• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Abstract
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 Background information
 Objectives
 Research methodology
 Results: Environment and resou...
 Results : Ndian cropping syste...
 Crop agronomy and utilization
 Conclusions and recommendation...






Title: Farming systems survey of Ndian Division, South West Province, Republic of Cameroon
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055295/00001
 Material Information
Title: Farming systems survey of Ndian Division, South West Province, Republic of Cameroon
Physical Description: iv, 46 leaves : ill., map ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Almy, Susan Whitin, 1946-
Besong, M. T
Publisher: Testing & Liaison Unit, IRA-Ekona
Place of Publication: Buea SWP Cameroon
Publication Date: [1988?]
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Cameroon -- Ndian Division   ( lcsh )
Agricultural surveys -- Cameroon -- Ndian Division   ( lcsh )
Food crops -- Cameroon -- Ndian Division   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: principal researchers, Susan W. Almy and Manfred T. Besong.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "Farming Systems Programme, Cereals Programme, National Cereals Research and Extension Programme".
General Note: "IRA/IITA/USAID".
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055295
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002933904
notis - APG5530
oclc - 56315699

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Abstract
        Page i
    Foreword
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Background information
        Page 1
    Objectives
        Page 2
    Research methodology
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Results: Environment and resources
        Page 5
        Ndian division
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
        Agro-ecological zoning
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
        The farming household
            Page 11
        Land
            Page 12
            Page 13
        Labour
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
        Cash flow and input use
            Page 18
            Page 19
        Extension
            Page 20
            Page 21
        Livestock
            Page 22
        Food markets
            Page 23
            Page 24
        Perceptions of farming
            Page 25
    Results : Ndian cropping systems
        Page 25
        Food-crop field selection and management
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
        Food-crop field design and crop associations
            Page 28
            Page 29
    Crop agronomy and utilization
        Page 30
        Maize
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
        Cassava
            Page 33
        Cocoyams
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
        Taro
            Page 37
        Plantains and bananas
            Page 38
            Page 39
        Yams
            Page 40
        Groundnuts
            Page 41
        Egusi melon
            Page 42
            Page 43
        Other crops
            Page 44
    Conclusions and recommendations
        Page 44
        Zones
            Page 44
        Management and investment
            Page 45
        Crops
            Page 46
Full Text
l 1 L(&


73. Oc9
















FARMING SYSTEMS SURVEY
OF NDIAN DIVISION


SOUTH WEST
REPUBLIC 0


PROVINCE
F CAMEROON


Testing & Liaison Unit
Farming Systems Programme
Cereals Programme


National Cereals Research and Extension Programme


IRA-Ekona
PMB 25, Buea
SWP Cameroon
IRA/IITA/USAID















1988 Farming Systems Survey of Ndian Division, South West Province

Abstract

Background: In order to help IRA researchers on and off station direct their
work more towards the potentials and needs of food-crop farmers in the South
West Province, the TLU at Ekona undertook a series of farming systems surveys
from 1986 to 1988.

Objectives: To provide useful information to IRA breeders and agronomists, to
MINAGRI extension workers and planners, and to the TLU for its on-farm trial
program.

Methods: Preliminary analysis of Ndian Division soils, climate and demogra-
phic data was followed by a formal survey of 54 farmers in 11 villages of the
most populated ecozones; it was coupled with qualitative description of one to
two fields per village. Statistical and qualitative results were combined to
produce a descriptive report based on differences by ecozone.

Results and Discussion: Economic activity is concentrated on trade and fish-
ing. Agricultural enclaves of importance are found around Ekondo Titi Town
and in scattered villages practicing dry-season farming on the alluvial soils
of the interior rivers. Marketing in the Division is the most limited in the
Province (outside Akwaya), and only the Ekondo Titi area contributes signifi-
cantly to local or external urban markets.

The Ekondo Titi zone's cassava, egusi melon seed and some yams are traded
to Kumba and beyond, as well as to fishermen and Nigeria. However, other food
crops are imported for local consumption. IRA varieties are just beginning to
make an impact on cassava production. Entomological research is needed to
assist with egusi and maize, as post-emergent damage is severe. Rapid multi-
plication might increase yam production, but the economics both of its produc-
tion and cross-border markets need more study.

The alluvial farming of Mundemba zone is productive but seasonal and limi-
ted in scope. The interior soils are extremely poor, although the forest taro
varieties flourish there. The alluvial soils can only be used when the rivers
are low, from October or November to March. While cocoyams and plantains
remain throughout the rainy season, any increased rains (as in 1988) destroy
the harvest. Specialties are high-value dry-season maize, okro and other
vegetables; but not enough long-cycle, staple crops are produced in the in-
terior farms to support a larger exploitation of the dry-season niche. Food
is imported to the zone during most of the year.

Rumpi Hills residents concentrate on education and migration, and often
maintain cocoa farms in Meme's Kumba Corridor. The principal agricultural
advantage is the yellow tetraploidd) cocoyam, which is highly productive in
this zone. However, the market for this crop has not been developed outside
the zone, where most people do not even know of its existence. Local sur-
pluses are often unutilized. The zone's many plantain and yam variants could
also be of interest to the breeding collections.

































Foreword


This report is written to be used by many types of peo-
ple. Those with interest in a particular crop or crop
should scan sections D.I, D.2, E.1 and E.2 (environ-
ment, cropping systems and field management) as well as
the crop itself in section F. Administrators with lit-
tle time may want to start with the recommendations in
section G and with sections A, B, D.1 and D.2. Social
scientists will be more interested in Sections C-D.















TABLE OF CONTENTS


A. Background information . . . .


B. Objectives . . . . .

C. Research Methodology . . . .


D. Results: Environment and Resources . .
1. Ndian Division . . . .......
2. Agro-ecological Zoning . . ...
3. The Farming Household . . .
4. Land . . . . .....* *
5. Labour . . . ..........
6. Cash Flow and Input Use . . .
7. Extension . . . .
8. Livestock . . . .
9. Food Markets . . . . .
10. Perceptions of Farming . . .

E. Results: Ndian Cropping Systems . . .
1. Food-Crop Field Selection and Management .
2. Food-Crop Field Design and Crop Associations .


F. Crop Agronomy and Utilization . . . .
1. Maize . . . .
Importance (30); Ecozones (31); Associations (31);
(31); Calendar (31); Varieties (31); Field
Processing and marketing (32); Storage (32)
2. Cassava . . . . .
Importance (33); Ecozones (33); Associations (33);
(33); Calendar (33); Varieties (34); Field
Processing and marketing (34); Storage (34)
3. Cocoyams . . . . . .
Importance (34); Ecozones (35); Associations (35);
(35); Calendar (35); Varieties (35); Field
Processing and marketing (36); Storage (36)
4. Taro . . . . .........
Importance (37); Ecozones (37); Associations (37);
(37); Calendar (37); Varieties (37); Field
Processing and marketing (38); Storage (38)
5. Plantains and Bananas . . . .
Importance (38); Ecozones (38); Associations (38);
(39); Calendar (39); Varieties (39); Field
Processing and marketing (40); Storage (40)
6. Yams . . . . . .
Importance (40); Ecozones (40); Associations (40);
(40); Calendar (40); Varieties (41); Field
Processing and marketing (41); Storage (41)
7. Groundnuts . . . . . .
Importance (41); Ecozones (42); Associations (42);


Planting methods
Problems (32);

. 33
Planting methods
Problems (34);

. . 34
Planting methods
Problems (36);

S . 37
Planting methods
Problems (37);

. . 38
Planting methods
Problems (39);

. 40
Planting methods
Problems (41);

. 41
Planting methods


. . .


*
*


*


j .


( f f

















(42); Calendar (42); Varieties (42); Field Problems (42); Marketing
(42); Storage (42)
9. Egusi melon . . . . . 42
Importance (42); Ecozones (43); Associations (43); Planting methods
(43); Calendar (43); Varieties (43); Field Problems (43); Marketing
(43); Storage (44)
10. Other crops . . . . .. . . 44

G. Conclusions and Recommendations . . .. . . 44
1. Zones . . . . . . 44
2. Management and investment . ... .. . . 45
3. Crops . . .. ... . . . 46





TABLES

1: Average Soil Characteristics on Farmers' Food-crop Fields at Survey Sites
in Ndian Division, 1988 . . ..... ........ 9
2: Demographic Data Varying by Zone . .... . . 12
3: General Characteristics of Ndian Fields by Zone . .... . 13
4: Hours of Work Contributed by Each Demographic Grouping per Day (Busy
Season) by Zone ....... .. . . . 15
5: Labour Associated with Husband's & Wife's Activities ...... 17
6: Average Household Crop Sales and Other Income Sources, by Zone ..... .19
7: Extension Contacts, by Zone . . ..... . . 21
8: Livestock Ownership, by Zone . . . . . 23
9: Market Distances, Transport and Prices, by.Zone .... . . 24
10: Fallowing, Clearing and Burning Practices (Food Fields) . .. 27
11: Crop Associations . . .. * .............. 29




CHARTS

1: Monthly Rainfall Variations in Boa (Bamusso) and Lobe (Ekondo Titi) 7
2: Intercropping Patterns . . . .. . 29





MAP

Ndian Division . . . . .














1988 FARMING SYSTEMS SURVEY OF NDIAN DIVISION, SOUTH WEST PROVINCE

TESTING & LIAISON UNIT, IRA-EKONA



Principal Researchers: Susan W. Almy and Manfred T. Besong





A. Background information:

The Testing & Liaison Unit (TLU) at Ekona is charged with determining the
utility of the technology developed by the Institute of Agronomic Research
(IRA) for food-crop farmers in the South West and Littoral Provinces; and with
bridging the gaps between IRA researchers on the one hand, and farmers and
extension agents on the other. These two provinces are a root-crop and plan-
tain region, in which cereals play a relatively minor role. Therefore the
Ekona TLU has been charged with addressing the problems of the entire system,
although with an emphasis on maize, the predominant cereal.

Until the TLU began work in this area, cereals breeders and agronomists
operating from Nkolbisson had to extrapolate from conditions in the Centre-
South to decide what to try in the coastal lowlands. Information on other
food crops was somewhat more available, because*Ekona plantains and root crops
researchers have access to local farmers, but their principal contacts natu-
rally tend o come from the Ekona subzone of Fako Division. Statistics on
provincial ;nd divisional production and sales became available with the 1988
publication of the Ministry of Agriculture's Agricultural Census of 1984, but
this provides no diagnostic information and also cannot address the variety of
ecological and socio-economic systems to be found inside the province. A de-
scription of food-crop farmers and farms was imperative for the TLU's work,
and important for input to IRA work on-station.

Limited by resources, the Ekona TLU decided to start in Fako Division
(South West Province) in 1986, and to take on one more division each year. The


--------------------------------------------------------------
Acknowledgements: The survey team consisted of Jato Johnson of MINAGRI
(Ndian), Barnabas Akumbo and George Donnah of MINAGRI (Manyu), Augustine
Igwacho and Anna Ngundu of the TLU-Ekona. Station technical support was pro-
vided by IRA-Ekona personnel, including Tsegazeab Woldetatios, C. Fri Poubom
N. and Mboussi A. Messia of the TLU; Martin Tchuanyo, Jerome Ambe Tumanteh and
Joseph Wutoh of Root Crops; and Patrick Kofi of Plantains. Special thanks go
to Jean Zambo and Frederic Tchuenteu of Soils for soils identification and
analysis. George Gamze provided secretarial and drafting assistance.


TLU IRA-Ekona p.1











Meme Division survey was carried out in October-November 1987, and data col-
lection for the Manyu and Ndian surveys was conducted jointly in April-May
198B. A full provincial report will follow the release of the divisional
reports by mid-1989.



B. Objectives:

1) to provide information on cropping systems and cultivation practices of
principal food crops to guide on-farm and on-station agronomy and variety
trials for the Division;

2) to provide information to the breeders (maize, cocoyam, cassava) on exis-
ting varieties, cropping systems, treatment in production and post-harvest,
field and storage problems and preferences;

3) to establish contact with the Ministry of Agriculture extension service and
with interested farmers, in preparation for on-farm trials and training;

4) to collect information of interest to the Divisional and Provincial Delega-
tions of the Ministry of Agriculture, to aid in their work.



C. Research Methodology:

This section is written for those with a particular interest in survey me-
thodology or in the validity of this survey. Others should skip to the next
section.

Secondary data were collected to map soils, altitudes, rainfall, roads,
villages and towns in Ndian Division, and supplemented by a tour on road and
foot in the company of agricultural extension staff. These data were used to
delineate six potentially different agro-ecological zones. Two were then
omitted. One, Northern Mundemba, is sparsely populated and already under
study by the Korup National Forest Park Project, and the lack of any road
meant adding an extra week onto the survey if it was to be included at all.
The vast area of eastern Bamusso, Isangele and Idabato Sub-Divisions consists
of small islands, rivers and swamp, and is reported to be almost entirely
fishing communities that trade fish for agricultural goods. A small section
of Meme's Kumba Corridor zone was discovered to protrude into Ndian only after
the survey. The Kumba Corridor and Korup zones make up an estimated 20% of
the total Ndian farming population, and are not considered in the totals re-
ported for the Division.

The preliminary data collection induced some small modifications in the
original questionnaire as applied in Fako Division and revised for Meme, in
the role of palms and field types. However, the final questionnaire is very
close in form and method of administration to the ones used in Fako and Meme.

The data quality is not as good as for Meme. Firstly, the survey had to be


TLU IRA-Ekona p.2











Meme Division survey was carried out in October-November 1987, and data col-
lection for the Manyu and Ndian surveys was conducted jointly in April-May
198B. A full provincial report will follow the release of the divisional
reports by mid-1989.



B. Objectives:

1) to provide information on cropping systems and cultivation practices of
principal food crops to guide on-farm and on-station agronomy and variety
trials for the Division;

2) to provide information to the breeders (maize, cocoyam, cassava) on exis-
ting varieties, cropping systems, treatment in production and post-harvest,
field and storage problems and preferences;

3) to establish contact with the Ministry of Agriculture extension service and
with interested farmers, in preparation for on-farm trials and training;

4) to collect information of interest to the Divisional and Provincial Delega-
tions of the Ministry of Agriculture, to aid in their work.



C. Research Methodology:

This section is written for those with a particular interest in survey me-
thodology or in the validity of this survey. Others should skip to the next
section.

Secondary data were collected to map soils, altitudes, rainfall, roads,
villages and towns in Ndian Division, and supplemented by a tour on road and
foot in the company of agricultural extension staff. These data were used to
delineate six potentially different agro-ecological zones. Two were then
omitted. One, Northern Mundemba, is sparsely populated and already under
study by the Korup National Forest Park Project, and the lack of any road
meant adding an extra week onto the survey if it was to be included at all.
The vast area of eastern Bamusso, Isangele and Idabato Sub-Divisions consists
of small islands, rivers and swamp, and is reported to be almost entirely
fishing communities that trade fish for agricultural goods. A small section
of Meme's Kumba Corridor zone was discovered to protrude into Ndian only after
the survey. The Kumba Corridor and Korup zones make up an estimated 20% of
the total Ndian farming population, and are not considered in the totals re-
ported for the Division.

The preliminary data collection induced some small modifications in the
original questionnaire as applied in Fako Division and revised for Meme, in
the role of palms and field types. However, the final questionnaire is very
close in form and method of administration to the ones used in Fako and Meme.

The data quality is not as good as for Meme. Firstly, the survey had to be


TLU IRA-Ekona p.2













mounted more quickly and for a shorter time than anticipated, due to other TLU
commitments. Although the training was not scanted, the survey team was fre-
quently over-tired and the evening review of completed questionnaires was not
as good as it might have been. In order to compensate, during analysis, answ-
ers to dubious variables were compared among team members, and sometimes one
interviewer's answers to a particular set of questions was eliminated from
analysis.

The final instrument is eight pages long and takes an experienced enume-
rator an hour to an hour and a half to administer, depending on the farmer's
understanding and the complexity of his/her crops. It covers all food and
cash crops, their cropping system, land use and fallow, and for food crops,
agronomic methods, field losses and harvests, type and source of inputs, input
needs, storage, processing and marketing methods and difficulties, labour and
cash bottlenecks and solutions, extension contacts, and demographic data. The
enumerators were IRA and Ministry of Agriculture technicians from Manyu and
Ndian. The two surveys were combined to make the full provincial survey avai-
lable as early as possible for potential areal development plans.

Sampling was stratified by eco-zone and randomized within villages. In
each of the four accessible zones, two to three villages were selected accor-
ding to population size. Later reclassification of zones left one zone of
five villages and two of three each. Villages were selected to cover the
geographical range of the zone and the variety of village sizes. Local exten-
sion agents did the sampling, following instructions to start at one end of
the village or town quarter and select every tenth house, or its neighbor if
the tenth had no food-crop farmer working at least half-time. In most places,
this procedure was followed. Three villages had not been notified ahead of
time, and farmers were selected from those who remained in the village or who
could be pursued to nearby fields; unfortunately, two of these cases of un-
known bias came from the three-village Mundemba zone.

54 farm households in 11 villages were interviewed in Ndian. Although a
Population Census was carried out in 1987, the results will not be released
for several years. In order to estimate the total population of farming house-
holds per zone, we worked from the Agricultural Census estimates of number of
farmers per Division, less 10% (since the Census includes very small part-time
farmers in urban or formal employment). We used the Nominal Rolls to total
the number of tax-payers in all the villages of each zone, factored in the
percentage of non-farmers encountered in each zone during the sampling', and
estimated the percentage of all Ndian Division farmers in each zone. All
results reported for Ndian as a whole are weighted by the estimated size of
farming population in each zone relative to the zonal sample. That is, the
answers of a single Mundemba farmer count less in the Ndian total than those
of a single Ekondo Titi farmer. Also, Ndian results exclude Korup, the Kumba
Corridor section, and the few island farmers of the swamps.

Attempts were made to interview the farming couple together, and, failing


1 And an estimate, derived from Meme, that approximately 67% of house-
holds in the divisional capital were engaged in farming.


TLU IRA-Ekona p.3











this, the woman, since she is the primary food-crop farmer. This was suc-
cessful, although at times the men.'were not present when needed for cash-crop
information. 68% of the respondents were women alone, and 5% were men alone.
Individual respondents were continually reminded to answer for their spouses'
concerns as well. Polygamy is not common in Ndian. We defined the "house-
hold" which we interviewed as the core group that both worked fields together
and shared a house, whether a couple or a man and two wives and a mother or a
widowed woman with grandchildren. The man was still included if he did not
contribute to the farm but lived in the house.

While the interviewers were administering the survey questionnaire in five
farmers' homes, the team leader visited one to two fields picked as typical by
the local extension agent, together with the latter and the farmer. If there
was no extension agent, she chose a farmer and went out with her and her
friends. Crop association patterns were described, densities measured, soil
taken for analysis, and the cropping and fallow history of the field,
clearing, land preparation, planting, weeding and harvesting sequence descri-
bed. Pests and diseases were described and often sampled; as part of the
Ekona breeding effort for cocoyams, petri dish samples of root rot on Xan-
thosoma and Colocasia specimens were taken. Farmer and agent were also asked
about local marketing, transport, access to inputs, and whether particular
cultural practices noted were common to the area. Usually several other
fields and fallows were described in brief en route to the chosen field.

We needed to approximate. production and land area for purposes of weighing
the relative importance of different crops and cropping patterns. South West
farmers have no conception of land area, and it was impossible to follow the
Census procedures (visiting every farm to measure it). In the Meme Survey, a
proxy was chosen for land area based on the number of man-days required to
weed a field in.the first weeding after planting. The team leader measured
sample fields and compared with weeding time, controlling for field type, and
the measure correlated well enough for use. Unfortunately, in both Manyu and
Ndian the weeding time correlated better with the state of health of the far-
mer than to any measure verifiable in the questionnaire. Very approximate
measures have been created using weeding time, but they are not reliable.

Area per crop under the normal intercropping situation was estimated by a
simplification of the 1984 Agricultural Census formula2, in which major* crops
were assigned weights of 1 and minor crops of .1, all crop weights in a field
were added to create a field weight, and the crop area was taken as size es-


a Direction Nationale du Recensement Agricole, Minist)re de l'Agricul-
ture. 1983. 1984 Agricultural Census (methodology). Yaounde. Offset.

3 "Major" crops are those which a farmer cites as occupying the field
without prompting. "Minor" crops are those which she remembers when asked if
there are any small other crops inside, or which she specifies as "just a few
stems". Two interviewers distorted these definitions, one insisting to the
farmer that only one crop be identified as the major crop, and the other trea-
ting all crops as major. All their interviews were eliminated for the major/-
minor crop calculations and anything based on them.


TLU IRA-Ekona p.4











timate times crop weight divided by field weight.


Production was measured by self-report of the farmers of the previous
year's harvests. Units were the volumes carried out of the field or filled at
home: baskets, standard market basins and tins, hand-trucks, mokutas (jute
bags used for cocoa bean sales) and 20-10-10 50kg fertilizer bags. Baskets
and non-standard.basins were equated to one of the other measures by the far-
mer. Experimentation with dried grain and truck measurements led us to make
an equation of one fertilizer bag to 2 tins, 1.43 -basins, .39 of-a mokuta
(worn, stretched type) and .17 of -a hand-truck.- Finally, volumetric units
appropriate to each-crop were weighed in the market to arrive at approximate
production figures. (The Agricultural Census of 1984 followed a similar pro-
cedure but weighed the units in the village and took reports of harvested
quantities three times in the year.)

Although data on production and proxy data on land area has been col-
lected and is being reported, they should be regarded as estimates only, of
less accuracy than those provided by the Ministry of Agriculture censuses
begun in 1984. The Census has concentrated large staff and technical resour-
ces on these two questions, whereas the survey reported here is focused pri-
marily on opportunities and constraints, both agronomic and socio-economic,
rather than quantification of present production. The production data is
considered to be fairly reliable.

All statistics provided in the text refer to the questionnaire data, .unless
otherwise indicated. The descriptive material from the field visit sample was
used to interpret the numbers rather than to provide them, since by its very
nature this sample was less representative of the population. "Survey" infor-
mation means questionnaire data, throughout the text.

Zoning was refined after the survey. Villages originally assigned to a
zone were compared with each other and with neighboring villages and their
zonal totals on a series of indicators: main crops, number of crops, timing
and nature of field operations, fallowing, densities, crop losses, ethnicity
and household size. Those differing from each other more than from their
neighbors were recombined, and neighboring zones (including some from Meme)
were compared to determine if they should be merged.


D. Results: Environment and Resources:

-1. Ndian Division:

Ndian is the third largest division of South West Province, having an area
of 6.160 square kilometers, but one third of this is a region of rivers,
swamps and small islets inhabited by fishermen and a few administrators. The
fishermen bring their catch by canoe to the farming villages and markets along
the eastern border of the swamps, and buy or barter for agricultural foods.
Nigerian motor-boatmen also bring manufactured goods, fish, and occasional
seasonal agricultural foods to the few beach markets of the Division, particu-
larly Ekondo Titi Beach, which is linked by a motorable track to the rest of
the province. This swampy region was ignored by the survey, as was the third

TLU IRA-Ekona p.5











3f the Division covered by the Korup National Forest Project.
The Korup area, surveyed by the Korup Project*, contains 14% of the farming
population in widely scattered, inaccessible small villages, mostly oriented
towards hunting. However, it is conjectured that the Korup zone closely
resembles the surveyed Mundemba zone, as the greater road and urban access of
the latter does not seem to be much exploited by its farmers.

The divisional population includes approximately 7.400 farmers, making it
by far the smallest in the province. The majority of the farming population
is concentrated in the Ekondo Titi zone, the area around Ekondo Titi town and
including the land area of Bamusso Sub-Division. This zone has 49% of the
farmers in 16% of the non-swamp area. About 17% live in the granitic
highlands of the Rumpi Hills, including 8% of the land area, 13% in the
granitic area around Mundemba town (21% of land area) and 6% in an extension
of Meme's Kumba Corridor' (2% of land area). Ekondo Titi Sub-Division (inclu-
ding most of Ekondo Titi and Rumpi and part of the Mundemba and Kumba Corridor
zones) is the principal agricultural base, although the Divisional headquar-
ters is at Mundemba.

The only large villages and towns are in the Ekondo Titi zone, which served
as a trading nexus between Nigeria, the fisherman, and South West Province.
Population densities there are higher than in the ecologically similar Sands
zone of Fako and Meme, which has more underutilized reserve land in its hin-
terlands. Ekondo Titi zone had a large concentration of land in oil palm
plantations belonging to the Pamol corporation, as well as a recently intro-
duced CDC oil palm operation, while the Sands zone has considerable areas in
CDC rubber, oil palm and recently Del Monte banana. The longer fallows in
Ekondo Titi are probably made possible by the small amount of competition from
cocoa. Population densities are intermediate in the Rumpis and low in Mundem-
ba.

All external goods are brought in either from Nigeria, by boat, or by truck
and taxi from Kumba in Meme. Infrastructure is extremely poor, even in Ekondo
Titi. Only Mundemba has electricity and piped water, and there is no tele-
phone. The few roads are good in dry season but became impassable for days in
rainy season, and taxis are few and costly. River transport is mostly limited
to manually-driven canoes. There are some extremely productive villages prac-
ticing alluvial farming (on river-side land flooded yearly) scattered along
the western and northern borders of the swamps, but most cannot be reached ex-
cept by canoe, and so commercialize very little.

Rainfall in Ndian is very high, from an annual low of 3560mm a year in Lobe


4 World Wildlife Fund United Kingdom and Land Resources Development
Centre, The Korup Project: Soil Survey and Land Evaluation, W.W.F. Report No.
3206/8, June 1987; and Ruth Malleson, "Food Survey of Mundemba Town and Ndian
Estate", Paper No. 1 of the Korup Park Socio-economic Survey, W.W.F., Mundem-
ba, September 1987.

= For a description of the Kumba Corridor, see Almy, S.W., Farming
Systems Survey of Meme Division, South West Province. Ekona: TLU/IRA. 1988.


TLU IRA-Ekona p.6














Pamol Estate near Ekondo Titi town to 5455mm in Boa in South Bamusso (Ekondo
Titi zone, adjacent to Fako's West Coast) and 5470mm in Mundemba town to the
north. The patterns are complicated by a rain shadow effect of Mount Cameroon
at Ekondo Titi, where the rains do not start until April or May and then con-
tinue heavily until October. This effect extends down to Boa, where the rains
are even heavier, and taper off as one proceeds north to Mundemba and passes
into the granitic zone. The villages just south of Mundemba get their first
rains in mid-March, but Mundemba itself and areas to the north have heavy
rainfall from the beginning of March through November, and too much rain for
establishment of small-seeded crops from late March to October6.

The Rumpi Hills pattern is not known, but from local farmers' reports it
appears that they have enough rain for establishment of root crops every month
of the year, but very heavy rains only from August to October; a farmer on the
southwest side claimed they have a gap of several weeks most years in July
which permitted drying of harvests.


Chart 1: Monthly Rainfall Variations in Boa (Bamusso) and Lobe (Ekondo Titi)

1200 -. 1200 -

1000 -/ \- 1000 -
I \
800 B -

600 600 /

400 400-- ,'

200 200 --


JFMAMJJASOND JFMAMJ JASOND

(Sources: Pamol and CDC statistics, 6 and 14 years data respectively)



Soils are either very sandy sedimentary (Ekondo Titi), sandy granitic (Mun-
demba), or clayey granitic (Rumpi), all acidic. The only alluvial soil sample
tested has somewhat higher organic carbon and nitrogen, manganese and calcium
than nearby sites but is indistinguishable in acidity, phosphorus, potassium
and other mineral elements. Alluvial, dry-season planting occurs in both
Ekondo Titi and Mundemba zones but is more widely practiced in Mundemba. It
is probable that river banks throughout Ekondo Titi are saline.

To summarize, Ndian is a sparsely populated division with little infra-
structure and markets, poor soils, heavy rainfall and some pockets of oppor-


Source: Mr. Mbonge Barnabas, Acting SDDA Mundemba.


TLU IRA-Ekona p.7










tunity. The latter include cassava and egusi potentials in Ekondo Titi, the
yellow cocoyam in the Rumpi Hills, and Mundemba's alluvial dry-season farms.
Indigenes are Barondo (especially Balue, Ngolo, Bima); only a few others,
mostly Nigerian, farm in the division.


2. Agro-ecological Zoning:

Agro-ecozones are sub-regions that are sufficiently distinct from one ano-
ther in their agricultural goals and methods that they should be considered
separately in deciding on appropriate technology and extension. In Ndian,
five farming zones are delineated, but only three surveyed. The Ekondo Titi
zone, with 3.650 farming households, is the largest, followed by the Rumpi
Hills zone, with 1.300, and Mundemba with 950. Korup, with 1.050 inside Ndian
(plus about 900 in Manyu and Meme); the Ndian extension of the Kumba Corridor,
with 450; and the fishing zone are identified only by maps and the reports of
Ministry of Agriculture and Korup project personnel, and are not included in
the aggregate statistics.

The three zones surveyed are quite distinct in soils, rainfall and farming
patterns.

Ekondo Titi has sedimentary soils varying from sandy clay loam to loamy
sand, with a clayey, volcanic belt to its southwest where Mt. Cameroon meets
the sands. Villages are on the sands, as most of the volcanic belt is in
forest reserve, but some cocoyams and plantains are cultivated inside the
reserve and some cocoa grown at its limits. Other cocoa farms are established
at long distances from the villages, within the Kumba Corridor zone, and fami-
ly members trek to spend a few days a week on them several times a year. Food
cropping is done almost entirely on the sands, with some small river-bank
planting. Egusi melon seed is a very important cash crop for women, and farms
are often structured around it to allow it maximum sun and minimum distur-
bance. Cassava is usually the final crop.

Villages vary from a few houses of old people to hundreds of houses, and
include some settlements heavily oriented towards the Nigerian trade, admini-
stration, CDC or Pamol plantation management. Most people live in the larger
villages and many walk an hour or more to their food fields. Most of the
original vegetation has been cut and replaced by fields or fallows of up to
five years' duration, without major tree cover. The CDC and Pamol sections of
the land are large but seem not more fertile than their neighbors'. Planta-
tion workers are mostly immigrants and confined to the camps. The southern,
less populated Bamusso section has a single road that in most years has been
only a track, and farmers are used to trekking hours to market surplus food.

The Rumpi Hills are a granitic chain of small mountains lifting to 1764m
asl, with volcanic soils covering the southern slopes up to about BOOm on the
Meme side. This latter area is well-populated with cocoa farmers who follow
the Kumba Corridor pattern; it includes some farmers who come down from the
Rumpis for several months a year to live on their cocoa farms there. Above
the volcanic area, in the Rumpi zone, the villages are somewhat smaller and
much more isolated, having only one tiny internal market (new in 1988) and few


TLU IRA-Ekona p.8











visiting traders in taxis. The one road leads up an hour and a half from Ek-
ombe Three Corners on the main Kumba-Ekondo Titi road, is sometimes impassable
in the rains and, in 1988, ended at Dikome Balue, the highest village but only
a third of the way into the zone. Dikome Balue has a missionary centre that
has long provided good education and health services. As a result, many men
work outside the area. The extremely active local community development as-
sociation stresses urban services more than agricultural ones.


Table 1: Average Soil Characteristics on Farmers' Food-crop Fields at Survey
Sites in Ndian Division, 19887

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I No. pH (HaO) % Organic C X Total N Avail. P K1 eq/!00g % Al Satl
I Zone Sites r M r a r a r a r a r I
I --------------------------------- -- ---------
SEkondo Titi 5 4.3-5.? 5.1 1.2-3.3 2.0 .05-.23 .12 5-9 6 .05-.36 .19 0-37 171
1 I
1 undemba 4 4.5-4.9 4.7 1.0-4.5 2.4 .03-.25 .13 3-21 12 .10-.22 .16 6-38 181
I I
1 Rumpi Hills 4 4.2-4.9 4.5 4.4-6.5 5.5 .31-.43 .38 9-22 14 .23-.56 .39 12-34 241
--------------------------------------------------------------------------


Zonal farming is primarily forest farming of cocoyams and plantains, par-
ticularly of an extremely productive yellow cocoyam which should bring high
prices elsewhere if the transport problem could be solved. The granitic soils
are a heavy clay, with good organic carbon and nutrient levels, but very acid.
Little clearing or weeding is done. Fields are heavily sloped and shaded, and
extend up to at least 1400m asl.

Mundemba zone stretches from the lower, granitic slopes of the Rumpis to
the western swamps, and from the soil changes north of Ekondo Titi to just
beyond Mundemba town itself. (Beyond this is an almost unpopulated forest
area marking the southern border of Korup). Villages vary from a few tens of
houses to about a hundred, and are usually within reach of a river where dry-
season alluvial planting can be done. Inland farms are cut out of forest,
used until they give no more (often only 1-3 plantings) and then allowed to
revert. The soil is mostly granitic with some sedimentary mix, acidic, low in
nutrients except for fields taken out of very long-term fallow (20 years or
more). It vary from sandy clay to sand except in the alluvial field tested,
which was clayey loam. Food is marketed to the few Pamol camp workers and
civil servants in Mundemba plus the fishermen and occasional traders come for
dry-season maize and vegetables. Even local small-holders who bought palm
farms from Pamol have difficulty disposing of their nuts.






7 r=range, m=mean, P test is Bray-2 (ppm).


TLU IRA-Ekona p.9
















P
R
0 R
zone


MUNDEMBA zone
S: SD.


Ekombe Three
Corners & Kumba


TLU IRA-Ekona p.10


Map of Ndian Division
by George Gamze


x Survey sites
AP 'Agric Post
- .-- Administrative boundary
--- onal boundary
l---- Road
D Sub-Div. headquarter
E ] Divisional headquarter,

















3. The Farming Householdi


Ndian households surveyed were usually centered on a couple (63%), although
a full third were run by widowed or separated women, and a few others had
husbands who returned only occasionally from a town. A small minority in-
cluded a polygamous husband: three men each married to two women living in the
same house, three each married to two women in different houses in the same
village, and three each (all non-resident) married to two women in different
villages. Polygamy usually involved two wives sharing common fields and
household, or a quasi-abandoned wife who rarely saw a husband who had settled
elsewhere.

Households frequently contained other adults or older adolescents, people
not yet established in their own homes or incapable of doing so aged mothers
and aunts (20%) and young siblings and/or their spouses (28%). A quarter had
children of siblings with them. Only a quarter of households were nuclear,
consisting of a couple and their children. A fifth had no adult male present
even on weekends; there were almost one and a half times as many women as men
over the age of 19 years. Many men had moved to towns, to the prime cocoa-
growing areas in Meme, or just disappeared.

Over three quarters of households had someone earning extra money outside
the farm. A third were in low-earning, informal jobs (herbalists, beer, oil
and food sellers, hunters and fishermen); two families had formal jobs at this
level (laborer and messenger); a seventh had better earning, informal jobs
requiring capital (store owners, carpenters, off-license); and a fifth had
better earning formal jobs or pension (second-class chief, health workers,
clerks, teachers).

Education levels of men were abnormally high; those of Mundemba were proba-
bly due to biased sampling, but in the Rumpi Hills, an early German Mission
settlement had a major impact on male (but not female) education. Men aver-
aged almost twice the years of schooling of their wives and less than half
those of the new generation. Three-quarters of all youths aged 10-19 were
still schooling, as were half the children 0-9 years of age.

Half of the farmers were Catholics and 30% Presbyterian, with the rest
distributed among Church of Christ, agnostics, apostolics, Baptists and a
Moslem married to a Catholic.

Five-sixths came from the villages they lived in, one family from elsewhere
in Ndian, three from Manyu and Meme Divisions, and five from outside the prov-
ince (Highlanders migrated to Ekondo Titi zone and Nigerians to Mundemba
zone). 56% were of Barondo origin, 25% Balue, and 6% Ngolo'. Nigerians were
also farming around Ekondo Titi, but more were engaged in trade.

Men had been living in their villages an average of 33 years, and their
wives.25; they had been farming 22 and 19 years respectively.


There were Ngolo also in the Korup zone and some in parts of the Kumba
Corridor in Meme; they were undersampled in the Mundemba and Rumpi Hills zones.


TLU IRA-Ekona p.11












Most Ndian villages are small, ranging from ten to a hundred houses, and
distant one from another. There is an aggregation around Ekondo Titi Town,
but even there villages are separated by a kilometre or more. Villages of
twenty houses might decline to two or blossom into small towns over a ten-year
period, depending on the local health situation and state of the road network.



Table 2: Demographic Data Varying by Zone (% of households, or
mean household)
Ekondo Mundemba Rumpi Ndian
Titi Hills

Family type:
couple and own children: 25% 27% 20% 24%
couple and other depen-
dent children: 42% 60% 33% 42%
no adult man 21% 13% 27% 21%
Husband polygamous: 17% 13% 20% 17%

Household size: 6.6 7.4 7.5 6.9

Number of adults: 2.8 3.1 2.5 2.8
X women: 53% 57% 59% 55%
Ratio childiadolescent: 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.1

Outside earnings:
none: 21% 33% 40% 27%
mid-level: 34% 40% 34% 34%
Schooling (years):
husband's: 4.4 5.1 7.8 5.1
wife's: 2.7 3.9 1.7 2.7
best child's: 8.6 7.2 7.8 8.2
adolescents
in school: 70% 72% 85% 75%



To summarize, most Ndian households consisted of a couple, children, and at
least one other adult or teenager, with a high ratio of adult women to men and
many female-headed households. Most had non-farm earnings, and men's educa-
tional levels were high, while their children's were typical of the province.
Most were natives, but Cameroonian and Nigerian immigrants were also present.



4. Land:


Access to land is usually by inheritance of customary rights as a village
member. However, some families surveyed in Mundemba zone were denied other
than rental access because they were of Nigerian origin, and a few Cameroo-


TLU IRA-Ekona p.12











nians who had migrated in with road crews were borrowing or renting while
deciding whether to settle. North Western and Western families surveyed in
Ekondo Titi zone had purchased land. Legal Nigerian residents there (met but
not surveyed) are known to have acquired land by marriage or purchase, but an
unknown number of illegal Nigerian residents beg or rent land for farming.

In 1988, there was ample land available, although sometimes people walked
considerable distances to find better sites. Some Ekondo Titi and over a
third of Rumpi farmers walked over two hours to reach cocoa farms in the more
fertile Kumba Corridor. Large village size and shifting cultivation of food
meant some Ekondo Titi farmers had to walk considerable distances to find food
fields as well. Many of the Rumpi farmers had cocoa farms (with some subsis-
tence food) down the mountain, often on the Meme side, and most of those in
the highest village moved down to them for months at a time. From the infor-
mation available in the survey, these farms seem to have been cultivated in
the Kumba Corridor pattern, very differently from the fields at home. Rumpi
farmers also had more problems with goat damage, and had to fence any food
fields placed close to home.

---------------------------------------------------------------
Table 3: General Characteristics of Ndian Fields by Zone

Ekondo Mundemba Rumpi Ndian
Titi Hills

Mean no of fields: 3.2 2.7 3.1 3.1
Mean size (in weeks to weed): 3.3 4.4 4.5 3.7
Mean distance (min.s to home): 48 47 102 60
% with tree fields: 75 40 80 71
% growing food inside
trees > 5 years: 8 13 47 18

Access:
% full owners: 96 73 100 93
% own & other access: 4 0 0 3
% no land owned: 0 27 0 4

Field type:
I. % food only 65 80 52 64
% trees & food 4 11 33 11
% trees & plantains only 15 2 2 10
% trees only 17 7 13 15

II. % steep 4 10 37 14
% swampy 5 30 0 8
% shady 15 13 11 13
---------------------- --------


Despite present availability, almost all respondents claimed land had been
more fertile and easier to get in the days when they first started farming.


TLU IRA-Ekona p.13











Households managed an average 3.1 fields, each requiring a mean of 3.7
person-weeks to weed9. Of these, 64% were pure food fields, 11% mixed tree-
food fields (mostly belonging Rumpi farmers), 10% intercropping some plantains
with trees (mostly in Ekondo Titi), and 15% pure cocoa, coffee or oil palm
trees. 65% of farmers had cocoa (but only a third in Mundemba), and 27%
(especially in Rumpi) had coffee. Thirteen percent, in Ekondo Titi only, had
oil palm plantations, but 56% (although few in Mundemba) harvested wild palms,
two-fifths each for oil and wine. Most of the smallholders who had bought
palm plantations from Mundemba Pamol lived in Mundemba Town, not in the vil-
lages.

Fallowing systems were often inadequate for the poor soils10. In Ekondo
Titi, farmers fallowed food fields about four years after cultivating an ave-
rage 1.5 years; 10% of food fields were never fallowed. In Mundemba, although
farmers claimed to use long fallows, over half of food fields were fallowed an
average of 1.5 years after the same time in cultivation. The rest had been
opened from "new" land within the previous 3 years, although this land may
have been used by other farmers before. Land observed being opened from
fallow in 1988 and 1989 was in tall secondary bush and umbrella trees, and
looked as if it had been followed 6-10 years. In the Rumpi Hills, 44% of food
fields over 4 years of age had never been rested, while those that had been
rested averaged 4.6 years of fallow to 2.3 of cultivation. Only a third of
those few (mostly Rumpi farmers) who intercropped food inside tree fields
fallowed the food crops, averaging 2 years of fallow to 3 of cultivation
(again, similar to the Kumba Corridor pattern).

In summary, land access was usually by traditional right, but sales to
immigrants were common in Ekondo Titi. Good-quality farms were often distant
from the villages, but other farms were usually available nearby. Most fami-
lies had a tree field. Fallows were longer than in Fako and Meme, but often
short when soil type is taken into consideration.



5. Labour:

All adult women, most adult men and adolescents, and a minority of child-
ren contributed to farm work. Exceptions were a quarter of the men and adole-
scent boys in Mundemba zone, and half the adolescent boys and some girls in
Rumpi. Women doing fieldwork were accompanied by their adolescent children or
other dependent relatives; men, when without their wives, called on labour ex-
change groups (njanggi) or paid labour. Women also used some njanggi labour.
Processing was done mostly by adult women, with help from adolescent girls and
sometimes boys.



SUnlike Meme, it proved impossible to relate weeding time to size of
field; there was too much variation between fields visited, mostly caused by
timing of first weeding and health of farmer.

o1 See section E.I. for further details.


TLU IRA-Ekona p.14











Table 4: Hours of Work Contributed by Each Demographic Grouping per Day (Busy
Season) by Zone"

Ekondo Mundemba Rumpi Ndian
Titi Hills

Total group contribution:
Farming:
Men 20+yrs 6.6 9.7 6.0 6.9
Women 9.1 11.4 9.6 9.6
Boys 10-19 3.1 3.2 1.3 2.7
Girls 2.6 5.6 4.7 3.5
Boys <10 .5 1.4 .1 .5
Girls <10 .6 .9 .2 .6

Processing:
Men 20+yrs .4 .7 .8 .5
Women 4.6 5.6 4.0 4.6
Boys 10-19 .8 .4 .6 .7
Girls 1.6 3.3 3.2 2.2
Boys <10 .4 .5 .3 .4
Girls <10 .4 .5 .6 .5

Individual contribution:
Farming:
Men 20+yrs 6.1 6.3 5.7 6.0
Women 6.1 6.8 6.3 6.3
Boys 10-19 3.1 3.8 1.2 2.6
Girls 2.6 5.5 2.8 3.1
Boys <10 .5 1.7 .1 .6
Girls <10 .5 .4 .2 .4

Processing:
Men 20+yrs .3 .6 .5 .4
Women 2.9 3.5 2.7 2.9
Boys 10-19 1.1 .4 .5 .8
Girls 1.6 3.3 1.6 1.9
Boys <10 .3 .7 .4 .4
Girls <10 .5 .3 .5 .4



In all, households reported spending a total of 22 person-hours per day in
their busiest season'1 in farming and travel to the farm, and 8 hours in proc-


11 Hours are those reported by the respondents) for all family members
during a typical day or week in the busiest period of the year. They are not
based on actual timing or daily recall and are indicative only.

tl Counting adolescents' time as 80% of adult, and children's as 50%.


TLU IRA-Ekona p.15










essing. Three-quarters of the farm work and seven-tenths of the processing
hours were provided by adults, 44% and 58% respectively by adult women. Over-
all, adult women worked two-fifths more hours in farming than adult men. Part
of the excess was due to excess in women, but individual women also worked
more on average than individual men. Total and individual contributions are
in Table 4. Adolescents contributed much more than children. The discrepancy
between the sexes was most apparent in Mundemba and Rumpi; in Ekondo Titi,
individual men and women claimed to work equal hours in farming, although
Ekondo Titi women in total accounted for more hours of farm work.

Labour bottlenecks were reported principally in the land preparation anc
planting months of March and April (50-60% of respondents), although Mundemba
farmers cited the clearing season (October to December for river bank planting
and January-February for other fields) as well, and Rumpi farmers focused or
the April-to-August period, in which weeding was the principal activity.

Labour inputs varied by type of field and operation. Husband and wife each
participated in clearing two-thirds of fields, but only a third together,
Husbands were involved in about half of food-field but almost all tree-field
clearing, while wives helped clear three-quarters of food fields and only k
fifth of tree fields. Paid labour helped in over a quarter of food fields bu':
over half the tree fields, and njanggi in a few food fields and a quarter of
tree fields. Adolescent children helped clear a quarter of food fields but
only a few tree fields.

Inside the fields, it was frequently specified that men and their helpers
would clear the bush, while women and their helpers would burn and make mou-
nds. Men usually made the holes for yams and cassava in Ekondo Titi zone.

In planting mixed fields, men were often specified to plant only the coco-
and plantains, while the women did the rest. Men helped plant 37% of field=-
a quarter of food fields and three quarters of tree fields. Women planted aii
food fields and a quarter of tree fields (those where the husband was gone).
Adolescents helped in about 40% of fields across types, and njanggi in som
food fields.

Weeding was done by women, adolescents, and female njanggi. Men weed--
two-thirds of tree fields, and an eighth of food fields. Women weeded ail
food fields and half the tree fields, while adolescents helped in half the
food and a quarter of the tree fields. Njanggi was used for a fifth of food
field weeding, and paid labour for two-fifths of tree field weeding.

The labour force for harvesting was similar to weeding. Men helped harves
an eighth of food fields and four-fifths of tree fields, while women harvested
all food fields and three-quarters of tree fields. Child, njanggi and paid
labour was often used to carry and break cocoa pods while the family adults
harvested. Adolescents helped in two-fifths of fields, both tree and food.
Paid and njanggi labour, however, were used exclusively for tree harvests,
with the exception of one person paying others to shell egusi.

In general, although men were responsible for tree fields and women for
food fields, women were left in sole charge of a quarter of the tree fields,


TLU IRA-Ekona p.16












helped in weeding a half and in harvesting three-quarters. Adolescents helped
throughout the process, especially after clearing and land preparation was
done. Children under ten helped very little, in about a tenth of fields for
planting and harvest of food and in a third for tree harvest (transport and
pod breaking). Paid labour was most prominent in tree fields, for clearing
and weeding and some harvesting. Exchange labour groups were less common and
used in food clearing, planting and weeding, and in tree field clearing and
harvesting. Most fields were farmed exclusively by family labour.



Table 5: Labour Associated with Husband's & Wife's Activities (% of fields)
---------- ---~--- -" ------ -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -
Clearing Planting Weeding Harvesting


% of fields in which:
wife works separately: 29 62 72 73
couple works together: 31 27 19 20
husband works separately: 32 10 7 6

Who helps when:
wife works separately:
dependent family members 56 59 66 59
njanggi 7 11 20 0
paid labour 14 2 13 5
couple work together:
dependent family members 47 69 57 62
njanggi 17 7 25 21
paid labour 37 0 9 15
husband works separately:
dependent family members 38 21 18 7
njanggi 38 0 0 0
paid labour 32 0 29 0
------ ---------" ---------- -- -7 -- -- -- -- -- -- -


Paid labour required much more cash than njanggi. The cost of a day's
njanggi food and drink ranged from an average of 4.200fr ,in Ekondo Titi down
to 2.000fr in Rumpi and 1.800fr in Mundemba, for 9, 11.3 and. 7.5 invited
helpers respectively, averaging 345fr per person. To pay a laborer cost an
average of 1.300fr a day, varying little by zone but much by type of work
(felling trees cost up to 4.250fr, weeding could be as little as 500fr).
Labour payments were negotiated by task rather than daily rate. Asked how
they responded to labour shortage at their busiest time of year, two-thirds of
Ekondo Titi farmers claimed to pay labour (vs. a quarter using njanggi),
three-fifths of Rumpi farmers used njanggi (vs. a quarter paying)i, and three-
fifths of Mundemba farmers just worked harder (the rest using both njanggi and
paid workers). There was no correlation between rates of labour payment and
njanggi cost per worker.

Summing up, women were the primary labour force in food cropping and con-


TLU IRA-Ekona p.17














:--ut.:d substantially to tree cropping. Land preparation and panting :.- f
- itical period. Paid labour and especially exchange labour were used sel ,
.!,y for clearing and for tree fields. In critical periods, Ekondo Ti:i
':-;crs resorted to paid labour, Rumpi ones to exchange labour, and Muid,;:;:a
.,, stayed inside the family.



6. CaFh Flow and Input U e:

Farm-rs needed money most for farm labour, whether direct payments or njar,--
;,- pay-ent in kind. Over twro-thirds in the Ekondo Titi zone mentioned a;l-
iJtura] laLour as a major cash problem, whereas only two-fifths menti<*
.!:.-istas/e1w Year celebrations ard only a third, school costs. In Mrn
.- umpi, however, each of these three needs was cited by about hali.
.rs. An averar-e of 40.000fr was spend on farm labour every year by '.,
ird it, from 28.OOOfr in the Rumpi Hills to 3b.000fr in lundenbaK -
*'."0fr in Ekondc Titi. Only two people mentioned paying for non-labou'r
'j.as, t!:'o for fcod, t.;o investing in their shops, one for illness and oY,- -:
a.s.tee children's living expenses.

Food purchases uere significant outside the Rumpi Hills. Most houcrh ,;d,;
:*:,rht rice year-round. Two-thirdl; of Rumpi farmers and a third of the o.:
:cught garri, and a third of the Ml'ndemba and Ekondo Titi farmers bought
..c-ntal plantains all year. Seasonally, Ekondo Titi farmers bought c :.-
*a-s, maize, plantains and taro, especially in March-April and August- -
-.:er, while 1-;ndamba farmers bought taro, cocoyams and plantains in :-
r* ri-to-I 7just period. Rumpi farmers rarely bought food, other th1: ;:-"
-ri and rice not locally available.

Cash access wis a problem in the months of September (for school) and -
zar-J- nL'-ry (for holiday and farm labour costs), with mentions also thr,-:
and in July and August, mostly for farmwork.

Cash needs Flere m:-t primarily rcom sales of food crops, mentioned by
.--. from incme froi- jobs and petty trade, mentioned by 37%. Only a "
.: ored tree crop sales, and one ale of animals.

Fcrtty-five percent saved money in "meetings" (also called njanggi) or
:- from them; the process was a mixed one because a group of frirn.:
-..titve s would contribute regularly to the meeting and an idividu'l -
-.rrt:" "fro- it c-ore thcin s/he had already saved. A further person na',-:.
..- 'kond, Titi post office, and one borrowed from kin. Twelve perzcer;
t they could not find money to pay labour or Christmas, so they went -w
C.. The averaQ3 amount saved or borrowed at one time for agricultural n
..i3 41.500Fr, le;.t in Mundemba (23.000fr) and most in Ekondo Titi ('..0C.'
T-rea fifths 3f Ekondo Titi farmers but only a third of Mundemba and ;..,;:
saved cr bcrrow'ed what they regarded as a large amount of money.

Forty-four percent of the total value of food crop production was. ,
S-', ins, cocov.s and egusi were the most important crops for sale. C,--
..-. i :.lso significant in the Ekndo Titi zone. In Mundemba, plantains wer :


i E'-Eka-ra ov IF










only real cash crop, with some egusi in inland areas and maize, okro, and
(rarely) groundnuts in riverbank areas. In the Rumpi Hills, cocoyams and
plantains were the key cash crops aside from cocoa. Because of the long dis-
tances to the Kumba Corridor markets, it is unlikely that net earnings after
transport were more than a third of the estimated sales listed in the Rumpi
zone.



Table 6: Average Household Crop Sales and Other Income Sources, by Zone

Ekondo Mundemba Rumpi Ndian
Titi Hills

food crop value (FCFA)M1:
cocoyams 41.900 10.900 141.500 60.100
plantains 40.200 72.800 102.000 59.500
cassava 35.700 10.000 1.000 23.700
egusi 29.000 11.200 (500) 19.700
yams 19.900 6.300 7.000 14.800
bananas 15.700 5.900 5.000 11.700
maize 11.500 18.300 4.100 10.800
taro 5.800 10.500 10.300 7.500
groundnuts 2.800 (16.700) 0 4.300

food crop sales (FCFA):
cocoyams 17.000 2.900 31.400 20.400
plantains 25.300 34.400 35.100 30.800
cassava 16.100 4.700 300 10.400
egusi 22.600 9.400 (200) 15.000
yams 6.000 1.300 4.400 4.800
bananas 8.800 2.500 1.200 5.200
maize 4.400 7.300 1.200 4.000
taro 1.100 2.700 1.600 1.400
groundnuts 1.200 (11.700) 0 2.200


w/ animal sales 33% 40% 47% 37%
w/ cocoa/coffee 75% 40% 80% 71%
w/ other job 79% 67% 60% 73%
-------------------------------------------------------------------
( ) 1-2 cases.




Production totals were costed at the mean prices reported for sales
in the survey: plantains 760fr/bunch, cocoyams 1.915fr/basin, maize
1.865fr/tin (shelled), cassava 3.665fr/truck (roots), taro 820fr/basin, yams
1.780fr /basin, egusi seed 21.170fr/jute bag, bananas 535fr/bunch, groundnuts
2.1R5fr Itin unshelledd).


TLU IRA-Ekona p.19










Cash inputs to agriculture other than paid labour were almost non-existent.
There was no fertilizer applied to any food crop, and only one Ekondo Titi
farmer applied any to a tree crop. Chemical sprays on cocoa were used by a
sixth of Ekondo Titi farmers and a third of Rumpi ones (probably on their
Kumba Corridor farms). Many Ekondo Titi farmers complained there was no fer-
tilizer available, and the Bekora cooperative had none either in 1988 or 1989.
Mbonge and Big Ngwandi cooperative stores in Meme were not accessible as they
only sold to members and the Ndian farmers were required to sell their produce
to Ndian. Extension agents sometimes had trial samples of chemicals, and
traders occasionally brought small quantities of fertilizer or chemical to
sell at very high mark-ups (one Rumpi farmer alleged paying 1.200fr per kilo
for 20-10-10 N-P-K, which was then selling in the cooperatives for 2.500fr the
50-kg bag).

Farmers were asked what kinds of inputs they would buy if they were commer-
cially available within their Sub-Divisions. Hoes, maize seed, cutlasses,
insecticides, and fertilizers were most often named, by three-fifths or more
of farmers. Other tools in demand were sprayers, diggers, files and axes, by
a quarter to a fifth of farmers. Farmers did not know the names of any of the
chemicals, except the general term "gamaline"; some in Ekondo Titi asked for
something to kill grass, plantain nematodes or cocoa fungal diseases. Besides
maize seed, cassava cuttings (because of the new introduction of the IRA vari-
eties) were in demand by 47%, and cocoyam, yam~4 and plantain materials by
about 30%.

To summarize, cash was needed most at the end of the year, and for farm
labour, holidays and school costs. Spending levels were lower than elsewhere
in the province. Cash came from food crop sales (especially plantains and
egusi) and off-farm earnings, and was saved in village meetings. Fertilizer
and agricultural chemicals were rarely available, and farmers also felt the
need for tools and improved seed.


7. Extension:

The majority of extension staff were concentrated in Ekondo Titi zone,
which had one Sub-Divisional headquarters and a cooperative service, four
Agricultural Posts at Bekora, Ekombe Liongo, Iloani and Boa, and several other
agents in the villages. Only one man, a technician, was available to all of
the Rumpi Hills zone, in an Agricultural Post at Betenge Balue. Although the
Mundemba zone had the Divisional and a Sub-Divisional headquarters, owing to
the difficulty of transportation and dispersion of population, agents were
only available to the immediate Mundemba town area and around the Agricultural
Post at Meka. Newly graduated technicians were loath to serve away from
roads. The untrained field assistants in the Korup zone were cut off by
flooding from supervision and advice during most of the growing season. The
small Kumba Corridor section had an Agricultural Post at Ekwe.


1 Only one Mundemba farmer asked for yam setts, although a Korup report
on the Mundemba area (Malleson 1988, above) reported that yams had been little
grown recently because of a lack of such material.


TLU IRA-Ekona p.20












The survey included one Sub-Divisional town, five villages with Agricul-
tural Posts, two with junior agents, and four with none. One was supposed to
have a resident agent who had not returned after his first visit, and two had
agents that spent more time outside the area than in, citing family problems.
Many agents, however, were interested in their farmers' activities and pro-
blems, including food crops.
---------------------------------------------------------------
Table 7: Extension Contacts, by Zone
-----------------------7----------------------------
Ekondo Mundemba Rumpi Ndian
Titi Hills
---------------------------------------------------
% visited by agent:
never 28 100 73 51
yearly/less 47 0 20 33
more often 26 0 7 16

% who have asked
help of extension:
never, won't 26 33 53 34
never, but would 4 33 7 9
would ask other 4 13 7 6
have asked extension 65 20 33 51

% who have been to an
agric meeting: 71 13 40 55

% who were helped:
when asking: 31 67 60 38
by meetings 1: 53 50 60 54
---------------------------------------------------


Farmer contact with extension agents was closely related to extension pres-
ence. In Ekondo Titi zone, everyone knew an agent, three quarters had been
visited by one, and as many had been to an agricultural meeting. Two-thirds
had asked for extension help, and a third of those (about a fifth in all) had
received it. In Mundemba, none of the farmers had ever been visited, only a
fifth had asked for help, and an eighth had been to a meeting. Two-fifths
knew of no extension agent. In the Rumpis, where the villages chosen were all
relatively near the post, a quarter knew no agent, only a quarter had been
visited (and most once); a third had asked for help and 40% had been to a
meeting.

Farmers approached agents to ask about tree crops primarily (75%, vs 30%
for food crops), and agents visited their farms for these (58%), best farm


13 Help with something applicable to improving the farm. Meetings also
dealt with topics not directly applicable but potentially also helpful to the
people attending.


TLU IRA-Ekona p.21















competitions (16%) and food crops (36%). Most Ekondo Titi farmers wanted sup-
plies (polythene bags, chemicals for cocoa), whereas most other farmers asked
only for advice on what or how to plant, a difference which explains the lower
levels of help obtained by the Ekondo Titi farmers. Agricultural meetings
were usually both for food and tree crops.

Although women in Ndian were often the principal or only farmers in the
household, extension agents visited significantly"' less women-headed families
than households managed by couples. As work in food crops increases, agents
must be made aware of the need to work with women farmers.

The allocation of motorcycles to the technicians and most active demonstra-
tors, as had been done in Fako and Meme, would certainly be cost-effective in
terms of expanded coverage of farms and villages. In Fako and Meme taxis were
plentiful, allowing the agents to reach other villages and the Sub-Delegations
for instruction and materials. In Ndian and Manyu, taxis were rare and expen-
sive. Under the circumstances at the time of the survey, Ndian agents spent
more time walking to the farms assisted than in providing assistance, and were
limited to walking distance from their sites. Many villages along the river-
banks were very productive, but accessible only by river, and were rarely
visited. A motorcycle or motorboat would be more useful than a car for agent
supervision in many areas off the motorable roads. Even bicycles would be a
help for most village-bound agents, if motorcycles are impossible during the
crisis.



8. Livestock:

Although two-thirds of Ndian farmers owned some animal, and a third had
sold an animal in the last year, most of these animals were chickens.

Three-fifths of farmers owned poultry, and almost half had sold one during
the past year. Less than a third owned goats, a tenth had sheep, and only
three people had pigs. Almost no-one had sold these larger animals. Animals
- goats, poultry, sheep and even some dwarf cattle were most common in the
Rumpi Hills. Almost all owners ate their poultry, pigs and sheep; goats were
eaten by most Mundemba and Rumpi owners but only by a third of Ekondo Titi
ones.

The animals were little integrated into the farming systems. Rumpi and
Mundemba farmers particularly, in the villages where there were many goats,
planted farther away from the village to avoid them, so the fields did not
benefit from manure. Only two Ekondo Titi farmers and one Mundemba one ap-
plied manure directly, using goat or chicken manure on plantains. Some Mun-
demba and Ekondo Titi farmers used maize and rice as feeds for poultry and
other animals (supplementary to foraging), while Mundemba and Rumpi ones some-
times used cocoyams and plantains (probably the peels and leaves).



& p<.05, t-test.


TLU IRA-Ekona p.22













Table 8: Livestock Ownership, by Zone

Ekondo Mundemba Rumpi Ndian
Titi Hills

any animal:
% owning: 67 67 73 68
% selling: 33 40 47 37
goats:
% owning: 25 13 40 29
mean owned (among owners): 1.8 2.5 3.2 2.4
% selling (among owners): 0 13 20 7
poultry:
% owning: 54 60 67 58
mean owned (a.o.): 7.3 8.9 7.0 7.5
% selling (a.o.): 29 27 20 27
swine:
% owning: 4 13 0 5
mean owned (a.o.): (1) (3) 0 1.9
% selling (a.o.): 0 13 0 2
sheep:
% owning: 8 7 13 9
mean owned (a.o.): (2) (4) (3) 2 .6
% selling (a.o.): 4 7 7 5

( ) 1-2 cases only.



9. Food Markets:

Markets were not traditional in Ndian, and at the time of the survey were
little developed outside of the vicinity of Ekondo Titi Town. The town had
two markets, one relatively large internal market meeting twice a week to
provide food for the traders and non-farming employees, which was supplied by
local farmers and traders from Meme, and the Beach Market, which was a centre
of trade for Nigerian manufactured goods and fish brought by boat, and also
supplied food stuffs to the boat people. Most farmers east of Ekondo Titi
'ent to Bekora Market, which attracted traders and small trucks from Kumba to
Luy garri and egusi. Farmers from the Bamusso (southern) side of Ekondo Titi
zone carried their surplus to Mbonge Market in Meme, similar to Bekora's.
They also traded cassava and garri for Nigerian fisher-folk's shellfish and
fish at the Boa Beach Market, which also supplied Bamusso town (an urban is-
land community) with food. The shellfish was then carried over to Mbonge for
resale, a more profitable item per headweight than cassava products. Garri
and egusi were the main exports to Meme and Nigeria, while Nigerian yams were
imported.

Mundemba zone had only a few tiny weekly beach markets, established where
non-farming populations had grown up. Two were between local farming com-
munities and the Pamol Estates, for estate workers, and one, supplied by canoe


TLU IRA-Ekona p.23

















by riverine farmers, grew up at the Ilor/Dibonda Beach river crossing when a
large group of construction workers was housed nearby to build the Mundemba
road and causeway. The Ilor Beach market continued after the road was built,
as a meeting point between canoes and road, but one of the Pamol markets died
when the estate labour force was cut back in 1987. A tiny weekly market in
Mundemba itself was started by the town about the same time. The only produce
shipped out of the area was Pamol palm nuts. Both tinned food and yams,
egusi, plantains and other staples were brought in for local sale from Kumba,
Ekondo Titi and Nigeria.



Table 9: Market Distances, Transport and Prices, by Zone

Ekondo Mundemba Rumpi Ndian
Titi Hills


time to market (minutes):
farmers not going
to any market:
transport:
foot
taxi
canoe
portion returned unsold:


median price:
maize (basin)17
cassava:
basin of roots
basin of garri
cocoyams (basin)
taro (basin)
plantain (bunch)
egusi (jute bag)


137

21%

84%
11%
5%.
13%


1.300

600
5.000
2.000
700
800
22.400


66

20%

50%
42%
8%
9%


1.300

1.100
2.500
2.500
350
800
18.750


68 115


30%

76%
19.
5%
11%


(mean)
2.000 1.400


na
na
1.500
1.100
750
na


800
3.750
1.900
800
750
21.150


The Rumpi Hills contained no market at all until 1988, when a tiny weekly
market was begun at and for Dikome Balue; a fish seller and a petty dry goods
trader were the only outsiders to take advantage of it. Rumpi farmers sold
little but cocoyams and plantains, either selling to each other, or to truck-
er-traders making special arrangements, or hiring a taxi to carry their crop
the long route down to Ekombe Bonji (2.Ofr in dry season for one passenger)
on the Kumba-Ekondo Titi road. Market prices received were lower for these
local staples, and higher for other crops, than elsewhere.





7' Often sold as basins of dried cobs; this is the grain equivalent.


TLU IRA-Ekona p.24












10. Perceptions of Farming:


At the end of the interview, farmers were asked for their general opinion
of farming prospects in the area. Nine percent planned to leave or reduce
their farming operations within five years, especially in Mundemba and Rumpi
where market outlets were least. A sixth of Ekondo Titi and Rumpi farmers
felt the future of farming was poor, and two-fifths of Mundemba ones thought
they could do much better with government help in loans and advice. Mundemba
farmers planned to concentrate on cassava and other food crops (none named
trees as crops they would plant if they had more labour at crucial times of
year). Rumpi farmers preferred food (especially cocoyams and plantains), but
40% proposed tree crop expansion as well. A fifth of Ekondo Titi farmers
would increase tree crops only, while half would plant food cocoyamss, cas-
sava, plantains and maize) and 30% both food and trees.

Two-thirds of Ndian farmers saw a decline in fertility since the beginning
of their career, with a small correlation (r=.24) between shorter claimed
fallow ratios and declining fertility.

Animals were the most frequent complaint of farmers as agricultural prob-
lems in the area. Half the farmers, ranging from two-fifths in the more
populated Ekondo Titi zone to seven-eighths in the Rumpis, complained about
animal destruction of crops. Cutting-grass rodents were considered the grea-
test pests, with monkeys, antelope, rat moles, birds and goats' also impli-
cated.

Field insects were the second largest grievance, mentioned by two-fifths
(most in Ekondo Titi and least in Mundemba), and included grasshoppers, cric-
kets, millipedes and borers. Maize weevils were cited by two farmers as major
problems. Diseases usually specified as in cocoyams or plantains were
named by a quarter, although only by one farmer in the Rumpis. A sixth talked
of poor soil, primarily in the Ekondo Titi zone, where two people also com-
plained of lack of land and five, of lack of money to pay labour to clear more
land.

Infrastructural problems were also felt, especially farm-to-market roads
and the distance to markets, mentioned by a sixth. The subsistence preference
of Rumpi and Mundemba was shown by their lesser interest in market improve-
ments, despite lesser present access. Four farmers in Ekondo Titi and two in
Rumpi complained of chemical supplies for their cocoa, and a few in each area
complained of lack of supply of farm tools. Fertilizer lack, access to good
seed and to extension help were each only mentioned by two people.




E. Results: Ndian Cropping Systems:

1. Food-Crop Field Selection and Management:

Ndian farmers averaged one tree-crop field and two food-crop fields, usual-
ly with additional second-year and older food-crop fields in harvest but not


TLU IRA-Ekona p.25












10. Perceptions of Farming:


At the end of the interview, farmers were asked for their general opinion
of farming prospects in the area. Nine percent planned to leave or reduce
their farming operations within five years, especially in Mundemba and Rumpi
where market outlets were least. A sixth of Ekondo Titi and Rumpi farmers
felt the future of farming was poor, and two-fifths of Mundemba ones thought
they could do much better with government help in loans and advice. Mundemba
farmers planned to concentrate on cassava and other food crops (none named
trees as crops they would plant if they had more labour at crucial times of
year). Rumpi farmers preferred food (especially cocoyams and plantains), but
40% proposed tree crop expansion as well. A fifth of Ekondo Titi farmers
would increase tree crops only, while half would plant food cocoyamss, cas-
sava, plantains and maize) and 30% both food and trees.

Two-thirds of Ndian farmers saw a decline in fertility since the beginning
of their career, with a small correlation (r=.24) between shorter claimed
fallow ratios and declining fertility.

Animals were the most frequent complaint of farmers as agricultural prob-
lems in the area. Half the farmers, ranging from two-fifths in the more
populated Ekondo Titi zone to seven-eighths in the Rumpis, complained about
animal destruction of crops. Cutting-grass rodents were considered the grea-
test pests, with monkeys, antelope, rat moles, birds and goats' also impli-
cated.

Field insects were the second largest grievance, mentioned by two-fifths
(most in Ekondo Titi and least in Mundemba), and included grasshoppers, cric-
kets, millipedes and borers. Maize weevils were cited by two farmers as major
problems. Diseases usually specified as in cocoyams or plantains were
named by a quarter, although only by one farmer in the Rumpis. A sixth talked
of poor soil, primarily in the Ekondo Titi zone, where two people also com-
plained of lack of land and five, of lack of money to pay labour to clear more
land.

Infrastructural problems were also felt, especially farm-to-market roads
and the distance to markets, mentioned by a sixth. The subsistence preference
of Rumpi and Mundemba was shown by their lesser interest in market improve-
ments, despite lesser present access. Four farmers in Ekondo Titi and two in
Rumpi complained of chemical supplies for their cocoa, and a few in each area
complained of lack of supply of farm tools. Fertilizer lack, access to good
seed and to extension help were each only mentioned by two people.




E. Results: Ndian Cropping Systems:

1. Food-Crop Field Selection and Management:

Ndian farmers averaged one tree-crop field and two food-crop fields, usual-
ly with additional second-year and older food-crop fields in harvest but not


TLU IRA-Ekona p.25












10. Perceptions of Farming:


At the end of the interview, farmers were asked for their general opinion
of farming prospects in the area. Nine percent planned to leave or reduce
their farming operations within five years, especially in Mundemba and Rumpi
where market outlets were least. A sixth of Ekondo Titi and Rumpi farmers
felt the future of farming was poor, and two-fifths of Mundemba ones thought
they could do much better with government help in loans and advice. Mundemba
farmers planned to concentrate on cassava and other food crops (none named
trees as crops they would plant if they had more labour at crucial times of
year). Rumpi farmers preferred food (especially cocoyams and plantains), but
40% proposed tree crop expansion as well. A fifth of Ekondo Titi farmers
would increase tree crops only, while half would plant food cocoyamss, cas-
sava, plantains and maize) and 30% both food and trees.

Two-thirds of Ndian farmers saw a decline in fertility since the beginning
of their career, with a small correlation (r=.24) between shorter claimed
fallow ratios and declining fertility.

Animals were the most frequent complaint of farmers as agricultural prob-
lems in the area. Half the farmers, ranging from two-fifths in the more
populated Ekondo Titi zone to seven-eighths in the Rumpis, complained about
animal destruction of crops. Cutting-grass rodents were considered the grea-
test pests, with monkeys, antelope, rat moles, birds and goats' also impli-
cated.

Field insects were the second largest grievance, mentioned by two-fifths
(most in Ekondo Titi and least in Mundemba), and included grasshoppers, cric-
kets, millipedes and borers. Maize weevils were cited by two farmers as major
problems. Diseases usually specified as in cocoyams or plantains were
named by a quarter, although only by one farmer in the Rumpis. A sixth talked
of poor soil, primarily in the Ekondo Titi zone, where two people also com-
plained of lack of land and five, of lack of money to pay labour to clear more
land.

Infrastructural problems were also felt, especially farm-to-market roads
and the distance to markets, mentioned by a sixth. The subsistence preference
of Rumpi and Mundemba was shown by their lesser interest in market improve-
ments, despite lesser present access. Four farmers in Ekondo Titi and two in
Rumpi complained of chemical supplies for their cocoa, and a few in each area
complained of lack of supply of farm tools. Fertilizer lack, access to good
seed and to extension help were each only mentioned by two people.




E. Results: Ndian Cropping Systems:

1. Food-Crop Field Selection and Management:

Ndian farmers averaged one tree-crop field and two food-crop fields, usual-
ly with additional second-year and older food-crop fields in harvest but not


TLU IRA-Ekona p.25













-ultivation. Sixty-four percent of fields were pure food, 4% food with some
cocoa or coffee trees, 7% cocoa or coffee with some plantains and cocoyam or
taro, and 25% oil palm, cocoa or coffee, sometimes with some plantains or
bananas. Food fields were only slightly smaller than tree fields, averaging
3.6 person-weeks to weed for food and 4.1 for trees (although weeding is like-
v to take longer in a food field). Seven-tenths of farmers, not varying by
zone, planted one to two food fields a year; three-tenths planted three to
four fields.

Most farmers believed that all food crops, except possibly cassava, needed
new fields (those just out of fallow) to do well. Rumpi farmers thought coco-
yams and plantains could do well in old fields also. For cassava, 16% felt it
needed a new field, 50'/ that it could be put in either, and 35% that it was
only for old fields.

Shifting cultivation was the norm throughout the division, although many
Rumpi fields were in semi-permanent forest cultivation. Only one farmer each
in the lowland zones claimed permanent cultivation.

In Ekondo Titi, the other farmers followed an average of 3.8 years after
two years of cultivation meaning, in general, one season of planting fol-
lowed by 1.5 years to the end of cassava harvest, or a season of short-cycle
crops followed by planting and harvest of cassava. Most fields visited or
observed were completely cleared of trees, or one tree only left for shade.
The 3-5 year fallows reverted to grass and bushes.

In Mundemba, farmers often planted the same crops two to three times in
succession unless the production dropped drastically. They switched to cas-
sava when a fertility decline became apparent, and then abandoned the land to
fallow. Although they claimed to fallow an average 3.7 years, half the fields
surveyed were on land that the farmer had never used before, and the other
half averaged only 1.4 years in previous fallow. Several farms observed being
opened on "new" land had obviously been used within the previous 5-10 years.
Alluvial fields were seldom abandoned to fallow, being planted yearly, and
cocoyams and plantains continued on them during the August floods.

Two of the three Mundemba villages visited planted small fields surrounded
by trees, often leaving living stumps inside, so that fallow regeneration was
rapid. However, the vegetation regenerated was usually umbrella trees and
bushes. Trees that were felled in a field were often cut after cocoyams and
taro had been planted and sprouted, helping to secure the soil. Farmers in
the third village, on a hilly island, clear-cut large swaths of land, leaving
only a few hedges between fields to stem the severe slope erosion. Fields
lapsed into fallow in this village were covered with ferns and ground-hugging
straggly bush.

In the Rumpi Hills, most fields were left in forest. Almost all land was
severely sloped, and farmers simply cleared out the underbrush and planted
cocoyams, plantains, and a little of other crops. Small, flat portions might
be clear-cut for a garden. If cocoa or coffee was planned, most of the smal-
ler trees were cut (after planting cocoyams, plantains and taro) and a wide
mix of food crops planted annually in competition with the trees. Forest food


TLU IRA-Ekona p.26











fields were planted, harvested and re-planted year-round until such time as
they lost fertility; a quarter claimed never to fallow, and others to plant an
average of eight years before fallowing for four.



Table 10: Fallowing"1, Clearing and Burning Practices (Food Fields)

Ekondo Mundemba Rumpi Ndian
Titi Hills


Yrs. in continuous use 2.0 2.7 8.3 3.4
Interim fallow (yrs) 3.8 1.4 4.6 3.1
Fallow cultivation 2.6 1.0 2.0 2.0
% fields <3 years old 28 47 25 31
% fields >4 yrs old
never fallowed 10 0 44 16

Clearing months DJF (ON)J JF DJF
Burning months JFM F JFM JFM
% burning 69 56 46 62



Land was usually cleared in January-February, except for alluvial plots.
It was observed in both lowland zones that, after cutting the bush or grass,
some people would burn over the field (not concentrating the ash in any one
spot), while others would heap the grass in a few places and burn it, and
still others would simply make the heaps in or outside the field and avoid
them in planting. The farmers said the third method was more common after the
rains started. Burned areas were favored for egusi and cocoyams or taro, and
more farmers burned in Ekondo Titi than Mundemba, probably because of the
egusi. Clearing and burning occurred at any time during the dry season in
Ekondo Titi, but in Mundemba was restricted to January and February by the
shortness of the season. Alluvial land was cleared of weeds in October-Novem-
ber, as the land dried out, and the weeds heaped to one side. Replanting
would start immediately thereafter.

Rumpi farmers surveyed claimed to clear and burn at the same times as low-
landers, but discussions with a few farmers revealed that the "clearing" was
often only one more weeding cycle, when they uprooted the worst vines and
other weeds, letting them fall where they were to rot. Burning was done most-
ly around the boles of trees, to reduce their foliage or sometimes to fell
them.

After clearing, farmers weeded another one to three times a year, usually


IM Claimed years of continuous use between fallows, actual average fal-
lows for fields over 4 years of age, and adjustment of fallow cultivation
ratios by percentage of fields never fallowed.


TLU IRA-Ekona p.27











one to two, and somewhat more often in Mundemba and Rumpi than in Ekondo Titi.
Fields based on egusi would usually be weeded either before one month or not
until the third, to avoid damaging the flowers. Weeded grass was observed to
be isolated from plants in the lowlands and left to rot under the plants in
the Rumpis.

Food farm management was almost always the responsibility of the women, who
were aided primarily by adolescent children.



2. Food-Crop Field Design and Crop Associations:

Ndian fields were almost all planted on flat, with the mix of crops varying
across the field according to time of planting, humidity, shade, rockiness or
soil problems of the section. The exception was yams, which were planted on
individual mounds by most lowland and some highland farmers. Mundemba farmers
also tended to plant cocoyams, taro and cassava in very shallow, individual
mounds. The use of one mound per plant resulted in a very different type of
planting from the high-density mound planting practiced in the Sands zone of
Fako/Meme and in Manyu. Instead, major crops were planted across the appro-
priate parts of the field at roughly equal spacing, and then minor crops were
fit in between them, or concentrated in small areas with special characteris-
tics such as dampness.

Intercropping was the norm in Ndian. Food fields averaged 4.4 crops, of
which 3.3 were major crops and 1.1 secondary. Ekondo Titi averaged few crops,
due to more monocropping. Twelve percent of fields all in Ekondo Titi-
were monocropped, two-thirds being cassava, a quarter yams, and one cocoyams.
However, only a third of the cassava fields were monocropped. Two-fifths of
tree fields were also monocropped, most of the rest having only plantains,
cocoyams or bananas added. By area proxy, there were four times more plan-
tains and bananas in food fields than in tree fields. Three-quarters of food
fields had at least three crops, and three-sevenths had five crops or more.

Crop associations varied by zone (Chart 2, from the questionnaire data).
In Ekondo Titi, cassava was more often monocropped than associated with any
specific crop, and maize, egusi and yams formed a cluster often separate from
egusi, cocoyams and taro. In Mundemba, cassava, maize and egusi formed a
cluster separate from cocoyams, maize and groundnuts; taro fit with anything.
In the Rumpis, cocoyams, taro and plantains formed the principal cluster (al-
though seldom all three occurring together), and maize or egusi joined coco-
yams and taro in the absence of plantains. In general, plantains were as-
sociated with tree crops or with maize, cocoyams and taro, while bananas were
associated only with plantains and trees.

In almost every field visited, crop associations varied widely within the
field. In the lowlands, a section planted early might have more egusi and/or
yams, with a little maize, while a later section might have more maize and
cassava, cocoyams and taro, with little egusi because of the shading. Yams
and egusi were most likely to be planted first, except for the moist areas of
streambeds, which might be planted to cocoyam early. Plantain suckers still


TLU IRA-Ekona p.28













Chart E2 Intertropping Patterns


Ekondo Titi


eg

/\
mz--------ym

or

eg


cy--------tr
cy------tr


Mundemba


tr-----cs

I I-----
mz-...eg


cy------tr
\/


cy-----mz

I I-----
tr-----gn


tr--cy


.- --- --- .. .- cs


Rumpi


cy------tr
\/


pl--tr


pl--cy


Table 11: Crop Associations (number of fields with the crop(s))


cs I 57 I 41
cy I 84 54 34
tr 71 51 32 54
pl 73 I 35 17 50 40
ba 26 8 8 13 7 20
ym 30 1 22 11 17 19 11 2
be 6 5 1 4 2 2 0 2
gn 12 12 4 10 8 3 0 2 1
eg 48 40 26 34 27 18 4 16 3 6

S 78 57 84 71 73 26 30 6 12 J total fields
------------------------------------------------I


mz cs cy


tr pl ba ym be gn


(mz=maize, cs=cassava, cy=cocoyam, tr=taro, pl=plantain, ba=banana,
ym=yam, be=bean, gn=groundnut, and eg=egusi melon)


TLU IRA-Ekona p.29










in the field at clearing would be separated and spread thinly throughout, but
if there were many of them, three or even more suckers might be left growing
off one old stem.

In two of the three Rumpi forest fields visited, white cocoyams, yellow
cocoyams, taro, plantains and vegetables each had their own spot, the first in
newly cleared land, the second in the older sections that had developed root
rot, the taro and vegetables (including maize) in lower, wetter areas, and the
plantains wherever initial trial plantings had not succumbed quickly to nema-
todes or excessively loose, rocky soil.

Three-tenths of the total field area (by proxy) was in tree crops, half of
it in cocoa and the rest divided between coffee and palm. Most farmers felt
that cocoyams, taro, plantains and bananas could be grown well in association
with cocoa, coffee or forest trees. Rumpi farmers tended to add maize and
vegetables to this list, while some Ekondo Titi farmers felt groundnuts could
do well under trees, and a few Mundemba and Rumpi farmers even added cassava.



F. Crop Agronomy and Utilization:

This section provides details on the incidence, cropping patterns and ca-
lendar, varieties, field problems, processing, storage and marketing of each
food crop of any importance in the Division. Readers may prefer to skip to
particular crops and then the section on recommendations. But first there are
some specific cautions to note.

Most farmers said they planted at the usual time first and seasons in 1987.
Half planted more than usual in first season and a fifth less, while two
thirds planted less than usual in second season and an eighth planted more.
The changes in seasonal emphasis must be recalled in considering area, produc-
tion and the calendar. Calendar dates are early or late in a particular
month, not specific days.

As described in Section C., production and especially area figures are
tentative. Farmers' estimates of field problems and losses are relative to
their general expectations for a crop; they are not real "yield gaps", the
difference between what should be obtainable in an area and what is obtained
currently. Crop sales were discussed in two separate parts of the interview:
at one point, the farmer was asked how much of the 1987 harvest was sold, and
in another, in what forms the crop is eaten and sold. As a result, some far-
mers mentioned how they usually sell the crop but did not report selling the
crop in 1987.



1. Maize:

Importance: Approximately 795 tons of maize were harvested in the 1987 crop
year, equivalent to 81 million francs at local prices or 2.9 million kilocalo-
ries of food energy. This made it seventh in economic importance and fifth in


TLU IRA-Ekona p.30










in the field at clearing would be separated and spread thinly throughout, but
if there were many of them, three or even more suckers might be left growing
off one old stem.

In two of the three Rumpi forest fields visited, white cocoyams, yellow
cocoyams, taro, plantains and vegetables each had their own spot, the first in
newly cleared land, the second in the older sections that had developed root
rot, the taro and vegetables (including maize) in lower, wetter areas, and the
plantains wherever initial trial plantings had not succumbed quickly to nema-
todes or excessively loose, rocky soil.

Three-tenths of the total field area (by proxy) was in tree crops, half of
it in cocoa and the rest divided between coffee and palm. Most farmers felt
that cocoyams, taro, plantains and bananas could be grown well in association
with cocoa, coffee or forest trees. Rumpi farmers tended to add maize and
vegetables to this list, while some Ekondo Titi farmers felt groundnuts could
do well under trees, and a few Mundemba and Rumpi farmers even added cassava.



F. Crop Agronomy and Utilization:

This section provides details on the incidence, cropping patterns and ca-
lendar, varieties, field problems, processing, storage and marketing of each
food crop of any importance in the Division. Readers may prefer to skip to
particular crops and then the section on recommendations. But first there are
some specific cautions to note.

Most farmers said they planted at the usual time first and seasons in 1987.
Half planted more than usual in first season and a fifth less, while two
thirds planted less than usual in second season and an eighth planted more.
The changes in seasonal emphasis must be recalled in considering area, produc-
tion and the calendar. Calendar dates are early or late in a particular
month, not specific days.

As described in Section C., production and especially area figures are
tentative. Farmers' estimates of field problems and losses are relative to
their general expectations for a crop; they are not real "yield gaps", the
difference between what should be obtainable in an area and what is obtained
currently. Crop sales were discussed in two separate parts of the interview:
at one point, the farmer was asked how much of the 1987 harvest was sold, and
in another, in what forms the crop is eaten and sold. As a result, some far-
mers mentioned how they usually sell the crop but did not report selling the
crop in 1987.



1. Maize:

Importance: Approximately 795 tons of maize were harvested in the 1987 crop
year, equivalent to 81 million francs at local prices or 2.9 million kilocalo-
ries of food energy. This made it seventh in economic importance and fifth in


TLU IRA-Ekona p.30













nutritional importance in Ndian Division. Forty-seven percent of farmers
named maize as a crop they would increase if they had more labour.

Ecozones: The most important zone was Ekondo Titi, with 65% of total pro-
duction. Mundemba produced an average 182kg per household, Ekondo Titi 114kg,
and the Rumpis only 40kg.

Associations: Maize was planted in 45% of fields (68% in Mundemba) by 89% of
farmers, as a major crop in 47% of the fields. Among fields with the crop, 4%
was intercropped as a sole major crop with secondary crops and the rest as
major or secondary crop with other major crops. In Ekondo Titi, it was grown
in association with egusi and yams; in Mundemba, with cocoyams, cassava, egusi
and groundnuts; and in the Rumpis, with taro.

Planting methods: Maize was planted on the flat (89%), and sometimes on
mounds (9%, a quarter in Mundemba) or beds (2%). Planting distances varied
from 40 to 180cm, with a median of 100cm and a mean of 103cm. An average of
3.1 seeds were planted per hole, ranging from 2 to 6 but with 91% planting 2
to 4. Densities varied around a mean of 29.300pph, ranging from a high ave-
rage of 38.000pph in the Rumpis to 28.000 in Ekondo Titi and 26.000 in Mundem-
ba. Converted to monocrop equivalent, the crop occupied an estimated 5% of
the total field area, or 7% of food-crop fields.

Calendar: Planting was usually done in first season (94%), generally in late
March at the first rains in Ekondo Titi, March in the Rumpis and late February
to early March in Mundemba. Second-season planting was done by 25%, all in
Ekondo Titi and the Rumpis, in August to early September. Third-season plan-
ting from October to December in alluvial fields was carried out by 10%, all
in Mundemba. The first season's first weeding was done by 85% of farmers gro-
wing the crop, and a second by 19%, at an average of 1.7 months and 2.5 months
after planting respectively. Second season, the first weeding was done by 43%
at 1.5 months and the second by none; third-season weedings were done by 39%
at 2.4 months and by only one a second time. Ekondo Titi weeded earlier.
Harvesting began at an average 3.3 months after planting first season (later
in the Rumpis), lasting an average 3 weeks, ended earlier in second season (2
weeks) and began and ended earlier third season (2.8 months for 2 weeks).

Varieties: About two-fifths of farmers preferred their maize hard, and half
soft, except in Mundemba where almost all preferred soft maize. Over half
preferred yellow ("red") maize, and a third white, with slightly more Mundemba
farmers preferring white. Almost all liked it sweet, and a fifth mentioned
brightness (shiny grains). Others cited suitability for fufu, koki, roasting,
pap, large ears and early maturity. The local white, Calabar, was a soft,
floury, early maturing, short type. Hard whites and yellows had probably come
in from Nigeria, as well as Kumba Market, where much of the seed maize was
brought from the North West Province. Two-thirds planted both yellow and
white maize, a fifth white only, 8% yellow only, and one mentioned a blue-and-
white-grained local. Two-thirds of the farmers identifying types had Calabar
and almost half had a yellow or white Bamenda type. Only 30% planted maize
saved from their own farms, the rest buying at a market. However, four-fifths
of maize farmers tried to store maize for seed, indicating enormous storage
losses.


TLU IRA-Ekona p.31










Field ProblemsI Farmers reported losing 36% of their crop in first season and
16% in second season, with the worst losses occurring in the Rumpis (47% and
30%). Losses were usually attributed to animals (monkeys and cutting grass
and other rodents) and/or insects (stem borers and leaf-eating crickets).
There were total or near-total losses in a third of the farms in Ekondo Titi
and the Rumpi Hills, and in a fifth in Mundemba, where withering was more
common. Considerable nitrogen deficiency, stem borer and drought damage were
seen in some lowland fields, but almost no streak virus. One Ekondo Titi
farmer planted Calabar early, with the first rains, but yellow Bamenda later,
because she said it needed more rain but could better resist streak. The
other visited farmer who planted both, took pure cobs of each and mixed them
together in the field. The highland farms visited had almost no maize, but
the little seen, despite being densely surrounded with low vegetable and sha-
ded by nearby trees, looked very green at one month.

Asked why they did not grow more maize than at present, some gave excuses
of lack of land, labour or capital. Of the rest, two-fifths each cited animal
damage or lack of seed. A fifth cited weevil or storage problems, a sixth
each cited field insect damage and poor yields, and a few drought, poor land
and disease.

Processing and marketing: Over half the households ate maize almost daily
during the harvest months, but only three families ate it year round. None
never ate it at all, but a third ate it seldom and only during first harvest.
It was most often consumed fresh by 91% boiled, 74% roasted, and 29% as
chaff (boiled grains, usually fresh, with beans), but 63% ate koki corn
(ground, mixed with pepper and leaves, tied in plantain leaf and boiled), 29%
pap (finely ground flour porridge), and 17% fufu (coarse flour porridge).
Eight percent said they bought some maize all year and 28% bought it in times
of scarcity.

37% of maize produced was sold, by 73% of producers, with no zone standing
out. 94% sold maize green (sometimes already boiled) and 91% dried, often
still on the cob, sometimes as shelled grain or koki. 64% sold maize for seed
(only a quarter in the Rumpi Hills) and a a sixth in Ekondo Titi only sold it
for animal feed. About two-fifths each sold in their village market or the
nearest larger market; the rest sold at roadside to neighbors and passers-by.
The primary selling months were June and July, with March and December added
in Mundemba and December in the Rumpi Hills. Heaps and basins of cobs were
the most common selling units, with some tins of grain. Average reported
prices per kilo of large volumes (basins and tins) of dried grain equivalent
varied from 50fr/kg in the lowlands to 75fr/kg in the Rumpis.

Storage: Maize was stored by 73% of farmers for over a month, three-quarters
in the lowlands and half in the highlands. Storage averaged 5.9 months, with
35% going bad, mostly from weevils, by the end of storage. The Rumpis cited
much lower losses (of much less maize). 56% complained of weevils and 14% of


TLU IRA-Ekona p.32









rats, Most put the maine over fire to dry, whether piling it in bandas1' or
hanging it on vines; the former method was preferred in Mundemba, the latter
in Ekondo Titi, and Rumpi farmers were equally divided. A few sun-dried in
Ekondo Titi and Mundemba and one hung away from fire. After drying, most kept
it on the banda or on ropes over the reduced, normal kitchen fire; two in
Mundemba bagged it and one in the Rumpis put it in sealed tins. Method of
storage was unrelated to reported level of loss. 70% saved for seed, and 39%
for sale.



2. Cassava:

Importance: Approximately 9.600 tons of cassava were harvested in the 1987
crop year, equivalent to 178 million francs at local prices or 14.9 million
kilocalories of food energy. This made it third in economic importance and
first in nutritional importance in Ndian Division. Fifty-four percent of
farmers named cassava as a crop they would increase if they had more labour.

Ecozones: The most important zone was Ekondo Titi, with 93% of total produc-
tion, producing an average 1.95 tons per household. Mundemba produced 545ko
and the Rumpis only 55kg.

Associations: Cassava was planted in 33% of fields (53% in Mundemba) by 83%
of farmers, as a major crop in 84% of the fields. Among fields with the crop,
31% was monocropped and the rest was a major or secondary crop with other
major crops. In Ekondo Titi, it was most often monocropped, whereas in Mun-
demba it was grown with maize and egusi.

Planting methods: Cassava was planted on the flat (78%, mostly in Ekondo
Titi) and on mounds (17%, or about half of those elsewhere), with two planting
on beds. Some Ekondo Titi farmers specified planting in holes, that is, they
dug a shallow 10cm deep pit and placed one to three cuttings horizontally in
it, covering with light soil. Planting distances varied from 60 to 180cm,
withia median of 120cm and a mean of 121cm. An average of 1.8 sticks were
planted together in the same spot. Densities varied around a mean of 6.800
pph,Iranging from a high average of 7.300pph in Ekondo Titi and Rumpi Hills to
5.100 in Mundemba. Converted to monocrop equivalent, the crop occupied an es-
timated 11% of the total field area, or 19% of food-crop fields.

Calendar: Planting was usually done in first season (94%), in March to May in
Ekondo Titi, January to April in Mundemba and January to March in the Rumpis.
Second-season planting was done by 7%, all in Mundemba, in October to Decem-
ber.j A first weeding was done by 88% of farmers growing the crop, and a se-
cond by 56%, at an average of 1.9 months and 5.2 months after planting respec-
tively. Mundemba weeded the cassava less often. Harvesting began at an ave-
rage 11.6 months after planting, lasting an average 6.4 months, to the 17th
month after planting in Ekondo Titi, the 20th in the Rumpi Hills and the 22nd


A banda is a storage area on a low ceiling or shelf built over the
kitchen fire. Immediately after harvest the fire is built up and kept continuous.


TLU IRA-Ekona p.33









in Mundemba.


Varieties: Almost all farmers used their own or a neighbor's cuttings for
planting; two farmers in Mundemba bought cuttings from a market. None yet had
the new IRA cassava. Red Panya was planted by four-fifths of farmers, and a
local white by three-sevenths; in the Rumpis the white was slightly preferred.
In Mundemba, the red grew to heights of 3 to 4m and branched little and very
high, seldom lodging, and competing well with the neighboring forest that
often shaded the field. The whites included an early dwarf and a tall variety
that lodged easily. The Ekondo Titi cassava branched lower and grew to 2.5-
3m, not lodging but bending almost to the ground.

Field Problems: Lowland farmers reported losing only 13% of their crop, with
no difference by zone. Losses reported were due to crickets and grasshoppers
eating the leaves in Ekondo Titi (a sixth of farms), millipedes eating the
roots in Mundemba (one farm), tuber rot (a sixth of Ekondo Titi farms and one
Mundemba one) and rodent destruction (one farm in each zone). Severe mosaic
was seen in about a third of the cassava fields visited, and white fly in
Ndian Village.

Processing and marketing: Cassava was most often consumed as garri (67%,
soaked in water several days, grated and roasted), closely followed by boiled
tubers (60%), water fufu (54%,, soaked in water until soft enough to pulp by
hand, and kept wet) and pounded fufu (46%, pounded from boiled tubers). Ekwan
(38%, mixed with pounded cocoyam, wrapped and boiled) was popular in the low-
lands, and 11% made myondo (fermented flour twisted into narrow ropes). One
Rumpi family did not eat cassava, and one each in Ekondo Titi and Mundemba ate
it raw.

45% said they bought garri most months of the year, especially Rumpi
households, and only one bought roots all year; 5% and 7% respectively bought
them in months of scarcity. 44% of production was sold, mostly in the low-
lands, by 82% of producers. Raw tubers and garri were most common sales
forms, with some water fufu in Mundemba. About 45% each sold in their village
market or in the nearest larger one; one-tenth sold at roadside. Common sales
months were February through July in the lowlands, and May in the highlands.
Basins of roots and garri and trucks of roots were the most common sales
units. Average reported prices per kilo of roots varied from 30fr in Ekondo
Titi to 45fr in Mundemba, and for a basin of garri, from 4.400fr in Ekondo
Titi to 2.700fr in Mundemba. The variation probably represented the smaller
number of root sellers in Mundemba and the great number of long-distance tra-
ders buying garri in the Ekondo Titi markets.

Storage: No one stored cassava up to a month.



3. Cocoyams:

Importance: Approximately 5.550 tons of cocoyams were harvested in the 1987
crop year, equivalent to 451 million francs at local prices or 7.5 million
kilocalories of food energy. This made them first in economic importance and


TLU IRA-Ekona p.34















second in nutritional importance in Ndian Division, uixty-four percent of
farmers named cocoyams as a crop they would increase if they had more labour.

Ecozones: The most important zone was the Rumpi Hills, with 54% of total pro-
duction, followed by Ekondo Titi with 43%. The Rumpi Hills produced an ave-
rage 1.765kg per household, Ekondo Titi 520kg and Mundemba 135kg.

Associations: Cocoyams were planted in 48% of fields (70% in the Rumpis) by
88% of farmers, as a major crop in 92% of the fields. Among fields with the
crop, 3% was in monocrop and 2% was intercropped as a sole major crop with
secondary crops. The rest was intercropped with other major crops. In Ekondo
Titi, it was associated with taro and egusi; in Mundemba, with maize and
groundnuts; and in the Rumpi Hills, with taro and plantains.

Planting methods: Cocoyams were planted on the flat or in shallow pits (70%,
especially in Ekondo Titi), on mounds (27%, more in Mundemba), and sometimes
on beds. Planting distances varied from 30 to 140cm, with a median of 80cm
and a mean of 87cm. Densities varied around a mean of 13.100pph, ranging from
a low of about 12.000 in Ekondo Titi and Mundemba to 19.000 in the Rumpis.
Converted to monocrop equivalent, the crop occupied an estimated 14% of the
total field area, or 20% of food-crop fields.

Calendar: Planting was usually done in first season (97%), in late March and
April in Ekondo Titi, February to April in Mundemba, and January to April (or
all year) in the Rumpis. Second-season planting was done by 6%, all in Mun-
demba, in August to October. A first weeding was done by 91% of farmers gro-
wing the crop, and a second by 60%, at an average of 2.2 months and 5.0 months
after planting respectively. Harvesting began at a mean 9.4 months after
planting, lasting a mean 9.3, to the tenth month after planting in Mundemba
and the 13th in Ekondo Titi but as long as the 36th month in the Rumpi Hills.

Varieties: Despite root rot, the most popular cocoyam was the white, planted
by 91% of growers. The red was planted by 77% (90% in Ekondo Titi, where it
was more used than the white, and 50-60% elsewhere). Ekondo Titi farmers
observed that white cocoyam only produced in the Mt. Cameroon forest belt
bordering the zone, and as resprouts after the burning of old fields. Three-
quarters of the Rumpi farmers grew the tetraploid yellow cocoyam, locally
known as "akwana", and some Mundemba farmers had a few plants also. In the
Rumpis, white cocoyam was planted in new fields until it all died of root rot
(1-3 years, harvesting annually), and then replaced by the yellow. The yellow
grew to about 2m within the first six months to a year, and then began produc-
ing cormels and a bark sheath on its lower stem. When the sheath was about
40cm high, at three years, the plant was judged to have reached optimum stage
and harvested; if left into the fourth or fifth year for storage purposes, the
cormels were said to shrink. One randomly selected four-year plant was har-
vested and produced a corm 30cm long and 15cm diameter, plus about 10 liters
(half a tin) of cormels. The yellow was usually eaten the same day it was
harvested, and had a very smooth taste. In the Mundemba lowlands, however,
the yellow cocoyam grew only to Im, was harvested at one to two years, produ-
ced no cormels, and gave stomach ache to anyone who ate it the same day it was
harvested. All Rumpi farmers, 85% of Ekondo Titi and 90% of Mundemba ones
used planting material from their own land, the rest buying it in the market.


TLU IRA-Ekona p.35














At least some of the marketed cormels were brought in from Kumba Market in
Meme.

Field Problems: Farmers reported losing 37% of their crop, with the least in
Mundemba (16%). The usual culprit identified was the root rot, caused by the
Pythium complex of fungi. Unfortunately, despite repeated instruction in
training, the interviewers in the first villages did not ask the farmers to
specify whether the Panamaa" a common South West name for root rot was
due to dead roots or not.

In Ekondo Titi, where the survey started, seven cases were referred to as
root rot (dead roots on immature plant), three to "tuber rot" which could have
been root or tuber rot, and three to Panamaa". Losses averaged 56% of ex-
pected production. One stranger to Ekondo Titi planted cocoyams on mounds,
against local advice, and the tubers grew long and thin and bore no cormels.
In Mundemba, one farmer blamed root rot for a 25% loss and two tuber rot for
75% losses, one specifying rough spots on the skin. It was too early in the
season to see cocoyams in most lowland fields; there was little rot in one
eight-month, shaded Ekondo Titi field. Two Mundemba farmers visited had given
up cocoyam altogether years before due to root rot, but one had acquired cor-
mels from Kumba Market in 1987 and planted successfully in an alluvial field,
harvesting at 10-12 months.

In the Rumpis, three farmers cited root rot and eight animal destruction;
in the fields, the white cocoyams were dying of root rot below but not above
1200m asl, and the yellow cocoyams looked healthy. As noted above, the yellow
ones were planted in fields already infested with root rot. Affected Rumpi
farmers reported about 55% loss.

Processing and marketing: Cocoyam was eaten most often as ekwan (71%, grated,
wrapped in vegetable leaves and boiled) and boiled tubers (by 70%), followed
by pounded fufu (61%, especially of the yellow cocoyam, in the Rumpis) and
porrage (55%, stewed in large chunks). Fourteen percent roasted the tubers.
Three families in Mundemba never ate cocoyams, and a few in the Rumpis made
Bible (pounded and boiled in leaf-wrapped sheets) and kwa coco (grated and
tied in plantain leaves to boil).

Only 11% said they bought the food most months of the year, but 38% bought
it in months of scarcity. 34% of production was sold, by 69% of producers,
especially in Ekondo Titi. It was usually sold raw, sometimes boiled. Most
sold in a larger neighboring market (55%) and 30% in their own village market;
15% sold at roadside. The primary selling time was June to September in Ekon-
do Titi, April in Mundemba, and May and August to December in the Rumpi Hills.
Basins of tubers were the most common sales unit. Average reported prices per
kilo varied from 65fr in the Rumpi Hills to 85fr in Ekondo Titi and 95fr in
Mundemba, varying according to zonal scarcity.

Storage: In the lowland zones, as many stored cocoyams inside the farm, in a
hole lined with leaves and covered by grass or soil, as stored in the house,
on the floor. Rumpi farmers stored at home, on the floor, with wood ash to
deter rot. 30% of growers stored the crop, least in Ekondo Titi. Three-
fifths stored for planting material and three-fourths to sell. Three-quarters


TLU IRA-Ekona p.36










reported rottening by the end of storage, averaging 50% loss in Mundemba and
only 15% elsewhere, with the reported levels unrelated to method of storage.
Cocoyams were stored an average of nine months in Mundemba and only 2.7
elsewhere.



4. Taro:"'o

Importance: Approximately 1.600 tons of taro were harvested in the 1987 crop
year, equivalent to 56.5 million francs at local prices or 1.8 million kilo-
calories of food energy. This made it eighth in economic importance and sixth
in nutritional importance in Ndian Division. Only twenty-eight percent of
farmers named taro as a crop they would increase if they had more labour.

Ecozones: The most important zone was Ekondo Titi with 47% of total produc-
tion. However, Mundemba produced an average 305kg per household, Rumpi Hills
295kg, and Ekondo Titi only 165kg.

Associations: Taro was planted in 38% of fields (70% in Mundemba) by 75% of
farmers, as a major crop in 91% of the fields. In 2% of fields it was the
sole major crop with secondary crops associated. The primary associations
were with cocoyams and egusi in Ekondo Titi, and cocoyams and plantains in the
Rumpi Hills. In Mundemba it was grown with everything.
Planting methods: Taro was planted on the flat or sometimes in shallow pits
(55%), on mounds (35%, more in Mundemba), and sometimes on beds. Planting
distances varied from 30 to 120cm, with a median of 80cm and a mean of 83cm.
Densities varied around a mean of 14.400pph, ranging from a high average of
25.000pph in the Rumpi Hills to about 12.000 in the lowlands. Converted to
monocrop equivalent, the crop occupied an estimated 10% of the total field
area, or 15% of food-crop fields.

Calendar: Planting was usually done in first season (95%), in the same months
as cocoyan. Second-season planting was done by 12%, all in Mundemba, in Sep-
tember to November. A first weeding was done by 92% of farmers growing the
crop, and a second by 52%, at an average of 2.0 months and 3.8 months after
planting respectively. Less weeding was done in Mundemba. Harvesting began
at an average 5.6 months after planting, until eight months, in all zones.

Varieties: Fifteen percent of farmers purchased planting material, a quarter
in Mundemba doing so. Ekondo Titi farmers planted Ibo coco, the short-cycle
sun-loving variety, and a little achu and mami coco, a 10-12 month forest
type. About four-fifths of Mundemba and Rumpi Hills farmers planted Ibo as
well, with a quarter of Mundemba and 30% of Rumpi farmers planting mami (also
called "andimbo") and a few of the latter planting achu.

Field Problems: Farmers reported losing 15% of their crop, usually to
animals. Two farmers in Ekondo Titi and one in Mundemba insisted the roots
had died. Two other Ekondo Titi farmers described what might have been either


so See also Section F.3. Cocoyams.


TLU IRA-Ekona p.37









root or tuber rot. Four Rumpi and one Mundemba farmers blamed cutting grass,
bush fowl, porcupines and squirrels. Most taro seen looked healthy, but some
had clear symptoms of root rot.

Processing and marketing: Two-thirds ate taro as boiled tubers, while-20-30%
each ate it as pounded fufu (especially in the Rumpis), porrage (lowlands),
achu (Mundemba) and-ekwan (Rumpis). A fifth of Ekondo Titi farmers did not
eat it at all, and a few farmers roasted it or made kwa coco.

4% said they bought the food most months of the year,. and 24% bought it in
months of scarcity. Only 19% of production was sold, especially in Mundemba,
by 44% of producers. -It was generally sold raw, but one sold. boiled tubers.
Most.sold in their-village market (60%) or in the nearest-larger market (33%);
10% sold at roadside. The primary selling months were from .July to September
in Ekondo Titi, August to November in the Rumpis, and March, November and
December in Mundemba. Basins of tubers were the most common sales unit.
Average reported prices per kilo varied from 25fr in Mundemba to 35fr in Ekon-
do Titi and 45fr in the Rumpis.

Storage: Only 26% of-taro growers stored (least in Ekondo Titi-), a quarter
storing to sell and four-fifths (all in the Rumpis) for planting-material.
Ekondo Titi growers stored on the farm on the ground under shade-or in a hole,
Mundemba ones in a-hole in the farm or on a shelf in the house, and Rumpi ones
on the house floor .with wood ash. Almost all complained of rot,.averaging 29%
loss fairly constantly across zones; one complained of degeneration in cooking
quality and one of animal damage as well. It was stored an.average four
months in Mundemba and 2.9 elsewhere.



5. Plantains and Bananas:

Importance: Approximately 579 thousand bunches of plantains and 162 thousand
bunches of bananas were harvested in the 1987 crop year, equivalent to 446 and
88 million francs respectively at local prices or 5.8 and 1.5 million kilo-
calories of food energy. This made plantains second in economic importance
and third in nutritional importance in the division, with bananas sixth in
economic importance and tied for seventh place for nutrition. Fifty-seven
percent of farmers named plantains as a crop they would increase if they had
more labour, but only eleven percent named bananas.

Ecozones: The most important zones for plantains were Ekondo Titi, with 42%
of total production and the Rumpi Hills, with 40%. However, the Rumpi Hills
produced an average 1.420kg per household, Mundemba 1.015kg, and Ekonde Titi
only 560kg. For bananas, the most important zone was definitely Ekondo Titi,
with.82% of total production, or an average 310kg per household, as compared
with 115kg in Mundemba and 100kg in the Rumpi Hills.

Associations: Plantains and bananas were planted in 43% and 14% of fields
respectively by 86% and 31% of farmers, as a major crop in 74% and 88% of the
fields. Plantains-were in 72% of Rumpi fields. Both crops were always grown
in association with other major crops. Plantains were found most often with


TLU IRA-Ekona p.38












cocoyams, taro and bananas in the Rumpi Hills, and in general, with maize,
cocoyams and taro, while bananas were only commonly found with plantains.

Planting methods: Plantains and bananas were always planted on the flat.
Planting distances for plantains varied from 150 to 500cm, with a median of
300cm and a mean of 316cm; for bananas, from 150 to 480cm, with a median of
300 and a mean of 296. Densities varied around a mean of l.000pph for plan-
tains and 1.140 for bananas, with little zonal variation except for higher
banana densities (1.210) in Ekondo Titi. Converted to monocrop equivalent,
the crops occupied an estimated 11% and 5% respectively of the total field
area, or 12% and 6% of food-crop fields.

Calendar: Planting was usually done in first season (91%), in March and April
in the lowlands, and January through June in the Rumpi Hills. Second-season
planting was done by 9%, in the Rumpis. A first weeding was done by 90% of
farmers growing the crop, and a second by 31%, at an average of 2.4 months
(later in Ekondo Titi) and 5.9 months after planting respectively. Harvesting
began at an average 11.1 months after planting for plantains and 12.7 for
bananas, lasting for 14.5 and 15.6 months; for plantains, until the 15th month
in Mundemba, 19th in Ekondo Titi, and 36th in the Rumpis, with bananas being
similar.

Varieties: All bananas and most plantains came from the farms, but 29% cf
Ekondo Titi and two Mundemba growers had bought plantain suckers in the mar-
ket. Plantain names were localized and seldom identifiable by type; they
included Ebanga (the most popular), Bakundu, "short", "long", Small Finger,
Ndian, woman's, and Mekelle plantains in the lowlands, and Etuma, Etondo,
Ndongo, Mokabo, Nyeni, red, black, Yaounde and Iroko plantains in the Rumpis.
Bananas grown included Mukweri (4 mentions), the commercial types Gros Michel
(4), Poyo (2), "Tiko" (2) and "long banana" (1). The Mukweri was short and a
poor producer but was valued in Mundemba and the Rumpi Hills because it would
continue to produce even twenty years later after the field had reverted to
forest.

Field Problems: Farmers reported losing 24% of their plantain crop, and about
the same of bananas, with the worst losses for both occurring in Mundemba (39%
for plantains). Borer complaints (black stem rot) were most common in Ekondo
Titi and nematode ones (dead roots) in Mundemba, with the Rumpis reporting
less of each and one case of cigar end. Cases of cigar end were also reported
in bananas there and in Mundemba. Drought was a problem for one Ekondo Titi
farmer and floods for a Mundemba one; in the very wet 1988 season following, a
large part of the Mundemba plantain crop was destroyed by flooding. Animals,
especially monkeys, were a complaint of many Rumpi Hills farmers and a few in
Ekondo Titi.

Few plantains were seen in the Ekondo Titi fields; there were borers in one
of the two fields. Those visited in Mundemba looked healthy except in Ndian
Village, where they routinely grew to maturity and then aborted before fruit-
ing. In the Rumpi fields visited, farmers discovered borer- and nematode-
infested spots by trial and error and planted something else there; one field
in which .soil was tested from two spots had normal growth in the area with pH
4.9 and stunting/abortion of plantains and cocoa (but not cocoyam or sugar-


TLU IRA-Ekona p.39








cane) in the area with pH 4.2.


Processing and marketing: Plantains were consumed boiled by nine-tenths of
households, while half each made porrage or roasted them. A few made pounded
fufu, koki or ekwan. Only two, in Ekondo Titi, did not eat them.

23% said they-bought plantains most months of the year, mostly in the low-
lands, and 29% bought it in months of scarcity. 52% of plantains and 44% of
bananas were sold, by 78% and 79% of producers, mostly in Ekondo Titi. Plan-
tains were generally sold raw, but one farmer boiled to sell. About two-
fifths each sold plantains in their village market and in the nearest larger
market; a fifth sold at roadside. Half sold bananas in the village and half
at the nearest larger market. Selling months were the rainy season and Xmas,
mostly from May to September and December. Average reported prices.per plan-
tain bunch varied narrowly from 725fr in Ekondo Titi to 775fr in Mundemba.and
815fr in the Rumpis. Prices were said to drop about 40% during the July to
September heavy rains.

Storage: None.



6. Yams:

Importance:' Approximately 2.840 tons:of yams were harvested in the 1987 crop
year, equivalent to 111 million francs at local prices or 3.0 million kilo-
calories of food energy. This made them fifth in economic importance and
fourth in nutritional importance in Manyu Division. Only twenty-six percent
of farmers named yams as a crop they wourd increase if they had more labour.

Ecozones: The most important zone was Ekondo Titi, with 70% of total produc-
tion, or an average of 435kg per household. The Rumpi Hills produced 155kg
per household and Mundemba 140kg.

Associations: Yams were planted in 20% of fields by 51% of farmers, as a
major crop in 77% of the fields. Among fields with the crop, a fifth were
monoctrpped, and the rest intercropped with other major crops. Yams were
grown in association with maize and egusi in Ekondo Titi and with egusi over
all zones.

Planting methods: Yams were planted on mounds (63%, or 83% in Mundemba), on
the flat (30%, or 67% in the Rumpis), and sometimes-on beds. Planting dis-
tances varied from 40 to 440cm, with a median of 100cm and a mean of 127cm.
Densities varied around a mean of 6.200pph, ranging from a high average of
8.300pph in Mundemba and 7.300 in Ekondo Titi to 2.300 in the Rumpi Hills.
Converted to monocrop equivalent, the crop occupied an estimated 6% of the
total field area, or 10% of food-crop fields.

Calendar: Planting was always done in first season, in February to April in
Ekondo Titi, usually before the rains, in March with the rains in Mundemba,
and in January to March in the Rumpi Hills. A first weeding was done by 87%
of farmers growing the crop, and a second by 50%, at an average of 1.9 months


TLU IRA-Ekona p.40
















and 4.0 months after planting respectively. Mundemba weeded later. Harves-
ting began at an average 7.7 months after planting, lasting 1.7 months, to 9
in the lowlands and almost 11 in the Rumpis.

Varieties: The most popular yams were Calabar (white, D. rotundata), planted
by 54% of yam farmers. Half grew sweet yams (D. dumetorum) and a third water
yams (D. alata). Four-fifths of Ekondo Titi farmers grew Calabar and one-
fifth each sweet and water yams. Mundemba growers were equally split between
Calabar and sweet yams, some adding water yams. Three-quarters of Rumpi gro-
wers grew sweet yams, with individual farmers also growing Calabar, yellow yam
(D. Cayensis), aerial yam, and a local called "Enyika". Two Ekondo Titi far-
mers had D. shipiana (red yam). Forty-five percent of Ekondo Titi farmers, a
third of Mundemba and no Rumpi farmers bought their seed yams from the market;
many of these seed yams came from Nigeria.

Field Problems: Farmers reported losing 12% of their crop, with most of the
losses occurring in Ekondo Titi. Snails and animal destruction were the chief
culprits. In Ekondo Titi, there were also one case each of sweet yam tuber
rot and Calabar skin lesions; in the Rumpis, one farmer complained that her
sweet yams grew "poorly" while the other yams did well.

Processing and marketing: Yams were eaten boiled by seven-tenths of house-
holds, as porrage by half, and by a few as pounded fufu, roasted, in ekwan and
chips. A fifth, over all zones, did not eat them.

13% said they bought the food most months of the year, mostly in the low-
lands, and 11% bought it in months of scarcity. A third of production was
sold, by 59% of producers. Most sold it raw, but some boiled sweet yams to
sell. Half sold in their village market, 30% at roadside, and a fifth in the
nearest larger market. The primary selling months were October to February in
the lowlands and December to January in the Rumpis. Heaps, basins, and in
Ekondo Titi trucks, were common sales units. Average prices per kilo of lar-
ger volumes varied from 35fr (Rumpi Hills) to 45fr (Ekondo Titi) and 55fr
(Mundemba).

Storage: 42% of growers stored yams, especially in Mundemba, for an average
eight months there, six in Ekondo Titi and only two in the one Rumpi case.
Most stored on a shelf at home, some on the floor at home or on a shelf in the
farm. 63% stored to sell and 96% to plant. Only 29% complained of rots, with
4% average loss, and no other damage.




7. Groundnuts:

Importance: Approximately 115 tons of groundnuts were harvested in the 1987
crop year, equivalent to 32 million francs at local prices or 400 thousand
kilocalories of food energy. This made them ninth in economic and nutritional
importance. Only one person named groundnuts as a crop she would increase if
she had more labour.


TLU IRA-Ekona p.41











EcozonmBl The most important zone was Mundemba, with 60% of total production,
an average 60kg per household unshelledd), while Ekondo Titi only produced an
average 10kg.

Associations: Groundnuts were planted in 6% of fields (a fifth in Mundemba)
by 14% of farmers, as a major crop in 44% of the fields. Among fields with
the crop, all were intercropped as a major or secondary crop with other major
crops. Groundnuts were found with maize in Ekondo Titi, and with maize and
cocoyams in Mundemba.

Planting methods: Groundnuts were planted on beds in Ekondo Titi, and on
mounds and the flat in Mundemba. Planting distances varied from 15 to 20cm,
with a median and mean of 17.5cm in the small sample. One seed per hole was
planted in Ekondo Titi and two seeds per hole in Mundemba. Densities averaged
326.000pph in the former and 653.000 in the latter. Converted to monocrop
equivalent, the crop occupied an estimated 0.6% of the total field area, or
0.8% of food-crop fields.

Calendar: Planting was always done by growers in first season, in late March
in Ekondo Titi, and January to May in Mundemba. Second-season planting was
done by 64%, in August, by the Ekondo Titi growers. A first weeding was done
by 74% of farmers growing the crop, and a second by 33%, at an average of 2.0
months and 3.0 months after planting respectively. Harvesting began at an
average 3.5 months after planting, lasting three weeks, and starting two weeks
earlier in Ekondo Titi than Mundemba.

Varieties: Among the four growers who identified their varieties, two han
Garoua, three Bamenda, and one Yaounde types, all red in colour, and.three
bought the seed from the market.

Field Problems: Only one farmer in Mundemba reported a loss: of a quarter of
the crop, to rodent destruction. One Ekondo Titi field visited had heavy
white fly infestation and crinkling, yellowed leaves, seemingly due to the
white fly rather than rosette.

Marketing: None mentioned buying the food in months of scarcity or other-
wise. All four who gave production figures sold, averaging half the crop, i:
unshelled form. They sold in the village market and in the nearest larger
one, at about 370fr/kg unshelled.

Storage: Only one grower in Mundemba reported storing groundnuts.


9. Egusi melon:

Importance: Approximately 335 tons of egusi melon were harvested in the 1987
crop year, equivalent to 148 million francs at local prices or 1.5 million
kilocalories of food energy21. This made it fourth in economic importance and


There is no source for the energy content of Citrullus. The figure
assumes an equivalence of shelled egusi to shelled groundnuts.


TLU IRA-Ekona p.42












tied for seventh place in nutritional importance in the Division. Only twen-
ty-eight percent of farmers named egusi as a crop they would increase if they
had more labour.

Ecozones: The most important zone was Ekondo Titi, with 91% of total produc-
tion and an average 65kg per household of egusi seed uncrackedd), while Mun-
demba produced 25kg and Rumpi Hills almost none.

Associations: Egusi melon was planted in 32% of fields by 62% of farmers, as
a major crop in 48% of the fields, in 6% of fields as the sole major crop with
other secondary crops. In Ekondo Titi, egusi was grown in association with
maize, cocoyams, taro and yams; in Mundemba, with maize and cassava; and in
the Rumpi Hills, with cocoyams and taro (country egusi).

Planting methods: Egusi was planted on the flat (89%) and sometimes on
mounds. Planting distances varied from 40 to 320cm, with a median of 120cm
and a mean of 133cm. An average of 4.0 seeds were planted per hole, ranging
from two to 6. Planting densities varied around a mean of 22.400pph, or
20.300 in Ekondo Titi and 34.500 in Mundemba. Converted to monocrop equiva-
lent, the crop occupied an estimated 4% of the total field area, or 6% of
food-crop fields.

Calendar: Planting was done in first season by 97% of growers, in February to
April in Ekondo Titi, February to March in Mundemba and January to March in
the Rumpis. Egusi was generally planted earlier than any other crop, except
yams. A first weeding was done by 80% of farmers growing the crop, at an
average of 1.8 months after planting, and a second by 39% at 3.0 months.
Ekondo Titi farmers weeded earlier, to avoid disturbing the flowering stage.
Harvesting began at an average 4.1 months after planting, lasting an average
three weeks. Ekondo Titi started earliest, at 3.7 months, Mundemba at 4.6,
and the Rumpis (with ng6n) at 6.3 months.

Varieties: All the lowland growers had Ibo egusi, Citrullus lanatus, a ground
vine. One Ekondo Titi farmer also had a variety called "ossah" and the one
Rumpi mention was of "country" egusi, a climbing vine known in eastern Came-
roon as "ngbn" (Cucumeropsis mannii). Seven-tenths of growers planted their
own seed, and the rest bought from the market.

Field Problems: Ekondo Titi farmers reported losing 32% of their crop, while
no other farmer mentioned losses. Almost all blamed crickets, rainbow grass-
hoppers, and the ladybug Chrysomelidae, found all over the province in various
colours but with the same voracious habit of cutting the first leaves off at
the stem. All these insects were destructive in the first few weeks after
planting, before the heavy rains started, and the farmer who blamed drought
may have had the same agent in mind.

Marketing: One person in Ekondo Titi said she bought egusi most months of
the year, and two there bought it in months of scarcity. 76% of production
was sold, as uncracked seeds, by all producers. Almost a half sold in the
nearest larger market, a third in the village market and a fifth sold at road-
side. Jute bags were the most common sales unit, with cups common at Mundemba
and in the Rumpis. Average reported prices per kilo varied from 385fr in


TLU IRA-Ekona p.43














Mundemba to 440fr in Ekondo Titi.


Storage: 51% of growers stored, for a mean of eight months in Ekondo Titi and
4.5 in Mundemba. All stored in bags after rotting and washing the melons, ex-
tracting the seeds and sun-drying them on mats or the bare ground. 69% stored
to sell and 93% for seed. 12% losses were noted, with 28% reporting molds or
rots, 25% rats, one cockroaches and one weevils.
10. Other craps:

Tree crops occupying the fields were cocoa (25% of fields, of which 45%
were monocropped and the rest intercropped with a few secondary crops), coffee
(9%, with the same distribution of monocrop/secondary intercrop), and palms
(4%, only as a monocrop). A third of Rumpi farmers and only an eighth of
Mundemba ones had cocoa, while coffee was primarily in the Rumpis, and all the
palm farms in Ekondo Titi.

Other food crops included leafy vegetables (in 24% of fields, half as a
major crop among other major crops), okro (in 8% of fields, three-quarters as
a major intercrop), cowpeas (3% of fields, rarely major) and pepper (2% of
fields, never major). Vegetables and okro were concentrated in Mundemba, in
the alluvial fields.




G. Conclusions and Recommendations:

1. Zones:

The three agricultural zones of Ndian (including Korup with Mundemba) have
little in common other than above-average rainfall and below-average soil fer-
tility. Within the provincial prioritization of zones, two have been included
in super-zones recommended for focus by IRA research: Ekondo Titi within the
Sands super-zone and the Rumpi Hills within the Mountain Forest zone.

The Ekondo Titi zone contains most of the farming population. It is a
sandy sedimentary zone with low nutrient levels only slightly amended by 4-6
year fallows. Its farmers specialize in cassava and egusi, with yams also an
important crop near the urban trade centre. They also maintain cocoyam, cocoa
and coffee farms at the eastern border of the zone. Food marketing on the
Bamusso side of the zone is inhibited by lack of roads, but food is traded for
shellfish that are then carried to inland markets. Cassava, egusi and some-
times yam surpluses go from the northern section to Kumba, Mundemba and Nige-
rian fisher-traders. Improvement in cassava yields at no extra cost is pos-
sible with varieties now available from IRA, and it is probable that chemical
seed treatment can both stabilize and increase egusi yields at low cost.
Research attention needs to be paid to long-term soil management through im-
proved fallows and residue techniques. The influence of the Nigerian yam
market needs to be studied before attempting to increase local yam production.

Mundemba farmers have access to two types of land, the acidic, low-ferti-
lity interior soils on which little except taro grows productively, and the


TLU IRA-Ekona p.44














Mundemba to 440fr in Ekondo Titi.


Storage: 51% of growers stored, for a mean of eight months in Ekondo Titi and
4.5 in Mundemba. All stored in bags after rotting and washing the melons, ex-
tracting the seeds and sun-drying them on mats or the bare ground. 69% stored
to sell and 93% for seed. 12% losses were noted, with 28% reporting molds or
rots, 25% rats, one cockroaches and one weevils.
10. Other craps:

Tree crops occupying the fields were cocoa (25% of fields, of which 45%
were monocropped and the rest intercropped with a few secondary crops), coffee
(9%, with the same distribution of monocrop/secondary intercrop), and palms
(4%, only as a monocrop). A third of Rumpi farmers and only an eighth of
Mundemba ones had cocoa, while coffee was primarily in the Rumpis, and all the
palm farms in Ekondo Titi.

Other food crops included leafy vegetables (in 24% of fields, half as a
major crop among other major crops), okro (in 8% of fields, three-quarters as
a major intercrop), cowpeas (3% of fields, rarely major) and pepper (2% of
fields, never major). Vegetables and okro were concentrated in Mundemba, in
the alluvial fields.




G. Conclusions and Recommendations:

1. Zones:

The three agricultural zones of Ndian (including Korup with Mundemba) have
little in common other than above-average rainfall and below-average soil fer-
tility. Within the provincial prioritization of zones, two have been included
in super-zones recommended for focus by IRA research: Ekondo Titi within the
Sands super-zone and the Rumpi Hills within the Mountain Forest zone.

The Ekondo Titi zone contains most of the farming population. It is a
sandy sedimentary zone with low nutrient levels only slightly amended by 4-6
year fallows. Its farmers specialize in cassava and egusi, with yams also an
important crop near the urban trade centre. They also maintain cocoyam, cocoa
and coffee farms at the eastern border of the zone. Food marketing on the
Bamusso side of the zone is inhibited by lack of roads, but food is traded for
shellfish that are then carried to inland markets. Cassava, egusi and some-
times yam surpluses go from the northern section to Kumba, Mundemba and Nige-
rian fisher-traders. Improvement in cassava yields at no extra cost is pos-
sible with varieties now available from IRA, and it is probable that chemical
seed treatment can both stabilize and increase egusi yields at low cost.
Research attention needs to be paid to long-term soil management through im-
proved fallows and residue techniques. The influence of the Nigerian yam
market needs to be studied before attempting to increase local yam production.

Mundemba farmers have access to two types of land, the acidic, low-ferti-
lity interior soils on which little except taro grows productively, and the


TLU IRA-Ekona p.44














Mundemba to 440fr in Ekondo Titi.


Storage: 51% of growers stored, for a mean of eight months in Ekondo Titi and
4.5 in Mundemba. All stored in bags after rotting and washing the melons, ex-
tracting the seeds and sun-drying them on mats or the bare ground. 69% stored
to sell and 93% for seed. 12% losses were noted, with 28% reporting molds or
rots, 25% rats, one cockroaches and one weevils.
10. Other craps:

Tree crops occupying the fields were cocoa (25% of fields, of which 45%
were monocropped and the rest intercropped with a few secondary crops), coffee
(9%, with the same distribution of monocrop/secondary intercrop), and palms
(4%, only as a monocrop). A third of Rumpi farmers and only an eighth of
Mundemba ones had cocoa, while coffee was primarily in the Rumpis, and all the
palm farms in Ekondo Titi.

Other food crops included leafy vegetables (in 24% of fields, half as a
major crop among other major crops), okro (in 8% of fields, three-quarters as
a major intercrop), cowpeas (3% of fields, rarely major) and pepper (2% of
fields, never major). Vegetables and okro were concentrated in Mundemba, in
the alluvial fields.




G. Conclusions and Recommendations:

1. Zones:

The three agricultural zones of Ndian (including Korup with Mundemba) have
little in common other than above-average rainfall and below-average soil fer-
tility. Within the provincial prioritization of zones, two have been included
in super-zones recommended for focus by IRA research: Ekondo Titi within the
Sands super-zone and the Rumpi Hills within the Mountain Forest zone.

The Ekondo Titi zone contains most of the farming population. It is a
sandy sedimentary zone with low nutrient levels only slightly amended by 4-6
year fallows. Its farmers specialize in cassava and egusi, with yams also an
important crop near the urban trade centre. They also maintain cocoyam, cocoa
and coffee farms at the eastern border of the zone. Food marketing on the
Bamusso side of the zone is inhibited by lack of roads, but food is traded for
shellfish that are then carried to inland markets. Cassava, egusi and some-
times yam surpluses go from the northern section to Kumba, Mundemba and Nige-
rian fisher-traders. Improvement in cassava yields at no extra cost is pos-
sible with varieties now available from IRA, and it is probable that chemical
seed treatment can both stabilize and increase egusi yields at low cost.
Research attention needs to be paid to long-term soil management through im-
proved fallows and residue techniques. The influence of the Nigerian yam
market needs to be studied before attempting to increase local yam production.

Mundemba farmers have access to two types of land, the acidic, low-ferti-
lity interior soils on which little except taro grows productively, and the


TLU IRA-Ekona p.44












alluvial soils of riverbanks, richer in nitrogen and organic matter but avail-
able only during the dry season. Difficulties of river transport and the
uncertainties of length of the dry season and intensity of rainy season flood-
ing reduce the potential of the latter, where the focus is on high-value dry-
season maize and okro as well as plantains resistant to swampy conditions.
The practice of clear-cutting inland fields in some villages creates severe
erosion problems, while in other villages ground cover is maintained at the
cost of weEd and forest tree competition to the crops. Marketing is mostly to
the fishermen of the Nigerian border region. IRA can help with improved maize
varieties for the alluvial area, and possibly plantains, but a significant
impact would depend on a research programme focused on erosion control for
high-rainfall granitic soils, which would be quite costly.

The Rumpi Hills zone, shared by Meme, is a highland, acidic-soil area con-
centrated on cocoyams and plantains, which are usually planted under tree
cover to control erosion. Inhabitants often have cocoa farms in the Kumba
Corridor below. Accessible only by a long and often difficult road, the zone
had few marketing links to the outside despite surpluses of crops that are
major market items in the neighboring zone. Although local clones can con-
tribute (and already have) to IRA's breeding programmes, there is little that
IRA can offer in return, except to stabilize white cocoyam yield with a future
rot-resistant variety. The local development committee should consider adding
a food-marketing cooperative to its road-building campaign, and explore the
possibility of introducing the yellow cocoyam as a luxury item to urban popu-
lations in Kumba, Fako and Douala.



2. Management and investment:

All farmers except those of Nigerian origin and recent migrants own their
land, usually by customary right. Nigerian farmers born locally are denied
permanent access to land, at least in some places. The poor quality of land
means that farmers often walk long distances to fallowed fields or better
soil. Soil analysis of sampled fields indicates that much longer fallows than
currently feasible might be necessary to improve fertility in the lowlands.

Farm labour is provided mostly by adult women, even their contribution to
tree crops approximating the men's. Njanggi exchange labour is not common
except in the Rumpis, and paid labour is used principally in cash crop fields.
Labour rates of payment vary little by zone and are similar to those in Fako
and Meme, but total expenditures for labour are much lower. Land preparation
and planting are major bottlenecks but Mundemba clearing and Rumpi weeding
were also cited. Any soil management research to improve fertility would have
to focus on methods that would not increase preparation costs.

Labour payments (including njanggi) are the principal cash costs of the
farming households in Ekondo Titi, and were cited equally with New Years'
gifts and school costs in the other zones. Cash is thus needed most urgently
in December-January, and secondarily in September. Food crop sales are the
principal source of cash, followed by income from jobs and petty trade. Local
meetings are used for saving by only half the farmers, and use of other in-


TLU IRA-Ekona p.45












stitutions is almost non-existent. The cash flow is probably not large enough
to sustain an unsubsidized, formal savings organization.

The extension service in Ekondo Titi zone is well-distributed to meet the
needs, but would be much more effective if given transport. In the other
zones, the staff and distribution are inadequate, in large part due to the
difficulties of transport from remote areas. Effectiveness is also reduced by
the lack of inputs available from the cooperative, and by the lack of a strong
tradition of group work, impeding extension to group farms.

Markets are adequate to the production levels except in the Rumpis, where
surpluses of yellow cocoyam and plantain are sold internally at low prices or
left unharvested. Lack of knowledge of the Rumpi market may be a factor as
well as the road distance. Both marketing and production are at low levels in
Mundemba.



3. Crops:

The most important crops in economic terms are cocoyams, plantains, cassava
and egusi melon. Plantains and egusi surpass the rest in terms of sales,
except in the Rumpis where cocoyams replace egusi. Yams, maize, taro and
groundnuts are primarily for local consumption.

Cocoyams are grown in the Rumpis and on the borders of the Ekondo Titi
zone. Root and possibly tuber rot are common except above 1200m altitude.
The resistant tetraploid yellow cocoyam, added to the Ekona breeding collec-
tion, is highly productive in the Rumpis but not in Mundemba.

Plantains are most important in Mundemba, for which they are almost the
only commercial crop. Commercially and nutritionally they are also important
in the Rumpis. Nematodes, borers and flood damage (in Mundemba) are major
problems, but IRA solutions for the first two require input and cash access
most growers do not have.

Ekondo Titi is the most important cassava producer and source of sales.
Mundemba cassava often suffers from shading and/or wind damage. The new IRA
cassava produces very well in the Ekondo Titi zone but not under shading.

Egusi melon is primarily a commercial crop in both lowland zones, and much
production is lost to post-germination insect damage, potentially preventable
by seed treatment.

Maize produces well only on the alluvial soils, is difficult to store and
often badly attacked by bush animals and insects. The combination of problems
makes it unlikely that it will ever be important in the Division, except as a
small dry-season crop.

Half the farmers grow yams as one of their staples, but the work of making
holes and mounds, as well as the difficulty of seed material, discourage a
greater area. Nigerian yam imports also have hurt sales.
Taro is common in inland Mundemba farms, but not very significant commer-
cially.

Groundnuts are rare, and beans and potatoes so rare that the survey did not
find one grower.


TLU IRA-Ekona p.45




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