned from six to ten pieces of
hand tools. Only three farmers owned more than eleven pieces of hand tools
and one fa-er owned none.

Thijty- four farmers (28.3 per cent) owned knapsack sprayers, one of
these sprayers rZs ,motorized. Only five farmers owmed any form of irrigation
equipment. Sh; farmers owned trucks, carts or other similar farm equipment
and two farmers owned one tractor each.

Farm buildings were also few and far between. The total sample of
120 farmers owned only two cow pens, one sheet/goat pen, and one store-room.
Only four farmers (3.4 per cent of the sample) owned the land they farmed.
The lack of equipment and relatively few farmers who owned land could
partially explain the reason for the undercapitalised nature of small
farming in Antigua.

IV. CropEnterprises

(i) C.l. g'on by the Small Farrer

Root crops and vegetables are the crops most frequently grown by
snail far-nrr in Antigua. Among the root crops, sweet potatoes were grown
by 76 farers (63.3 per cent) yams by 52 farmers (43.3 per cent), cassava
by 28 farmers (23.3 per cent) and eddoes by 24 farmers (20 per cent). The
three most carioxnly grown vegetables were cucurbits (35.8 per cent), carrots
(27.5 per cent) and tomatoes (20.8 per cent) Among the other vegetables
in cultivation were onions, okra, cabbage and peppers.

Corn was grown by 21 farmers (17.5 per cent) and pigeon peas by
15 farmers (12 5 per cent) Although Antigua is not a major banana producer!,
25 per cent of the fanrers surveyed grew this crop. Not many farmers cul-
tivated tree crops. Mangoes (6 farmers), citrus (3 farmers) and avocado
(3 farmers) were the most oarmonly occurring tree crops.

Cotton and sugar .-riC. two non food crops, were also grown. Nineteen
farmers cultivated cotton and six iuc ~r cane, The following sumnarises
the number and per cent farms growing the more important cropsS

Crop Farms On which grown
No. Per cent
Root Crops
[Sweet potatoes 76 63,3
Yams 52 43o3
Cassava 28 23.3
Eddoes 24 20.0
Vegetables ;
Cucurbits 43 35.8
Carrots 33 27.5
Tomatoes 25 20.8

crop Farms on 'hich Grown
No. Per cent
Onion 12 10,0
Okra 12 10.0
Cabbage 11 9 2
Peppers 7 5.8
Corn 21 17.5
Pigeon Peas 15 12,5
Bananas 30 25.0
Sugar-cane 6 5.0
Mango 6 5,0
Citrus 3 2.5
Avocado 3 2,5
Cotton 19 15.8

(ii) Intercropping

For the survey crops were considered to be intercropped if they were
grown together on the sa-me plot of land (i.e. in mixed stands). The survey
showed that intercropping is not conronly practised and crops are most often
grown on a mcnocrop basis in Antigua. Bananas and corn had the highest
frequency of occurrence in crop combinctionso Twenty per cent of the
farmers surveyed intercropped bananas with other food crops, eddoes
(8 3 per cent),, okra (8.3 per cent), pigeon peas (6-7 per cent): cotton
(6.3 per cent), sweet potatoes (5.2 per cent) and cucurbits (4,6 per cent)
were grown in intercropping systems. The following gives details on the
per cent of farms intercropping the most frequently grown crops.

Crop Per cent farms growing
specific crops

Sweet potatoes 5.2
Cassava 0.0
Eddoes 8.3
Cucurbits 4.6
Carrots 0,0
Tomatoes 0.0
Onions 0.0
Okra 8.3
Cabbage 0.0
Peppers 0.0
Corn 19.0
Cotton 6.3
Pigeon peas 6.7
Bananas 20.0

(iii) Crops on Parcels

Most farmers had a single parcel and hence, the data show most of
the crops in Parcel I. A single long term crop is normally grown on the
parcel 31 parcels (25.4 per cent) had one crop. Two short-term crops were
grown on seven parcels (5.7 per cent) and another seven parcels had three
or more long-term crops. For short-term crops, these were grown on a
larger number of parcels than for long-term crops. Two or more short-term
crops were grown on the majority of parcels. Only 10 parcels (8,2 per cent)
had one crop, whereas 18 (14.7 per cent) had two crops, Twenty-'three
(18,,5 per cent) had three crops, 25 (20.4 per cent) had four crops, 16
(13.1 per cent) had five crops and 20 (16.3 per cent) had over five crops.

(iv) Tost Important Crops Grown

On the basis of acreage cultivated, the most important crop grown
was sweet potatoes. This crop had the highest acreage on 37 parcels
(30.3 per cent) and was followed by bnrnnas, 17 parcels (13.9 per cent)
cotton, 15 parcels (12.3 per cent), yams 10 (8.2 per cent) and tomatoes and
carrots, seven parcels (5.7 per cent). On the basis of returns, sweet potato
was again the most important crop grown. This crop had the highest return
on 28 parcels (22.,9 per cent) and was followed by bananas, cotton and
tomatoes,, 13 n-rcols (10.6 per cent) each.

(v) Reasons for Crop CUzico

Good market rnd suitable land were given as the r.ejor factors
influencing the acreage of crops groan in Intigua. -abour supply was also
cited but was considered less critical ~m farnors also tended to chose
those crops with low labour requirements. In most cases these YAwere first
parcel choices.

Incame also played a significant role in choice of crops gronm by
small farmers in Antiqua. Good market was emphasized by approximately
42 per cent of the farmers sampled. These choices were also influenced
by the suitability of land and low labour requirements.

(vi) Management Practices

Sweet potato is grown by a majority of farmers for both home use
and for sale. Only seven farmers produced the crop mainly for hame use
and no one produced the crop for sale. Most farmers intended to plant in
the following year. Saoe planting takes place year round but a majority of
farmers plant in October, Harvest is year round with a majority of farmers
harvesting between Novanber and March. As noted earlier, the crop is
normally grown in pure stand. Local varieties are used and the crop is
normally planted on ridges. Sweet potato is not nonrally stored as most
farmers dispose of the crop soon after harvesting.

Yams, like sweet potatoes, are grown for both home use and for sale.
Most farmers hIad plans for planting the following year but 15.4 per cent of
those growing the crop had no plans to do so. The usual planting time is
May/June with harvesting taking place in December to March. Yams are
grown on ridges and unlike sweet potatoes, a number of farmers store part
of the crop.

Cassava is grown for both home use and for sale. Of the 28 farmers
growing this crop, eight cultivate cassava mainly for ihme use. Twenty-six
of these farmers had intentions of planting in the following year.

Cassava is planted year round with a majority of farmers planting in _-!,
to July. Harvesting is year round. All 28 farmers cultivated the crop i-
pure stand and used a local variety. The crop is normally planted on
ridges and in rows. The crop is not usually stored,

For eddoes the crop is normally grown both for sale and for domestic
use. Practically all farmers intended to plant the following year. The
usual planting time is May to July and harvesting, December to March.
Local varieties are used and they are cultivated in pure stands. Planting
is normally on ridges, but some farmers plant in the furrows, on mounds on
beds and on the flat. The crop is not normally stored,

Of the 90 farmers growing root crops, only 17 (18.9 per cent) used
fertilisers. Thirty-five farmers (3G,9 per cent) used chemical sprays and
13 (14.4 per cent) other chemicals. Organic manures were used by only five

Forty of the 43 farmers growing cucurbits produced the crop for sale
and for domestic consumption. Six farmers (14 per cent) had no plans to
grow the crop in the next year. The usual planting time is September/
October and harvesting time, November/December. Local varieties are grown
and the crop is cultivated on ridges and in pure stands. The land formation
used in planting is quite variable,; 42 per cent of the fanners growing this
crop planted on the flat; 28 percent in furrows, 16 per cent on beds and
14 per cent on ridges. Planting is generally in rows, but 19 per cent of
the fanners used an irregular planting pattern.

Carrots were grown by 33 farmers and 12 per cent reported their crop
to be lost or destroyed. Seventy-three per cent produced the crop both for
sale and domestic use. Most farmers had plans to plant the following year.
The crop is normally planted in September/October and harvested in December
to February. It is always grown in pure stand and usually on beds but
sometimes on ridges. Seventy-three per cent of the farmers used the row
planting method and 24 per cent, an irregular planting method. The crop i
not stored and only one farmer reported receiving a subsidy.


Tcmatoes were grown by 25 farmers and 23 of these farmers grew the
crop for both hone use and for sale, Twelve per cent of the faners did not
intend to plant the crop the following year and four per cent were undecided.
The crop is normally planted between August and INbvember vith a majority of
farmers :r.-'tin in October. Harvesting usually takes place between November
and ;are-, As for most other crops grown by small farmers in Antigua, it
is grown in pure stand. Both local and improved varieties are cultivated.
Seventeen farmers planted on ridges, six on beds and one each on the flat
and in the furrow. One farmer reported receiving a subsidy. The crop is
not stored by farmers,

Thirty-eight per cent of the farmers grmoing vegetables used
fertilizer, 54 per cent used chemical sprays, 19 per cent, other chemicals
and six per cent used organic manures.

Bananas were grown by 30 farmers for both home use and for sale.
Six farmers (20 per cent) grew the crop mainly for horm use. Approximately
one half of the farmers intended to plant the following year and seven per
cent wer uncertain. The usual planting month is June but harvesting normally
takes place year round, As noted earlier sox.r intercropping is practised.
Local varieties are used and the crop is rnom.lly planted on the flat and in
rows. Only one farmer fertilized the crop; two used chemical sprays, and
one used organic mar.ure. Eight farmers (27 per cent) stored the crop,
presumably for ripening, and one farmer reported receiving a subsidy.

Corn was grown by 21 farmers, six of whom produced the crop mainly
for hame use and 13, for both hame use and for sale. All farmers intended
to plant the crop in the following year. Some farmers planted corn year
round while others planted between May and August. Nineteen per cent of
the farmers intercropped. Planting in furrows was the most popular method
of planting with 4S per cent of the farmers using this approach. Twenty-four
per cent planted on ridges, 14 per cent on the flat and nine per cent on beds.

With regard to fertilizer usage: only 19 per cent of the fanrers growing
corn used this input.o hirty -eight per cent used chemical sprays and
19 Fer c.nt, o cth-.r chemicals..

Pigeon ;-..S.-. like most of the other crops grown, is both partly sold
and partly consumed in the home. Of the 15 farmers growing this crop two
reported that their crop was lost or destroyed. Harvesting normally takes
place during the months of December, January and February. Most of the
farmers cultivated the crop in pure stands and used local varieties. All
farmers plant in rows and usually on ridges or on the flat. No farmer
received a subsidy and the crop is not stored,

Forty per cent of the farmers growing grain legumes used fertilizer,
56 per cent chemical sprays and 36 per cent, other chemicals.

Cotton is normally grown for sale. Of the 19 farmers producing
this crop, tiwo grew it mainly for home use and another two for both home
use and for sale. Then asked Oiether or not they intended to plant the
next year, 14 farmers responded 'yes', four 'no' and one did not know.
The crop is normally planted between -ursu7- and October., Harvesting normally
takes place between December and February,, The crop is grown in pure stand
and both local and imported varieties are grown by the farmers. It is planted
either on the flat or on ridges and always in rows. Forty-two per cent of
the farmers growing this crop used fertilizers, 47 per cent chemical sprays,
21 per cent used other chemicals and 16 per cent, organic manures. Most
farmers do not store the crop. Only one farmer received a subsidy for the
cultivation of cotton.

V. Livestock Enterprises

(i) General Types of Animals Kept

Most of the livestock reared in Antigua were kept off the farm. Of
the 120 farm parcels in the Antigua sample, livestock were only kept on six.

Cattle were kept on three parcels, pigs on two and sheet and goats, on
one parcel. lo rabbits were reared on any of the parcels and only one fanr~u-
kept any poultry.

(ii) Cattle

Of the five farmers that reared cattle, one owned less than five,
three owned less than 10 and one had nore than 45 animals. Four farmers had
only local type cattle. In relation to the management system practised, one
farmer grazed his animals in the open while three farmers tethered their
cattle. Three farmers (2.5 per cent) did not dispose of their meat by home
use or by selling, thus having no cash sales from meat disposal.

(iii) Pigs

Five farmers ( 4 per cent) only kept pigs. Of these, four had five
pigs or less and one reared between 35 and 45 pigs. The pigs were all of
the local type. All pigs reared were penned. One fanner disposed of his
meat by home use while four farmers did not sell or dispose of their nmev+ l-
hone use, thus there were no cash sales.

(iv) Goats

Only two farmers in the Antigua sample kept goats, one with less than
five heads and the other with between 16 and 25 heads. The animals were of
local type,, and were kept on a penned system of management, Cre farmer
neither sold his meat nor used it at hcme, but another farmer produced this
meat for home use only. In the case of the latter: between $100 $500 was
received frro meat sold, No goats were lost in the past year.

(v) Sheep

7T' farmers had five sheep or less on the farms and only one farmer
had between 11 and 15 sheep. Local type sheep were kept on two farms while
on one farm both local and improved types of sheep were kept. Also, two
farmers kept their sheep penned, while one t-thered his sheep. In relation

to the disposal of meat, one farmer neither sold nor used meat at hcae, one
farmer used the meat at home and one farmer gave no response. T Wo farmers
received no cash sales while one received ween $500 and $1, 000. No
sheep were lost in the past year by the farmers sampled.

(vi) Rabbits

None were kept by any farmers in the Antigua sample.

(vii) Poultry

No broiler or layer poultry were reared by farmers in the Antigua
sample. One farmer did have 12 ccanon type fowls which were kept running
loose and used for home consumption. None of these fowls were lost during
the past year.

(viii) Draught Animals

Thirty farmers (25 per cent) in the Antigua sample had donkeys/ 19 of
them had only one donkey each.

(ix) Constraints to Livestock Production

The survey attempted to obtain information from farm operators regardin-

the different factors which acted as constraints to
of livestock It also collected data on the nature
incurred in livestock production. This information

increased production
of the expenses actually
is given below'

Greater Production




Sheep Poultry

Cost of feed -
Availability of feed 1 "'
Market conditions
Praedial larceny 1
Land suitability .2 .

Inadequate labour .
Other 7 2 1 4

----- ~i-----~ "I~

Feed cost and availability were cited only in the case of one farm
operator who kept pigs. Ho ever, in the case of one farmer rearing goats
praedial larceny was a factor. Land suitability affected two farm operators
that kept cattle, Irket conditions, veterinary fees and inadequate labour
were not identified as important constraints on the level of livestock
production. Other factors were important in the case of thle 14 farm operators
rearing cattle, pigs, goats and sheep.

Livestock I
Expenses Incurred
on Farms Cattle Pigs Goats Sheep Poultry
Bought feed 1
Home grmn feed 2
Pen construction/
Repairs -
Bought medicines 15 2 3 2 -
Bought minerals 1
Paid Vet, fees 3
Hired labour --
Other 2 1 1 1

Only one farm operator who kept pigs
opera-tors with sheep used home-grown feed.

actually bought feed. T'Io farm
However, 22 farm operators actually

purchased medicines for livestock and three paid veterinary fees. Five farm
operators incurred expenses for their livestock on account of "other factors".
No farm operators incurred any expenses in respect of pen construction
(or repairs) in in hiring labour.

VI: Farmers' Expressed Camunity Needs

Along with data on the technological dimensions (crop and livestock) in
the mall fanr system, attention was directed at identifying the camunity
needs of the farmers. Information was collected on what fanrrs considered
to be their most pressing socio-economic needs, the kinds of improved agri-
cultural services and type of action desired to alleviate the problems.

To Antiguan small farmers, 48.3 per cent would like to see improved
roads in their communities. Improvemnts in physical infrastructure,
electricity and water were cited by 28,3, 27.5 and 26.7 per cent of the
sample, respectively. Same 13 per cent identified a need for community
centres and/or recreational facilities. The majority of the sample felt
that such facilities should be provided by the government rather than by
individuals Low responses were recorded in regard to what the sample con-
sidered as their most pressing agricultural needs. However, ten per cent
would like to see more employment opportunities either in agro-based industries
or in other sectors. Perhaps this is a forceful indication of the deep level
of frustration which has engulfed the small farm sector in Antigua, Until
concrete evidence is provided by adequate policy and practice to indicate
realistic opportunities for overcoming the stagnation of small scale
agriculture, it will not be surprising to find more and more farmers oriented
towards what they perceive as "greener pastures" .

3. ,. NEVIS


The :-.1.'-; consisted of 67.3% males and 32.7% females. Only 13% of
the farners wre under 40 while 18.7% were over 70, the largest proportion
was in the age grc.p 56--70 (44.9%).

CS C% could read and write and 28% had had saoe secondary education.
63.6% were married with the most cormon household size being 1-5 persons.

69 famners (64.5%) had no employment outside of the farm while fishing
and trades were the ntmost ccrmon occupations of those reporting outside


The main findings on crop agronomy are surrarised in Table o1 The
crop grown most frequently by the farmers was sweet potato, followed by yams,
with bananas, tannia and cassava also of importance. The small number of
crops mentioned by each farmer was alhnost certainly influenced by the timing
of the survey in April- ay. ver dy c my months, when few crops were planted.

The majority of crops were most frequently planted in mixed stand with
only peanuts, cotton, sugar cane and onions being more frequent in pure stand.

The method of planting was normally on ridges, only a few crops were
usually planted on the flat or on beds.

The responses to the question on most frequent planting time, showed that
almost all crops were planted during August and September which is the time of
most reli-ble rainfall. A secondary peak of planting time occurred in May, again
a time when some rain can be expected. A common response to the question on
planting time was "with the rain' i.e. farmers will plant at any time of year
if rain -is falling.

Table 1: Nevis Baseline Survey Modal Agronomic Practices

No. of Improved elative occurrence in
Farmers variety pure or mixed stand, Most frequent planting method
ROP growing reported Pure stand Equal Mixed
i greater No. stand
greater Flat 1tounds Furrow Ridges Beds
Sweet potato 74A t_
Yam 61 1 \/ __
Banana37 .
Tamnia 31 \/ v
Cassava 25___
Peanuts 18 _____ __
orn_______ 18 _____ __
Caibage 17 1 _
Tomatoes 15 1 ___
Carrots 9___ ___
jaingoes 9 _______ ______
Pigeon as 7__ __
Cotton 6 v V\
Peppers 5
Coconuts 3 __,
Sugar cane 3 1 ,'
Onions 2 1 ____
Cucurbits 2 ____
Lettuce 1____ __ _
Blackeye peas 1
Herbs 1_ _
Breadfruit 1 NR NR NR

Table 1 cont'd

II~- -----~ -- ------I.------

2sist frequent
plap ting time
1 2-4- dA

lost frequent
Harvesting time
1 -4 1 )

I-st frequent disposal

HIC,Use Sale only I Both

Storage practice

Stored Not stored

st__ n__ s~ n
Sect potato Aug. Sept Feb. Dec. _
Yem__ Aug. Ma y Feb. f ________
Ear na All yr. All yr___ _
T7nr ia Aug. ay Feb-I3 r ___- _. _
<2cEava Aug. _y y March Feb I / __
POx uts Sept. 4May Dec. Aug Dec /
& Feb
Cor epto Aug. Jan. Dec-

Casb age Sept, Dec. Jan _
cn tcos Sept. Dec. Jan _____ __
Carrots Sept. Dec. e -
-anroes All yr. may
I July I
Pigeon peas June Sept. Dec. Jan-Feb ____i__
I i july/
Sune pte. t Dec Jm1-Feb J
Cotton Sept. Aug. Jan Dec.
Peppers e -- Nov-Jan _
Coconuts A Tl yrAllyr. ___
Sucar cane All yr. Al yr V
o nions St __ _t Feb. __ "' V
Cu urbits Sept. Dec. B

J.1v I

ckye pea Aug. Oct. __
ts Sept. Jan___j _*1< ___ _

Breadfruit A1l y

All yro I -_ iI -I w




Anri 1


As a result of the above mentioned planting times, the peak harvest
peric d for almost all crops was the period December -- : arch a factor which
leads to the mnaketing problems experienced by most farmers. One significant
crop harvested C l nii.e of this period is mangoes, which can account for an
important source of income when no other crops are bearing,

i'bst c,.r ., were grown for both home use and sale, notable crops grown
most frequently only for home use were cassava, corn and pigeon peaSo In
Nevis, cassava and corn are often ground for flour and cornmeal for home use,
corn is also often solely for poultry feed, Cotton and lettuce (1 farmer)
were the only crops grown soley for sale,

Crops generally were not stored apart from yams, peanuts, corn and
cotton. Cotton storage would be over the extended harvest period and between
harvest and the commrencing of cotton purchasing by Government.

Only two crops were reported lost or destroyed, these were peanuts and
yams, the latter reported as a loss by 16.4% of the sample, probably the
result of severe anthracnose infestation of the crop in recent years.


The majority of farmers kept livestock of same type with cattle being
kept most frequently. No farmer kept rabbits. The most common herd size was
between 1-5 head.

Generally local, unimproved types were kept with improved types, only
being reported for cattle and then in only three cases.

The animals were most often tethered or stake penned for swine although
sizeable proportions of sheep and goats were reported as either grazed or
running loose.

The tendency was for farmers to keep animals for sale only. This was
mnos marked for cattle hile the small animals had almost as many farmers
keeping them for both home use and sale. Surprisingly, a large proportion
of livestock farmers reported no disposal of animals in the past 12 months.

Findings are summarised briefly in Table 2.

Table 2: txdal Livestock Farming Practices

No. of 'post coonron no. of Tbo. of
fanrmrs head farmers
rearing [ -5 6-10 11-15 keeping
| i prov
Sled type


44 I

ost ccrn


------ -r--- t- --t- -------- +-- -4--- -- t ------


1,ost common
,old both hone
only j use
I I onlv

I-I1 +t------- ---r-- 3 --- 4 I


not dis-
posing in
past year



Goats 26 0 Teth- 15.0
__ __ __ __ __ ered
Sheep 47 0 Teth- 36.4
________ ered ___

Poultry were kept by 27% of the sample and all reported keeping common
fcowl only. these norm-ally were running loose. bNne of the farmirs used any
of their poultry as reat: either for home use or sale. Draught animals were
kept by thirty-nine farmers, thirtyo-eight of whom kept donkeys and one
kept a horse.






(i) ":.::. N ; and ethnicc Ori;jin-

Just over 70 per cent of :.. ,-t.'s small fa~aers ithe sapile are
male. She Tnesan age is 51 yeZ-rs Vi-th a high modal age groui of 6~ to
years. There whre only t-ao farmers ,7who are 25 yearz or yc'ircy.r. All
the fanr operators in thle .Mintserrat sample are of .:\.rice-. ;.;.--c:1 .

(ii) Literacy, .: A..i l .u-s and :..'., Si.

The majority (~.9 per cent) of fthe farnmrs can read and write with
an additional 2.5 percent who can only reac :-, 1.6 per cant who ca'
write only. ALo)st 20 percent have not 7.,ndfii-;;: fro. --. aJl clo.;in.-
but 72 per oent received up to standard 7 of a primary education, A
rather ,-;.i-i; proportion (2.5 per cent) received so'c se:o .a;-

Fifty-four mar ccnt of the small Zr.vrsr in the sa-., r anr .:ri..-.
while -'"4 ,pr cent i C that they are i-..;.. he
(70, perci.t) live irn househoolds of up to five persons and another
20 percent live in households of six to ten e .~. .:"i -v
(59.2 per cent) have between one and five ,- : :lintc ,

(iii) .tL-ility

lore than 50 per cent of the .. ,r--.1- have ii' .. inthe current farming
area, at the ti.:a, of the survey (SepteLLber 1979) for more than 30 years.
As a highly stable xopulat.ion, ,. er cent have lived in the same famining
area for I're than 50 years ..- jreat majority (:3A per cent indicated
that they ihad no i--;-n.tio to :tove frnm here they presently res3iJ.x


(iv) Oc.. :itl

e ajrity 7 cent ) hav hi ol ion
with less t1'ironen Fr x '.t (0.-) iLnicatin. they prtiai a,_ i. .
aricult ia r.lJ.tL& canvrce as r~arket voe.ors. Cutride of ajric'ultie
the .i .2... *. cc ..ic..i ,ith tLe huihest o..",-ic. (14f' per c--.rc) is
Lt of u>ii.'l.... laci.rer ..a:Linly ro<: gan o]:. oer .o-0 s:i: fo2r cent

t2"eir sole cc'"ul.cinon.-

(v) FaxiOly Incox.Y 5

about 50 percent e.mrn a total feMily income of uo? to $2 ,-500 per
anm.o A~Lc.-t '0 par cant he iJnco.:2 s inio.r3ianges of $2,301 to $5,00
IxCr i:m7n. Mie a f7, -r th-a- five por calt -arm 1etwvena $5,000 mndt
$10000 per oinu o fcr -is/r inccis is ore t

In discussing estima-t.' co. Xal fa.ily inK2a .', rafsr- .. is iea to
persons otair tbda the far oaarators wiio ::.nti'.t to fariily incCaoX
ITWil- r.laftcivaly fc' 7 Gouses (5 pr .ct.;) ::-. recozrdi < contri:utiiig
earnings to 'naily mican~ ii 3-:. : p. cet o' l:...... o'- or morc sons
are nmof. to contri-ute, Ao;t .3 ".-: ct of it s.'- .. :-- faialyv incorCa
is supplatentod qy cx~-tributicn-s fr"cr.i oir.trr .-c-,Gtrs. In fewer
cases, 3:e r3lativ3S anc. even noI -relativo. s are si- contribute to tie
housedold 1 income

(vi) ilut-rition

Te staple fooxz used often by the largest proportions of ,ieo aol -
in ao.ntserrat are bananas (93.3 per cent) root corps (U-3,2 per cent),
meat (74.2 per c-int), rio) (G3.3 per cent) and (07.2 per cant)

These data are qualitative responses and could not be collected in
objectively quantificable categories. Consequently, they provide rough
estimates of the relative frequency of the use of the major foodstuffs
in the small farmers' consumption pattern.

Of the great majority of the respondents who consume bananas often,
85.6 per cent reported that these are hlae grown. In regard to root
crops, the majority (59.2 per cent) indicated that these crops are ahoe
grown while another 30.6 per cent reported that they both grow their
own and purchase these crops. All rice was purchased, sCme 30.7 per
cent purchased the meat they ate and 42.9 per cent purchased their vegetables.
This, perhaps indicates that since the bulk of vegetable production by
saall farmers are for an export market, they utilize a portion of incomes
earned by their exports to purchase the vegetables they consume.

II. Farm-oriented factors

(i) Tiae spent and Labour used on the Farm

In the Montserrat sample, 47.5 per cent of the farmers indicated
that they spend two to four hours daily in farm wrk during the cropping
season. About one quarter of the sanmle spend between four and six hours
as a daily iavc.r....- an.. other 22 per cent spend .between six and eight
hours. z..-: f.i'arac are relatively lower than the data of the small
far oer operations in .itigua where as many as 34 per cent recorded!
spending as many as six to eight hours daily in the cropping season.

In the out-of-crop season, a larger proportion of the sample spent
few hours in facing activities. Only about 13 per cent indicated
that they spand, at this tiate, four or more hours daily on the farm.

(ii) :Us7 of : -cor:-

Only 1 ps cc of r r i th :e ke
fart;! rcoxrdc,

2,n:. il i x, tsecrral: rull farI rs studied. .30 .-..- u. ":: reason
for not e')i -,: ca :- to f. ti. fact that ihc-' :o noL Lis to
Lc mac"ssAr., IhirL.z per oat: of tTl sample arn ,:&.l. .c r,:'.. or vrite and
ae Tair, ai .i^r rO -..i 22 par acat gave :.aa of a cotined
a~tu"ra lx to -i2ir nc oioi., how, ,o :eQ rcz or or not having the
t .:e to .., so,,

2Case- ic0- r:s cuse1. jo i- vntiv practices aC2 frthar viidenca to
+th" ..ral .l :.aJeas:of prevailing traditional practices ccr. min to the
s all fa systa-ms. Few'onsi-ve i.:nrovei:'ent3 have _e.n recommended
for thos- fax-azrso Those that ',2av. a -e rain econa-iAcally costly
or :' ' ex laind by ill- ipd -cteision s.-rvices.

(iii) Parsons Cisultc ., P-ar ~rs

It is interesti-,'g to not- diot al-, :t p-r cZs:t of tL' cruall farm-rs
in Io ntserrat ,o not consult .;.... .. ". r. .u.l. 1. ,i:3 .eLn plannirig their
farming operation. Of tia o .. t era. t extnsion officer is
thie person consult,& 31,7 ;,.r ~::. of s? ,7

As a furthD r a:s-ct of t_ o ....l ,-" .:' ."-ijoA.--.:i:n .xhaviour,
the .ata rvl te niata l- c o.i.ic c.i.ra "i."or 't a?: thoso of the
exLension offio.,r (CS Xr cen). cm. or : ':: ( .. r caI t) and
the spouse (4.'. 2 'pr c.nt) Tiic io a. e Litr:esti"- contrast to
rtii i-a fari:xr to 'd&ont tI, i:.;... -pro:ortion (53i.. p*L r cant)
consider thr opi-ion of thLir spouse as ist i..ortzat of the sources tiey

III. Cr-ait Facilitis and Practices

Of dth credit facilities available to small farrirs in PSontsorrat, tFo
farn-xrs irdicate,., that their first preference was for a coamrcial ba:i ,
two preferre:l co-o2erative crLedit unions and one fanrer preferred a -on:
lender. One hiundrea and fifteen farc~rs (95.,0 per cant) had never borrrod.
or had no prefer<~nca for any particular source.

During the past year, only six farmers obtained loans from the
available sources. Tiwo of these loans were for general farm producttioon.
Four were for prproses olher than 1r-l*.t.icn or the 2iurch of inputs
and were ob-i'. i for co.i'.c,

'The six loans obtadine during th-. year twere provided Ly ca.anr.rcial
banks (3 loans) co-operative credit unions (2 loans) and a moneyy lender
(1 loan) . "ou: ii one farmer obtained tw loans frcr a camiercial bank,
ltere little creJit activity a.:'r, "tihe farwnrs of thei sample,. 7'.-
majority of farmers (94.2 per cent) believed -that no credit souz'ce was
availa'.'12 vwhenx 'l.

IV.o r'.. Lj Facilities and Practices

Sevanty-one fanzers (_:'.2 per c:nt of the sample) lived nore thanI five
miles frac~ the nearest marketing depot. Of tie.-;e. 10 farra-s livc\ .More
tkman 11 miles from the depot.

Iroxn.g suggestions for the improvenp.nt of marketing facilities the
highest proportion (4;.7 per cent) of aiall fa. 2rz in. the sa-ple mnntionad
the provision of better transport. In line with that J.ji:L.C- 35.7
per cent mention t~.he provision of betterr access roads. Jirty--four
farmers (2J:.,3 S', cent) s./ JgezL-.2 the formation of co-~gojeratives. Zie
scttL-..- up of collection points and grading and storing ~aer not considered
critical to the in4rov~Ornt of -.'ar.':.n.. facilities in kxits-errat.

V. ~.Cictic. -. C2Z.'L' iL Used faced .i'th technical problel-s, CGo7 ,er cent of small farmers
refer to an extension officer as th-. most Lsort:.-. source of information.
One out of avarye five far~;'r-- consult no one as n advisory source of
technical infor.nationi.

rncr.1oLge of i-provd:i f::.. :.-ic.. i : for the .-najority of
famars in thi s-il- (,L7 per .). by li- to ""1r radio. Liis
is in sharp czntrc-. :d-th a --rather .:. ... i. prc.orti. ( .5 p;r cant)
who consiorC a .,o.--....: c str:.ion fa o a,.. .oc-". of i-for.iation
on iT l.,.t.ov." f.,r.. oracticeso

0n1 :sLS as -^ ioli kin of i.ifor'nation thly oultd 3.lik. to r,.cava
frcnm" tl3 ralo. ix)3t Cfar. : rs TrCiL. to hear about market prices (JC.7 7r
cent). otCer23:'18s of inor.:ti.on considLreo! in-ortant are; i'ho-= to gjrCw'
crops' (70 per c-,nt), u.hen to plant' (G75 per cent), "availa'l. inS.cntivs'
(53.3 per cant).,

VI. intersh:ip in Groups

As indicated in the Antigua situation, the level of ca-.aaity participatio-
thirough group maL'tershipn bvy s~ll farmer. in 1,ntsa-rrat is very l.c-7, Less
than bto per cent of the sai~u)l are n.~a rs of any catmni-ity groups cxc~pt
for affiliation to a church or religious group. 'igty-five pcact of
the sE.?:le inLicatd~ that they i eon.j.-" to t:-is latto ty? cf gr Cup

VII,. ." titi'L-.:'.,

'he great majority (70 per oent) of sml-l fainrs i tsrr
are of th opinion that 'goo. money is the single ost tant factor
in selec-tin a job. A relatively -.aller proportion (22,5 3 per cnt) are
of the view that "oer .nal li--i" o5 t.e jol" is the singl o.:est ior-nt
factor on wvinic: to base job selectiou.o

'ie occupational a)"irations of farmers -i) arc parents were
ideatifici in rs'.gard tto ti jo ,: prefor:ices they holdc for sons ani'l
daughters. single os.t clc-L:-C choice of occupation for sons wa-
that of a Ic- R r r oz doctro SLir .-seveni pr cent of the samle indicated
this preferencea. Gc 32 per cant c-..... preference for tiat category
of jobs as in -the service sector, as civil servanZts, transport vor3kerso or

security ,rkars. It is particularly striking that less thca one percent
indicated a preference for facing as an occupation fcr a son.

Sixty one ".:c:'; t~\t of :-.1,. :i'-:n':J iould cwose tcacding or ...-i :
as e .*.: ...." st ;ci:L'r.-... for their chht.r 1a& per cent
hiiicat.i .a _:;'. -r.' .i'.: for jd.s La the service sector as secretariez,
typi: or clarical ci.r cclrsrclal workers,

'.i-'3 is a distinctly higher .' --. *- 'tic in the sample iao z ..o sidr.&.
law or ...dicin ; Dre in ,'rtant tan aricultir Co 1ly 5.7 .r cant were
of the vi. that la, or a.l 'icL.-i.o as a profession for their son was as
i.-'.rrw.t as agriculture,

... ucLio:ial aspirations hel.:, by .N.arants for their children iere in
the rain, at the level of university education (6S per cat) This is
hCtever, a noticeable contrast to as :"-v as 91 per cent in Antigua
vho1 desire~ that their chilYren should iave a university education.

These indications are jn Tepinc wdith tJh c .'"2~ cnt of the 3iu pl'l
who are of the viewZ t1hai -;ie 'est forn of security their dildren" could
have is a high ,.atc.-...

To the great majority of sall.. famrs ,i the .. bntserrat sample, it
is bettor to divide land uuaily L..x.Ig their ,.:.-::i...- at Ithe tiU. of
deatli. Iighty-eight .-_:. r cnt w ere of this view in- coitra3t to-- six p.r
cent ihso would leave the lanid to one dcild.

Tie majority of tlie sall fanrers in .:or,:.'rat Sho save, do so
through a bank. 415 -;. r ccn(o Twety-five per cen.t save on their ouri .iile
24 per cent reported nor savi '.-.


I ize ra tatio

3.00 C 3.912 10.0
4.00 5.00 G.6o
120 100.0

Eighty--to farns (55.4 per c.-it of the total) containe-' only one parcel,,
Of the frag~mnted farm, 15 (39,5 pr cenit) contained three i--rcels an6
five farms (13.2 per cent) containai four parcels. If all parcels are
vie~e :I sep-arately then there are 170 parcels in the Saol5.i of ites parcels
14j (13.2 pr cent) are larger thanm one acre. It wouldd s&a'., t~.erefore
that fragaintation does occur a~wng sTiall fars i-n YOntserrat.,

Si-teen first parcels contaieai cultivated land. In 14 ca-ses dth
aamurt of wasteland ais ls. -han one acre but in toa cases -th amount
was tiore -dian one. It .uld s.c- that -diesecond, tUhird and a-",oh parcalc
were ac~iuired. for buiness.-Cri.-siteC. :.---*. 1jn because thle i-ciidenc of wastage
on these 1ho0ings is v.:'v 1oT; only s o- o'f dhe 53 parcels in tiis
category contained ainy cultivat-e lana a2nd of this, four contained less
than one-half acre of -astolan eachd

II. 1 and Lct1aticn of- -cels

Te, -- "... "ih. ou. f ::ir ~h the use of :.~.; was the .. i. of
an annual r nt. Of thc 120 farms in tiie sa1rple L." (J0 0 r.-o ent) vwere
rezited? of 17 prcels in the ... e rented. .' '.r
(0C4 pxr ant) wor- fr ..,ol.", family lad (one fara.) anid l-:I .::..f (one
farn) 1:. 7inor roles-

Fifty-six ".r ceint of th1e .-.:, -ere locaebacd within a mile of *the
:--'.., ,..:.i.j" and .i:- .--.". ._.. cat wo L re located within three
miles. Only five per cent (sev.n '-.c-6:,L) were locatedC more Cthla four
niiles ,'.-:a.V

Only 47 of the 120 far.a: (393Y2 .,: cmit) were located within three
miles of ar.:et. Seven ty-ne fa-xs (3"'.2 percent) were located
within six -miles of ;iuark.t. Of thei 53 "subsidiary' parcels (parcels
other than the first parcel) only 25 per cent were locat -: within three
miles of market and .st (65. 5 xer csnt) were located more than six
:,.iil ..-; a ; ,,

PuIlic transport was used to 'rcw the pro,.'uc: of 7,' .-: cent of the
far~.a to market, 32 :per cent ;.,; : vicle and. 15 ..: cent was
hei to niarket by the errr or lir:' lour, On.ily s1 : fariers
(fiva p-er cant) used t".ir amn vChicles.

It would seen that becausee there is little wasteland te i potential
for ink...Lia snall fa7raer proCuction must take the form intensive
rather tiian extensive us e of land The intensive use of lai, would,
however, d-pend on te provision of certain infrastructural inYt-..

fleven of the parcels studied (6.2 per cent) consist of "mostly stL.p
land and may require terracing or other similar treatment. 1::ven fanrI
(62 per cent) are accessible only by "dry weather" roads.

T .as ~a.a o.It ouC the fact that topooraphy and transport,
particularly accosc roads :.:-ust be consider, in detail in 'many c vloAmnt
plan for .al. f:a.i i;n i itserra.

III T ool, ^^i^ it, j yachineryzuad Far, ilc s

For ths majorityy of farerrs in the sple (!8'. per cent) th2
hivantorv of farm Lools co-nsistci of oIne to five pieces cof hand tools.
iJ,. .. faxrers (13o4 pr cant) -e bat, .~se sai. andt ten pieces of hand
tools an on2 farmmr rap.'orhs.i tat he ,-owne no ''. tools. No tractors
or irrigatLon equipcrant wr:e in the saTiole.

li^ore is a vvy lo. l-evel of innvesc.nt in farr. .,uildinqgs, The
entire sa.qlo of 120 for-ers a:-_ng tlhan, o'.mne- four pig pni, t-wo cow
pens, t- pcult-y pa:s aI t-ree s -hp/goat poi3. The situation is even
iore serious :1n it is concid~er t-iit tie t. co pens, b:otli poultry
pens and toC of th-e tliro-'" slh rp/gont_ ;ens are .zi._l by a single farmer

IVJ, CrO xt'rris-s

(i) Cr ops Grmn by _th,- ea.ll i-rLser

iEighty-t-70w pir cent of all fanrners gr-o one or z.ore root crops. Bananas
were the second nrost frequently ,growni crop withi 61 -or cant of all farnmrs
gr~Wingi this croo; forty-ciht Lper cent grew vagataE .,bes 34 per cant, grain
le--e-ms and 12 per cent cotton. Tree crops were grc,,n by only nine
farmers (7.5 per cent) and corn( by six farmers (5.0 per cent).

Among 3th- root crops -'eot pt e. toes, dahecn and lrnia vrre each
grwan- by at least 34 per cent of the farmers surveyo.i ani. yams by 22
per cent. Ppper ?was the most popular vegetable and, it was follac.'ed in
declining popularity by carrots, cabbages, cucrbits, onions and tc~atces.

to"t far.crrs wro-ini 1 .5 ..;, yrewSe peanut haich was gra,-zi oy er
cent of the fameras, ireafruit was th.e .ost fr)a.uaitly gro;: trea
cropj (four far ers) aC.i was ,follmd ":: avocacso aid .u., c (t-ro .ar,~c r

_e- .l..i-"7 sulrie ,s2 .,.Uoae- nd px" r cC't of f aru... ,:.- 'i.
th'e Imore iqporta-nt crops,,

3..r .x on ,ich -,o, n
..", Per cait
Root '"'.':-';.

Dashean .:., .37.5
"--v :" 41 34 2
Y-': 23 22,4
V.j '.ta1 .1s
Peppers 3: 2,02
Carrots 21 17,5

Y-Z- 7 5,

.o.ttn 13 10. C
Tree crops 9 7, -

(ii) Intercroppinc;

T:t.'rcro.ji:.; is a common practice in t.s.te:a:cl as is indicated in
the ioll. 'i. Aids *iv: th .u .K...y,-. of farmers practicing the
7....t ::i of "rc :.i.. ..


Joy0- ?.2r cn' OJ7 for 3 growing

S e-rct potatoes 3;,

T?.nni 713. 7
Yuas 71,1

Car-ots 47 o ,
-' 1) )7 -1

:..... 57. 1

CGions 27. 3
.1atcxEs 37 5
Cohn 2z36
anuts 41.,7
Pigeon poas 25.0
Bananas J5, 9
Plantain 46,, 7
CottonI 7,7

Dao1n, tani. yns ar tLhce thr-2, crops "rost often s::-l cr,-: ,:
It shoulJIbX not-d that these are relatively long tor:n crcz afs d ta-c- scva
to 12 montez from planiting to harva;ting

The only crop not it-rcrop o to -any grcet rcxtat is c0tto. Li
data for all *.e otheUr crops co:trct s.iarply with thos is.~c-used for
ntigua here ti survey result how.. tLat intercroping is little

(iii) Crops of Parc2l

',e majority of farmr-r grew ir. croh- s., on Parcel It. -.ot parcels
tended to have a single longo--terr crop (-(3 (35.3 percent) of the 173
pares) -. -:. l (11 pr c ) had l t cro
-.. ., -...:~-";! i p r cn'; h d:.o i :; ,-,t ,rn r o.

and only six parcels had three or .ore lo. :vrr : crj.:. I.:-- storZtera
crops a greater mx:a2r: of crops 'as grc am on each parcel. A singl..
short'-te3z1 crp ,) e ; ..*7 1 on prC.3ls (26.L per cnt) two short tenr
t..n.' -. oin parcels, thr. e s3Zhort-tterm cwo,, ) on 30 :v-. ... (.. .3 .;:r cent) ,
four shoft- -,t. crps 15 .... 1:.: (. .'r ccnt) C *.. *f:.v... a0:2 re, ( 17
parc-al (9,5 ` r ,.nbu) o ;st of the short-term crops were also grols
on :'"a.; ..1 I,

(iv ) i.: T ,-.t ,. ".V -. ,' '., ;x.,,,

On tZ e basis of :..-.. c..- ..-....r. he iost i L-lt. czrop,. wre
banana and ..'-, ananas had tu.e largest aczcc-2 on 46 parcels and
pean'utz, on 20 ; parcalsC Th3, se btro crops were followed by sweet potatoes
and pe, (17 parcels each.) ( cotton (13 ,..:.'u :.;:) a..,K. dashenn (I. parcels)
i.2n. te bsis of returns, lbananas rcels)
was also tle :at i. .-ortar: cr-,op nd it was folloe by peanuts (29 parcels)
.., d (15 parl), tton (13 parcels) and sweet
potatoes (9 -r.c --I).

(v) Reaso'is for C oi

G=oox>l "akets anid 1.'r l~ur int: wre"' git"en s th'e major reasons
influencing the '..r :. of ..:: ::.... .:n.-:, i s-itztbility of the land was
also cited but was considorad to ". less critical. .\A similar pattern
was O:.-sc-rv.i .'.;, 'A L:'- ... .'c .i of. rc, grra'. n r,7.vs cc,"" i'..-* .... on an i:ncate

(vi) ,. "- U .c ...

Seset potato .s are graczn by a ';' jo itay of farnnrs for both houn use
and sale. inety.-Lg:* per cnt of farners growing tie .th intended to
plant in the f.llo'W': year. lThe crop is planted and harveste-I all year
round. Local "-arieties are gro'a and 36 per cent of the far-mrs
intarcropped. lost x-:- .u e. ridges. The crop is not no....l stored.


haz consu ion, : fa farErs pro2uce2 the crop '--inlyn for alop
cnsu-ti 15 r c;r:. o toe ;.T j tana early all :arrs il.r..doj to plant
"i s C2O7 "0. i')Z > ^- 7. -......
t,. cruoe s follG.j i _, o :?lait:_,l [a harn.. tins t];-z ':-.7-
?roun oti ci; Daro no ly rcn in coiaticJ with othi crops
with ls.2S ^ 30 or cart of ar:1rs cu.tivztini LG : in 1:L : c 'n.,
Variotico grcn aro lacnl; i z'n ?lkting is nozra-lQiy on ri s. A w
.fn.r plt a -c flat. crs r : c tor.

Ya.c 2u e also ':iily pro.'c, ". ti for sale a-u d~restic consur.ptiono
ievarr 21 pr- cat of t- fr.s pro5ucing tI-i crop adi so .inly
for xI useo. .ost Cfr,-'-:r, hacid --lans ',to pla t ie following year. The
nor.-mai plaitig tiir. is ... to July but scaz famrs plant year round.
.. al...... tIrv g
Harvstij also tF place ya round ftl peak a] iiths of harvesting
in ,2-xc r 3a J-muay-. Ctely l ocl vIrieties are ctrcn and these are
practically all -.rcm on .ri:-. -y tirO.n of the 20 femmrs r '.C. :i-j
yane useL:, n. ,1Si i:,c .-.t normally stored .. farmrs.

-c cropsz arex :rcrly f2rtilizz in :c:zerr-i:, COnly scvan of the
..- faars ,r-i.g t..os.o.. ,rLilir, ,o of the fanars
ic.lad usx., d-iica.1 sprays or oroiAn .&niur.2o

Larianans ,ero grai by, 73 farrs i .i t'ho root .,c-;s, 8sac were
sold and saia c Ln the a st far. ,r h&ad intentions to
plant the zix.t year.7 I-in .. iarv..ti t<~k placa. y-,r roui,.'
A majority of ( ol ezr cent) grew tlhe crop Jn --ix'ed stands usiig
local -'i ri -.. The crop is normally grcOn on the flat. Very feo"
fam.raTr u s for iliier on the crop. Only four fcarmr (5,3 per cent)
reported thie vsec of frtili:eer, "o cdiaical sprays or organic ilaures
are usea.o 2 :.~jority of far.ers do not :tore t-i crop but a few (1.4
per cent) reported: storage pres~iaioly for ripening purposes.


~y, ,<.; .*, is th0e :3 ;*t : t? Iccjuxn crop r. in the tat; .
hirtfy-fivt of the :.. .. sur.:. '.. this c .. o: .
cenat of ta:3e -.- a. .:. it ,~o ".: ,1 ad 3 r ce:. C :oth
for -sal .-. : :: .ic a :i. all the fr v:.... h. a *to
rplat thi foll.n iar:. crop is ,l;pxA. ail l,..' ron. ,,i f ost
of th.e :..- pl ;. O_21 ;ar -. : .v.A ir. 3. e .. is r;one
yar ro"a--. FL.. i- a *..:, c:it of hae farixers use i,,ir. .... d zrn (2
per cant i:tarcro. Lcal v .. .: i.. are grwn lain "r on-aly takes
place on ri;- A ; ..t 36 c7in of the r. I r.: storn sca;x of t,
o .i,.. -' .: L \ t-'.r .;-.. ,

The oa'aLor grain legue -*:.S is pigeon .- Wi./y eight fanners
gref this crop
,a ,....:l ..:..'.. to pla(. .: o ) :-.-. i .- -.- : e r, :. tca] s .-- y- .roun.,

r:ter i also -... :... vati c er out S of th.e Cirt far nrs
pgrew the *'. in r t~ns. Plantia. was Aite.r on ri.:. or on tle

flat ..L- -- s l-....e *. .i ucire ..:. -. ., ...:torx. his crop .

Of the C1 taers L:.-, .- u l .; ly six applied fertilizer
ca0 'b:.t o dtia;tica. ": ...

.:...: (. ily ot) ..:- .,,y 3, -.n r.A 30 ": cant of en1
graw the crop mainly for sa. .icrty. seven per cnt of e f.wa' ers
intaenaridI to .... in 1. A -'S-- W;Q y ari :-..Li a. ,.i ..-- take
place year round. SeC'vzn Cxa -.r cont of *ae facure grCI t -he .
in pure stand. .c :;- fam'I used local varieties.

Carrots were :- T by 21 faraers (17.5 per cent), tie (17)
of IwhanCM produced it for -oth sale anid doaxstic cousv. :., Hot farmers
int:.2.o to plant in thel fTllA -r'. year. ..' is -.orvlly bet-aen
21y and1 July i. h2::v ; -ir-i, isi Septtaer/Octo, er. T'ae crop is ;.:.:.
primarily on beds ..- in rows. Forty-eight per cent of the farmers growing

the crop did so in mixed stands. Only four of the farmers recognized
that they were using imported seed and the others did not know the
variety they grew. The crop is not normally stored by farmers.

Cabbages: Sixty two percent of the farmers cultivating this crop
produced it both for sale and for domestic consumption. Only 75 per
cent of the farmers had plans to grow cabbages the following year.
Planting and harvesting the crop seem to be a year round activity.
Fifty per cent of the farmers intercropped. Improved varieties were
used by 50 per cent of the farmers. The crop is planted mainly on
ridges (55 per cent) and, to a lesser extent, in rows (25 per cent).
The crop is not stored.

Cucurbits were grown by 14 farmers and as for most of the other vege-
ablbs, they were grown by individual farmers for home consumption and
for sale. Cucumbers and pumpkins were the predominant cucurbits cul-
tivated. All farmers intended to plant in the following year and
planting and harvesting apparently take place year round. Fifty-seven
per cent of the farmers grew the crop in mixed stands. Local varieties
are generally used and planting is usually on mounds. However, some
farmers plant on ridges (22 percent), beds (14 per cent) and on the
flat (14 per cent). Planting is normally in rows. These crops are
not stored by farmers.

Onions were grown by 11 farmers, eight of whom produced the crop for
both home use and for sale. All farmers had plans to plant the crop
in the following year. September/October was the time during which
most farmers planted onions. A majority (73 per cent) grew the crop
in pure stand. Five farmers (45 per cent) used improved varieties.
Planting is usually on beds and in rows. Thirty-six percent of the
farmers stored some onions.


Ta latoes. at -.o tiIc. z.j.: rop i .'tctrrat, 'as 9rown
by eight farmrs t th ti.n of d'w, suirvy, L. of those farers
:,roducco the crop 2.ainlyv for J sctic use ar fr rcal :-i f' r .:
inLe&.. to ;1.nt te ,-,ll,, ., ytear. :.. .: a-d L.. i.i. I are scattered.
trougit te i of th c .t.... cult c tivat :. c.l in ucre
stan ds and three inti mi stan.- 2"lso five faiers use. i.orovad vari..-ti.-
Four plantai on :.. *., wo an th-ie flat and one far.ur ,aci on ,~o'unls and
ri..l. ... Ibost far-rs uosed raO h.O r-: or' the :'i. .:c of ta.ctoes

Thirt.; k.,i p, r cent of th~ fart~ers producing v'.- .-i C i.c--'. use
fertilizers .0u' .3 par cent used chemical sprays while 3.4 ;,-)r cazt
us'..%. other chinicals. ;o one reported the use of organic 'anure,.

Cotton was cultivated ly 13 farm-ers, who produced it mainly for sale.
Seventy-seven -per cent of the farmers had plans to plant n t'he foliaoing
year, 15 per cent had no plans and eight per cent :didr.not'.

The normal pl.'-intJ time is August to October, wiith majority of
fanrmrs planting in Sqpteaer. liarvesting takeSs place in F'aruaxr./
larc-. MThe crop is usually -;rar-n in pure stand an;d xboth local ancm
improved varieties are re~;orc:.: to e o Tr Thirty .. ...- cmnt of the
.Cari'crs dii not 'knaI tle '-..i:-;t. they grew. he crop is L':ys lante.
on ridges and in rows. Over half thei farmers growing this cre,., store
it for sare ti .i.

V. Livcti&: .:"i r i
(i) Ceneral
Of the total of 176 fLara 1 r c-Ei.-., in the bontserrat sa-.ple, livestock
were kept on 77. Cattle wero kept on 23 parcels, .igs on two :m. Sih.~e
and goats on ..j. Various ccainations of livestock vre .:r: t on tie
rAiiin: 27. T :.tL, ,aere reared on one parcel only ai.l poultry on li1
A significant number of cattle, goats and ~, 'e' in particular, and also
saw, pigs were 7 ~. off the farm.


(ii) Cattle

irt:y- tro farrers (26).5 per cent) in lthe 7intlerrat = sa-l re-rla:-
cattle, 25 of tha, fl:- boa....n one uanl five cninmals an:1 iL1 n. b?3ee:;.
six an2 ten aa-ils. ihtecn fai" e"s kept only local ty -: ctl dil
five lia thae hixrcved tmypo of cattle only. In relation to lthe -al n.i:a
syste- practi .Lad oine famer grazai hlzs c~-Wrlsin tlh oCe"n a c i ihroe
tethered their stocd. hiroe arers dim 2 not dis.sce of their ;iat aiy
selliig or ha':e ssae thus no c

(iii) Pijs

-r '.:.ic fares (1123 per cxit) r tred pigs 0on tle far' Oa OF ss
13 iia..l five pig or less a on.,: kept Le'~ a i 11 and 153 -igs. Five
faLrn pen thir ani.-tals an- 2iht thi thr i fheir sta(< "i- rbet en

:aa:t. Jo pigs ware lost -,:iing th-e reviou.lyer

(iv) Goats

.rA -!.' fiv. f-re..s (20M por cnit) in- the -:iobntserrat sample ra-=ed

goats, rniici hain f'ive or lass, idn :md betwIaee five and tom, tn)e :,m l
hteaan 11 nn-" 1., one had l bm ten 16 and 25, three had :.ore -tai 25 buat
.less than 35 an ": "n had .ore than 45. bstt of the far-aars .:c reared
goata (103 tetheard, thema, one farr stake--ann-ed is st:. -n
icur allow.^ ths- to zzin loose. 2o cash inca-m frarU mnat sol: 0 *;as
oLaiad in i.:e -jority of the goat farners (15, per cent) and
rs fvsrG ci-ari-. :or, than $100 while three farnars obtained betuueai
,$100 .d $500 i ,n inc a.s fran ;eat sold. 1No losses of goats were
-..'i:.- in' th-e lst 3year.

(v) ,

Thirty -scv:x~ faixers ( r.. per cant) in the miit-orrrt .. .1 Lit
-.-.> :, on .2. s, ..c d* three of athem had five anisal or 's....
eight hSa Vti 3.. rs ten' ania'alss four IhaV .rv 11 Lco t1 iid IlL
,an: .y x' .. .t.3: 1 ant" 25 a.inmas on thir fari;s. Itot of t
far'ors (34) tat 1.-. .. ; :oteisrK tha aXnd a a i% (ti2a:) JloCT
tian to znm .._.n o cas.. ince was oL tainetv by ohf ~ fan.-' rs
.eL' /..:.).- :AICt : ils axove $130 'as rceiv ') by tTo froip .:--mat
solc an_'S in bh c a :.o o'ter ar ic an incomes oif Ibe:i 1' !ra and
$3J0 was obtaA, i. ly o fa.:.'rs lost animals urign the last year
and losses winre 5ist none'' ane .iv., i:. eaczi case.

(vi) 16'). lits

OCly one facirr raarxl razbita in Ct s *i' rrt. s r : andc between
oei an five nia:ls ,'t ..Z-, : .. C. ty, rc. anijaJls rneard was nota
,i, ... '.. neat was is. ri.O ... :..' 3: I- r;5 Ca 0 inoce un .s received
froa Q':io cale of thv rCto. Ilb losses of .:i..als ore '".!zil .urhig
thie jsat year.

(vii) Po ... ,

.idJo broilor poultry wZr .keapt L cay fcarly ers covrd' in. tle i t Aslrrae
'I.). :.:-,. -it sit' arrrs :cot loss tai .. layorc. Fiva farnse rtxar\:
oCstIon fo 1 ; of ,ci tree kept less tUan 12 xa. one ]*2 .. .te$ 2 .`,.
an. 3.0 i.-:. i.- respect to ths ,sinosal of the c. -t. si: Cid.
not sell it or a';.- it iat h ;or. o iovr3 fazers us&- the .' at .ha
one sold tha, .'i a no'thr did naeiikr of these t' i F'ar".2rs who kept
poultry K.i not e,..:.- ncc any losses in Ts.t year.


(viii) Draught A.iils

-rLrty L -m;ai' famrs in in the ,bontserrat sapl1e kept donkeys. All
t ar ha o:ily one "onky aach an. none had aore than

(ix) Cbrosraits to Livos zoc:: Production

-li. sur:-y atte.t'.: to oot:'in inlfor-:aticn from tie farmers e?:le
i';h re jard tc th3 factors ic cls as constraints to increased live-
s-t- production. It also collect. data on the nature of thie e~-nses
actually incurre_-d iy farmm.-r in livestoc- production. Information relating
to -tli aoanstrJ aint to production is given belc-;.

Greater Production 1 Cattlie Pigs CGoats Sheep Poultry

'Cost of -,d J 7 1 1
Availability of 7 5 1
UGt Conditions i
Praecdial larcnY 1 3 11 1

Vait Fees/ A.I., .
I j
GGther 11 3 J 2 j :


Feed availability, faed cost and "other'- factors had the xOst i.' .
;.:jfct. on all classes of livestock. Availability of '.. was c ite ',
10 fparwers ini all livestock cli.s:-; an.d .2.i.:ill/ those kpt cattle
ianm pigs, iliie the cost of fked was given by 12 fanmers w.0 also rearc:.
cattle and .I -,. Praedial laxcery w.s very ijortant to fmors .<.' ,iL,
she ip anid to a lesser extent o,.''. 'l suitability ,-.i'.-;,,-.." far..,iers
rearing cattle, sheep and o.: anid ::,arket conditions were only citea
by one cattle farmer. Inax:.-1; .i labour arnd veterinary fees mtxre not
considered to I~ coXnstrahint to < r- .t-,"r livestock pro-2ucltio-,

3.4. D.UITCA


1. Bac:rotu Factors

(i) Jge, Se, and Etmhnic Origin

In tha Daxincia sam1le, ainost C2 >er cent of farm operators were
male. Tae majority (70 per cent) ware between the ages of 41 and 70,
with the odal age of 63 and the raan age of the sample was 52. ALnst
90 percent of farm operators are fo African ethnic origin and 10.8 yer
ont of ixed racial descent, ofnile less than one per cent is of Cari

(ii) Literacy, marital Status and lbuseholdr Size

The majority of farmers ii tihe sample (62.5 per cent) can read and
write less than one per cent can read only and a further 42 per cent
can write only roughly one cut of every three farnirs can neitlaer read
n'r write.. Ahst six percent had attained a seco -ary level of
education, and about 50 p-r cent had crpleted at last four years of
prin-ry school. Scn 20 xr cent of the sample had no fonaal sdcooling.

I bost farmers (70.C per mcet) are either legally :,rried or have
esLablised caxnon-law unions (15.8 per cent). The household size for
the sale is bi-.dal threee and eight persons per household). he
mean househoold size is six. The average nmter of dependents per farm
operator is roughly four.

(iii) --. ..y

A f. Xre -i:an "5 ar cant in'iicated -Uair only occcpation to .c mL .' l rz cen4t of th *. 11.: are .; 10I I as !k. .J'- .
tae2sn such as c,--:r. ::'. r. plr.j: irnj or masonry. Ten per ceMnt earn a
part of their living '-~Io' -li .. -Ti :J:',.. .-related car.ercial enterprises
in tlie retail trade of far A : -.i per cent are
employed in such areas as izJa. \, provi.. .~, uimskilled labour for road
works or la-ilevel pu: ric sexrice jobs,,

(v) "' il,' Inca-.

Fairly accurate estiv.tis of to'.tal '.:-ily icns.O ware arrived at frac
jidications of sources of i'.ncc. :.l "; x ..::,. l .z.:.. : *,i.s:3 for household
and farm needs .- than i. 10 -r, cnart (11 i) have Xinual incaies of $500
or less. Fifty-five pjer a: ct ave annual .icmcs bAet7w. n i.,000 and
$5,000. .r', par c ...:. i.eo only tNo, ht:.:. tiat they
have amnual iacomes of "rore than

In some 7 per centof households, spoues cont-riutd to -iotal
family incacre orn or :.Lr sons and daughters were also contributors
in 19.2 per centc ndi 7.5 .r cent and 7.5 per cent of : oel.dl~.
reslocciv.::ly._ .;ol- r c. itr (10 per cet) ac'kio. '. .:d that o-'th.r
relatives also contributel- to amnual fariily incame.

(vi) n~UtritiOnz

IThe iot frequently conszread food of the DainLica sa-mle are root
crops and- bananas. ibre thai 90 per cent (95.S) consiAiing these foods
do so from their crm moltivations. A significant proportion of the samile
also use fish, fruits and ni2: (J30.0 70,O andl 07.1 per cant respectively)
on a relatively frqu~ant bazis, i.o several times a e A. While the
fruits t=ere invatri7ely heax gTro" (G30o per cent),, fish and
milk had to be purtdassd -y -:ajority of the saple (77.5 and 75.2
per cent respectively) -5 c an'd .izuit were also reputed to be 'used often'
by relatively large proportio-ns of the sample (5.9 and 63, per cent
respectively) .. Taken to;-ether, these items mi ght suggest a fairly
high nutritional status of Da.rnica small fazrmrs. It would seem necessary
to be cautious in arriving at such a conclusion, since the data obtained
relied on subjective asssassronts of "'very seldnia" and cory often".

II. Favm-Oriented Factors

(i) Time spent and labour us'~ on the farm

A-ng the sample of Dcoiinica sill farmcars, the mrnjority spend six
to eight hours per day in faring activities during the cropping season.
In the outy-of--crop season, thoe rodal time spent on the farm is ,.o to
four hours daily. Almost 30 ipr cent of farmers obtain the assistance
of at least one other family zxmeor for labour on the far; As mamny
as 15 par cnt indict they receive assistance frcm four four or more
numbers of the household group.

The custa~ of shared iabour is practised by 41.7 per cent of =sall
farnars in Dominica.

(ii) Use of Fam ?rcorCs

Less than 10 percent of the Daiinica sSmple Ikep any farm records.

Ds: farmers in DQaiLica said 'LU-y don't consider it necessary' to
keep farm r .ico-L' (27.6 pr cent) Alost 25 per cent cita tcir inability
to Coa:-.1 or '. ri':.-- as thi. reaason for not keeping rocor.s" win re'as another
10 per cent rindicated that record-"keeping takes too ..rach tiL:

(iii) I~novativeness

1tule there 'ihas been c(siderable technological developmiai t in the
agricultural field in sudc'i ~aroas as disease coaitrc 2 .. new pla t or see
varieties and irvr.. cul1iral Dratices, tle level of awareness arong
Doxninica small fa arimrs seans j..: li-Ll1.. Only four fanm operators w-uro
familiar with vhat 'tliey considerla a ;~ w variety of practice Of thd'ese
four .'innovators"', two had bein ui.i .,; the new practice or variety xtaean
tw to o five years and one ohear fanner ac;..o..:'l,._ usiL~'J a rn.i practice
or variety less thai two years.

It is thie policy of bianaa zoSc.siatiot.o;; to supply grow"-rs ,with
fert-lizer hidic is paii for by a cess levied on their produce. As,
:xactal. a high proportion. of ,ali far~mers use fertilizers on their
bananas a 7 5t 75 per ce~n:t fo those growing -that crop indicated tiis.
ikover the use of Airhdcal .. rarys and other Tchicals s considerably
low. Only 25 ercarit of fai-rers .,rL',, ij bananas use cd~idical r i--..y:. and
less than o.,: per cnt cse other di.amicals (, .LL.ci2,es or herbicides) and
none use organic maliure.

For other raijor cr -:-x gram i. the small f,. Y":-;, tiera is a relatively
high proportion u;lin, f::itili:. ' on plantains (844 4per cent) and roots
and tubers (59,,3 per caet) but only negligible ntuners indicate a use
of cdemical, sprays or other de,,alicals. There was no practice of using
organic Xnure by ;xaiiinica .mall farriers. A b-eneficial side-offect occurs
in the transfer of frtiliter tcch i.,.a : frla~ x banas to other crops.
Fertilizer ih.ort.l 'or .ana.s aiJ :-ade available to anall fanmers
through te ccm.xx3ity a:.; oci....'_.:.. has a wilde application to other
..ajor crops grown by bta fain"ers.

(iv) Persons consult. y f:r7

e majority of sl f-ars Co not normally consult anyone in
decisions on far-n plawnin,. Lsss tin :0 0 r oet (38C. 0) indicated
they consulted "n'o-one":. Sjo 22,5 xper cent cited t'ieir spouse as the
person consulted most iLi far;n pcl2.i-in' d'ecisons. .Almost 20 >ar cant of
the sample consult thUe -snision officer.

Mae opinion source nmost hir.gily considered hin (1cisions alout a nlew
variety or praLctica is that of th~ fSa-imr's spouse. Roughly to tliird of
farnmrs with sxolses considered thle opinion of their spouses to .b
important. OGcer than spouses, relative i_ortance is shliCn to
opirionrs of a son or daughter (43,3 per cent), the extension officer
(33.3) per cant) a relative or neighbour (21.4 and 16,4 per cnet respectively).

II. Credit Eacilities and Practice

Of the credit facilities available to Daoinica small faxnrrs, seva
re;sonients indicated tiat their first preference v~as for ate co-op.-creit
union. Another five roporued thiir first preference to x'. a ccanarcial
bank and for four farr~ s their preferrTed source of credit is tie ca2iuxoit
association to which the Ielong.

During the past year, 23 an;ai fanmers in Daiinica had taken loans frc~
the available credit source. Of the purposes stated for these loans, the
highest numbier, five tere usol for improving overall farm productions.
Other purposes cited 4a ere for purchased of fertilizer, chemicals and land.

The highest nriter of loPs, (i.e, eight) Twer froma a co-o credit uiion. Six famners ihad loans from their Caircdity Associationz,
five from the Agricultural Levelopm~ent Dank, four from canarcial .bak
and another four frcn a neighbour, friend or relative. Three farmers
said they obtained credit from a irney--l~r er.

IV. 'a1 : n- 7''. ili'.ies jd V -i2 t .ir.t ,

-c.: ,"'- c .r~.t of farmers jave no zstia.te of the .".:...... .. o
nearest ..:....: dpct fr.a their hime :iore than 50 per cnt Li. -;icataed
they .ivad. up to 10 il.s fra.n tdie anearest ...:i: k.t. (.iK. a:.'. moatr 15
..-. c.: of tii sa.:;3 iv:i atn 11 a .nd '. aile2s fr.a ,.a ..earest
a&rXtii'g Ipot 2 -2xVt 310 Xper cento a their hoaxs Ioe than 20 AJilas
froma a nerating 'pot,

r .. j >* .',,. .' ; for i.provin. the : .rx.;-L2, ',. .: e .. tte
proporton ( .. '.5 per cent) of sumai faT.ers in he sarle rntione-i the
for r- 2:i. l ; markettAg co :(.,,' :. .iv, ..J .

Other nrcstic.i offered b.y thI Daininica sample '.ere

ao increase the nu..3cr of -ollection points to reduce the "-istances
3Y.At-7Cn farturs' ho..rel depots;
be -ncrease adk -.:-.': the :au',er of a.cces r ;3:;.., so that
:farrs could :r. .-' "z ..tain-d Ctrcnsport: and
c, of..' better tra'ns)poI:,-2s :y T..ich fc.Iers
could get to matti o'-tl-.. , o

V. Oatavi.cation ChanJs

Infor..~wion sources consultak. :, i small 'ra i .Uck t. car c.rise
the extnsion officer uai:ly (7.07 : cent) o:: a ,':k. rien i (21.7 -, "
cat) 0 A siaeable ~1ro.-crtl.. (21.7 ..C cent) i.:i.-cab... .lat -";r. sough
advice foa one when they an:s S-ce. .witb. technical .'roa.I'.
Ibst farinCrs list' to the c:.. 'i (7o c cent) rather thaa visit. I. ;:..-
estates (35 per cmat) or gojwc.'.- :,f arms (29 C.i: cant) as sources of
information on i, ,)Lov.. f2arraing pract cas.

',il-. ac ,v:ur' as 651 per cent report tUiat they kn=.ow the district
extension officer, 22 per cent indicate that the officer never visit
their farim

s2 kicr-is of todnical ioation Ididac farmers 'ish to obtain frcm
the radio ar-- ::;nily hoa- bo gr., crops, wnai to plant certain crops.
currat prices of farn -iroiuc at the mar aet, hacM' to care animals and.
dinds of 'inac0.tiv1s available.

VI. c a .L2r p L" aro' p3

S10 higjist rproarton cin thoe oi.cncia :ir inr : icatcd they are
e~rars of co-c. eratives (31.7 per uae-t). (Oili 10 ler cent of the sample
long *~c a dcrdnh ,.o.- cd another n: 'ie ;er cent eaci belong to village
councils or an Agricul.tural Society.

VII. Attitudes

Slightly less thian o1ne -thir- ({32.5 pe c.nt) of the Dacinica sarnmle
were of t-._ opinion t1-hat he sinie i:ost important criterion in selecting
a job is ha:; ad noney can be frac. the job. Of pri.ary inportanca
to other rspcndeants SreQ such factors asz personal liking for the job or
Cte eitnt to i-hid" the job 'as ~c ificial to on;'s family (27.5 and
25.0 p~.r cent SaC., 10 er c-nt cansiCar the single most
important factor in Eo .; 17 a j.ob. ix. L. a.. .:.o lrnc- it provides for one
to got ahead.

Sevantemn per cent widsheC their sons to -ursue far iing, as a career.
AJliost 20 per caTt would like, their :on to r.-ir a profession suchi as medicine
or law. h7is reflects an attitude car'anly iound in other strata of the
society. equal! proportions (14.3 per cent) indicated a proferenoe for
their sons to teachers or blue coll-ar orders (skilledL craftsmian
mrdcianics or oth&r tradeZait) i3se jobs are not merely a',na to irave
higher status in the villages but xar also believed to pay better thin

The lr;::?-': -.a<,rt.i.ue., of respondents (62 per cent) world ;1.
their l'c-j' to bece either teachers or nureso. Les.; tLan [ "'1 *.Cr
cent i, .'-: a :r -.- r.. for their 'ar to be in :...,. or la
Nlot a .- 1 smll far~in .hi ;>.:d.nica indicatedd a desire for his.,her .,:v.-
to pursue ;";:r- a as a career

As an i, i:Lctor of a -. : :...- :: : twds ,ri:l .r-. as a carc
the fatirs were asikeCd who, tr-' .ould. consider ,ora iiport,:at a son who
was a l-L .r or ocKtor or aoier W1ho was a agriculturist, A Jistinctively
lar.c ,- :.:,~: ioan (40 per cent) f- ai: .. law or i o:: over >those (30
per cent) d'h -r, r r. i".-,iclt ~ ., Jniother 30 per cent thought the3
professiois wAere i&lly important.

o -..: i".:: i '.nZ:i faers prr..:- 'tions of occupational i "-"'.;,2
in their cawtomaities, they wejre asked to Ilnax the three persons -hey
o->n:,i...^-. ...<,t 9in^.t:il.i:^ l and 'to state th-e occupations of these ,-z.:.;a,

About 40 per cent of the sample felt all thlrec of thie .nost influential
mtAbers of their community were faers, .Another 17.5 per cent of respondents

was of the opinion that a teacher r or prist also exerted a relatively high
degree of influences

ihigh o:-,,:J aspirations for their children were evidvl:-t r 1.j the
samll farm:ers in tie .3 i .ic0. sample. The majority (53 per cent) would
like their chiliC2rn to r ceive a university education mand a further one-
thiei Aish their .r to ccxplete secondary school. In conjunction
with these high .'.".c o..:.l aspirations, the ,n:-..;c.-:ir. aL .i ::u. that
education is the best form of security for their diildren was found in 75
per cant of tlia sample.

A firm attitude tIaz.ds dividing land aong all their children
was also indicab; y ty e raet n'r'.jority (93 per cent) of na1 fsrmers
in Donmiicao $s ; deply pervasive attitude of small holders it has
continuz- co infflumcce a hi'h degree of land fraj-A.-tion aron7 smar7ll

A favourable attitude tm-ards saving scne of their ea=Tniins vwas
reportuc by morc than GO -er ca-it of -tie sa,.lo Of ith various ,ways in
which xoney was szav3;%; a camircial b~n-: vas usi by 30 por cent of
respondents, while almost 2 3 pr cint uto2i; a co-oCmrative and another
10 per cent kept their :monIy at lhauio

1. Far.a Size and Fra:-nbtation

The 120 fara units in the sa-le 7.) group7r as follows:

Fain Size (acres)
1.0 1.99
2.0 2.99
3.0 3.9
4.0 3.0 O



:?r cent of Total


'Tere wers 43 farnms canposea of only one holding (i.e. a single parcel).
About the same nuixler (46 or 33.3 per cent) had tmo -arcels, hiie another
25 farm (20.8 per cent) w.ere :inad up of threa parcels each. Tiher were
six farms with four parcels each.

OQly three of the 1. '0 farers rented out any of their .....:-.
''t -iL farms (30 rpejr cet of the sample) crntaidned nc L.-:..,::l. or
waste 1&T-i arid those )ortions not cultivated wre r.o.rted to .& very
0 sc.i, Hence it can be '.>:. 1i:'.: tihat the sjall fareXrs ar.e iully
u,:iliftr; icatever lai'ds are availa to dh.n, Incremscdi -..::...
ymust mainly t. :. -n:.: .;result fro mxre intensive rather tihal xi ore3
exte'Isive land use.

II, .:,ur0 and Lcatioa of Parcels

The 120 fanPrrs in the sample txTetiher opqerated a total ?.l~' -r.:1I
or holdings,. Roughly one-third of all holdings are occ.CL-.i.. .. freehold.
The other tenure systa i .c-: i~ crr of frequency .ere frily
land (30.P per cent), actual reaital (15,0 -per cent),, share cro.-.3:,.i
(6.4 I er ceit) and ~.-':..Li', on c1 io ..-'A.. 1';. .1 I-i".'3 (.o0 Lper cant). Only
five casas of leasehiolc tenure anid -.;L tinL- on private la'tiLs w~ere recorded.
Among the parcels, number one as found the b~.ole range of tenure systems,
from freeyhold (the bo.irlY. system) through family lands and rental to
Cquatting on private and Jo \...L: .-. .;-cl-.. ., Similarly, the full range of
tenure systems is found as: mn the parcels number tlo, but here fcmiLly
land is thli L.'.'t tnurme systeom

he :viijority of parcels n: .;.r one (i.e. first parcels) is situated
withiin one dile of the farmers,' hao-s a~ nd soa ... per c.nt of first parcel
are within tlree a i.e s Of he," nu mr t~ro \ (i.e, second parcels)
mtore tihan 30 per cnrit are also within three .1.2s of fameirs' hncres.
..i'"il:a_. great r~ajority (70 ,er cent) of thir. parcels asre 'aithiin a
distance of three .miles front a far rs hname.

'he fact that s~all fanrers' holdings are generally within reasonalbk
distances frcm their 'ho.,es ieast t not lead to an underestiation of the severe
"difficulty of access" farmer-s face on account of the ~1-gg'. topography
with which they have to deal.

AImorst 70 perc i~t of the ri.11 fa o-,... ,_ esi e o regarded G
rsycrant c :rL.i r of gr ;ua. l slopes. r aty .r centr
con.l2 or r vcaics hdLi-j to be undulating ad only t a per cnt
war.e of .t:r. ( .iniva that thir p-'arcels a hare -:: stly stc. on

Aof c-to.iiQv to to t Gzl f e.-rs, thir holdi(3ngs r, c) se a a predinantly
of ha/y oilco (54.l ;:,r cant) .

Al-c.... 75 p.r. c:^nt of all farn ...oldings were estimated to receive 0

or rcro inchfa of rain per r,, Za remginn -g 35 per cezit vare in thie
range of 40 to G6o inds c pl- r year.

4: fzarn.,rs (five a :-.t of '.~-3 smle) had their hares on a farm,
parcl i;Zs prac-tic of "v illa .- r.cid." nC ,i ating fa=,is outside
of the village : is typical. "ifly-t. f--Ac ( -3 pr cent) use a wacuination
of road tps. to gt to their hol., o,. 'irty (23 per cent) use only
trials or foo .at. s .3 (1. 2 -: 'tl) iav their :farM.Z along a iotorable

Thae disalc 4 of hol3-=2-;; :raa i :.tain. ind the ty.:.. of transport"
available influnca t- coic 0 .... in .. production systca and how
'mUch of that crop is ,proL1ac. *;'o 3 f- tsh- L. c.i-ica snall famers (41
per cant of thie saiple) -.e near- cs .rc -t is :.or, tJa-in six -AlesS away.
For another 13 (10.0 c-r t) t" ... ::at i o.air to six.: ils away, while
for 34 (20.3 ar c~rt) -th, :a nrt :.rkt is thr-3e Aniiles or less a-way.

III. Tools, Sp -'''-"- .adlinrv and Farm B~uildings

For 100 of -the DXainica small farmers, (33 per cent of the sample),
the inventory of farm tools consist of one to five pieces of hand tools
while another 18 farmrrs (15 per cent) a.- six to 10 pieces.

Sevan farmers owio oea :n C.. : '),"" oae "nr Ir owned a
mxtorisc.-A sprayer *-v a; faor xc a *e:or. Ony 0o fanmier cxmed
ijri:j.1ti.. .....i'. r a-',. (.-. i, ; *'... .) an hi t a'. s a ....t.r;ng

Capital ii]rs.-mnt in f buildings is very i 1'". :;i.'e of the
Dcminica waall ..a rs ,med a st-oreirooa each : e f-r E-,r: had a cattle
pen, six farzers had a pig -g oachd and another hWad a goat an.i sheep
penn, Forty--fivc (37/5 -rj- cent of ih3" sample) of 120 faarmrs
]holCi'-it which ar.e .1.' on freaeiold.

IV. Cr -op '-.__i-r .c.....

.'iav' is a major contributor to tkhe gross daCestic product and
.rC:.;n eri c;ro:Ce earnings of ':E.,Libica.. and i',C all the "~i r' is-aL: 1..:
One hundred end to (05 per cent) of the DoCinica small
cultivate bananas. kAms cxK,-r. with 30 a: cent of the St. Vincent samile,,
The DoAinica small farmer cultivates nrmre long-tern crops than their ,i4 .c in
counterparts. Fifty-two (43.3 per cant) farnars cultivated coconuts, 13
(i. per cent) produced bay and 34 (:'.3 per cent) prr-o .,.-. citrus. (13.3 per cent of the sa~m.le) of 120 farmers 1.: --i .'io'Ot potat'oei
and G9 (80 ier cent) graew ,aZ.i .. "':,~; the point that 9..iLica
maall farmers do not Lwvolv- to tide same ~'Lt in te r':t.o of a
wide rane of short terai crops as does the St. Vincent siall far,:'er.
Eighty-one (34.6 per cant) of -6he 234 holdings in the LDa:inica sa.'ple
contained more than tmo long--term (.:, --i each. Fi' ,v -one parcels
contained toA long-tamn crop each a-nd on another 66 (... .: per cent) of
the 234 parcels one long-term crop x9 as cultivated.

On G3 (28 per cent) of the parcels one or two shor-tern~ crops were
cultivated? on 110 parcels (47.2 per cent) More than two short--term crops
were cultivated. The r rduni-1 number recorded as i. jrLi r ;7 on one m pe:-.
was seven. \s in tlhe St., Vinicent sample, the maexiTmua nriber of short-termn

crops cultivated on ~ny parcel decrsased with distance of holding from the
faTrCc s'' ha.:. vi,:, a -at.uina of Cliffere;it crops for parc:
nutrc-r *o: fivie for uarcol numeri! thLr,:a and four for parc2.el nrvitr four.

-7aa nrst c rly ciltivab. crope Uihe an-all fDcu-urs rd tir
fragjavcy c of .rrenc; in tl sa F0le are as follo-S:
Fanius on wmich 1 .-.-
' .-:u Per

Ta:'-a 77 4

-:'- Potat 13,3

:is 3510 35.3

CcutS 2 43. 3
Cocoa 3 25.0
.-f I'.a"6 136. 7
.Ca5)sava 12 10.0

Gvocadrots 9 32
Mrz 10 15.0

Citrus 7 25 .

PigCto ton 5 5.0
Cerrota 7 5,C
Pigeoni Pas 5 4,2

The crops found -to x the .,; :..YU-r:t cn thle casis of axcea cx.". :ivat:,
are as folloP is

Sa.';.. .
.at.' : .



h ter of


No. 1 (n=i20)
F-,..L.= "; a",-:'.. Order


Number of




o,, 2 (n--77)
Faris '.. ii: Order


orn tdie basis 1." tho eco!i.OLc returns t: the
to be osst iporotant (or %st l.rlc$ on) .- (.

Parcel 'o, 1 (n=. i
o rq1Nte.r of Fazr. 2 2 OtPer

Sweet potatoes

farmer, U e z;roe cxi:,si,;
-*)I on' anid ,'wo aro"

P.rcel .10o 2 (n=77)
: ''e-r of Far-.s Pranr Order







By both standards ba a occupies thze toy p .sition, as it also did on
the basis of fr'quncy of occurrfnce on all far's. Coconuts hold the third
and second positions on the basis of acreago an- el- conoric returns respectively
The data revealed that dashaen is the s.con. ix-portant crop in terms
of acreage cultivatedL but ranked fifth in teras of econa.Cnc returns. Day
shared the third position (on the basis of acreage cultivate- ,d) v.ith coconuts
and also ranks third as far as econanic returns axe concerned.

(ii) Crop Conations

Ang the sampi of farms surveyed banana mas the crop most often grcm
in catbinations. Crop combinations with banana ware reported
N8 tits, '~ile aroids (dasheen and tannia) vwrre reported Gl ti:ns. The
freq-uency of occurrence of other crops in combinations within the
sample is s follow;

Crops Frequency of occureice in
crop caibinaticn
Coconut 25
Yam 20
Cocoa 12
Citrus 11
Coffee 10
Bay 9
Plantain 7
rmangoes 5
Swet potato 5
Lines 5
Cucurbits (cucuner, dcristophene
and putkin 5
Avocado 3
Ca-Nbage 2

.-ii tether tr co f i crop- .. .i ti
in the Dominica :-. ).1. with a i'. -.'y occurr'nc of 30 Thcre was no
report a short tem~r crop is r ll,. in successip cn wit another crop.
4ith -tae Dacainica sell ifp:'nr, ath e C'iasis i:; :re1itly on the cultivation
of tree crc-, ,ifich are L..x:ro,.,. ;E other s.ort-tr re-ops suli as
aroids and y-.- whicl occurred 203 tims in tle crop ucai42ationEs

There are arae. y Cari.taions of trxe crops,) with coconut :'ost -r. .ccily
occurring in i t iese conim actions, .Cci.iL.: by cocoa ii'c. citrus in that ordC3r

Frequency of occurrence
Crop cc-rinantion in sample





iana + aroids
+ coconut
+ bay
" + tree crop cRoi'nations
(citrus', avocado, -r7 1), lines)
S + other root crops.s, (yaiS, sweet
potato; ginger, cassava)
S + cucurbits (christo.pheone and
)id + aroids
+ y'am
* + other root crops
" + l'cyju- (incV.u:i pigeon lpeas)
+ coconut
+ coffee
rLas + nutkeg
" + mangoes
" + cocoa

>cado + citrus and cocoa
S + cocoa aid coffee and breafdruit


Cocsauto + coffee
; + cocoa 3
+ avocado
+ 2~ango 1
+ Ccoo ancd breadLruit 1
I~mes + cocoa
+ coconut 1
Hutatrg + orange eani cinnmUon 1

'Ta Daniiica crop coim-inations contrast imrkilly with those of the
Sto Vincnt siplo ~.. hort-tern- crops such as sweet potato, corn; peanut:
pigeon peas and carrot are not given the sam, emphasis in the Dcrminican
cropping system but instead, with the exception of bananas, tree crops
idoin::ate the crop ca-ibinations.

(iii) kanagerint practices

i .anana and plantain are grow both for hcme use and for sale anid ar
planted year round Sact banana farmers plant the crop mainly during I ay
to July. iTe majority of farmers grow tlese crops in mixi staInds. Th
normal system of planting is in rcs on the flat.

Seventy six of the 102 grTrng nimanas use fertiliazrs and
another 2G farmers use ch-iica] sprays. Io farmer reported iu i-dng uez
of organic manure in his crop production system.,

Iarvestinhg ta les place tuhr lhoghout the year. The highest prices were
reportedly obtained for bananas in h'Vy to July and the lowest prices in
ibovcno-r to January. The price received pattern is the reverse for
plantain. The majority of faraars grC i *irov>: varieties of bananas and
local varieties of plantain.

F.-.iu.y xlabou"v r a i-t-- as userd for nost oz.raV;ic' 5. '"..i. i-t'o
f:., ~i.:- u'.. hirei l1::cr for re .'x ficl.." ains, for .....
,- for am o ,trol ad nine forharvest)ing, Fi.j'-.?-.-. .a',a grOcerf incurred
jofa'il; cofts :.i.:. c.L.:/ .'- '..i' 2.i fruit anmd r for : L I i L fruit
to ..in_ of .

"ore ~ia'% 89 ..-: cent of ithe planbaiin jro.-.rz (39 ou of 4t6) use
fertilizera *on ice ,czrOp, a .:,-.i ::. .oK J.1- -.: use for' bananas
.ix gror'..ers L... octJ .':i;i- "y', for this cro?.

:'s wih a.a1"ias fas nily laoui-r is '..-" .... a.inly L used for all croin.Lj
operations I Hiri. labour was useJ y 10 -, r for land cIcar!i 1- by
six r-, for drain .ij.'i, by four r!r.- ::: for harvestirng Eighteen
groiAers L o.i: ro. i i.-ily costs for transporting their produce to mark et.

Dazcser is growrn by farrrs man is usually planted all year round
with the ..j.':it.-- of it ;1-..,e.-. in'the monU~ts iay to Julyo 'he crop is
nmiinly ,rc ; in ca:cbination tIth othar cro":- 'ie : e-jcJity of farmers
reported I.xc (-' : 'I: ar '- for in,.i use .)-ut sam. fanrlrrs also produce for
the .ri-et. 'e cropa is :y.i:sall..y l,':. l in rows ona the flat. No
attaut is reade by farnx;rs to store this ro '... The majority of farmers
indicated tireir desire to coati:u, .-,*i ich is harvested
virtually all z .1. ....r': :iric:.: are obcine for th crop fr
Agr to Octxobeir and lowest frcai a"ruary to April.

Tiannia is usually .:zite." all year round wiN. Li ipaa& ...-',i ,.
period fran .vi'. yto July.o fhie majority of farm-rs cultivate the crop in
combination with other crops, while a smaller nuter grow the c..rjo. in pure
stand. The cro, is *;":' --- mainly on i;ounds. Production is -i.J-ly for hacie
use0 1..arvr.kti-r takes )lace virtually all the year through, and no
attept is made to store this proctuce. The pattern of market prices is
as for dashoen.

Yas are .grc~.-- by 35 farsr r mainly for has use. Tl e crop is planted
mainlyy i.v -to July in rows on r.-oinds. 9ie majority of farmrs reportedly
stars this ,:- :.: fc-r tii; after harvest, harvesting is largely
fran Tovae-r to J--uary, prices bxing highest foril v -,2 uitil about
hrinstxs anvi l ~;7est in Jan'mrzy,

S,.2e o 4Ltto iS pleyCted fran February to July and harvested mainlyy in
A.i3flgt to Occobar, ost farrs cgOw tI crop i pure stand, ri-:7 .-at
tlhey cai:sid,-r to be im)rovaC varieties, Tha norm is to .gro~.: the crop
zaong "i.", " highestt prices are c.' t:i'., in on- Ib r -to Janaurmy and,.
la-e-st prices in Janumary

Cassava is grcptin by 12 fmr-': in the sample for h..a use as uell as
for scloe. -ine f vrms plant cassav; in pirE- stan. and athe others in crop
caCi)nations. Iost pi-)antings are ons in '.ay to July, with smaller quaxiti.tie
plasnterl :KC various other timCs tCiroirhout the year. The cra) is harvested
1i to 1i2 :n~hs after planting ancd, tir'-. of harvest is also staggered .. :..
througi-out th year. The zricas o:,ainc'. for thie crop -ere even throughout
the year.

A fairly hiigh ,ro .rm' -io of ihe 107 fo:crs .io cul tivate root and
tuiLr crop (vizs 70 pr cnt) ap^y to thLes groadng crops.
lo farmr uses organic -au -., ai l oly ver7 fe7 (throe and tio respectively)
maks use of cdanical a-prays and o dthr ch laicals i-ith these .-crps,

'iln fany.E- all select an.. use planting material from their old
fielcids Fciil.y lablour only is usedi for nrst cultural operations., but
saxe hire-: labour is also ua-ed for lad clearing (30 graOMrs), ..;r.iS .
(26 graers) planting (11 grco-ers) and weed control (22 gra~erz) Few
farmers reported incurring any market costs except for transporting
produce to market (21 farrnrs).

.Co;c;*..t are grCoFn by 52 fanruyrs xyoth for sale and iha us.,, he crop
is planted throughout the yoar. : a-v.:t-in; is also year round, 've
greater nua>cer of- restox dents L':o:L -. r'r-.j LI the crr:;), in: ;:'. : stards.o
Coconuts are generally planted in rows on the: flat. trve:stina tanes
place all *.yvr rorn and price is evsn throughout the year,

Cocoa is gra~I for bot1h iarhtc a.d hae use1. bst '. U::. plant the3
crop in tU ie, .- rici'. .I a to July. The crop is planted in rows on the flat
and is maost fre~lently I. : in li .,. stands. e majority of farmers
.vemre of the opinion that th'.y grrm a local variety of cocoa. The maina
harvesting periodss s ;ovr.:' .er to January. TCi price of cocoa is fairly
even th throughout the year.

iay is an., Jiportant cash crop for 1 far~xrs in the sample, lThe crop
is rrowc in n pure stand as well as in combinations. Planting ins one in
racws on the flat during the rainy .season wih pea i eak planting fran August
to October, H-arvesting takes place during the secornh half of the year,
the peak a-rvecj, period '- ijg Octolxa to D..:,. er. The price remains
fairly esai in any one year,,

Citrus is ()--. for both haoe use and for sale. The crop is :.'t
:.aiinly .:'iL-:: th e r- season, witl peaa plan-tifng frcn i-ay to Julyo Plantin.
is in rcws o. :Coun.s, the crop being gr.o.n mainly in mixda sta-ndso TIhe
main harv?:estig prio: is "oi;-.,.?-t to October, with a small off- -.eason crop
earlier in the year, Prices ar.e hid.i.. .l in February to .,\ .-i an.k l
frca ovemier to Janiua-y.

Coffee is grcm by small farrmiars in Dainica mainly for home.. use.
The crop is pla'i.t::- mainly .:h. i. : "a to July hi rows on the flat. Coffee
is usually gro:Cn in l~:ciod stands. *"'.i harvesting is fran !lovember to
JanutJ y. highest prices are o'.L~.-l. in thle P rioiT 2ayv to July, and.

lac st prices frcTCm N'ovmb-r through h .prii. Opinion is evuly idvide:
aconi'g tCi farmers as to tAicthor thuy gro local or itprov: vanities.

ri ruit is gram by 17 farmrs in the Dainica aTple 'le crop
is xreC'.Ai solely for hlaa Ume ad is plantcs1 all yar ro 0.ud G1i tia flat.
-k plartz h. irrgualrly Zr=.ngJ amd are mosft frequtl .Xct in 1:dx
sta nd -.L ii ha:vcstig ti:;Ces place "'i .e eriol July to Occ-obcr.

ee cT'..v accou-t for necrl' ._cl fo the 13 :oost fq-puentlv grom.'- cro~z
.tin ta-, Xcra iica snain far:r- te-. btc the level of -tednological
input on -3:l crop-s is relatively c,7 O'ily nine of t Ei 70 far-mers who
cultivate : tree crops rporte.i ~ ;ih f-rilizer on any of the crops ad
one repor-t: utiy3 a dchanical L.r: 2 art frc,~ seven fa.iiers rcp.rt...
hiring Iboutr to assist in l cc.ytcrol_ all cultural or.d.ations for tIlse
crops .r l,J' on faily lcbour. As :itz st of tih other crops already
discuss.X ;ixti. costs (fox':ily lab2our ecluyck) wre liiite, to the
traz,-sortation of .rodiuce to t5 ir r t-,,

As a jrotr, vegetables arm relatively uIj-or.-tanit crops amxng siall
fcar rs in L'Dcndnica. Aong the iore important veaStzcles gram are
cucurbits (11 farx.-rs) carrots (sovcn farmero) and tcantoos (six famrers)
Of thle 21 vaho cul-tivat.d on- type or othrC of veOetalle only six
usei frtiliz~r on Uthesc crops aid not a single one reported using organic
-ranures. C:2.1y four ir'.sa. d-nical sprays or dusts of mUy :kind.

V. IUvestoc' i'"'"rpriX.

(i) Cattle

Of the 30 farmsr in tl.e Dcminica sa-mle Vano reared cattle 33 owned
five or less i:~iJals and the raining five fEarnrs had six to 10 animals.
Tiiryt of thlse fama;rs reCorted coming local scrt.b cattle, tmw inmroved
breads of cattle and fiv. f.r;.e'rs Iia. 3oti i.prov"d and-, serub ani~als.

T'? --ci j'T of the erpirTi' 1tc- .t'Ltrc;.: their animals an ved th3D
around frac one spot to the neiaIt as the forq- in one T-r-'t ccrae exhausted,
Five farmers reported tlht that thiky grazed and penned their animals, while
another tree reported vi..' ., .- ? in hidich their animals are housed. One
fa2r.--r arv.-- ia-" his manil ain aiotiher had hs animals C L loose.

Sixi fan~rrs report;. losses of animals over the past year. One farmer
reported that loss mws as a result of disease, another sei ... loss was due to
physical injury, and two other .:.:.:L .iLts reported "Larcney ad other
causest' as thed reason for thn loss e.-::.ri:-ncc..c

(ii) Pigs

Thirty-one farmers in the Dcinica i.;L:. Ir kept pigs. Of these ..'
owned five or less, avi the other twDo -dach owIned ore tian five pigs.
TItAnty-seven far,,ers kept local scru anjials and two kept improved
breeds.. Eleven farrors kept their i.-;s in pens, the others were either
tethered, staked-j-mened or ran a5out loose.

Four farmers ou.ught Ec for thier pigs, Otier .:-:, '-nsc incurred ..'ril;
the past year were:..

'?en construction n.'.' repair 1 .-r v
":'ici- s:bought 3 fare Lrs
.Li:&.:er l -il..r'A'ts 2 farmers

'itee farmers re-Torte- receiving ];twet en $100 and ..0. C each from sale
of pork during ti E past year. WNo weaners were sold.

Ciii) ~ocxus

Thirty-tv-o farmn~-s in.-the Daianica sample reared goats, Twenty-six
of those each ia, j five goat or less cnd the remaining six had 'nors than
five goats each, Tr.1ty-three fanrers tethered. their animls, seven used
a ce.inion of tethering and penning; an2d to farm-re hapd their aniaials
running loose. Te typ's of expiture reported as having baii incurred
Curing the past year ,nre .xpan construction and repairs (one farmer)
nedicines (t-m farxrs) -*ad ,iineral suople~ents (one farmer) .

Jo furL-r reported utilising ~..ti-,L from hiis goats. either for hoam usa
or sale. Seven farnrs slaughtarea 0niimlls for hc~n use. i slaughtering for sale of rvatat only. One far.r reported receiving less
than ,:100 for tha sale of -mat. io econcaic use was nade of the hides.

(iv) Sheep

IVanty-t'o farmers in the sa'Ele reared siiheep. r-a;.ty farmers owned
five or lcss animals and tt cv.n. :or: than five. Seventeen farmirs cmed
local scrub shiee? The ana r. '.:.-. .was similar to that for goats.

Five far-rxs report"'c lons.-s i1 the past yar. Three farmers report-d
that the cause was due to the attack of stray dcs,

TIr report-~d spending omney on the purchase of feed, and one
each reported spending on medicines, mineral suppleant and veterinary fees.
TIe only farmer reporting sale of mat during the past year realised
less than $100 from the venture.

( (v) 4abbits ,

Five farmers in the Dimriica sa::ple reared ralkits. T'I farners had
five or less aniials and the remaining three had more tian five. All five

farmers reported that their rabits .4ro local breds, Two farmers reporter-
that the meat roUcOLC- wza for hama usia only. C~o fo e fa r reported, losses
in the past year but could not state. ,.- :j.ri,--.r.7 tha cause of the losses.

(vi) .-u. i-r-y

One farmr in the sample :. .t less than 25 broilers. Fifty-five farmers
kept crmaon fola.s, 11 farr;,rs kept their fo1ls in alns, all otiters riing
loose. Thirt. f-.ur. farmers had less t1tan 12 birds .ac-ai, and anolier 21
had less than J0 birds eadh.

FifteeEn far iers reported s. '.li7, money on the purchase of feed. Other
expenditure incurred were for-

Pen construction and repairs
Purchase of .'L-licines

2 fan~ers
2 farmers

Only two farmers reported selling their rwat and eggs, the others consume
these products entirely in the hore.

(vii) Draught animals

Six farnmrs reported owning a donkey each. No direct expaises were
reported as having Lben incurred on the maintenance of these animals.

(viii) (onstraints to livestodc production

Ihe table below gives a breakdo~'wn of what respondents considered are
the factors which hinder greater pr1riuction of livestock

Factors constraining
greater production Cattl. Pigs coats h- Poultry
Cost f, d 0 I/ j 13 420
aailability of fo- .3 2 1 5
Pr adial alrc -.-v 2 3 9 3 12
Land suitability 15 4 14
1. ... --L _,--I

,As far as cattle production is concerned the factor considered by tha
respondents in the Dmwinica sample to be the most constraining is land
suitability. Availability of feed is considered a constraint by fiva farur:r
Praedial laro-ny is not considered a serious constraint, as is the case
in St. Vincant.

Cost of feod is thie mot iportait constraint to the increased production
of poultry, sheep and goats; follcx]ed by land suitability, praedial larciny
and availability of feed in that order Land suitability and cost of feed
are the iajor factors constrai:-ing pi production.

VI Correlates of Farmi Incame

As indicated in the discussion of thei St. Vincent sample, farm incca.m
s rs trea the dependent variable of the Dominica sengle and relation-
ships hetwen farm inccr-e arnd 13 sets of indepndent- variables were tested
by means of the Chi Square tecniqiae. It was found thm-t among Doninica
small fanrmes, tliere is no relationship between farm incce and~
1. sex of farce operator
2. nuier of .iparols y' fanzi
3. the erson cn-sltae ini farm plamning decisions whetherr
-thie bea spouse.: tensionn officer or scre otihr person)
6. index of orgcanistion nssership
tenumiure pa:c-*r.
t distance of first parcel fromn far.-2ers ilrE, or
7, a-mual raiifa-l.

The data also indicate: that fas~rors xwit im-re than five dependents
are more likely to have higlor incamis than those with less tman five
de:pendnts. Similarly, far. rs r io -?iere less than 40 years old tend to
have proportionately higher incemz-2s that those 40 years old and over.

"'. r Size In thae .1i d -, it '''as very f i' ^ l. that ... s.. ;.
op- r-i.-.T more than, three across had significantly h:i'Tiger ino;es t-a
-". :.. frar,3 in thi one to thrLce acre L<: t z:,'

2, Iuoll ..i.e i,--..-, ..-2 i rCoTs are RLOst ofte ,a f ko. iU.n .os..:-l.
of f:'iv; t:o Uni.- ":;-ra'.,s o i. ,i-cl- 1 he F.:. ;a operator) tan in those
:households wih- l ss or mora trs. This 'ay :: t.stati.vrly piri.;.
on ,i7fc grounds that licr' 1 ouse olds (ie. norra tian 10 rs)
consuxi at a hi-her rateL and tUierea y ,.;y,,:ass fciTr in cxase Cxi n'the olter
ha'd ~aaillr households (less than five m .ters) ca-not provide.
-...;i.. i.:c 1:;i,.l' lour to realise full econarmic potential of the farm
unit. It is an area of considerablde interest r: uirinr! .th,.ir research
ani;d ore ..~ i ilU date to determiLac the influence of household size
ard co-. oiti.c on farm incoi.L

3. aj ,' crop o -"', Bananas, coconuts, bay, citrus or dashoen as
major far:ra cro, .. did not have si any t influence in in -;:r.,,ik.
or t.' r,,-xssin',: the level of far:i income. HIever 1evr when sweet potato
is found as the .f&ain crop, tcr' is a i-i. .i.'ic int positive influence
on total farm inca~x 'his "'"'.-... i the *:,: .c.Lt:. to that found in
St. ViAcent., In thie latter is.lad street C-;':.-, is crTil widely as an.
export crop ilhereas in' -,. .1L tLis crop is m:ul~ less icidely gro Jm
and is intendc solely for the local .ark.t,

4o Information Source T:i3 consultation of the extension officer as
a source of tadchical information is verwy :.i;n:1.-'.- related to
fiid.rcV.-.. farm incos. -u-.sin wio consulted tension officers r':
found to .have 1C1..ii inches than tnose twho consultCd cm,: oth.r siourcc.

VIo Frxmarrs' ressed Crm.ity

Since agricultural -dvCrlo::cnt t in ai at an overall provedd standard
of living for the forcing oa.iunity, the needs identified by
th/ olve~s as deserving specific ,attLbion must be borne in mind as hit.!gral
to a coaprei~nsivc~ rural d vl~o: -,r-t rateJgy. Information was obtained in
regard to con...u.ity noa~s generally, aid also for t/he agricultural sector
in particular, l as sugzsed3 solutions for r.*eting these neads.

Arrong s-iall famers, tie ne~ax idaetific (42 per c0it) vmas that for :Tore aLn Letter roa-ds. Other0 ca~mnity naeds
strongly falf were for i;-pr-ovmant n1 electricity and nater supplies, 'ore
than one fifth of thUe sa;pla icintifiLY tih no5ec. for i-oroved hospital
and helath care, anmd ar th'iant 10 per cent wrea concerned thL.t th-ere
should e i:JprCvad public c~cmeniity facilities and :'xre schools. '1he
solutions were seen as mainly the responsibility of the gowvannt but: at
least a rminoritu in Da-inica (atl:ost 10 par cent) indicate that sc~e form
of ccnunity action might also play a part in solving their nIeeds.

It was surprising to find tUhat in spite of lax- returns from their
agricultural endeavours, only a fe.- sall farmer explicitly indicated
thalt ti"y eprienc pressing agricultural needs. 'Eirtee-n pr cent
of the s~.tal faii s vrlJdd liz to see iimprove% miar:kting system, 15
per ceat are z ci- :1.i. about more ieq:Ailoraont opportuniiUes andi about sevfn
per cnt, indicate tie na2l for :iiprovAed credit facilities. Less Itian two
per cent !.-ld li.;e z:ora la~d for facing aMd less than on'per cent wanted
agricultural inputs to >e ,o-re easily available.

3.6. ST. LUCIA


1. Background Factors

(i) Sex, Age and Ethnic Origin

The mean age of the farm operators in St. Lucia was 47 years and the
mode was slightly higher (48). Almost 77 (76.7%) per cent of farmers are of
African origin and close to 18 (17.5%) per cent are mixed,. Less than five
per cent are East Indies.

(ii) Literacy, Marital Status and Household Sizes

The majority of farmers (60.8 per cent) can read and write but nore
than one third of the sample (34.2 per cent) could neither read nor write,
indicating a relatively sizeable proportion to be illiterate. While almost
twelve (11.7 per cent) had no formal schooling, the majority (70 per cent)
had completed primary school. About three per cent had reached secondary
schooling and beyond.

A majority (64.2 per cent) of farmers were either married or lived
in common law unions. A relatively high proportion (26.7 per cent) is single.
The mean household size is eight despite the higher proportion which is
single. The mean number of dependents for each farm operator is six. Almost
50 per cent (47.5) of the St. Lucia sample had between 6 and 15 dependents.,

(iii) Stability

The length of residence of the St. Lucia farmers as indicated by the
number of years they lived in the locality at the time of the survey is in
the majority of cases (59.2 percent) more than 20 and as many as 50 years.
The modal length of residence is 25.5 years.

(iv) Occupation

The majority (70.8 per cent) of the St. Lucia sample is occupied only
in farming. Some farmers (S.3 per cent) are also occupied in non-agricultural
commercial enterprises, such as shop-keeping, and a few (5.8 per cent) are
engaged in the trades usually carpentry and masonry. A smaller proportion
(3.3 per cent) also participates in the retailing of agricultural produce
or other agriculture-related corrrrce. Fewer still are employed as civil
service low level manual or clerical workers and as unskilled labourers.

(v) Family Income

Broad indicators of combined sources of family earnings and expenses
were used as rough estimates of annual income. These revealed th:t the
majority (69.2 per cent) of the St. Lucia sample have incomes of nmre than
$5,000 (E,C.) per annum with almost 30 per cent (27.5) earning more than
$10,000 per annum. Not only do the St. Lucia farmers operate larger
acreages (up to 15 ac.), but also as a sample "hand-picked" by extension
officers, they can be expected to be better-off and 'more successful'
This was reinforced by their being nore likely to be chosen by officers to
whcm they are better known

Anong family mibers contributing to household income- daughters
accounted for 20.0 per cent of the sample, whereas sons contributed to
18.3 per cent of the households and spouses 16.9 per cent.

(vi) Nutrition

The food item consumed by the highest proportion of the St. Lucia
sample is root crops (96.4 per cent). More than 90 per cent (93.6) of the
sample indicated they ate fruits several times a week. The other staple
foods of the St. Lucia sample are milk, fish, vegetables and meat. In
general terms this indicates a relatively satisfactory nutritional status
of the farmers sampled.

-'.L:.- most root crops consumed were hbne grown (86.7 per cent) other
frequently consired foods such as milk and fish were purchased by large
proportions of the scnple, eg 70 per cent and 94.,2 per cent respectively.
Vegetables were home grown by almost 42 per cent (41.7) of the cs..-pl.c.

Given the bias of the St. Lucia sample,, it is inadvisable to conclude
that St. Lucia farmers in general have such a high nutritional intake
apparently implied in the 'frequent consumption of milk, fish, vegetables
and eat. Reference to specific nutritional surveys should be consulted
before arriving at a more representative view.,

II, Farm{Oriented Factors

(i) Time Spent and Labour Used on the Farm

During the cropping season, almost 50 per cent (47) of the St. Lucia
sample spend more than eight hours a day on the farm. More than 50 per cent
also indicated they spend up to six hours a day. In the out of crop season
only 15 per cent spend more than eight hours a day on the farm and about
40 per cent (38) spend up to four hours -:ij; on the farm. At least 60 per
cent of farmers in the sample indicate .they receive labour assistance from
one or more family members on the farm Thirty (30) per cent of the sample
also used shared labour.

(ii) Use of Farm Records

Only one fifth of the sample stated that they kept any farm records
at all Of those who do not keep records, the reasons given included, the
inability to read or write (23.2 per cent) not considering keeping records
to be necessary (16.8 per cent) or because it was thought to be too time
consuming (14.7 per cent) What is noticeable is that no one specific type
of reason was frequently responsible for the low level of record keeping
among farmers. This suggests a general underlying lack of awareness about
the value and need of keeping and using farm records.

(iii) Innovativeness

The response of fan:rrs in the St. Lucia sample to new or improved
agricultural practices was in general, quite low. Less than 20 per cent
(18.3) in St. Lucia said they were "familiar" with a new variety of
agricultural practice, The proportion using a new variety or practice was
13.3 per cent of the sample. With regard to the time over which a new or
improved variety/practice was implemented, one farmer in the sample stated
this was beirn done for more tihn five years, less than 10 per cent (8.3)
had been using a new variety/practice for less than two years.

Almost all farmers (97.2 per cent) growing bananas use fertiliseros =
that crop. But in contrast 49 per cent use chemical sprays and 19.8 per cent
use other agricultural chemicals. For vegetables, plantain, root and tuber
crops, 55.8, 50.0 and 48.2 per cent respectively indicate they used
fertilizers. Other than 36.5 per cent who use chemical sprays for vegetables,
the use of other chemicals or organic manure was not practised in regard
to any other crops.

(iv) Persons Consulted by Farmrs

Of the various persons consulted in farm planning decisions, 54 per
cent of the St. Lucia sample cited the extension officer. These data are
not surprising when it is recalled that the St. Lucia sample was hand picked
by extension cffi:ers.

Relatively millerr proportions of the sample indicated that they
consulted their spouses (15 per cent), relatives (3.4 per cent) or neighbours
(4.2 per cent). Less than 10 per cent (9.2) stated that they consult no
one about farm planning.

Decisions about a new variety or practice were arrived at with the
assistance of opinions primarily from spouses. Nearly 70 (68,9) per cent
cited spouses as opinion sources consulted for these kinds of decision, and
67.0 per cent consulted the extension officer, whereas 36.7 per ecunt con-
sulted a son or c('.ucl]t~r, Of relatively less importance are opinions of
a relative or neighbour. Thirty-four (34) per cent of the sample indicated
they consulted a relative and 30.8 per cent a neighbour.

III. Credit Facilities and Practices

In the year preceding the survey,/ five farmers had secured loans
from camnercial banks.

IV. Marketing Facilities and Practices

Only 13 3 per cent of farmers said they were located less than five
miles from the nearest marketing depot, Almost 50 per cent (43.3) are
located between five and 10 miles from the nearest depot. Noticeably, more
than one-third of the sample are as many as 11 to 20 miles from the nearest
marketing depot. Five farmers were as far as 20 miles or more from the
nearest depot.

Farrers suggestions for improving the marketing systems, included the
following: ,
(a) designation and identification of more collection points;-
(b) provision of additional and improved access roads to facilitate
adequate movement of farm produce to marketing outlets
(c) better transport methods to enable increased volume and efficiency
in getting produce quicker and safer to markets;
(d) the formation and effective functioning of marketing c,-peratives.

V. Canmunication Chennels Usid

Almost 90 pEr cent (0883) of the farC rsC in St, Lucia stated that
they consulted the extension officer when they have "technical farming problems".
A relatively small proportion (4.2 per cent) indicated that they sought
advice frman no cne", and 2.5 per cent said they do so from a neighbour.

Among sources consulted for information on improved farming practices,
the highest proportion of the St. Lucia sample indicated that they listen
to the radio (87.5 per cent) More farmers reported visiting a neighbour's
farm (70.5 per cent) than a government farm (37.5 per cent) or a large estate
(35.5 per cent) in order to secure information on improved practices.

As can be expected, given the basis on which the extension officers
participated in selecting the sample, 82.5 per cent claimed they knew their
district extension officer and almost as many (81.7 per cent) indicated they
were visited by the officer.

Of the kinds of technical information requested from radio programiros,
the largest proportion of the sample (75.0 per cent) indicated interest in
information on how to grow crops: others required information on whn
plant (53.3 per cent), how to care animals (36.7 per cent), times for
spraying (35.0 per cent) or kinds of incentives available to farmers
(27.5 per cent).

VI. Iembership in Groups

Group membership was only acknowledged by a relatively small number of
the St. Lucia sample. Among those belonging to any groups, the highest
proportion mentioned the village council (34.2 per cent) with almost as many
being members of a church group (33.3 per cent) Other than these two kinds
of groups, 17.5 per cent indicated they were members of a co-operative.

VII. Attitudes

Almost 50 per cent (48,3) of the St. Lucia farmers indicated that the
single most important factor to be oonsider-e in choosing a job was
whether. or not it provided "good money". The criterion of how b-eneficial"
the job was to their family was cited by 28.3 per cent of the sample. A
far smaller proportion of fanners referred to "good status" (9.2 per cent)
or "personal liking" of the job (5,0 per cent) as the most iniortant criterion
in their view.

The sample respondents were asked to identify what jobs they prefer
for their sons and daughters. Almost 50 per cent (45.9) stated they wished
their sons to choose farming rather than medicine, law or a teaching jobi
The second largest choice (22.9 per cent) was made for their sons to became
blue collar workers (such skilled tradesmen as mechanics, masons or plumbers).
The generally accepted high status professions of medicine and law were
chosen as the most preferred job for their sons by 12.8 per cent of the,
St. Lucia sample. Same 11 per cent indicated they had no preference.

More than 50 per cent (53.8) of parents in the sample would like their
daughters to become teachers or nurses. The next most preferred job for
daughters was that of white collar clerical occupations. Of the 106 fanir
in the sample with girl children, only three would like to see their
daughters as farmers.

As a direct indicator of the respondents' attitude to agriculture as
a career, they were asked whom they would consider more important a son
who was a lawyer or a doctor or one who was an agriculturist. Forty -six
per cent considered the agriculturist more important, whereas 27 per cent
thought law or medicine was more important and a similar 27 per cent
considered them equally important.

The great majority of farmers in the sample held education in high
esteem. Almost 70 per cent (69.2) thought education was the best security
in life for their offspring.

More than 60 per cent (62.5) wanted their offspring to receive a
university education. The next largest proportion of the sample (22.5 p-r cent)
wanted their offspring to go through secondary school and 12.5 per cent
were concerned that their offspring go as far as they can reach::

The attitude of respondents to land inheritance was indicated by the
high proportion (74.2 per cent) who held the view that they would divide
their land arrong all their children rather than leave it all to one child.

A little more than 70 per cent (70.9) indicated a positive attitude
toward saving some of their earnings. The majority (61.7 per cent) of those
who saved, did so through a commercial bank, with only five persons indicating
they saved through a co-operative and another five reported saving their
money at home,


I. Farm Size and Fragimntation

The 120 sa-ll farmers in the St. Lucia sample were grouped as follov-,

Farm size (acres) Number of Farms Per cent
1.0 .L99 10 0.3
2.0 2 2,9? 7 5.8
3.0 3.99 8 6.7
4.0 4.199 7 5.8
5.0 9 99 55 45.8
10.0 15.00 33 27,5
Total 120 100.0

There is an average of less than two parcels per farm in the St, Lucia
sample. Of the 120 farms in the sample 42 or 35 per. cent consisted of only
one parcel, 46 (3' per cent) each contained two parcels, 29 (i.e. 24 per cent)
were each r- .- up of three parcels, and the remaining three farms consisted
of four parcels each.

Seventy-six per cent of all parcels were fully utilised, i.e. they
contained no waste land On 28 parcels there were uncultivated land of up
to acre per parcel and an equal number of parcels, each contained between
one half and one acre of unutilised land.

II. Tenure and Location of Parcels

In the St. Lucia sample 112 of all parcels (48 per cent) are occupied
freehold. The other tenure systems, in descending order of frequency are
family land (29.2 per cent) annual rented (11.2 per cent), leashold (4,7 per
cent) squatting on government lands (3.4 per cent) and squatting on private
lands (1.7 per cent). Only one case of share cropping was recorded.

Eighty-three (69.2 per cent) of the first parcels are situated less than
one mile from the fanaers" home and 38 (48,7 per cent) of the second parcels
and 12 (37.5 per cent) of the third parcels are less than one mile away.

One hundred and ninety-seven (85 per cent) of the total number of
parcels in the sample are less than three miles away from the farmers' homes.
Only 36 parcels are four or more miles distance from the farmer's home.

Thirty-nine parcels (16.7 per cent) in the sample were classified by
respondents as mostly flat. The remainder were roughly evenly distributed
among the topography classifications mostly steep (28 per cent), gradual
slopes (29 per cent) and undulating (27 per cent).

The majority (6 .8 per cent) of the- holdings in the sample consisted
of heavy soils. Only 43 (18.5 per cent) e-re classified as being light
and another 35 (15.0 per cent) consisted of both light and heavy soils.

One hundred and eight-=,four (79.0per cent) of the total number of farm
parcels were estimated to receive 60 or more inches of rain per year.
Another 45 received more than 40 inches and the remaining four less than
40 inches annually.

Only 13 famrrs (10.8 per cent of the sarmle) had their home on a
farm parcel. The practice of village residence and operating farms outside
of the village is typical. One fifth of the farm parcels are reached via
rotorable road and a similar proportion by footpath. About half the parcels
are reached via a combination of motorable and non-motorable roads.

For the majority of parcels the nearest market was more than six miles
away. ore than three quarters of the parcels in the sample are further than
four miles fran the nearest market.

III. Tools, Equipment, Machinery and Farm Buildings

For 56 (46.7 per cent) of the St. Lucia small farmers the inventcry'
of farm tools consisted of six to ten pieces of hand tools; 35 (29 2 per cent)
owned one to five pieces while another 29 (24.1 per cent) owned 11 to 20
pieces. Forty-.four (36.7 per cent) owned one krapsack sprayer each, nine
others owned tbo each, one farmer owned three and another owned four. One
fanner owned a notorised sprayer and another owned a tractor. Five farmers
owned irrigation lines and another owned irrigation lines as well as pump.

Nineteen farmers invested in farm buildings, and/or storerooms. Three
farmers owned one cattle pen each; nine farmers each owned a poultry pen.
17 farmers owned a pig pen, a piece and four others owned one sheep/goat pen

Wo Cp Enterprises

(i) Crops grown by the Flnmall Farmer

Banana is the most important cash crop to the St, Lucia small farmer.
The crop is grown by 106 farmers, i.e. 88 ,3 per cent of the total sample.

The St. Lucia small farmer, places some emphasis on tree crops .in his
cropping system. Long term crops were grown on 21.6 parcels (92.7 per cent)
of the sample. One hundred farmers (83.3 per cent) cultivated coconuts-
79 (65.8 per cent) grow breadfruit; 68 (56,7 per cent) grow citrus. C ca
avocado, nutmeg and coffee are important crops in the St. Lucia small farm
cropping enterprise.

Of the 233 parcels in the St. Lucia sample, short term crops were
grown on 175 holdings (75.1 per cent). On 70 of the number one parcels more
than two short term crops were grown and 101 of the first parcels contained
long term crops. The maximum number of short term crops cultivated on one
holding was nine, The number of short term crops grown on a holding decreased
with distance of holding from the farmer's home vizo a maximum of nine for
parcels one and two, seven for parcel three, and four for parcel four,

The most commonly
frequency of occurrence

cultivated crops among the small farmers and thc'-'
in the sample are as follows,


Frequency of

Per cent
56 7

Sweet potato
Hot peppers


Per cent


Parcels 1 and 2 are the most important parcels (there are only 32
third parcels and three fourth parcels in the sample) and the data are
discussed in relation to those two parcels.

For these two parcels the crops found to be the most important on the
basis of area cultivated are as follows:

Sweet potato

Rank order of Crops

Parcel fbo. 1(n-120)
13o. of farms Rank Order
72 1
26 2
5 3
2 5
2 5
2 5
1 7.5
1 7.5

Parcel No,2 (n=78)
No. of farms Rank Order
37 1
17 2

Considered on the basis of the economic returns to the farmer, the
crops considered to Lb most important (or most valuable) on parcels one and
two are: