Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction and objective

Title: Final report of the USAID/CARDI Small Farm Multiple Cropping Systems Research Project #538-0015
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055297/00001
 Material Information
Title: Final report of the USAID/CARDI Small Farm Multiple Cropping Systems Research Project #538-0015
Physical Description: Book
Publisher: CARDI
Subject: Caribbean   ( lcsh )
Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Caribbean
Antigua and Barbuda
British Virgin Islands
Cayman Islands
Costa Rica
Dominican Republic
El Salvador
French Guiana
Netherlands Antilles
Puerto Rico
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Trinidad and Tobago
Turks and Caicos
United States Virgin Islands
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055297
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 15794131

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page
        Preface 1
        Preface 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction and objective
        Page A
        Page A 1
        Page A 2
        Page A 3
        Page A 4
        Page A 5
        Page A 6
        Page A 7
        Page A 8
        Page A 9
        Page A 10
        Page A 11
        Page B
        Page B 1
        Page B 2
        Page B 3
        Page B 4
        Page B 5
        Page B 6
        Page B 7
Full Text







final report


- 82

Vol. I

CARDI, University Campus, St. Aupstine, Trinidad, WJ. July, 1983.





CARDI is a regional organization serving
twelve Member States of the Caribbean
Community. It provides for the research
and development needs of the agricultural
sector in the region as identified in
national plans and policies.

This is an output of the CARDI/USAID Project 538-0015.





August 1978 November 1982


The CARDI/USAID Small Farms Multiple Cropping Systems Research
Project (538-0015) was a four year project beginning September
1, 1978 and ending November 30, 1982. This document represents
the final report of the project. It is presented in four

Volume I Introduction, highlights and list of
project personnel.

Volume II Summary of Baseline Surveys of 8
project countries.

Volume III Farm Characterisation profiles and
specialised surveys.

Volume IV Constraints identified, Back-up research,
on-farm tests, Interventions, Training
activities and Bibliography.

The Baseline Surveys give an agro-socio-economic overview of small
farming in the project countries. Sub-samples of farmers in each
country were used for case studies. Because of the complexity of
the systems in the Caribbean the number of case studies is large.
A series of specialised surveys has been conducted to sugment or
supplement the information necessary to identify the major
constraints country-wise and systems-wise. Back up research and
on farm tests have been conducted in all countries and interventions
tested and validated on farmers fields. This phase of testing and
validation is ongoing at present.

The training activities of the project were targeted to up-grade
staff of the Institute, the Ministries of Agriculture and other
research and/or development bodies.

Various reports and publications have been generated within the
project. In addition, relevant literature was collected and
circulated. The bibliography gives details of all publications.
These publications are available under separate cover.

It is hoped that this report would prove valuable to Planners,
researchers and other related groups/agencies.

Project Leader

Director, Research and Development.



1. Introduction and Objectives

1.2.0 Highlights

2. Staffing.



1.1 The Grant Agreement for the CARDI/USAID "Small Farm
Multiple Cropping Systems Research Project" (538-0015) was signed
on August-31, 1978. The Project was of four years duration, but
was extended to November 1978. It comprised "an agricultural
research programme to improve small holder farming systems in the
member countries served by CARDI, through the development of
management and production-recommendations for dissemination to
small farmers by extension agents and (for) financing by local credit
institutions...."The project will permit CARDI to engage in a sustained
and integrated effort to determine the characteristics and prevailing
conditions of small farm systems in order to adapt innovations in
farming techniques to meet the specific needs of small farmers in
CARDI member countries" The central features of the project are the
emphasis on analysis of the farmers' current systems and on farm-based
adaptive research.

1.2 The major funding agency was the Agency for International
Development of the United States of America (USAID), the European
Development Fund (EDF) provided CARDI with vehicles in the project
countries and both heavy and light equipment for Field Station facilities.
The Government's of the participating countries each assigned a paid
full-time agricultural officer as a counterpart to the Project's
Country Team. CARDI made available 60 PPY's of professional support
from its Core Staff, and provided sub-professional and administrative
support for the project. Memoranda of Agreement were signed between
CARDI and the governments as a necessary pre-requisite to start-up of
the project.

1.3 The project covered, initially, six islands in the Eastern

Caribbean Grenada, St. Vincent, St. Lucia, Dominica, Montserrat and
Antigua. Later, St. Kitts/Nevis was included. Thisis a political


unit comprising two islands, and because of the differences in
their agriculture, were treated separately.

The target groups were farmers with holdings of 1-5 acres,

except in St. Lucia where (at Government's request) the upper limit
was increased to 15 acres.

1.4 Initially, 120 farmers from the target group in each island

were interviewed in an agro-socio-economic Baseline Survey.
Subsequently at least 25 farmers in each island were selected for
detailed characterisationn" over a period of a year by weekly visits.
The purpose of this was to develop an understanding of their farming
systems and to identify the major constraints to production and
productivity. Existing improved technologies would be used to remove
these constraints, and improved technologies would be developed where
appropriate. These technologies would be tested and validated on-farm
prior to any wider recommendations to farmers.

1.5 The ultimate goal of the project is to increase the value of
agricultural production in the less developed countries (LDC's) of
the Eastern Caribbean, through the improvement of small farm profita-
bility and productivity and to improve farm-family nutrition and
generate employment. Accomplishment of this goal will require actions
beyond the immediate scope of this project. Research results will
have to be validated and disseminated via the extension services,
credit programmes adjusted or developed, marketing channels improved
or developed and so on. Farmers will have to modify their current
systems and take decisions on the apportionment of their resources,
in conformity with their needs and aspirations. It is recognized
therefore that the projects cannot accomplish all these objectives
within the time span of the project, and that linkages to other
projects, services and institutions will be essential.

The data from the Baseline Surveys and from the characterisation
is an important body of information that should prove useful to other
institutions and agencies, particularly those concerned with planning.

1.6 "The expected outputs of this activity include:

(a) The establishment of cooperative Country/CARDI small
farmer systems research programmes in six countries.

(b) The better understanding of smallholder farming systems,
resources and objectives through the creation of a
socio-economic information base, obtained through
surveys and on-farm research.

(c) The design of at least 12 significantly improved small
holder farming systems based on the integration of
crop and livestock-specific proven technology with
empirically based economic analysis that take into

account profitability, cash flow, nutritional contri-
bution and labour utilisation characteristics.

(d) The transmittal of smallholder characteristics and
improved farming systems recommendations to extension
officers, credit officers, planners, and other
agricultural officials through publications, presenta-
tions and field day activities"

The development of recommendations for improved cropping

systems based on farm-based research and validation, is a major
objective of the project. These must be capable of adoption by
farmers, and of integration into their farming systems in conformity
with farmers' objectives. They must also be capable of extension
to a wider farming community. Thus it is recognized that the

desirability of an improved system or practice is not determined by
maKimisation of yield or of production, but by its optimisation of
farmer resource and overall farm income.

1.7 The Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute
(CARDI) is an autonomous Regional Organisation serving twelve (12)
member states of the Caribbean Community. It provides for the
research and development needs of the agricultural sector in the
region as identified in national plans and policies.

The objectives of the institute are given in Article 3 of
the Agreement establishing CARDI and is reproduced here.



1. The objects of the Institute shall be:

(a) to provide for the research and development needs of
the agriculture of the Region as identified in
national plans and policies;

(b) to provide an appropriate research and development
service to the agricultural sector of Member States;

(c) to provide and extend the application of new
technologies in production, processing, storage and
distribution of agricultural products of Member


(d) to pursue for specified periods long-term research
in pertinent areas;

(e) to provide for the co-ordination and integration of
the research and development efforts of Member States
where this is possible and desirable;

(f) to undertake teaching functions normally at the post-
graduate level, limited to the development of the
relevant research by any Member State;

(g) to seek to achieve the optimum decentralisation of

2. For the purpose of this Article the Institute may take such
action as may be necessary or expedient for the attainment of its
objects and the performance of its functions.

1.8 This CARDI/USAID Project was extremely relevant to CARDI's

objectives and development.

National plans and policies of the respective Government
have taken increasing cognizance of the importance of the small
farmer and of their potential. Some three-quarters of farm holdings
in the Eastern Caribbean fall in the 1-5 acre size group.

The requirement for project staff in all the Eastern
Caribbean countries within the project, increased CARDI physical
presence within the Region and contributed to decentralisation.
Some core staff have been stationed in these countries.

The generation of data from the Baseline Surveys and from
the characterisation, provides a factual basis for Governments
and other agencies in planning development programmes.

The objectives of improved farmer resource utilisation,
improved nutrition, increased incomes and employment conforms
with a major goal of all governments.

The training component of the project has contributed
substantially to the capability of CARDI and of Ministries of
Agriculture to undertake Farming Systems Research and Development


1.2.0 Highlights

1-2.1 The main outputs of the CARDI/USAID Project 538-0015 are:-

(a) The establishment of eight (8) FSR country teams in the
Eastern Caribbean leading to the formation of a country
network of experienced staff that can generate appropriate
technology, provide a flow of information and activity
to the target group. They can serve also as a mechanism
to transfer and adapt the technology generated.

(b) A sound infrastructure for development has emerged.

(c) The national agricultural bodies have accepted the project
methodology as relevant to their agricultural development.

(d) The projects goals and objectives are relevant to the goals
and objectives of the national governments and of the
Institute and as such relevant to their national development.

(e) Promising research results have been achieved with major
cropping systems both on station and on farm. Many of these
have led to improvement in farmers systems.

(f) Several promising systems are ready for further testing and
validation. CARDI has completed the testing of 17 systems
on 66 farms.

(g) 2,156 person days of training have been provided to agricultural
staff in the region and 20 Professionals of CARDI have benefitted
from observation/orientation visits to research centres and
international Institutions.

(h) CARDI has been able to establish formal linkages with the
Asian Vegetable Research and Development Centre (AVRDC),
the Centro Agronomo Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza
(CATIE), the Interamerican Institute for Cooperation in
Agriculture (IICA), the Windwards Islands Banana Research
and Development Centre (WINBAN) in respect of cooperation
in agricultural research and development. Informal linkages
exist with several other Institutions including members
of the CGIAR group.

(i) The project has generated 90 publications on different
aspect of farming systems. Twenty-eight (28) relevant
reports/reprints have been circulated. A total of 17,700
copies have been sent to CARDI personnel, Ministries of
Agriculture, funding agencies and other interested persons
or Institutions.

(j) Reconnaissance and baseline surveys of 960 farmers in 8
countries were undertaken. In addition, a total of 160
case studies have been concluded. Based on these experiences
CARDI with the assistance of UWI and the Bureau of Census
(BUCEN) has now developed and tested successfully a package
for data collection and analysis for small farm systems.
The activities have led to a better understanding of the
Agro-socio-economic conditions of the small farmer as well
as the on farm and extra farm "environment".

(k) CARDI contracted out763 man days of consultancy in support
of its Farming systems programme.

(1) Many of the project reports and recommendations have already
been used in the countries in project development and for
planning purposes. Some of the consultancy reports are being
used for teaching purposes at the University of the West
Indies (Department of Soils) and other Institutions. Primary
teck-packs are in use by the same farmers and farmers
groups in the region.

(m) Major constraints to improvement have been identified for
the various systems in all participating countries.

(n) In St. Vincent, an improved teck-pack for peanut production
was developed. Yields on farmers' holdings per acre averaged
2000 lbs. The best yield under farmer conditions using this
new package has been 3,350 lb. Prior to use of this package
the average yield on farmers' plot was 800 Ibs per acre.
This package was developed in 1978/79. Subsequently this
package has undergone refinement through a peanut commodity
development project funded by the European Development Fund.

(o) (i) In Antigua 2 insecticidal application of Decis gave
effective control of Heliothis sp. on dwarf pigeon peas
varieties PQ 240 and ICPL 151. The increase in dry grain
yields were 140% and 180%

(ii) In Antigua, mulching in the dry season with guinea
grass increased the yields of egg plant, cabbages, squash
and sweet pepper, and lowered the cost of production since
no weeding was required: Mulched egg plant received no
weeding (2 in unmulched), there was a 250% increase in number
of fruits and a 375% increase in yield/acre.

In squash, the number of fruits increased by 400% and 1600%
increase in yield/acre.

In cabbages, there was a 200% increase in yields/acre.

These large increases in no. of fruits, and total yields are
as a result of almost total crop losses in unmulched fields
and good crop growth and production in mulched fields.

(p) (i) In St. Kitts/Nevis, application of fertilizer to cotton,
increased the yield by 43%.

(ii) In Nevis, intercropping cotton with single row peanut,
double row peanut, maize and cowpea increased the base income
of EC$1998 (pure cotton) by 55%, 41%, 25% and 15% respectively.
The income from the intercrops improved the farm cash flow
as it was available after 3-4 months of planting. It also
lessened the demands on his labour as weed control was s i:
significantly improved.

(q) (i) In St. Lucia, introduction of improved "pathogen-free LpvA&
planting material" into the farmers'system resulted in a 100%
increase both in Net yield and gross revenue. This improved
system gave a rate of return of 332%.

(ii) In St. Lucia, introduction of food legumes into the
farmers' system provided him and his family with home-grown
legumes (protein) that is capable of meeting his protein
needs on a year round basis.


(r) In Grenada, a teck-pack for commercial egg plant production
was tested which yielded under farmers' condition 22,896 Ibs/
acre of which 17,909 Ibs were marketable. Where all elements
of the package were not utilised yields fell to 12,000 Ibs/acre.
Farmers are now using this package to produce for the export
market. The production target is 10,000 Ibs weekly with the
majority of the crop being exported.

(s) With some project funds CARDI's Integrated pest management
system has released parasites and predators against the major
pests in all countries.





Dr. Samsundar Parasram, B.Sc.,M.Sc. (Delhi)
Ph.D. (IARI) Entomologist

Dr. Ralph Phelps, B.Sc.A, M.S.A.
(British Columbia) Ph.D. (Wisconsin)
Plant Pathologist

Mr. Calixte George, B.Sc. (Agri.)
(Lond.-UWI), M.Agr.Sc. (R'dg)

Mrs Patricia Prosser

Project Co-ordinator;
(up to August, 1981)

Dep. Project Co-ordinator
(up to August 1981)

Project Leader
(from September 1981)

Administrative Assistant


Dr. Laxman Singh, B.Sc., M.Sc.
Ph.D. (Illinois). Systems Agronomist

Dr. John Rammerton, B.Sc.Agri. (R'dg)
Ph.D. (Wales) Weed Scientist

Mr. Noel Kirton, B.So. Agri. M.Sc. Agri.
(McGiZZ) Agronomist

Technical Co-ordinator
(Leeward Islands)
(from September 1981)

Technical Co-ordinator
'(Windward Islands)
from September, 1981

Technical Co-ordinator
(Windward Islands)
(from May 1982)




Dr. Care Walter, D.I.C.T.A., M.Sc. (UWI)
Ph.D. (Adelaide) Agronomist

Mr. Lennox Daisley, B.Sc. (Agri.)
UWI) Agronomist

Mr. Vincent Barclay, B.So.(Agri.)'
(UWI) Agronomist

Mr. Leo Nicholas, B.Sc.(Agri.) (UWI)

Mr. Daryl Roberts

Mr. Vincent Belle, Dip. Agri. (ECIAF)

Country Team Leader,.
Sept. 1979 Dec, 1981

Country Team Leader
(from November 1981)

Technical Officer
(June 1980 July 1980)

Technical Officer
(from November 1980)

: Technical Officer
;(October 1980 September 1982)

: Technical Officer
Government Counterpart
(January 1980)

St. Kitts

Dr. Laxman Singh, B.Sc., Agri. M.Sc.,,
Ph.D. (Illinois) Systems Agronomist

Ms Jennifer Lowery, B.Sc., M.Sc. (UWI)

Mr. Austin Farrier, Dip. Agri. (ECIAF)

Mr. Charles Williams, Dip. Agri. (J.S.A.)

Ms. Jennifer Lowery, B.Sc., M.Sc.(UWI)

Mr. Samuel Powell, Dip. Agri. (ECIAF)

SCountry Team Leader
(November 1980 March 1982)

:Country Team Leader
(from April 1982)

STechnical Officer
(from October 1980)

Technical Officer
(Government Counterpart)

:Country Team Leader

: Technical Officer
Part-time July, 1980-January 1981.
Full-time Feb. 1981-November 1982


Nevis cont'd

Mr. kelvin Swanston

Mr. Paul Flemning

Ms Cecelia Smithen

Ms. Evelyn Bartlett

:Technical Officer
(Government Counterpart)
Part-time April 1980-Nov. 1982

Field Assistant
August 1981 April 1982 on
training course until Dec. 1982

: Field Assistant
February 1982 April 1982 and
September-November 1982 (On
training course April-September

: Secretary (Part-time)
February 1982 November 1982


Mr. Jasmeed Adam, B.Sc.


Mr. Claude Gerald. B.Sc. Agric. (McGill)
Animal Scientist

Mr. Marcus Fitter, B.Sc., M.Sc., Agric.
(UWI) Agronomist

Mr. Eustace Farrel, Dip. Agric. (ECIAF)

: Country Team Leader
(June 1979 March 1982)

: Country Team Leader
(August 1979 October 1982)

:Technical Officer
(September 1980 March 1982)

STechnical Officer
(Government Counterpart)
(November 1979 December 1981)


Mr. Leo Nicholas, B.Sc.Agric. (UWI)

SCountry Team Leader
(March 1979 October 1980)

Mr. Herman Adams,

B.Sc.. M.Sc.,

SCountry Team Leader
(from November 1980)

Mr. Gregory Robin, B.Sc. Biochemist

Ms. Ismanie Royer, B.Sc. Agrio.

: Technical Officer
(from June 1981)

: Technical Officer
(December 1980 April 1982)

Technical Officer
(from January 1981)

Field Assistant
(April 1982 -.June 1982)

:Technical Officer
(June 1979 November 1980)

St. Lucia
Mr. Calixte George, B.Sc... (Lond.-UWI)
M. Agri.Sc. (R dg) Agronomist

Mr. Ronald Pilgrim, B.Sc.(UWI)

Mr. Arthur James, Dip. Agric. (Florida
A & M University) D.M.S. (Eng.)

Mr. Burnet Sealy, Dip. Agric. (J.S.A.)

Mr. Gregory Avrilz Dip. Agric. (Union)

SCountry Team Leader
(February 1979 August 1981)

Country Team Leader
(from September 1981)
Technical Officer
(from June 1979 August 1981)

STechnical Officer
(from October 1979)

STechnical Officer
(Government Counterpart)
(from July 1979)

STechnical Officer
from October 1981)

St. Vincent

Mr. Noel Kirton, B.Sc., Agric., M.Sc.
(McGill) Agronomist

Mr. Glenroy Browne. B.Sc., Agric. (UWI)

Mr. Clairmont Cordice

Mr. Norbert Ferris

Country Team Leader
(from July 1979)

Technical Officer
(from October 1980)

: Technical Officer
(Government Counterpart)
(from July 1979)

:Technical Officer
(from July 1979 August 1980)


Dominica cont'd

Mr. Earle George

Mr. Kidd Thomas

Mr. Kerwin Ferreira


AFMr. Kenneth Buckmire, B.Sc. (Lond)
M.I. Biol. Entomologist

Mr. Reynold Benjamin, Dip. Agric. (ECIAF)
Dip. Mass Comm. (UWI)

Mr. Sherman Weekes, B.Sc. Agric. (UWI)

Mr. David Rennie

Mr. Golden Julien

Mr. Frank Robertson

: Country Team Leader
(from July 1979)

: Technical Officer
(from November 1979

: Technical Officer
(from September 1981)

STechnical Officer
(from May 1980 March 1981)

Technical Officer
(Government Counterpart)
(from November 1979 May 1981)

: Technical Officer
(Government Counterpart)
(from October 1981 January 1982)


Mr. Ashraf Ali, B.Sc. (Agric.) UWI

Mr. Richard Carew, B.Sc., M.Sc.,

Mr. Ghiasudeen Mohammed, B.Sc.,
M.Sc., Agric. (UWI)

Dr. Vasantha Narendran, B.Soc. Sc.
(Malaya), M.Soc. Sc. (Malaya),
M.A. (Cornell) Ph.D. (Cornell)

Ms Glen Barker, B.Sc.

Mr. John Cropper,B.Sc. Agric.,
M.Sc.,Agric. (UWI)

Ms JoAnn Bergasse

Ms Joan Sanchez, B.Sc. (UWI)

Dr. W.L. Small Ph.D. (Guelph)

; Agricultural Economist
(from March 1979 October 1981)

: Agricultural Economist
(from September 1981)

: Agricultural Economist

: Economic Anthropologist
(from October 1980)

SCommunications .Specialist
(from July 1980 August 1981)
: Agricultural Economist
(from November 1978 March 1980)

: Information Specialist
S(from December 1978 March 1980)
SData Manager
(from January 1982)

Biological Scientist
(from August 1979 April 1981)

Mr. Roger Francis, B.Sc. Agric.

Mr. Krishendath Maharaj, B.Sc.,
Econ. M. Sc.

Ir. Jim Morris. B.Sc., (UWI)

SData Monitor
(from January 1982)

: Systems Analyst
(from November 1981)

SAnalytical Chemist


Mr. Frank Soodein
Mr. Stephen Nathaniel
Mr. Anthony Goberdhan
Ms. Savitri Ramcharitar
Ms Electra Alexis

Research Assistant
Research Assistant
Research Assistant
Research Assistant


Prof. Bert Krantz, Emeritus Professor,:
Soil Science, University of California
Davis, U.S.A.


Mr. Julio Chang, Research Associate Data Management
University of Florida

Dr. Keith Archibald, Animal Scientist,: Animal Production Systems
Dept. of Livestock Science, UWI

Prof. Nazeer Ahmad, Prof.of Soil Soil Survey
Science, Faculty of Agriculture, UWI

Morrilton, Arkansas, USA : Animal Production Systems

E. Ospina
G. Perkins
J. DeBoer
H. Fitzhugh
D. Newton

Dr. Theodore Ferguson, Senior Lecturer: Root Crop Agronomy
Dept. of Crop Science, UWI

Graham Taylors Computer Specialist, : Data Analysis
Computer Centre., UWI


Dr. Rangit Singh, Lecturer, Dept. of Animal Production Systems
Agricultural Economics & Farm
Mana gement, UWI

Mr. J. Percy,Agricultural Engineer Agricultural Engineering
Ministry of Agriculture, Lands &

Dr. Virgilio Carangal : Vegetable Crops
International Rice Research Institute
Los Banos

Dr. Pascal Osuji, Animal Scientist :Animal Production Systems
CARDI, St. Augustine, Trinidad

Raul Moreno, Plant Pathologist :Farming Systems
CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica

Luis Navarro, Economist : Farming Systems
CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica

Jeff Rosen : Systems Analysis
US Dept. of Commerce
Bureau of the Census,
Washington, DC USA

Carol Weber
aro D e ere : Data Gathering and Management
US Dept. of Commerce
International Statistical Programmes Centre
Bureau of the Census, Washington DC, USA

Miguel Cuevas : Data Gathering and Management
US Dept. of Commerce
International Statistical Programmes Centre
Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC, USA

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